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Sample records for normal human bronchial

  1. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  2. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  3. Chemical carcinogen-induced decreases in genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, V.L.; Smith, R.A.; Longoria, J.; Liotta, M.A.; Harper, C.M.; Harris, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The genomic content of DNA 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m/sup 5/dC) was measured in dividing normal human bronchial epithelial cells treated with a broad range of chemical carcinogens. At noncytotoxic concentrations, all of the carcinogenic agents tested significantly reduced cellular DNA m/sup 5/dC content whereas the weakly carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents, benzo(e)pyrene and phenanthrene (respectively), did not. These reductions varied from 8% to 31% depending on the agent and the donor cells. The reduction is genomic m/sup 5/dC levels were concentration dependent for the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene. The authors speculate that carcinogen-induced perturbation of DNA m/sup 5/dC patterns may lead to heritable changes in gene expression and contribute to the molecular alterations involved in the initiation and the subsequent steps of the carcinogenesis process.

  4. Zinc Induced G2/M Blockage is p53 and p21 Dependent in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The involvement of the p53 and p21 signal pathway in the G2/M cell cycle progression of zinc supplemented normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells was examined using the siRNA approach. Cells were cultured for one passage in different concentrations of zinc: <0.4 microM (ZD) as zinc-deficient;...

  5. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF NORMAL HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS AND DIMETHYLTHIOARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated, in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells, the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsi...

  6. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF NORMAL HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS AND DIMETHYLTHIOARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated, in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells, the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsi...

  7. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  8. Control of growth and squamous differentiation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells by chemical and biological modifiers and transferred genes.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, A M; Lechner, J F; Masui, T; Reddel, R R; Mark, G E; Harris, C C

    1989-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers arise from bronchial epithelial cells. The normal pseudostratified bronchial epithelium is composed of basal, mucous, and ciliated cells. This multi-differentiated epithelium usually responds to xenobiotics and physical injury by undergoing basal cell hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. One step of the multistage process of carcinogenesis is thought to involve aberrations in control of the squamous metaplastic processes. Decreased responsiveness to regulators of terminal squamous differentiation may confer a selective clonal expansion advantage to an initiated cell. We studied the effects of endogenous [e.g., transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and serum] and exogenous [e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol-acetate (TPA), tobacco smoke condensate, and aldehydes] modifiers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell in a serum-free culture system. NHBE cells are growth inhibited by all of these compounds and induced to undergo squamous differentiation by TGF-beta 1 or TPA. In contrast, lung carcinoma cell lines are relatively resistant to inducers of terminal squamous differentiation which may provide them with a selective growth advantage. Chemical agents and activated protooncogenes (ras,raf,myc) altered the response to endogenous and exogenous inducers of squamous differentiation and caused extended cellular lifespan, aneuploidy, and/or tumorigenicity. The data suggest a close relationship between dysregulation of terminal differentiation pathways and neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:2538323

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kluz, Thomas; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven S.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM) and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:27186882

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cartularo, Laura; Kluz, Thomas; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven S; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM) and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress.

  11. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, T R; Klein, P J; Coulombe, R A

    2001-08-10

    Aflatoxin B, (AFB1) is a potent hepatocarcinogen in animal models and a suspected carcinogen in humans. High concentrations of AFB, have been found in respirable grain dusts, and may therefore be a risk factor for human lung cancer in certain occupations. To study the potential for AFB, activation in human lung, cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated activation and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification of AFB1 were examined in cultured normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Cells were exposed to 0. 15 microM or 1.5 microM AFB, for 48 h and media was collected for metabolite analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At 0. 15 microM, AFB1 was metabolized only to the detoxified metabolite aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1). At 1.5 microM AFB1, both aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and AFQ1 were produced. Cells pretreated with 50 degrees M 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a CYP 1A inducer, for 72 h prior to 0.15 microM AFB1, produced the activated AFB1 8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Similarly, microsomes prepared from 3MC-pretreated cells formed AFBO, but microsomes from noninduced cells did not. While AFB1-DNA adducts were not detected at low AFB1 concentrations in untreated NHBE, 3MC induction caused the production of AFB1-DNA adducts at 0.015 and 0.15 microM AFB1. Western immunoblots showed that the primary CYP isoforms responsible for AFB1 activation in the liver, 1A and 3A4, to be constitutively expressed in NHBE cells. Expression of CYP 1A was significantly increased in 3MC-pretreated cells, while CYP 3A4 expression increased slightly, but not to the extent of the 1A isoforms. The principal AFBO detoxifying enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST), was constitutively expressed in NHBE cells, and was increased approximately twofold by 3MC pretreatment. Cytosolic fractions from neither control nor 3MC-induced NHBE had measurable AFBO conjugating activity, indicating that these cells may lack AFB1-relevant GST activity. From these data, it appears that NHBE cells activate

  12. Validation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells as a Model for Influenza A Infections in Human Distal Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. Sally; Chertow, Daniel S.; Moyer, Jenna E.; Suzich, Jon; Sandouk, Aline; Dorward, David W.; Logun, Carolea; Shelhamer, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Primary normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells, derived from the distal-most aspect of the trachea at the bifurcation, have been used for a number of studies in respiratory disease research. Differences between the source tissue and the differentiated primary cells may impact infection studies based on this model. Therefore, we examined how well-differentiated NHBE cells compared with their source tissue, the human distal trachea, as well as the ramifications of these differences on influenza A viral pathogenesis research using this model. We employed a histological analysis including morphological measurements, electron microscopy, multi-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, lectin histochemistry, and microarray expression analysis to compare differentiated NHBEs to human distal tracheal epithelium. Pseudostratified epithelial height, cell type variety and distribution varied significantly. Electron microscopy confirmed differences in cellular attachment and paracellular junctions. Influenza receptor lectin histochemistry revealed that α2,3 sialic acids were rarely present on the apical aspect of the differentiated NHBE cells, but were present in low numbers in the distal trachea. We bound fluorochrome bioconjugated virus to respiratory tissue and NHBE cells and infected NHBE cells with human influenza A viruses. Both indicated that the pattern of infection progression in these cells correlated with autopsy studies of fatal cases from the 2009 pandemic. PMID:25604814

  13. A normal and biotransforming model of the human bronchial epithelium for the toxicity testing of aerosols and solubilised substances.

    PubMed

    Prytherch, Zoë C; BéruBé, Kelly A

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of the experimental workflow by the Lung and Particle Research Group at Cardiff University, that led to the development of the two in vitro lung models - the normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) model and the lung-liver model, Metabo-Lung™. This work was jointly awarded the 2013 Lush Science Prize. The NHBE model is a three-dimensional, in vitro, human tissue-based model of the normal human bronchial epithelium, and Metabo-Lung involves the co-culture of the NHBE model with primary human hepatocytes, thus permitting the biotransformation of inhaled toxicants in an in vivo-like manner. Both models can be used as alternative test systems that could replace the use of animals in research and development for safety and toxicity testing in a variety of industries (e.g. the pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetics, and food industries). Metabo-Lung itself is a unique tool for the in vitro detection of toxins produced by reactive metabolites. This 21st century animal replacement model could yield representative in vitro predictions for in vivo toxicity. This advancement in in vitro toxicology relies on filter-well technology that will enable a wide-spectrum of researchers to create viable and economic alternatives for respiratory safety assessment and disease-focused research. 2014 FRAME.

  14. The molecular and cellular response of normal and progressed human bronchial epithelial cells to HZE particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Larsen, Jill

    We have used a model of non-oncogenically immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells to determine the response of such cells to particles found outside the protection of the earth’s electromagnetic field. We have identified an enhanced frequency of cellular transformation, as measured by growth in soft agar, for both 56Fe and 28Si (1 GeV/n) that is maximal (4-6 fold) at 0.25 Gy and 0.40 Gy, respectively. At 4 months post-irradiation 38 individual soft agar clones were isolated. These clones were characterized extensively for cellular and molecular changes. Gene expression analysis suggested that these clones had down-regulated several genes associated with anti-oxidant pathways including GLS2, GPX1 and 4, SOD2, PIG3, and NQO1 amongst others. As a result, many of these transformed clones were exposed to high levels of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS), although there appeared not to be any enhanced mitochondrial ROS. DNA repair pathways associated with ATM/ATR signaling were also upregulated. However, these transformants do not develop into tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice, suggesting that they have not progressed sufficiently to become oncogenic. Therefore we chose 6 soft agar clones for continuous culture for an additional 14 months. Amongst the 6 clones, only one clone showed any significant change in phenotype. Clone 3kt-ff.2a, propagated for 18 months, were 2-fold more radioresistant, had a shortened doubling time and the background rate of transformation more than doubled. Furthermore, the morphology of transformed clones changed. Clones from this culture are being compared to the original clone as well as the parental HBEC3KT and will be injected into immune-compromised mice for oncogenic potential. Oncogenically progressed HBECs, HBEC3KT cells that overexpress a mutant RAS gene and where p53 has been knocked down, designated HBEC3KTR53, responded quite differently to HZE particle exposure. First, these cells are more

  15. Secondhand smoke inhibits both Cl- and K+ conductances in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is an independent risk factor for asthma, rhinosinusitis, and more severe respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Impaired mucociliary clearance with subsequent mucus retention contributes to the pathophysiology of each of these diseases, suggesting that altered epithelial salt and water transport may play an etiological role. To test the hypothesis that SHS would alter epithelial ion transport, we designed a system for in vitro exposure of mature, well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells to SHS. We show that SHS exposure inhibits cAMP-stimulated, bumetanide-sensitive anion secretion by 25 to 40% in a time-dependent fashion in these cells. Increasing the amount of carbon monoxide to 100 ppm from 5 ppm did not increase the amount of inhibition, and filtering SHS reduced inhibition significantly. It was determined that SHS inhibited cAMP-dependent apical membrane chloride conductance by 25% and Ba2+-sensitive basolateral membrane potassium conductance by 50%. These data confirm previous findings that cigarette smoke inhibits chloride secretion in a novel model of smoke exposure designed to mimic SHS exposure. They also extend previous findings to demonstrate an effect on basolateral K+ conductance. Therefore, pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure. PMID:19943936

  16. Secondhand smoke inhibits both Cl- and K+ conductances in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Savitski, Amy N; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A; Cohen, Noam A; Kreindler, James L

    2009-11-27

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is an independent risk factor for asthma, rhinosinusitis, and more severe respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Impaired mucociliary clearance with subsequent mucus retention contributes to the pathophysiology of each of these diseases, suggesting that altered epithelial salt and water transport may play an etiological role. To test the hypothesis that SHS would alter epithelial ion transport, we designed a system for in vitro exposure of mature, well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells to SHS. We show that SHS exposure inhibits cAMP-stimulated, bumetanide-sensitive anion secretion by 25 to 40% in a time-dependent fashion in these cells. Increasing the amount of carbon monoxide to 100 ppm from 5 ppm did not increase the amount of inhibition, and filtering SHS reduced inhibition significantly. It was determined that SHS inhibited cAMP-dependent apical membrane chloride conductance by 25% and Ba2+-sensitive basolateral membrane potassium conductance by 50%. These data confirm previous findings that cigarette smoke inhibits chloride secretion in a novel model of smoke exposure designed to mimic SHS exposure. They also extend previous findings to demonstrate an effect on basolateral K+ conductance. Therefore, pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure.

  17. Blue-violet excited autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissue after formalin fixation.

    PubMed

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Wagnières, Georges

    2007-01-01

    Autofluorescence (AF) imaging is a powerful tool for the detection of (pre-)neoplastic lesions in the bronchi. Several endoscopic imaging systems exploit the spectral and intensity contrast of AF between healthy and (pre-)neoplastic bronchial tissues, yet, the mechanisms underlying these contrasts are poorly understood. In this report, the effect of formalin fixation on the human bronchi AF, hence on the contrast, was studied by spectrofluorometric point measurements and DAFE (Diagnostic AutoFluorescence Endoscopy) broad field imaging. Generally, formalin-fixed samples have higher AF intensity than in vivo, whereas the emission spectral shape is similar. Additionally, the spectrofluorometric data showed a moderate decrease of the AF intensity on (pre-)neoplastic lesions relative to the healthy bronchial samples. However, this decrease was lower than that reported from in vivo measurements. Neither spectral measurements nor imaging revealed spectral contrast between healthy bronchial tissue and (pre-)neoplastic lesions in formalin. These results indicate that epithelial thickening and blood supply in the adjacent lamina propria are likely to play a key role in the generation of the AF contrast in bronchial tissues. Our results show that the AF contrast in bronchial tissues was significantly affected by standard, 10% buffered, formalin fixation. Therefore, these samples are not suited to AF contrast studies.

  18. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Inhibits Ciliagenesis in Differentiated Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Effectiveness of N-Acetylcysteine

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A.; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H2O2 levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD. PMID:23118923

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus inhibits ciliagenesis in differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells: effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Mata, Manuel; Sarrion, Irene; Armengot, Miguel; Carda, Carmen; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A; Cortijo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Persistent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections have been associated with the exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This virus infects the respiratory epithelium, leading to chronic inflammation, and induces the release of mucins and the loss of cilia activity, two factors that determine mucus clearance and the increase in sputum volume. These alterations involve reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has proven useful in the management of COPD, reducing symptoms, exacerbations, and accelerated lung function decline. NAC inhibits RSV infection and mucin release in human A549 cells. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of NAC in modulating ciliary activity, ciliagenesis, and metaplasia in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cell (NHBEC) cultures infected with RSV. Our results indicated that RSV induced ultrastructural abnormalities in axonemal basal bodies and decreased the expression of β-tubulin as well as two genes involved in ciliagenesis, FOXJ1 and DNAI2. These alterations led to a decrease in ciliary activity. Furthermore, RSV induced metaplastic changes to the epithelium and increased the number of goblet cells and the expression of MUC5AC and GOB5. NAC restored the normal functions of the epithelium, inhibiting ICAM1 expression, subsequent RSV infection through mechanisms involving nuclear receptor factor 2, and the expression of heme oxygenase 1, which correlated with the restoration of the antioxidant capacity, the intracellular H(2)O(2) levels and glutathione content of NHBECs. The results presented in this study support the therapeutic use of NAC for the management of chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD.

  20. Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Marinelli; Romilde, Iannarelli; Beatrice, Morelli Maria; Matteo, Valisi; Giovanna, Nicotra; Consuelo, Amantini; Claudio, Cardinali; Giorgio, Santoni; Filippo, Maggi; Massimo, Nabissi

    2016-08-25

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is used traditionally to prepare herbal remedies possessing expectorant, mucolytic, antitussive and antispasmodic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a standardized hydroalcoholic extract of thyme on primary human airway (bronchial/tracheal) epithelial cell lines in a model of lung inflammation induced by LPS. In addition, the effects of thyme extract on human lung cancer cell line (H460) were analysed. Thyme extract showed significant anti-inflammatory properties by reducing the NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 transcription factors protein levels followed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 beta and IL-8), and Muc5ac secretion in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cells. Moreover, the extract showed cytotoxic effects on H460 cancer cells, modulated the release of IL-1 beta, IL-8 and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p52 proteins. Taken together, these results substantiated the traditional uses of thyme in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thyme extract might be an effective treatment of chronic diseases based on inflammatory processes when hypersecretion of mucus overwhelms the ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, causing morbidity and mortality. Moreover thyme extract, evaluated in H460 lung cancer cell line, demonstrated to induce cell cytotoxicity in addition to reduce inflammatory cell signals.

  1. Altered ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to chemically distinct metal welding fume particles.

    PubMed

    Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Meighan, Terence G; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Antonini, James M

    2017-07-01

    Welding fume inhalation causes pulmonary toxicity, including susceptibility to infection. We hypothesized that airway epithelial ion transport is a target of fume toxicity, and investigated the effects of fume particulates from manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) on ion transport in normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) cultured in air-interface. MMA-SS particles, more soluble than GMA-MS particles, contain Cr, Ni, Fe and Mn; GMA-MS particles contain Fe and Mn. MMA-SS or GMA-MS particles (0.0167-166.7μg/cm(2)) were applied apically to NHBEs. After 18h transepithelial potential difference (Vt), resistance (Rt), and short circuit current (Isc) were measured. Particle effects on Na(+) and Cl¯ channels and the Na(+),K(+),2Cl¯-cotransporter were evaluated using amiloride (apical), 5-nitro-2-[(3-phenylpropyl)amino]benzoic acid (NPPB, apical), and bumetanide (basolateral), respectively. MMA-SS (0.0167-16.7μg/cm(2)) increased basal Vt. Only 16.7μg/cm(2) GMA-MS increased basal Vt significantly. MMA-SS or GMA-MS exposure potentiated Isc responses (decreases) to amiloride and bumetanide, while not affecting those to NPPB, GMA-MS to a lesser degree than MMA-SS. Variable effects on Rt were observed in response to amiloride, and bumetanide. Generally, MMA-SS was more potent in altering responses to amiloride and bumetanide than GMA-MS. Hyperpolarization occurred in the absence of LDH release, but decreases in Vt, Rt, and Isc at higher fume particulate doses accompanied LDH release, to a greater extent for MMA-SS. Thus, Na(+) transport and Na(+),K(+),2Cl¯-cotransport are affected by fume exposure; MMA-MS is more potent than GMA-MS. Enhanced Na(+) absorption and decreased airway surface liquid could compromise defenses against infection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. HO-1 inhibits IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia associated with CLCA1 suppression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mishina, Kei; Shinkai, Masaharu; Shimokawaji, Tadasuke; Nagashima, Akimichi; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoriko; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Rubin, Bruce K; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Mucus hypersecretion and goblet cell hyperplasia are common features that characterize asthma. IL-13 increases mucin (MUC) 5AC, the major component of airway mucus, in airway epithelial cells. According to the literature, IL-13 receptor activation leads to STAT6 activation and consequent induction of chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1) gene expression, associated with the induction of MUC5AC. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of heme to biliverdin, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. We examined the effects of HO-1 on mucin production and goblet cell hyperplasia induced by IL-13. Moreover, we assessed the cell signaling intermediates that appear to be responsible for mucin production. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were grown at air liquid interface (ALI) in the presence or absence of IL-13 and hemin, a HO-1 inducer, for 14 days. Protein concentration was analyzed using ELISA, and mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR. Histochemical analysis was performed using HE staining, andWestern blotting was performed to evaluate signaling transduction pathway. Hemin (4 μM) significantly increased HO-1 protein expression (p b 0.01) and HO-1 mRNA expression (p b 0.001). IL-13 significantly increased goblet cells, MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.01) and MUC5AC mRNA (p b 0.001), and these were decreased by hemin by way of HO-1. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)-IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the effect of hemin restoring MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.05) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Hemin decreased the expression of CLCA1 mRNA (p b 0.05) and it was reversed by SnPP-IX, but could not suppress IL-13-induced phosphorylation of STAT6 or SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) mRNA expression. In summary, HO-1 overexpression suppressed IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and MUC5AC production, and involvement of CLCA1 in the mechanism was suggested.

  3. Comparative cytotoxicity of fumonisin B1 in two cell lines derived from normal human bronchial epithelial cells using four distinct bioassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C; Smith, J; Anderson, J; Freshney, R

    1999-06-01

    This study focuses on the cytotoxic effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on both immortalised and immortalised and subsequently transfected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells of human origin using four bioassays. While the MTT, Neutral Red and hexosaminidase colorimetric assays showed little difference between the toxic effects on the two related cell lines, the clonogenic assay, measuring cell survival and proliferation, indicated that FB1 had a more toxic effect on the nontransfected cells. This kind ofin vitro approach using cells which retain many characteristics of normal cell growth and differentiation can go some way to developing evaluation models for food safety in the case of mycotoxin contamination without resorting totally to whole animal testing. Nevertheless, one or two cytotoxicity tests may be inadequate for a complete appraisal of toxic potential: rather, as wide a range of methodologies as feasible should be employed initially before meaningful conclusions may be drawn.

  4. The activation of HMGB1 as a progression factor on inflammation response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells through RAGE/JNK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojin; Mi, Yanyan; Yang, Hui; Hu, Ankang; Zhang, Qingguo; Shang, Chunli

    2013-08-01

    Extracellular high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1) has been implicated in the inflammation response leading to the precancerous lesions of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of HMGB-1 in the inflammation response in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and its underlying mechanisms were still not fully understood. In this study, the inflammation response in NHBE cells was stimulated by 2.5, 5, and 10 μg/ml HMGB-1. However, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) blocker RAGE-Ab (5 μg/ml) or 10 μM c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 could inhibit HMGB1-induced the release of inflammation cytokines including TNF-α, IL-8, IL-10, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HMGB1-induced RAGE protein expression, JNK and NF-κB activation were attenuated by the pretreatment with RAGE-Ab or JNK inhibitor SP600125 in Western blot analysis. Our data indicated that HMGB-1 induced inflammation response in NHBE cells through activating RAGE/JNK/NF-κB pathway. HMGB-1 could act as a therapeutic target for inflammation leading NHBE cells to the precancerous lesions of NSCLC.

  5. Sp1 Upregulates cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein Expression During Retinoic Acid-Induced Mucous Differentiation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong Soo; Kim, Seung-Wook; Koo, Ja Seok

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response-element (CRE) binding protein (CREB) is an important transcription factor that is differentially regulated in cells of various types. We recently reported that RA rapidly activates CREB without using retinoic acid (RA) receptors RAR and RXR in normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells. However, little is known about RA’s role in the physiologic regulation of CREB expression in the early mucous differentiation of NHTBE cells. Here, we report that RA upregulated CREB gene expression and that using 5′-serial deletion promoter analysis and mutagenesis analyses, two Sp1-binding sites located at nucleotides −217 and −150, which flank the transcription initiation site, were essential for RA induction of CREB gene transcription. Furthermore, we found that CREs located at nucleotides −119 and −98 contributed to basal promoter activity. Interestingly, RA also upregulated Sp1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous Sp1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased RA-induced CREB gene expression. However, the converse was not true: knockdown of CREB using CREB siRNA did not affect RA-induced Sp1 gene expression. We conclude that RA upregulates CREB gene expression during the early stage of NHTBE cell differentiation and that RA-inducible Sp1 plays a major role in upregulating human CREB gene expression. This result implies that cooperation of these two transcription factors play a crucial role in mediating early events of normal mucous cell differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:17937658

  6. Reduced chromosome aberration complexity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to low-LET γ-rays and high-LET α-particles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cells of the lung are at risk from exposure to low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation from a range of environmental and medical sources. To help assess human health risks from such exposures, a better understanding of the frequency and types of chromosome aberration initially-induced in human lung cell types is required to link initial DNA damage and rearrangements with transmission potential and, to assess how this varies with radiation quality. Materials and methods: We exposed normal human bronchial lung epithelial (NHBE) cells in vitro to 0.5 and 1 Gy low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays and a low fluence of high-LET α-particles and assayed for chromosome aberrations in premature chromosome condensation (PCC) spreads by 24-color multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH). Results: Both simple and complex aberrations were induced in a LET and dose-dependent manner; however, the frequency and complexity observed were reduced in comparison to that previously reported in spherical cell types after exposure to comparable doses or fluence of radiation. Approximately 1–2% of all exposed cells were categorized as being capable of transmitting radiation-induced chromosomal damage to future NHBE cell generations, irrespective of dose. Conclusion: One possible mechanistic explanation for this reduced complexity is the differing geometric organization of chromosome territories within ellipsoid nuclei compared to spherical nuclei. This study highlights the need to better understand the role of nuclear organization in the formation of exchange aberrations and, the influence three-dimensional (3D) tissue architecture may have on this in vivo. PMID:23679558

  7. Reduced chromosome aberration complexity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to low-LET γ-rays and high-LET α-particles.

    PubMed

    Themis, Matthew; Garimberti, Elisa; Hill, Mark A; Anderson, Rhona M

    2013-11-01

    Cells of the lung are at risk from exposure to low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation from a range of environmental and medical sources. To help assess human health risks from such exposures, a better understanding of the frequency and types of chromosome aberration initially-induced in human lung cell types is required to link initial DNA damage and rearrangements with transmission potential and, to assess how this varies with radiation quality. We exposed normal human bronchial lung epithelial (NHBE) cells in vitro to 0.5 and 1 Gy low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays and a low fluence of high-LET α-particles and assayed for chromosome aberrations in premature chromosome condensation (PCC) spreads by 24-color multiplex-fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH). Both simple and complex aberrations were induced in a LET and dose-dependent manner; however, the frequency and complexity observed were reduced in comparison to that previously reported in spherical cell types after exposure to comparable doses or fluence of radiation. Approximately 1-2% of all exposed cells were categorized as being capable of transmitting radiation-induced chromosomal damage to future NHBE cell generations, irrespective of dose. One possible mechanistic explanation for this reduced complexity is the differing geometric organization of chromosome territories within ellipsoid nuclei compared to spherical nuclei. This study highlights the need to better understand the role of nuclear organization in the formation of exchange aberrations and, the influence three-dimensional (3D) tissue architecture may have on this in vivo.

  8. Green tea polyphenol EGCG suppresses cigarette smoke condensate-induced NF-kappaB activation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Syed, D N; Afaq, F; Kweon, M-H; Hadi, N; Bhatia, N; Spiegelman, V S; Mukhtar, H

    2007-02-01

    Cigarette smoke is a powerful inducer of inflammatory responses resulting in disruption of major cellular pathways with transcriptional and genomic alterations driving the cells towards carcinogenesis. Cell culture and animal model studies indicate that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present in green tea, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity capable of selectively inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that EGCG pretreatment (20-80 microM) of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) resulted in significant inhibition of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-induced cell proliferation. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) controls the transcription of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. In most cells, NF-kappaB prevents apoptosis by mediating cell survival signals. Pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG suppressed CSC-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, and activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/p65. NHBE cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing an NF-kappaB-inducible promoter sequence showed an increased reporter activity after CSC exposure that was specifically inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG resulted in a significant downregulation of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins cyclin D1, MMP-9, IL-8 and iNOS. EGCG pretreatment further inhibited CSC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPKs and resulted in a decreased expression of PI3K, AKT and mTOR signaling molecules. Taken together, our data indicate that EGCG can suppress NF-kappaB activation as well as other pro-survival pathways such as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPKs in NHBE cells, which may contribute to its ability to suppress inflammation, proliferation and angiogenesis induced by cigarette smoke.

  9. Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1β proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression were also investigated. Methods IL-8 and IL-1β protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting. Results Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100 μg/ml DEP for 24 h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1β protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt

  10. [Air distribution in the bronchial tree of human lungs].

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei; Tan, Xiaoping; Pei, Juemin

    2004-04-01

    A three-element model of lumped parameter based on the statistic data of Weible's symmetric model and on the reference anatomic figures of the bronchial tree of the lungs has been proposed using the fluid network theory. It was assumed that the upper five or seven generations of the twenty-four generations of the respiratory airway are asymmetric, while the rest are symmetric. GEAR method was used to solve the ordinary differential equations. The pressure and flow rate distributions in different positions of the lungs during normal respiration and partial bronchial obstruction were compared, respectively. This model has great significance in finding out the air distribution in the human bronchial tree under various physiological and pathological conditions.

  11. Increased resting bronchial tone in normal subjects acclimatised to altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C; Bakewell, S; Miller, M; Hart, N; McMorrow, R; Barry, P; Collier, D; Watt, S; Pollard, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: Normal subjects frequently experience troublesome respiratory symptoms when acclimatised to altitude. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and full and partial flow-volume loops were measured before and after ascent to 5000 m altitude to determine if there are changes in resting bronchial tone and BHR that might explain the symptoms. Methods: BHR to histamine was measured using a turbine spirometer to record partial and full flow-volume curves and expressed as log dose slopes. Twenty one subjects were tested at sea level and after acclimatisation at 5000 m altitude. Results: No significant change in log dose slope measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second occurred after acclimatisation, and the maximal expiratory flow with 30% of forced vital capacity remaining (MEF30%) rose on the full loop and fell on the partial loop. Their ratio (full divided by partial) rose on average by 0.28 (95% confidence limits 0.14 to 0.42) from the mean (SD) sea level value of 0.87 (0.20). Conclusions: There is no increase in BHR in normal subjects acclimatised to altitude but an increase in resting bronchial tone occurs that could be released by deep inspiration. This may be the result of increased cholinergic tone. PMID:11978915

  12. Bronchial elastic fibers in normal subjects and asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Lacoste, J Y; Chanez, P; Vic, P; Godard, P; Michel, F B

    1996-05-01

    Elastic fibers required to maintain bronchial patency during ventilation may be damaged in asthma as a result of repair following inflammation or stretching during exacerbations. Fifteen normal subjects and 40 asthmatics of variable severity were studied. Bronchial biopsies were obtained from a subsegmental bronchus using a flexible bronchoscope. The elastic fibers were examined using orceine-eosine sustaining and/or immunohistochemistry with two monoclonal antibodies against elastin or transmission electron microscopy (six asthmatics and four control subjects). Orceine-eosine staining revealed that most normal subjects had normal fibers throughout the submucosa whereas of the 21 asthmatics analyzed only three had a normal superficial elastin network. In five patients, elastin had virtually disappeared. In the remaining patients, fibers appeared fragmented. The deeper layer of elastic fibers was abnormal in 17 asthmatics, fibers being patchy, tangled, and thickened. The fragmentation of the superficial network of elastic fibers shown in asthmatics was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy studies suggested that the elastinolytic process and fragmentation of elastic fibers occurred in asthmatics. Elastinolysis occurs in the airways of asthmatics possibly as a result of repair elicited by chronic inflammation. Mechanical stretch induced by breathing and edema may lead to the fragmentation of fibers in asthmatic airways.

  13. Affinity of bronchial secretion glycoproteins and cells of human bronchial mucosa for Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Lamblin, G; Degand, P; Roussel, P; Mazzuca, M

    1977-01-01

    The coupling of Ricinus communis lectins to Sephadex G 25 was used in order to study mucins and other glycoproteins from human bronchial secretion. The major part of human bronchial mucins and other glycoproteins such as immunoglobulins A, bronchotransferrin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin were isolated by this procedure. A parallel study of human bronchial mucosa was achieved with peroxidase labeled Ricinus communis lectins; this study characterized goblet cells and mucous cells which contain mucins, and serous cells which are involved in the synthesis or the secretion of the other glycoproteins.

  14. Biological impact of cigarette smoke compared to an aerosol produced from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kogel, U; Gonzalez Suarez, I; Xiang, Y; Dossin, E; Guy, P A; Mathis, C; Marescotti, D; Goedertier, D; Martin, F; Peitsch, M C; Hoeng, J

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious and fatal diseases. The best way for smokers to avoid health risks is to quit smoking. Using modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) may be an alternative to reduce the harm caused for those who are unwilling to quit smoking, but little is known about the toxic effects of MRTPs, nor were the molecular mechanisms of toxicity investigated in detail. The toxicity of an MRTP and the potential molecular mechanisms involved were investigated in high-content screening tests and whole genome transcriptomics analyses using human bronchial epithelial cells. The prototypic (p)MRTP that was tested had less impact than reference cigarette 3R4F on the cellular oxidative stress response and cell death pathways. Higher pMRTP aerosol extract concentrations had impact on pathways associated with the detoxification of xenobiotics and the reduction of oxidative damage. A pMRTP aerosol concentration up to 18 times higher than the 3R4F caused similar perturbation effects in biological networks and led to the perturbation of networks related to cell stress, and proliferation biology. These results may further facilitate the development of a systems toxicology-based impact assessment for use in future risk assessments in line with the 21st century toxicology paradigm, as shown here for an MRTP. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistent specific bronchial reactivity to occupational agents in workers with normal nonspecific bronchial reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lemière, C; Cartier, A; Malo, J L; Lehrer, S B

    2000-09-01

    Specific bronchial reactivity (SBR) to common inhalants is related to the degree of nonspecific bronchial reactivity (NSBR) and to specific allergen sensitivity. We investigated 16 workers with normal NSBR who had been previously diagnosed with occupational asthma caused by high-molecular-weight agents. The agents were flour in seven workers, psyllium in five, and guar gum in four. The subjects had been removed from exposure to these agents for a mean of 5.7 (+/- 4.0 SD) yr, no longer showed evidence of persisting asthma, and had a normal lung function. In the present study, the workers were reexposed to the sensitizing agent by specific inhalation challenges, in the same way they were as at the time of the diagnosis, to assess their current SBR to the sensitizer. SBR was estimated as the duration of exposure that induced a 20% decrease in FEV(1). Eleven of the 16 subjects had an asthmatic reaction at the time of the study; the duration of exposure necessary to induce the asthmatic reaction was the same as that needed at the time of diagnosis (3.55 +/- 0.5 min and 4.2 +/- 0.7 min, respectively, p = 0.8). The decrease in specific IgE levels between the two events was much greater in the subjects who failed to react to the second challenge test (from 24.2 +/- 37.5% to 3.0 +/- 16.9% binding) than in those who reacted on both occasions (from 31.2 +/- 27.0% to 21.6 +/- 36.7% binding); however, in both groups the change was significant (p = 0.05 and 0.04, respectively). We conclude that SBR to high-molecular-weight agents persists in most cases despite a normalization of NSBR, and that this persistence is associated with a persistence of specific immunization to the agent.

  16. Bombesin-like peptide receptors in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kane, M A; Toi-Scott, M; Johnson, G L; Kelley, K K; Boose, D; Escobedo-Morse, A

    1996-01-01

    Northern blot and RNAse protection assays previously failed to detect bombesin-like peptide (BLP) receptors in normal human lung tissue, but by RT/PCR cultured human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells expressed all three BLP receptor subtypes, predominantly neuromedin B (NMB) receptor. By RT/PCR, we found expression of all three BLP receptor subtypes by human lung tissue and confirmed NMB receptor expression in six out of six HBE samples. However, transformed HBE BEAS B2B cells expressed only gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors; saturable, high-affinity (Kd = 3.5 nM) specific [125I]GRP binding confirmed functional GRP receptor, with M(r) = 75 kDa and immunologic cross-reactivity with GRP receptor from human small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) NCI-H345 cells. Altered regulation of BLP receptors may accompany transformation of normal lung cells to cancer.

  17. Distinct transcriptome profiles identified in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to γ-rays and different elemental particles of high Z and energy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Peyton, Michael; Girard, Luc; Xie, Yang; Minna, John D; Story, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Ionizing radiation composed of accelerated ions of high atomic number (Z) and energy (HZE) deposits energy and creates damage in cells in a discrete manner as compared to the random deposition of energy and damage seen with low energy radiations such as γ- or x-rays. Such radiations can be highly effective at cell killing, transformation, and oncogenesis, all of which are concerns for the manned space program and for the burgeoning field of HZE particle radiotherapy for cancer. Furthermore, there are differences in the extent to which cells or tissues respond to such exposures that may be unrelated to absorbed dose. Therefore, we asked whether the energy deposition patterns produced by different radiation types would cause different molecular responses. We performed transcriptome profiling using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) after exposure to γ-rays and to two different HZE particles (28Si and 56Fe) with different energy transfer properties to characterize the molecular response to HZE particles and γ-rays as a function of dose, energy deposition pattern, and time post-irradiation. Clonogenic assay indicated that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for 56Fe was 3.91 and for 28Si was 1.38 at 34% cell survival. Unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression segregated samples according to the radiation species followed by the time after irradiation, whereas dose was not a significant parameter for segregation of radiation response. While a subset of genes associated with p53-signaling, such as CDKN1A, TRIM22 and BTG2 showed very similar responses to all radiation qualities, distinct expression changes were associated with the different radiation species. Gene enrichment analysis categorized the differentially expressed genes into functional groups related to cell death and cell cycle regulation for all radiation types, while gene pathway analysis revealed that the pro-inflammatory Acute Phase Response Signaling was specifically induced

  18. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  19. Distinct transcriptome profiles identified in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after exposure to γ-rays and different elemental particles of high Z and energy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation composed of accelerated ions of high atomic number (Z) and energy (HZE) deposits energy and creates damage in cells in a discrete manner as compared to the random deposition of energy and damage seen with low energy radiations such as γ- or x-rays. Such radiations can be highly effective at cell killing, transformation, and oncogenesis, all of which are concerns for the manned space program and for the burgeoning field of HZE particle radiotherapy for cancer. Furthermore, there are differences in the extent to which cells or tissues respond to such exposures that may be unrelated to absorbed dose. Therefore, we asked whether the energy deposition patterns produced by different radiation types would cause different molecular responses. We performed transcriptome profiling using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) after exposure to γ-rays and to two different HZE particles (28Si and 56Fe) with different energy transfer properties to characterize the molecular response to HZE particles and γ-rays as a function of dose, energy deposition pattern, and time post-irradiation. Results Clonogenic assay indicated that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for 56Fe was 3.91 and for 28Si was 1.38 at 34% cell survival. Unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression segregated samples according to the radiation species followed by the time after irradiation, whereas dose was not a significant parameter for segregation of radiation response. While a subset of genes associated with p53-signaling, such as CDKN1A, TRIM22 and BTG2 showed very similar responses to all radiation qualities, distinct expression changes were associated with the different radiation species. Gene enrichment analysis categorized the differentially expressed genes into functional groups related to cell death and cell cycle regulation for all radiation types, while gene pathway analysis revealed that the pro-inflammatory Acute Phase Response Signaling was

  20. All-trans retinoic acid converts E2F into a transcriptional suppressor and inhibits the growth of normal human bronchial epithelial cells through a retinoic acid receptor- dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H Y; Dohi, D F; Kim, Y H; Walsh, G L; Consoli, U; Andreeff, M; Dawson, M I; Hong, W K; Kurie, J M

    1998-01-01

    Retinoids, including retinol and retinoic acid derivatives, maintain the normal growth and differentiation of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and are under investigation as agents for lung cancer prevention. In this study, we examined the biologic effects of retinoids on normal HBE cells and the molecular mechanisms of retinoid actions. At a dose of 10(-6) M, all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) suppressed the proliferation of normal HBE cells, which accumulated in the G0 phase. No evidence of programmed cell death was observed. The class of retinoid nuclear receptor that mediated the growth arrest was explored. Normal HBE cell growth was suppressed by a retinoid that selectively activates retinoic acid receptors but not by one that activates retinoid X receptors. The E2F transcription factor has demonstrated a role in G0 entry through transcriptional suppression of genes that induce cell cycle progression. To investigate the role of E2F in retinoid signaling, transient transfection assays were performed using reporter plasmids containing E2F-binding sites. Findings from these experiments suggested that t-RA treatment converted E2F into a transcriptional suppressor. Supporting this possibility, t-RA inhibited the expression of the E2F target genes B-myb, cyclin A, and cyclin E. Further, t-RA increased the levels of nuclear E2F-4, p107, and p130 and enhanced the binding of E2F-4 to p107, which have been associated with the conversion of E2F into a transcriptional suppressor in other cells. These findings point to retinoic acid receptor- and E2F-dependent pathways as potential mediators of retinoid-induced growth arrest in normal HBE cells and have implications for the use of retinoids in clinical trials on the prevention of lung cancer. PMID:9486971

  1. Cadmium, cobalt and lead cause stress response, cell cycle deregulation and increased steroid as well as xenobiotic metabolism in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells which is coordinated by at least nine transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Glahn, Felix; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Zellmer, Sebastian; Guthke, Reinhard; Wiese, Jan; Golka, Klaus; Hergenröder, Roland; Degen, Gisela H; Lehmann, Thomas; Hermes, Matthias; Schormann, Wiebke; Brulport, Marc; Bauer, Alexander; Bedawy, Essam; Gebhardt, Rolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Foth, Heidi

    2008-08-01

    Workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, cobalt and lead have been reported to have increased levels of DNA damage. To analyze whether in vivo relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene array study using primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were incubated with 15 microg/l Cd(II), 25 microg/l Co(II) and 550 microg/l Pb(II) either with individual substances or in combination. Differentially expressed genes were filtered out and used to identify enriched GO categories as well as KEGG pathways and to identify transcription factors whose binding sites are enriched in a given set of promoters. Interestingly, combined exposure to Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) caused a coordinated response of at least seven stress response-related transcription factors, namely Oct-1, HIC1, TGIF, CREB, ATF4, SRF and YY1. A stress response was further corroborated by up regulation of genes involved in glutathione metabolism. A second major response to heavy metal exposure was deregulation of the cell cycle as evidenced by down regulation of the transcription factors ELK-1 and the Ets transcription factor GABP, as well as deregulation of genes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism. A third and surprising response was up regulation of genes involved in steroid metabolism, whereby promoter analysis identified up regulation of SRY that is known to play a role in sex determination. A forth response was up regulation of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes, particularly of dihydrodiol dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (AKR1C1, AKR1C2). Incubations with individual heavy metals showed that the response of AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 was predominantly caused by lead. In conclusion, we have shown that in vivo relevant concentrations of Cd(II), Co(II) and Pb(II) cause a complex and coordinated response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This study gives an overview of the most responsive genes.

  2. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface resemble bronchial epithelium from human smokers.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Carole; Poussin, Carine; Weisensee, Dirk; Gebel, Stephan; Hengstermann, Arnd; Sewer, Alain; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Xiang, Yang; Ansari, Sam; Wagner, Sandra; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2013-04-01

    Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed in the epithelium of smokers' airways are reproducible in this in vitro system (AIR-100 tissue), which has been shown to recapitulate most of the characteristics of the human bronchial epithelium. Human AIR-100 tissues were exposed to mainstream CS for 7, 14, 21, or 28 min at the air-liquid interface, and we investigated various biological endpoints [e.g., gene expression and microRNA profiles, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) release] at multiple postexposure time points (0.5, 2, 4, 24, 48 h). By performing a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we observed a significant enrichment of human smokers' bronchial epithelium gene signatures derived from different public transcriptomics datasets in CS-exposed AIR-100 tissue. Comparison of in vitro microRNA profiles with microRNA data from healthy smokers highlighted various highly translatable microRNAs associated with inflammation or with cell cycle processes that are known to be perturbed by CS in lung tissue. We also found a dose-dependent increase of MMP-1 release by AIR-100 tissue 48 h after CS exposure in agreement with the known effect of CS on this collagenase expression in smokers' tissues. In conclusion, a similar biological perturbation than the one observed in vivo in smokers' airway epithelium could be induced after a single CS exposure of a human organotypic bronchial epithelium-like tissue culture.

  3. Estrogen Receptor α Increases Basal and Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but not GSTP1, in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, W; Pentecost, BT; Pietropaolo, RL; Fasco, MJ; Spivack, SD

    2005-01-01

    Gender-specific estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression may plausibly influence lung carcinogenesis in females. Initial genome-wide microarray studies confirmed that carcinogen metabolism genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) were those most responsive to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in normal bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. These two genes encoding phase I bioactivating enzymes and the GSTP1 gene encoding a phase II deactivating enzyme were then tested for induction by ERα. NHBE cells (native ERα−) were transfected with wild-type ERα-adenoviral constructs, and then exposed to CSE, 17β-estradiol (E2), and/or the ERα inhibitor, ICI 182,780. The expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and GSTP1 were then determined by RNA-specific quantitative RT-PCR and immunoassay. ERα increased the basal expression of CYP1B1 4.04-fold (p<0.01) at the mRNA level and 6.5-fold at the protein level. ERα also increased the CSE-induced mRNA expression of CYP1B1 2.26-fold (p<0.01), but not the protein expression. ERα did not alter the CYP1A1 mRNA levels, but did increase protein expression 2.0-fold (p<0.01) on CSE exposure, and 6.2-fold (p<0.01) upon E2 exposure. These effects could be inhibited by ICI 182,780. ERα did not alter the expression of GSTP1. ChIP assay confirmed ERα binding to CYP1B1 promoter near the transcription start site. These results suggest that ERα regulates the CYP1B1 expression at a transcriptional level, and CYP1A1 expression at a translational level. These data raise the possibility that inter-gender differences in expression of ERα that are known to exist in human lung may contribute to inter-individual expression differences in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and to differences in carcinogen metabolism and mutation. PMID:16010691

  4. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examine cell cycle perturbation upon exposure using a normal human bronchial epithelial cell culture (BEAS-2B). BEAS-2B cells were treated with low (0, 1, 2 µM) and apoptotic (3 µM) doses of Zn2+ plus 1 µM pyrithione, a Zn2+-specific ionophore facilitating cellular uptake, for up to 24 h. Fixed cells were then stained with propidium iodine (PI) and cell cycle phase was determined by fluorescent image cytometry. Initial results report the percentage of cells in the S phase after 18 h exposure to 1, 2, and 3 µM Zn2+ were similar (8%, 7%, and 12%, respectively) compared with 7% in controls. Cells exposed to 3 µM Zn2+ increased cell populations in G2/M phase (76% versus 68% in controls). Interestingly, exposure to 1 µM Zn2+ resulted in decreased (59%) cells in G2/M. While preliminary, these pilot studies suggest Zn2+ alters cell cycle in BEAS-2B cells, particularly in the G2/M phase. The G2/M checkpoint maintains DNA integrity by enabling initiation of DNA repair or apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the adaptive and apoptotic responses to Zn2+ exposure may be mediated via perturbation of the cell cycle at the G2/M checkpoint. This work was a collaborative summer student project. The st

  5. XB130 translocation to microfilamentous structures mediates NNK-induced migration of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qifei; Nadesalingam, Jeya; Moodley, Serisha; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-07-20

    Cigarette smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) is the most potent carcinogen among cigarette smoking components, and is known to enhance migration of cancer cells. However, the effect of NNK on normal human bronchial epithelial cells is not well studied. XB130 is a member of actin filament associated protein family and is involved in cell morphology changes, cytoskeletal rearrangement and outgrowth formation, as well as cell migration. We hypothesized that XB130 mediates NNK-induced migration of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results showed that, after NNK stimulation, XB130 was translocated to the cell periphery and enriched in cell motility-associated structures, such as lamellipodia, in normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B cells. Moreover, overexpression of XB130 significantly enhanced NNK-induced migration, which requires both the N- and C-termini of XB130. Overexpression of XB130 enhanced NNK-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and promoted matrix metalloproteinase-14 translocation to cell motility-associated cellular structures after NNK stimulation. XB130-mediated NNK-induced cell migration may contribute to airway epithelial repair; however, it may also be involved in cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  6. [Electrophysiology and calcium signalling in human bronchial smooth muscle].

    PubMed

    Marthan, R; Hyvelin, J M; Roux, E; Savineau, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recently, cells isolated from airways have been used to characterize precisely the electrophysiological properties of this smooth muscle and to describe the changes in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) occurring upon agonist stimulation. Although most studies have produced consistent results in terms of types of ion channel and pathways of calcium signalling implicated in the mechanical activity of airways, there are differences according to (i) the site along the bronchial tree (trachea vs. bronchi); (ii) the proliferating status of the cells (freshly isolated vs. cultured) and (iii) the species (human vs. animals). With regard to the electrophysiological properties of airway smooth muscle, the contribution to [Ca2+]i rise of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels depends on the balance between depolarization related to non-specific cation channel and/or chloride channel activation and hyperpolarization related to activation of a variety of potassium channels. Most of the above-mentioned channels appear to be controlled, directly or indirectly, by agonists in human bronchial smooth muscle. With regard to calcium signalling, the pattern of agonist-induced [Ca2+]i responses, the so-called [Ca2+]i oscillations, has been observed recently in freshly isolated airway smooth muscle cells. The role and the calcium sources involved in these oscillations in human bronchial smooth muscle are currently being investigated.

  7. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study , we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA – mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. PMID:26780400

  8. A study on human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in paediatric bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mahendra N; Dudeja, Puja; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-04-01

    Childhood asthma, often associated with atopy, is more common in boys and may persist throughout life in 50% of cases. This case-control study was carried out to examine if any association of paediatric bronchial asthma with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens. Thirty-six children with bronchial asthma diagnosed on basis of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria and an equal number of healthy controls without history of bronchial asthma were studied. Low resolution HLA- ABC typing was performed by sequence specific primers (SSP) and the frequency of HLA-ABC antigens in the two groups was compared. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) estimation was done as a marker of atopy by ELISA. The study included 24 boys and 12 girls aged 13 months to 11 yrs, of which 16 (44%) had positive family history. Serum IgE levels were elevated in 20 (55%) of the cases and 33% of controls with peak values of 4877 and 627 IU/ml, respectively. No statistically significant correlation was observed between childhood asthma and HLA class I antigens, however, a statistically significant correlation was observed between serum IgE levels and asthma, which was elevated in cases, as compared to normal population. Serum IgE levels did not show a linear trend, in that a direct correlation with the severity of disease was not observed.

  9. Barrier responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to grass pollen exposure.

    PubMed

    Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dudley, Sarah; Monk, Phillip; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Davies, Donna E

    2013-07-01

    The airway epithelium forms a physical, chemical and immunological barrier against inhaled environmental substances. In asthma, these barrier properties are thought to be abnormal. In this study, we analysed the effect of grass pollen on the physical and immunological barrier properties of differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells. Following exposure to Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen extract, the integrity of the physical barrier was not impaired as monitored by measuring the transepithelial resistance and immunofluorescence staining of tight junction proteins. In contrast, pollen exposure affected the immunological barrier properties by modulating vectorial mediator release. CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)8/interleukin (IL)-8 showed the greatest increase in response to pollen exposure with preferential release to the apical compartment. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively blocked apical CXCL8/IL-8 release via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Apical release of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20/macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, CCL22/monocyte-derived chemokine and tumour necrosis factor-α was significantly increased only in severe asthma cultures, while CCL11/eotaxin-1 and CXCL10/interferon-γ-induced protein-10 were reduced in nonasthmatic cultures. The bronchial epithelial barrier modulates polarised release of mediators in response to pollen without direct effects on its physical barrier properties. The differential response of cells from normal and asthmatic donors suggests the potential for the bronchial epithelium to promote immune dysfunction in asthma.

  10. Cytotoxicity of folpet fungicide on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Canal-Raffin, Mireille; l'Azou, Béatrice; Jorly, Joana; Hurtier, Annabelle; Cambar, Jean; Brochard, Patrick

    2008-07-30

    Folpet, a widely used dicarboximide fungicide, has been detected in the ambient air of several vine-growing regions of France. It is present in particle form in the environment; however, no study exploring its potential health impact on airways and the respiratory system has been published. Here, the biological effect of these particles was investigated in vitro on human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). To be close to the real-life conditions of exposure, Folpan 80WG, a commercial form of folpet, was tested. Folpan 80WG particles showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on 16HBE14o- cells. This effect was compared to that produced by technical-grade folpet and both were found to induce a toxicity with similar IC(50) values after 24h of exposure. After 4h and at least until 48h of exposure, the IC(50) values of Folpan 80WG particles were between 2.4 and 2.8 microg/cm(2). Investigation of the cytotoxicity found that Folpan 80WG particles at 1.85 microg/cm(2) induced an increase in ROS production from the first hour of exposure. Evidence that oxidative processes occur in folpet-exposed cells was confirmed by the presence of membrane lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis were both present after the first hour of exposure. These findings indicate that exposure to Folpan 80WG particles result in a rapid cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro that could be in part explained by oxidative stress, characterised by membrane lipid peroxidation and ROS production.

  11. Multipotent Capacity of Immortalized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Oliver; Kaisani, Aadil A.; Spinola, Monica; Xie, Xian-Jin; Batten, Kimberly G.; Minna, John D.; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2011-01-01

    While the adult murine lung utilizes multiple compartmentally restricted progenitor cells during homeostasis and repair, much less is known about the progenitor cells from the human lung. Translating the murine stem cell model to humans is hindered by anatomical differences between species. Here we show that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) display characteristics of multipotent stem cells of the lung. These HBECs express markers indicative of several epithelial types of the adult lung when experimentally tested in cell culture. When cultured in three different three-dimensional (3D) systems, subtle changes in the microenvironment result in unique responses including the ability of HBECs to differentiate into multiple central and peripheral lung cell types. These new findings indicate that the adult human lung contains a multipotent progenitor cell whose differentiation potential is primarily dictated by the microenvironment. The HBEC system is not only important in understanding mechanisms for specific cell lineage differentiation, but also for examining changes that correlate with human lung diseases including lung cancer. PMID:21760947

  12. HSP60 activity on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgi, Claudia; Vallese, Davide; Gnemmi, Isabella; Bucchieri, Fabio; Balbi, Bruno; Brun, Paola; Leone, Angelo; Giordano, Andrea; Conway de Macario, Everly; Macario, Alberto Jl; Cappello, Francesco; Di Stefano, Antonino

    2017-10-01

    HSP60 has been implicated in chronic inflammatory disease pathogenesis, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the mechanisms by which this chaperonin would act are poorly understood. A number of studies suggest a role for extracellular HSP60, since it can be secreted from cells and bind Toll-like receptors; however, the effects of this stimulation have never been extensively studied. We investigated the effects (pro- or anti-inflammatory) of HSP60 in human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) alone and in comparison with oxidative, inflammatory, or bacterial challenges. 16-HBE cells were cultured for 1-4 h in the absence or presence of HSP60, H2O2, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or cytomix. The cell response was evaluated by measuring the expression of IL-8 and IL-10, respectively, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines involved in COPD pathogenesis, as well as of pertinent TLR-4 pathway mediators. Stimulation with HSP60 up-regulated IL-8 at mRNA and protein levels and down-regulated IL-10 mRNA and protein. Likewise, CREB1 mRNA was up-regulated. H2O2 and LPS up-regulated IL-8. Experiments with an inhibitor for p38 showed that this mitogen-activated protein kinase could be involved in the HSP60-mediated pro-inflammatory effects. HSP60 showed pro-inflammatory properties in bronchial epithelial cells mediated by activation of TLR-4-related molecules. The results should prompt further studies on more complex ex-vivo or in-vivo models with the aim to elucidate further the role of those molecules in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  13. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Paena, Massimilano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten’s ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA seq. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data shows the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. PMID:26164860

  14. Effects of ouabain on human bronchial muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cortijo, Julio; Sarria, Benjamín; Mata, Manuel; Naline, Emmanuel; Advenier, Charles; Morcillo, Esteban J

    2003-11-01

    The effects of ouabain, an inhibitor of the plasmalemmal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, were examined in human isolated bronchus. Ouabain produced concentration-dependent contraction with -logEC(50)=7.16+/-0.11 and maximal effect of 67+/-4% of the response to acetylcholine (1 mM). Ouabain (10 microM)-induced contraction was epithelium-independent and was not depressed by inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, antagonists of muscarinic, histamine H(1)-receptors and alpha-adrenoceptors, or neuronal Na(+) channel blockade. The inhibition of ouabain contraction in tissues bathed in K(+)-free medium, and the inhibition by ouabain of the K(+)-induced relaxation confirm that the contractile action of ouabain is mediated by inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, depolarization (16.4+/-0.9 mV) was observed in human isolated bronchus by intracellular microelectrode recording. Ouabain (10 microM)-induced contractions were abolished by a Ca(2+)-free solution but not by blockers of L-type Ca(2+) channels. In human cultured bronchial smooth muscle cells, ouabain (10 microM) produced a sustained increase in [Ca(2+)](i) (116+/-26 nM) abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium. Incubation with a Na(+)-free medium or amiloride (0.1 mM) markedly inhibited the spasmogenic effect of ouabain thus suggesting the role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange in ouabain contraction while selective inhibitors of Na(+)/H(+)-antiport, Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-)-antiport, or protein kinase C had no effect. Ouabain (10 microM) failed to increase inositol phosphate accumulation in human bronchus. Ouabain (10 microM) did not alter bronchial responsiveness to acetylcholine or histamine but inhibited the relaxant effects of isoprenaline, forskolin, levcromakalim, or sodium nitroprusside. These results indicate that ouabain acts directly to produce contraction of human airway smooth muscle that depends on extracellular Ca(2+) entry unrelated to L-type channels and involving the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-antiporter.

  15. High-resolution computed tomography bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter ratio in anesthetized ventilated cats with normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lauren E; Dillon, A Ray; Hathcock, John T; Brown, Lawrence A; Tillson, Michael; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) is the preferred noninvasive tool for diagnosing bronchiectasis in people. A criterion for evaluating dilation of the bronchus is the bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (bronchoarterial ratio [BA ratio]). A ratio of > 1.0 in humans or > 2.0 in dogs has been suggested as a threshold for identifying bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to establish the BA ratio in normal cats. Fourteen specific pathogen-free cats were selected for analysis of thoracic CT images. The BA ratios of the lobar bronchi of the left cranial (cranial and caudal parts), right cranial, right middle, left caudal, and right caudal lung lobes were measured. The mean of the mean BA ratio of all lung lobes was 0.71 +/- 0.05. Individual BA ratios ranged from 0.5 to 1.11. Comparing individual lobes for each cat, there was no significant difference (P = 0.145) in mean BA ratio between lung lobes. A mean BA ratio for these normal cats was 0.71 +/- 0.1, which suggests an upper cut-off normal value > 0.91 (mean +/- 2 standard deviations) between normal and abnormal cats.

  16. Enhanced Gadd45 expression and delayed G2/M progression are p53 dependent in zinc-supplemented human bronchial epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans; however, this study demonstrated for the first time that an elevated zinc status, created by culturing cells at optimal plasma zinc concentration attainable by oral zinc supplementation, is cytotoxic for normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. p53 p...

  17. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  18. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-02-01

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a

  19. Differentiation of human bronchial epithelial cells: role of hydrocortisone in development of ion transport pathways involved in mucociliary clearance.

    PubMed

    Zaidman, Nathan A; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; O'Grady, Scott M

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoids strongly influence the mucosal-defense functions performed by the bronchial epithelium, and inhaled corticosteroids are critical in the treatment of patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. A common pathology associated with these diseases is reduced mucociliary clearance, a defense mechanism involving the coordinated transport of salt, water, and mucus by the bronchial epithelium, ultimately leading to retention of pathogens and particles in the airways and to further disease progression. In the present study we investigated the role of hydrocortisone (HC) in differentiation and development of the ion transport phenotype of normal human bronchial epithelial cells under air-liquid interface conditions. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells differentiated in the absence of HC (HC0) showed significantly less benzamil-sensitive short-circuit current than controls, as well as a reduced response after stimulation with the selective β2-adrenergic receptor agonist salbutamol. Apical membrane localization of epithelial Na(+) channel α-subunits was similarly reduced in HC0 cells compared with controls, supporting a role of HC in the trafficking and density of Na(+) channels in the plasma membrane. Additionally, glucocorticoid exposure during differentiation regulated the transcription of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and β2-adrenergic receptor mRNAs and appeared to be necessary for the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent anion secretion in response to β2-agonists. HC had no significant effect on surface cell differentiation but did modulate the expression of mucin mRNAs. These findings indicate that glucocorticoids support mucosal defense by regulating critical transport pathways essential for effective mucociliary clearance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Deformable image registration of heterogeneous human lung incorporating the bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Velec, Mike; Hunter, Shannon; Brock, Kristy

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effect of the bronchial tree on the accuracy of biomechanical-based deformable image registration of human lungs. Three dimensional finite element models have been developed using four dimensional computed tomography image data of ten lung cancer patients. Each model is built of a body, left and right lungs, tumor, and bronchial trees. Triangular shell elements are used for the bronchial trees while tetrahedral elements are used for other components. Hyperelastic material properties based on experimental investigation on human lungs are used for the lung parenchyma. Different material properties are assigned for the bronchial tree using five values for the modulus of elasticity of 0.01, 0.12, 0.5, 10, and 18 MPa. Lungs are modeled to slide inside chest cavities by applying frictionless contact surfaces between each lung and corresponding chest cavity. The accuracy of the models is examined using an average of 40 bronchial bifurcation points identified on inhale and exhale images. Relative accuracy is evaluated by comparing the displacement of all nodes within the lungs as well as the dosimetric difference at the exhale position predicted by the model. There is no significant effect of bronchial tree on the model accuracy based on the bifurcation points analysis. However, on the local level, using an average of 38 000 nodes, there is a maximum difference of 8.5 mm in the deformation of the bronchial trees, as the modulus of elasticity of the bronchial trees increases from 0.01 to 18 MPa; however, more than 96% of nodes are within a 2.5 mm difference in each direction. The average dose difference at the predicted exhale position is less than 35 cGy between the models. The bronchial tree has little effect on the global deformation and the accuracy of deformable image registration of lungs. Hence, the homogenous model is a reasonable assumption. Since there are some local deformation differences between nodes as the material properties of the

  1. Deformable image registration of heterogeneous human lung incorporating the bronchial tree

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Velec, Mike; Hunter, Shannon; Brock, Kristy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the bronchial tree on the accuracy of biomechanical-based deformable image registration of human lungs. Methods: Three dimensional finite element models have been developed using four dimensional computed tomography image data of ten lung cancer patients. Each model is built of a body, left and right lungs, tumor, and bronchial trees. Triangular shell elements are used for the bronchial trees while tetrahedral elements are used for other components. Hyperelastic material properties based on experimental investigation on human lungs are used for the lung parenchyma. Different material properties are assigned for the bronchial tree using five values for the modulus of elasticity of 0.01, 0.12, 0.5, 10, and 18 MPa. Lungs are modeled to slide inside chest cavities by applying frictionless contact surfaces between each lung and corresponding chest cavity. The accuracy of the models is examined using an average of 40 bronchial bifurcation points identified on inhale and exhale images. Relative accuracy is evaluated by comparing the displacement of all nodes within the lungs as well as the dosimetric difference at the exhale position predicted by the model. Results: There is no significant effect of bronchial tree on the model accuracy based on the bifurcation points analysis. However, on the local level, using an average of 38 000 nodes, there is a maximum difference of 8.5 mm in the deformation of the bronchial trees, as the modulus of elasticity of the bronchial trees increases from 0.01 to 18 MPa; however, more than 96% of nodes are within a 2.5 mm difference in each direction. The average dose difference at the predicted exhale position is less than 35 cGy between the models. Conclusions: The bronchial tree has little effect on the global deformation and the accuracy of deformable image registration of lungs. Hence, the homogenous model is a reasonable assumption. Since there are some local deformation differences between nodes

  2. Deformable image registration of heterogeneous human lung incorporating the bronchial tree

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Velec, Mike; Hunter, Shannon; Brock, Kristy

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the bronchial tree on the accuracy of biomechanical-based deformable image registration of human lungs. Methods: Three dimensional finite element models have been developed using four dimensional computed tomography image data of ten lung cancer patients. Each model is built of a body, left and right lungs, tumor, and bronchial trees. Triangular shell elements are used for the bronchial trees while tetrahedral elements are used for other components. Hyperelastic material properties based on experimental investigation on human lungs are used for the lung parenchyma. Different material properties are assigned for the bronchial tree using five values for the modulus of elasticity of 0.01, 0.12, 0.5, 10, and 18 MPa. Lungs are modeled to slide inside chest cavities by applying frictionless contact surfaces between each lung and corresponding chest cavity. The accuracy of the models is examined using an average of 40 bronchial bifurcation points identified on inhale and exhale images. Relative accuracy is evaluated by comparing the displacement of all nodes within the lungs as well as the dosimetric difference at the exhale position predicted by the model. Results: There is no significant effect of bronchial tree on the model accuracy based on the bifurcation points analysis. However, on the local level, using an average of 38 000 nodes, there is a maximum difference of 8.5 mm in the deformation of the bronchial trees, as the modulus of elasticity of the bronchial trees increases from 0.01 to 18 MPa; however, more than 96% of nodes are within a 2.5 mm difference in each direction. The average dose difference at the predicted exhale position is less than 35 cGy between the models. Conclusions: The bronchial tree has little effect on the global deformation and the accuracy of deformable image registration of lungs. Hence, the homogenous model is a reasonable assumption. Since there are some local deformation differences between nodes

  3. A differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cell culture model for studying human adenovirus tropism and virulence.

    PubMed

    Lam, E; Ramke, M; Groos, S; Warnecke, G; Heim, A

    2011-12-01

    The species specificity of human adenoviruses (HAdV) almost precludes studying virulence and tropism in animal models, e.g. rodent models, or derived tissue and cell culture models. However, replication of HAdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) has been shown after intravenous injection in swine. In order to study adenovirus replication in airway tissue propagation of bronchial epithelial cells from porcine lungs was established. These primary cells proved to be fully permissive for HAdV-C5 infection in submerged culture, demonstrating efficient HAdV genome replication, infectious viral particle release (1.07×10(8) TCID(50)/ml±6.63×10(7)) and development of cytopathic effect (CPE). Differentiation of porcine bronchial epithelial cells was achieved at the air-liquid interface on collagen I coated 0.4μm polyester membranes. Morphology, expression of tubulin and occludin, the development of tight-junctions and cilia were similar to human bronchial epithelial cells. Infection with HAdV-C5 from the basolateral side resulted in release of infectious virus progeny (2.05×10(7) TCID(50)/ml±2.39×10(7)) to the apical surface as described recently in human bronchial epithelial cells, although complete CPE was not observed. Differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cells hold promise as a novel method for studying the virulence and pathophysiology of pneumonia associated HAdV types.

  4. Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Cook Stove Emissions on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; Volckens, John

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half the world’s population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many ‘improved’ stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 hours following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional, three stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. PMID:22672519

  5. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  6. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  7. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  8. Immortalization of human bronchial epithelial cells in the absence of viral oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ruben D; Sheridan, Shelley; Girard, Luc; Sato, Mitsuo; Kim, Young; Pollack, Jon; Peyton, Michael; Zou, Ying; Kurie, Jonathan M; Dimaio, J Michael; Milchgrub, Sara; Smith, Alice L; Souza, Rhonda F; Gilbey, Laura; Zhang, Xi; Gandia, Kenia; Vaughan, Melville B; Wright, Woodring E; Gazdar, Adi F; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D

    2004-12-15

    By expressing two genes (hTERT and Cdk4), we have developed a method to reproducibly generate continuously replicating human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) lines that provide a novel resource to study the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and the differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells. Twelve human bronchial epithelial biopsy specimens obtained from persons with and without lung cancer were placed into short-term culture and serially transfected with retroviral constructs containing cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), resulting in continuously growing cultures. The order of introduction of Cdk4 and hTERT did not appear to be important; however, transfection of either gene alone did not result in immortalization. Although they could be cloned, the immortalized bronchial cells did not form colonies in soft agar or tumors in nude mice. The immortalized HBECs have epithelial morphology; express epithelial markers cytokeratins 7, 14, 17, and 19, the stem cell marker p63, and high levels of p16(INK4a); and have an intact p53 checkpoint pathway. Cytogenetic analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization profiling show immortalized HBECs to have duplication of parts of chromosomes 5 and 20. Microarray gene expression profiling demonstrates that the Cdk4/hTERT-immortalized bronchial cell lines clustered together and with nonimmortalized bronchial cells, distinct from lung cancer cell lines. We also immortalized several parental cultures with viral oncoproteins human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 with and without hTERT, and these cells exhibited loss of the p53 checkpoint and significantly different gene expression profiles compared with Cdk4/hTERT-immortalized HBECs. These HBEC lines are a valuable new tool for studying of the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  9. The Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Thioredoxin Reductase and Peroxiredoxins in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Judith M.; Myers, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environments. The bronchial epithelium is directly exposed to inhaled Cr(VI). Cr(VI) species gain easy access inside cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr species which may also contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The thioredoxin (Trx) system promotes cell survival and has a major role in maintaining intracellular thiol redox balance. Previous studies with normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that chromates cause dose- and time-dependent oxidation of Trx1 and Trx2. The Trxs keep many intracellular proteins reduced including the peroxiredoxins (Prx). Prx1 (cytosolic) and Prx3 (mitochondrial) were oxidized by Cr(VI) treatments that oxidized all, or nearly all, of the respective Trxs. Prx oxidation is therefore likely the result of a lack of reducing equivalents from Trx. Trx reductases (TrxR) maintain the Trxs largely in the reduced state. Cr(VI) caused pronounced inhibition of TrxR, but the levels of TrxR protein remained unchanged. The inhibition of TrxR was not reversed by removal of residual Cr(VI) or by NADPH, the endogenous electron donor for TrxR. In contrast, the oxidation of Trx1, Trx2, and Prx3 were reversible by disulfide reductants. Prolonged inhibition of TrxR in Cr(VI)-treated cells might contribute to the sustained oxidation of Trxs and Prxs. Reduced Trx binds to an N-terminal domain of apoptosis signaling kinase (ASK1), keeping ASK1 inactive. Cr(VI) treatments that significantly oxidized Trx1 resulted in pronounced dissociation of Trx1 from ASK1. Overall, the effects of Cr(VI) on the redox state and function of the Trxs, Prxs, and TrxR in the bronchial epithelium could have important implications for redox-sensitive cell signaling and tolerance to oxidant insults. PMID:19703554

  10. Parasympathetic Stimuli on Bronchial and Cardiovascular Systems in Humans.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Emanuela; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Di Toro, Alessandro; Antonelli, Andrea; Dellacà, Raffaele L; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    It is not known whether parasympathetic outflow simultaneously acts on bronchial tone and cardiovascular system waxing and waning both systems in parallel, or, alternatively, whether the regulation is more dependent on local factors and therefore independent on each system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effect of different kinds of stimulations, all associated with parasympathetic activation, on bronchomotor tone and cardiovascular autonomic regulation. Respiratory system resistance (Rrs, forced oscillation technique) and cardio-vascular activity (heart rate, oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, blood pressure) were assessed in 13 volunteers at baseline and during a series of parasympathetic stimuli: O2 inhalation, stimulation of the carotid sinus baroreceptors by neck suction, slow breathing, and inhalation of methacholine. Pure cholinergic stimuli, like O2 inhalation and baroreceptors stimulation, caused an increase in Rrs and a reduction in heart rate and blood pressure. Slow breathing led to bradycardia and hypotension, without significant changes in Rrs. However slow breathing was associated with deep inhalations, and Rrs evaluated at the baseline lung volumes was significantly increased, suggesting that the large tidal volumes reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. Finally inhaled methacholine caused marked airway narrowing, while the cardiovascular variables were unaffected, presumably because of the sympathetic activity triggered in response to hypoxemia. All parasympathetic stimuli affected bronchial tone and moderately affected also the cardiovascular system. However the response differed depending on the nature of the stimulus. Slow breathing was associated with large tidal volumes that reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation.

  11. The species translation challenge-a systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to 'translate' the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies.

  12. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Asbestos-Induced Activation of Signaling Pathways in Human
    Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    X. Wang, MD 1, J. M. Samet, PhD 2 and A. J. Ghio, MD 2. 1 Center for
    Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North
    Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Uni...

  13. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Asbestos-Induced Activation of Signaling Pathways in Human
    Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    X. Wang, MD 1, J. M. Samet, PhD 2 and A. J. Ghio, MD 2. 1 Center for
    Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North
    Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Uni...

  14. Identification and functional characterization of breast cancer resistance protein in human bronchial epithelial cells (Calu-3)

    PubMed Central

    Paturi, Durga Kalyani; Kwatra, Deep; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), a 72 kDa protein belongs to the subfamily G of the human ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Overexpression of BCRP was found to play a major role in the development of resistance against various chemotherapeutic agents. BCRP plays an important role in absorption, distribution and elimination of several therapeutic agents. BCRP expression and functional activity across human bronchial epithelium and its impact on pulmonary drug accumulation has not been established. The objective of this study is to identify and characterize the BCRP efflux transporter across human bronchial epithelium. Calu-3, a human bronchial epithelial cell line was employed as a model for this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunocytochemical studies were performed to identify and characterize the expression of BCRP. RT-PCR studies detected ABCG2 mRNA levels in Calu-3 cells. A strong band for BCRP with a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa was observed in Western blot analysis. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the presence of BCRP on the apical membrane of human bronchial epithelium. Functional activity of BCRP was determined by performing uptake of radioactive substrate [3H]-mitoxantrone in the presence and absence of BCRP inhibitors. Uptake of [3H]-mitoxantrone was elevated significantly in the presence of GF120918 and fumitremorgin C. An increase in the accumulation of Hoechst 33342, a fluorescent dye was also detected in the presence of BCRP inhibitors when compared to control. In summary, this study provides evidence for the presence of an ATP dependent, membrane bound efflux transporter BCRP across human bronchial epithelial cell line, Calu-3. PMID:19782742

  15. A lung cancer risk classifier comprising genome maintenance genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jiyoun; Crawford, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaolu; Khuder, Sadik; Chen, Tian; Levin, Albert; Blomquist, Thomas M; Willey, James C

    2017-05-02

    Annual low dose CT (LDCT) screening of individuals at high demographic risk reduces lung cancer mortality by more than 20%. However, subjects selected for screening based on demographic criteria typically have less than a 10% lifetime risk for lung cancer. Thus, there is need for a biomarker that better stratifies subjects for LDCT screening. Toward this goal, we previously reported a lung cancer risk test (LCRT) biomarker comprising 14 genome-maintenance (GM) pathway genes measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) that accurately classified cancer (CA) from non-cancer (NC) subjects. The primary goal of the studies reported here was to optimize the LCRT biomarker for high specificity and ease of clinical implementation. Targeted competitive multiplex PCR amplicon libraries were prepared for next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of transcript abundance at 68 sites among 33 GM target genes in NBEC specimens collected from a retrospective cohort of 120 subjects, including 61 CA cases and 59 NC controls. Genes were selected for analysis based on contribution to the previously reported LCRT biomarker and/or prior evidence for association with lung cancer risk. Linear discriminant analysis was used to identify the most accurate classifier suitable to stratify subjects for screening. After cross-validation, a model comprising expression values from 12 genes (CDKN1A, E2F1, ERCC1, ERCC4, ERCC5, GPX1, GSTP1, KEAP1, RB1, TP53, TP63, and XRCC1) and demographic factors age, gender, and pack-years smoking, had Receiver Operator Characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99). The overall classification accuracy was 93% (95% CI 88%-98%) with sensitivity 93.1%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 93.1% and negative predictive value 93%. The ROC AUC for this classifier was significantly better (p < 0.0001) than the best model comprising demographic features alone. The LCRT biomarker reported here displayed high accuracy and ease

  16. Human bronchial epithelial cells differentiate to 3D glandular acini on basement membrane matrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R; Bose, Sumit; Peña, Maria T; Rose, Mary C

    2011-06-01

    To create a model system that investigates mechanisms resulting in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of respiratory tract submucosal glands, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) system wherein normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells differentiated into glandular acini when grown on a basement membrane matrix. The differentiation of primary HBE cells into glandular acini was monitored temporally by light microscopy. Apoptosis-induced lumen formation was observed by immunofluorescence analysis. The acinar cells expressed and secreted MUC5B mucin (marker for glandular mucous cells) and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (markers for glandular serous cells) at Day 22. β-Tubulin IV, a marker for ciliated cells, was not detected. Expression of mucous and serous cell markers in HBE glandular acini demonstrated that HBE cells grown on a basement membrane matrix differentiated into acini that exhibit molecular characteristics of respiratory tract glandular acinar cells. Inhibition studies with neutralizing antibodies resulted in a marked decrease in size of the spheroids at Day 7, demonstrating that laminin (a major component of the basement membrane matrix), the cell surface receptor integrin α6, and the cell junction marker E-cadherin have functional roles in HBE acinar morphogenesis. No significant variability was detected in the average size of glandular acini formed by HBE cells from two normal individuals. These results demonstrated that this in vitro model system is reproducible, stable, and potentially useful for studies of glandular differentiation and hyperplasia.

  17. Parasympathetic Stimuli on Bronchial and Cardiovascular Systems in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zannin, Emanuela; Pellegrino, Riccardo; Di Toro, Alessandro; Antonelli, Andrea; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Bernardi, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background It is not known whether parasympathetic outflow simultaneously acts on bronchial tone and cardiovascular system waxing and waning both systems in parallel, or, alternatively, whether the regulation is more dependent on local factors and therefore independent on each system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effect of different kinds of stimulations, all associated with parasympathetic activation, on bronchomotor tone and cardiovascular autonomic regulation. Methods Respiratory system resistance (Rrs, forced oscillation technique) and cardio-vascular activity (heart rate, oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, blood pressure) were assessed in 13 volunteers at baseline and during a series of parasympathetic stimuli: O2 inhalation, stimulation of the carotid sinus baroreceptors by neck suction, slow breathing, and inhalation of methacholine. Results Pure cholinergic stimuli, like O2 inhalation and baroreceptors stimulation, caused an increase in Rrs and a reduction in heart rate and blood pressure. Slow breathing led to bradycardia and hypotension, without significant changes in Rrs. However slow breathing was associated with deep inhalations, and Rrs evaluated at the baseline lung volumes was significantly increased, suggesting that the large tidal volumes reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. Finally inhaled methacholine caused marked airway narrowing, while the cardiovascular variables were unaffected, presumably because of the sympathetic activity triggered in response to hypoxemia. Conclusions All parasympathetic stimuli affected bronchial tone and moderately affected also the cardiovascular system. However the response differed depending on the nature of the stimulus. Slow breathing was associated with large tidal volumes that reversed the airways narrowing effect of parasympathetic activation. PMID:26046774

  18. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  19. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael T.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposure to space radiation is believed to be one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. In a previous study, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT, were exposed to gamma rays and high energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones induced by low- and high-LET radiation. In this research, we analyzed chromosome aberrations in these selected clones for genomic instability using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. In most of the clones, we found chromosomal aberrations involving translocations between different chromosomes, with several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed clones and the parental HBEC cells regardless of the exposure condition. Our results indicated that the chromosomal aberrations in low- and high radiation-induced transformed clones are inadequately different from spontaneous soft agar growth. Further analysis is underway to reveal the genomic instability in more transformed clones

  20. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  1. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  2. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Ansó, Elena; Martínez-Irujo, Juan José; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 muM triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  3. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  4. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell-Derived Factors from Severe Asthmatic Subjects Stimulate Eosinophil Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brittany M A; Smith, Steven G; Mukherjee, Manali; Plante, Sophie; Krisna, Sakktee; Nusca, Graeme; Oliveria, John Paul; Irshad, Anam; Gauvreau, Gail M; Chakir, Jamila; Nair, Parameswaran; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-08-30

    Activated bronchial epithelial cells release alarmins, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) that drive type 2 inflammatory responses. We hypothesize that bronchial epithelial-derived factors enhance in situ eosinophil differentiation and maturation from myeloid precursors, a process that is driven by an IL-5 rich micro-environment within asthma airways. To assess the eosinophilopoietic potential of epithelial-derived factors, eosinophil/basophil colony forming units (Eo/B-CFU) were enumerated in 14-day methylcellulose cultures of blood-derived mononuclear cells (NAMNCs) incubated with bronchial epithelial cell supernatants (BECSN) from healthy non-atopic controls (NC; n = 8), mild atopic asthmatics (MA; n = 9) and severe asthmatics (SA; n = 5). Receptor blocking antibodies were used to evaluate the contribution of alarmins. Modulation of mRNA expression of transcription factors crucial for eosinophil differentiation was evaluated. BECSN stimulated the clonogenic expansion of eosinophil progenitors, in vitro. In the presence of IL-5, Eo/B-CFU growth was significantly greater in co-cultures of BESCN from SA, compared to MA and NC. This effect was attenuated by a TSLP receptor blocking antibody but not by an ST2 antibody. Recombinant human TSLP (optimal at 100 pg/ml) stimulated significant Eo/B-CFU growth, which was significantly enhanced in presence of IL-5 (1 ng/ml). Overnight culture of CD34+ cells with IL-5 and TSLP synergistically increased GATA-2 and CEBP-alpha mRNA expression. The eosinophilopoietic potential of factors derived from bronchial epithelial cells is increased in severe asthma. Our data suggest that TSLP is a key alarmin produced by bronchial epithelial cells, which promotes in situ eosinophilopoiesis in a type 2 rich microenvironment.

  5. [Subcellular distribution and genotoxicity of silica nanoparticles in human bronchial epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangqiang; Huang, Yunchao; Li, Guangjian; Li, Sen; Zhou, Yongchun; Lei, Yujie; Chen, Xiaobo; Yang, Kaiyun; Chen, Ying; Yang, Kun

    2013-03-01

    Silicon nanoparticles are widely used in daily life. Therefore, they attract increased attention because of their potential biotoxicity to the lungs when inhaled. The aims of this study are to explore the organism distribution and genotoxicity of silica nanoparticles in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The biodistribution of silica with different particle sizes in human bronchial epithelial cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DNA damage was detected by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). TEM revealed that SiO₂ nanoparticles with different sizes can be uptaken by cells and be localized in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Compared with micro-silica, nano-silica in BEAS-2B cells can inflict more severe DNA damage (P<0.05). The particle size of silica nanoparticles can be used to determine their distribution in biological cells. Compared with micro-silica, nano-silica has higher genotoxicity.

  6. Tachyphylaxis to beta-adrenoceptor agonists in human bronchial smooth muscle: studies in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C; Conolly, M E

    1980-01-01

    In studies on human isolated peripheral airway smooth muscle; 1 A concentration dependent beta-adrenoceptor tachyphylaxis was observed to isoprenaline. 2 Cross desensitization to other beta-adrenoceptor agonists was demonstrated. 3 The desensitization was reversible with time. Hydrocortisone appeared to accelerate the recovery from the desensitized state. Low concentration isoprenaline (10(-9) mol l-1) prevented recovery whereas cyclohexamide 1.8 x 10(-4) mol l-1 had no noticeable effect on recovery. Continued occupancy of the receptor appears to prevent recovery. The recovery from the desensitized state does not apparently require synthesis of new proteins. 4 Bronchial wall cyclic AMP response to isoprenaline was attenuated after isoprenaline induced desensitization whereas total phosphodiesterase activity of bronchial wall was not altered by desensitization. Thus by exclusion the adenylate cyclase receptor complex may be altered in human peripheral airway smooth muscle beta-adrenoceptor tachyphylaxis. PMID:6108126

  7. The Effects of Acrolein on Peroxiredoxins, Thioredoxins, and Thioredoxin Reductase in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Charles R.; Myers, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation is a common form of exposure to acrolein, a toxic reactive volatile aldehyde that is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Bronchial epithelial cells would be directly exposed to inhaled acrolein. The thioredoxin (Trx) system is essential for the maintenance of cellular thiol redox balance, and is critical for cell survival. Normally, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) maintains the cytosolic (Trx1) and mitochondrial (Trx2) thioredoxins in the reduced state, and the thioredoxins keep the peroxiredoxins (Prx) reduced, thereby supporting their peroxidase function. The effects of acrolein on TrxR, Trx and Prx in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells were determined. A 30-min exposure to 5 μM acrolein oxidized both Trx1 and Trx2, although significant effects were noted for Trx1 at even lower acrolein concentrations. The effects on Trx1 and Trx2 could not be reversed by treatment with disulfide reductants. TrxR activity was inhibited 60% and >85% by 2.5 and 5 μM acrolein, respectively. The endogenous electron donor for TrxR, NADPH, could not restore its activity, and activity did not recover in cells during a 4-hr acrolein-free period in complete medium. The effects of acrolein on TrxR and Trx therefore extend beyond the duration of exposure. While there was a strong correlation between TrxR inhibition and Trx1 oxidation, the irreversible effects on Trx1 suggest direct effects of acrolein rather than loss of reducing equivalents from TrxR. Trx2 did not become oxidized until ≥90% of TrxR was inhibited, but irreversible effects on Trx2 also suggest direct effects of acrolein. Prx1 (cytosolic) and Prx3 (mitochondrial) shifted to a largely oxidized state only when >90 and 100% of their respective Trxs were oxidized. Prx oxidation was readily reversed with a disulfide reductant, suggesting that Prx oxidation resulted from lack of reducing equivalents from Trx and not direct reaction with acrolein. The effects of acrolein on the thioredoxin system and

  8. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Catallo, W J; Kennedy, C H; Henk, W; Barker, S A; Grace, S C; Penn, A

    2001-09-01

    Adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, especially small respirable particles and their associated adsorbed chemicals, are of growing concern to health professionals, governmental agencies, and the general public. Areas rich in petrochemical processing facilities (e.g., eastern Texas and southern California) chronically have poor air quality. Atmospheric releases of products of incomplete combustion (e.g., soot) from these facilities are not subject to rigorous regulatory enforcement. Although soot can include respirable particles and carcinogens, the toxicologic and epidemiologic consequences of exposure to environmentally relevant complex soots have not been well investigated. Here we continue our physico-chemical analysis of butadiene soot and report effects of exposure to this soot on putative targets, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We examined organic extracts of butadiene soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), probe distillation MS, and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. Hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular mass as high as 1,000 atomic mass units were detected, including known and suspected human carcinogens (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). Butadiene soot particles also had strong, solid-state free-radical character in electron spin resonance analysis. Spin-trapping studies indicated that fresh butadiene soot in a buffered aqueous solution containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) oxidized the DMSO, leading to CH(3)* radical formation. Butadiene soot DMSO extract (BSDE)-exposed NHBE cells displayed extranuclear fluorescence within 4 hr of exposure. BSDE was cytotoxic to > 20% of the cells at 72 hr. Morphologic alterations, including cell swelling and membrane blebbing, were apparent within 24 hr of exposure. These alterations are characteristic of oncosis, an ischemia-induced form of cell death. BSDE treatment also produced significant genotoxicity, as indicated by binucleated cell

  9. Sirtuin 3 Protects against Urban Particulate Matter-Induced Autophagy in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chieh; Huang, Hsin-Hsiu; Chen, Pei-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2016-07-01

    Urban particulate matter (urban PM) is a heterogeneous mixture of various types of particles originating from different sources. Exposure to high concentrations of urban PM leading to adverse health effects is evaluated by using in vitro cultures of human lung epithelial cells. However, the mechanism underlying the correlation between high concentrations of urban PM exposure and adverse health effects has not been fully elucidated; urban PM-induced oxidative stress is considered as an important mechanism of urban PM-mediated cytotoxicity. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a primary mitrochondrial deacetylase, controls cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and expression of antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of urban PM-induced oxidative stress in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpiCs). Cell viability showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease when exposed to urban PM, which could indicate that the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released from the cell in response to urban PM is related to cell viability in HBEpiC. The effects of urban PM on morphological and biochemical markers of autophagy in HBEpiC were analyzed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Overexpression of SIRT3 inhibited urban PM-induced ROS generation, while concomitantly increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and decreasing NF-κB activation and release of inflammation factors. Up-regulation of SIRT3 significantly inhibited the expression of autophagy markers and autophagic vacuole formation. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the potential role of the SIRT3 enzyme in regulating urban PM-induced autophagy by mediating urban PM-induced oxidative stress, which may contribute to urban PM-induced impairment of airway epithelial cell function.

  10. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Catallo, W J; Kennedy, C H; Henk, W; Barker, S A; Grace, S C; Penn, A

    2001-01-01

    Adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, especially small respirable particles and their associated adsorbed chemicals, are of growing concern to health professionals, governmental agencies, and the general public. Areas rich in petrochemical processing facilities (e.g., eastern Texas and southern California) chronically have poor air quality. Atmospheric releases of products of incomplete combustion (e.g., soot) from these facilities are not subject to rigorous regulatory enforcement. Although soot can include respirable particles and carcinogens, the toxicologic and epidemiologic consequences of exposure to environmentally relevant complex soots have not been well investigated. Here we continue our physico-chemical analysis of butadiene soot and report effects of exposure to this soot on putative targets, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We examined organic extracts of butadiene soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), probe distillation MS, and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. Hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular mass as high as 1,000 atomic mass units were detected, including known and suspected human carcinogens (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). Butadiene soot particles also had strong, solid-state free-radical character in electron spin resonance analysis. Spin-trapping studies indicated that fresh butadiene soot in a buffered aqueous solution containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) oxidized the DMSO, leading to CH(3)* radical formation. Butadiene soot DMSO extract (BSDE)-exposed NHBE cells displayed extranuclear fluorescence within 4 hr of exposure. BSDE was cytotoxic to > 20% of the cells at 72 hr. Morphologic alterations, including cell swelling and membrane blebbing, were apparent within 24 hr of exposure. These alterations are characteristic of oncosis, an ischemia-induced form of cell death. BSDE treatment also produced significant genotoxicity, as indicated by binucleated cell

  11. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a novel human tracheo-bronchial mucin cDNA containing tandemly repeated sequences of 48 base pairs.

    PubMed

    Porchet, N; Nguyen, V C; Dufosse, J; Audie, J P; Guyonnet-Duperat, V; Gross, M S; Denis, C; Degand, P; Bernheim, A; Aubert, J P

    1991-03-15

    A lambda gt11 cDNA library constructed from human tracheo-bronchial mucosa was screened with a polyclonal antiserum raised to chemically deglycosylated pronase glycopeptides from human bronchial mucins. Out of 20 positives clones, one partial cDNA clone was isolated and allowed to map a novel human tracheo-bronchial mucin gene. It contains 48 nucleotide tandem repeats quite perfectly identical which encodes a protein containing about 50% of hydroxy amino-acids. This clone hybridized to polydisperse messages produced by human tracheo-bronchial and human colonic mucosae. The gene (proposed name MUC 4) from which cDNA is derived maps to chromosome 3.

  12. Influence of bronchial allergen challenge on histamine release by human basophils.

    PubMed

    Lie, W J; Van Der Veen, M J; Knol, E F; Mul, F P; Jansen, H M; Roos, D; Van Der Zee, J S

    2000-06-01

    Basophils can be primed by cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -3, IL-5 or granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). It has been described that the concentrations of these cytokines are enhanced at sites of allergic inflammation as well as systemic in allergic asthma. To investigate the priming status of basophils as detected by thapsigargin-induced histamine release during bronchial allergen challenge. Ten subjects allergic to house dust mite were challenged via an aerosol delivery system. Spontaneous leucocyte histamine release as well as histamine release induced by various stimuli was measured in vitro at several time points. In addition, lung function parameters, serum IL-5 and blood eosinophil counts were evaluated. We found no effect of bronchial allergen challenge upon spontaneous leucocyte histamine release, nor upon histamine release induced by anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) E, house dust mite extract, C5a, fMLP, IL-3, PMA+ thapsigargin or IL-3+ thapsigargin. However, the priming status of basophils as measured by thapsigargin-induced histamine release was enhanced at 24 h after bronchial allergen challenge. Analysis of the individual data showed a heterogeneous initial response (30 min, 6 h) followed by a predominant increase at 24 h after allergen challenge. This increase in the thapsigargin-induced histamine release correlated with the increase in serum IL-5 levels at 24 h after allergen challenge. The priming status of human basophils as measured by thapsigargin-induced histamine release is enhanced 24 h after allergen challenge.

  13. Pro-inflammatory responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to acute nitrogen dioxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2004-04-15

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental oxidant, known to be associated with lung epithelial injury. In the present study, cellular pro-inflammatory responses following exposure to a brief high concentration of NO2 (45 ppm) were assessed, using normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as an in vitro model of inhalation injury. Generation and release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), IL-8, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta were assessed at different time intervals following NO2 exposure. Effects of a pre-existing inflammatory condition was tested by treating the NHBE cells with different inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, either alone or in combination, before exposing them to NO2. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed oxidant-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine in the NO2-exposed cells. A marked increase in the levels of nitrite (as an index of NO) and IL-8 were observed in the NO2-exposed cells, which were further enhanced in the presence of the cytokines. Effects of various NO inhibitors combined, with immunofluorescence and Western blotting data, indicated partial contribution of the nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) toward the observed increase in nitrite levels. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha generation was observed in the NO2-exposed cells. Although NO2 exposure alone did induce slight cytotoxicity (<12%), but presence of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma resulted in an increased cell death (28-36%). These results suggest a synergistic role of inflammatory mediators, particularly of NO and IL-8, in NO2-mediated early cellular changes. Our results also demonstrate an increased sensitivity of the cytokine-treated NHBE cells toward NO2, which may have significant functional implications in vivo.

  14. IL-17A Induces Pendrin Expression and Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchange in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kelly M.; Abraham, Valsamma; Spielman, Daniel; Kolls, Jay K.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Conner, Gregory E.; Cohen, Noam A.; Kreindler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4) as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease. PMID:25141009

  15. Development of Combining of Human Bronchial Mucosa Models with XposeALI® for Exposure of Air Pollution Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jie; Hedelin, Anna; Malmlöf, Maria; Kessler, Vadim; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Gerde, Per; Palmberg, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to agents via inhalation is of great concerns both in workplace environment and in the daily contact with particles in the ambient air. Reliable human airway exposure systems will most likely replace animal experiment in future toxicity assessment studies of inhaled agents. Methods In this study, we successfully established a combination of an exposure system (XposeALI) with 3D models mimicking both healthy and chronic bronchitis-like mucosa by co-culturing human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) and fibroblast at air-liquid interface (ALI). Light-, confocal microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and RT-PCR were performed to identify how the PBEC differentiated under ALI culture condition. Both models were exposed to palladium (Pd) nanoparticles which sized 6–10 nm, analogous to those released from modern car catalysts, at three different concentrations utilizing the XposeALI module of the PreciseInhale® exposure system. Results Exposing the 3D models to Pd nanoparticles induced increased secretion of IL-8, yet the chronic bronchitis-like model released significantly more IL-8 than the normal model. The levels of IL-8 in basal medium (BM) and apical lavage medium (AM) were in the same ranges, but the secretion of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the AM compared to the BM. Conclusion This combination of relevant human bronchial mucosa models and sophisticated exposure system can mimic in vivo conditions and serve as a useful alternative animal testing tool when studying adverse effects in humans exposed to aerosols, air pollutants or particles in an occupational setting. PMID:28107509

  16. Activation properties of chemically skinned fibres from human isolated bronchial smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Savineau, J P; Marthan, R

    1994-01-01

    1. The contractile activation properties of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle were investigated using chemically (beta-escin) skinned strips. 2. Concentration-dependent contractions were induced by free ion concentrations of Ca2+ (0.5-3 microM), Sr2+ (2-200 microM) and Ba2+ (50-1000 microM). The resulting -log[cation]-tension relationships were fitted by sigmoidal curves with EC50 values (cation concentration required to produce half-maximal tension) and co-operativity factors (Hill coefficient, nH) of, respectively, 0.25 microM and 3.4 for Ca2+, 12 microM and 2.64 for Sr2+ and 100 microM and 1.73 for Ba2+. Maximal responses to Sr2+ and Ba2+ were 125.5 +/- 15.4 and 96 +/- 8.1% (n = 5) respectively of the maximum tension induced by Ca2+. 3. Trifluoperazine (5-100 microM), cyclic AMP (50-300 microM) and cyclic GMP (50-100 microM) each antagonized Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, okadaic acid (OA, 0.2-1 microM) potentiated Ca2+ and increased the maximum response to Ca2+ (+25 +/- 5.4%, n = 5, for 1 microM OA). 4. This study has demonstrated the high Ca2+ sensitivity of the activation mechanism of human isolated bronchial smooth muscle. It also suggests that control of the contractile machinery in the human bronchus involves processes of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The beta-escin-treated human bronchus may be a useful model for investigating the cellular basis of some pathophysiological processes such as bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:8014904

  17. Alteration of transcriptional profile in human bronchial epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying-Chun; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Niu, Li-Jing; Pan, Xiu-Jie; Wu, De-Chang; Sun, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Ping-Kun; Zhu, Mao-Xiang; Huo, Yan-Ying

    2009-10-08

    Despite the significance of cigarette smoke for carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that lead to increased susceptibility of human cancers are not well-understood. In our present study, the oncogenic transforming effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) were examined using papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). Growth kinetics, saturation density, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice were used to investigate the various stages of transformation in BEP2D cells. Illumina microarray platforms were used to explore the CSC-induced alteration of global mRNA expression profiles of the earlier period and the advanced stage of CSC-treated BEP2D cells. We showed here that a series of sequential steps arose among CSC-treated immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, including altered growth kinetics, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, and anchorage-independence growth. In the earlier period of CSC treatment, 265 genes were down-regulated and 63 genes were up-regulated, respectively, and in the advanced stage of CSC treatment, 313 genes were down-regulated and 145 genes were up-regulated, respectively. Notably, among those genes, the expression of some of imprinted genes such as IGF2, NDN, H19 and MEG3 were all silenced or down-regulated in CSC-treated cells. These genes reactivated after 5 microM 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with CSC may adversely affect their genetic and epigenetic integrity and lead to further transformation.

  18. Bronchial thermoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cox, Gerard

    2010-03-01

    Asthma, by definition is a variable disease. When there is more than normal natural variation in airflow, asthma can be provoked by a wide range of stimuli that include infectious, allergic, and environmental agents. Bronchoconstriction determines much of the short-term variability in airflow that characterizes asthma. Current treatments do not redress the excess smooth muscle mass that is present in the remodeled airway in chronic asthma. Thus, it is intriguing to consider the potential contribution of bronchial thermoplasty (a procedure that involves controlled heat treatment to reduce the mass of the airway smooth muscle) as an effective therapy for poorly controlled asthma.

  19. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  20. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  1. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Annina; Haarmann, Helge; Zahradnik, Sabrina; Frenzel, Katrin; Schreiber, Frauke; Klassert, Tilman E; Heyl, Kerstin A; Endres, Anne-Sophie; Schmidtke, Michaela; Hofmann, Jörg; Slevogt, Hortense

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complicated by infectious exacerbations with acute worsening of respiratory symptoms. Coinfections of bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with more severe exacerbations. Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the most frequent lower respiratory tract pathogens detected in COPD. We therefore studied the impact of M. catarrhalis on the antiviral innate immune response that is mediated via TLR3 and p53. Molecular interactions between M. catarrhalis and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as well as Beas-2B cells were studied using flow cytometry, quantitative PCR analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and ELISA. M. catarrhalis induces a significant down-regulation of TLR3 in human bronchial epithelial cells. In M. catarrhalis-infected cells, expression of p53 was decreased. We detected a reduced binding of p53 to the tlr3 promoter, resulting in reduced TLR3 gene transcription. M. catarrhalis diminished the TLR3-dependent secretion of IFN-β, IFN-λ, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. In addition in M. catarrhalis infected cells, expression of rhinovirus type 1A RNA was increased compared with uninfected cells. M. catarrhalis reduces antiviral defense functions of bronchial epithelial cells, which may increase susceptibility to viral infections.-Heinrich, A., Haarmann, H., Zahradnik, S., Frenzel, K., Schreiber, F., Klassert, T. E., Heyl, K. A., Endres, A.-S., Schmidtke, M., Hofmann, J., Slevogt, H. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  2. Avian Influenza Viruses Infect Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Unconstrained by Sialic Acid α2,3 Residues

    PubMed Central

    Oshansky, Christine M.; Pickens, Jennifer A.; Bradley, Konrad C.; Jones, Les P.; Saavedra-Ebner, Geraldine M.; Barber, James P.; Crabtree, Jackelyn M.; Steinhauer, David A.; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are an important emerging threat to public health. It is thought that sialic acid (sia) receptors are barriers in cross-species transmission where the binding preferences of AIV and human influenza viruses are sias α2,3 versus α2,6, respectively. In this study, we show that a normal fully differentiated, primary human bronchial epithelial cell model is readily infected by low pathogenic H5N1, H5N2 and H5N3 AIV, which primarily bind to sia α2,3 moieties, and replicate in these cells independent of specific sias on the cell surface. NHBE cells treated with neuraminidase prior to infection are infected by AIV despite removal of sia α2,3 moieties. Following AIV infection, higher levels of IP-10 and RANTES are secreted compared to human influenza virus infection, indicating differential chemokine expression patterns, a feature that may contribute to differences in disease pathogenesis between avian and human influenza virus infections in humans. PMID:21731666

  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of FHIT expression in normal human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Al-Shawaf, Ahmad Zahi

    2016-01-01

    Background Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) is a tumor suppressor gene that is commonly inactivated in human tumors. Interestingly, the normal pattern of FHIT expression is largely unknown. Aim This study is aimed to characterize the expression of FHIT protein in normal human tissues. Materials and methods A total of 119 normal human tissue specimens were analyzed for the FHIT expression using immunohistochemistry technique. The inclusion criteria included: normal/inflammatory tissue with no evidence of cellular atypia. Results All studied specimens were stained positively with FHIT and showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic expression. Interestingly, the pattern of FHIT staining was similar among different specimens from each organ. FHIT is located predominantly in the nucleus, although cytoplasmic staining is also present in some cell types. Oral squamous epithelium, breast ductal epithelium, squamous and tubal metaplastic epithelium of the uterine cervix, esophageal squamous epithelium, salivary glands, and bronchial epithelia all strongly expressed the nuclear protein. In connective tissue, FHIT has shown strong cytoplasmic expression in histocytes including macrophages and dendritic cells, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts. Conclusion Documentation of the pattern of FHIT expression in normal tissues will contribute to our understanding of the normal function of this protein and to interpretation of potentially altered FHIT expression in human tumors. PMID:28250975

  4. Novel flow cytometry approach to identify bronchial epithelial cells from healthy human airways

    PubMed Central

    Maestre-Batlle, Danay; Pena, Olga M.; Hirota, Jeremy A.; Gunawan, Evelyn; Rider, Christopher F.; Sutherland, Darren; Alexis, Neil E.; Carlsten, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Sampling various compartments within the lower airways to examine human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) is essential for understanding numerous lung diseases. Conventional methods to identify HBEC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wash (BW) have throughput limitations in terms of efficiency and ensuring adequate cell numbers for quantification. Flow cytometry can provide high-throughput quantification of cell number and function in BAL and BW samples, while requiring low cell numbers. To date, a flow cytometric method to identify HBEC recovered from lower human airway samples is unavailable. In this study we present a flow cytometric method identifying HBEC as CD45 negative, EpCAM/pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK) double-positive population after excluding debris, doublets and dead cells from the analysis. For validation, the HBEC panel was applied to primary HBEC resulting in 98.6% of live cells. In healthy volunteers, HBEC recovered from BAL (2.3% of live cells), BW (32.5%) and bronchial brushing samples (88.9%) correlated significantly (p = 0.0001) with the manual microscopy counts with an overall Pearson correlation of 0.96 across the three sample types. We therefore have developed, validated, and applied a flow cytometric method that will be useful to interrogate the role of the respiratory epithelium in multiple lung diseases. PMID:28165060

  5. Molecular Impact of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Exposure in Human Bronchial Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Moses, Elizabeth; Wang, Teresa; Corbett, Sean; Jackson, George R; Drizik, Eduard; Perdomo, Catalina; Perdomo, Claudia; Kleerup, Eric; Brooks, Daniel; O'Connor, George; Dubinett, Steven; Hayden, Patrick; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the physiological effects of exposure to electronic cigarette (ECIG) aerosol. We sought to determine the molecular impact of ECIG aerosol exposure in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Gene-expression profiling was conducted in primary grown at air liquid interface and exposed to 1 of 4 different ECIG aerosols, traditional tobacco cigarette (TCIG) smoke, or clean air. Findings were validated experimentally with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a reactive oxygen species immunoassay. Using gene set enrichment analysis, signatures of in vitro ECIG exposure were compared with those generated from bronchial epithelial brushings of current TCIG smokers and former TCIG smokers currently using ECIGs. We found 546 genes differentially expressed across the ECIG, TCIG, and air-exposed groups of HBECs (ANOVA; FDR q < .05; fold change > 1.5). A subset of these changes were shared between TCIG- and ECIG-exposed HBECs. ECIG exposure induced genes involved in oxidative and xenobiotic stress pathways and increased a marker of reactive oxygen species production in a dose-dependent manner. ECIG exposure decreased expression of genes involved in cilia assembly and movement. Furthermore, gene-expression differences observed in vitro were concordant with differences observed in airway epithelium collected from ECIG users (q < .01). In summary, our data suggest that ECIG aerosol can induce gene-expression changes in bronchial airway epithelium in vitro, some of which are shared with TCIG smoke. These changes were generally less pronounced than the effects of TCIG exposure and were more pronounced in ECIG products containing nicotine than those without nicotine. Our data further suggest that the gene-expression alterations seen with the in vitro exposure system reflects the physiological effects experienced in vivo by ECIG users.

  6. Evaluation of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture Systems for Asthma Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ceri E.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Mohd Jamili, Nur H.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Sayers, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC) and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1) bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI-) differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+) and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+) cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin) and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions. PMID:22287976

  7. Molecular alterations in tumorigenic human bronchial and breast epithelial cells induced by high let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Zhao, Y. L.; Roy, D.; Piao, C. Q.; Calaf, G.; Hall, E. J.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequence of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) and breast (MCF-10F) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 150 keV/μm alpha particles or 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Cell fusion studies indicated that radiation-induced tumorigenic phenotype in BEP2D cells could be completely suppressed by fusion with non-tumorigenic BEP2D cells. The differential expressions of known genes between tumorigenic bronchial and breast cells induced by alpha particles and their respective control cultures were compared using cDNA expression array. Among the 11 genes identified to be differentially expressed in BEP2D cells, three ( DCC, DNA-PK and p21 CIPI) were shown to be consistently down-regulated by 2 to 4 fold in all the 5 tumor cell lines examined. In contrast, their expressions in the fusion cell lines were comparable to control BEP2D cells. Similarly, expression levels of a series of genes were found to be altered in a step-wise manner among tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. The results are highly suggestive that functional alterations of these genes may be causally related to the carcinogenic process.

  8. DISRUPTION OF NORMAL IRON HOMEOSTASIS AFTER BRONCHIAL INSTILLATION OF AN IRON-CONTAINING PARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    The atmosphere constitutes a prime vehicle for the movement and redistribution of metals. Metal exposure can be associated with an oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that, in response to an iron-containing particle, the human respiratory tract will demonstrate an incr...

  9. DISRUPTION OF NORMAL IRON HOMEOSTASIS AFTER BRONCHIAL INSTILLATION OF AN IRON-CONTAINING PARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    The atmosphere constitutes a prime vehicle for the movement and redistribution of metals. Metal exposure can be associated with an oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that, in response to an iron-containing particle, the human respiratory tract will demonstrate an incr...

  10. Cadmium Increases HIF-1 and VEGF Expression through ROS, ERK, and AKT Signaling Pathways and Induces Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yi; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Zhu, Yingxue; Guo, Nancy Lan; Barnett, John; Rojanasakul, Yon; Agani, Faton; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is categorized as a human carcinogen especially involved in lung cancers. Angiogenesis is considered a fundamental requirement for tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms underlying the tumor angiogenesis induced by cadmium are poorly understood. Using in vitro and in vivo models, we investigated the angiogenic mechanisms of cadmium in human bronchial epithelial cells and tumor formation. Our results demonstrated that cadmium (CdCl2) activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and AKT signaling and elevated the expression of a key downstream proangiogenic molecule hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in immortalized human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Cadmium also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, catalase and diphenyleneiodonium chloride. Inhibition of ROS generation also attenuated ERK, AKT, p70S6K1 activation, and HIF-1α expression. Similar results were obtained in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, showing that cadmium induced HIF-1 expression via ROS/ERK/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, cadmium induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression and transcriptional activation through ROS, ERK, and AKT pathways. Finally, cadmium transformed human bronchial epithelial cells in culture; the transformed cells induced tube formation in vitro, angiogenesis on chicken chorioallantoic membrane, and formed tumors in nude mice. Taken together, the results of this study provide explanation for the role and molecular mechanisms of cadmium in promoting angiogenesis in lung epithelial cells and malignant transformation and will be helpful for improved occupational protection, prevention, as well as chemotherapy of human lung cancers caused by heavy metal cadmium. PMID:21984483

  11. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  12. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  13. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  14. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  15. Normalization in human somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Arnedo, Vanessa; Offen, Shani; Heeger, David J; Grant, Arthur C

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activity in human somatosensory cortex and to test for cross-digit suppression. Subjects received stimulation (vibration of varying amplitudes) to the right thumb (target) with or without concurrent stimulation of the right middle finger (mask). Subjects were less sensitive to target stimulation (psychophysical detection thresholds were higher) when target and mask digits were stimulated concurrently compared with when the target was stimulated in isolation. fMRI voxels in a region of the left postcentral gyrus each responded when either digit was stimulated. A regression model (called a forward model) was used to separate the fMRI measurements from these voxels into two hypothetical channels, each of which responded selectively to only one of the two digits. For the channel tuned to the target digit, responses in the left postcentral gyrus increased with target stimulus amplitude but were suppressed by concurrent stimulation to the mask digit, evident as a shift in the gain of the response functions. For the channel tuned to the mask digit, a constant baseline response was evoked for all target amplitudes when the mask was absent and responses decreased with increasing target amplitude when the mask was concurrently presented. A computational model based on divisive normalization provided a good fit to the measurements for both mask-absent and target + mask stimulation. We conclude that the normalization model can explain cross-digit suppression in human somatosensory cortex, supporting the hypothesis that normalization is a canonical neural computation.

  16. Role of mesothelin in carbon nanotube-induced carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoqing; Despeaux, Emily; Stueckle, Todd A.; Chi, Alexander; Castranova, Vincent; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Wang, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been likened to asbestos in terms of morphology and toxicity. CNT exposure can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and promotion of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying CNT-induced carcinogenesis are not well defined. Mesothelin (MSLN) is overexpressed in many human tumors, including mesotheliomas and pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas. In this study, the role of MSLN in the carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells chronically exposed to single-walled CNT (BSW) was investigated. MSLN overexpression was found in human lung tumors, lung cancer cell lines, and BSW cells. The functional role of MSLN in the BSW cells was then investigated by using stably transfected MSLN knockdown (BSW shMSLN) cells. MSLN knockdown resulted in significantly decreased invasion, migration, colonies on soft agar, and tumor sphere formation. In vivo, BSW shMSLN cells formed smaller primary tumors and less metastases. The mechanism by which MSLN contributes to these more aggressive behaviors was investigated by using ingenuity pathway analysis, which predicted that increased MSLN could induce cyclin E expression. We found that BSW shMSLN cells had decreased cyclin E, and their proliferation rate was reverted to nearly that of untransformed cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that the BSW shMSLN cells had an increased G2 population and a decreased S phase population, which is consistent with the decreased rate of proliferation. Together, our results indicate a novel role of MSLN in the malignant transformation of bronchial epithelial cells following CNT exposure, suggesting its utility as a potential biomarker and drug target for CNT-induced malignancies. PMID:27422997

  17. Neutrophil and asbestos fiber-induced cytotoxicity in cultured human mesothelial and bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kinnula, V L; Raivio, K O; Linnainmaa, K; Ekman, A; Klockars, M

    1995-03-01

    This study investigates reactive oxygen species generation and oxidant-related cytotoxicity induced by amosite asbestos fibers and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) in human mesothelial cells and human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Transformed human pleural mesothelial cells (MET 5A) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS 2B) were treated with amosite (2 micrograms/cm2) for 48 h. After 24 h of incubation, the cells were exposed for 1 h to nonactivated or amosite (50 micrograms) activated PMNs, washed, and incubated for another 23 h. Reactive oxygen species generation by the PMNs and the target cells was measured by chemiluminescence. Cell injury was assessed by cellular adenine nucleotide depletion, extracellular release of nucleotides, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Amosite-activated (but also to a lesser degree nonactivated) PMNs released substantial amounts of reactive oxygen metabolites, whereas the chemiluminescence of amosite-exposed mesothelial cells and epithelial cells did not differ from the background. Amosite treatment (48 h) of the target cells did not change intracellular adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) or nucleotide catabolite products (xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid). When the target cells were exposed to nonactivated PMNs, significant adenine nucleotide depletion and nucleotide catabolite accumulation was observed in mesothelial cells only. In separate experiments, when the target cells were exposed to amosite-activated PMNs, the target cell injury was further potentiated compared with the amosite treatment alone or exposure to nonactivated PMNs. In conclusion, this study suggests the importance of inflammatory cell-derived free radicals in the development of amosite-induced mesothelial cell injury.

  18. Benzo(alpha)pyrene metabolism and DNA-binding in cultured explants of human bronchus and in monolayer cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells treated with ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Teel, R W; Stoner, G D; Babcock, M S; Dixit, R; Kim, K

    1986-01-01

    Ellagic acid, a plant phenolic compound present in certain foods eaten by humans, has been reported to possess antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. To evaluate the potential anticarcinogenic effect of ellagic acid in humans, we investigated the effect of nontoxic concentrations of ellagic acid on the metabolism of benzo(alpha)pyrene and binding of benzo(alpha)pyrene metabolites to DNA in cultured explants of human bronchus and in human bronchial epithelial cell cultures. Ellagic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, or 50 microM did not significantly alter the metabolism of benzo(alpha)pyrene in the bronchial explant cultures and in only one of four bronchial cell cultures. However, binding of metabolites of benzo(alpha)pyrene to DNA was inhibited in all explant and cell cultures of human bronchus by 26 to 77%. These results support the work of other investigators and suggest that ellagic acid may be an inhibitor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced carcinogenesis in humans.

  19. Role of Lynx1 and related Ly6 proteins as modulators of cholinergic signaling in normal and neoplastic bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiao Wen; Song, Ping Fang; Spindel, Eliot R

    2015-11-01

    The ly-6 proteins are a large family of proteins that resemble the snake three finger alpha toxins such as α-bungarotoxin and are defined by their multiple cysteine residues. Multiple members of the ly-6 protein family can modulate nicotinic signaling including lynx1, lynx2, slurp-1, slurp-2 and prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). Consistent with the expression of multiple nicotinic receptors in bronchial epithelium, multiple members of the nicotinic-modulatory ly-6 proteins are expressed in lung including lynx1 and lynx2. We studied the role of lynx1 as an exemplar of the role of ly-6 proteins in lung. Our data demonstrates that lynx1 acts as a negative modulator of nicotinic signaling in normal and neoplastic lung. In normal lung lynx1 serves to limit the ability of chronic nicotine exposure to increase levels of nicotinic receptors and also serves to limit the ability of nicotine to upregulate levels of GABAA receptors in lung. In turn this allows lynx1 to limit the ability of nicotine to upregulate levels of mucin which is mediated by GABAergic signaling. This suggests that lynx1-mimetics may have potential for treatment of asthma and COPD. In that most lung cancer cells also express nicotinic receptor and lynx1 we examined the role of lynx-1 in lung cancer. Lynx1 levels are decreased in lung cancers compared to adjacent normal lung. Knockdown of lynx1 by siRNAs increased growth of lung cancer cells while expression of lynx1 in lung cancer cell decreased cell proliferation. This suggests that lynx1 is an endogenous regulator of lung cancer growth. Given that multiple small molecule negative and positive allosteric modulators of nicotinic receptors have already been developed, this suggests that lynx1 is a highly druggable target both for development of drugs that may limit lung cancer growth as well as for drugs that may be effective for asthma or COPD treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effect of dexamethasone on voltage-gated Na+ channel in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshiaki; Jo, Taisuke; Meguro, Kentaro; Oonuma, Hitoshi; Ma, Ji; Kubota, Nami; Imuta, Hiroyuki; Takano, Haruhito; Iida, Haruko; Nagase, Takahide; Nagata, Taiji

    2008-06-06

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channel (I(Na)) encoded by SCN9A mRNA is expressed in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone on I(Na), by using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques, reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Acute application of dexamethasone (10(-6) M) did not affect I(Na). However, the percentage of the cells with I(Na) was significantly less in cells pretreated with dexamethasone for 48 h, and the current-density of I(Na) adjusted by cell capacitance in cells with I(Na) was also decreased in cells treated with dexamethasone. RT-PCR analysis showed that alpha and beta subunits mRNA of I(Na) mainly consisted of SCN9A and SCN1beta, respectively. Treatment with dexamethasone for 24-48 h inhibited the expression of SCN9A mRNA. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone was concentration-dependent, and was observed at a concentration higher than 0.1 nM. The effect of dexamethasone on SCN9A mRNA was not blocked by spironolactone, but inhibited by mifepristone. The inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on SCN9A mRNA could not be explained by the changes of the stabilization of mRNA measured by using actinomycin D. These results suggest that dexamethasone inhibited I(Na) encoded by SCN9A mRNA in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the transcription via the glucocorticoid receptor.

  1. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC{sub 50} of MWCNT was 12 {mu}g/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 {mu}g/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 {mu}g/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-{kappa}B or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-{kappa}B was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-{kappa}B, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  2. Comparative decellularization and recellularization of normal versus emphysematous human lungs.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Darcy E; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Parsons, Charles S; Sokocevic, Dino; Brooks, Elice M; Borg, Zachary D; Lathrop, Melissa J; Wallis, John D; Daly, Amanda B; Lam, Ying Wai; Deng, Bin; DeSarno, Michael J; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Loi, Roberto; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    Acellular whole human lung scaffolds represent a unique opportunity for ex vivo tissue engineering. However, it remains unclear whether lungs from individuals with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be appropriately decellularized and recellularized. To assess this, cadaveric human lungs from normal (non-smoking) patients and from patients with COPD (smoking history) were decellularized and found by histochemical and immunohistochemical staining, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry to retain characteristic histological architecture and extracellular matrix components (ECM) reflecting either normal or COPD, particularly emphysematous, origin. Inoculation of human bronchial epithelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and lung fibroblasts via airway or vascular routes into small, excised segments of the decellularized lungs demonstrated that normal lung scaffolds robustly supported initial engraftment and growth of each cell type for up to one month. In contrast, despite initial binding, all cell types inoculated into decellularized emphysematous lungs did not survive beyond one week. However, cell attachment and proliferation on solubilized ECM homogenates of decellularized normal and emphysematous lungs coated onto tissue culture plates was comparable and not impaired, suggesting that the 3-dimensional decellularized emphysematous scaffolds may lack the necessary ECM architecture to support sustained cell growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Decellularization and Recellularization of Normal versus Emphysematous Human Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Darcy. E.; Bonenfant, Nicholas. R.; Parsons, Charles; Sokocevic, Dino; Brooks, Elice. M.; Borg, Zachary. D.; Lathrop, Melissa. J.; Wallis, John. D.; Daly, Amanda. B.; Lam, Ying Wai; Deng, Bin; DeSarno, Michael. J.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Loi, Roberto; Weiss, Daniel. J.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular whole human lung scaffolds represent a unique opportunity for ex vivo tissue engineering. However, it remains unclear whether lungs from individuals with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be appropriately decellularized and recellularized. To assess this, cadaveric human lungs from normal (non-smoking) patients and from patients with COPD (smoking history) were decellularized and found by histochemical and immunohistochemical staining, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry to retain characteristic histological architecture and extracellular matrix components (ECM) reflecting either normal or COPD, particularly emphysematous, origin. Inoculation of human bronchial epithelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and lung fibroblasts via airway or vascular routes into small, excised segments of the decellularized lungs demonstrated that normal lung scaffolds robustly supported initial engraftment and growth of each cell type for up to one month. In contrast, despite initial binding, all cell types inoculated into decellularized emphysematous lungs did not survive beyond one week. However, cell attachment and proliferation on solubilized ECM homogenates of decellularized normal and emphysematous lungs coated onto tissue culture plates was comparable and not impaired, suggesting that the 3-dimensional decellularized emphysematous scaffolds may lack the necessary ECM architecture to support sustained cell growth. PMID:24461327

  4. Familial Sotos syndrome caused by a novel missense mutation, C2175S, in NSD1 and associated with normal intelligence, insulin dependent diabetes, bronchial asthma, and lipedema.

    PubMed

    Zechner, Ulrich; Kohlschmidt, Nicolai; Kempf, Olga; Gebauer, Konstanze; Haug, Karsten; Engels, Hartmut; Haaf, Thomas; Bartsch, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    We report a familial Sotos syndrome in two children, boy and girl, aged 17 and 8 years, and in their 44 year old mother, who displayed normal intelligence at adult age, but suffered from insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, and severe lipedema. The underlying missense mutation, C2175S, occurred in a conserved segment of the NSD1 gene. Our findings confirm that familial cases of SS are more likely to carry missense mutations. This case report may prove useful to avoid underestimation of the recurrence rate of SS, and to demonstrate that the developmental delay may normalize, enabling an independent life and having an own family.

  5. Calcium dependent and independent cytokine synthesis by air pollution particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Shizu; Gosselink, John; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hogg, James C.; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particles with a diameter of < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) exposed to PM{sub 10} produce pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to a local and systemic inflammatory response. Changes in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) have been demonstrated to regulate several functions of the airway epithelium including the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and mechanism of calcium responses induced by PM{sub 10} in HBECs and its relationship to cytokine synthesis. Methods: Primary HBECs were exposed to urban air pollution particles (EHC-93) and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} responses were measured using the fluoroprobe (Fura-2). Cytokine levels were measured at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: PM{sub 10} increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a dose-dependent manner. This calcium response was reduced by blocking the influx of calcium into cells (i.e. calcium-free medium, NiCl{sub 2}, LaCl{sub 3}). PM{sub 10} also decreased the activity of calcium pumps. PM{sub 10} increased the production of IL-1{beta}, IL-8, GM-CSF and LIF. Preincubation with intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) attenuated IL-1{beta} and IL-8 production, but not GM-CSF and LIF production. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to PM{sub 10} induces an increase in cytosolic calcium and cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that PM{sub 10} induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via either intracellular calcium-dependent (IL-1{beta}, IL-8) or -independent (GM-CSF, LIF) pathways.

  6. Correspondence regarding "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome"

    PubMed Central

    Zuyderduyn, Scott D

    2009-01-01

    Background In the work of Chari et al. entitled "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome" the authors use SAGE to identify candidate gene expression changes in bronchial brushings from never, former, and current smokers. These gene expression changes are categorized into those that are reversible or irreversible upon smoking cessation. A subset of these identified genes is validated on an independent cohort using RT-PCR. The authors conclude that their results support the notion of gene expression changes in the lungs of smokers which persist even after an individual has quit. Results This correspondence raises questions about the validity of the approach used by the authors to analyze their data. The majority of the reported results suffer deficiencies due to the methods used. The most fundamental of these are explained in detail: biases introduced during data processing, lack of correction for multiple testing, and an incorrect use of clustering for gene discovery. A randomly generated "null" dataset is used to show the consequences of these shortcomings. Conclusion Most of Chari et al.'s findings are consistent with what would be expected by chance alone. Although there is clear evidence of reversible changes in gene expression, the majority of those identified appear to be false positives. However, contrary to the authors' claims, no irreversible changes were identified. There is a broad consensus that genetic change due to smoking persists once an individual has quit smoking; unfortunately, this study lacks sufficient scientific rigour to support or refute this hypothesis or identify any specific candidate genes. The pitfalls of large-scale analysis, as exemplified here, may not be unique to Chari et al. PMID:19224643

  7. Human isolated bronchial smooth muscle contains functional ryanodine/caffeine-sensitive Ca-release channels.

    PubMed

    Hyvelin, J M; Martin, C; Roux, E; Marthan, R; Savineau, J P

    2000-08-01

    Human bronchial smooth muscle (HBSM) contraction is implicated in a variety of respiratory diseases, including asthma. Yet, the presence of an operative calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) mechanism, identified in various smooth muscles, has not been established in HBSM. We therefore studied Ca-releasing mechanisms in HBSM obtained at thoracotomy with special attention to ryanodine-sensitive receptor channels (RyRs). In freshly isolated bronchial myocytes, ryanodine (0.5 to 50 microM) and caffeine (1 to 25 mM) induced transient increases in the cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Higher ryanodine concentrations (> 100 microM) inhibited the caffeine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) response, which was also blocked in the presence of tetracaine (300 microM) or ruthenium red (200 microM), two potent CICR inhibitors. In HBSM strips, caffeine induced a transient contraction which, likewise, was inhibited by ryanodine and tetracaine. However, ryanodine (200 microM) modified neither the [Ca(2+)](i) response nor the contraction induced by K(+)-rich (110 mM) solution. Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNase protection assay performed in HBSM have revealed the existence of mRNAs encoding only the type 3 RyR. We also characterized acetylcholine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) and contractile responses. None of these responses was altered by ryanodine or by tetracaine. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of functional RyRs in HBSM cells which, owing to the type of isoform or the amount of protein expressed, are not involved, under physiologic conditions, in depolarization- or agonist-induced contraction.

  8. In vitro cadmium effects on ECM gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Tiziano; Lilli, Cinzia; Bellucci, Catia; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Fallarino, Francesca; Falabella, Giulia; Arato, Iva; Calvitti, Mario; Marinucci, Lorella; Muzi, Giacomo; Dell'Omo, Marco; Gambelunghe, Angela; Bodo, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and its inhalation from cigarette smoke are associated with emphysema. Many growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) cell signaling molecules are directly involved in the epithelial bronchial cell pathway. This study investigated the direct effects of Cd on the production of several ECM components in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) that were exposed in vitro for 48 h to sub-toxic and toxic concentrations of Cd. Gene expression of collagens, metalloproteases (MMPs), integrins, tenascin and vitronectin were quantified by RT-PCR. To study apoptosis cascade, annexin assay and cellular cytotoxicity by MTT assay were performed. We also investigated whether an imbalance in the TGFβ/TGFβ receptor (TGFβR) expression mediated Cd effects. The results showed the sub-toxic Cd dose significantly increased tenascin, vitronectin, β1 and β5 integrin gene expression. The toxic Cd dose decreased type IV and V collagen, α1, α2 and β3 integrins. Both Cd doses down-regulated type I collagen and up-regulated metalloproteases. Each Cd dose caused a different imbalance in the complex pattern of TGFβ and its receptors. No alteration in classic apoptotic marker protein expression was observed in presence of the sub-toxic dose of Cd, suggesting this metal alters ECM production without apoptotic activation. In conclusion, all these data show even sub-toxic Cd dose exposure alters the specific gene expression of several ECM components that are crucially implicated in the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism underlying Cd-induced lung disease may involve downstream changes in TGFβ/TGFβR signaling.

  9. P2Y6 Receptor-Mediated Proinflammatory Signaling in Human Bronchial Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yuan; Liang, Jocelyn F.; Chow, Alison W.; Cheung, Wing-tai; Ko, Wing-hung

    2014-01-01

    P2Y receptors are expressed in virtually all epithelia and are responsible for the control of fluid and electrolyte transport. In asthmatic inflammation, the bronchial epithelia are damaged by eosinophil-derived, highly toxic cationic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP). Consequently, extracellular nucleotides are released into the extracellular space from airway epithelial cells, and act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to regulate immune functions. Our data show damage to the human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o-, by poly-L-arginine-induced UDP release into the extracellular medium. Activation of P2Y6 receptor by its natural ligand, UDP, or its specific agonist, MRS 2693, led to the production of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. This may have resulted from increased IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression, and activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK, and NF-κB pathways. Our previous study demonstrated that UDP stimulated transepithelial Cl− secretion via both Ca2+- and cAMP-dependent pathways in 16HBE14o- epithelia. This was further confirmed in this study by simultaneous imaging of Ca2+ and cAMP levels in single cells using the Fura-2 fluorescence technique and a FRET-based approach, respectively. Moreover, the P2Y6 receptor-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 was found to be dependent on Ca2+, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Together, these studies show that nucleotides released during the airway inflammatory processes will activate P2Y6 receptors, which will lead to further release of inflammatory cytokines. The secretion of cytokines and the formation of such “cytokine networks” play an important role in sustaining the airway inflammatory disease. PMID:25243587

  10. Indomethacin does not inhibit the ozone-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, R.L.; Gross, K.B.; Terzo, T.S.; Eschenbacher, W.L. )

    1990-10-01

    Exposure of human subjects to sufficiently high levels of ozone can result in reversible changes in lung function (restrictive in nature) and increases in nonspecific airway responsiveness. Several studies have implicated products of cyclooxygenase metabolism in the mediation of these changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) would alter the changes in the ozone-induced increase in responsiveness to methacholine or the ozone-induced decrease in lung function. Thirteen male subjects underwent three randomly assigned 2-h exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone with alternating 15-min periods of rest and exercise on a cycle ergometer (30 L/min/m2, body surface area). For the 4 days before each of the exposures, the subjects received either indomethacin (150 mg/day) or placebo, or no modification. Of the 13 subjects, only seven had both detectable indomethacin serum levels on the indomethacin Study Day and a significant increase in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine on the No Medication Day. For this group of seven subjects, we found that indomethacin did not alter the ozone-induced increase in bronchial responsiveness to methacholine (decrease in PC100SRaw for the different study days: no medication, -78.4 +/- 5.3% (mean +/- SEM); placebo, -48.9 +/- 12.2%; indomethacin, -64.5 +/- 6.3%; p greater than 0.2), although indomethacin did attenuate the ozone-induced decrease in lung function. The decrease in the FEV1 for the different study days was as follows: no medication, -20.7 +/- 5.0% (mean +/- SEM); placebo, -19.2 +/- 6.3%; indomethacin, -4.8 +/- 3.7% (p less than 0.001).

  11. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Carter, Charleata A; Hamm, Jonathan T

    2009-07-10

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30mug/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-alpha, while CSC doses above 20mug/ml CSC significantly activated NF-kappaB. As NF-kappaB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30mug/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30mug/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-alpha, NF-kappaB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  12. Threshold concentration of ozone causing an increase in bronchial reactivity in humans and adaptation with repeated exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dimeo, M.J.; Glenn, M.G.; Holtzman, M.J.; Sheller, J.R.; Nadel, J.A.; Boushey, H.A.

    1981-09-01

    To determine the lowest concentration of ozone that causes an increase in bronchial reactivity to histamine and to determine whether adaptation to this effect of ozone develops with repeated exposures, we studied 19 healthy adult subjects. Bronchial reactivity was assessed by measuring the rise in specific airway resistance (delta SRaw) produced by inhalation of 10 breaths of histamine aerosol (1.6% solution). Results indicate that the threshold concentration of ozone causing an increase in bronchial reactivity in healthy human subjects is between 0.2 and 0.4 ppm, and that adaptation to this effect of ozone develops with repeated exposures. The threshold concentration of ozone identified in other studies as causing changes in symptoms, lung volumes, or airway resistance was also between 0.2 and 0.4 ppm, and the time course of the development of tolerance to ozone in these other studies was similar to hat observed in our study. We propose that the appearance of symptoms, changes in pulmonary function, and the increase in bronchial reactivity may be caused by a change in the activity of afferent nerve endings in the airway epithelium.

  13. Human bronchial epithelial cells injury and cytokine production induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Vera Lucia Silva; Kwasniewski, Fabio H; Vieira, Rodolfo Paula; Linhares, Ingrid Sestrem; da Silva, Joelmir Lucena Veiga; Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2016-09-15

    Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion specie responsible for the majority of scorpion sting accidents in Brazil. Symptoms of envenomation by Tityus serrulatus range from local pain to severe systemic reactions such as cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema. Thus, this study has evaluated the participation of bronchial epithelial cells in the pulmonary effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (Tsv). Human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B were utilized as a model target and were incubated with Tsv (10 or 50 μg/mL) for 1, 3, 6 and 24 h. Effects on cellular response of venom-induce cytotoxicity were examined including cell viability, cell integrity, cell morphology, apoptosis/necrosis as well as cell activation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Tsv caused a decrease in cell viability at 10 and 50 μg/mL, which was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurement. Flow cytometry analyses revealed necrosis as the main cell death pathway caused by Tsv. Furthermore, Tsv induced the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Tsv induces cytotoxic effects on bronchial epithelial cells, involving necrosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that bronchial epithelial cells may play a role in the pulmonary injury caused by Tsv. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutant p53 can induce tumorigenic conversion of human bronchial epithelial cells and reduce their responsiveness to a negative growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gerwin, B I; Spillare, E; Forrester, K; Lehman, T A; Kispert, J; Welsh, J A; Pfeifer, A M; Lechner, J F; Baker, S J; Vogelstein, B

    1992-01-01

    Loss of normal functions and gain of oncogenic functions when the p53 tumor suppressor gene is mutated are considered critical events in the development of the majority of human cancers. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) provide an in vitro model system to study growth, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation of progenitor cells of lung carcinoma. When wild-type (WT) or mutant (MT; codon 143Val-Ala) human p53 cDNA was transfected into nontumorigenic BEAS-2B cells, we observed that (i) transfected WT p53 suppresses and MT p53 enhances the colony-forming efficiency of these cells, (ii) MT p53 increases resistance to transforming growth factor beta 1, and (iii) clones of MT p53 transfected BEAS-2B cells are tumorigenic when inoculated into athymic nude mice. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that certain mutations in p53 may function in multistage lung carcinogenesis by reducing the responsiveness of bronchial epithelial cells to negative growth factors. Images PMID:1557382

  15. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor: A Novel Pharmacological Target for Treating Human Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Capuani, Barbara; Facciolo, Francesco; Cazzola, Mario; Lauro, Davide; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Asthma is associated with several comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, which may lead to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Because glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 regulates glucose homeostasis, we pharmacologically investigated the influence of the GLP1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, exendin-4, on BHR induced in human isolated airways. The effect of exendin-4 was assessed in human isolated airways undergoing overnight passive sensitization and high-glucose stimulation, two conditions mimicking ex vivo the BHR typical of patients with asthma and diabetes, respectively. GLP1-R activation modulated the bronchial contractile tone induced by transmural stimulation (maximum effect -56.7 ± 3.6%; onset of action, 28.2 ± 4.4 min). Exendin-4 prevented BHR induced by both high-glucose stimulation and passive sensitization (-37.8 ± 7.5% and -74.9 ± 3.9%, P < 0.05 versus control, respectively) through selective activation of GLP1-R and in an epithelium-independent manner. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor, KT5720, reduced the protective role of exendin-4 (P > 0.05 versus passively sensitized tissues). The GLP1-R stimulation by overnight incubation with exendin-4 induced the overexpression of adenylyl cyclase isoform V (+48.4 ± 1.3%, P < 0.05 versus passively sensitized tissues) and restored the cAMP levels depleted by this procedure (+330.8 ± 63.3%, P < 0.05 versus passively sensitized tissues). In conclusion, GLP1-R may represent a novel target for treating BHR by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway in human airways, and GLP1-R agonists could be used as a "new" class to treat patients with asthma and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with BHR.

  16. Acetylcholine leads to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) mediated oxidative/nitrosative stress in human bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Profita, Mirella; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Montalbano, Angela Marina; Di Sano, Caterina; Anzalone, Giulia; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Riccobono, Loredana; Bonanno, Anna; Siena, Liboria; Pieper, Michael Paul; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression via the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) is involved in the mechanism of oxidative/nitrosative stress. We investigated whether acetylcholine (ACh) generates oxidative/nitrosative stress in bronchial epithelial cells during airway inflammation of COPD and evaluated the effects of Tiotropium, a once-daily antimuscarinic drug, and Olodaterol, a long-acting β2-agonist on these mechanisms. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) were stimulated (4h, 37°C) with induced sputum supernatants (ISSs) from healthy controls (HC) (n=10), healthy smokers (HS) (n=10) or COPD patients (n=10), as well as with ACh (from 1μM to 100μM). The activation of STAT-1 pathway (STAT-1Ser727 and STAT-1Tyr701) and iNOS was evaluated in the cell lysates by Western blot analysis as well as nitrotyrosine levels by ELISA, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by flow cytometry. Finally, the effect of Tiotropium (Spiriva®) (100nM), alone or in combination with Olodaterol (1nM), was tested in this model. ISSs from COPD patients significantly increased the phosphorylation of STAT-1Ser727 and STAT-1Tyr701, iNOS and ROS/Nitrotyrosine when compared with ISSs from HC or HS subjects in 16-HBE cells. Furthermore, synthetic ACh increased all these parameters in stimulated 16HBE when compared with untreated cells. Tiotropium and Olodaterol reduced the oxidative/nitrosative stress generated by ACh and ISSs. We concluded that ACh mediated the oxidative/nitrosative stress involving the STAT-1 pathway activation in human bronchial epithelial cells during COPD. β2-Long acting and antimuscarinic drugs, normally used in the treatment of COPD as bronchodilator, might be able to control these cellular events. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic instability and tumorigenic induction in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Piao, C. Q.; Wu, L. J.; Willey, J. C.; Hall, E. J.

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenesis is postulated to be a progressive multistage process characterized by an increase in genomic instability and clonal selection with each mutational event endowing a selective growth advantage. Genomic instability as manifested by the amplification of specific gene fragments is common among tumor and transformed cells. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 1GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions or 150 keV/μm alpha particles. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Tumorigenic cells showed neither ras mutations nor deletion in the p16 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, they harbored mutations in the p53 gene and over-expressed cyclin D1. Genomic instability among transformed cells at various stage of the carcinogenic process was examined based on frequencies of PALA resistance. Incidence of genomic instability was highest among established tumor cell lines relative to transformed, non-tumorigenic and control cell lines. Treatment of BEP2D cells with a 4 mM dose of the aminothiol WR-1065 significantly reduced their neoplastic transforming response to 56Fe particles. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of human epithelial cells by heavy ions.

  18. Human bronchial epithelial cells express PAR-2 with different sensitivity to thermolysin.

    PubMed

    Ubl, Joachim J; Grishina, Zoryana V; Sukhomlin, Tatiana K; Welte, Tobias; Sedehizade, Fariba; Reiser, Georg

    2002-06-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a role in inflammatory reactions in airway physiology. Proteases cleaving the extracellular NH(2) terminus of receptors activate or inactivate PAR, thus possessing a therapeutic potential. Using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we show PAR-2 in human airway epithelial cell lines human bronchial epithelial (HBE) and A549. Functional expression of PAR-2 was confirmed by Ca(2+) imaging studies using the receptor agonist protease trypsin. The effect was abolished by soybean trypsin inhibitor and mimicked by the specific PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGKV. Amplitude and duration of PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response in HBE and A549 cells depend on concentration and time of agonist superfusion. The response is partially pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive, abolished by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, and diminished by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Cathepsin G altered neither the resting Ca(2+) level nor PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response. Thermolysin, a prototypic bacterial metalloprotease, induced a dose-dependent Ca(2+) response in HBE, but not A549, cells. In both cell lines, thermolysin abolished the response to a subsequent trypsin challenge but not to SLIGKV. Thus different epithelial cell types express different PAR-2 with identical responses to physiological stimuli (trypsin, SLIGKV) but different sensitivity to modifying proteases, such as thermolysin.

  19. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins by human bronchial epithelial cells in response to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Dong-Yang; Wong, Wing-Yan; Tai, William Chi-Shing; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lau, Andy T Y

    2015-09-01

    For years, many studies have been conducted to investigate the intracellular response of cells challenged with toxic metal(s), yet, the corresponding secretome responses, especially in human lung cells, are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a secretome analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ), with the aim of identifying secreted proteins in response to Cd toxicity. Proteins from control and spent media were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. Differentially-secreted proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and database searching. We characterized, for the first time, the extracellular proteome changes of BEAS-2B dosed with Cd. Our results unveiled that Cd treatment led to the marked upregulation of molecular chaperones, antioxidant enzymes, enzymes associated with glutathione metabolic process, proteins involved in cellular energy metabolism, as well as tumor-suppressors. Pretreatment of cells with the thiol antioxidant glutathione before Cd treatment effectively abrogated the secretion of these proteins and prevented cell death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cd causes oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity; and the differentially-secreted protein signatures could be considered as targets for potential use as extracellular biomarkers upon Cd exposure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, Andrea C; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A; Mise-Racek, Nikica; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-02-02

    The differentiated human airway epithelium consists of different cell types forming a polarized and pseudostratified epithelium. This is dramatically altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by basal and goblet cell hyperplasia, and squamous cell metaplasia. The effect of cigarette smoke on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) differentiation remains to be elucidated. We analysed whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affected primary (p)HBEC differentiation and function. pHBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and differentiation was quantified after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days by assessing acetylated tubulin, CC10, or MUC5AC for ciliated, Clara, or goblet cells, respectively. Exposure of differentiating pHBEC to CSE impaired epithelial barrier formation, as assessed by resistance measurements (TEER). Importantly, CSE exposure significantly reduced the number of ciliated cells, while it increased the number of Clara and goblet cells. CSE-dependent cell number changes were reflected by a reduction of acetylated tubulin levels, an increased expression of the basal cell marker KRT14, and increased secretion of CC10, but not by changes in transcript levels of CC10, MUC5AC, or FOXJ1. Our data demonstrate that cigarette smoke specifically alters the cellular composition of the airway epithelium by affecting basal cell differentiation in a post-transcriptional manner.

  1. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  2. Oxidative stress and aromatic hydrocarbon response of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to petro- or biodiesel exhaust treated with a diesel particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Brie; L'Orange, Christian; Olsen, Dan B; Marchese, Anthony J; Volckens, John

    2014-10-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust has changed over the past decade due to the increased use of alternative fuels, like biodiesel, and to new regulations on diesel engine emissions. Given the changing nature of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions, a need exists to understand the human health implications of switching to "cleaner" diesel engines run with particulate filters and engines run on alternative fuels like biodiesel. We exposed well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells to fresh, complete exhaust from a diesel engine run (1) with and without a diesel particulate filter and (2) using either traditional petro- or alternative biodiesel. Despite the lowered emissions in filter-treated exhaust (a 91-96% reduction in mass), significant increases in transcripts associated with oxidative stress and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon response were observed in all exposure groups and were not significantly different between exposure groups. Our results suggest that biodiesel and filter-treated diesel exhaust elicits as great, or greater a cellular response as unfiltered, traditional petrodiesel exhaust in a representative model of the bronchial epithelium. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Oxidative Stress and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed to Petro- or Biodiesel Exhaust Treated with a Diesel Particulate Filter

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; L'Orange, Christian; Olsen, Dan B.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Volckens, John

    2014-01-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust has changed over the past decade due to the increased use of alternative fuels, like biodiesel, and to new regulations on diesel engine emissions. Given the changing nature of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions, a need exists to understand the human health implications of switching to “cleaner” diesel engines run with particulate filters and engines run on alternative fuels like biodiesel. We exposed well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells to fresh, complete exhaust from a diesel engine run (1) with and without a diesel particulate filter and (2) using either traditional petro- or alternative biodiesel. Despite the lowered emissions in filter-treated exhaust (a 91–96% reduction in mass), significant increases in transcripts associated with oxidative stress and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon response were observed in all exposure groups and were not significantly different between exposure groups. Our results suggest that biodiesel and filter-treated diesel exhaust elicits as great, or greater a cellular response as unfiltered, traditional petrodiesel exhaust in a representative model of the bronchial epithelium. PMID:25061111

  4. The Fate of ZnO Nanoparticles Administered to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Fakra, Sirine C.; Xia, Tian; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    A particular challenge for nanotoxicology is the evaluation of the biological fate and toxicity of nanomaterials that dissolve in aqueous fluids. Zinc oxide nanomaterials are of particular concern because dissolution leads to release of the toxic divalent zinc ion. Although dissolved zinc ions have been implicated in ZnO cytotoxicity, direct identification of the chemical form of zinc taken up by cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles, and its intracellular fate, has not yet been achieved. We combined high resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy and high elemental sensitivity X-ray microprobe analyses to determine the fate of ZnO and less soluble iron-doped ZnO nanoparticles following exposure to cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. We complemented two-dimensional X-ray imaging methods with atomic force microscopy of cell surfaces to distinguish between nanoparticles that were transported inside the cells from those that adhered to the cell exterior. The data suggest cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles is a mechanism of zinc accumulation in cells. Following uptake, ZnO nanoparticles dissolved completely generating intracellular Zn2+ complexed by molecular ligands. These results corroborate a model for ZnO nanoparticle toxicity that is based on nanoparticle uptake followed by intracellular dissolution. PMID:22646753

  5. Effects on human bronchial epithelial cells following low-dose chronic exposure to nanomaterials: A 6-month transformation study.

    PubMed

    Phuyal, Santosh; Kasem, Mayes; Rubio, Laura; Karlsson, Hanna L; Marcos, Ricard; Skaug, Vidar; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh

    2017-10-01

    The most plausible exposure route to manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) remains pulmonary inhalation. Yet, few studies have attempted to assess carcinogenic properties in vitro following long-term exposure of human pulmonary cells to low and occupationally relevant doses. The most advanced in vitro tests for carcinogenicity, the cell transformation assay (CTA), rely mostly on rodent cells and short-term exposure. We hypothesized that long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells with a normal phenotype could be a valuable assay for testing carcinogenicity of nanomaterials. Therefore, this study (performed within the framework of the FP7-NANoREG project) assessed carcinogenic potential of chronic exposure (up to 6months) to low doses of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, NM-400 and NM-401) and TiO2 materials (NM62002 and KC7000). In order to harmonize and standardize the experiments, standard operating protocols of MNM dispersion (NANOGENOTOX) were used by three different NANoREG project partners. All nanomaterials showed low cytotoxicity in short-term tests for the tested doses (0.96 and 1.92μg/cm(2)). During long-term exposure, however, NM-401 clearly affected cell proliferation. In contrast, no cell transformation was observed for NM-401 by any of the partners. NM-400 and NM62002 formed some colonies after 3months. We conclude that agglomerated NM-401 in low doses affect cell proliferation but do not cause cell transformation in the CTA assay used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomic patterns of preinvasive bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S M Jamshedur; Shyr, Yu; Yildiz, Pinar B; Gonzalez, Adriana L; Li, Huiming; Zhang, Xueqiong; Chaurand, Pierre; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Slovis, Bonnie S; Miller, Robert F; Ninan, Mathew; Miller, York E; Franklin, Wilbur A; Caprioli, Richard M; Carbone, David P; Massion, Pierre P

    2005-12-15

    A proteomics approach is warranted to further elucidate the molecular steps involved in lung tumor development. We asked whether we could classify preinvasive lesions of airway epithelium according to their proteomic profile. We obtained matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiles from 10-microm sections of fresh-frozen tissue samples: 25 normal lung, 29 normal bronchial epithelium, and 20 preinvasive and 36 invasive lung tumor tissue samples from 53 patients. Proteomic profiles were calibrated, binned, and normalized before analysis. We performed class comparison, class prediction, and supervised hierarchic cluster analysis. We tested a set of discriminatory features obtained in a previously published dataset to classify this independent set of normal, preinvasive, and invasive lung tissues. We found a specific proteomic profile that allows an overall predictive accuracy of over 90% of normal, preinvasive, and invasive lung tissues. The proteomic profiles of these tissues were distinct from each other within a disease continuum. We trained our prediction model in a previously published dataset and tested it in a new blinded test set to reach an overall 74% accuracy in classifying tumors from normal tissues. We found specific patterns of protein expression of the airway epithelium that accurately classify bronchial and alveolar tissue with normal histology from preinvasive bronchial lesions and from invasive lung cancer. Although further study is needed to validate this approach and to identify biomarkers of tumor development, this is a first step toward a new proteomic characterization of the human model of lung cancer tumorigenesis.

  7. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, I.E.; Wilhelm, S.M.; Eisen, A.Z.; Marmer, B.L.; Grant, G.A.; Seltzer, J.L.; Kronberger, A.; He, C.; Bauer, E.A.; Goldberg, G.I.

    1988-05-15

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin.

  8. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence. PMID:27555762

  9. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence.

  10. Everolimus as a new potential antiproliferative agent in aggressive human bronchial carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Minoia, Mariella; Martini, Chiara; Tagliati, Federico; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Schiavon, Marco; Buratto, Mattia; Calabrese, Fiorella; Gentilin, Erica; Cavallesco, Giorgio; Berdondini, Lisa; Rea, Federico; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2010-09-01

    Bronchial carcinoids (BCs) are rare tumors originating from endocrine cells dispersed in the respiratory epithelium. It has been previously demonstrated that everolimus, or RAD001, an mTOR inhibitor, has potent antiproliferative effects in human endocrine tumors. Our aim was to evaluate the possible antiproliferative effects of everolimus in human BCs in primary culture. We collected 24 BCs that were dispersed in primary cultures, treated without or with 1 nM-1 muM everolimus, 10 nM SOM230 (pasireotide, a somatostatin receptor multiligand), and/or 50 nM IGF1. Cell viability was evaluated after 48 h, and chromogranin A (CgA) as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was assessed after 8 h incubation. Somatostatin receptors, mTOR, and AKT expression were investigated by quantitative PCR. We found that in 15 cultures (67.5%), everolimus significantly reduced cell viability (by approximately 30%; P<0.05 versus control), inhibited p70S6K activity (-30%), and blocked IGF1 proliferative effects. Everolimus also significantly reduced CgA (by approximately 20%) and VEGF (by approximately 15%) secretion. Cotreatment with SOM230 did not exert additive effects on cell viability and secretory activity. AKT expression was similar in responder and nonresponder tissues, while mTOR expression was significantly higher in the responder group, which was characterized by higher CgA plasma levels and bigger tumors with higher mitotic index and angiogenesis. Our data demonstrate that everolimus reduces VEGF secretion and cell viability in BCs with a mechanism likely involving IGF1 signaling, suggesting that it might represent a possible medical treatment for BCs.

  11. Selective prostacyclin receptor agonism augments glucocorticoid-induced gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sylvia M; Shen, Pamela; Rider, Christopher F; Traves, Suzanne L; Proud, David; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2009-11-15

    Prostacyclin receptor (IP-receptor) agonists display anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity in cell-based assays and in preclinical models of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we have extended these observations by demonstrating that IP-receptor activation also can enhance the ability of glucocorticoids to induce genes with anti-inflammatory activity. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) luciferase reporter were activated in a concentration-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. An IP-receptor agonist, taprostene, increased cAMP in these cells and augmented luciferase expression at all concentrations of dexamethasone examined. Analysis of the concentration-response relationship that described this effect showed that taprostene increased the magnitude of transcription without affecting the potency of dexamethasone and was, thus, steroid-sparing in this simple system. RO3244794, an IP-receptor antagonist, and oligonucleotides that selectively silenced the IP-receptor gene, PTGIR, abolished these effects of taprostene. Infection of BEAS-2B GRE reporter cells with an adenovirus vector encoding a highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also prevented taprostene from enhancing GRE-dependent transcription. In BEAS-2B cells and primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells, taprostene and dexamethasone interacted either additively or cooperatively in the expression of three glucocorticoid-inducible genes (GILZ, MKP-1, and p57(kip2)) that have anti-inflammatory potential. Collectively, these data show that IP-receptor agonists can augment the ability of glucocorticoids to induce anti-inflammatory genes in human airway epithelial cells by activating a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism. This observation may have clinical relevance in the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases that are either refractory or respond suboptimally to

  12. Genetic damage induced by organic extract of coke oven emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Duan, Huawei; Wang, Yadong; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qingjun; Chen, Wen; Ma, Junxiang; Zheng, Yuxin

    2012-08-01

    Coke oven emissions are known as human carcinogen, which is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of coke oven emissions induced carcinogenesis and to identify biomarkers of early biological effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line with CYP1A1 activity (HBE-CYP1A1). Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by alkaline and endonucleases (FPG, hOGG1 and ENDO III)-modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The cells were treated with organic extract of coke oven emissions (OE-COE) representing 5, 10, 20, 40μg/mL extract for 24h. We found that there was a dose-effect relationship between the OE-COE and the direct DNA damage presented by tail length, tail intensity and Olive tail moment in the comet assay. The presence of lesion-specific endonucleases in the assays increased DNA migration after OE-COE treatment when compared to those without enzymes, which indicated that OE-COE produced oxidative damage at the level of pyrimidine and purine bases. The dose-dependent increase of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in exposed cells was significant, indicating chromosomal and genomic damage induced by OE-COE. Based on the cytotoxic biomarkers in CBMN-Cyt assay, OE-COE may inhibit nuclear division, interfere with apoptosis, or induce cell necrosis. This study indicates that OE-COE exposure can induce DNA breaks/oxidative damage and genomic instability in HBE-CYP1A1 cells. The FPG-comet assay appears more specific for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of genotoxic substances.

  13. Rhinovirus-bacteria coexposure synergistically induces CCL20 production from human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Barbara A; Jamieson, Kyla C; Arnason, Jason W; Kooi, Cora; Wiehler, Shahina; Traves, Suzanne L; Leigh, Richard; Proud, David

    2017-05-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are triggered by viral or bacterial pathogens, with human rhinovirus (HRV) and nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHI) among the most commonly detected pathogens. Patients who suffer from concomitant viral and bacterial infection have more severe exacerbations. The airway epithelial cell is the initial site of viral and bacterial interactions, and CCL20 is an epithelial chemokine that attracts immature dendritic cells to the airways and can act as an antimicrobial. As such, it contributes to innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. We used primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells and the BEAS-2B cell line to examine the effects of bacterial-viral coexposure, as well as each stimulus alone, on epithelial expression of CXCL8 and, in particular, CCL20. HRV-bacterial coexposure induced synergistic production of CXCL8 and CCL20 compared with the sum of each stimulus alone. Synergistic induction of CCL20 did not require viral replication and occurred with two different HRV serotypes that use different viral receptors. Synergy was also seen with either NTHI or Pseudomonas aeruginosa Synergistic induction of CCL20 was transcriptionally regulated. Although NF-κB was required for transcription, it did not regulate synergy, but NF-IL-6 did appear to contribute. Among MAPK inhibitors studied, neither SB203580 nor PD98059 had any effect on synergy, whereas U0126 prevented synergistic induction of CCL20 by HRV and bacteria, apparently via "off-target" effects. Thus bacterial-viral coexposure synergistically increases innate immune responses compared with individual infections. We speculate that this increased inflammatory response leads to worse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Upregulation of SQSTM1/p62 contributes to nickel-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishan; Zhu, Junlan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Liping; Gu, Jiayan; Xie, Qipeng; Jin, Honglei; Che, Xun; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Chao; Chen, Lung-Chi; Lyu, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic lung inflammation is accepted as being associated with the development of lung cancer caused by nickel exposure. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that lead to a nickel-induced sustained inflammatory microenvironment that causes transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells is of high significance. In the current studies, we identified SQSTM1/p62 as a novel nickel-upregulated protein that is important for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF expression, subsequently resulting in transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We found that nickel exposure induced SQSTM1 protein upregulation in human lung epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse lung tissues in vivo. The SQSTM1 upregulation was also observed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies revealed that the knockdown of SQSTM1 expression dramatically inhibited transformation of human lung epithelial cells upon chronic nickel exposure, whereas ectopic expression of SQSTM1 promoted such transformation. Mechanistic studies showed that the SQSTM1 upregulation by nickel was the compromised result of upregulating SQSTM1 mRNA transcription and promoting SQSTM1 protein degradation. We demonstrated that nickel-initiated SQSTM1 protein degradation is mediated by macroautophagy/autophagy via an MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 axis, whereas RELA is important for SQSTM1 transcriptional upregulation following nickel exposure. Furthermore, SQSTM1 upregulation exhibited its promotion of nickel-induced cell transformation through exerting an impetus for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF mRNA stability. Consistently, the MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 autophagic cascade acted as an inhibitory effect on nickel-induced TNF expression and cell transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel SQSTM1 regulatory network that promotes a nickel-induced tumorigenic effect in human bronchial epithelial cells, which is negatively controlled by an autophagic cascade following nickel exposure. PMID:27467530

  15. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophil adhesion, and cytotoxicity: studies in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2007-02-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a product of high-temperature combustion and an environmental oxidant of concern. We have recently reported that early changes in NO2-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells are causally linked to increased generation of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide/nitrite and cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-8. The objective of the present in vitro study was to further delineate the cellular mechanisms of NO2-mediated toxicity, and to define the nature of cell death that ensues upon exposure of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to a brief high dose of NO2. Our results demonstrate that the NHBE cells undergo apoptotic cell death during the early post-NO2 period, but this is independent of any significant increase in caspase-3 activity. However, necrotic cell death was more prevalent at later time intervals. Interestingly, an increased expression of HO-1, a redox-sensitive stress protein, was observed in NO2-exposed NHBE cells at 24 h. Since neutrophils (PMNs) play an active role in acute lung inflammation and resultant oxidative injury, we also investigated changes in human PMN-NHBE cell interactions. As compared to normal cells, increased adhesion of PMNs to NO2-exposed cells was observed, which resulted in an increased NHBE cell death. The latter was also increased in the presence of IL-8 and TNF-alpha + interferon (IFN)-gamma, which correlated with upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Our results confirmed an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in NO2-induced cytotoxicity. By using NO synthase inhibitors such as L-NAME and 3-aminoguanidine (AG), a significant decrease in cell death, PMN adhesion, and ICAM-1 expression was observed. These findings indicate a role for the L-arginine/NO synthase pathway in the observed NO2-mediated toxicity in NHBE cells. Therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling excess generation of NO and/or inflammatory cytokines may

  16. Effects of submicrometer particle compositions on cytokine production and lipid peroxidation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song-Lih; Hsu, Miao-Kan; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2003-01-01

    To identify the size and components related to toxicity of ambient particles, we used a trichotomous impactor to collect 17 sets of particles in three size ranges--submicrometer (diameters < 1 microm; PM1.0, fine (diameters between 1 and 2.5 microm; PM1.0-2.5, and coarse (diameters between 2.5 and 10 microm; PM2.5-10--at stations monitoring background, urban, traffic, and industrial air in Taiwan. Elemental contents, carbon contents, soluble ions, and endotoxin content of particles were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, thermal analysis, ion chromatography, and the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, respectively. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to particle extracts at 100 micro g/mL for 8 hr, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations in the medium and lipid peroxidation products were measured. Particle-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells was also measured. PM1.0 stimulation resulted in significantly higher IL-8 production and lipid peroxidation than PM2.5-10, whereas the responses elicited by PM1.0-2.5 were not significantly higher than blank filters. Untreated and polymyxin B-pretreated PM1.0 also stimulated more TNF-alpha production by RAW 264.7 cells than PM2.5-10 and PM1.0-2.5. Cytokine production was significantly associated with metal contents of PM1.0: IL-8 correlated with Cr and Mn, and TNF-alpha correlated with Fe and Cr. Lipid peroxidation in BEAS-2B cells correlated with elemental and organic carbon contents. Our study found that size and composition of ambient particles were both important factors in inducing cytokine production and lipid peroxidation. PMID:12676602

  17. Activation of CFTR trafficking and gating by vasoactive intestinal peptide in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fei; Liu, Hui-Jun; Xiang, Yang; Tan, Yu-Rong; Liu, Chi; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Xiao-Qun

    2011-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an apical membrane chloride channel critical to the regulation of fluid, chloride, and bicarbonate transport in epithelia and other cell types. The most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the abnormal trafficking of CFTR mutants. Therefore, understanding the cellular machineries that transit CFTR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface is important. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) plays an important role in CFTR-dependent chloride transport. The present study was designed to observe the affection of VIP on the trafficking of CFTR, and channel gating in human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC). Confocal microscopy revealed CFTR immunofluorescence extending from the apical membrane deeply into the cell cytoplasm. After VIP treatment, apical extension of CFTR immunofluorescence into the cell was reduced and the peak intensity of CFTR fluorescence shifted towards the apical membrane. Western blot showed VIP increased cell surface and total CFTR. Compared with the augmented level of total CFTR, the surface CFTR increased more markedly. Immunoprecipitation founded that the mature form of CFTR had a marked increase in HBEC treated with VIP. VIP led to a threefold increase in Cl(-) efflux in HBEC. Glibenclamide-sensitive and DIDS-insensitive CFTR Cl(-) currents were consistently observed after stimulation with VIP (10(-8) mol/L). The augmentation of CFTR Cl(-) currents enhanced by VIP (10(-8) mol/L) was reversed, at least in part, by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89 and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, H-7, suggesting PKA and PKC participate in the VIP-promoted CFTR Cl(-) currents.

  18. Microcystin-LR induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Huang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhuang, Donggang; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen; Fu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to explore the mechanism of MC-LR-induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. HBE cells were treated with MC-LR (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg/ml) alone or with MC-LR (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/ml) and Z-VAD-FMK (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 µM), which is a caspase inhibitor, for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed via an MTT assay and the half maximal effective concentration of MC-LR was determined. The optimal concentration of Z-VAD-FMK was established as 50 µm, which was then used in the subsequent experiments. MC-LR significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay. MC-LR induced cell apoptosis, excess reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, upregulated Bax expression and downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 expression in HBE cells. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that MC-LR increased the activity levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and induced cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, suggesting that MC-LR-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK reduced MC-LR-induced apoptosis by blocking caspase activation in HBE cells. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that MC-LR is capable of significantly inhibiting the viability of HBE cells by inducing apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner. The present study provides a foundation for further understanding the mechanism underlying the toxicity of MC-LR in the respiratory system. PMID:27446254

  19. Differential responses of healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseased human bronchial epithelial cells repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM4.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, B; Happillon, M; Antherieu, S; Hardy, E M; Alleman, L Y; Grova, N; Perdrix, E; Appenzeller, B M; Lo Guidice, J-M; Coddeville, P; Garçon, G

    2016-11-01

    While the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms by which air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) exerts its harmful health effects is still incomplete, detailed in vitro studies are highly needed. With the aim of getting closer to the human in vivo conditions and better integrating a number of factors related to pre-existing chronic pulmonary inflammatory, we sought to develop primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-diseased human bronchial epithelial (DHBE) cells, grown at the air-liquid interface. Pan-cytokeratin and MUC5AC immunostaining confirmed the specific cell-types of both these healthy and diseased cell models and showed they are closed to human bronchial epithelia. Thereafter, healthy and diseased cells were repeatedly exposed to air pollution-derived PM4 at the non-cytotoxic concentration of 5 μg/cm(2). The differences between the oxidative and inflammatory states in non-exposed NHBE and COPD-DHBE cells indicated that diseased cells conserved their specific physiopathological characteristics. Increases in both oxidative damage and cytokine secretion were reported in repeatedly exposed NHBE cells and particularly in COPD-DHBE cells. Diseased cells repeatedly exposed had lower capacities to metabolize the organic chemicals-coated onto the air-pollution-derived PM4, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), but showed higher sensibility to the formation of OH-B[a]P DNA adducts, because their diseased state possibly affected their defenses. Differential profiles of epigenetic hallmarks (i.e., global DNA hypomethylation, P16 promoter hypermethylation, telomere length shortening, telomerase activation, and histone H3 modifications) occurred in repeatedly exposed NHBE and particularly in COPD-DHBE cells. Taken together, these results closely supported the highest responsiveness of COPD-DHBE cells to a repeated exposure to air pollution-derived PM4. The use of these innovative in

  20. Continual exposure to cigarette smoke extracts induces tumor-like transformation of human nontumor bronchial epithelial cells in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Li, Encheng; Xu, Zhiyun; Liu, Fen; Wang, Huiling; Wen, Jiabin; Shao, Shujuan; Zhang, Lichuan; Wang, Lei; Liu, Chong; Lu, Jianxin; Wang, Wenxin; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Heavy cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an independent risk factor for lung squamous carcinoma. However, the mechanisms underlying the malignant transformation of bronchial epithelial cells are unclear. In our study, human tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from 10 cases with smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung squamous carcinoma and cultured in an established microfluidic chip for continual exposure to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) to investigate the potential tumor-like transformation and mechanisms. The integrated microfluidic chip included upstream concentration gradient generator and downstream cell culture chambers supplied by flowing medium containing different concentrations of CSE. Our results showed that continual exposure to low doses of CSE promoted cell proliferation whereas to high doses of CSE triggered cell apoptosis. Continual exposure to CSE promoted reactive oxygen species production in human epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, continual exposure to low dose of CSE promoted the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process and anchorage-independent growth, and increased chromosome instability in bronchial epithelial cells, accompanied by activating the GRP78, NF-κB, and PI3K pathways. The established microfluidic chip is suitable for primary culture of human tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial cells to investigate the malignant transformation. Continual exposure to low doses of CSE promoted tumor-like transformation of human nontumor bronchial epithelial cells by inducing reactive oxygen species production and activating the relevant signaling.

  1. Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMAIII) Has an Adverse Effect on the Innate Immune Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Notch, Emily G.; Goodale, Britton C.; Barnaby, Roxanna; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Berwin, Brent; Taylor, Vivien F.; Jackson, Brian P.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the number one contaminant of concern with regard to human health according to the World Health Organization. Epidemiological studies on Asian and South American populations have linked arsenic exposure with an increased incidence of lung disease, including pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both of which are associated with bacterial infection. However, little is known about the effects of low dose arsenic exposure, or the contributions of organic arsenic to the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This study examined the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) induced cytokine secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) by inorganic sodium arsenite (iAsIII) and two major metabolites, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAV), at concentrations relevant to the U.S. population. Neither iAsIII nor DMAV altered P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion. By contrast, MMAIII increased P. aeruginosa induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and CXCL2. A combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV (10 pbb total) reduced IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that exposure to MMAIII alone, and a combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV at levels relevant to the U.S. may have negative effects on the innate immune response of human bronchial epithelial cells to P. aeruginosa. PMID:26554712

  2. NiO nanoparticles induce apoptosis through repressing SIRT1 in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Wei-Xia; He, Min-Di; Mao, Lin; Qian, Feng-Hua; Li, Yu-Ming; Pi, Hui-Feng; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; Lu, Yong-Hui; Cao, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-07-15

    With application of nano-sized nickel-containing particles (Nano-Ni) expanding, the health concerns about their adverse effects on the pulmonary system are increasing. However, the mechanisms for the pulmonary toxicity of these materials remain unclear. In the present study, we focused on the impacts of NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) on sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, and investigated whether SIRT1 was involved in NiONPs-induced apoptosis. Although the NiONPs tended to agglomerate in fluid medium, they still entered into the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and released Ni{sup 2+} inside the cells. NiONPs at doses of 5, 10, and 20 μg/cm{sup 2} inhibited the cell viability. NiONPs' produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process, indicated by increased numbers of Annexin V positive cells and caspase-3 activation. The expression of SIRT1 was markedly down-regulated by the NiONPs, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of p53 (tumor protein 53) and overexpression of Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein). However, overexpression of SIRT1 through resveratrol treatment or transfection clearly attenuated the NiONPs-induced apoptosis and activation of p53 and Bax. Our results suggest that the repression of SIRT1 may underlie the NiONPs-induced apoptosis via p53 hyperacetylation and subsequent Bax activation. Because SIRT1 participates in multiple biologic processes by deacetylation of dozens of substrates, this knowledge of the impact of NiONPs on SIRT1 may lead to an improved understanding of the toxic mechanisms of Nano-Ni and provide a molecular target to antagonize Nano-Ni toxicity. - Highlights: • NiONPs were taken up by BEAS-2B cells and released Ni{sup 2+}. • NiONPs produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process. • NiONPs repressed SIRT1 expression and activated p53 and Bax. • Overexpression of SIRT1 attenuated NiONPs-induced apoptosis via deacetylation p53.

  3. Cell density governs the ability of human bronchial epithelial cells to recognize serum and transforming growth factor beta-1 as squamous differentiation-inducing agents.

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Y.; Gerwin, B. I.; Ruskie, S. E.; Pfeifer, A. M.; Harris, C. C.; Lechner, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Sparse (75 to 2000 cells/cm2) density cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells uniformly undergo terminal squamous differentiation when incubated in medium containing serum (fetal bovine serum [FBS]) or transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1). It was found that the cell density of the culture affects the probability that a cell will respond to these differentiation-inducing agents. Thus whereas irreversible inhibition of DNA synthesis occurs in sparse cell-density cultures within 24 hours after exposure, only a transient (less than 36 hours) depression in DNA synthesis was seen in high (more than 10,000 cells/cm2) density cultures. In addition, although phase microscopic image analysis revealed that virtually all of the cells displayed a squamous morphology within 1 hour after exposure to FBS or TGF-beta 1, observations made 48 to 72 hours later showed the presence of clusters of small prolate spheroid-shaped cells surrounded by many involucrin-positive squamous-appearing cells. Only the small cells were capable of DNA synthesis and cell division as determined by autoradiography and time-lapse photomicrographic images. These replicating cells immediately undergo squamous differentiation if they are subcultured and reinoculated at low cell density and incubated in medium supplemented with FBS or TGF-beta 1. Therefore the probability that a human bronchial epithelial cell will be refractive to FBS- or TGF-beta 1 induced terminal squamous differentiation is solely a function of the cell density of the culture. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:2221015

  4. Low-affinity receptor for IgE on human bronchial epithelial cells in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A M; Vignola, A M; Chanez, P; Godard, P; Bousquet, J

    1994-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells are activated in asthma but the mechanisms underlying this activation are poorly understood. We tested the possibility that bronchial epithelial cells recovered by brushing from 15 asthmatic and 11 control subjects may be activated by an IgE-dependent mechanism. The expression of the low-affinity IgE receptor (CD23) was studied by immunocytochemistry using the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique and immunofluorescence using confocal microscopy. Four of eight allergic asthmatic patients and none of the seven non-allergic asthmatic or control subjects had a positive expression of CD23. The functional activity of CD23 was examined in the cells recovered from these subjects by stimulating them with IgE/anti-IgE. 15-HETE was not released but endothelin was released in the three or four asthmatic patients who had a positive expression of CD23. None of the other subjects released any endothelin. This study suggests that bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic patients may be directly activated by an IgE-mediated mechanism. Images Figure 1 PMID:7835911

  5. A Biophysical Model for Integration of Electrical, Osmotic, and pH Regulation in the Human Bronchial Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Cibele V.; Jakobsson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A dynamical biophysical model for the functioning of an epithelium is presented. This model integrates the electrical and osmotic behaviors of the epithelium, taking into account intracellular conditions. The specific tissue modeled is the human bronchial epithelium, which is of particular interest, as it is the location of the most common lethal symptoms of cystic fibrosis. The model is implemented in a modular form to facilitate future application of the code to other epithelial tissue by inputting different transporters, channels, and geometric parameters. The model includes pH regulation as an integral component of overall regulation of epithelial function, through the interdependence of pH, bicarbonate concentration, and current. The procedures for specification, the validation of the model, and parametric studies are presented using available experimental data of cultured human bronchial epithelium. Parametric studies are performed to elucidate a), the contribution of basolateral chloride channels to the short-circuit current functional form, and b), the role that regulation of basolateral potassium conductance plays in epithelial function. PMID:20409466

  6. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Hill, Terence E; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Popov, Vsevolod L; Galindo, Cristi L; Garner, Harold R; Peters, C J; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent

    2010-01-15

    Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NF)kappaB, activator protein (AP)-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i.), resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN)-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  7. Role of reactive oxygen species in arsenic-induced transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhuo; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Budhraja, Amit; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Donghern; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • Short term exposure of cells to arsenic causes ROS generation. • Chronical exposure of cells to arsenic causes malignant cell transformation. • Inhibition of ROS generation reduces cell transformation by arsenic. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit reduced capacity of generating ROS. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit increased levels of antioxidants. - Abstract: Arsenic is an environmental carcinogen, its mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be investigated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be important. A previous study (Carpenter et al., 2011) has measured ROS level in human lung bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells and arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells and found that ROS levels were higher in transformed cells than that in parent normal cells. Based on these observations, the authors concluded that cell transformation induced by arsenic is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS. This conclusion is problematic because this study only measured the basal ROS levels in transformed and parent cells and did not investigate the role of ROS in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. The levels of ROS in arsenic-transformed cells represent the result and not the cause of cell transformation. Thus question concerning whether ROS are important in arsenic-induced cell transformation remains to be answered. In the present study, we used expressions of catalase (antioxidant against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2, antioxidant against O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) to decrease ROS level and investigated their role in the process of arsenic-induced cell transformation. Our results show that inhibition of ROS by antioxidant enzymes decreased arsenic-induced cell transformation, demonstrating that ROS are important in this process. We have also shown that in arsenic-transformed cells, ROS generation was lower and levels of antioxidants are higher than those in parent cells, in a disagreement with the previous

  8. [Oxidative stress and mitochondrion-related cell apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells induced by silica dust].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Rong, Yi; Cui, Xiuqing; Shen, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Xiao, Lili; Chen, Weihong

    2015-11-01

    To investigate oxidative stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis induced by silica dust in human normal bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), cell apoptotic rate, the expression level of Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA were measured after 16HBE cells were exposed to 37.5, 75, 150, 300 µg/mL respirable silica dust (diameter<2 µm, d50=1 µm)for 24 h in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)were tested after 16HBE cells were exposed to silica dust at above concentrations for 1.5, 3, 6, 12 h, respectively. Dose-dependent decreases of cell viability and the activity of SOD were observed when silica concentrations increased. The activity of LDH increased when silica concentrations elevated. Compared with the control group, cell viability significantly reduced in 75, 150, 300 µg/mL silica-treated groups (P<0.05). The activity of LDH significantly increased in 150, 300 µg/mL silica-treated groups when compared with the control group (P<0.05). The activity of SOD in all silica-treated groups were significantly lower in comparison with controls (P<0.05). Intracellular ROS levels reached peak values at 1.5 h of silica exposure and gradually dropped to the base level at 12 h. The relationship between ROS levels and silica exposure were dose-response at 1.5 h, 3 h and 6 h of exposure (P<0.05). Similar dose-dependent increase were observed for apoptotic rate and silica exposure (P<0.05). The expression levels of Bcl-2 mRNA decreased, and the expression levels of Bax mRNA increased when silica concentrations increased. The results showed that significantly positive correlations between ROS level and apoptotic rate (r=0.892,P<0.05)or the expression level of Bax mRNA (r=0.850,P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between ROS level and the expression level of Bcl-2 mRNA (r=-0.703,P<0.05). Silica dust could induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis in 16HBE cells. Oxidative stress

  9. Effects of RP 73401, a novel, potent and selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, on contractility of human, isolated bronchial muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Naline, E.; Qian, Y.; Advenier, C.; Raeburn, D.; Karlsson, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the smooth muscle relaxant effects of the novel, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor, RP 73401 in comparison with the classical PDE 4 inhibitor, rolipram, the non-selective PDE inhibitor, theophylline and the beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline on the human, isolated bronchus. 2. At resting tone, the rank order of potency (pD2) for the relaxants was RP 73401 > or = rolipram > or = isoprenaline >> theophylline. In terms of maximum relaxation produced (Emax) the PDE 4-selective inhibitors were similar, but the maximal effects (70-75% of theophylline, 3 mM) were lower than that observed with isoprenaline (98% of theophylline, 3 mM) or theophylline itself (100%). 3. On the human isolated bronchus pre-contracted with acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1 or 1.0 mM), the rank order of potency remained the same. The maximal responses to RP 73401 and rolipram were however markedly reduced (Emax 39.9-46.6%) compared with isoprenaline (Emax 79-85%). 4. In tissues pre-contracted with ACh (0.1 mM), RP 73401 and rolipram (10(-9)-10(-7) M) significantly and concentration-dependently increased tissue sensitivity to isoprenaline. RP 73401 and rolipram were similar in potency. Both selective PDE 4 inhibitors also significantly increased the maximal relaxant effects of isoprenaline. These effects were not observed with the PDE 3 inhibitor, siguazodan. 5. In terms of retention by tissues (an index of duration of action), the onset of action of RP 73401 (2.11 +/- 0.53 min) and rolipram (1.70 +/- 0.45 min) was significantly slower than that of isoprenaline (0.33 +/- 0.06 min) or theophylline (1.17 +/- 0.25 min). The retention of RP 73401 (89.0 +/- 21.9 min) on the human isolated bronchial tissues after washing was however dramatically longer than that of rolipram (18.3 +/- 4.5 min), theophylline (3.43 +/- 0.58 min) or isoprenaline (2.81 +/- 0.31 min). 6. These data indicate that RP 73401 is a potent and long acting relaxant of human

  10. Cordyceps militaris extract stimulates Cl(-) secretion across human bronchial epithelia by both Ca(2+)(-) and cAMP-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Fung, Jacky Chun-Kit; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Ma, Xin; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Ko, Wing-Hung

    2011-10-31

    The caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris (CM; Clavicipitaceae) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that can be artificially cultivated on a large scale. We have previously demonstrated that its stimulatory action on ion transport in human airway epithelia is similar to Cordyceps sinensis (Clavicipitaceae), which has been traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases. To investigate the signal transduction mechanism(s) underlying CM-induced ion transport activity in cultured human bronchial epithelia. 16HBE14o-, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to study the regulation of ion transport by the water extract of CM. CM extract was added to the apical or basolateral aspect of the epithelia. In subsequent experiments, different Cl(-) channel and K(+) channel blockers, adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, and an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator were used to examine the involvement of apical Cl(-) and basolateral K(+) channels in mediating CM-induced Cl(-) secretion and the underlying signal transduction mechanism(s). PKA activity was also measured in 16HBE14o- cells. CM stimulated Cl(-) secretion across 16HBE14o- monolayers in a dose-dependent manner. Cl(-) secretion could be inhibited by apical application of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-)channel blocker and the calcium-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC) blocker. Cl(-) secretion was sensitive to basolateral application of different K(+) channel blockers. Similar inhibitory patterns were obtained in nystatin-permeabilized epithelia. The CM-induced Cl(-) secretion could be inhibited by adenylate cyclase and PKA inhibitors as well as an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator. Data from the PKA assay suggested that CM extract caused a significant increase in PKA activity compared with untreated control epithelia. These results suggest that CM extract stimulated Cl(-) secretion across human bronchial epithelia, possibly via apical CFTR and CaCC, and the

  11. Bronchial mucosa produced by tissue engineering: a new tool to study cellular interactions in asthma.

    PubMed

    Chakir, J; Pagé, N; Hamid, Q; Laviolette, M; Boulet, L P; Rouabhia, M

    2001-01-01

    The use of fiberoptic bronchial biopsies has improved our understanding of the immunopathology of asthma. However, this approach offers a limited ability to perform mechanistic studies observing cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, which are a key issue in the study of airway remodeling. Tissue engineering is a technique that combines the use of biology and engineering expertise to generate a limitless amount of tissue from small samples. This technology allows for the study of cell interactions under conditions as close as possible to the natural environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an engineered human bronchial mucosa as a model to study cellular interactions in asthma. Human bronchial fibroblasts from normal and asthmatic donors were incorporated into collagen gel. Bronchial epithelial cells were seeded over this gel and then cultured in an air-liquid interface in the presence or the absence of T lymphocytes. Biopsy specimens from these engineered mucosa were taken for structural and ultrastructural analysis, and T lymphocytes were harvested and used to localize IL-5. Histologic analysis showed that engineered mucosa with normal bronchial cells presented a pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with the presence of mucus secretory cells. The electron microscopy analysis confirmed these histologic results. These features were comparable with those observed in normal bronchial tissues. However, in engineered mucosa from asthmatic subjects, the tissue structure was disorganized, particularly the epithelial cell arrangement. The percentage of IL-5(+) lymphocytes was significantly (P =.03) higher in engineered bronchial mucosa from asthmatic subjects (87% +/- 2%) compared with mucosa from normal volunteers (2% +/- 0.3%). Using tissue engineering, we produced an in vitro model of bronchial mucosa from normal and asthmatic subjects. These models could be a valuable tool to better understand key mechanisms involved in inflammation and

  12. An account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S; Whimster, W F

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. It has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. An examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. Corrugations are present in all these animals, except the hen and the raccoon, and they have been compared and contrasted with the condition in Man. The functional significance of these corrugations remains unknown, but, they could be important in equalizing tension in the tracheo-bronchial tree during inspiration, as well as in providing elastic recoil during expiration. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1010796

  13. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kulle, T J; Sauder, L R; Shanty, F; Kerr, H D; Farrell, B P; Miller, W R; Milman, J H

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 500 micrograms/m3 respirable ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures [(NH4)2SO4 or SO2], the combined exposure [(NH4)2SO4 and SO2], or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  14. Low-dose gamma-irradiation inhibits IL-6 secretion from human lung fibroblasts that promotes bronchial epithelial cell transformation by cigarette-smoke carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenshu; Xu, Xiuling; Bai, Lang; Padilla, Mabel T; Gott, Katherine M; Leng, Shuguang; Tellez, Carmen S; Wilder, Julie A; Belinsky, Steven A; Scott, Bobby R; Lin, Yong

    2012-07-01

    Despite decades of research in defining the health effects of low-dose (<100 mGy) ionizing photon radiation (LDR), the relationship between LDR and human cancer risk remains elusive. Because chemical carcinogens modify the tumor microenvironment, which is critical for cancer development, we investigated the role and mechanism of LDR in modulating the response of stromal cells to chemical carcinogen-induced lung cancer development. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL1 and CXCL5 from human lung fibroblasts was induced by cigarette-smoke carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), which was inhibited by a single dose of LDR. The activation of NF-κB, which is important for BPDE-induced IL-6 secretion, was also effectively suppressed by LDR. In addition, conditioned media from BPDE-treated fibroblasts activated STAT3 in the immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cell line Beas-2B, which was blocked with an IL-6 neutralizing antibody. Conditioned medium from LDR-primed and BPDE-treated fibroblast showed diminished capacity in activating STAT3. Furthermore, IL-6 enhanced BPDE-induced Beas-2B cell transformation in vitro. These results suggest that LDR inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis by suppressing secretion of cytokines such as IL-6 from fibroblasts in lung tumor-prone microenvironment.

  15. Wood dusts induce the production of reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pylkkänen, Lea; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene; Alenius, Harri; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2009-08-21

    Wood dusts are associated with several respiratory symptoms, e.g. impaired lung function and asthma, in exposed workers. However, despite the evidence from epidemiological studies, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated different wood dusts for their capacity to induce cytotoxicity and production of radical oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of the apoptotic caspase-3 enzyme in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Dusts from three different tree species widely used in wood industry were studied; birch and oak represented hardwood species, and pine a common softwood species. All the experiments were carried out in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 500 microg/ml) and the analysis was performed after 0.5, 2, 6, and 24h exposure. All wood dusts studied were cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner after 2 and 6h treatment. Exposure to pine, birch, or oak dust had a significant stimulating effect on the production of ROS. Also an induction in caspase-3 protease activity, one of the central components of the apoptotic cascade, was seen in BEAS-2B cells after 2 and 6h exposure to each of the wood dusts studied. In summary, we demonstrate that dusts from pine, birch and oak are cytotoxic, able to increase the production of ROS and the apoptotic response in human broncho-epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, our current data suggest oxidative stress by ROS as an important mechanism likely to function in wood dust related pulmonary toxicity although details of the cellular targets and cell-particle interactions remain to be solved. It is though tempting to speculate that redox-regulated transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1 may play a role in this wood dust-evoked process leading to apparently induced apoptosis of target cells.

  16. Pancreastatin molecular forms in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, N; Tateishi, K; Funakoshi, A; Miyasaka, K; Shimazoe, T; Kono, A; Iwamoto, N; Matsuoka, Y

    1994-01-01

    Circulating molecular forms with pancreastatin (PST)-like immunoreactivity in plasma from normal subjects were examined. An immunoreactive form corresponding to a human PST-like sequence [human chromogranin-A-(250-301)] (hPST-52) and a larger form (mol wt 15-21 kDa) were detected by gel filtration of plasma from normal subjects. On high performance liquid chromatography, predominant immunoreactive forms coeluted with the three larger forms which were purified from the xenograft of human pancreatic islet cell carcinoma cell line QGP-1N cells and with synthetic hPST-52. The fraction containing larger forms purified from xenograft of QGP-1N cells had biological activity equivalent to that of hPST-52 on the inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion. These results suggest that the larger molecular forms as well as hPST-52 may be physiologically important circulating forms of PST in human.

  17. Wedelolactone protects human bronchial epithelial cell injury against cigarette smoke extract-induced oxidant stress and inflammation responses through Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shumin; Hou, Xuefeng; Yuan, Jiarui; Tan, Xiaobin; Chen, Juan; Yang, Nan; Luo, Yi; Jiang, Ziyu; Jin, Ping; Dong, Zibo; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiaobin

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the leading cause of the development of various lung diseases including lung cancer through triggering oxidant stress and inflammatory responses which contributed to the lesions of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell. Wedelolactone (WEL), a natural compound from Eclipta prostrata L., has been found to possess the inhibitive effects on the proliferation and growth of cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of WEL on NHBE cell injury induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in vitro. It showed that the pretreatment WEL (2.5-20μM) resulted in a significant protective effect on 10% CSE-induced cell death in NHBE cells. The pretreatment with WEL dose-dependently and significantly reversed the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH and the level of MDA to normal level. We also found that the protein expression levels of COX-2 and ICAM-1 which are related to inflammatory response were remarkably reduced by WEL compared with 10% CSE treatment. Additionally, WEL also reduced the expressions of antioxidases including NAD(P)H dehydrogenase:Quinone 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Moreover, Nrf2 inhibitor all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) decreased remarkably their expressions. These results suggest that WEL protects NHBE cell against CSE-induced injury through modulating Nrf2 pathway. Our study indicates that WEL may be a new potential protective agent against CSE-induced lung injury.

  18. Theophylline action on primary human bronchial epithelial cells under proinflammatory stimuli and steroidal drugs: a therapeutic rationale approach

    PubMed Central

    Gallelli, Luca; Falcone, Daniela; Cannataro, Roberto; Perri, Mariarita; Serra, Raffaele; Pelaia, Girolamo; Maselli, Rosario; Savino, Rocco; Spaziano, Giuseppe; D’Agostino, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Theophylline is a natural compound present in tea. Because of its property to relax smooth muscle it is used in pharmacology for the treatment of airway diseases (ie, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma). However, this effect on smooth muscle is dose dependent and it is related to the development of side effects. Recently, an increasing body of evidence suggests that theophylline, at low concentrations, also has anti-inflammatory effects related to the activation of histone deacetylases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of theophylline alone and in combination with corticosteroids on human bronchial epithelial cells under inflammatory stimuli. Theophylline administrated alone was not able to reduce growth-stimulating signaling via extracellular signal-regulated kinases activation and matrix metalloproteases release, whereas it strongly counteracts this biochemical behavior when administered in the presence of corticosteroids. These data provide scientific evidence for supporting the rationale for the pharmacological use of theophylline and corticosteroid combined drug. PMID:28176948

  19. Theophylline action on primary human bronchial epithelial cells under proinflammatory stimuli and steroidal drugs: a therapeutic rationale approach.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, Luca; Falcone, Daniela; Cannataro, Roberto; Perri, Mariarita; Serra, Raffaele; Pelaia, Girolamo; Maselli, Rosario; Savino, Rocco; Spaziano, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Theophylline is a natural compound present in tea. Because of its property to relax smooth muscle it is used in pharmacology for the treatment of airway diseases (ie, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma). However, this effect on smooth muscle is dose dependent and it is related to the development of side effects. Recently, an increasing body of evidence suggests that theophylline, at low concentrations, also has anti-inflammatory effects related to the activation of histone deacetylases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of theophylline alone and in combination with corticosteroids on human bronchial epithelial cells under inflammatory stimuli. Theophylline administrated alone was not able to reduce growth-stimulating signaling via extracellular signal-regulated kinases activation and matrix metalloproteases release, whereas it strongly counteracts this biochemical behavior when administered in the presence of corticosteroids. These data provide scientific evidence for supporting the rationale for the pharmacological use of theophylline and corticosteroid combined drug.

  20. ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES INDUCE INTERLEUKIN-8 GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND P38 MAPK ACTIVATION IN NORMAL BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies suggest that ultrafine particles contribute to particulate matter-induced adverse health effects. Interleukin (IL)-8 is an important proinflammatory cytokine in the human lung that is induced in respiratory cells exposed to a variety of environmental insul...

  1. ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES INDUCE INTERLEUKIN-8 GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND P38 MAPK ACTIVATION IN NORMAL BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies suggest that ultrafine particles contribute to particulate matter-induced adverse health effects. Interleukin (IL)-8 is an important proinflammatory cytokine in the human lung that is induced in respiratory cells exposed to a variety of environmental insul...

  2. Benzo[ghi]perylene activates the AHR pathway to exert biological effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ojeda, Montserrat; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Perezpeña-Díazconti, Mario; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2016-08-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by incomplete combustion of organic material. In the Mexico City atmosphere, the most abundant PAH is benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), a gasoline combustion marker. At present, there are no reports of the effects of BghiP on human bronchial cells, so the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects in vitro of BghiP on the NL-20 cell line. Results showed that BghiP induced the formation of small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm, with absence of nuclear fragmentation. At 48h exposition, damage in cell membrane increased significantly at 1.24μg/mL of BghiP (p<0.05). Immunocytochemistry revealed that BghiP provokes nuclear translocation of AhR receptor, which indicates that this compound can induce transcription of genes via receptor binding (AhR pathway activation). BghiP induced a two-fold increase (p<0.05) in the expression of AhR and CYP4B1 (a lung-specific pathway effector). In the presence of the receptor antagonist CH-223191, the loss of viability, the nuclear translocation and the overexpression of genes decreased, though this did not prevent the formation of vesicles. BghiP induced oxidative stress and in presence of the receptor antagonist this increased significantly. In conclusion, BghiP can activate the overexpression of AhR and CYP4B1, and the effects are abated by the AhR receptor antagonist. This is the first report to prove that BghiP utilizes the AhR pathway to exert its toxic effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line .

  3. NORMAL HUMAN VARIATION: REFOCUSSING THE ENHANCEMENT DEBATE

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  4. Normal human variation: refocussing the enhancement debate.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-02-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range.

  5. Cadmium induces cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells through upregulation of eIF5A1 and NF-kappaB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Du, Ji-Ying; Huang, Dong-Yang; Lau, Andy T.Y.

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were dosed with cadmium (Cd). • A low level (2 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h elicited negligible cytotoxicity. • High levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h induced cell death. • High levels of Cd can upregulate the protein levels of eIF5A1 and NF-κB p65. • We suggest that eIF5A1 level is possibly modulated by NF-κB. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and Cd compounds are widely-distributed in the environment and well-known carcinogens. Here, we report that in CdCl{sub 2}-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), the level of p53 is dramatically decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the observed Cd-induced cytotoxicity is not likely due to the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Therefore, this prompted us to further study the responsive pro-apoptotic factors by proteomic approaches. Interestingly, we identified that high levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd can significantly upregulate the protein levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A1 (eIF5A1) and redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB p65. Moreover, there is an enhanced NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as chromatin-binding in Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. We also show that small interfering RNA-specific knockdown of eIF5A1 in Cd-exposed cells attenuated the Cd cytotoxicity, indicating the potential role of eIF5A1 in Cd cytotoxicity. As eIF5A1 is reported to be related with cell apoptosis but little is known about its transcriptional control, we hypothesize that NF-κB might likely modulate eIF5A1 gene expression. Notably, by bioinformatic analysis, several potential NF-κB binding sites on the upstream promoter region of eIF5A1 gene can be found. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that indeed there is enhanced NF-κB binding on eIF5A1 promoter region of Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time a regulatory mechanism for the pro

  6. Beclomethasone dipropionate and formoterol reduce oxidative/nitrosative stress generated by cigarette smoke extracts and IL-17A in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Angela Marina; Anzalone, Giulia; Albano, Giusy Daniela; Sano, Caterina Di; Gagliardo, Rosalia; Bonanno, Anna; Riccobono, Loredana; Nicolini, Gabriele; Ingrassia, Eleonora; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Profita, Mirella

    2013-10-15

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), cigarette smoke and oxidative/nitrosative stress are involved in inflammatory airway diseases, and the mechanisms behind these processes are still poorly understood. We investigated whether recombinant human IL-17A (rhIL-17A), in combination with cigarette smoke extracts (CSE), increases the levels of inducibile nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species, nitrotyrosine (NT) and the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1) in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). The effect of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), formoterol and their combination was also evaluated. We demonstrated that rhIL-17A or CSE alone increases iNOS expression, reactive oxygen species and NT production and STAT-1 downstream signalling activation in terms of STAT-1ser727 and STAT-1tyr701 phosphorylation. The combination of both stimuli further increased iNOS, ROS, NT and STAT-1ser727 phosphorylation. The silencing of STAT-1 expression partially reduced the levels of iNOS, reactive oxygen species and NT generated by rhIL-17A and inhibited the effect of CSE alone in 16HBE cells. The treatment of the cells with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis (o-aminophenylmercapto butadiene) abolished the expression of iNOS and STAT-1ser727 phosphorylation generated by rhIL-17A. 16HBE treated with BDP or formoterol alone partially suppressed the effect of IL-17A or CSE on ROS, NT, and STAT-1 activation. Furthermore the use of the drugs in combination showed an additive effect in 16HBE. Our findings demonstrate that IL-17A increases oxidative/nitrosative markers, likely via ERK1/2 downstream signalling and STAT-1 pathway activation in human bronchial epithelial cells. BDP and formoterol treatment reduces this effect showing an additive effect used in combination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of asiatic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, and oleanolic acid in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2015-04-01

    Protective effects of triterpenic acids, asiatic acid (AA), glycyrrhizic acid (GA), or oleanolic acid (OA), for two human bronchial epithelial cells, 16HBE and BEAS-2B cells, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced injury were examined. Cells were pretreated by triterpenic acid at 4 or 8 μmol/L and followed by H2O2 treatment. Results showed that H2O2 significantly upregulated both Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and also downregulated Bcl-2 expression in test cells. AA at these doses retained Bcl-2 expression, but GA and OA only at 8 μmol/L reserved Bcl-2 expression. Test triterpenic acids lowered cleaved caspase-3 expression dose-dependently. H2O2 treatment lowered Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and mitochondrial membrane potential in cells. Triterpenic acid pretreatments significantly maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. H2O2 enhanced reactive oxygen species, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2 levels in test cells. Three triterpenic acid treatments dose-dependently reversed these changes. H2O2 promoted the protein expression of p47(phox), gp91(phox), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). AA, GA, or OA pretreatments dose-dependently downregulated the expression of p47(phox), COX-2, NF-κB p65, and p-p38 but only at 8 μmol/L decreased gp91(phox) expression. These results support that these triterpenic acids could protect bronchial epithelial cells to attenuate apoptotic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress.

  8. The Creation and Statistical Evaluation of a Deterministic Model of the Human Bronchial Tree from HRCT Images

    PubMed Central

    Montesantos, Spyridon; Katz, Ira; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative description of the morphology of lung structure is essential prior to any form of predictive modeling of ventilation or aerosol deposition implemented within the lung. The human lung is a very complex organ, with airway structures that span two orders of magnitude and having a multitude of interfaces between air, tissue and blood. As such, current medical imaging protocols cannot provide medical practitioners and researchers with in-vivo knowledge of deeper lung structures. In this work a detailed algorithm for the generation of an individualized 3D deterministic model of the conducting part of the human tracheo-bronchial tree is described. Distinct initial conditions were obtained from the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of seven healthy volunteers. The algorithm developed is fractal in nature and is implemented as a self-similar space sub-division procedure. The expansion process utilizes physiologically realistic relationships and thresholds to produce an anatomically consistent human airway tree. The model was validated through extensive statistical analysis of the results and comparison of the most common morphological features with previously published morphometric studies and other equivalent models. The resulting trees were shown to be in good agreement with published human lung geometric characteristics and can be used to study, among other things, structure-function relationships in simulation studies. PMID:27977730

  9. [Humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth].

    PubMed

    Moura, Fernanda Maria de Jesus S Pires; Crizostomo, Cilene Delgado; Nery, Inez Sampaio; Mendonça, Rita de Cássia Magalhães; de Araújo, Olívia Dias; da Rocha, Silvana Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Bibliographical study that sought to identify the scientific production about humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth. The sources were scientific articles from SCIELO-Brasil's database, from 2000 to 2007. We obtained 13 articles as result from the search, which were grouped in the following categories: childbirth medicalization, humanization of assistance to childbirth, companion during childbirth and performance of the obstetric nurse. The analysis pointed out that the current paradigm is centralized on childbirth intervention, despite of humanization movements defending the natural and physiological childbirth made by the nurse. We concluded that qualified and humanized assistance to childbirth and birth privileges women's respect, dignity and autonomy, regarding women's active role in the birth process.

  10. Bronchial hygiene therapy.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, W T; Smith, B

    1995-01-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is useful and effective in the presence of careful patient evaluation, clear definition of therapeutic goals, and application of appropriate modalities. This article defines the variable bronchial hygiene modalities and discusses their indications, contraindications, and applications. Prophylactic and therapeutic bronchial hygiene modalities, diagnostic methods associated with bronchial hygiene therapy, inhaled antibiotic therapy, and therapist driven protocols are also addressed.

  11. Dynamic mapping of normal human hippocampal development.

    PubMed

    Gogtay, Nitin; Nugent, Tom F; Herman, David H; Ordonez, Anna; Greenstein, Deanna; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Clasen, Liv; Toga, Arthur W; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Thompson, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The hippocampus, which plays an important role in memory functions and emotional responses, has distinct subregions subserving different functions. Because the volume and shape of the hippocampus are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders, it is important to understand the trajectory of normal hippocampal development. We present the first dynamic maps to reveal the anatomical sequence of normal human hippocampal development. A novel hippocampal mapping technique was applied to a database of prospectively obtained brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (100 scans in 31 children and adolescents), scanned every 2 yr for 6-10 yr between ages 4 and 25. Our results establish that the structural development of the human hippocampus is remarkably heterogeneous, with significant differences between posterior (increase over time) and anterior (loss over time) subregions. These distinct developmental trajectories of hippocampal subregions may parallel differences in their functional development.

  12. Lack of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and to isocapnic dry air hyperventilation in heart/lung and double-lung transplant recipients with normal lung histology. The Paris-Sud Lung Transplant Group.

    PubMed

    Herve, P; Picard, N; Le Roy Ladurie, M; Silbert, D; Cerrina, J; Le Roy Ladurie, F; Chapelier, A; Dartevelle, P; Simonneau, G; Parquin, F

    1992-06-01

    To investigate whether survivors of heart/lung and double-lung transplantations have normal or increased nonspecific bronchial responsiveness, nine heart/lung and four double-lung transplant recipients with normal lung histology underwent methacholine challenge and voluntary isocapnic dry air hyperventilation (VIH) in a randomized order at a mean time of 14.8 +/- 12.1 months after surgery. Transplant recipients were compared with 10 normal subjects and 11 patients with mild asthma. Asthmatic patients had a mean provocative concentration of methacholine inducing a 20% fall (PC20) in FEV1 of 3.4 +/- 3.6 mg/ml (SD). Seventy seven percent of the transplant recipients and 70% of the normal subjects had PC20 superior to 32 mg/ml. The percentage fall from baseline FEV1 after VIH was 12.6 +/- 10.4% in asthmatic patients as compared with 1.9 +/- 2.9% in transplant recipients (p = 0.002) and 0.45 +/- 1.2% in normal subjects (p = 0.001). The decrease in FEV1 after VIH was similar in transplant recipients and normal subjects (p = 0.14). These results show that heart/lung or double-lung transplant recipients with normal lung histology have a normal response to nonspecific bronchial stimulation.

  13. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae adhere to and invade human bronchial epithelial cells via an interaction of lipooligosaccharide with the PAF receptor.

    PubMed

    Swords, W E; Buscher, B A; Ver Steeg Ii, K; Preston, A; Nichols, W A; Weiser, J N; Gibson, B W; Apicella, M A

    2000-07-01

    Adherence and invasion are thought to be key events in the pathogenesis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The role of NTHi lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in adherence was examined using an LOS-coated polystyrene bead adherence assay. Beads coated with NTHi 2019 LOS adhered significantly more to 16HBE14 human bronchial epithelial cells than beads coated with truncated LOS isolated from an NTHi 2019 pgmB:ermr mutant (P = 0.037). Adherence was inhibited by preincubation of cell monolayers with NTHi 2019 LOS (P = 0.0009), but not by preincubation with NTHi 2019 pgmB:ermr LOS. Competitive inhibition studies with a panel of compounds containing structures found within NTHi LOS suggested that a phosphorylcholine (ChoP) moiety was involved in adherence. Further experiments revealed that mutations affecting the oligosaccharide region of LOS or the incorporation of ChoP therein caused significant decreases in the adherence to and invasion of bronchial cells by NTHi 2019 (P < 0.01). Analysis of infected monolayers by confocal microscopy showed that ChoP+ NTHi bacilli co-localized with the PAF receptor. Pretreatment of bronchial cells with a PAF receptor antagonist inhibited invasion by NTHi 2109 and two other NTHi strains expressing ChoP+ LOS glycoforms exhibiting high reactivity with an anti-ChoP antibody on colony immunoblots. These data suggest that a particular subset of ChoP+ LOS glycoforms could mediate NTHi invasion of bronchial cells by means of interaction with the PAF receptor.

  14. Human primary bronchial epithelial cells respond differently to titanium dioxide nanoparticles than the lung epithelial cell lines A549 and BEAS-2B.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Akfur, Christine M; Andersson, Per Ola; Lejon, Christian; Osterlund, Lars; Bucht, Anders

    2012-09-01

    We have compared the cellular uptake and responses of five preparations of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) between normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and epithelial cell lines (A549 and BEAS-2B). The P25 nanoparticles, containing both anatase and rutile modifications, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 in all three cell types used. Pure anatase and rutile particles provoked differential IL-8 response in A549 and no response in BEAS-2B cells despite similar formation of ROS. The pure TiO(2) modifications also provoked release of the inflammatory mediators: IL-6, G-CSF and VEGF, in NHBE cells but not in the two cell lines. We conclude that the responsiveness of lung epithelial cells is strongly dependent on both the physicochemical properties of TiO(2) nanoparticles and the type of responder cells. The differential pro-inflammatory responsiveness of primary lung epithelial cells compared with immortalized cell lines should be considered in the assessment of adverse reactions to inhaled nanoparticles.

  15. Short-term exposure of nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells to carcinogenic chromium(VI) compromises their respiratory capacity and alters their bioenergetic signature

    PubMed Central

    Cerveira, Joana F.; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Urbano, Ana M.; Cuezva, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on mammalian cell energetics revealed alterations suggestive of a shift to a more fermentative metabolism. Aiming at a more defined understanding of the metabolic effects of Cr(VI) and of their molecular basis, we assessed the impact of a mild Cr(VI) exposure on critical bioenergetic parameters (lactate production, oxygen consumption and intracellular ATP levels). Cells derived from normal human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cell line), the main in vivo target of Cr(VI) carcinogenicity, were subjected for 48 h to 1 μM Cr(VI). We could confirm a shift to a more fermentative metabolism, resulting from the simultaneous inhibition of respiration and stimulation of glycolysis. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in the protein levels of the catalytic subunit (subunit β) of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) and a concomitant marked increase in those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The corresponding alteration in the β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH protein ratio (viewed as a bioenergetic signature) upon Cr(VI) exposure was in agreement with the observed attenuation of cellular respiration and enhancement of glycolytic flux. Altogether, these results constitute a novel finding in terms of the molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) effects. PMID:25161867

  16. Bystander autophagy mediated by radiation-induced exosomal miR-7-5p in non-targeted human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Man; Wang, Yu; Shang, Zeng-Fu; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Xie, Da-Fei; Wang, Qi; Guan, Hua; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) describes a set of biological effects in non-targeted cells that receive bystander signals from the irradiated cells. RIBE brings potential hazards to adjacent normal tissues in radiotherapy, and imparts a higher risk than previously thought. Excessive release of some substances from irradiated cells into extracellular microenvironment has a deleterious effect. For example, cytokines and reactive oxygen species have been confirmed to be involved in RIBE process via extracellular medium or gap junctions. However, RIBE-mediating signals and intercellular communication pathways are incompletely characterized. Here, we first identified a set of differentially expressed miRNAs in the exosomes collected from 2 Gy irradiated human bronchial epithelial BEP2D cells, from which miR-7-5p was found to induce autophagy in recipient cells. This exosome-mediated autophagy was significantly attenuated by miR-7-5p inhibitor. Moreover, our data demonstrated that autophagy induced by exosomal miR-7-5p was associated with EGFR/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Together, our results support the involvement of secretive exosomes in propagation of RIBE signals to bystander cells. The exosomes-containing miR-7-5p is a crucial mediator of bystander autophagy. PMID:27417393

  17. Short-term exposure of nontumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells to carcinogenic chromium(VI) compromises their respiratory capacity and alters their bioenergetic signature.

    PubMed

    Cerveira, Joana F; Sánchez-Aragó, María; Urbano, Ana M; Cuezva, José M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] on mammalian cell energetics revealed alterations suggestive of a shift to a more fermentative metabolism. Aiming at a more defined understanding of the metabolic effects of Cr(VI) and of their molecular basis, we assessed the impact of a mild Cr(VI) exposure on critical bioenergetic parameters (lactate production, oxygen consumption and intracellular ATP levels). Cells derived from normal human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cell line), the main in vivo target of Cr(VI) carcinogenicity, were subjected for 48 h to 1 μM Cr(VI). We could confirm a shift to a more fermentative metabolism, resulting from the simultaneous inhibition of respiration and stimulation of glycolysis. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in the protein levels of the catalytic subunit (subunit β) of the mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) and a concomitant marked increase in those of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The corresponding alteration in the β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH protein ratio (viewed as a bioenergetic signature) upon Cr(VI) exposure was in agreement with the observed attenuation of cellular respiration and enhancement of glycolytic flux. Altogether, these results constitute a novel finding in terms of the molecular mechanisms of Cr(VI) effects.

  18. Involvement of p53 mutation and mismatch repair proteins dysregulation in NNK-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhang, Shuilian; Huang, Xiaobin; Chen, Kailin; Shen, Jing; Wang, Zhengyang

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is essential for normal cellular functions and cell survival. Its instability can cause genetic aberrations and is considered as a hallmark of most cancers. To investigate the carcinogenesis process induced by tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK, we studied the dynamic changes of two important protectors of genome integrity, p53 and MMR system, in malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells after NNK exposure. Our results showed that the expression of MLH1, one of the important MMR proteins, was decreased early and maintained the downregulation during the transformation in a histone modification involved and DNA methylation-independent manner. Another MMR protein PMS2 also displayed a declined expression while being in a later stage of transformation. Moreover, we conducted p53 mutation analysis and revealed a mutation at codon 273 which led to the replacement of arginine by histidine. With the mutation, DNA damage-induced activation of p53 was significantly impaired. We further reintroduced the wild-type p53 into the transformed cells, and the malignant proliferation can be abrogated by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings indicate that p53 and MMR system play an important role in the initiation and progression of NNK-induced transformation, and p53 could be a potential therapeutic target for tobacco-related cancers.

  19. The response of a human bronchial epithelial cell line to histamine: Intracellular calcium changes and extracellular release of inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, T.L.; Paradiso, A.M.; Madden, M.C.; McKinnon, K.P.; Devlin, R.B. )

    1991-11-01

    Epithelial cells are likely to modulate inflammation and tissue repair in the airways, but the factors responsible for these processes remain unclear. Because human airway epithelia are infrequently available for in vitro studies, transformed epithelial cell lines are of interest as models. The authors therefore investigated the response of an SV-40/adenovirus-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) to histamine, a mediator with relevance for airway diseases. The intracellular calcium response to histamine (10(-4) M) was measured, using Fura-2 and microspectrofluorimetry. Histamine induced a transient increase in intracellular calcium that originated from intracellular sources; this effect was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine, suggesting that BEAS cells retain functioning histamine receptors. BEAS cells were grown to confluence on microporous, collagen-coated filters, allowing measurement of vectorial release of soluble mediators. Monolayers exposed to histamine for 30 min released interleukin-6 and fibronectin in the apical direction, in a dose-dependent manner. Little eicosanoid production was induced by histamine, either in the apical or the basolateral direction, although BEAS cells constitutively produced small amounts of prostaglandin E2 and 15-HETE. However, these cells formed large amounts of eicosanoids in response to ozone exposure as a positive control. Comparison of their data with published reports for human airway epithelia in primary culture suggests that the BEAS cell line is, in a number of respects, a relevant model for the study of airway epithelial responses to a variety of stimuli.

  20. Oscillatory Flow in the Human Airways from the Mouth through Several Bronchial Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banko, Andrew; Coletti, Filippo; Elkins, Chris; Eaton, John

    2014-11-01

    The time-varying flow is studied experimentally in an anatomically accurate model of the human airways from the mouth through the fourth to eighth generation of the bronchi. The airway geometry is obtained from the CT scan of a healthy adult male of normal height and build. The three-component, three-dimensional mean velocity field is obtained throughout the entire model using phase-locked magnetic resonance velocimetry. A pulsatile pump drives a sinusoidal waveform (inhalation and exhalation) with frequency and stroke-length such that the mean trachea Reynolds number at peak inspiration is Re = 4200 and the Womersley number is α = 7. This represents a regime of moderate exertion. Integral parameters are defined to quantify the degree of velocity profile non-uniformity (which correlates with axial dispersion) and secondary flow strength (which correlates with lateral dispersion). It is found that the streamwise momentum flux and secondary flow strength increase and decrease in proportion throughout most of the breathing cycle. On the other hand, the strength of secondary flows during the 10% of the breathing cycle surrounding flow reversal remains approximately half of that at peak inspiration while the streamwise momentum flux goes to zero. The strong and persistent secondary flows have important implications for dispersion of scalar or particulate contaminants in the lungs.

  1. Roflumilast Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Human Differentiated Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Manuel; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A.; Tenor, Herman; Cortijo, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute exacerbations in COPD and asthma. RSV infects bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) that trigger RSV associated lung pathology. This study explores whether the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor Roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), alters RSV infection of well-differentiated HBE (WD-HBE) in vitro. WD-HBE were RSV infected in the presence or absence of RNO (0.1-100 nM). Viral infection (staining of F and G proteins, nucleoprotein RNA level), mRNA of ICAM-1, ciliated cell markers (digital high speed videomicroscopy, β-tubulin immunofluorescence, Foxj1 and Dnai2 mRNA), Goblet cells (PAS), mRNA of MUC5AC and CLCA1, mRNA and protein level of IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, formation of H2O2 and the anti-oxidative armamentarium (mRNA of Nrf2, HO-1, GPx; total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured at day 10 or 15 post infection. RNO inhibited RSV infection of WD-HBE, prevented the loss of ciliated cells and markers, reduced the increase of MUC5AC and CLCA1 and inhibited the increase of IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and ICAM-1. Additionally RNO reversed the reduction of Nrf2, HO-1 and GPx mRNA levels and consequently restored the TAC and reduced the H2O2 formation. RNO inhibits RSV infection of WD-HBE cultures and mitigates the cytopathological changes associated to this virus. PMID:23936072

  2. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion is suppressed by TMEM16A or CFTR channel activity in human cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Guido; Bossard, Florian; Goepp, Julie; Verkman, A. S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.; Hanrahan, John W.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel at the apical plasma membrane. Impaired bacterial clearance and hyperactive innate immune response are hallmarks of the CF lung disease, yet the existence of and mechanism accounting for the innate immune defect that occurs before infection remain controversial. Inducible expression of either CFTR or the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A attenuated the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and CXCL1/2 in two human respiratory epithelial models under air–liquid but not liquid–liquid interface culture. Expression of wild-type but not the inactive G551D-CFTR indicates that secretion of the chemoattractant IL-8 is inversely proportional to CFTR channel activity in cftr∆F508/∆F508 immortalized and primary human bronchial epithelia. Similarly, direct but not P2Y receptor–mediated activation of TMEM16A attenuates IL-8 secretion in respiratory epithelia. Thus augmented proinflammatory cytokine secretion caused by defective anion transport at the apical membrane may contribute to the excessive and persistent lung inflammation in CF and perhaps in other respiratory diseases associated with documented down-regulation of CFTR (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Direct pharmacological activation of TMEM16A offers a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce the inflammation of CF airway epithelia. PMID:22973054

  3. Involvement of HIF-2α-mediated inflammation in arsenite-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Yuan; Pang, Ying; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-10-15

    Arsenic is a well established human carcinogen that causes diseases of the lung. Some studies have suggested a link between inflammation and lung cancer; however, it is unknown if arsenite-induced inflammation causally contributes to arsenite-caused malignant transformation of cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation during neoplastic transformation induced in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by chronic exposure to arsenite. The results showed that, on acute or chronic exposure to arsenite, HBE cells over-expressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The data also indicated that HIF-2α was involved in arsenite-induced inflammation. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-8 were essential for the malignant progression of arsenite-transformed HBE cells. Thus, these experiments show that HIF-2α mediates arsenite-induced inflammation and that such inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. The results provide a link between the inflammatory response and the acquisition of a malignant transformed phenotype by cells chronically exposed to arsenite and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite induces inflammation. • Arsenite-induced the increases of IL-6 and IL-8 via HIF-2α. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

  4. Transcriptomic Analyses of the Biological Effects of Airborne PM2.5 Exposure on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhixiang; Liu, Yanghua; Duan, Fengkui; Qin, Mengnan; Wu, Fengchang; Sheng, Wang; Yang, Lixin; Liu, Jianguo; He, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated high levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) with increased respiratory diseases. In order to investigate the mechanisms of air pollution-induced lung toxicity in humans, human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were exposed to various concentrations of particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) collected from Beijing, China. After observing that PM2.5 decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, we first used Illumina RNA-seq to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM2.5-induced toxicity to 16HBE cells. A total of 539 genes, 283 up-regulated and 256 down-regulated, were identified to be significantly differentially expressed after exposure to 25 μg/cm2 PM2.5. PM2.5 induced a large number of genes involved in responses to xenobtiotic stimuli, metabolic response, and inflammatory and immune response pathways such as MAPK signaling and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, which might contribute to PM2.5-related pulmonary diseases. We then confirmed our RNA-seq results by qPCR and by analysis of IL-6, CYP1A1, and IL-8 protein expression. Finally, ELISA assay demonstrated a significant association between exposure to PM2.5 and secretion of IL-6. This research provides a new insight into the mechanisms underlying PM2.5-induced respiratory diseases in Beijing. PMID:26382838

  5. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion is suppressed by TMEM16A or CFTR channel activity in human cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelia.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Bossard, Florian; Goepp, Julie; Verkman, A S; Galietta, Luis J V; Hanrahan, John W; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2012-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel at the apical plasma membrane. Impaired bacterial clearance and hyperactive innate immune response are hallmarks of the CF lung disease, yet the existence of and mechanism accounting for the innate immune defect that occurs before infection remain controversial. Inducible expression of either CFTR or the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A attenuated the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and CXCL1/2 in two human respiratory epithelial models under air-liquid but not liquid-liquid interface culture. Expression of wild-type but not the inactive G551D-CFTR indicates that secretion of the chemoattractant IL-8 is inversely proportional to CFTR channel activity in cftr(∆F508/∆F508) immortalized and primary human bronchial epithelia. Similarly, direct but not P2Y receptor-mediated activation of TMEM16A attenuates IL-8 secretion in respiratory epithelia. Thus augmented proinflammatory cytokine secretion caused by defective anion transport at the apical membrane may contribute to the excessive and persistent lung inflammation in CF and perhaps in other respiratory diseases associated with documented down-regulation of CFTR (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Direct pharmacological activation of TMEM16A offers a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce the inflammation of CF airway epithelia.

  6. Appalachian mountaintop mining particulate matter induces neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells and promotes tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Chen, Michael; Knuckles, Travis; Wen, Sijin; Luo, Juhua; Ellis, Emily; Hendryx, Michael; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2014-11-04

    Epidemiological studies suggest that living near mountaintop coal mining (MTM) activities is one of the contributing factors for high lung cancer incidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term carcinogenic potential of MTM particulate matter (PMMTM) exposure on human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results show that chronic exposure (3 months) to noncytotoxic, physiological relevant concentration (1 μg/mL) of PMMTM, but not control particle PMCON, induced neoplastic transformation, accelerated cell proliferation, and enhanced cell migration of the exposed lung cells. Xenograft transplantation of the PMMTM-exposed cells in mice caused no apparent tumor formation, but promoted tumor growth of human lung carcinoma H460 cells, suggesting the tumor-promoting effect of PMMTM. Chronic exposure to the main inorganic chemical constituent of PMMTM, molybdenum but not silica, similarly induced cell transformation and tumor promotion, suggesting the contribution of molybdenum, at least in part, in the PMMTM effects. These results provide new evidence for the carcinogenic potential of PMMTM and support further risk assessment and implementation of exposure control for PMMTM.

  7. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM{sub 10} and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM{sub 10} collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM{sub 10} exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  8. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher H; Catallo, W James; Wilson, Vincent L; Mitchell, James B

    2009-10-01

    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from <1 microm to 1 mm. An organic extract of BDS is both cytotoxic and genotoxic to normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Based on the oxidizing potential of BDS, we hypothesized that an organic extract of this particulate matter would (1) cause enzyme inactivation due to protein amino acid oxidation and (2) induce oxidative DNA damage in NHBE cells. Thus, our aims were to determine the effect of butadiene soot ethanol extract (BSEE) on both enzyme activity and the expression of proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Catalase was found to be sensitive to BDS as catalase activity was potently diminished in the presence of BSEE. Using Western analysis, both the alpha isoform of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (alpha-hOGG1) and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1) were shown to be significantly overexpressed as compared to untreated controls after exposure of NHBE cells to BSEE. Our results indicate that BSEE is capable of effectively inactivating the antioxidant enzyme catalase, presumably via oxidation of protein amino acids. The presence of oxidized biomolecules may partially explain the extranuclear fluorescence that is detected when NHBE cells are treated with an organic extract of BDS. Overexpression of both alpha-hOGG1 and APE-1 proteins following treatment of NHBE cells with BSEE suggests that this mixture causes oxidative DNA damage.

  9. Comparison of cellular and transcriptomic effects between electronic cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Garat, Anne; Beauval, Nicolas; Soyez, Mélissa; Allorge, Delphine; Garçon, Guillaume; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-05

    The use of electronic cigarette (e-cig) can be considered as an alternative to smoking. However, due to a lack of thorough toxicological studies, absolute safety of these products cannot be guaranteed. The aim of this in vitro work was to investigate the potential toxicity of e-vapors generated by a smoking machine in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells cultured at air-liquid interface, in comparison to cigarette smoke (CS). Although CS decreased strongly cell viability from 48min exposure, e-vapors induced no cytotoxicity up to 288min exposure. Moreover, oxidative stress was evidenced only after exposure to CS, with a decrease secretion of GRO-ɑ from 8min and of IL-8 and MCP-1 after 48min exposure. Only a low increase of IL-6 secretion was measured in cells exposed to e-vapors. Finally, transcriptomic data of exposed cells indicated that a large number of genes were deregulated in response to CS, especially genes involved in important biological functions as oxidative stress and cell death, while e-vapors elicited very discrete modulation. These results strongly suggest a lower toxicity of e-vapors compared to CS in the BEAS-2B cell line and constitute a baseline for further experimental studies with a larger spectrum of e-liquids and e-cig models.

  10. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  11. LncRNA LINC00341 mediates PM2.5-induced cell cycle arrest in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiqin; Wu, Jianjun; Peng, Xiaowu; Yang, Ti; Liu, Meiling; Chen, Lijian; Dai, Xin; Wang, Zhishan; Yang, Chengfeng; Yan, Bing; Jiang, Yiguo

    2017-07-05

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) could adhere to many toxic substances and cause respiratory diseases.However, the associated pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of PM2.5 on cell cycle progression in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) and the underlying mechanism mediated by lncRNAs. PM2.5 treatment inhibited cell proliferation in 16HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner. The results of flow cytometry assay (FCM) showed that PM2.5 induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The lncRNA microarray analysis indicated that treatment with PM2.5 led to the alteration of lncRNA expression profiles. qRT-PCR were performed to confirm the differential expression of several candidate lncRNAs. lncRNA LINC00341 was significantly up-regulated in 16HBE cell after PM2.5 treatment. Further functional studies showed that knockdown of lncRNA LINC00341 reversed PM2.5-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and p21 expression. These results suggest that up-regulation of the lncRNA LINC00341 mediates PM2.5-induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, and probably through regulating the expression of p21. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Inductive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on interleukin 8 gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and its regulatory mechanism].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Xu, Lei; Yan, Zhen; Wu, Yi-ming; Wu, Wei-dong

    2013-02-01

    To clarify the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) (30 nm in diameter) on the interleukin 8 (IL-8) gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and its regulatory mechanism. BEAS-2B cells were used in the study. The MTT assay was employed to evaluate the damage to BEAS-2B cells by ZnO-NPs. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-8 in the BEAS-2B cells exposed to ZnO-NPs. The IL-8 mRNA decay assay was used to determine the effect of ZnO-NPs on IL-8 mRNA stability. Exposure to ZnO-NPs significantly increased the level of IL-8 mRNA in BEAS-2B cells and the level of IL-8 protein in supernatant medium. The transcription inhibitor significantly reduced the mRNA expression of IL-8 induced by ZnO-NPs. ZnO-NPs significantly delayed IL-8 mRNA degradation in the BEAS-2B cells that were pretreated with actinomycin D for terminating IL-8 mRNA synthesis. ZnO-NPs can increase the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-8 and IL-8 mRNA stability in BEAS-2B cells.

  13. Resveratrol and 4-hydroxynonenal act in concert to increase glutamate cysteine ligase expression and glutathione in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongqiao; Shih, Albert; Rinna, Alessandra; Forman, Henry Jay

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to protect against oxidative stress through modulating antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated resveratrol-mediated induction of glutathione (GSH) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the combined effect of resveratrol and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) on GSH synthesis in cultured HBE1 human bronchial epithelial cells. Resveratrol increased GSH and the mRNA contents of both the catalytic (GCLC) and modulatory subunit (GCLM) of GCL. Combined HNE and resveratrol treatment increased GSH content and GCL mRNAs to a greater extent than either compound did alone. Compared to individual agent, combining exposure to HNE and resveratrol also showed more protection against cell death caused by oxidative stress. These effects of combined exposure were additive rather than synergistic. In addition, Nrf2 silencing significantly decreased the combined effect of HNE and resveratrol on GCL induction. Our data suggest that resveratrol increases GSH and GCL gene expression and that there is an additive effect on GSH synthesis between resveratrol and HNE. The results also reveal that Nrf2-EpRE signaling was involved in the combined effects. PMID:18983812

  14. Effects of gasoline and ethanol-gasoline exhaust exposure on human bronchial epithelial and natural killer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roth, Michèle; Usemann, Jakob; Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas C R; Beier, Konstantin; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Latzin, Philipp; Müller, Loretta

    2017-08-24

    Air pollution exposure, including passenger car emissions, may cause substantial respiratory health effects and cancer death. In western countries, the majority of passenger cars are driven by gasoline fuel. Recently, new motor technologies and ethanol fuels have been introduced to the market, but potential health effects have not been thoroughly investigated. We developed and verified a coculture model composed of bronchial epithelial cells (ECs) and natural killer cells (NKs) mimicking the human airways to compare toxic effects between pure gasoline (E0) and ethanol-gasoline-blend (E85, 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline) exhaust emitted from a flexfuel gasoline car. We drove a steady state cycle, exposed ECs for 6h and added NKs. We assessed exhaust effects in ECs alone and in cocultures by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and oxidative stress assay. We found no toxic effects after exposure to E0 or E85 compared to air controls. Comparison between E0 and E85 exposure showed a weak association for less oxidative DNA damage after E85 exposure compared to E0. Our results indicate that short-term exposure to gasoline exhaust may have no major toxic effects in ECs and NKs and that ethanol as part of fuel for gasoline cars may be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of transcription factors in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to aqueous extracts of mainstream cigarette smoke in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Takashi; Hirata, Tadashi; Mine, Toshiki; Fukano, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most sensitive transcription factor activated by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and to explore cigarette smoke components that have high biological activities in a cell-base assay. Previously, we found evidence that implicated 10 different transcription factors as having a high biological activity to CSE in vitro, based on the results of a comprehensive gene expression profile. For this study, luciferase reporter assays for each transcription factor were developed in two types of human bronchial epithelial cells: NCI-H292 and BEAS-2B cells. The results demonstrated that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/anti-oxidant response element (ARE) pathway was the most sensitive in response to CSE. Consistently, hemo oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a downstream target gene of NRF2, was effectively up-regulated in BEAS-2B cells exposed to CSE. Moreover, among 1395 cigarette smoke components, naphthoquinones including 9,10-phenaotrenquinone, quinones, benzenediols and α, β-unsaturated carbonyls, were identified as major smoke components that contribute to activating the NRF2/ARE pathway, as indicated by the ARE-reporter assay in BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, NRF2 appears to be a key molecule in the CSE-induced cellular response, and the employed methodology is helpful for the analysis of molecular and cellular effects by CSE.

  16. Effects of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter on Cellular Oxidant Radical Generation in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Longfei; Rui, Wei; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of size-fractionated (i.e., <1; 1–2.5, and 2.5–10 µm in an aerodynamic diameter) ambient particulate matter (PM) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and cell viability in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The PM samples were collected from an urban site (uPM) in Beijing and a steel factory site (sPM) in Anshan, China, from March 2013 to December 2014. Metal elements, organic and elemental carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions in the uPM and sPM were analyzed. The cell viability and ROS generation in PM-exposed BEAS-2B cells were measured by MTS and DCFH-DA. The results showed that both uPM and sPM caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in ROS generation. The level of ROS measured in sPM1.0 was approximately triple that in uPM1.0. The results of correlation analysis showed that the ROS activity and cytotoxicity were related to different PM composition. Moreover, deferoxamine (DFO) significantly prevented the increase of ROS generation and the decrease of cell viability. Taken together, our results suggest that the metals absorbed on PM induced oxidant radical generation in BEAS-2B cells that could lead to impairment of pulmonary function. PMID:27171105

  17. MicroRNA-146a modulates human bronchial epithelial cell survival in response to the cytokine-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiangde Nelson, Amy; Wang Xingqi; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Kim, Miok; Sato, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Masanori; Li Yingji; Sun Jianhong; Michalski, Joel; Patil, Amol; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.

    2009-02-27

    MicroRNA plays an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and cell death. The current study found that miRNA-146a was up-regulated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in response to stimulation by TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (a mixture of IL-1ss, IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha}). TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (TCM) induced apoptosis in HBECs (3.4 {+-} 0.6% of control vs 83.1 {+-} 4.0% of TCM treated cells, p < 0.01), and this was significantly blocked by the miRNA-146a mimic (8.8 {+-} 1.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, a miRNA-146a inhibitor had only a modest effect on cell survival but appeared to augment the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to the cytokines. The MicroRNA-146a mimic appears to modulate HBEC survival through a mechanism of up-regulating Bcl-XL and STAT3 phosphorylation, and by this mechanism it could contribute to tissue repair and remodeling.

  18. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  19. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  20. Expression profile of lncRNA in human bronchial epithelial cells response to Talaromyces marneffei infection: A microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Li, Meihua; Luo, Honglin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Jianquan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Lan, Xiuwan; He, Zhiyi

    2017-03-01

    Talaromyces marneffei is an important opportunistic pathogenic fungus capable of causing systemic lethal infection through inhalation of its conidia. However, little is known about the pathogenesis and interactions between Talaromyces marneffei and host. The aim of this study was to identify potential long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and coding genes associated with interactions between airway epithelial cell and Talaromyces marneffei conidia. We carried out a microarray analysis to determine the expression profile of lncRNA and mRNA in human bronchial epithelial cell in response to Talaromyces marneffei infection. Compared to control group, we found that 370 and 149 lncRNAs were up and down regulated, respectively. Meanwhile, the expression level of 269 and 60 mRNAs was increased and decreased, respectively. To understand the potential role of the differentially expressed lncRNAs, we performed functional annotations of the corresponding coding genes using gene ontology and pathway analyses. Our results provide insights into the pathogenesis of early infection by Talaromyces marneffei.

  1. Adaptation to acrolein through upregulating the protection by glutathione in human bronchial epithelial cells: the materialization of the hormesis concept.

    PubMed

    Sthijns, Mireille M J P E; Randall, Matthew J; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2014-04-18

    Acrolein is a thiol reactive compound present in cigarette smoke and plays a pivotal role in the deleterious effects of smoking. Acrolein causes toxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose dependent manner. GSH forms the first line of defense against acrolein-induced toxicity. At high doses of acrolein (⩾10 μM) the capacity of the cellular protection by GSH is overwhelmed and GSH is not able to quench all the acrolein, resulting in cytotoxicity. At a relatively low dose of acrolein (3 μM), no cytotoxicity is observed due to protection by GSH. Moreover we found that exposure to a low dose of acrolein protects cells against the toxic effect of a second higher dose of acrolein. The adaptation to acrolein is induced via Nrf2 mediated gene expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase leading to elevated GSH levels. This upregulation of the protection by GSH demonstrates a hormetic response to acrolein. Hormesis is an adaptive or compensatory response induced by a relatively subtle challenge of homeostasis by a toxic compound. Insight into the mechanism of hormesis is mandatory for a more accurate societal regulation of toxic compounds.

  2. YThe BigH3 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Radiation-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shao, G.; Piao, C.; Hei, T.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequences of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a 7 fold down- regulation of the novel tumor suppressor Big-h3 among radiation induced tumorigenic BEP2D cells Furthermore ectopic re-expression of this gene suppresses tumorigenic phenotype and promotes the sensitivity of these tumor cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis To extend these studies using a genomically more stable bronchial cell line we ectopically expresses the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT in primary human small airway epithelial SAE cells and generated several clonal cell lines that have been continuously in culture for more than 250 population doublings and are considered immortal Comparably-treated control SAE cells infected with only the viral vector senesced after less than 10 population doublings The immortalized clones demonstrated anchorage dependent growth and are non-tumorigenic in nude mice These cells show no alteration in the p53 gene but a decrease in p16 expression Exponentially growing SAEh cells were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV nucleon of 56 Fe ions accelerated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Irradiated cells underwent gradual phenotypic alterations after extensive in vitro cultivation Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming anchorage independent in semisolid medium These findings indicate

  3. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examin...

  4. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examin...

  5. TRPV4-Mediated Calcium Influx into Human Bronchial Epithelia upon Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinju; Kanju, Patrick; Patterson, Michael; Chew, Wei-Leong; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Gilmour, Ian; Oliver, Tim; Yasuda, Ryohei; Ghio, Andrew; Simon, Sidney A.; Liedtke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background Human respiratory epithelia function in airway mucociliary clearance and barrier function and have recently been implicated in sensory functions. Objective We investigated a link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms underlying Ca2+ influx into human airway epithelia elicited by diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Methods and Results Using primary cultures of human respiratory epithelial (HRE) cells, we determined that these cells possess proteolytic signaling machinery, whereby proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activates Ca2+-permeable TRPV4, which leads to activation of human respiratory disease–enhancing matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), a signaling cascade initiated by diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a globally relevant air pollutant. Moreover, we observed ciliary expression of PAR-2, TRPV4, and phospholipase-Cβ3 in human airway epithelia and their DEP-enhanced protein–protein complex formation. We also found that the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)–predisposing TRPV4P19S variant enhances Ca2+ influx and MMP 1 activation, providing mechanistic linkage between man-made air pollution and human airway disease. Conclusion DEP evoked protracted Ca2+ influx via TRPV4, enhanced by the COPD-predisposing human genetic polymorphism TRPV4P19S. This mechanism reprograms maladaptive inflammatory and extracellular-matrix–remodeling responses in human airways. The novel concept of air pollution–responsive ciliary signal transduction from PAR-2 to TRPV4 in human respiratory epithelia will accelerate rationally targeted therapies, possibly via the inhalatory route. PMID:21245013

  6. The variability problem of normal human walking.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-03-01

    Previous investigations have suggested considerable inter-individual variability in the time course pattern of net joint moments during normal human walking, although the limited sample sizes precluded statistical analyses. The purpose of the present study was to obtain joint moment patterns from a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10 subjects, respectively. Five parameters differed significantly, so the group of 5 subjects was characterized by (1) a higher peak knee joint extensor moment, (2) more flexed knee joint angle at heel strike, (3) during the whole stance phase, (4) lower peak knee joint flexor moment and (5) lower ankle joint angle at flat foot position. Calculation of bone-on-bone forces in the knee joint showed a value of 64 N/kg body weight in the K+ group and 55 N/kg in the K- group (p<0.05). It is unknown if differences of similar magnitude contribute to early joint degeneration in some individuals while not in others.

  7. [The history of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Glück, U

    1992-10-01

    'Panta rhei': everything flows. The significance of bronchial asthma is currently changing to no less a degree than medicine itself. In order to know where we are, we must know where we have come from. The historical course of bronchial asthma to some extent reflects the history of medicine itself: the Hellenic systems were followed by Byzantine, Galenic teaching methods, while Humanism and the Renaissance were followed by the considerable fireworks of early modern medicine. This continued with Magendie's experimental revolution in the 19th century and, finally, analytic medical research up to today.

  8. DNA Damage Potential of Engine Emissions Measured In Vitro by Micronucleus Test in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cervena, Tereza; Rossnerova, Andrea; Sikorova, Jitka; Beranek, Vit; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Ciganek, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan; Rossner, Pavel

    2016-10-26

    Internal combustion engine emissions belong among the major anthropogenic sources of air pollution in urban areas. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is sufficient evidence of the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust in human beings. Although alternative fuels, mainly biodiesel, have recently become popular, little is still known about the genotoxicity of emissions from these fuels. We analysed DNA damage expressed as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), induced by extractable organic matter (EOM; tested concentrations: 1, 10 and 25 μg/ml) obtained from particle emissions from various blends of biodiesel with diesel fuels (including neat diesel fuel (B0), a blend of 70% B0 and 30% biodiesel (B30) and neat biodiesel (B100)). We also tested the effect of selected diesel exhaust organic/genotoxic components [benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) concentrations: 25, 100 and 200 μM; 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) concentrations: 1, 5 and 10 μM; 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) concentrations: 1, 5 and 50 μM]. The cells were treated with the compounds for 28 and 48 hr. Our results showed that most of the tested compounds (except for the 25 μM B[a]P, 28-hr treatment) significantly increased MN frequency. The genotoxicity of EOMs from the engine emissions of diesel and biodiesel engines was comparable. Both nitro-PAH compounds demonstrated higher genotoxic potential in comparison with B[a]P. Considering our results and due to increasing popularity of alternative fuels, it is prudent that the potential genotoxic effects of various fuels are investigated across engine technologies and operating conditions in a relevant model system.

  9. Mitochondrial electron transport is inhibited by disappearance of metallothionein in human bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seishiro

    2013-03-08

    Silver (Ag) possesses antibacterial activity and has been used in wound dressings and deodorant powders worldwide. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag in mammals have not been well characterized. In the present study, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to AgNO3 and investigated uptake and intracellular distribution of Ag, expression of metallothionein (MT), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes in mitochondrial respiration. The culture medium concentration of Ag decreased with time and stabilized at 12h. The concentration of both Ag and MT in the soluble cellular fraction increased up to 3h and then decreased, indicating that cytosolic Ag relocated to the insoluble fraction of the cells. The levels of mRNAs for the major human MT isoforms MT-I and MT-II paralleled with the protein levels of Ag-MT. The intensity of fluorescence derived from ROS was elevated in the mitochondrial region at 24h. Ag decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption in a dose-dependent manner and the activity of mitochondrial complex I-IV enzymes was significantly inhibited following exposure to Ag. In a separate experiment, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations as low as 0.001% (equivalent to the concentration of H2O2 in Ag-exposed cells) removed Ag from MT. These results suggest MT was decomposed by cytosolic H2O2, and then Ag released from MT relocated to insoluble cellular fractions and inhibited electron chain transfer of mitochondrial complexes, which eventually led to cell damage. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Therapeutic Blockades of Dust Particles-Induced Ca2+ Signaling and Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-8 in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Hee; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells are the first barrier of defense against respiratory pathogens. Dust particles as extracellular stimuli are associated with inflammatory reactions after inhalation. It has been reported that dust particles induce intracellular Ca2+ signal, which subsequently increases cytokines production such as interleukin- (IL-) 8. However, the study of therapeutic blockades of Ca2+ signaling induced by dust particles in human bronchial epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated how to modulate dust particles-induced Ca2+ signaling and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM10 dust particles and subsequent mediated intracellular Ca2+ signaling and reactive oxygen species signal. Our results show that exposure to several inhibitors of Ca2+ pathway attenuated the PM10-induced Ca2+ response and subsequent IL-8 mRNA expression. PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression were attenuated by several pharmacological blockades such as antioxidants, IP3-PLC blockers, and TRPM2 inhibitors. Our results show that blockades of PLC or TRPM2 reduced both of PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression, suggesting that treatment with these blockades should be considered for potential therapeutic trials in pulmonary epithelium for inflammation caused by environmental events such as seasonal dust storm. PMID:26640326

  11. Expression of inducible cell adhesion molecules in the normal human lung: immunohistochemical study of their distribution in pulmonary blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Feuerhake, F; Füchsl, G; Bals, R; Welsch, U

    1998-10-01

    The distribution of cell adhesion molecules in the normal human lung was investigated using antibodies to E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1(ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Lectin staining by Ulex europaeus type I agglutinin (UEA I) and immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor (vWF) was used to visualize a maximum of blood vessels per section. In the bronchial mucosa, staining for P-selectin was positive in ca 90%, and staining for E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 was positive in 40-70% of the vessels stained with UEA I. In the pulmonary circulation (vasa publica) ca 90% of non-capillary vessels stained by anti-vWF expressed P-selectin, 54% VCAM-1, 41% E-selectin, and only ca 20% ICAM 1. The alveolar capillaries were stained consistently by UEA I, but not by the panel of antibodies tested. The alveolar epithelium and, inconstantly, basal cells of the bronchial epithelium were positive for ICAM-1. The distribution pattern of inducible adhesion molecules in normal human lung tissue suggests that a permanent low-grade endothelial activation may exist in particular in the mucosa of the airways, which could be due to the normal antigen exposure via inhaled air.

  12. MicroRNA-191, by promoting the EMT and increasing CSC-like properties, is involved in neoplastic and metastatic properties of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenchao; Ji, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Yawei; Shi, Le; Liu, Yi; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Yue; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Jiang, Rongrong; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Qizhan

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A common interest in lung cancer research is the identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis and accurate prognosis. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in lung cancer. To explore new biomarkers of chemical exposure in risk assessment of chemical carcinogenesis and lung cancer, we analyzed miRNA expression profiles of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells malignantly transformed by arsenite. High-throughput microarray analysis showed that 51 miRNAs were differentially expressed in transformed HBE cells relative to normal HBE cells. In particular, miR-191 was up-regulated in transformed cells. In HBE cells, arsenite induced increases of miR-191 and WT1 levels, decreased BASP1 expression, and activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, effects that were blocked by miR-191 knockdown. In addition, a luciferase reporter assay indicated that BASP1 is a direct target of miR-191. By inhibiting the expression of BASP1, miR-191 increased the expression of WT1 to promote activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In transformed cells, inhibition of miR-191 expression blocked the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties of cells and decreased their migratory capacity and neoplastic properties. Thus, these results demonstrate that miR-191 modulates the EMT and the CSC-like properties of transformed cells and indicate that it is an onco-miR involved in the neoplastic and metastatic properties of transformed cells.

  13. Relaxographic studies of aging normal human lenses.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Frederick A; Lizak, Martin J; Zigler, J Samuel

    2002-12-01

    Ten excised normal human lenses of various ages were studied. Seven sections of each lens, from anterior outer cortex to posterior outer cortex were imaged and the T(1) (spin-lattice) and T(2) (spin-spin) relaxation data on each section were collected. T(1) and T(2) relaxation were analysed by fitting pixel intensity to one term exponential expressions. Both T(1) and T(2) relaxation times showed minimal values in the nuclear region and maxima at the two outer cortexes. The pre-exponential terms of the fittings of both T(1) and T(2) relaxation,M(1) and M(2), were normalized in order to eliminate instrumental variations over a 2 year period. M(2) had a maximum in the nucleus and minima in the two cortexes. M(1) exhibited minimal value in the nucleus and maxima at the two cortexes. The positional dependence of T(2) relaxation times as well as that of M(2) indicated that they represent the behavior of the bound water in the lens. The positional dependence of M(1) suggests that this relaxation represents the total water that has a minimal value in the nucleus. The T(2) relaxation time decreases with increase in the age of the lens at each location. The slope of the change in T(2) relaxation time with age is greatest in the outer cortexes and diminishes as one proceeds to the nucleus. T(1) relaxation times and M(1) do not show significant change with age. This and the age dependence of the other relaxographic parameters imply that the aging of the lens involves major changes in its hydration properties that are more accentuated in the cortexes. The interpretation of these changes is in agreement with the syneretic theory of lens aging.

  14. ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ARSENICALS SENSITIZE HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS TO HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lungs are a target organ for arsenic carcinogenesis, however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inorganic arsenic (iAs) can potentiate DNA damage induced by other agents. Once inside the human body iAs generally undergoes two ...

  15. ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ARSENICALS SENSITIZE HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS TO HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lungs are a target organ for arsenic carcinogenesis, however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inorganic arsenic (iAs) can potentiate DNA damage induced by other agents. Once inside the human body iAs generally undergoes two ...

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and FOXA genes during tobacco smoke carcinogen induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bersaas, Audun; Arnoldussen, Yke Jildouw; Sjøberg, Mari; Haugen, Aage; Mollerup, Steen

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is largely an environmentally caused disease with poor prognosis. An in vitro transformation model of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) was used to study long-term effects of tobacco smoke carcinogens on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the forkhead box transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2. CDK4 and hTERT immortalized HBEC2 and HBEC12 cell lines were exposed weekly to either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), benzo[a]pyrene, or methylnitrosourea. Transformed cell lines were established from soft-agar colonies after 12weeks of exposure. HBEC12 was transformed by all exposures while HBEC2 was only transformed by CSC. Untransformed HBEC2 showed little invasive capacity, whereas transformed cell lines completely closed the gap in a matrigel scratch wound assay. CDH1 was down-regulated in all of the transformed cell lines. In contrast, CDH2 was up-regulated in both HBEC2 and one of the HBEC12 transformed cell lines. Furthermore, transformed cells showed activation of EMT markers including SNAI1, ZEB1, VIM, and MMP2. All transformed cell lines had significant down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2, indicating a possible role in cell transformation and EMT. ChIP analysis showed increased binding of Histone-H3 and macroH2A in FOXA1 and FOXA2 in the transformed HBEC2 cell lines, indicating a compact chromatin. In conclusion, long-term carcinogen exposure lead to down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2 concomitantly with the occurrence of EMT and in vitro transformation in HBEC cells. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism of Dose-Dependent Regulation of UBE1L by Polyphenols in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Apei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Pengqi; Shan, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Pan; Wang, Xuemin; Feng, Qing

    2015-08-01

    Ubiquitin activating enzyme E1-like (UBE1L) is the activating enzyme for ISG15ylation (ISG15, interferon stimulated gene 15). UBE1L is thought to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene and has positive activity against stress responses such as viral infections. Both type I interferon and retinoic acid are known to induce UBE1L expression. However, the molecular mechanism of UBE1L regulation is unclear. Here, the effect of several chemopreventive polyphenols on UBE1L expression in human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) was investigated. Lower concentrations of curcumin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and resveratrol upregulated UBE1L, while high concentrations of curcumin, EGCG and resveratrol downregulated UBE1L levels. Interestingly, curcumin, EGCG and resveratrol diminished intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at lower concentrations but generated ROS at higher concentrations. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increased UBE1L protein levels, while pro-oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) decreased UBE1L protein levels, indicating that the intracellular redox status is associated with UBE1L expression. Kinase inhibitors were used to examine the contribution of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity to the polyphenol-regulated UBE1L. Only the inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) significantly reduced UBE1L expression. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) caused a concomitant decrease in UBE1L protein levels. It is concluded from the above mentioned results that JNK/Nrf2 signal pathway is involved in the regulation of UBE1L via intracellular ROS status when cells came in contact with polyphenols.

  18. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal induced cell proliferation via p27 pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-C.; Lin Pinpin

    2008-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a dienaldehyde, is abundant in heated oils and COF. Previously, we found that long-term exposure (45 days) to a sub-lethal dose (1 {mu}M) of tt-DDE significantly increased growth of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Aims of this study are to understand the mechanism of tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation and possible protective effects of antioxidant, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in BEAS-2B cells. Utilizing the real-time RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting, we found that p27 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by 1 {mu}M tt-DDE treatment. Co-treatment with vitamin C or NAC partially prevented tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation. In addition, the downstream targets of p27, including CDK4, cyclin D{sub 1} and phosphorylated-Rb proteins, increased in 1 {mu}M tt-DDE-treated cells and these changes were prevented by NAC co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that tt-DDE increased cell proliferation via inhibition of p27 expression, increase in CDK4/cyclin D{sub 1} protein accumulation and enhancement of Rb phosphorylation. Increased cell proliferation is considered as the early stages of lung carcinogenesis. Administration of antioxidants may prevent COF-associated lung carcinogenesis.

  19. Effect of particle size and dispersion status on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of zinc oxide in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roszak, Joanna; Catalán, Julia; Järventaus, Hilkka; Lindberg, Hanna K; Suhonen, Satu; Vippola, Minnamari; Stępnik, Maciej; Norppa, Hannu

    2016-07-01

    Data available on the genotoxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are controversial. Here, we examined the effects of particle size and dispersion status on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanosized and fine ZnO, in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0.06%) in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Dynamic light scattering analysis showed the most homogenous dispersions in water alone for nanosized ZnO and in water with BSA for fine ZnO. After a 48-h treatment, both types of ZnO were cytotoxic within a similar, narrow dose range (1.5-3.0μg/cm(2)) and induced micronuclei at a near toxic dose range (1.25-1.75μg/cm(2)), both with and without BSA. In the comet assay, nanosized ZnO (1.25-1.5μg/cm(2)), in the absence of BSA, caused a statistically significant increase in DNA damage after 3-h and 6-h treatments, while fine ZnO did not. Our findings may be explained by better uptake or faster intracellular dissolution of nanosized ZnO without BSA during short treatments (3-6h; the comet assay), with less differences between the two ZnO forms after longer treatments (>48h; the in vitro micronucleus test). As ZnO is genotoxic within a narrow dose range partly overlapping with cytotoxic doses, small experimental differences e.g. in the dispersion of ZnO particles may have a substantial effect on the genotoxicity of the nominal doses added to the cell culture.

  20. Cytogenotoxicity of selected organophosphate insecticides on HaCaT keratinocytes and NL-20 human bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Gómez, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Levis, Alejandra; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Organophosphate insecticides (OI) are widely used. To humans the main routes of exposure are skin and inhalation. For this, keratinocytes (HaCaT) and bronchial cells (NL-20) were used as cell culture models to evaluate the effects of OI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four OI on HaCaT and NL-20 cells: azinphos-methyl, (AM); parathion-methyl (PM); omethoate (OM); and methamidophos (MET). Cells were exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/μL of each. Results showed a decrease in cell viability in both cell lines. Viability of the NL-20 cell line decreased with the three concentrations of OM. All differences were significant (p < 0.05). Genotoxic damage, evaluated through the comet assay, was observed in both cell lines with AM. NL-20 cell line was more sensitive than HaCaT. Higher concentrations of the insecticides except MET, induced cell death. MET caused DNA damage in HaCaT cells at all concentrations. Differences were significant (p < 0.05). Both cell lines revealed the presence of single membrane vacuoles of different sizes when exposed to 1 μg/μL of each insecticide. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed an increase of BN1 gene in HaCaT by effect of AM and MET at 1 μg/μL. In conclusion, all the insecticides induced different levels of cyto and genotoxic effects in both cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with accelerated 56Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, M.; Piao, C.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We examined cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with high-energy 56Fe ions. Cells were irradiated with graded doses of 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The survival curves for cells plated 1 h after irradiation (immediate plating) showed little or no shoulder. However, the survival curves for cells plated 24 h after irradiation (delayed plating) had a small initial shoulder. The RBE for 56Fe ions compared to 137Cs gamma rays was 1.99 for immediate plating and 2.73 for delayed plating at the D10. The repair ratio (delayed plating/immediate plating) was 1.67 for 137Cs gamma rays and 1.22 for 56Fe ions. The dose-response curves for initially measured and residual chromatid fragments detected by the Calyculin A-mediated premature chromosome condensation technique showed a linear response. The results indicated that the induction frequency for initially measured fragments was the same for 137Cs gamma rays and 56Fe ions. On the other hand, approximately 85% of the fragments induced by 137Cs gamma rays had rejoined after 24 h of postirradiation incubation; the corresponding amount for 56Fe ions was 37%. Furthermore, the frequency of chromatid exchanges induced by gamma rays measured 24 h after irradiation was higher than that induced by 56Fe ions. No difference in the amount of chromatid damage induced by the two types of radiations was detected when assayed 1 h after irradiation. The results suggest that high-energy 56Fe ions induce a higher frequency of complex, unrepairable damage at both the cellular and chromosomal levels than 137Cs gamma rays in the target cells for radiation-induced lung cancers.

  2. Different forms of adiponectin reduce the apoptotic and damaging effect of cigarette smoke extract on human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Yu; Liu, Hu; Zhang, Tie-Mei; Xu, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease, in which adiponectin may serve an important role. The present study investigated the role of adiponectin in the apoptotic and damaging effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBECs). An MTT assay showed that CSE significantly inhibited the proliferation of 16HBECs (F=1808.88, P<0.01). The 16HBECs were treated with different concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and globular domain (gAd) adiponectin and it was observed that HMW and gAd dose-dependently inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8, and the generation of 4-hydroxy-nonenal and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 16HBECs, thereby blocking the upregulating effect of CSE on these factors. However, the inhibitory effect of gAd on TNF-α and IL-8 expression was stronger compared with that of HMW, but the suppressing effect of HMW on ROS production was superior compared with that of gAd. Further testing of apoptosis indicated that CSE and HMW promoted the apoptosis of 16HBECs. However, such effects of HMW declined with an increase in concentration. In contrast, gAd showed an inhibitory effect on apoptosis and inhibited the occurrence of CSE-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that different forms of adiponectin may have different mechanisms of action, suggesting that further exploration of their effects may open a new avenue for the treatment of COPD. PMID:28105143

  3. Critical role of cellular glutathione homeostasis for trivalent inorganic arsenite-induced oxidative damage in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuejun; Chen, Chengzhi; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, ZunZhen

    2014-08-01

    Trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs(3+)) is a powerful carcinogen that enhances the risk of lung cancer. Paradoxically, iAs(3+) also shows substantial efficacy in the treatment of lung tumors. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying iAs(3+)-induced toxicity and therapeutic effect in lung remain unclear. In this study, the effects of iAs(3+), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3), on cell viability, apoptosis, genotoxicity and oxidative stress in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells were observed. Our results showed that NaAsO2 and As2O3 exposure could result in defects in cell proliferation and greatly enhance the level of oxidative damage. To clarify the critical role of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis in oxidative damage induced by iAs(3+), we further measured the content of GSH, ratio of GSH to GSSG, and the activities of GSH-related enzymes involved in the process of GSH synthesis, recycling and utilization. Our data demonstrated that NaAsO2 and As2O3 disrupted the balance of GSH homeostasis, and NaAsO2- and As2O3-induced oxidative damage was closely associated with the imbalance in GSH synthesis, recycling and utilization. To better understand the physiologic significance of Nrf2 in maintaining GSH-homeostasis, the expression level of Nrf2 was measured after iAs(3+) exposure. We found that the protein expression levels of Nrf2 were increased in both NaAsO2- and As2O3-treated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that disturbed Nrf2-regulated GSH-homeostasis is associated with the oxidative damage triggered by iAs(3+), and loss of GSH homeostasis might implicate in both the pathogenesis of iAs(3+)-induced lung diseases and anticancer activity of iAs(3+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human bronchial smooth muscle cells express adenylyl cyclase isoforms 2, 4, and 6 in distinct membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Amy S; Xu, Congfeng; Ostrom, Rennolds S

    2011-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (AC) are important regulators of airway smooth muscle function, because β-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists stimulate AC activity and increase airway diameter. We assessed expression of AC isoforms in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (hBSMC). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses detected expression of AC2, AC4, and AC6. Forskolin-stimulated AC activity in membranes from hBSMC displayed Ca(2+)-inhibited and G(βγ)-stimulated AC activity, consistent with expression of AC6, AC2, and AC4. Isoproterenol-stimulated AC activity was inhibited by Ca(2+) but unaltered by G(βγ), whereas butaprost-stimulated AC activity was stimulated by G(βγ) but unaffected by Ca(2+) addition. Using sucrose density centrifugation to isolate lipid raft fractions, we found that only AC6 localized in lipid raft fractions, whereas AC2 and AC4 localized in nonraft fractions. Immunoisolation of caveolae using caveolin-1 antibodies yielded Ca(2+)-inhibited AC activity (consistent with AC6 expression), whereas the nonprecipitated material displayed G(βγ)-stimulated AC activity (consistent with expression of AC2 and/or AC4). Overexpression of AC6 enhanced cAMP production in response to isoproterenol and beraprost but did not increase responses to prostaglandin E(2) or butaprost. β(2)AR, but not prostanoid EP(2) or EP(4) receptors, colocalized with AC5/6 in lipid raft fractions. Thus, particular G protein-coupled receptors couple to discreet AC isoforms based, in part, on their colocalization in membrane microdomains. These different cAMP signaling compartments in airway smooth muscle cells are responsive to different hormones and neurotransmitters and can be regulated by different coincident signals such as Ca(2+) and G(βγ).

  5. Cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with accelerated 56Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, M.; Piao, C.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We examined cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with high-energy 56Fe ions. Cells were irradiated with graded doses of 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The survival curves for cells plated 1 h after irradiation (immediate plating) showed little or no shoulder. However, the survival curves for cells plated 24 h after irradiation (delayed plating) had a small initial shoulder. The RBE for 56Fe ions compared to 137Cs gamma rays was 1.99 for immediate plating and 2.73 for delayed plating at the D10. The repair ratio (delayed plating/immediate plating) was 1.67 for 137Cs gamma rays and 1.22 for 56Fe ions. The dose-response curves for initially measured and residual chromatid fragments detected by the Calyculin A-mediated premature chromosome condensation technique showed a linear response. The results indicated that the induction frequency for initially measured fragments was the same for 137Cs gamma rays and 56Fe ions. On the other hand, approximately 85% of the fragments induced by 137Cs gamma rays had rejoined after 24 h of postirradiation incubation; the corresponding amount for 56Fe ions was 37%. Furthermore, the frequency of chromatid exchanges induced by gamma rays measured 24 h after irradiation was higher than that induced by 56Fe ions. No difference in the amount of chromatid damage induced by the two types of radiations was detected when assayed 1 h after irradiation. The results suggest that high-energy 56Fe ions induce a higher frequency of complex, unrepairable damage at both the cellular and chromosomal levels than 137Cs gamma rays in the target cells for radiation-induced lung cancers.

  6. The impact of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary tuberculosis on the success of bronchial artery embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Govind, M; Maharajh, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in South Africa. Bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) is a specialised, expensive and risky procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of coinfection with HIV and PTB on the success of BAE. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of sequential BAE procedures during 2006 and 2007 was performed. Rates of procedural and clinical outcome, reasons for failures and the impact of cluster of differentiation cell type 4 (CD4) level on failure were investigated. Patients were included if they presented with massive or life-threatening haemoptysis with a diagnosis of previous or active PTB and their HIV status was known, for the first two attempts at BAE only. Results The study population consisted of 74 patients who were HIV positive and 33 who were HIV negative. Statistically, procedural success did not imply a clinically successful outcome, and HIV status and CD4 level did not correlate significantly with procedural success. Statistically, no technical reason had an impact on the success of the procedure when correlated with HIV status. The detection of lymphadenopathy was noted in 19.1% of patients who were HIV positive and in 42.4% of patients who were HIV negative, and was the only feature of significance. Conclusion Coinfection with HIV does not have an impact on the success of BAE in patients with active PTB or with the sequelae of PTB who present with massive or life-threatening haemoptysis. Technical success does not imply clinical success, regardless of HIV status. Improvement in technique locally may improve outcome. Advances in knowledge PTB coinfection with HIV should not affect the decision to consider BAE. PMID:23255543

  7. The impact of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary tuberculosis on the success of bronchial artery embolisation.

    PubMed

    Govind, M; Maharajh, J

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in South Africa. Bronchial artery embolisation (BAE) is a specialised, expensive and risky procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of coinfection with HIV and PTB on the success of BAE. A retrospective cross-sectional study of sequential BAE procedures during 2006 and 2007 was performed. Rates of procedural and clinical outcome, reasons for failures and the impact of cluster of differentiation cell type 4 (CD4) level on failure were investigated. Patients were included if they presented with massive or life-threatening haemoptysis with a diagnosis of previous or active PTB and their HIV status was known, for the first two attempts at BAE only. The study population consisted of 74 patients who were HIV positive and 33 who were HIV negative. Statistically, procedural success did not imply a clinically successful outcome, and HIV status and CD4 level did not correlate significantly with procedural success. Statistically, no technical reason had an impact on the success of the procedure when correlated with HIV status. The detection of lymphadenopathy was noted in 19.1% of patients who were HIV positive and in 42.4% of patients who were HIV negative, and was the only feature of significance. Coinfection with HIV does not have an impact on the success of BAE in patients with active PTB or with the sequelae of PTB who present with massive or life-threatening haemoptysis. Technical success does not imply clinical success, regardless of HIV status. Improvement in technique locally may improve outcome. PTB coinfection with HIV should not affect the decision to consider BAE.

  8. Cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein by airway proteases enhances virus entry into human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kam, Yiu-Wing; Okumura, Yuushi; Kido, Hiroshi; Ng, Lisa F P; Bruzzone, Roberto; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2009-11-17

    Entry of enveloped viruses into host cells requires the activation of viral envelope glycoproteins through cleavage by either intracellular or extracellular proteases. In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of protease cleavage and its impact on the efficiency of viral entry, we investigated the susceptibility of a recombinant native full-length S-protein trimer (triSpike) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) to cleavage by various airway proteases. PURIFIED TRISPIKE PROTEINS WERE READILY CLEAVED IN VITRO BY THREE DIFFERENT AIRWAY PROTEASES: trypsin, plasmin and TMPRSS11a. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and amino acid sequencing analyses identified two arginine residues (R667 and R797) as potential protease cleavage site(s). The effect of protease-dependent enhancement of SARS-CoV infection was demonstrated with ACE2 expressing human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE. Airway proteases regulate the infectivity of SARS-CoV in a fashion dependent on previous receptor binding. The role of arginine residues was further shown with mutant constructs (R667A, R797A or R797AR667A). Mutation of R667 or R797 did not affect the expression of S-protein but resulted in a differential efficacy of pseudotyping into SARS-CoVpp. The R667A SARS-CoVpp mutant exhibited a lack of virus entry enhancement following protease treatment. These results suggest that SARS S-protein is susceptible to airway protease cleavage and, furthermore, that protease mediated enhancement of virus entry depends on specific conformation of SARS S-protein upon ACE2 binding. These data have direct implications for the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV along the respiratory system and, furthermore expand the possibility of identifying potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV.

  9. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, an appropriate in vitro model to study heavy metals induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Youn-Hee; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-09-15

    Occupational and environmental exposure to arsenic (III) and chromium VI (Cr(VI)) have been confirmed to cause lung cancer. Mechanisms of these metals carcinogenesis are still under investigation. Selection of cell lines to be used is essential for the studies. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells are the cells to be utilized by most of scientists. However, due to p53 missense mutation (CCG→TCG) at codon 47 and the codon 72 polymorphism (CGC→CCC) in BEAS-2B cells, its usage has frequently been questioned. The present study has examined activity and expression of 53 and its downstream target protein p21 upon acute or chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic and Cr(VI). The results show that short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) was able to activate both p53 and p21. Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to these two metals caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. In arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells reductions in p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 were observed, while the total p53 protein level remained the same compared to those in passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit elevated p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation at Ser15, but reduced phosphorylation at Ser392 and total p53 protein level compared to passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were elevated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells. These results demonstrate that p53 is able to respond to exposure of arsenic or Cr(VI), suggesting that BEAS-2B cells are an appropriate in vitro model to investigate arsenic or Cr(VI) induced lung cancer.

  10. Antibodies to endogenous tear protein in normal human tears.

    PubMed

    Remington, Susann G; Crow, Jean M; Nelson, J Daniel

    2009-10-01

    To identify endogenous tear proteins immunoselected by antibodies from normal human ocular tears. Proteins were immunoselected from normal human tear samples without the addition of primary antibodies. Captured proteins were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels and silver stained. Human tears were also used as primary antibodies on immunoblots of tear proteins. Lysozyme, lipocalin-1, and lactoferrin were immunoselected from normal human tear samples without the addition of primary antibodies. Antibodies from normal tears recognized lysozyme on immunoblots of tear proteins. Normal human ocular tears contain antibodies to endogenous tear protein.

  11. Cooperation of c-raf-1 and c-myc protooncogenes in the neoplastic transformation of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, A M; Mark, G E; Malan-Shibley, L; Graziano, S; Amstad, P; Harris, C C

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of c-raf-1 and the myc family of protooncogenes is primarily associated with small cell carcinoma, which accounts for approximately 25% of human lung cancer. To determine the functional significance of the c-raf-1 and/or c-myc gene expression in lung carcinogenesis and to delineate the relationship between protooncogene expression and tumor phenotype, we introduced both protooncogenes, alone or in combination, into human bronchial epithelial cells. Two retroviral recombinants, pZip-raf and pZip-myc, containing the complete coding sequences of the human c-raf-1 and murine c-myc genes, respectively, were constructed and transfected into simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B); this was followed by selection for G418 resistance. BEAS-2B cells expressing both the transfected c-raf-1 and c-myc sequences formed large cell carcinomas in athymic nude mice with a latency of 4-21 weeks, whereas either pZip-raf- or pZip-myc-transfected cells were nontumorigenic after 12 months. Cell lines established from tumors (designated RMT) revealed the presence of the cotransfected c-raf-1 and c-myc sequences and expressed morphological, chromosomal, and isoenzyme markers, which identified BEAS-2B cells as the progenitor line of the tumors. A significant increase in the mRNA levels of neuron-specific enolase was detected in BEAS-2B cells containing both the c-raf-1 and c-myc genes and derived tumor cell lines. The data demonstrate that the concomitant expression of the c-raf and c-myc protooncogenes causes neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells resulting in large cell carcinomas with certain neuroendocrine markers. The presented model system should be useful in studies of molecular events involved in multistage lung carcinogenesis. Images PMID:2557616

  12. In vivo time-resolved spectroscopy of the human bronchial early cancer autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehlinger, Pascal; Gabrecht, Tanja; Glanzmann, Thomas; Ballini, Jean-Pierre; Radu, Alexandre; Andrejevic, Snezana; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnières, Georges

    2009-03-01

    Time-resolved measurements of tissue autofluorescence (AF) excited at 405 nm were carried out with an optical-fiber-based spectrometer in the bronchi of 11 patients. The objectives consisted of assessing the lifetime as a new tumor/normal (T/N) tissue contrast parameter and trying to explain the origin of the contrasts observed when using AF-based cancer detection imaging systems. No significant change in the AF lifetimes was found. AF bronchoscopy performed in parallel with an imaging device revealed both intensity and spectral contrasts. Our results suggest that the spectral contrast might be due to an enhanced blood concentration just below the epithelial layers of the lesion. The intensity contrast probably results from the thickening of the epithelium in the lesions. The absence of T/N lifetime contrast indicates that the quenching is not at the origin of the fluorescence intensity and spectral contrasts. These lifetimes (6.9 ns, 2.0 ns, and 0.2 ns) were consistent for all the examined sites. The fact that these lifetimes are the same for different emission domains ranging between 430 and 680 nm indicates that there is probably only one dominant fluorophore involved. The measured lifetimes suggest that this fluorophore is elastin.

  13. microRNA-21 Mediates the Protective Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from iPSCs to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Injury Under Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Bin; Fan, Xing-Liang; Chen, He-Xin; Yu, Qiu-Ning; Fang, Shu-Bin; Wang, Shu-Yue; Lin, Yong-Dong; Fu, Qing-Ling

    2017-03-17

    Airway epithelial cell injury is a key triggering event to activate allergic airway inflammation, such as asthma. We previously reported that administration of mesenchymal stem cells significantly alleviated allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma, and the mmu-miR-21/ACVR2A axis may be involved. However, whether MSCs protect against bronchial epithelial cell injury induced by hypoxia and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In our study, the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was induced to undergo apoptosis with a hypoxia mimic of CoCl2 damage. Treatment of MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) significantly decreased apoptosis of BEAS-2B cells. There was high miR-21 expression in injured BEAS-2B cells after MSCs treatment. Transfection of the miR-21 mimic significantly decreased apoptosis of BEAS-2B, and transfection of a miR-21 inhibitor significantly increased apoptosis. More importantly, the protective effects of MSCs on injured BEAS-2B were reversed by transfection of the miR-21 inhibitor. Binding sites of human miR-21 were identified in the 3'UTR of human ACVR2A. We further determined that CoCl2 stimulation increased ACVR2A expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of the miR-21 mimic further up-regulated ACVR2A expression induced by CoCl2, whereas transfection of the miR-21 inhibitor down-regulated ACVR2A expression. In addition, MSCs increased ACVR2A expression in BEAS-2B cells; however, this effect was reversed after transfection of the miR-21 inhibitor. Our data suggested that MSCs protect bronchial epithelial cells from hypoxic injury via miR-21, which may represent an important target. These findings suggest the potentially wide application of MSCs for epithelial cell injury during hypoxia.

  14. Comparative Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Four Hexavalent Chromium Compounds in Human Bronchial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie L.; Qin, Qin; Xie, Hong; Katsifis, Spiros P.; Thompson, W. Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are well-established human lung carcinogens. Solubility plays an important role in their carcinogenicity with the particulate Cr(VI) compounds being the most carcinogenic. Epidemiology and animal studies suggest that zinc chromate is the most potent particulate Cr(VI) compound, however, there are few comparative data to support these observations. The purpose of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of zinc chromate with two other particulate Cr(VI) compounds, barium chromate and lead chromate, and one soluble Cr(VI) compound, sodium chromate. The clastogenic effects of barium chromate and zinc chromate were similar but lead chromate induced significantly less damage. The levels of DNA damage measured by gamma-H2A.X foci formation were similar for the three particulate chromium compounds. Corrected for chromium uptake differences, we found that zinc chromate and barium chromate were the most cytotoxic and lead chromate and sodium chromate were less cytotoxic. Zinc chromate was more clastogenic than all other chromium compounds and lead chromate was the least clastogenic. There was no significant difference between any of the compounds for the induction of DNA double strand breaks. All together, these data suggest that the difference in the carcinogenic potency of zinc chromate over the other chromium compounds is not due solely to a difference in chromium ion uptake and the zinc cation may in fact have an important role in its carcinogenicity. PMID:20000473

  15. Measurements of intracellular calcium signals in polarized primary cultures of normal and cystic fibrosis human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carla M P

    2011-01-01

    The airways are continuously challenged by a variety of stimuli including bacteria, viruses, allergens, and inflammatory factors that act as agonists for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) (i)) mobilization in airway epithelia in response to extracellular stimuli regulates key airway innate defense functions, e.g., Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion, ciliary beating, mucin secretion, and inflammatory responses. Because Ca(2+) (i) mobilization in response to luminal stimuli is larger in CF vs. normal human airway epithelia, alterations in Ca(2+) (i) signals have been associated with the pathogenesis of CF airway disease. Hence, assessment of Ca(2+) (i) signaling has become an important area of CF research. This chapter will focus on measurements of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) signals resulting from GPCR activation in polarized primary cultures of normal and CF human bronchial epithelia (HBE).

  16. Differential genotoxic and epigenotoxic effects of graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs) in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nivedita; Yang, JiSu; Choi, Jinhee

    2016-03-01

    The widespread applications of graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs) raised the considerable concern over human health and environment. The cyto-genotoxic potentiality of GFNs has attracted much more attention, albeit the potential effects on the cellular epigenome remain largely unknown. The effects of GFNs on cellular genome were evaluated with single and double stranded DNA damage and DNA repair gene expressions while the effects on epigenome was accomplished by addressing the global DNA methylation and expression of DNA methylation machineries at non-cytotoxic to moderately cytotoxic doses in in vitro system. We used five different representatives of GFNs-pristine (GNP-Prist), carboxylated (GNP-COOH) and aminated (GNP-NH2) graphene nanoplatelets as well as single layer (SLGO) and few layer (FLGO) graphene oxide. The order of single stranded DNA damage was observed as GNP-Prist ≥ GNP-COOH>GNP-NH2≥FLGO>SLGO at 10mg/L and marked dose dependency was found in SLGO. The GFNs possibly caused genotoxicity by affecting nucleotide excision repair and non-homologus end joining repair systems. Besides, dose dependent increase in global DNA methylation (hypermethylation) were observed in SLGO/FLGO exposure and conversely, GNPs treatment caused hypomethylation following the order as GNP-COOH>GNP-NH2 ≥ GNP-Prist. The decrements of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT3B gene) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (MBD1) genes were probably the cause of global hypomethylation induced by GNPs. Conversely, the de novo methylation through the up-regulation of DNMT3B and MBD1 genes gave rise to the global DNA hypermethylation in SLGO/FLGO treated cells. In general, the GFNs induced genotoxicity and alterations of global DNA methylation exhibited compounds type specificity with differential physico-chemical properties. Taken together, our study suggests that the GFNs could cause more subtle changes in gene expression programming by modulating DNA methylation status and this information

  17. CHRNA5 as negative regulator of nicotine signaling in normal and cancer bronchial cells: effects on motility, migration and p63 expression.

    PubMed

    Krais, Annette M; Hautefeuille, Agnès H; Cros, Marie-Pierre; Krutovskikh, Vladimir; Tournier, Jean-Marie; Birembaut, Philippe; Thépot, Amélie; Paliwal, Anupam; Herceg, Zdenko; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Hainaut, Pierre L

    2011-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies have linked lung cancer risk with a region of chromosome 15q25.1 containing CHRNA3, CHRNA5 and CHRNB4 encoding α3, α5 and β4 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), respectively. One of the strongest associations was observed for a non-silent single-nucleotide polymorphism at codon 398 in CHRNA5. Here, we have used pharmacological (antagonists) or genetic (RNA interference) interventions to modulate the activity of CHRNA5 in non-transformed bronchial cells and in lung cancer cell lines. In both cell types, silencing CHRNA5 or inhibiting receptors containing nAChR α5 with α-conotoxin MII exerted a nicotine-like effect, with increased motility and invasiveness in vitro and increasing calcium influx. The effects on motility were enhanced by addition of nicotine but blocked by inhibiting CHRNA7, which encodes the homopentameric receptor α7 subunit. Silencing CHRNA5 also decreased the expression of cell adhesion molecules P120 and ZO-1 in lung cancer cells as well as the expression of DeltaNp63α in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. These results demonstrate a role for CHRNA5 in modulating adhesion and motility in bronchial cells, as well as in regulating p63, a potential oncogene in squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Nedocromil sodium inhibits antigen-induced contraction of human lung parenchymal and bronchial strips, and the release of sulphidopeptide-leukotriene and histamine from human lung fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Napier, F. E.; Shearer, M. A.; Temple, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium on antigen-induced release of sulphidopeptide-leukotrienes and histamine from passively sensitized fragments of human lung, and on antigen-induced contraction of sensitized strips of human lung parenchyma and bronchus, have been studied. 2. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited leukotriene release from fragments of human lung by 30% and 38% respectively, and histamine release by 43% for both concentrations, but 10 microM was ineffective. The lung fragments, which were passively sensitized to house dust mite, Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus, in control experiments released leukotrienes (6.58 +/- 0.12 nmol equiv. leukotriene C4 per g, n = 6) and histamine (10.3 +/- 1.8 of total tissue histamine, n = 5) when challenged with house dust mite extract. 3. Isolated strips of human lung parenchyma, passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 40% of the maximal histamine response for each strip. Nedocromil sodium 0.1 and 1 microM inhibited these contractions by 50% and 70% of the control response, but 10 microM had no inhibitory effect. 4. Isolated rings from human bronchus, also passively sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, contracted when treated with house dust mite extract to a mean value of 86% of the maximal histamine response. Nedocromil sodium 1 microM, but not 0.1 or 10 microM, inhibited contractions by 48% of the control response. 5. The therapeutic effects of nedocromil sodium in allergic asthma may depend, partly, on its inhibition of antigen-induced release of leukotrienes and histamine in human lung and its consequent inhibition of antigen-induced contractions of parenchymal and bronchial tissue. PMID:1696152

  19. Acetylcholine mediates the release of IL-8 in human bronchial epithelial cells by a NFkB/ERK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Profita, Mirella; Bonanno, Anna; Siena, Liboria; Ferraro, Maria; Montalbano, Angela M; Pompeo, Flora; Riccobono, Loredana; Pieper, Michael P; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2008-03-17

    Acetylcholine may play a role in cell activation and airway inflammation. We evaluated the levels of both mRNA and protein of muscarinic M(1), M(2), M(3) receptors in human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE). 16HBE cells were also stimulated with acetylcholine and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and NFkB pathway activation as well as the IL-8 release was assessed in the presence or absence of the inhibitor of Protein-kinase (PKC) (GF109203X), of the inhibitor of mitogenic activated protein-kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PDO9805), of the inhibitor of kinaseB-alpha phosphorilation (pIkBalpha) (BAY11-7082), and of muscarinic receptor antagonists tiotropium bromide, 4-Diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP), telenzepine, gallamine. Additionally, we tested the IL-8-mediated neutrophil chemotactic activity of 16HBE supernatants stimulated with acetylcholine in the presence or absence of tiotropium. 16HBE cells expressed both protein and mRNA for muscarinic M(3), M(2) and M(1) receptors with levels of muscarinic M(3) receptor>muscarinic M(1) receptor>muscarinic M(2) receptor. Acetylcholine (10 microM) significantly stimulated ERK1/2 and NFkB activation as well as IL-8 release in 16HBE cells when compared to basal values. Furthermore, while the use of tiotropium, 4-DAMP, GF109203X, PDO98059, BAY11-7082 completely abolished these events, the use of telenzepine and gallamine were only partially able to downregulate these effects. Additionally, acetylcholine-mediated IL-8 release from 16HBE cells significantly increased chemotaxis toward neutrophils and this effect was blocked by tiotropium. In conclusion, acetylcholine activates the release of IL-8 from 16HBE involving PKC, ERK1/2 and NFkB pathways via muscarinic receptors, suggesting that it is likely to contribute to IL-8 related neutrophilic inflammatory disorders in the airway. Thus, muscarinic antagonists may contribute to control inflammatory processes in airway diseases.

  20. Effect of apical hyperosmotic sodium challenge and amiloride on sodium transport in human bronchial epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis donors.

    PubMed

    Rasgado-Flores, Hector; Krishna Mandava, Vamsi; Siman, Homayoun; Van Driessche, Willy; Pilewski, Joseph M; Randell, Scott H; Bridges, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation therapy benefits cystic fibrosis (CF) patients [Donaldson SH, Bennet WD, Zeman KL, Knowles MR, Tarran R, Boucher RC. N Engl J Med 354: 241-250, 2006; Elkins MR, Robinson M, Rose BR, Harbour C, Moriarty CP, Marks GB, Belousova EG, Xuan W, Bye PT; the National Hypertonic Saline in Cystic Fibrosis (NHSCF) Study Group. N Engl J Med 354: 229-240, 2006]. Surprisingly, these benefits are long-lasting and are diminished by the epithelial Na(+) channel blocker amiloride (Donaldson SH, Bennet WD, Zeman KL, Knowles MR, Tarran R, Boucher RC. N Engl J Med 354: 241-250, 2006). Our aim was to explain these effects. Human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells from CF lungs were grown in inserts and were used in three experimental approaches: 1) Ussing chambers to measure amiloride-sensitive short-circuit currents (INa); 2) continuous perfusion Ussing chambers; and 3) near "thin-film" conditions in which the airway surface of the inserts was exposed to a small volume (30 μl) of isosmotic or HS solution as the inserts were kept in their incubation tray and were subsequently used to measure INa under isosmotic conditions (near thin-film experiments; Tarran R, Boucher RC. Methods Mol Med 70: 479-492, 2002). HS solutions (660 mosmol/kgH2O) were prepared by adding additional NaCl to the isosmotic buffer. The transepithelial short-circuit current (ISC), conductance (GT), and capacitance (CT) were measured by transepithelial impedance analysis (Danahay H, Atherton HC, Jackson AD, Kreindler JL, Poll CT, Bridges RJ. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 290: L558-L569, 2006; Singh AK, Singh S, Devor DC, Frizzell RA, van Driessche W, Bridges RJ. Methods Mol Med 70: 129-142, 2002). Exposure to apical HS inhibited INa, GT, and CT. The INa inhibition required 60 min of reexposure to the isosmotic solution to recover 75%. The time of exposure to HS required to inhibit INa was <2.5 min. Under near thin-film conditions, apical exposure to HS inhibited INa, but as

  1. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, an appropriate in vitro model to study heavy metals induced carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Youn-hee; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-09-15

    Occupational and environmental exposure to arsenic (III) and chromium VI (Cr(VI)) have been confirmed to cause lung cancer. Mechanisms of these metals carcinogenesis are still under investigation. Selection of cell lines to be used is essential for the studies. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells are the cells to be utilized by most of scientists. However, due to p53 missense mutation (CCG → TCG) at codon 47 and the codon 72 polymorphism (CGC → CCC) in BEAS-2B cells, its usage has frequently been questioned. The present study has examined activity and expression of 53 and its downstream target protein p21 upon acute or chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic and Cr(VI). The results show that short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) was able to activate both p53 and p21. Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to these two metals caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. In arsenic-transformed BEAS-2B cells reductions in p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392 were observed, while the total p53 protein level remained the same compared to those in passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were decreased in arsenic-transformed cells. Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit elevated p53 promoter activity, mRNA expression, and phosphorylation at Ser15, but reduced phosphorylation at Ser392 and total p53 protein level compared to passage-matched parent ones. p21 promoter activity and expression were elevated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells. These results demonstrate that p53 is able to respond to exposure of arsenic or Cr(VI), suggesting that BEAS-2B cells are an appropriate in vitro model to investigate arsenic or Cr(VI) induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Short-term exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) activates p53 and p21. • Chronic exposure of BEAS-2B cells to arsenic or Cr(VI) causes cell transformation and tumorigenesis. • Arsenic-transformed cells exhibit

  2. Particulate matter initiates inflammatory cytokine release by activation of capsaicin and acid receptors in a human bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, B; Oortgiesen, M; Carter, J D; Devlin, R B

    1999-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (i.e., BEAS-2B) release pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-6 and TNFalpha) in a receptor-mediated fashion in response to the neuropeptides, substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP), and the prototype botanical irritant capsaicin. In the present experiments, we examined the relevance of these receptors to particulate matter (PM)-associated cellular inflammation. BEAS-2B cells, exposed to residual oil fly ash particles (ROFA), responded with an immediate (<30 s) increase in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i), increases of key inflammatory cytokine transcripts (i.e., IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha) within 2 h exposure, and subsequent release of IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine protein after 4 h exposure. Pretreatment of BEAS-2B cells with pharmacological antagonists selective for the SP or CGRP receptors reduced the ROFA-stimulated IL-6 cytokine production by approximately 25 and 50%, respectively. However, pretreatment of these cells with capsazepine (CPZ), an antagonist for capsaicin (i.e., vanilloid) receptors, inhibited the immediate increases in [Ca2+]i, diminished transcript (i.e., IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha) levels and reduced IL-6 cytokine release to control levels. BEAS-2B cells exposed to ROFA in calcium-free media failed to demonstrate increases of [Ca2+]i and showed reduced levels of cytokine transcript (i.e., IL-6, IL-8, TNFalpha) and IL-6 release, suggesting that ROFA-stimulated cytokine formation was partially dependent on extracellular calcium sources. A final set of experiments compared the inflammatory properties of the soluble and acidic insoluble components of ROFA. BEAS-2B cells, exposed to ROFA or ROFA that had been filtered through a 0.2-micrometer pore filter, produced equivocal IL-6. BEAS-2B cells exposed to pH 5.0 media for 15 min released moderate amounts of IL-6, 4 h later. This cytokine release could be blocked by amiloride, a pH receptor antagonist, but not by CPZ. BEAS-2B

  3. Role of Carum copticum seeds in modulating chromium-induced toxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Deb, Dipanwita Dutta; Parimala, G; Devi, S Saravana; Chakrabarti, T

    2012-11-01

    Carum copticum seeds are well known for ailment of various diseases since ancient times. The present study pertains to investigate modulatory effects of methanolic extract of C. copticum seeds (MCE) against hexavalent chromium induced cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, apoptosis and oxidative stress on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and isolated human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) in vitro. Treatment of BEAS-2B and PBL with MCE prior to potassium dichromate (K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) treatment exhibited an increase in cell viability and decrease of DNA damage as compared to K(2)Cr(2)O(7) treatment alone, as evaluated by WST-8 and Comet assay respectively. Further, MCE administration 1h prior to graded doses of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced apoptosis and caspase 3 activity. MCE also ameliorated K(2)Cr(2)O(7) induced decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant enzyme levels in BEAS-2B and PBL cells accompanied by reduction in lipid peroxides with maximum effect at 50 μg/ml. Thus, this study provides strong evidence to support the beneficial effect of MCE in preventing Cr(VI) induced toxicity in BEAS-2B and PBL cells.

  4. Optimization of the spectral design used to detect early carcinoma in the human tracheo-bronchial tree by autofluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Glanzmann, Thomas; Freitag, Lutz; Grosjean, Pierre; Weber, Bernd C.; Monnier, Philippe; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2003-10-01

    The early detection and localization of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is emerging as a useful diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity and specificity. Evidence exists that the native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic or to carcinoma in situ (CIS). Early lesions in the bronchi tend to show a decrease in autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum when excited with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum. Several endoscopic imaging devices relying on these optical properties of bronchial mucosa have been developed. An industrial endoscopic autofluorescence imaging system for the detection of early cancerous lesions in the bronchi has been developed in collaboration with the firm Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH, Knittlingen (Germany; its performance has been evaluated in a previous clinical study. A second study, presented in this article, aims to optimize the spectral design of the device. Twenty-four lung cancer or high risk patients were enrolled in this study to assess the influence of additional backscattered red light on the tumor-to-healthy tissue contrast and to compare the effect of a narrow band violet excitation to a large band violet excitation. In our study we observed a three times higher contrast between cancer and healthy tissue, when backscattered red light was added to the violet excitation. The comparison between a narrow and a large band violet excitation indicated an increase of the tumor-to-healthy tissue contrast by the narrow band excitation.

  5. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  6. Three-Dimensional Human Bronchial-Tracheal Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies (TLAs) as Hosts for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suderman, M. T.; McCarthy, M.; Mossell, E.; Watts, D. M.; Peters, C. J.; Shope, R.; Goodwin, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) tissue-like assembly (TLA) of human bronchial-tracheal mesenchymal (HBTC) cells with an overlay of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells was constructed using a NASA Bioreactor to survey the infectivity of SARS-CoV. This TLA was inoculated with a low passage number Urbani strain of SARS-CoV. At selected intervals over a 10-day period, media and cell aliquots of the 3-D TLA were harvested for viral titer assay and for light and electron microscopy examination. All viral titer assays were negative in both BEAS-2B two-dimensional monolayer and TLA. Light microscopy immunohistochemistry demonstrated antigen-antibody reactivity with anti-SARS-CoV polyclonal antibody to spike and nuclear proteins on cell membranes and cytoplasm. Coronavirus Group 2 cross-reactivity was demonstrated by positive reaction to anti-FIPV 1 and anti-FIPV 1 and 2 antibodies. TLA examination by transmission electron microscopy indicated increasing cytoplasmic vacuolation with numerous electron-dense bodies measuring 45 to 270 nm from days 4 through 10. There was no evidence of membrane blebbing, membrane duplication, or fragmentation of organelles in the TLAs. However, progressive disruption of endoplasmic reticulum was observed throughout the cells. Antibody response to SARS-CoV specific spike and nucleocapsid glycoproteins, cross-reactivity with FIPV antibodies, and the cytoplasmic pathology suggests this HBTE TLA model is permissive to SARS-CoV infection.

  7. Effects of budesonide on P38 MAPK activation, apoptosis and IL-8 secretion, induced by TNF-alpha and Haemophilus influenzae in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, L; Pelaia, G; Fratto, D; Muto, V; Falcone, D; Vatrella, A; Curto, L S; Renda, T; Busceti, M T; Liberto, M C; Savino, R; Cazzola, M; Marsico, S A; Maselli, R

    2010-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the most frequently involved pathogens in bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the airways, the main tissue target of NTHi is bronchial epithelium, where this pathogen can further amplify the inflammatory and structural changes induced by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate, in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, the effects of NTHi on signal transduction pathways, apoptotic events and chemokine production activated by TNF-alpha. Moreover, we also evaluated the effects exerted on such cellular and molecular phenomena by a corticosteroid drug. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blotting, using an anti-phospho-p38 MAPK monoclonal antibody. Apoptosis was assayed by active caspase-3 expression. Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) was detected in cell-free culture supernatants by ELISA. TNF-alpha induced a significant increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. NTHi was able to potentiate the stimulatory actions of TNF-alpha on caspase-3 expression and, to a lesser extent, on IL-8 secretion. These effects were significantly (P less than 0.01) inhibited by a pharmacological pre-treatment with budesonide. These results suggest that TNF-alpha is able to stimulate, via activation of p38 MAPK signalling pathway, IL-8 release and airway epithelial cell apoptosis; the latter effect can be markedly potentiated by NTHi. Furthermore, budesonide can be very effective in preventing, through inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation, both structural and proinflammatory changes elicited in bronchial epithelium by TNF-alpha and NTHi.

  8. Pharmacological characterisation of the interaction between glycopyrronium bromide and indacaterol fumarate in human isolated bronchi, small airways and bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Puxeddu, Ermanno; Ora, Josuel; Facciolo, Francesco; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2016-06-13

    Nowadays, there is a considerable gap in knowledge concerning the mechanism(s) by which long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) interact to induce bronchodilation. This study aimed to characterise the pharmacological interaction between glycopyrronium bromide and indacaterol fumarate and to identify the mechanism(s) leading to the bronchorelaxant effect of this interaction. The effects of glycopyrronium plus indacaterol on the contractile tone of medium and small human isolated bronchi were evaluated, and acetylcholine and cAMP concentrations were quantified. The interaction was assessed by Bliss Independence approach. Glycopyrronium plus indacaterol synergistically inhibited the bronchial tone (medium bronchi, +32.51 % ± 7.86 %; small bronchi, +28.46 % ± 5.35 %; P < 0.05 vs. additive effect). The maximal effect was reached 140 min post-administration. A significant (P < 0.05) synergistic effect was observed during 9 h post-administration on the cholinergic tone, but not on the histaminergic contractility. Co-administration of glycopyrronium and indacaterol reduced the release of acetylcholine from the epithelium but not from bronchi, and enhanced cAMP levels in bronchi and epithelial cells (P < 0.05 vs. control), an effect that was inhibited by the selective KCa(++) channel blocker iberiotoxin. The role of cAMP-dependent pathway was confirmed by the synergistic effect elicited by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin on glycopyrronium (P < 0.05 vs. additive effect), but not on indacaterol (P > 0.05 vs. additive effect), with regard of the bronchial relaxant response and cAMP increase. Glycopyrronium/indacaterol co-administration leads to a synergistic improvement of bronchodilation by increasing cAMP concentrations in both airway smooth muscle and bronchial epithelium, and by decreasing acetylcholine release from the epithelium.

  9. The putative human stem cell marker, Rex-1 (Zfp42): structural classification and expression in normal human epithelial and carcinoma cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mongan, Nigel P; Martin, Kisha M; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2006-12-01

    Human Rex-1 (hRex-1) (also referred to as zinc-finger protein-42, Zfp42) encodes a zinc finger protein expression of which is believed to be characteristic of pluripotent stem cells. We have applied bioinformatics to classify the relationship of human, rat, and mouse REX1 proteins in the C2H2 family of zinc finger proteins and demonstrate that REX1 is a member of the YY1 sub-family of transcription factors, which includes the Drosophila pleiohomeotic (Pho) protein. We have generated a molecular model of the human REX1 zinc finger domains based on the crystal structure of the YY1 transcription factor. To date, expression of hRex-1 and its extensively studied mouse homolog mRex-1, has been reported only in embryonic and adult stem cells and in differentiated spermatocytes. In this study, reverse transcription-PCR and Western analysis were employed to assay for hRex-1 expression in cultured normal human epithelial cells and human carcinoma cell lines. Expression of hRex-1 mRNA was detected in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), bronchial, and small airway lung epithelial cells. Other stem cell markers, such as Oct 4, DAB2, and cMyc were also detected in normal human epidermal keratinocyte cultures. Expression of hRex-1 was also detected in some human tumor cell lines including MDA-MB-468 mammary carcinoma, SCC-15 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and N-TERA2 human teratocarcinoma cells. Western analyses confirmed expression of the human REX1 (ZFP42) protein in MDA-MB-468 cells and normal human keratinocytes. This research has identified model human cell culture systems, in addition to embryonic stem (ES) cells, in which Rex-1 is expressed, and this should enable the characterization of REX1 functions in normal adult epithelial cells and tumorigenic stem cells.

  10. The patterns and expression of KDR in normal tissues of human internal organs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianfei; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Xudong; Tang, Qi; Huang, Hua; Wu, Kerong; Zhu, Jin; Feng, Zhenqing; Shi, Gongshen

    2011-12-01

    KDR has been implicated for playing an important role in the formation of new blood vessels and in solid tumor growth. It was considered as one of the most important regulators of angiogenesis and a key target in anticancer treatment. In the present study, we characterized KDR mRNA and protein expression in normal tissues of perinatal and adult tissues using One-step Real-Time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry with a self-made anti-KDR antibody. The expression of KDR mRNA and protein in perinatal internal organs were all higher than in adult organs including brain, kidney, liver, lung and heart, respectively. KDR protein was presented in the cell plasma membrane of human internal tissues. The expression of KDR protein was raised in macrophage of spleen, and decreased in neurons of brain, myocardium, bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar epithelial cell, proximal and distal tubules cells, and hepatic cells with the maturity process of human organs. Notably, the order of KDR protein expression from highest to lowest is as follows: brain, liver, heart, kidney, and lung in adult tissues with statistically significant. It follows that how to balance the potential therapeutic side effect with human internal organs in targeted therapy of over-expressing KDR tumor.

  11. Antibodies of IgG, IgA and IgM against Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guilian; Zhang, Nian; Wang, Yueqin; Rui, Jiang; Yin, Xiong; Cui, Tianpen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, autoimmune mechanisms and pulmonary epithelial cells have attracted attention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Circulating antibodies against human bronchial epithelial cells (anti-HBEC) bind to bronchial epithelial antigens and induce bronchial epithelial cell damage. This study aimed to detect the expression of IgG, IgM, and IgA anti-HBEC in patients with COPD. The association of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and pulmonary function with the presence of IgG, IgA, and IgM anti-HBEC in the plasma was determined in 170 patients with COPD and 150 age-matched healthy controls. Circulating IgG, IgA, and IgM anti-HBEC were detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Positive IgG anti-HBEC was seen in 34/170 (20.00%) COPD and 11/150 (7.33%) healthy controls (p < 0.001) (1:100 dilution); positive IgA anti-HBEC were presented in 50/170 (29.41%) COPD and 13/150 (8.67%) healthy controls (p < 0.0001) (1:40 dilution); 19/170 (11.19%) COPD and 10/150 (6.67%) healthy controls exhibited positive IgM anti-HBEC (p > 0.05) (1:40 dilution). The positive IgG and IgA anti-HBEC COPD patients were mostly classified as GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) III and GOLD IV. The positive IgA anti-HBEC COPD patients had lower BMI than healthy controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that an autoimmune component associated with bronchial epithelial cell damage is possibly involved in COPD and the presence of IgG and IgA anti-HBEC correlated with the GOLD stage of COPD. Therefore, our studies indicate that IgG and IgA anti-HBEC may associate with the disease severity of COPD.

  12. Power flow in normal human voice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The principal mechanisms of energy utilization in voicing are quantified using a simplified model, in order to better define voice efficiency. A control volume analysis of energy utilization in phonation is presented to identify the energy transfer mechanisms in terms of their function. Conversion of subglottal airstream potential energy into useful work done (vocal fold vibration, flow work, sound radiation), and into heat (sound radiation absorbed by the lungs, glottal jet dissipation) are described. An approximate numerical model is used to compute the contributions of each of these mechanisms, as a function of subglottal pressure, for normal phonation. Acknowledge support of NIH Grant 2R01DC005642-10A1.

  13. Silymarin attenuates cigarette smoke extract-induced inflammation via simultaneous inhibition of autophagy and ERK/p38 MAPK pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diandian; Hu, Jun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Lian; Wang, Hao; Wu, Yanqiu; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing to airway inflammation. Our previous study revealed that silymarin had an anti-inflammatory effect in CS-exposed mice. In this study, we attempt to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of silymarin in CS extract (CSE)-induced inflammation using human bronchial epithelial cells. Silymarin significantly suppressed autophagy activation and the activity of ERK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in Beas-2B cells. We also observed that inhibiting the activity of ERK with specific inhibitor U0126 led to reduced autophagic level, while knockdown of autophagic gene Beclin-1 and Atg5 decreased the levels of ERK and p38 phosphorylation. Moreover, silymarin attenuated CSE-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 which could also be dampened by ERK/p38 MAPK inhibitors and siRNAs for Beclin-1 and Atg5. Finally, we validated decreased levels of both autophagy and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and KC) in CS-exposed mice after silymarin treatment. The present research has demonstrated that CSE-induced autophagy in bronchial epithelia, in synergism with ERK MAPK pathway, may initiate and exaggerate airway inflammation. Silymarin could attenuate inflammatory responses through intervening in the crosstalk between autophagy and ERK MAPK pathway, and might be an ideal agent treating inflammatory pulmonary diseases. PMID:27874084

  14. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, a component of tobacco smoke, modulates mediator release from human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Proulx, L I; Gaudreault, M; Turmel, V; Augusto, L A; Castonguay, A; Bissonnette, E Y

    2005-04-01

    Respiratory epithelial cells are known to contribute to immune responses through the release of mediators. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco carcinogen, on respiratory epithelial cells and to compare two metabolic pathways, alpha-methylhydroxylation and alpha-methylenehydroxylation, involved in these effects using selective precursors, 4-(acetoxy-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridil)-1-butanone (NNKOAc) and N-nitroso (acetoxymethyl) methylamine (NDMAOAc), respectively. Human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cell lines, BEAS-2B and A549, respectively, were treated with NNK, NNKOAc and NDMAOAc for 24 h with and without tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and mediators released in cell-free supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NNK significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in both cell types. Similar results were observed with primary bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. Although NNK increased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production by A549 cells, its immunomodulatory effects were not mediated by PGE(2) according to the results with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. NNKOAc mimicked NNK effects, whereas NDMAOAc significantly inhibited IL-8 production in BEAS-2B cells and MCP-1 in both cell types. These results demonstrate that NNK and its reactive metabolites have immunosuppressive effects on respiratory epithelial cells, which could contribute to the increased respiratory infections observed in smokers and the development and/or the progression of lung cancer.

  15. Chromium VI-induced apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and a lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (MOLT-4).

    PubMed

    Gambelunghe, Angela; Piccinini, Renza; Abbritti, Giuseppe; Ambrogi, Maura; Ugolini, Barbara; Marchetti, Cristina; Migliorati, Graziella; Balducci, Chiara; Muzi, Giacomo

    2006-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are well-documented human carcinogens. In vitro experiments show Cr (VI) induces cell death by apoptosis by activating p53 protein. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and in a lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (MOLT-4). Cr (VI) caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the apoptosis rate in both cell lines. Western blotting showed increased p53 protein expression in MOLT-4 cells, but not in BEAS-2B cells, after exposure to 0.5 and 3 muM hexavalent chromium for 12 hours and 4 hours, respectively. Apoptotic cell death induced by Cr (VI) was not decreased by pretreatment with caspase-3, -8, and -9 inhibitors. These preliminary results provide evidence of Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis, which deserves further investigation in occupationally exposed workers.

  16. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

  17. Autophagy in term normal human placentas.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, P; Avagliano, L; Virgili, E; Gagliostro, V; Doi, P; Braidotti, P; Bulfamante, G P; Ghidoni, R; Marconi, A M

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy is an inducible catabolic process that responds to environment and is essential for cell survival during stress, starvation and hypoxia. Its function in the human placenta it is not yet understood. We collected 14 placentas: 7 at vaginal delivery and 7 at elective caesarean section after uneventful term pregnancies. The presence of autophagy was assessed in different placental areas by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We found that autophagy is significantly higher in placentas obtained from cesarean section than in those from vaginal delivery. Moreover there is a significant inverse relationship between autophagy and umbilical arterial glucose concentration.

  18. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Suga, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Fujisawa, Takao; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  19. [Metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumors].

    PubMed

    Bouledrak, K; Walter, T; Souquet, P J; Lombard-Bohas, C

    2016-02-01

    Bronchial carcinoids are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms and represent 1 to 2 % of all lung tumors. In early stage of disease, the mainstay and only curative treatment is surgery. Bronchial carcinoids are generally regarded as low-grade carcinomas and metastatic dissemination is unusual. The management of the metastatic stage is not currently standardized due to a lack of relevant studies. As bronchial carcinoids and in particular their metastatic forms are rare, we apply treatment strategies that have been evaluated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, bronchial carcinoids have their own characteristic. A specific therapeutic feature of these metastatic tumors is that they require a dual approach: both anti-secretory for the carcinoid syndrome, and anti-tumoral.

  20. Long-term low-dose α-particle enhanced the potential of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weili; Xiao, Linlin; Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Pan, Yan; Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Fu, Jiamei; Shao, Chunlin

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Multi-exposures of 25 mGy α-ray enhanced cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. • MAPK/Akt but not JNK/P66 was positively correlated with cell invasive phenotypes. • LDR of α-irradiation triggers cell malignant transformation through MAPK/Akt. - Abstract: Since the wide usage of ionizing radiation, the cancer risk of low dose radiation (LDR) (<0.1 Gy) has become attractive for a long time. However, most results are derived from epidemiologic studies on atomic-bomb survivors and nuclear accidents surrounding population, and the molecular mechanism of this risk is elusive. To explore the potential of a long-term LDR-induced malignant transformation, human bronchial epithelial cells Beas-2B were fractionally irradiated with 0.025 Gy α-particles for 8 times in total and then further cultured for 1–2 months. It was found that the cell proliferation, the abilities of adhesion and invasion, and the protein expressions of p-ERK, p-Akt, especially p-P38 were not only increased in the multiply-irradiated cells but also in their offspring 1–2 months after the final exposure, indicating high potentiality of cell malignant transformation. On opposite, the expressions of p-JNK and p-P66 were diminished in the subcultures of irradiated cells and thus may play a role of negative regulation in canceration. When the cells were transferred with p38 siRNA, the LDR-induced enhancements of cell adhesion and invasion were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that long-term LDR of α-particles could enhance the potential of malignant transformation incidence in human bronchial epithelial cells through MAPK/Akt pathway.

  1. Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in the regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 after infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Akemi

    2003-10-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infection of human bronchial epithelial cells by Bordetella pertussis up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene and protein expression. It has also been shown that interaction of the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) site of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) with host cell very late antigen (VLA)-5 (alpha 5 beta 1 integrin) is required for the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that pertussis toxin (PT) impairs this response. We therefore examined the molecular mechanisms leading to B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. A colorimetric nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation assay demonstrated that NF-kappa B was activated in response to infection of these cells with B. pertussis. This activation occurred in an FHA(RGD)-dependent manner, and was blocked by an antibody against VLA-5, implying that binding of the RGD to VLA-5 integrin is involved in NF-kappa B activation. Western blot analysis revealed that the activation of NF-kappa B by B. pertussis was preceded by degradation of I kappa B alpha, a major cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappa B. Pretreatment of the BEAS-2B cells with the NF-kappa B inhibitors pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), MG-132, and SN50 resulted in a marked decrease in B. pertussis-induced ICAM-1 expression, implying the involvement of NF-kappa B in ICAM-1 expression. Purified PT abrogated both NF-kappa B activation and I kappa B alpha degradation. These results suggest that ligation of VLA-5 integrin by FHA induces RGD-dependent NF-kappa B activation, thus leading to the up-regulation of epithelial ICAM-1 expression, and that a PT-sensitive G protein may be involved in this signaling pathway.

  2. Possible role of WT1 in a human fetus with evolving bronchial atresia, pulmonary malformation and renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Loo, Christine K C; Algar, Elizabeth M; Payton, Diane J; Perry-Keene, Joanna; Pereira, Tamara N; Ramm, Grant A

    2012-01-01

    The association of peripheral bronchial atresia and congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) has recently been recognised, but the pathology of the lesions evolving together has not been described. We present autopsy findings in a 20 week fetus showing areas of peripheral bronchial destruction and airway malformation consistent with developing CPAM in the right lung supporting a causal relationship between these lesions. This fetus also had congenital heart defect, bilateral renal agenesis and syndactyly. We identified another fetus from our autopsy files, with bilateral renal agenesis, similar right sided pulmonary malformation and cardiac defects. Similar bilateral renal agenesis and defects of the heart and lungs are found in wt1(-/-) mice and we have investigated the expression of WT1 in these fetuses. We hypothesise that the cardiac, liver, renal and possibly lung lesions in these two cases may arise due to mesenchymal defects consequent to WT1 misexpression and discuss evidence for this from the scientific literature. We used immunoperoxidase stains to analyse WT1 expression in autopsy hepatic tissue in both fetuses. We also investigated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of activated hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts, and desmin in hepatic mesenchyme and compare these findings with control fetuses, without congenital malformations. We found reduced WT1 expression in hepatic mesothelium in both fetuses with malformations. There was also increased expression of α-SMA in liver perisinusoidal cells, as seen in the wt1(-/-) mouse model. We therefore propose that abnormality of WT1 signalling may be an underlying factor, as WT1 is expressed in coelomic lining cells from which mesenchyme is derived in many organs.

  3. Activation of vitamin D regulates response of human bronchial epithelial cells to Aspergillus fumigatus in an autocrine fashion.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Wu, Ting; Su, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is one of the most common fungi to cause diseases in humans. Recent evidence has demonstrated that airway epithelial cells play an important role in combating A. fumigatus through inflammatory responses. Human airway epithelial cells have been proven to synthesize the active vitamin D, which plays a key role in regulating inflammation. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of A. fumigatus infection on the activation of vitamin D and the role of vitamin D activation in A. fumigatus-elicited antifungal immunity in normal human airway epithelial cells. We found that A. fumigatus swollen conidia (SC) induced the expression of 1α-hydroxylase, the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of active vitamin D, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in 16HBE cells and led to increased local generation of active vitamin D. Locally activated vitamin D amplified SC-induced expression of antimicrobial peptides in 16HBE cells but attenuated SC-induced production of cytokines in an autocrine fashion. Furthermore, we identified β-glucan, the major A. fumigatus cell wall component, as the causative agent for upregulation of 1α-hydroxylase and VDR in 16HBE cells. Therefore, activation of vitamin D is inducible and provides a bidirectional regulation of the responses to A. fumigatus in 16HBE cells.

  4. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts decrease bronchial epithelial wound repair.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Todd A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Tuma, Dean J; Sisson, Joseph H; Spurzem, John R

    2005-05-01

    Most people who abuse alcohol are cigarette smokers. Previously, we have shown that malondialdehyde, an inflammation product of lipid peroxidation, and acetaldehyde, a component of both ethanol metabolism and cigarette smoke, form protein adducts that stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) activation in bronchial epithelial cells. We have also shown that PKC can regulate bronchial epithelial cell wound repair. We hypothesize that bovine serum albumin adducted with malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde (BSA-MAA) decreases bronchial epithelial cell wound repair via binding to scavenger receptors on bronchial epithelial cells. To test this, confluent monolayers of bovine bronchial epithelial cells were grown in serum-free media prior to wounding the cells. Bronchial epithelial cell wound closure was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (up to 60%) in the presence of BSA-MAA than in media treated cells (Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis [LHC]-9-Roswell Park Memorial Institute [RPMI]). The specific scavenger receptor ligand, fucoidan, also stimulated PKC activation and decreased wound repair. Pretreatment with fucoidan blocked malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde binding to bronchial epithelial cells. When bronchial epithelial cells were preincubated with a PKC alpha inhibitor, Gö 6976, the inhibition of wound closure by fucoidan and BSA-MAA was blocked. Western blot demonstrated the presence of several scavenger receptors on bronchial epithelial cell membranes, including SRA, SRBI, SRBII, and CD36. Scavenger receptor-mediated activation of PKC alpha may function to reduce wound healing under conditions of alcohol and cigarette smoke exposure where malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts may be present.

  5. Repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure alters cell differentiation and augments secretion of inflammatory mediators in air-liquid interface three-dimensional co-culture model of human bronchial tissue.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shinkichi; Ito, Shigeaki

    2017-02-01

    In vitro models of human bronchial epithelium are useful for toxicological testing because of their resemblance to in vivo tissue. We constructed a model of human bronchial tissue which has a fibroblast layer embedded in a collagen matrix directly below a fully-differentiated epithelial cell layer. The model was applied to whole cigarette smoke (CS) exposure repeatedly from an air-liquid interface culture while bronchial epithelial cells were differentiating. The effects of CS exposure on differentiation were determined by histological and gene expression analyses on culture day 21. We found a decrease in ciliated cells and perturbation of goblet cell differentiation. We also analyzed the effects of CS exposure on the inflammatory response, and observed a significant increase in secretion of IL-8, GRO-α, IL-1β, and GM-CSF. Interestingly, secretion of these mediators was augmented with repetition of whole CS exposure. Our data demonstrate the usefulness of our bronchial tissue model for in vitro testing and the importance of exposure repetition in perturbing the differentiation and inflammation processes.

  6. DNA amplification is rare in normal human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.A.; Watt, F.M.; Hudson, D.L.; Stark, G.R. ); Smith, H.S.; Hancock, M.C. )

    1990-03-01

    Three types of normal human cells were selected in tissue culture with three drugs without observing a single amplification event from a total of 5 x 10{sup 8} cells. No drug-resistant colonies were observed when normal foreskin keratinocytes were selected with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate or with hydroxyurea or when normal mammary epithelial cells were selected with methotrexate. Some slightly resistant colonies with limited potential for growth were obtained when normal diploid fibroblast cells derived from fetal lung were selected with methotrexate or hydroxyurea but careful copy-number analysis of the dihydrofolate reductase and ribonucleotide reductase genes revealed no evidence of amplification. The rarity of DNA amplification in normal human cells contrasts strongly with the situation in tumors and in established cell lines, where amplification of onogenes and of genes mediating drug resistance is frequent. The results suggest that tumors and cell lines have acquired the abnormal ability to amplify DNA with high frequency.

  7. Functional coupling of TRPV4 cationic channel and large conductance, calcium-dependent potassium channel in human bronchial epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, José M; Andrade, Yaniré N; Arniges, Maite; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Plata, Cristina; Rubio-Moscardo, Francisca; Vázquez, Esther; Valverde, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Calcium-dependent potassium channels are implicated in electrolyte transport, cell volume regulation and mechanical responses in epithelia, although the pathways for calcium entry and their coupling to the activation of potassium channels are not fully understood. We now show molecular evidence for the presence of TRPV4, a calcium permeable channel sensitive to osmotic and mechanical stress, and its functional coupling to the large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channel (BK(Ca)) in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (HBE). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, intracellular calcium imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp experiments using HBE cells demonstrated the presence of TRPV4 messenger and Ca(2+) entry, and outwardly rectifying cationic currents elicited by the TRPV4 specific activator 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4alphaPDD). Cell-attached and whole-cell patch-clamp of HBE cells exposed to 4alphaPDD, and hypotonic and high-viscosity solutions (related to mechanical stress) revealed the activation of BK(Ca) channels subsequent to extracellular Ca(2+) influx via TRPV4, an effect lost upon antisense-mediated knock-down of TRPV4. Further analysis of BK(Ca) modulation after TRPV4 activation showed that the Ca(2+) signal can be generated away from the BK(Ca) location at the plasma membrane, and it is not mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) release via ryanodine receptors. Finally, we have shown that, unlike the reported disengagement of TRPV4 and BK(Ca) in response to hypotonic solutions, cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE) preserve the functional coupling of TRPV4 and BK(Ca) in response to high-viscous solutions.

  8. Nickel compounds induce apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells by activation of c-Myc through ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qin; Suen, T.-C.; Sun Hong; Arita, Adriana; Costa, Max

    2009-03-01

    Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and have been shown to alter epigenetic homeostasis. The c-Myc protein controls 15% of human genes and it has been shown that fluctuations of c-Myc protein alter global epigenetic marks. Therefore, the regulation of c-Myc by nickel ions in immortalized but not tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells was examined in this study. It was found that c-Myc protein expression was increased by nickel ions in non-tumorigenic Beas-2B and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results also indicated that nickel ions induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells. Knockout of c-Myc and its restoration in a rat cell system confirmed the essential role of c-Myc in nickel ion-induced apoptosis. Further studies in Beas-2B cells showed that nickel ion increased the c-Myc mRNA level and c-Myc promoter activity, but did not increase c-Myc mRNA and protein stability. Moreover, nickel ion upregulated c-Myc in Beas-2B cells through the MEK/ERK pathway. Collectively, the results demonstrate that c-Myc induction by nickel ions occurs via an ERK-dependent pathway and plays a crucial role in nickel-induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells.

  9. Exploring sialic acid receptors-related infection behavior of avian influenza virus in human bronchial epithelial cells by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Shu-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Tian, Zhi-Quan; Tang, Hong-Wu; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2014-07-09

    Human respiratory tract epithelial cells are the portals of human infection with influenza viruses. However, the infection pathway of individual avian influenza viruses in human respiratory cells remains poorly reported so far. The single-particle tracking technique (SPT) is a powerful tool for studying the transport mechanism of biomolecules in live cells. In this work, we use quantum dots to label avian influenza H9N2 virus and elaborate on the infection mechanism of the virus in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells using a three-dimensional SPT technique. We have found that the H9N2 virus can infect HBE cells directly and the virus infection follows an actin filament- and microtubule-dependent process with a three-stage pattern. The transport behaviors show a high degree of consistency between the sialic acid receptors and the influenza virus. Real-time SPT provides dynamic evidence of the sialic acid receptors-related infection behavior of the avian influenza virus in live cells. The study of the influence of sialic acid receptors on virus infection may contribute to a better understanding of the cross-species transmission of the avian influenza virus. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Retinoic acid suppresses interleukin 6 production in normal human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, N; Sammons, J; Khokher, M A; Hassan, H T

    2000-03-01

    Systemic long-term retinoid therapy for chronic skin diseases significantly reduced bone turnover markers within days and led to bone abnormalities. Retinoic acid (RA) plays a key role in the regulation of mouse bone cell proliferation, differentiation and functions. Meanwhile, there is little information of RA effect on human osteoblast and osteoclast cell development and function. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with profound effects on bone metabolism. Thus, the present study examined the RA effect on cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production as well as IL-6 production in normal human osteoblasts. The number of large differentiated osteoblast cells decreased in RA-treated cultures P<0.05. The production of bone specific markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, was also reduced in RA-treated cultures. Normal human osteoblasts produced 31.0+/-4.8 pg IL-6 per ml in control cultures. Within 24 h, RA at all four concentrations reduced Il-6 production from normal human osteoblasts. The pharmacological concentration of 10(-5) M RA suppressed 90% of IL-6 production. The present study shows for the first time that RA profoundly inhibits IL-6 production in normal human osteoblasts within 24 h and in a dose-dependent manner. RA was shown previously to inhibit IL-6 production in several other normal and malignant human cell types. The associated decrease in osteoblast cell differentiation, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin production could result from the rapid RA-inhibition of IL-6 production. Thus, RA inhibition of IL-6 production in normal human osteoblasts may contribute to the bone abnormalities seen after systemic long-term retinoid therapy in some patients. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Surface reactivity and in vitro toxicity on human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) of nanomaterials intermediates of the production of titania-based composites.

    PubMed

    Vergaro, Viviana; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Fenoglio, Ivana; Marucco, Arianna; Carlucci, Claudia; Ciccarella, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications. Evaluating the hazards associated with TiO2 NPs is crucial as it enables risk assessment related to human and environmental exposure. In this study the in vitro human toxicity of a set of TiO2 NPs modified with acetic, oleic and boric acids were studied in order to assess the hazard in view of a future scale-up of the synthesis. The surface reactivity of the powders under simulated solar illumination and in the dark has been evaluated by means of EPR spectroscopy. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) have been chosen as a model for lung epithelium. Cytotoxicity has been assessed by measuring the cells membrane integrity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and the inflammatory response evaluated as nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α production, and oxidative stress measured as intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced lipoperoxidation. Aeroxide P25 was used for comparison. The results demonstrated a low photoreactivity and toxic effects lower than Aeroxide P25 of the nano-TiO2 powders, probably as a consequence of the presence of acidic moieties at the surface.

  12. An optimal bronchial treemay be dangerous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauroy, B.; Filoche, M.; Weibel, E. R.; Sapoval, B.

    2004-02-01

    The geometry and dimensions of branched structures such as blood vessels or airways are important factors in determining the efficiency of physiological processes. It has been shown that fractal trees can be space filling and can ensure minimal dissipation. The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system with an approximate fractal structure. Here we present a study of the compatibility between physical optimization and physiological robustness in the design of the human bronchial tree. We show that this physical optimization is critical in the sense that small variations in the geometry can induce very large variations in the net air flux. Maximum physical efficiency therefore cannot be a sufficient criterion for the physiological design of bronchial trees. Rather, the design of bronchial trees must be provided with a safety factor and the capacity for regulating airway calibre. Paradoxically, our results suggest that bronchial malfunction related to asthma is a necessary consequence of the optimized efficiency of the tree structure.

  13. Inhaled dopamine induces bronchodilatation in patients with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, G A; Lezama, Y; Vidal, A; Velasco, M

    1999-10-01

    To determine the probable bronchodilating effect of dopamine administered by inhalation route in patients with crisis of bronchial asthma and the effect of dopamine on bronchial motor tone. We have studied eighteen (18) patients with crisis of bronchial asthma, ten (10) subjects with bronchial hyperreactivity and ten (10) healthy subjects. Patients with other pulmonary or cardiac disease were excluded. All received by inhalation placebo (0.9% saline solution), dopamine at 0.5 microg/kg/min (controlled by heart rate and arterial pressure with a dynamap), and placebo. Respiratory parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1), forced maximal expiratory flow (FEFmax) and forced expiratory flow at the 50% of vital capacity (FEF50) were measured in each protocol period. Student's paired t test, Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney analysis were performed. After dopamine inhalation, there was an increase of FVC by 23% (p<0.001); an increase of FEV1 by 39% (p<0.0001); an increase of FEF50 by 33% (p<0.001) and an increase of FEFmax by 31% (p<0.001). There were no respiratory parameter changes in both, subjects with bronchial hyperreactivity and normal after dopamine inhalation. Inhaled dopamine induces bronchodilatation in patients with crisis of bronchial asthma. Inhaled dopamine neither alters basal bronchial tone in healthy subjects nor in subjects with bronchial hyperreactivity.

  14. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  15. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  16. s-Ethyl Cysteine and s-Methyl Cysteine Protect Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Te-chun; Yin, Mei-chin

    2015-09-01

    Protective effects and actions from s-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and s-methyl cysteine (SMC) for BEAS-2B cells were examined. BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with SEC or SMC at 4, 8, or 16 μmol/L, and followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) treatment. Data showed that H2 O2 enhanced Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression, and declined Bcl-2 expression. However, SEC or SMC dose-dependently decreased caspase-3 expression and reserved Bcl-2 expression. H2 O2 increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lowered glutathione level, glutathione peroxide, and glutathione reductase activities in BEAS-2B cells. SEC or SMC pretreatments reduced ROS generation, and maintained glutathione redox cycle in those cells. H2 O2 upregulated the expression of both p47(phox) and gp91(phox) . SEC and SMC downregulated p47(phox) expression. SEC or SMC at 8 and 16 μmol/L decreased H2 O2 -induced release of inflammatory cytokines. H2 O2 stimulated the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. SEC and SMC pretreatments dose-dependently downregulated NF-κB p65 and p-p38 expression. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate or SB203580 inhibited NF-κB activation and p38 phosphorylation; thus, SEC or SMC pretreatments failed to affect protein expression of these factors. These novel findings suggest that SEC or SMC could protect bronchial cells and benefit respiratory epithelia stability and functions.

  17. Reactive oxygen species contribute to arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation in human bronchial epithelial cells and lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lingzhi; Qiu, Ping; Chen, Bailing; Lu, Yongju; Wu, Kai; Thakur, Chitra; Chang, Qingshan; Sun, Jiaying; Chen, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies suggested that arsenic is able to induce serine 21 phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein through activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt signaling pathways in the bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. In the present report, we further demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the arsenic-induced protein kinase activation that leads to EZH2 phosphorylation. Several lines of evidence supported this notion. First, the pretreatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, abolishes arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation along with the inhibition of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. Second, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the most important form of ROS in the cells in response to extracellular stress signals, can induce phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein and the activation of JNK, STAT3, and Akt. By ectopic expression of the myc-tagged EZH2, we additionally identified direct interaction and phosphorylation of the EZH2 protein by Akt in response to arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, both arsenic and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were able to induce the translocation of ectopically expressed or endogenous EZH2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. In summary, the data presented in this report indicate that oxidative stress due to ROS generation plays an important role in the arsenic-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. - Highlights:: • Arsenic (As{sup 3+}) induces EZH phosphorylation. • JNK, STAT3, and Akt contribute to EZH2 phosphorylation. • Oxidative stress is involved in As{sup 3+}-induced EZH2 phosphorylation. • As{sup 3+} induces direct interaction of Akt and EZH2. • Phosphorylated EZH2 localized in cytoplasm.

  18. Vasotocin and vasopressin stimulation of the chloride secretion in the human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o-

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Bogliolo, Stéphanie; Ehrenfeld, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    Effects of neuropeptides of the vasopressin family on Cl− secretion have not yet been reported in lung. Using the 16HBE14o- bronchial epithelial cell line, we investigated their action on Cl− secretion. In symmetrical Cl− solutions, basolateral application of arginine vasotocin (AVT), oxytocin or isotocin induced a transient Isc stimulation (Ipeak), whereas arginine vasopressin (AVP) did not. The effects of different Cl− channel blockers and of a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor suggest that CFTR is involved in Ipeak. The calcium-activated K+ channel (SK4) and the Cl−/HCO−3 exchanger favor the driving force for AVT-mediated Cl− secretion. The antagonists of V1a (SR49059)- and V1b (SSR149415)-receptors blocked Ipeak, while SR121463B, a V2 receptor antagonist, did not. These results point to the stimulation of a V1-like receptor mediating Ipeak and presenting an efficacy order, AVT>oxytocin>isotocin≫AVP. When a serosal to mucosal Cl− gradient was applied, AVT and AVP both stimulated Isc according to a biphasic profile, Ipeak being followed by a plateau phase (Iplateau). The pharmacology of Iplateau suggests that CFTR channels are involved and that Na+/K+/2Cl− is the only transporter associated with Iplateau. dDAVP, a V2 receptor agonist-induced Iplateau with the same potency as AVP, suggesting the involvement of V2 receptors in the AVP-induced Iplateau. V2 receptors are present on both opposite membranes, while V1-like receptors are mainly expressed on the basolateral membranes. RT–PCR experiments show the expression of V1a, V1b, V2 and vasopressin-activated calcium-mobilizing (VACM) receptors mRNAs. PMID:15685210

  19. Human bronchial epithelial cell injuries induced by fine particulate matter from sandstorm and non-sandstorm periods: Association with particle constituents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Ning; Deng, Furong; Buglak, Nicholas; Park, George; Su, Shu; Ren, Aiguo; Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the exacerbation of respiratory diseases following sandstorm-derived particulate matter (PM) exposure. The presence of anthropogenic and biological agents on the sandstorm PM and the escalation of PM<2.5μm (PM2.5) pollution in China have led to serious concerns regarding the health effects of PM2.5 during Asian sandstorms. We investigated how changes in PM2.5 composition, as the weather transitioned towards a sandstorm, affected human airway epithelial cells. Six PM2.5 samples covering two sandstorm events and their respective background and transition periods were collected in Baotou, an industrial city near the Gobi Desert in China. PM samples from all three periods had mild cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, which was positively correlated with the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and several metals. All PM samples potently increased the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Endotoxin in all samples contributed significantly to the IL-6 response, with only a minor effect on IL-8. Cr was positively correlated with both IL-6 and IL-8 release, while Si was only associated with the increase of IL-6. Our study suggests that local agricultural and industrial surroundings in addition to the sandstorm play important roles in the respiratory effects of sandstorm-derived PM.

  20. Macrophages Facilitate Coal Tar Pitch Extract-Induced Tumorigenic Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Mediated by NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Feifei; Wu, Yiming; Zhang, Shaofeng; Liu, Yu; Qin, Lijuan; Wu, Yongjun; Yan, Zhen; Wu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Chronic respiratory inflammation has been associated with lung cancer. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a critical role in the formation of inflammation microenvironment. We sought to characterize the role of TAMs in coal tar pitch extract (CTPE)-induced tumorigenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells and the underlying mechanisms. Methods The expression of TAMs-specific CD68 in lung cancer tissues and paired adjacent tissues from cancer patients was determined using immunostaining. Co-culture of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and macrophage-like THP-1 cells were conducted to evaluate the promotive effect of macrophages on CTPE-induced tumorigenic transformation of BEAS-2B cells. BEAS-2B cells were first treated with 2.4 µg/mL CTPE for 72 hours. After removal of CTPE, the cells were continuously cultured either with or without THP-1 cells and passaged using trypsin-EDTA. Alterations of cell cycle, karyotype, colony formation in soft agar and tumor xenograft growth in nude mice of BEAS-2B cells at passages 10, 20 and 30, indicative of tumorigenecity, were determined, respectively. In addition, mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB in BEAS-2B cells were measured with RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. B(a)P was used as the positive control. Results The over-expression of TAMs-specific CD68 around lung tumor tissues was detected and associated with lung cancer progression. The tumorigenic alterations of BEAS-2B cells including increase in cell growth rate, number of cells with aneuploidy, clonogenicity in soft agar, and tumor size in nude mice in vivo occurred at passage 10, becoming significant at passages 20 and 30 of the co-culture following CTPE removal in compared to BEAS-2B cells alone. In addition, the expression levels of NF-κB in BEAS-2B cells were positively correlated to the malignancy of BEAS-2B cells under different conditions of treatment. Conclusion The presence of macrophages facilitated CTPE

  1. Peripheral mononuclear leucocyte beta adrenoceptors and non-specific bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in young and elderly normal subjects and asthmatic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, M. J.; Crowley, J. J.; Nielson, C. P.; Charan, N. B.; Vestal, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--As beta adrenoceptor dysfunction occurs in both the normal elderly subject and in young asthmatic patients, the hypothesis was examined that age related beta adrenoceptor changes are important in the pathogenesis of late onset asthma in old age. METHODS--Subjects were non-smokers who comprised 17 young normal subjects of mean (SE) age 29.4 (1.3) years, 17 elderly normal subjects of 67.2 (1.3) years, seven young asthmatic patients of 31.0 (2.8) years, and 17 elderly asthmatic patients of 68.5 (1.4) years. All asthmatic patients withheld inhalers for 12 hours and oral treatment for 24 hours before each study day. Subjects underwent an inhaled methacholine challenge (Newcastle dosimeter method) on two nonconsecutive days. The slope of the flow at 50% of the vital capacity (FEF50) dose-response curve was derived from the percentage fall in FEE50 divided by methacholine dose (sFEF50). Beta-adrenoceptor density (Bmax) and affinity (%KH) were determined with (125I)iodocyanopindolol as the radioligand in membranes prepared from mononuclear leucocytes. RESULTS--Log sFEF50 was shown to be reproducible (repeatability coefficient 0.41) on the two study days and was inversely related to %KH but not to Bmax. Multiple regression analysis (all 58 subjects, overall R2 = 0.57) revealed an inverse relation between log sFEF50 and %KH, and between log sFEF50 and Bmax. The inverse relation between log sFEF50 and %KH was preserved whereas that between log sFEF50 and Bmax was lost when young asthmatic subjects or when all asthmatic subjects were excluded from multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS--The beta adrenoceptor dysfunction observed in late onset asthma may be similar to that seen during ageing. Thus late onset asthma may represent the extreme of a spectrum of age associated beta adrenoceptor dysfunction. PMID:8153936

  2. Estradiol Increases Mucus Synthesis in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Anthony; Wadsworth, Samuel; Dorscheid, Delbert; Man, Shu-Fan Paul; Sin, Don D.

    2014-01-01

    Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis) and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI). Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining) in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-β) antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0) cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6) mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium. PMID:24964096

  3. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity. PMID:2799744

  4. Developing a Gene Biomarker at the Tipping Point of Adaptive and Adverse Responses in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Currier, Jenna M; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Menendez, Daniel; Conolly, Rory; Chorley, Brian N

    2016-01-01

    Determining mechanism-based biomarkers that distinguish adaptive and adverse cellular processes is critical to understanding the health effects of environmental exposures. Shifting from in vivo, low-throughput toxicity studies to high-throughput screening (HTS) paradigms and risk assessment based on in vitro and in silico testing requires utilizing toxicity pathway information to distinguish adverse outcomes from recoverable adaptive events. Little work has focused on oxidative stresses in human airway for the purposes of predicting adverse responses. We hypothesize that early gene expression-mediated molecular changes could be used to delineate adaptive and adverse responses to environmentally-based perturbations. Here, we examined cellular responses of the tracheobronchial airway to zinc (Zn) exposure, a model oxidant. Airway derived BEAS-2B cells exposed to 2-10 μM Zn2+ elicited concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Normal, adaptive, and cytotoxic Zn2+ exposure conditions were determined with traditional apical endpoints, and differences in global gene expression around the tipping point of the responses were used to delineate underlying molecular mechanisms. Bioinformatic analyses of differentially expressed genes indicate early enrichment of stress signaling pathways, including those mediated by the transcription factors p53 and NRF2. After 4 h, 154 genes were differentially expressed (p < 0.01) between the adaptive and cytotoxic Zn2+ concentrations. Nearly 40% of the biomarker genes were related to the p53 signaling pathway with 30 genes identified as likely direct targets using a database of p53 ChIP-seq studies. Despite similar p53 activation profiles, these data revealed widespread dampening of p53 and NRF2-related genes as early as 4 h after exposure at higher, unrecoverable Zn2+ exposures. Thus, in our model early increased activation of stress response pathways indicated a recoverable adaptive event. Overall, this study highlights the

  5. Developing a Gene Biomarker at the Tipping Point of Adaptive and Adverse Responses in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Jenna M.; Cheng, Wan-Yun; Menendez, Daniel; Conolly, Rory; Chorley, Brian N.

    2016-01-01

    Determining mechanism-based biomarkers that distinguish adaptive and adverse cellular processes is critical to understanding the health effects of environmental exposures. Shifting from in vivo, low-throughput toxicity studies to high-throughput screening (HTS) paradigms and risk assessment based on in vitro and in silico testing requires utilizing toxicity pathway information to distinguish adverse outcomes from recoverable adaptive events. Little work has focused on oxidative stresses in human airway for the purposes of predicting adverse responses. We hypothesize that early gene expression-mediated molecular changes could be used to delineate adaptive and adverse responses to environmentally-based perturbations. Here, we examined cellular responses of the tracheobronchial airway to zinc (Zn) exposure, a model oxidant. Airway derived BEAS-2B cells exposed to 2–10 μM Zn2+ elicited concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Normal, adaptive, and cytotoxic Zn2+ exposure conditions were determined with traditional apical endpoints, and differences in global gene expression around the tipping point of the responses were used to delineate underlying molecular mechanisms. Bioinformatic analyses of differentially expressed genes indicate early enrichment of stress signaling pathways, including those mediated by the transcription factors p53 and NRF2. After 4 h, 154 genes were differentially expressed (p < 0.01) between the adaptive and cytotoxic Zn2+ concentrations. Nearly 40% of the biomarker genes were related to the p53 signaling pathway with 30 genes identified as likely direct targets using a database of p53 ChIP-seq studies. Despite similar p53 activation profiles, these data revealed widespread dampening of p53 and NRF2-related genes as early as 4 h after exposure at higher, unrecoverable Zn2+ exposures. Thus, in our model early increased activation of stress response pathways indicated a recoverable adaptive event. Overall, this study highlights the

  6. Loss of Brain Aerobic Glycolysis in Normal Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manu S; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Blazey, Tyler M; Su, Yi; Couture, Lars E; Durbin, Tony J; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L-S; Morris, John C; Raichle, Marcus E

    2017-08-01

    The normal aging human brain experiences global decreases in metabolism, but whether this affects the topography of brain metabolism is unknown. Here we describe PET-based measurements of brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow in cognitively normal adults from 20 to 82 years of age. Age-related decreases in brain glucose uptake exceed that of oxygen use, resulting in loss of brain aerobic glycolysis (AG). Whereas the topographies of total brain glucose uptake, oxygen utilization, and blood flow remain largely stable with age, brain AG topography changes significantly. Brain regions with high AG in young adults show the greatest change, as do regions with prolonged developmental transcriptional features (i.e., neoteny). The normal aging human brain thus undergoes characteristic metabolic changes, largely driven by global loss and topographic changes in brain AG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gastro-bronchial fistula

    PubMed Central

    Missen, Anthony J. B.; Pemberton, James; Boon, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    1. Gastro-bronchial fistula is a rare condition occurring most commonly as a complication of a subphrenic abscess. 2. Other causes include trauma and necrosis within an infiltrating neoplasm. 3. The treatment of those fistulae which are secondary to a subphrenic abscess should be by drainage of the abscess, jejunal tube feeding and continuous gastric aspiration. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4464513

  8. Bronchial malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Weshler, Z; Sulkes, A; Kopolovitch, J; Leviatan, A; Shifrin, E

    1980-01-01

    We describe a case of malignant melanoma presenting initially as an endobronchial lesion located in the left main bronchus causing total atelectasis. This resolved with radiation therapy. Widespread metastases developed shortly thereafter. The differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic bronchial malignant melanoma is discussed. Other isolated case reports are reviewed.

  9. Collagen polymorphism in normal and cirrhotic human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Seyer, J M; Hutcheson, E T; Kang, A H

    1977-01-01

    Collagens in normal human liver and in alcoholic cirrhotic liver were investigated. Collagens were solubilized by limited proteolysis with pepsin under nondenaturing conditions, and after purification, were fractionated into types I and III by selective precipitation with NaCl. After carboxymethyl cellulose and agarose chromatography, the resulting alpha-chains from each of the collagen types were analyzed with respect to their amino acid and carbohydrate compositions. A comparison of the results obtained from normal liver with those from the diseases organ revealed no significant differences. The isolated human liver alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) chains were digested with CNBr and the generated peptides were separated and purified by a combination of ion-exchange and molecular sieve chromatography. The molecular weight and the amino acid and the carbohydrate compositions of each of the peptides were identical to those of the corresponding human skin peptides except for the slightly higher content of hydroxylysine in some of the peptides. The relative content of type III in relation to type I collagen in both normal anc cirrhotic liver was determined by digesting washed liver homogenates directly with CNBr and quantitating the resultant alpha1(I) and alpha 1(III) peptides after chromatographic separation. The relative quantities of these peptides indicated that normal human liver contained an average of 47% type III, with the remainder being type I. Cirrhotic liver, on the other hand, contained a significantly smaller proportion of type III, ranging from 18 to 34% in different samples, with a corresponding increase in type I. These findings indicate that although the amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of collagens deposited in cirrhotic liver are normal, the fibrotic process of alcoholic liver disease in humans is accompanied by an alteration in tissue collagen polymorphism, and suggest that the observed alterations may have pathogenetic implications. PMID:833273

  10. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Angiogenesis in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells via the ROS/miR-199a-5p/HIF-1α/COX-2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Wang, Min; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Qiudan; Xu, Shaohua; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental and occupational exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Although it has been identified as a human carcinogen, the molecular mechanism underlying the arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is not well understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine the role and mechanisms of miRNAs in arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Methods: We utilized an in vitro model in which human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells were transformed through long-term exposure to arsenic. A human xenograft tumor model was established to assess tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Tube formation assay and chorioallantoic membranes assay were used to assess tumor angiogenesis. Results: We found that miR-199a-5p expression levels were more than 100-fold lower in arsenic-transformed cells than parental cells. Re-expression of miR-199a-5p impaired arsenic-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth through its direct targets HIF-1α and COX-2. We further showed that arsenic induced COX-2 expression through HIF-1 regulation at the transcriptional level. In addition, we demonstrated that reactive oxygen species are an upstream event of miR-199a-5p/ HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Conclusion: The findings establish critical roles of miR-199a-5p and its downstream targets HIF-1/COX-2 in arsenic-induced tumor growth and angiogenesis. Citation: He J, Wang M, Jiang Y, Chen Q, Xu S, Xu Q, Jiang BH, Liu LZ. 2014. Chronic arsenic exposure and angiogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells via the ROS/miR-199a-5p/HIF-1α/COX-2 Pathway. Environ Health Perspect 122:255–261; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307545 PMID:24413338

  11. Proteomic analysis of cellular soluble proteins from human bronchial smooth muscle cells by combining nondenaturing micro 2DE and quantitative LC‐MS/MS. 2. Similarity search between protein maps for the analysis of protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ya; Yuan, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Manabe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Human bronchial smooth muscle cell soluble proteins were analyzed by a combined method of nondenaturing micro 2DE, grid gel‐cutting, and quantitative LC‐MS/MS and a native protein map was prepared for each of the identified 4323 proteins [1]. A method to evaluate the degree of similarity between the protein maps was developed since we expected the proteins comprising a protein complex would be separated together under nondenaturing conditions. The following procedure was employed using Excel macros; (i) maps that have three or more squares with protein quantity data were selected (2328 maps), (ii) within each map, the quantity values of the squares were normalized setting the highest value to be 1.0, (iii) in comparing a map with another map, the smaller normalized quantity in two corresponding squares was taken and summed throughout the map to give an “overlap score,” (iv) each map was compared against all the 2328 maps and the largest overlap score, obtained when a map was compared with itself, was set to be 1.0 thus providing 2328 “overlap factors,” (v) step (iv) was repeated for all maps providing 2328 × 2328 matrix of overlap factors. From the matrix, protein pairs that showed overlap factors above 0.65 from both protein sides were selected (431 protein pairs). Each protein pair was searched in a database (UniProtKB) on complex formation and 301 protein pairs, which comprise 35 protein complexes, were found to be documented. These results demonstrated that native protein maps and their similarity search would enable simultaneous analysis of multiple protein complexes in cells. PMID:26031785

  12. Proteomic analysis of cellular soluble proteins from human bronchial smooth muscle cells by combining nondenaturing micro 2DE and quantitative LC-MS/MS. 2. Similarity search between protein maps for the analysis of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ya; Yuan, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Manabe, Takashi; Tan, Wen

    2015-09-01

    Human bronchial smooth muscle cell soluble proteins were analyzed by a combined method of nondenaturing micro 2DE, grid gel-cutting, and quantitative LC-MS/MS and a native protein map was prepared for each of the identified 4323 proteins [1]. A method to evaluate the degree of similarity between the protein maps was developed since we expected the proteins comprising a protein complex would be separated together under nondenaturing conditions. The following procedure was employed using Excel macros; (i) maps that have three or more squares with protein quantity data were selected (2328 maps), (ii) within each map, the quantity values of the squares were normalized setting the highest value to be 1.0, (iii) in comparing a map with another map, the smaller normalized quantity in two corresponding squares was taken and summed throughout the map to give an "overlap score," (iv) each map was compared against all the 2328 maps and the largest overlap score, obtained when a map was compared with itself, was set to be 1.0 thus providing 2328 "overlap factors," (v) step (iv) was repeated for all maps providing 2328 × 2328 matrix of overlap factors. From the matrix, protein pairs that showed overlap factors above 0.65 from both protein sides were selected (431 protein pairs). Each protein pair was searched in a database (UniProtKB) on complex formation and 301 protein pairs, which comprise 35 protein complexes, were found to be documented. These results demonstrated that native protein maps and their similarity search would enable simultaneous analysis of multiple protein complexes in cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Rhinovirus and dsRNA Induce RIG-I-Like Receptors and Expression of Interferon β and λ1 in Human Bronchial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calvén, Jenny; Yudina, Yuliana; Uller, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) infections cause exacerbations and development of severe asthma highlighting the importance of antiviral interferon (IFN) defence by airway cells. Little is known about bronchial smooth muscle cell (BSMC) production of IFNs and whether BSMCs have dsRNA-sensing receptors besides TLR3. dsRNA is a rhinoviral replication intermediate and necrotic cell effect mimic that mediates innate immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells. We have explored dsRNA-evoked IFN-β and IFN-λ1 production in human BSMCs and potential involvement of TLR3 and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Primary BSMCs were stimulated with 0.1–10 µg/ml dsRNA, 0.1–1 µg/ml dsRNA in complex with the transfection agent LyoVec (dsRNA/LyoVec; selectively activating cytosolic RLRs) or infected with 0.05–0.5 MOI RV1B. Both dsRNA stimuli evoked early (3 h), concentration-dependent IFN-β and IFN-λ1 mRNA expression, which with dsRNA/LyoVec was much greater, and with dsRNA was much less, after 24 h. The effects were inhibited by dexamethasone. Further, dsRNA and dsRNA/LyoVec concentration-dependently upregulated RIG-I and MDA5 mRNA and protein. dsRNA and particularly dsRNA/LyoVec caused IFN-β and IFN-λ1 protein production (24 h). dsRNA- but not dsRNA/LyoVec-induced IFN expression was partly inhibited by chloroquine that suppresses endosomal TLR3 activation. RV1B dose-dependently increased BSMC expression of RIG-I, MDA5, IFN-β, and IFN-λ1 mRNA. We suggest that BSMCs express functional RLRs and that both RLRs and TLR3 are involved in viral stimulus-induced BSMC expression of IFN-β and IFN-λ1. PMID:23658644

  14. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on MAPK activation, IL-8 production and cell viability in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Cuda, Giovanni; Vatrella, Alessandro; Gallelli, Luca; Fratto, Donatella; Gioffrè, Vincenza; D'Agostino, Bruno; Caputi, Mario; Maselli, Rosario; Rossi, Francesco; Costanzo, Francesco S; Marsico, Serafino A

    2004-09-01

    The airway epithelium is continuously exposed to inhaled oxidants, including airborne pollutants and cigarette smoke, which can exert harmful proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate, in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), the signal transduction pathways activated by increasing concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM) of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), as well as their effects on IL-8 production and cell viability. The reported results show that H(2)O(2) elicited, in a concentration-dependent fashion, a remarkable increase in phosphorylation-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), associated with a significant induction of IL-8 synthesis and a dramatically enhanced cell death. Pre-treatment of HBEC with MAPK inhibitors was able to significantly inhibit the effects of H(2)O(2) on IL-8 secretion, and to effectively prevent cell death. Therefore, these findings suggest that MAPKs play a key role as molecular transducers of the airway epithelial injury triggered by oxidative stress, as well as potential pharmacologic targets for indirect antioxidant intervention.

  15. Co-exposure to amorphous silica nanoparticles and benzo[a]pyrene at low level in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Shi, Yanfeng; Asweto, Collins Otieno; Feng, Lin; Yang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Yannan; Hu, Hejing; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-11-01

    Both ultrafine particles (UFP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely present in the environment, thus increasing their chances of exposure to human in the daily life. However, the study on the combined toxicity of UFP and PAHs on respiratory system is still limited. In this study, we examined the potential interactive effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to SiNPs and B[a]P alone or in combination for 24 h. Co-exposure to SiNPs and B[a]P enhanced the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities significantly, while the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation had a slight increase in the exposed groups compared to the control but not statistically significant. Cell cycle arrest induced by the co-exposure showed a significant percentage increase in G2/M phase cells and a decrease in G0/G1 phase cells. In addition, there was a significant increase in BEAS-2B cells multinucleation as well as DNA damage. Cellular apoptosis was markedly increased even at the low-level co-exposure. Our results suggest that co-exposure to SiNPs and B[a]P exerts synergistic and additive cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.

  16. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yifei; Wolkowicz, Michael J; Kotova, Tatyana; Fan, Lonjiang; Timko, Michael P

    2016-04-04

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products.

  17. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leόn, Alberto J; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S H; Farooqui, Amber; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus-epithelial cell interaction.

  18. Aged red garlic extract reduces cigarette smoke extract-induced cell death in human bronchial smooth muscle cells by increasing intracellular glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yi-Yeong; Park, Hye-Jin; Cho, Young-Woo; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Mun, Yun-Ja; Lee, Jong Deog; Shin, Jung-Hye; Sung, Nak-Ju; Kang, Dawon; Han, Jaehee

    2012-01-01

    Increasing antioxidant capacity has been proposed as a promising strategy to prevent cigarette smoke-induced lung diseases. This study tested whether garlic extracts prevented cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell death in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). Garlic extracts were prepared from fresh raw garlic (FRG), aged black garlic (ABG) and aged red garlic (ARG). Treatment of HBSMCs with 10% CSE induced cell death accompanied by activation of caspase. Of the garlic extracts, treatment with ARG extract reduced CSE-induced cell death. The combination of ARG extract with CSE attenuated the CSE-induced reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression compared with CSE treatment without ARG extract. Furthermore, the combination of L-BSO, a GSH synthesis inhibitor, with ARG and CSE extracts failed to increase the intracellular GSH content and cell viability. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ARG extract reduces CSE-induced cell death by increasing GSH content and reducing ROS generation in HBSMCs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Adipokine adiponectin is a potential protector to human bronchial epithelial cell for regulating proliferation, wound repair and apoptosis: comparison with leptin and resistin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Lin; Qin, Xiao Qun; Xiang, Yang; Tan, Yu Rong; Qu, Xiang Pin; Liu, Hui Jun

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological data indicate an increasing incidence of asthma in the obese individuals recent decades, while very little is known about the possible association between them. Here, we compared the roles of adipocyte-derived factors, including leptin, adiponectin and resistin on proliferation, wound repair and apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The results showed that exogenous globular adiponectin (gAd) promoted proliferation, cell-cycle and wound repair of HBECs. This effect may be relevant to Ca(2+)/calmodulin signal pathway. Besides, gAd inhibited apoptosis induced by ozone and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of HBECs via regulated adipoR1 and reactive oxygen species. No effects of leptin or resistin on proliferation, wound repair and apoptosis of HBECs were detectable. These data indicate that airway epithelium is the direct target of gAd which plays an important role in protecting HBECs from mechanical or oxidant injuries and may have therapeutic implications in the treatment of asthma.

  20. Low cytotoxicity of inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like nanostructures in human bronchial epithelial cells: relation to inflammatory gene induction and antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Michal; Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Rudich, Assaf; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-03-18

    The cytotoxicity of tungsten disulfide nano tubes (INT-WS2) and inorganic fullerene-like molybdenum disulfide (IF-MoS2) nanoparticles (NPs) used in industrial and medical applications was evaluated in comparison to standard environmental particulate matter. The IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 reside in vesicles/inclusion bodies, suggestive of endocytic vesicles. In cells representing the respiratory, immune and metabolic systems, both IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 NPs remained nontoxic compared to equivalent concentrations (up to 100 μg/mL in the medium) of silica dioxide (SiO2), diesel engine-derived and carbon black NPs, which induced cell death. Associating with this biocompatibility of IF-MoS2\\INT-WS2, we demonstrate in nontransformed human bronchial cells (NL-20) relative low induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Moreover, IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 activated antioxidant response as measured by the antioxidant response element (ARE) using a luciferase reporter, and induced Nrf2-mediated Phase II detoxification genes. Collectively, our findings suggest that the lower cytotoxicity of IF-MoS2 and INT-WS2 NPs does not reflect general biological inertness. Rather, compared to other NP's, it likely results from decreased pro-inflammatory activation, but a comparable significant capacity to induce protective antioxidant/detoxification defense mechanisms.

  1. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifei; Wolkowicz, Michael J.; Kotova, Tatyana; Fan, Lonjiang; Timko, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products. PMID:27041137

  2. Role of acylglycerol kinase in LPA-induced IL-8 secretion and transactivation of epidermal growth factor-receptor in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalari, Satish; Zhao, Yutong; Spannhake, Ernst Wm.; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) is a potent bioactive phospholipid, which regulates a number of diverse cellular responses through G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Intracellular LPA is generated by the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerol by acylglycerol kinase (AGK); however, the role of intracellular LPA in signaling and cellular responses remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated signaling pathways of IL-8 secretion mediated by AGK and intracellular LPA in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs). Expression of AGK in HBEpCs was detected by real-time PCR, and overexpressed AGK was mainly localized in mitochondria as determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Overexpression of lentiviral AGK wild type increased intracellular LPA production (∼1.8-fold), enhanced LPA-mediated IL-8 secretion, and stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R). Furthermore, downregulation of native AGK by AGK small interfering RNA decreased intracellular LPA levels (∼2-fold) and attenuated LPA-induced p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κB activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF-R, and IL-8 secretion. These results suggest that native AGK regulates LPA-mediated IL-8 secretion involving MAPKs, NF-κB, and transactivation of EGF-R. Thus AGK may play an important role in innate immunity and airway remodeling during inflammation. PMID:19112101

  3. Use of primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from cystic fibrosis patients for the pre-clinical testing of CFTR modulators.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Timothy; Burton, Bill; Clark, Heather; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2011-01-01

    The use of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell cultures derived from the bronchi of CF patients offers the opportunity to study the effects of CFTR correctors and potentiators on CFTR function and epithelial cell biology in the native pathological environment. Cultured HBE cells derived from CF patients exhibit many of the morphological and functional characteristics believed to be associated with CF airway disease in vivo, including abnormal ion and fluid transport leading to dehydration of the airway surface and the loss of cilia beating. In addition, they can be generated in sufficient quantities to support routine lab testing of compound potency and efficacy and retain reproducible levels of CFTR function over time. Here we describe the development and validation of the CF HBE pharmacology model and its use to characterize, optimize, and select clinical candidates. It is expected that the pre-clinical testing of CFTR potentiators and correctors using epithelial cell cultures derived from CF patients will help to increase their likelihood of clinical efficacy.

  4. Detection of human cytomegalovirus in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent life-long infection, and can cause severe pathology in the fetus and the immunocompromised host[1]. Breast milk is the primary route of transmission in humans worldwide, and breast epithelium is thus a likely site of persistent infection and/or reactivation, though this phenomenon has not previously been demonstrated. Increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate signaling pathways associated with oncogenesis. We hypothesized that persistent HCMV infection occurs in normal adult breast epithelium and that persistent viral expression might be associated with normal and neoplastic ductal epithelium. Methods Surgical biopsy specimens of normal breast (n = 38) breast carcinoma (n = 39) and paired normal breast from breast cancer patients (n = 21) were obtained. Specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, PCR and DNA sequencing for evidence of HCMV antigens and nucleic acids. Results We detected HCMV expression specifically in glandular epithelium in 17/27 (63%) of normal adult breast cases evaluated. In contrast, HCMV expression was evident in the neoplastic epithelium of 31/32 (97%) patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases evaluated (p = 0.0009). Conclusions These findings are the first to demonstrate that persistent HCMV infection occurs in breast epithelium in a significant percentage of normal adult females. HCMV expression was also evident in neoplastic breast epithelium in a high percentage of normal and neoplastic breast tissues obtained from breast cancer patients, raising the possibility that viral infection may be involved in the neoplastic process. PMID:21429243

  5. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Lung Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H.; Deatly, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesenchymal tissue-like assemblies (3D hLEM TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infection with the virus. Therefore, we assert TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host s immune system.

  6. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  7. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  8. Autophagy in Normal and Abnormal Early Human Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Avagliano, Laura; Terraneo, Laura; Virgili, Eleonora; Martinelli, Carla; Doi, Patrizia; Samaja, Michele; Bulfamante, Gaetano Pietro; Marconi, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is an inducible catabolic process by which cells degrade and recycle materials to survive stress, starvation, and hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy at the fetal-maternal interface, to assess autophagy involvement during the early phase of human gestation, and to explore autophagic modification in case of early abnormal pregnancy outcome. Specimens were collected from first-trimester normal gestations undergoing legal termination of pregnancy and first-trimester sporadic spontaneous miscarriages. Autophagy was studied in villous and decidual samples by transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Autophagy markers were found in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, extravillous trophoblast, and decidual stromal cells. Autophagy is physiologically involved in early normal gestation. Compared with normal pregnancy, spontaneous miscarriage presents an increase in autophagy expression in villous specimens due to an increment in concentration of autophagic vacuole in syncytiotrophoblast, suggesting a cytoprotective mechanism of the cells to respond to microenvironmental challenge. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Raman spectroscopic identification of normal and malignant human stomach cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jipeng; Guo, Jianyu; Wu, Liangping; Sun, Zhenrong; Cai, Weiying; Wang, Zugeng

    2005-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to identify the normal and malignant human stomach cells. For the cancer cell, the reduced intensity of the Raman peak at 1250 cm^(-1) indicates that the protein secondary structure transforms from ?-sheet or disordered structures to ?-helical, while the increased intensity of the symmetric PO2 stretching vibration mode at 1094 cm^(-1) shows the increased DNA content. The ratio of the intensity at 1315 cm^(-1) to that at 1340 cm^(-1) reduces from 1.8 for the normal cell to 1.1 for the cancer cell in the course of canceration, and the ratio of the intensity at 1655 cm^(-1) to that at 1450 cm^(-1) increases from 1.00 for the cancer cell to 1.26 for the normal cell which indicates that the canceration of stomach cell may induce saturation of the lipid chain.

  10. The human renal lymphatics under normal and pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Y; Akasaka, Y; Kiguchi, H; Akishima-Fukasawa, Y; Hasegawa, T; Ito, K; Kimura-Matsumoto, M; Ishiguro, S; Morita, H; Sato, S; Soh, S; Ishii, T

    2006-01-01

    Ishikawa Y, Akasaka Y, Kiguchi H, Akishima-Fukasawa Y, Hasegawa T, Ito K, Kimura-Matsumoto M, Ishiguro S, Morita H, Sato S, Soh S & Ishii T (2006) Histopathology 49, 265–273 The human renal lymphatics under normal and pathological conditions Aims The renal lymphatics have not been fully documented in humans. The aim of this study was to clarify the morphology of the human renal lymphatic system under normal and pathological conditions by immunohistochemistry using anti-D2-40 antibody. Methods and results Normal and pathological renal tissues obtained at autopsy as well as nephrectomy specimens with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were used. Thin sections were immunostained with antibodies against D2-40 and CD31. In normal kidney, D2-40+ lymphatics were abundant in the interstitium around the interlobar and arcuate arteries/veins but sporadic in those around the glomeruli or between the tubules in the cortex. A few lymphatics contained erythrocytes in their lumina. Lymphatics were seldom present in the medulla. In RCC cases, lymphatics were evident at the tumour margin, whereas CD31+ capillaries were abundant throughout the tumour and lymphatics were increased in the fibrous interstitium around the tumour. Lymphatic invasion by RCC cells was also detectable. D2-40+ lymphatics were evident in other pathological conditions and end-stage kidney had a denser lymphatic distribution than normal kidney. Conclusions Lymphatics are abundant around the arteries/veins and are also present in the renal cortex and medulla. D2-40 immunostaining is helpful for investigating the pathophysiological role of renal lymphatics. PMID:16918973

  11. The human renal lymphatics under normal and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Y; Akasaka, Y; Kiguchi, H; Akishima-Fukasawa, Y; Hasegawa, T; Ito, K; Kimura-Matsumoto, M; Ishiguro, S; Morita, H; Sato, S; Soh, S; Ishii, T

    2006-09-01

    The renal lymphatics have not been fully documented in humans. The aim of this study was to clarify the morphology of the human renal lymphatic system under normal and pathological conditions by immunohistochemistry using anti-D2-40 antibody. Normal and pathological renal tissues obtained at autopsy as well as nephrectomy specimens with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were used. Thin sections were immunostained with antibodies against D2-40 and CD31. In normal kidney, D2-40+ lymphatics were abundant in the interstitium around the interlobar and arcuate arteries/veins but sporadic in those around the glomeruli or between the tubules in the cortex. A few lymphatics contained erythrocytes in their lumina. Lymphatics were seldom present in the medulla. In RCC cases, lymphatics were evident at the tumour margin, whereas CD31+ capillaries were abundant throughout the tumour and lymphatics were increased in the fibrous interstitium around the tumour. Lymphatic invasion by RCC cells was also detectable. D2-40+ lymphatics were evident in other pathological conditions and end-stage kidney had a denser lymphatic distribution than normal kidney. Lymphatics are abundant around the arteries/veins and are also present in the renal cortex and medulla. D2-40 immunostaining is helpful for investigating the pathophysiological role of renal lymphatics.

  12. Performance of Junctional Tourniquets in Normal Human Volunteers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    PERFORMANCE OF JUNCTIONAL TOURNIQUETS IN NORMAL HUMAN VOLUNTEERS John F. Kragh, Jr., MD, Russ S. Kotwal, MD, MPH, Andrew P. Cap, MD, PhD, James K...Cancio, MD ABSTRACT Background. Inguinal bleeding is a common and pre- ventable cause of death on the battlefield. Four FDA-cleared junctional ...tourniquets (Combat Ready Clamp [CRoC], Ab- dominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet [AAJT], Junc- tional Emergency Treatment Tool [JETT], and SAM Junc- tional

  13. Temporal Profile of Gene Expression Alterations in Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Following In Vivo Exposure to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: Ozone (Os) isa ubiquitous air pollutant that has been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. Controlled exposure studies in humans have demonstrated that acute exposure to 03 results in reversible reduction in lung function immediately post-exposure, incre...

  14. Temporal Profile of Gene Expression Alterations in Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Following In Vivo Exposure to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: Ozone (Os) isa ubiquitous air pollutant that has been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. Controlled exposure studies in humans have demonstrated that acute exposure to 03 results in reversible reduction in lung function immediately post-exposure, incre...

  15. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hexavalent chromium induces malignant transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells via ROS-dependent activation of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Turcios, Lilia; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Asha, Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a key regulator of oncogenic processes. Studies have shown that miR-21 exerts its oncogenic activity by targeting the tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). The present study examined the role of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling in Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Results showed that Cr(VI) induces ROS generation in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) is able to cause malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Cr(VI) caused a significant increase of miR-21 expression associated with an inhibition of PDCD4 expression. Notably, STAT3 transcriptional activation by IL-6 is crucial for the Cr(VI)-induced miR-21 elevation. Stable knockdown of miR-21 or overexpression of PDCD4 in BEAS-2B cells significantly reduced the Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation. Furthermore, the Cr(VI) induced inhibition of PDCD4 suppressed downstream E-cadherin protein expression, but promoted β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription of uPAR and c-Myc. We also found an increased miR-21 level and decreased PDCD4 expression in xenograft tumors generated with chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells. In addition, stable knockdown of miR-21 and overexpression of PDCD4 reduced the tumorogenicity of chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells in nude mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the miR-21-PDCD4 signaling axis plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27323401

  17. Cadmium Induced Cell Apoptosis, DNA Damage, Decreased DNA Repair Capacity, and Genomic Instability during Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhiheng; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Haibai; Huang, Qinhai; Wang, Min; Lei, Yixiong

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium and its compounds are well-known human carcinogens, but the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis are not entirely understood. Our study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms of DNA damage in cadmium-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We analyzed cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, gene expression, genomic instability, and the sequence of exons in DNA repair genes in several kinds of cells. These cells consisted of untreated control cells, cells in the fifth, 15th, and 35th passage of cadmium-treated cells, and tumorigenic cells from nude mice using flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, comet assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, and sequence analysis. We observed a progressive increase in cell population of the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the rate of apoptosis, DNA damage, and cadmium-induced apoptotic morphological changes in cerebral cortical neurons during malignant transformation. Gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of cell proliferation (PCNA), cell cycle (CyclinD1), pro-apoptotic activity (Bax), and DNA damage of the checkpoint genes ATM, ATR, Chk1, Chk2, Cdc25A. Decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and the DNA repair genes hMSH2, hMLH1, ERCC1, ERCC2, and hOGG1 was observed. RAPD-PCR revealed genomic instability in cadmium-exposed cells, and sequence analysis showed mutation of exons in hMSH2, ERCC1, XRCC1, and hOGG1 in tumorigenic cells. This study suggests that Cadmium can increase cell apoptosis and DNA damage, decrease DNA repair capacity, and cause mutations, and genomic instability leading to malignant transformation. This process could be a viable mechanism for cadmium-induced cancers. PMID:24046522

  18. Oncogenic transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells induced by arsenic involves ROS-dependent activation of STAT3-miR-21-PDCD4 mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen. The present study explored the role of the onco-miR, miR-21 and its target protein, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in arsenic induced malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Our results showed that treatment of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells with arsenic induces ROS through p47phox, one of the NOX subunits that is the key source of arsenic-induced ROS. Arsenic exposure induced an upregulation of miR-21 expression associated with inhibition of PDCD4, and caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis of BEAS-2B cells. Indispensably, STAT3 transcriptional activation by IL-6 is crucial for the arsenic induced miR-21 increase. Upregulated miR-21 levels and suppressed PDCD4 expression was also observed in xenograft tumors generated with chronic arsenic exposed BEAS-2B cells. Stable shut down of miR-21, p47phox or STAT3 and overexpression of PDCD4 or catalase in BEAS-2B cells markedly inhibited the arsenic induced malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Similarly, silencing of miR-21 or STAT3 and forced expression of PDCD4 in arsenic transformed cells (AsT) also inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, arsenic suppressed the downstream protein E-cadherin expression and induced β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription of uPAR and c-Myc. These results indicate that the ROS-STAT3-miR-21-PDCD4 signaling axis plays an important role in arsenic -induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27876813

  19. Prevention of Bronchial Hyperplasia by EGFR Pathway Inhibitors in an Organotypic Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jangsoon; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Kang, Shin Myung; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Gold, Kathryn Ann; Kim, Edward S.; Hittelman, Walter N.; Hong, Waun Ki; Koo, Ja Seok

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Early detection or prevention strategies are urgently needed to increase survival. Hyperplasia is the first morphologic change that occurs in the bronchial epithelium during lung cancer development, followed by squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumor. The current study was designed to determine the molecular mechanisms that control bronchial epithelium hyperplasia. Using primary normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells cultured using the 3-dimensional organotypic method, we found that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha, and amphiregulin induced hyperplasia, as determined by cell proliferation and multilayered epithelium formation. We also found that EGF induced increased cyclin D1 expression, which plays a critical role in bronchial hyperplasia; this overexpression was mediated by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, completely inhibited EGF-induced hyperplasia. Furthermore, a promoter analysis revealed that the activator protein-1 transcription factor regulates EGF-induced cyclin D1 overexpression. Activator protein-1 depletion using siRNA targeting its c-Jun component completely abrogated EGF-induced cyclin D1 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that bronchial hyperplasia can be modeled in vitro using primary NHTBE cells maintained in a 3-dimensional (3-D) organotypic culture. EGFR and MEK inhibitors completely blocked EGF-induced bronchial hyperplasia, suggesting that they have a chemopreventive role. PMID:21505178

  20. SRC-mediated EGF Receptor Activation Regulates Ozone-induced Interleukin 8 Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Human exposure to ozone (03) results in pulmonary function decrements and airway inflammation. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects remain unclear. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation. ...

  1. SRC-mediated EGF Receptor Activation Regulates Ozone-induced Interleukin 8 Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Human exposure to ozone (03) results in pulmonary function decrements and airway inflammation. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects remain unclear. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation. ...

  2. Super Normal Vector for Human Activity Recognition with Depth Cameras.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi

    2017-05-01

    The advent of cost-effectiveness and easy-operation depth cameras has facilitated a variety of visual recognition tasks including human activity recognition. This paper presents a novel framework for recognizing human activities from video sequences captured by depth cameras. We extend the surface normal to polynormal by assembling local neighboring hypersurface normals from a depth sequence to jointly characterize local motion and shape information. We then propose a general scheme of super normal vector (SNV) to aggregate the low-level polynormals into a discriminative representation, which can be viewed as a simplified version of the Fisher kernel representation. In order to globally capture the spatial layout and temporal order, an adaptive spatio-temporal pyramid is introduced to subdivide a depth video into a set of space-time cells. In the extensive experiments, the proposed approach achieves superior performance to the state-of-the-art methods on the four public benchmark datasets, i.e., MSRAction3D, MSRDailyActivity3D, MSRGesture3D, and MSRActionPairs3D.

  3. Human peripheral nerve macrophages in normal and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, B; Monaco, S; Giannini, C; Ferrari, S; Zanusso, G; Rizzuto, N

    1993-09-01

    We investigated, by immunocytochemistry and immune electron microscopy, the immunophenotype, morphology and functional properties of human peripheral nervous system (PNS) macrophages (M phi) under normal and pathological conditions. Endoneurial M phi disclosed an elongated, ramified morphology, with the main processes oriented along the major axis of nerve fibers; they shared several lineage-related and functional markers with monocyte/macrophages and central nervous system (CNS) microglia, including CD4, CR3, CR4 and FcRIII. In addition, basal expression of HLA-DR antigens was exclusively confined to M phi in normal PNS. In the course of unrelated pathological conditions, resident M phi underwent activation with transformation to hypertrophic cells or foamy phagocytes and up-regulation of the markers expressed in normal conditions; new expression of a macrophagic antigen was detected on activated M phi. In different neuropathies, HLA-DR expression was also detected on non-myelin forming Schwann cells with ultrastructural features indicative of denervation. The present results demonstrate that the human PNS is provided with an intrinsic population of immunocompetent and potentially phagocytic M phi, which represent the peripheral counterpart of CNS microglia.

  4. Human factors of flight-deck checklists: The normal checklist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl L.

    1991-01-01

    Although the aircraft checklist has long been regarded as the foundation of pilot standardization and cockpit safety, it has escaped the scrutiny of the human factors profession. The improper use, or the non-use, of the normal checklist by flight crews is often cited as the probable cause or at least a contributing factor to aircraft accidents. An attempt is made to analyze the normal checklist, its functions, format, design, length, usage, and the limitations of the humans who must interact with it. The development of the checklist from the certification of a new model to its delivery and use by the customer are discussed. The influence of the government, particularly the FAA Principle Operations Inspector, the manufacturer's philosophy, the airline's culture, and the end user, the pilot, influence the ultimate design and usage of this device. The effects of airline mergers and acquisitions on checklist usage and design are noted. In addition, the interaction between production pressures and checklist usage and checklist management are addressed. Finally, a list of design guidelines for normal checklists is provided.

  5. General anesthesia suppresses normal heart rate variability in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchett, Gerald; Wood, Philip

    2014-06-01

    The human heart normally exhibits robust beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV). The loss of this variability is associated with pathology, including disease states such as congestive heart failure (CHF). The effect of general anesthesia on intrinsic HRV is unknown. In this prospective, observational study we enrolled 100 human subjects having elective major surgical procedures under general anesthesia. We recorded continuous heart rate data via continuous electrocardiogram before, during, and after anesthesia, and we assessed HRV of the R-R intervals. We assessed HRV using several common metrics including Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Multifractal Analysis, and Multiscale Entropy Analysis. Each of these analyses was done in each of the four clinical phases for each study subject over the course of 24 h: Before anesthesia, during anesthesia, early recovery, and late recovery. On average, we observed a loss of variability on the aforementioned metrics that appeared to correspond to the state of general anesthesia. Following the conclusion of anesthesia, most study subjects appeared to regain their normal HRV, although this did not occur immediately. The resumption of normal HRV was especially delayed on DFA. Qualitatively, the reduction in HRV under anesthesia appears similar to the reduction in HRV observed in CHF. These observations will need to be validated in future studies, and the broader clinical implications of these observations, if any, are unknown.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium bovis BZ 31150 and Mycobacterium bovis B2 7505, Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Archived Captive Animal Bronchial Washes and Human Sputum Samples in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wanzala, Sylvia I; Nakavuma, Jesca; Travis, Dominic A; Kia, Praiscillia; Ogwang, Sam; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2015-10-08

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a zoonotic infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium bovis, results in losses of $3 billion to the global agricultural industry and represents the fourth most important livestock disease worldwide. M. bovis as a source of human infection is likely underreported due to the culture medium conditions used to isolate the organism from sputum or other sample sources. We report here the draft genome sequences of M. bovis BZ 31150, isolated from a bronchial washing from a captive chimpanzee, and M. bovis B2 7505, isolated from a human sputum sample in Uganda.

  7. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells.

  8. Gene profile identifies zinc transporters differentially expressed in normal human organs and human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Zhang, Y; Cui, X; Yao, W; Yu, X; Cen, P; Hodges, S E; Fisher, W E; Brunicardi, F C; Chen, C; Yao, Q; Li, M

    2013-03-01

    Deregulated expression of zinc transporters was linked to several cancers. However, the detailed expression profile of all human zinc transporters in normal human organs and in human cancer, especially in pancreatic cancer is not available. The objectives of this study are to investigate the complete expression patterns of 14 ZIP and 10 ZnT transporters in a large number of normal human organs and in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We examined the expression patterns of ZIP and ZnT transporters in 22 different human organs and tissues, 11 pairs of clinical human pancreatic cancer specimens and surrounding normal/benign tissues, as well as 10 established human pancreatic cancer cell lines plus normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium (HPDE) cells, using real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that human zinc transporters have tissue specific expression patterns, and may play different roles in different organs or tissues. Almost all the ZIPs except for ZIP4, and most ZnTs were down-regulated in human pancreatic cancer tissues compared to the surrounding benign tissues. The expression patterns of individual ZIPs and ZnTs are similar among different pancreatic cancer lines. Those results and our previous studies suggest that ZIP4 is the only zinc transporter that is significantly up-regulated in human pancreatic cancer and might be the major zinc transporter that plays an important role in pancreatic cancer growth. ZIP4 might serve as a novel molecular target for pancreatic cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Lysyl oxidase activity in human normal skins and postburn scars.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, T; Hino, N; Fuyamada, H; Nagatsu, T; Aoyama, H

    1976-09-06

    Lysyl oxidase activity of human normal skins derived from the frontal thighs of 33 subjects showed large variations and the mean value was 11 455 +/- 7 172 (S.D.) cpm/g of wet weight tissue. The age of lesion affected the lysyl oxidase activity in postburn scars. Granulation tissues showed a fairly low activity; however, the activity increased sharply within 2--3 months, and reached a significantly higher value than that of normal skin. The high level of activity continued for up to 2--3 years, then gradually decreased to normal range after 5 years or so. Lysyl oxidase activity was detected only after 4 M urea treatment of tissues. Benzylamine oxidase activity also showed large variations in both normal skins and postburn scars, with mean values of: 0.128 +/- 0.077 (S.D.) and 0.145 +/- 0.090 (S.D.) mmol/g of wet weight/h, respectively. No correlation was observed between lysyl oxidase and benzylamine oxidase activities. The granulation tissues showed significantly high values of benzylamine oxidase activity in contrast to the low values of lysyl oxidase activity.

  10. Characterization of integrin receptors in normal and neoplastic human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, W.; Baur, I.; Schuppan, D.; Roggendorf, W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the immunohistochemical expression of integrin alpha and beta chains in the normal and neoplastic human brain. Normal astrocytes expressed alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, and beta 4 chains in some areas facing major interstitial tissues, but they were consistently negative for the other integrins examined (alpha 4, alpha 5, alpha V, alpha L, alpha M, alpha X, beta 2, beta 3). Neoplastic astrocytes in vivo and in vitro showed increased expression of alpha 3 and beta 1, and some also of alpha 5, alpha V, beta 3, and beta 4. Neoexpression of alpha 4 and reduced levels of beta 4 were detected in glioblastoma vascular proliferations compared with normal endothelial cells. Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, and meningioma cells showed the same integrin pattern as their normal counterparts. Adhesion assays using the astrocytoma cell lines U-138 MG and U-373 MG revealed strong attachment to collagen types I to VI and undulin, which was inhibited by antibodies to beta 1, but not by those to alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and alpha V. We conclude that astrocytomas show increased levels or neoexpression of various integrins and strong attachment to various extracellular matrix components, which appears to be almost exclusively mediated by beta 1-integrins. Images Figure 1 PMID:8317546

  11. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A.; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E.

    2009-07-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  12. Use of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to study immunological markers resulting from exposure to PM{sub 2.5} organic extract from Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Rivera, Evasomary; Gioda, Adriana; Sanchez-Rivera, Diana; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R.; Jimenez-Velez, Braulio D.

    2010-03-15

    Fine particulate air pollutants, mainly their organic fraction, have been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health problems. Puerto Rico has been reported to have the highest prevalence of pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma) in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the immunological response of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to organic extracts isolated from airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) in Puerto Rico. Organic extracts from PM{sub 2.5} collected throughout an 8-month period (2000-2001) were pooled (composite) in order to perform chemical analysis and biological activity testing. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM{sub 2.5} organic extract to assess cytotoxicity, levels of cytokines and relative gene expression of MHC-II, hPXR and CYP3A5. Our findings show that organic PM{sub 2.5} consist of toxic as well as bioactive components that can regulate the secretion of cytokines in BEAS-2B, which could modulate inflammatory response in the lung. Trace element analyses confirmed the presence of metals in organic extracts highlighting the relative high abundance of Cu and Zn in polar organic extracts. Polar organic extracts exhibited dose-dependant toxicity and were found to significantly induce the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1beta and IL-7 while significantly inhibiting the secretion of IL-8, G-CSF and MCP-1. Moreover, MHC-II transcriptional activity was up-regulated after 24 h of exposure, whereas PXR and CYP3A5 were down-regulated. This research provides a new insight into the effects of PM{sub 2.5} organic fractions on specific effectors and their possible role in the development of respiratory inflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico.

  13. Use of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (BEAS-2B) to Study Immunological Markers Resulting From Exposure to PM2.5 Organic Extract from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Rivera, Evasomary; Gioda, Adriana; Sanchez-Rivera, Diana; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R.; Jimenez-Velez, Braulio D.

    2010-01-01

    Fine particulate air pollutants, mainly their organic fraction, have been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health problems. Puerto Rico has been reported to have the highest prevalence of pulmonary diseases (e.g. asthma) in the US. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the immunological response of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to organic extracts isolated from air-borne particulate matter (PM2.5) in Puerto Rico. Organic extracts from PM2.5 collected throughout an 8-month period (2000-2001) were pooled (composite) in order to perform chemical analysis and biological activity testing. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM2.5 organic extract to assess cytotoxicity, levels of cytokines and relative gene expression of MHC-II, hPXR and CYP3A5. Our findings show that organic PM2.5 consist of toxic as well as bioactive components that can regulate the secretion of cytokines in BEAS-2B, which could modulate inflammatory response in the lung. Trace element analyses confirmed the presence of metals in organic extracts highlighting the relative high abundance of Cu and Zn in polar organic extracts. Polar organic extracts exhibited dose-dependant toxicity and were found to significantly induce the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β and IL-7 while significantly inhibiting the secretion of IL-8, G-CSF and MCP-1. Moreover, MHC-II transcriptional activity was up-regulated after 24h of exposure, whereas PXR and CYP3A5 were down-regulated. This research provides a new insight into the effects of PM2.5 organic fractions on specific effectors and their possible role in the development of respiratory inflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico. PMID:20026096

  14. Effects of transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) on the mechanical stretch-induced expression of airway remodeling-associated factors in human bronchial epithelioid cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Li, Minchao

    2017-01-25

    Research has shown that mechanical stress stimulation can cause airway remodeling. We investigate the effects of mechanical stretch on the expression of the airway remodeling-associated factors interleukin-13 (IL-13) and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) and signaling pathways in human bronchial epithelioid (16HBE) cells under mechanical stretch. A Flexcell FX-4000 Tension System with a flexible substrate was applied to stretch 16HBE cells at a 15% elongation amplitude and 1Hz frequency, with stretching for 0.5h, 1h, 1.5h and 2h. The experimental group with higher IL-13, MMP-9, and TRPC1 expression and higher Ca(2+) levels was selected for performing intervention experiment. These cells were pretreated with the transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) channel antagonist SKF96365 and TRPC1-specific siRNA, and then mechanical stretch was applied. Our results provided evidences that mechanical pressure significantly increased IL-13, MMP-9, and TRPC1 protein and mRNA expression levels and intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity at 4 time points compared with the control group. The peak IL-13, MMP-9, and TRPC1 expression levels were observed at 0.5h after exposure to mechanical pressure. IL-13 and MMP-9 expression levels and Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity in the stretch+SKF96365 group and in the stretch+TRPC1 siRNA group were significantly lower than those were in the mechanical stretch group. By incubating the cells with the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, the expression of IL-13 and MMP9 was significantly decreased, and the expression level of TRPC1 remained unchanged. These observations suggest that mechanical stretch may induce an influx of Ca(2+) and up-regulation of IL-13 and MMP-9 expression in 16HBE cells via activation of TRPC1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cigarette smoke induces mucin hypersecretion and inflammatory response through the p66shc adaptor protein-mediated mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Yu, H M; Zhou, X D; Huang, H P; Han, Zh; Kolosov, V P; Perelman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The p66Shc adaptor protein is a newly recognized mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction and might play a role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway epithelial cell injury. CS can induce an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which can cause mitochondrial depolarization and injury through the oxidative stress-mediated Serine36 phosphorylation of p66Shc. The excessive production of ROS can trigger an inflammatory response and mucin hypersecretion by enhancing the transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucin genes. Therefore, we speculate that p66Shc plays an essential role in airway epithelial cell injury and the process of mucin generation in CS-induced chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Our present study focuses on the role of p66Shc in ROS generation, and on the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion in CS-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We found that CS disturbed the mitochondrial function by increasing the level of phosphorylated p66Shc in these cells and that the effects were significantly reduced by silencing p66Shc. Conversely, the ectopic overexpression of wild-type p66Shc enhanced these effects. We also found that high levels of ROS inhibited FOXO3a transcriptional activity, which led to NF-κB activation. Subsequently, activated NF-κB promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production and mucin hypersecretion. Thus, manipulating p66Shc might offer a new therapeutic modality with which to treat chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Autophagy induction by SIRT6 through attenuation of insulin-like growth factor signaling is involved in the regulation of human bronchial epithelial cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Takasaka, Naoki; Araya, Jun; Hara, Hiromichi; Ito, Saburo; Kobayashi, Kenji; Kurita, Yusuke; Wakui, Hiroshi; Yoshii, Yutaka; Yumino, Yoko; Fujii, Satoko; Minagawa, Shunsuke; Tsurushige, Chikako; Kojima, Jun; Numata, Takanori; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Kawaishi, Makoto; Kaneko, Yumi; Kamiya, Noriki; Hirano, Jun; Odaka, Makoto; Morikawa, Toshiaki; Nishimura, Stephen L; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cellular senescence has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and SIRT6, a histone deacetylase, antagonizes this senescence, presumably through the attenuation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-Akt signaling. Autophagy controls cellular senescence by eliminating damaged cellular components and is negatively regulated by IGF-Akt signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). SIRT1, a representative sirtuin family, has been demonstrated to activate autophagy, but a role for SIRT6 in autophagy activation has not been shown. Therefore, we sought to investigate the regulatory role for SIRT6 in autophagy activation during CS-induced cellular senescence. SIRT6 expression levels were modulated by cDNA and small interfering RNA transfection in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining and Western blotting of p21 were performed to evaluate senescence. We demonstrated that SIRT6 expression levels were decreased in lung homogenates from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, and SIRT6 expression levels correlated significantly with the percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity. CS extract (CSE) suppressed SIRT6 expression in HBECs. CSE-induced HBEC senescence was inhibited by SIRT6 overexpression, whereas SIRT6 knockdown and mutant SIRT6 (H133Y) without histone deacetylase activity enhanced HBEC senescence. SIRT6 overexpression induced autophagy via attenuation of IGF-Akt-mTOR signaling. Conversely, SIRT6 knockdown and overexpression of a mutant SIRT6 (H133Y) inhibited autophagy. Autophagy inhibition by knockdown of ATG5 and LC3B attenuated the antisenescent effect of SIRT6 overexpression. These results suggest that SIRT6 is involved in CSE-induced HBEC senescence via autophagy regulation, which can be attributed to attenuation of IGF-Akt-mTOR signaling.

  17. Emulsified isoflurane treatment inhibits the cell cycle and respiration of human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells in a p53-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Deng, Jia; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Jiao; Zeng, Xianzheng; He, Zhiyang; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhuoning; Jiang, Chunling

    2016-07-01

    Emulsified isoflurane (EIso), as a result of its rapid anesthetic induction, recovery and convenience, is widely used as a novel intravenous general anesthetic. Treatment with EIso can reduce injuries caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) to organs, including the heart, lung and liver, without knowing understanding the molecular mechanism. The present study hypothesized that treatment with EIso can affect the physiological processes of human lung bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) prior to I/R. To test this hypothesis, the present study first constructed stable p53 knockdown and synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase (SCO)2 knockdown 16HBE cells. The above cells were subsequently treated with EIso at a concentration of 0.1 and 0.2% for 24 h. The relevant concentration of fat emulsion was used as a negative control. The expression levels of p53, p21, SCO1, SCO2 and Tp53‑induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Subsequently, the cell proliferation, respiration and glycolysis were investigated. The results revealed that EIso treatment significantly decreased the transcription of TIGAR, SCO1 and SCO2, and increased the transcription of p21, which are all p53 target genes, in a p53-independent manner. The cell cycle was inhibited by arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase. Respiration was reduced, which caused a decrease in oxygen consumption and the accumulation of lactate and reactive oxygen species. Taken together, EIso treatment inhibited the proliferation and respiration, and promoted glycolysis in 16HBE cells. This regulatory pathway may represent a protective mechanism of EIso treatment by inhibiting cell growth and decreasing the oxygen consumption from I/R.

  18. Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leon, Alberto J.; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S.H.; Farooqui, Amber; and others

    2014-01-05

    Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.

  19. Cigarette smoke extract induces placental growth factor release from human bronchial epithelial cells via ROS/MAPK (ERK-1/2)/Egr-1 axis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dong; Yuan, Yalian; Lin, Zhixiu; Lai, Tianwen; Chen, Min; Li, Wen; Lv, Quanchao; Yuan, Binfan; Li, Dongmin; Wu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Etiological evidence demonstrates that there is a significant association between cigarette smoking and chronic airway inflammatory disease. Abnormal expression of placental growth factor (PlGF) has been reported in COPD, and its downstream signaling molecules have been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of airway epithelial cell apoptosis and emphysema. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced PlGF expression in airway microenvironment remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 [ERK-1/2])/early growth response-1 (Egr-1) pathway on CSE-induced PlGF upregulation in human bronchial epithelium (HBE). The data obtained with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence staining analyses showed that CSE-induced Egr-1 activation was mainly mediated through production of ROS and activation of the MAPK (ERK-1/2) cascade. The binding of Egr-1 to the PlGF promoter was corroborated by an ELISA-based DNA binding activity assay. These results demonstrate that ROS activation of the MAPK (ERK-1/2)/Egr-1 pathway is a main player in the regulatory mechanism for CSE-induced PlGF production and that the use of an antioxidant could partly abolish these effects. Understanding the mechanisms of PlGF upregulation by CSE in the airway microenvironment may provide rational therapeutic interventions for cigarette smoking-related airway inflammatory diseases. PMID:27980400

  20. Organic extracts of urban air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells).

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Soo Yeun; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-08-16

    Traffic is a major source of particulate matter (PM), and ultrafine particulates and traffic intensity probably contribute significantly to PM-related health effects. As a strong relationship between air pollution and motor vehicle-originated pollutants has been shown to exist, air pollution genotoxicity studies of urban cities are steadily increasing. In Korea, the death rate caused by lung cancer is the most rapidly increased cancer death rate in the past 10 years. In this study, genotoxicity of PM2.5 (<2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter particles) collected from the traffic area in Suwon City, Korea, was studied using cultured human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) as a model system for the potential inhalation health effects. Organic extract of PM2.5 (CE) generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation in a dose-dependent manner (1μg/cm(3)-50μg/cm(3)). In the acid-base-neutral fractionation of PM2.5, neutral samples including the aliphatic (F3), aromatic (F4) and slightly polar (F5) fractions generated significant DNA breakage and micronucleus formation. These genotoxic effects were significantly blocked by scavenging agents [superoxide dismutase (SOD), sodium selenite (SS), mannitol (M), catalase (CAT)]. In addition, in the modified Comet assay using endonucleases (FPG and ENDOIII), CE and its fractions (F3, F4, and F5) increased DNA breakage compared with control groups, indicating that CE and fractions of PM2.5 induced oxidative DNA damage. These results clearly suggest that PM2.5 collected in the Suwon traffic area has genotoxic effects and that reactive oxygen species may play a distinct role in these effects. In addition, aliphatic/chlorinated hydrocarbons, PAH/alkylderivatives, and nitro-PAH/ketones/quinones may be important causative agents of the genotoxic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Fredine T; Mitchell, Leah A; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E; Burchiel, Scott W

    2009-07-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 microm (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression via β-catenin, Akt, and p42/p44 MAPK in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young H.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.; Griffin, Autumn J.; Day, Regina M.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is upregulated in response to lung injury and has been implicated in tissue repair through its antiapoptotic and proliferative activities. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of prostaglandins, and its activation has been shown to play a role in cell growth. Here, we report that HGF induces gene transcription of COX-2 in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC). Treatment of HBEpC with HGF resulted in phosphorylation of the HGF receptor (c-Met), activation of Akt, and upregulation of COX-2 mRNA. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of a dominant negative (DN) Akt mutant revealed that HGF increased COX-2 mRNA in an Akt-dependent manner. COX-2 promoter analysis in luciferase reporter constructs showed that HGF regulation required the β-catenin-responsive T cell factor-4 binding element (TBE). The HGF activation of the COX-2 gene transcription was blocked by DN mutant of β-catenin or by inhibitors that blocked activation of Akt. Inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK pathway blocked HGF-mediated activation of β-catenin gene transcription but not Akt activation, suggesting that p42/p44 MAPK acts in a parallel mechanism for β-catenin activation. We also found that inhibition of COX-2 with NS-398 blocked HGF-induced growth in HBEpC. Together, the results show that the HGF increases COX-2 gene expression via an Akt-, MAPK-, and β-catenin-dependent pathway in HBEpC. PMID:18245266

  3. Multidrug Resistant Protein-Three Gene Regulation by the Transcription Factor Nrf2 in Human Bronchial Epithelial and Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Christopher M.; Zhang, Hongqiao; Rinna, Alessandra; Holland, William; Mack, Philip C.; Forman, Henry Jay

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug Resistant Proteins (MRP) are members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily that facilitate detoxification by transporting toxic compounds, including chemotherapeutic drugs, out of cells. Chemotherapy, radiation, and other xenobiotic stresses have been shown to increase levels of select MRPs, although, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Additionally, MRP3 is suspected of playing a role in the drug resistance of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Analysis of the MRP3 promoter revealed the presence of multiple putative electrophile responsive elements (EpRE), sequences that suggested possible regulation of this gene by Nrf2, the key transcription factor that binds to EpRE. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether MRP3 induction was dependent upon the transcription factor Nrf2. Keap1, a key regulator of Nrf2, sequesters Nrf2 in the cytoplasm, preventing entry into the nucleus. The electrophilic lipid peroxidation product, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) has been shown to modify Keap1 allowing Nrf2 to enter the nucleus. We found that HNE up-regulated MRP3 mRNA and protein levels in cell lines with wild type Keap1 (human bronchial epithelial cell line HBE1 and the NSCLC cell line H358), but not in the Keap1 mutant NSCLC cell lines (A549 and H460). Cell lines with mutant Keap1 had constitutively higher MRP3 that was not increased by HNE treatment. In HBE1 cells, silencing of Nrf2 with siRNA inhibited induction of MRP3 and by HNE. Finally, we found that silencing Nrf2 also increased the toxicity of cisplatin in H358 cells. The combined results therefore support the hypothesis that MRP3 induction by HNE involves Nrf2 activation. PMID:19345732

  4. [Hypermethylation of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in human bronchial epithelial cell induced by organic extracts of coke oven emissions].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun-xiang; Duan, Hua-wei; Huang, Chuan-feng; Yang, Hai-jun; Dai, Yu-fei; Niu, Yong; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Yu-xin

    2011-05-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of carcinogenesis induced by coke oven emissions by investigating the cell genetic damage index and the methylation of O⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). The human bronchial epithelial cell 16HBE was treated by 1 µmol/L B(a)P for 48 h, and then was exposed continuously to either 1‰ dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or organic extracts of coke oven emission (OE-COE) for five days at the concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µg/ml. The methylation-specific PCR (MSP-PCR), RT-PCR and immunoblotting were applied to detect the methylation status, changes of mRNA and protein of MGMT, respectively. Single cell gel electrophoresis was used to detect DNA damage induced by OE-COE. Compared with the control group (DMSO), there was a significant hypermethylation in all study groups, along with the suppression of mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner, and the gradation ratio of them was 1.0, 0.96, 0.96, 0.85, 0.32 and 1.0, 1.0, 1.1, 0.41, 0.52, separately. There was a significant DNA damage with a dose-effect relationship in all study groups (F = 41.22, P < 0.05), and the comet Olive tail moment was (2.98 ± 1.43), (4.76 ± 1.79), (10.09 ± 1.75), (11.38 ± 1.77), (11.67 ± 1.88). The further study found that the index of DNA damage was negatively correlated to the expression of MGMT mRNA and its protein. The DNA damage induced by COE might be associated with the suppression of MGMT caused by its hypermethylation.

  5. DNA damage and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells following exposure to 2-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone: role in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Oya, Elisabeth; Ovrevik, Johan; Arlt, Volker M; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Holme, Jørn A

    2011-11-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants found in diesel exhaust and on urban air pollution particles. In the present study, human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). DNA damage responses were compared to those observed after exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Examination by microscopy revealed that 3-NBA was the most potent toxic compound while weaker responses were observed with 1-NP and B[a]P. Most interestingly, 2-NBA did not induce cell death or any other stress-related responses. 3-NBA induced a typical apoptotic cell death judged by nuclear condensation and little plasma membrane damage as well as cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Exposure to 3-NBA resulted in an accumulation of cells in S-phase, and further analysis by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry revealed that 3-NBA induced a DNA damage response characterized by phosphorylation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), checkpoint kinase (Chk) 2/Chk1, H2AX and p53. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis while small effects were seen using pifithrin-μ, suggesting that 3-NBA-induced cell death is a result of transcriptional activation of p53. In conclusion, 3-NBA is a potent inducer of apoptosis, which seemed to be triggered by the DNA damage response. Furthermore, a change of the nitro-group to the second position (i.e. 2-NBA) dramatically changed the cellular reactivity of the compound.

  6. Effects of ozone in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James T; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Brahmbhatt, Krupa; Yarosh, Dan; Pernodet, Nadine

    2013-05-01

    Ozone is a tropospheric pollutant that can form at ground level as a result of an interaction between sunlight and hydrocarbon engine emissions. As ozone is an extremely oxidative reaction product, epidermal cells are in the outer layer of defense against ozone. We exposed normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to concentrations of ozone that have been measured in cities and assayed for its effects. Hydrogen peroxide and IL-1α levels both increased while ATP levels decreased. We found a decrease in the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, sirtuin 3. Lastly, we found that ozone increased DNA damage as evaluated by Comet assay. Taken together, our results show increased damage to NHEK that will ultimately impair normal cellular function as a result of an environmentally relevant ozone exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Effects of water immersion on plasma catecholamines in normal humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Johnson, G.; Denunzio, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in order to determine whether water immersion to the neck (NI) alters plasma catecholamines in normal humans. Eight normal subjects were studied during a seated control study (C) and during 4 hr of NI, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) as determined by radioenzymatic assay were measured hourly. Results show that despite the induction of a marked natriuresis and diuresis indicating significant central hypervolemia, NI failed to alter plasma NE or E levels compared with those of either C or the corresponding prestudy 1.5 hr. In addition, the diuresis and natriuresis was found to vary independently of NE. These results indicate that the response of the sympathetic nervous system to acute volume alteration may differ from the reported response to chronic volume expansion.

  8. Optical Properties of Human Cancer and Normal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Christopher; Sun, Nan; Johnson, Jeffrey; Stack, Sharon; Tanner, Carol; Ruggiero, Steven

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of human oral and ovarian cancer and normal cells. Specifically, we have measured the absolute optical extinction for both whole cells and intra-cellular material in aqueous suspension. Measurements were conducted over a wavelength range of 250 to 1000nm with 1 nm resolution using Light Transmission Spectroscopy (LTS). This provides both the absolute extinction of materials under study and, with Mie inversion, the absolute number of particles of a given diameter as a function of diameter in the range of 1 to 3000 nm. Our preliminary studies show significant differences in both the extinction and particle size distributions associated with cancer versus normal cells, which appear to be correlated with differences in the particle size distribution in the range of ~ 50 to 250 nm.

  9. Immortalization of human normal and NF1 neurofibroma Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Chang, Lung-Ji; Neubauer, Debbie R; Muir, David F; Wallace, Margaret R

    2016-10-01

    Neurofibromas, which are benign Schwann cell tumors, are the hallmark feature in the autosomal dominant condition neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) and are associated with biallelic loss of NF1 gene function. There is a need for effective therapies for neurofibromas, particularly the larger, plexiform neurofibromas. Tissue culture is an important tool for research. However, it is difficult to derive enriched human Schwann cell cultures, and most enter replicative senescence after 6-10 passages, impeding cell-based research in NF1. Through exogenous expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase and murine cyclin-dependent kinase (mCdk4), normal (NF1 wild-type), neurofibroma-derived Schwann cells heterozygous for NF1 mutation, and neurofibroma-derived Schwann cells homozygous for NF1 mutation were immortalized, including some matched samples from the same NF1 patient. Initial experiments employed retroviral vectors, while subsequent work utilized lentiviral vectors carrying these genes because of improved efficiency. Expression of both transgenes was required for immortalization. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that these cell lines are of Schwann cell lineage and have a range of phenotypes, many of which are consistent with their primary cultures. This is the first report of immortalization and detailed characterization of multiple human NF1 normal nerve and neurofibroma-derived Schwann cell lines, which will be highly useful research tools to study NF1 and other Schwann tumor biology and conditions.

  10. Doublecortin expression in the normal and epileptic adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y W J; Curtis, M A; Gibbons, H M; Mee, E W; Bergin, P S; Teoh, H H; Connor, B; Dragunow, M; Faull, R L M

    2008-12-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a neurological disorder associated with spontaneous recurrent complex partial seizures and hippocampal sclerosis. Although increased hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported in animal models of MTLE, increased neurogenesis has not been reported in the hippocampus of adult human MTLE cases. Here we showed that cells expressing doublecortin (Dcx), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in migrating neuroblasts, were present in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of the normal and MTLE adult human brain. In particular, increased numbers of Dcx-positive cells were observed in the epileptic compared with the normal temporal cortex. Importantly, 56% of Dcx-expressing cells in the epileptic temporal cortex coexpressed both the proliferative cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and early neuronal marker, TuJ1, suggesting that they may be newly generated neurons. A subpopulation of Dcx-positive cells in the epileptic temporal cortex also coexpressed the mature neuronal marker, NeuN, suggesting that epilepsy may promote the generation of new neurons in the temporal cortex. This study has identified, for the first time, a novel population of Dcx-positive cells in the adult human temporal cortex that can be upregulated by epilepsy and thus, raises the possibility that these cells may have functional significance in the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

  11. Hemodynamic aspects of normal human feto-placental (umbilical) circulation.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ganesh; Sonesson, Sven-Erik; Flo, Kari; Räsänen, Juha; Odibo, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the changes in normal circulatory dynamics that occur during the course of pregnancy is essential for improving our knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms associated with feto-placental diseases. The umbilical circulation is the lifeline of the fetus, and it is accessible for noninvasive assessment. However, not all hemodynamic parameters can be reliably measured in utero using currently available technology. Experimental animal studies have been crucial in validating major concepts related to feto-placental circulatory physiology, but caution is required in directly translating the findings of such studies into humans due to species differences. Furthermore, it is important to establish normal reference ranges and take into account gestational age associated changes while interpreting the results of clinical investigation. Therefore, it is necessary to critically evaluate, synthesize and summarize the knowledge available from the studies performed on human pregnancies to be able to appropriately apply them in clinical practice. This narrative review is an attempt to present contemporary concepts on hemodynamics of feto-placental circulation based on human studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human brain.

    PubMed

    Caracausi, Maria; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Piovesan, Allison; Bruno, Samantha; Strippoli, Pierluigi

    2014-10-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 60 gene expression profiles of whole normal human brain, to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 39,250 known, mapped and 26,026 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. To this aim, we used the software named Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the brain transcriptome with those derived from human foetal brain gene expression, from a pool of human tissues (except the brain) and from the two normal human brain regions cerebellum and cerebral cortex, which are two of the main regions severely affected when cognitive impairment occurs, as happens in the case of trisomy 21. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed and analyzed using TRAM software and validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by 'real-time' reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The excellent agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome maps may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to the human brain. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes which have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the brain, in addition offering a basis for the regional analysis of gene expression. This could be useful for the study of chromosomal alterations associated to cognitive impairment, such as trisomy 21, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability.

  13. Regulation of p53 during senescence in normal human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Reuben H; Kang, Mo K; Kim, Terresa; Yang, Paul; Bae, Susan; Williams, Drake W; Phung, Samantha; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Hong, Christine; Park, No-Hee

    2015-01-01

    p53, the guardian of the genome, is a tumor suppressor protein and critical for the genomic integrity of the cells. Many studies have shown that intracellular level of p53 is enhanced during replicative senescence in normal fibroblasts, and the enhanced level of p53 is viewed as the cause of senescence. Here, we report that, unlike in normal fibroblasts, the level of intracellular p53 reduces during replicative senescence and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). We found that the intracellular p53 level was also decreased in age-dependent manner in normal human epithelial tissues. Senescent NHKs exhibited an enhanced level of p16INK4A, induced G2 cell cycle arrest, and lowered the p53 expression and transactivation activity. We found that low level of p53 in senescent NHKs was due to reduced transcription of p53. The methylation status at the p53 promoter was not altered during senescence, but senescent NHKs exhibited notably lower level of acetylated histone 3 (H3) at the p53 promoter in comparison with rapidly proliferating cells. Moreover, p53 knockdown in rapidly proliferating NHKs resulted in the disruption of fidelity in repaired DNA. Taken together, our study demonstrates that p53 level is diminished during replicative senescence and OIS and that such diminution is associated with H3 deacetylation at the p53 promoter. The reduced intracellular p53 level in keratinocytes of the elderly could be a contributing factor for more frequent development of epithelial cancer in the elderly because of the loss of genomic integrity of cells. PMID:26138448

  14. Vulnerability of Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells to Oncogenic Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    algorithm for CpG-island detection. BMC Bioinformatics 7: 446. 17. Gardiner-Garden M, Frommer M (1987) CpG islands in vertebrate genomes. J Mol Biol...it does not have a CpG island according to the original criteria (Gardiner-Garden and Frommer 1987). H3K4me3 and H3Ac are present in miR-205...culture of normal human mammary epithelial cells. Cancer Res 69: 7557–7568. Gardiner-GardenM, Frommer M. 1987. CpG islands in vertebrate genomes. J Mol

  15. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of human normal and cancerous oesophagus tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, W S; Wang, Y; Liu, N R; Zhang, J X; Chen, R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, microstructures of human oesophageal submucosa are evaluated using multiphoton microscopy, based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation. The content and distribution of collagen, elastic fibers and cancer cells in normal and cancerous submucosa layer have been distinctly obtained and briefly discussed. The variation of these components is very relevant to the pathology in oesophagus, especially in early oesophageal cancer. Our results further indicate that the multiphoton microscopy technique has the potential application in vivo in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of early oesophageal cancer. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures - Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Paula A; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M Gregory

    2016-08-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Mucus Flow in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Cultures – Part I: Idealized Axisymmetric Swirling Flow

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Paula A.; Jin, Yuan; Palmer, Erik; Hill, David; Forest, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    A multi-mode nonlinear constitutive model for mucus is constructed directly from micro- and macro-rheology experimental data on cell culture mucus, and a numerical algorithm is developed for the culture geometry and idealized cilia driving conditions. This study investigates the roles that mucus rheology, wall effects, and HBE culture geometry play in the development of flow profiles and the shape of the air-mucus interface. Simulations show that viscoelasticity captures normal stress generation in shear leading to a peak in the air-mucus interface at the middle of the culture and a depression at the walls. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regimes can be observed in cultures by varying the hurricane radius and mean rotational velocity. The advection-diffusion of a drug concentration dropped at the surface of the mucus flow is simulated as a function of Peclet number. PMID:27494700

  18. Cationic channels in normal and dystrophic human myotubes.

    PubMed

    Vandebrouck, C; Duport, G; Cognard, C; Raymond, G

    2001-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle cells obtained from normal and Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients were cocultured with explants of rat dorsal root ganglions. Single-channel recordings were performed with the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique and negative pressure was applied via the patch-pipette in order to mechanically stimulate the membrane patch. Inward elementary current activity was recorded under control or negative pressure conditions. Its occurrence and mean open probability were higher in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Amplitude histograms reveal that these channels have a small unitary conductance of around 10 pS in 110 mM Ca2+ and could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by gadolinium. Results show that the membrane stress favoured calcium permeation through these channels. Taken together these data provide arguments for the involvement of such channels in calcium overload previously observed in cocultured dystrophic human (Duchenne muscular dystrophy) muscle cells.

  19. The role of C/EBPβ phosphorylation in modulating membrane phospholipids repairing in LPS-induced human lung/bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shiyu; Xu, Yan; Xie, Ling; Ouyang, Yufang

    2017-09-20

    Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a common critical emergency with high mortality in clinical practice. The key mechanism of ALI/ARDS is that the excessive inflammatory response damages the integrity of alveolar and bronchial cell membrane and thus affects their basic function. Phospholipids are the main component of cell membranes. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), which catalyzes the cleavage of membrane phospholipids, is the most important inflammatory mediator of ALI. However, clara cell secretory protein 1 (CCSP1), an endogenous PLA2 inhibitor can increase the self-defense of membrane phospholipids. Thus, CCSP1 up-regulation and PLA2 inhibition constitutes an effective method for ensuring the stability of membrane phospholipids and for the treatment of ALI/ARDS. In the present study, we developed an in vitro model of ALI via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, and assessed the mRNA and protein levels of CCSP1 and PLA2 in the model cells. The results demonstrated LPS induction inhibited the transcription and protein expression of CCSP1, but only the protein level of membrane associated PLA2 was increased, suggesting that in the in vitro ALI model, abnormally regulated CCSP1 transcription plays a crucial role in the damage of cell membrane. To find out the reason that CCSP1 expression was decreased in the ALI model, we predicted, by means of bioinformatics, putative transcription factors which would bind to CCSP1 promoter, examined their background and expression, and found that a transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP β), was correlated with the transcription of CCSP1 in the in vitro ALI model, and its phosphorylation in the model was decreased. CHIP-PCR and luciferase reporter assay revealed that C/EBP β bound to CCSP1 promoter and facilitated its transcription. Therefore, we conclude that there is a C/EBP β/CCSP1/PLA2 pathway in the in vitro ALI model. The

  20. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xuejiao; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  1. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible.

  2. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  3. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dibo; Li, Xian; Cai, Jinhui; Ma, Yehao; Kang, Xusheng; Huang, Pingjie; Zhang, Guangxin

    2014-09-01

    Human dehydrated normal and cancerous gastric tissues were measured using transmission time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Based on the obtained terahertz absorption spectra, the contrasts between the two kinds of tissue were investigated and techniques for automatic identification of cancerous tissue were studied. Distinctive differences were demonstrated in both the shape and amplitude of the absorption spectra between normal and tumor tissue. Additionally, some spectral features in the range of 0.2~0.5 THz and 1~1.5 THz were revealed for all cancerous gastric tissues. To systematically achieve the identification of gastric cancer, principal component analysis combined with t-test was used to extract valuable information indicating the best distinction between the two types. Two clustering approaches, K-means and support vector machine (SVM), were then performed to classify the processed terahertz data into normal and cancerous groups. SVM presented a satisfactory result with less false classification cases. The results of this study implicate the potential of the terahertz technique to detect gastric cancer. The applied data analysis methodology provides a suggestion for automatic discrimination of terahertz spectra in other applications.

  4. Ketogenic diet: electrophysiological effects on the normal human cortex.

    PubMed

    Cantello, Roberto; Varrasi, Claudia; Tarletti, Roberto; Cecchin, Michela; D'Andrea, Federico; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Monaco, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    To explore the cortical electrophysiology of the ketogenic diet (KD) in the normal human. KD is effective against refractory epilepsy, but its precise mechanism is obscure. At the transmitter level, an enhancement of GABA inhibition has often been proposed. We studied eight healthy volunteers undergoing a "classic" KD for 2 weeks. We measured several biochemical variables at baseline (T0), after 1 week (T1) and 2 weeks (T2) of KD, then 3 months after the KD conclusion (T3). Ketosis was quantified as 24-h ketonuria. At the same time, we studied the motor cortical excitability by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also quantitatively evaluated the EEG signal in search of frequency shifts over the rolandic areas. Significant (p < 0.05) neurophysiological changes appeared at T2. These consisted of a strengthening of short-latency cortical inhibition (SICI), a TMS index which is thought to reflect GABA-A inhibition in the cortex. Then, there was an enhancement of the beta EEG band over the perirolandic region, similar to that following administration of GABA-A agonists. All changes disappeared at T3. A standard, short-term KD affected the cortical physiology of the normal human. The main changes were an augmented SICI and an increased perirolandic beta EEG activity, which are compatible with a lower level of neural excitation within the cortex.

  5. Disposition of human fibrinopeptide A in normal and nephrectomized rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Harenberg, J.; Stehle, G.; Waibel, S.; Hermann, H.J.; Eisenhut, M.; Zimmermann, R.

    1983-10-01

    The distribution, elimination, and metabolism of human fibrinopeptide A (FPA) were studied in normal and nephrectomized rabbits. The activity of /sup 125/I-labeled desamino-tyrosyl human FPA (DAT-FPA) was followed over 4 hours after i.v. administration. Results show that in normal rabbits (n . 10) DAT-FPA is eliminated from plasma in four phases with half-lives of 30 sec, 3.5 min, 15 min, and 90 min. The distribution of /sup 123/I-labeled DAT-FPA in plasma was determined in 15 control rabbits with scintigraphy over 2 hours. DAT-FPA was distributed primarily in the cardiovascular system, liver, and kidneys. In some animals minimal radioactivity was detected over the gall bladder. Radioactivity accumulated rapidly in the urinary bladder, approximately 50% being recorded after 15 min and 90% after 120 min. In the heart area radioactivity decreased with half-lives of 25 sec, 7.5 min, 25 min, and 180 min. Nephrectomized rabbits had similar initial fast distribution of DAT-FPA after administration of /sup 125/I-labeled (n . 10) and /sup 123/I-labeled peptide (n . 10). The estimated half-life of the slow component was in the order of several hours. The results of the scintigraphic and gel chromatographic studies show that FPA is primarily excreted in the urine. Previously reported half-lives of FPA reflect distribution rather than steady state conditions.

  6. Transcription abnormalities potentiate apoptosis of normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Andera, L.; Wasylyk, B.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is a natural process by which damaged and potentially tumorigenic cells are removed. Induction of apoptosis is important in chemotherapy aimed at eliminating cancer cells. We address the mechanisms by which this process can be triggered in cells that are recalcitrant to cell death induced by DNA-damaging agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Normal human fibroblasts and lymphoblasts, and fibroblasts with defined genetic changes, were treated with DNA-damaging agents and inhibitors of transcription. Western blotting was used to study the expression of some of the key factors involved in the response to DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis, namely, p53, p21WAFI,Cip1, Mdm2, Bax, and CD95 (Fas/APO1). Apoptosis was followed by various criteria, including DNA fragmentation, specific proteolysis, cell morphology, viability, and FACS scan for sub-G1 cells. RESULTS: Normal human fibroblasts were more resistant than lymphoblasts to DNA damage-induced apoptosis. The DNA-damaging agents mitomycin C and cisplatin induced rapid apoptosis of fibroblasts with defects in the repair of transcribed DNA, compared with wild-type cells or those with defects in overall genome repair. Short-term treatment with inhibitors of RNA polymerase II transcription, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanitin induced rapid cell death of normal fibroblasts. These results show that there is a link between defective transcription and apoptosis. Treatments and genetic backgrounds that favored apoptosis were associated with efficient and prolonged induction of p53 and often altered or imbalanced expression of its downstream effectors p21WAFI,Cip1 and Mdm2, whereas there were no changes in Bax or CD95 (Fas/APO1). CONCLUSION: Transcription inhibitors increase p53 levels and are better inducers of apoptosis than DNA-damaging agents in some cell types. Apoptosis might be triggered by blocked polymerases and/or faulty expression of downstream effectors. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID

  7. p120 GAP requirement in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the p120 GAP (GAP), originally described as an inhibitor of p21ras, may also serve as a downstream effector of ras-regulated signal transduction. To determine whether GAP expression is required for the growth of human normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells, we used GAP antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to inhibit it and analyzed the effects of this inhibition on the colony- forming ability of nonadherent, T lymphocyte-depleted mononuclear cells and of highly purified progenitors (CD34+ MNC) obtained from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of healthy volunteers or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, bcr-abl-positive) patients. The acute myelogenous leukemia cell line MO7, the Philadelphia BV173 cell line, and the acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 and HL-60 cell lines were similarly examined. GAP antisense treatment inhibited colony formation from normal myelo-, erythro-, and megakaryopoietic progenitor cells as well as from CML progenitor cells. Proliferation of MO7 (growth factor- dependent) and BV173 (bcr-abl-dependent) cells, but not that of NB4 and HL-60 (growth factor-independent) cells, was also inhibited, even though a specific downregulation of GAP was observed in each cell line, as analyzed by either or both mRNA and protein expression. Stimulation of MO7 cells with hematopoietic growth factors increased the expression of GAP as well as the levels of active GTP-bound p21ras. Stimulation of GAP expression was inhibited upon GAP antisense treatment. These data indicate that p120 GAP is involved in human normal and leukemic hemopoiesis and strongly suggest that GAP is not only a p21ras inhibitor (signal terminator), but also a positive signal transducer. PMID:8245773

  8. [The history of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Carlo-Stella, N

    1998-01-01

    The history of bronchial asthma from ancient times is traced. The first accounts of asthma in the ancient Greeks and Romans with clinical descriptions by Aretus of Cappadocia and Aulus Celsus Cornelius are recounted. These are followed by the medieval habits of the Middle East as described by Moises Maimonides. The Renaissance is witness to a new scientific fervor in postulating theories on the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma by van Helmont, Willis and Floyer. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries will see the discovery of the anatomical foundation of bronchial asthma thanks largely to the technical advances in the diagnostic field by Auerbrugge and Laennec. The allergic nature of bronchial asthma is studied by Salter. S Meltzer's hypothesis of histamine release as the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma leads the way for the twentieth century's leading discoveries.

  9. An antagonist of the platelet-activating factor receptor inhibits adherence of both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae to cultured human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shakti D; Fairbairn, Rory L; Gell, David A; Latham, Roger D; Sohal, Sukhwinder S; Walters, Eugene H; O’Toole, Ronan F

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is emerging as the third largest cause of human mortality worldwide after heart disease and stroke. Tobacco smoking, the primary risk factor for the development of COPD, induces increased expression of platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr) in the lung epithelium. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae adhere to PAFr on the luminal surface of human respiratory tract epithelial cells. Objective To investigate PAFr as a potential drug target for the prevention of infections caused by the main bacterial drivers of acute exacerbations in COPD patients, NTHi and S. pneumoniae. Methods Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). PAFr expression levels were determined using immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The epithelial cells were challenged with either NTHi or S. pneumoniae labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and bacterial adhesion was measured using immunofluorescence. The effect of a well-evaluated antagonist of PAFr, WEB-2086, on binding of the bacterial pathogens to BEAS-2B cells was then assessed. In silico studies of the tertiary structure of PAFr and the binding pocket for PAF and its antagonist WEB-2086 were undertaken. Results PAFr expression by bronchial epithelial cells was upregulated by CSE, and significantly associated with increased bacterial adhesion. WEB-2086 reduced the epithelial adhesion by both NTHi and S. pneumoniae to levels observed for non-CSE-exposed cells. Furthermore, it was nontoxic toward the bronchial epithelial cells. In silico analyses identified a binding pocket for PAF/WEB-2086 in the predicted PAFr structure. Conclusion WEB-2086 represents an innovative class of candidate drugs for inhibiting PAFr-dependent lung infections caused by the main bacterial drivers of smoking-related COPD. PMID:27524890

  10. Elucidation of changes in molecular signalling leading to increased cellular transformation in oncogenically progressed human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to radiations of increasing LET

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Xie, Yang; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D.; Story, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The early transcriptional response and subsequent induction of anchorage-independent growth after exposure to particles of high Z and energy (HZE) as well as γ-rays were examined in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC3KT) immortalised without viral oncogenes and an isogenic variant cell line whose p53 expression was suppressed but that expressed an active mutant K-RASV12 (HBEC3KT-P53KRAS). Cell survival following irradiation showed that HBEC3KT-P53KRAS cells were more radioresistant than HBEC3KT cells irrespective of the radiation species. In addition, radiation enhanced the ability of the surviving HBEC3KT-P53RAS cells but not the surviving HBEC3KT cells to grow in anchorage-independent fashion (soft agar colony formation). HZE particle irradiation was far more efficient than γ-rays at rendering HBEC3KT-P53RAS cells permissive for soft agar growth. Gene expression profiles after radiation showed that the molecular response to radiation for HBEC3KT-P53RAS, similar to that for HBEC3KT cells, varies with radiation quality. Several pathways associated with anchorage independent growth, including the HIF-1α, mTOR, IGF-1, RhoA and ERK/MAPK pathways, were over-represented in the irradiated HBEC3KT-P53RAS cells compared to parental HBEC3KT cells. These results suggest that oncogenically progressed human lung epithelial cells are at greater risk for cellular transformation and carcinogenic risk after ionising radiation, but particularly so after HZE radiations. These results have implication for: (i) terrestrial radiation and suggests the possibility of enhanced carcinogenic risk from diagnostic CT screens used for early lung cancer detection; (ii) enhanced carcinogenic risk from heavy particles used in radiotherapy; and (iii) for space radiation, raising the possibility that astronauts harbouring epithelial regions of dysplasia or hyperplasia within the lung that contain oncogenic changes, may have a greater risk for lung cancers based upon their exposure to heavy

  11. Elucidation of changes in molecular signalling leading to increased cellular transformation in oncogenically progressed human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to radiations of increasing LET.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Xie, Yang; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D; Story, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    The early transcriptional response and subsequent induction of anchorage-independent growth after exposure to particles of high Z and energy (HZE) as well as γ-rays were examined in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC3KT) immortalised without viral oncogenes and an isogenic variant cell line whose p53 expression was suppressed but that expressed an active mutant K-RAS(V12) (HBEC3KT-P53KRAS). Cell survival following irradiation showed that HBEC3KT-P53KRAS cells were more radioresistant than HBEC3KT cells irrespective of the radiation species. In addition, radiation enhanced the ability of the surviving HBEC3KT-P53RAS cells but not the surviving HBEC3KT cells to grow in anchorage-independent fashion (soft agar colony formation). HZE particle irradiation was far more efficient than γ-rays at rendering HBEC3KT-P53RAS cells permissive for soft agar growth. Gene expression profiles after radiation showed that the molecular response to radiation for HBEC3KT-P53RAS, similar to that for HBEC3KT cells, varies with radiation quality. Several pathways associated with anchorage independent growth, including the HIF-1α, mTOR, IGF-1, RhoA and ERK/MAPK pathways, were over-represented in the irradiated HBEC3KT-P53RAS cells compared to parental HBEC3KT cells. These results suggest that oncogenically progressed human lung epithelial cells are at greater risk for cellular transformation and carcinogenic risk after ionising radiation, but particularly so after HZE radiations. These results have implication for: (i) terrestrial radiation and suggests the possibility of enhanced carcinogenic risk from diagnostic CT screens used for early lung cancer detection; (ii) enhanced carcinogenic risk from heavy particles used in radiotherapy; and (iii) for space radiation, raising the possibility that astronauts harbouring epithelial regions of dysplasia or hyperplasia within the lung that contain oncogenic changes, may have a greater risk for lung cancers based upon their exposure to heavy

  12. Amelioration of particulate matter-induced oxidative damage by vitamin c and quercetin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoting; Su, Ruijun; Li, Ruijin; Song, Li; Chen, Meilan; Cheng, Long; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a close association with respiratory damage. Vitamin c and quercetin have been documented to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. However, their potential protective effects against PM2.5-induced respiratory damage have not been evaluated yet. Hence, the study was aimed to investigate their protective effects and delineate the possible mechanisms. The results indicated that PM2.5 depleted the cell viability of 16HBE cells, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and inhibited mitochondrial genes expressions, including fusion proteins Mfn1 and OPA1, along with biogenesis markers SIRT1 and p53R2. Additionally, the damage of mitochondrial morphology was observed upon PM2.5 exposure using both JC-1 and MitoTracker Red staining. Expressions of mitochondrial respiratory chain genes including NDUFS2 and UQCRI1 were also attenuated by PM2.5 exposure. Furthermore, PM2.5 promoted the mRNA levels of NADPH oxidase and inflammation cytokines. However, the addition of vitamin c or quercetin strikingly antagonized the PM2.5-induced toxic effects. Collectively, these findings suggest that vitamin c and quercetin have repressive roles in respiratory oxidative damage incurred by PM2.5, which provide the theoretical basis about intervention and control of food nutrients on PM2.5-induced human adverse health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human cancers overexpress genes that are specific to a variety of normal human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lotem, Joseph; Netanely, Dvir; Domany, Eytan; Sachs, Leo

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed gene expression data from three different kinds of samples: normal human tissues, human cancer cell lines, and leukemic cells from lymphoid and myeloid leukemia pediatric patients. We have searched for genes that are overexpressed in human cancer and also show specific patterns of tissue-dependent expression in normal tissues. Using the expression data of the normal tissues, we identified 4,346 genes with a high variability of expression and clustered these genes according to their relative expression level. Of 91 stable clusters obtained, 24 clusters included genes preferentially expressed either only in hematopoietic tissues or in hematopoietic and one to two other tissues; 28 clusters included genes preferentially expressed in various nonhematopoietic tissues such as neuronal, testis, liver, kidney, muscle, lung, pancreas, and placenta. Analysis of the expression levels of these two groups of genes in the human cancer cell lines and leukemias identified genes that were highly expressed in cancer cells but not in their normal counterparts and, thus, were overexpressed in the cancers. The different cancer cell lines and leukemias varied in the number and identity of these overexpressed genes. The results indicate that many genes that are overexpressed in human cancer cells are specific to a variety of normal tissues, including normal tissues other than those from which the cancer originated. It is suggested that this general property of cancer cells plays a major role in determining the behavior of the cancers, including their metastatic potential. PMID:16339305

  14. Human penile erection and organic impotence: normal histology and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Conti, G; Virag, R

    1989-01-01

    A very large amount of human material (7 embryos, 12 stillborns, 12 penes of males aged between 2 and 86 years, as well as bioptical material from 80 subjects affected by impotence problems) has been examined so as to study the penis arterial and venous walls, the blood flow regulation mechanisms and the intracavernal trabecular morphology. The amount of muscle tissue and of collagenous connective tissue has been numerically quantified by computer-assisted methods. This study enables the authors to underline three fundamental facts: (a) it confirms the normal penile erection mechanism, and the consequent theory, (b) it confirms that vascular sclerosis is a systemic phenomenon correlated to age, and that the penis is not exempt, and (c) in the case of impotence problems, the same sclerosis phenomenon may appear at an earlier age, and therefore induce pathological impotence.

  15. Visualization of bronchial circulation at bronchial anastomotic site using bronchial fluorescein angiography technique.

    PubMed

    Iga, Norichika; Miyoshi, Kentaroh; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Hirano, Yutaka; Konishi, Yusuke; Otani, Shinji; Sugimoto, Seiichiro; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Oto, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    Successful bronchial healing after a bronchoplastic procedure mainly depends on bronchial circulation at the anastomostic site. We developed a bronchial fluorescein angiography (B-FAG) technique for visualizing circulation on the bronchial surface. The technique was evaluated in animals. Fluorescein was used as a contrast agent and an autofluorescence imaging (AFI) bronchoscope as a detector. The left main pulmonary artery (PA) and main bronchus of 10 pigs were isolated. After transection of the left main bronchus and bronchial arteries and re-anastomosis of the bronchus, the pigs were randomly divided into two groups: the PA- group (n = 5), in which the pulmonary artery was transected; and the PA+ group (n = 5), in which the pulmonary artery was preserved. Following intravenous injection of fluorescein, the distal anastomotic site was observed for 30 min with autofluorescence imaging bronchoscopy. Bronchial specimens sampled 2 days after the surgical intervention were histologically evaluated. In the PA- group, there was no fluorescein enhancement in the distal bronchus throughout the observation time. However, enhancement, which turned the bronchial surface from magenta to bright green, was clearly observed in less than 207 ± 102.5 s in the PA+ group. The enhancement status detected by bronchial fluorescein angiography was related to the extent of tissue damage, as was proven histologically in the acute healing stage. Bronchial fluorescein angiography clearly visualized the circulatory status promptly after the anastomosis procedure at the central bronchus. This technique is a potentially practical approach to predict ischaemic airway complications following bronchial anastomosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential effects of nitro-PAHs and amino-PAHs on cytokine and chemokine responses in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ovrevik, J.; Arlt, V.M.; Oya, E.; Nagy, E.; Mollerup, S.; Phillips, D.H.; Lag, M.; Holme, J.A.

    2010-02-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are found in diesel exhaust and air pollution particles. Along with other PAHs, many nitro-PAHs possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, but their effects on pro-inflammatory processes and cell death are less known. In the present study we examined the effects of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and their corresponding amino forms, 1-AP, 3-AF and 3-ABA, in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The effects of the different nitro- and amino-PAHs were compared to the well-characterized PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Expression of 17 cytokine and chemokine genes, measured by real-time PCR, showed that 1-NP and 3-NF induced a completely different cytokine/chemokine gene expression pattern to that of their amino analogues. 1-NP/3-NF-induced responses were dominated by maximum effects on CXCL8 (IL-8) and TNF-alpha expression, while 1-AP-/3-AF-induced responses were dominated by CCL5 (RANTES) and CXCL10 (IP-10) expression. 3-NBA and 3-ABA induced only marginal cytokine/chemokine responses. However, 3-NBA exposure induced considerable DNA damage resulting in accumulation of cells in S-phase and a marked increase in apoptosis. B[a]P was the only compound to induce expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but did not induce cytokine/chemokine responses in BEAS-2B cells. Importantly, nitro-PAHs and amino-PAHs induced both qualitatively and quantitatively different effects on cytokine/chemokine expression, DNA damage, cell cycle alterations and cytotoxicity. The cytokine/chemokine responses appeared to be triggered, at least partly, through mechanisms separate from the other examined endpoints. These results confirm and extend previous studies indicating that certain nitro-PAHs have a considerable pro-inflammatory potential.

  17. TEMPORAL-SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF U.S.- MEXICO BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL FINE AND COARSE PM AIR SAMPLE EXTRACT ACTIVITY IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A.; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Burchiel, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM 2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every seven days for a period of one year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM 2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect. Results In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin) by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies). The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. Conclusions The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition to the well

  19. Differential Intracochlear Sound Pressure Measurements in Normal Human Temporal Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    We present the first simultaneous sound pressure measurements in scala vestibuli and scala tympani of the cochlea in human cadaveric temporal bones. Micro-scale fiberoptic pressure sensors enabled the study of differential sound pressure at the cochlear base. This differential pressure is the input to the cochlear partition, driving cochlear waves and auditory transduction. Results showed that: pressure of scala vestibuli was much greater than scala tympani except at low and high frequencies where scala tympani pressure affects the input to the cochlea; the differential pressure proved to be an excellent measure of normal ossicular transduction of sound (shown to decrease 30-50 dB with ossicular disarticulation, whereas the individual scala pressures were significantly affected by non-ossicular conduction of sound at high frequencies); the middle-ear gain and differential pressure were generally bandpass in frequency dependence; and the middle-ear delay in the human was over twice that of the gerbil. Concurrent stapes velocity measurements allowed determination of the differential impedance across the partition and round-window impedance. The differential impedance was generally resistive, while the round-window impedance was consistent with a compliance in conjunction with distributed inertia and damping. Our techniques can be used to study inner-ear conductive pathologies (e.g., semicircular dehiscence), as well as non-ossicular cochlear stimulation (e.g., round-window stimulation) - situations that cannot be completely quantified by measurements of stapes velocity or scala-vestibuli pressure by themselves.

  20. Complement Interaction with Trypanosomatid Promastigotes in Normal Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Mercedes; Moreno, Inmaculada; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Toraño, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    In normal human serum (NHS), axenic promastigotes of Crithidia, Phytomonas, and Leishmania trigger complement activation, and from 1.2 to 1.8 × 105 C3 molecules are deposited per promastigote within 2.5 min. In Leishmania, promastigote C3 binding capacity remains constant during in vitro metacyclogenesis. C3 deposition on promastigotes activated through the classical complement pathway reaches a 50% maximum after ∼50 s, and represents >85% of total C3 bound. In C1q- and C2-deficient human sera, promastigotes cannot activate the classical pathway (CP) unless purified C1q or C2 factors, respectively, are supplemented, demonstrating a requirement for CP factor in promastigote C3 opsonization. NHS depleted of natural anti-Leishmania antibodies cannot trigger promastigote CP activation, but IgM addition restores C3 binding. Furthermore, Leishmania binds natural antibodies in ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA)-treated NHS; after EDTA removal, promastigote-bound IgM triggers C3 deposition in natural antibody-depleted NHS. Serum collectins and pentraxins thus do not participate significantly in NHS promastigote C3 opsonization. Real-time kinetic analysis of promastigote CP-mediated lysis indicates that between 85–95% of parasites are killed within 2.5 min of serum contact. These data indicate that successful Leishmania infection in man must immediately follow promastigote transmission, and that Leishmania evasion strategies are shaped by the selective pressure exerted by complement. PMID:11854358

  1. Altered Human Memory Modification in the Presence of Normal Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Censor, Nitzan; Buch, Ethan R; Nader, Karim; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2016-09-01

    Following initial learning, the memory is stabilized by consolidation mechanisms, and subsequent modification of memory strength occurs via reconsolidation. Yet, it is not clear whether consolidation and memory modification are the same or different systems-level processes. Here, we report disrupted memory modification in the presence of normal consolidation of human motor memories, which relate to differences in lesioned brain structure after stroke. Furthermore, this behavioral dissociation was associated with macrostructural network architecture revealed by a graph-theoretical approach, and with white-matter microstructural integrity measured by diffusion-weighted MRI. Altered macrostructural network architecture and microstructural integrity of white-matter underlying critical nodes of the related network predicted disrupted memory modification. To the best of our knowledge, this provides the first evidence of mechanistic differences between consolidation, and subsequent memory modification through reconsolidation, in human procedural learning. These findings enable better understanding of these memory processes, which may guide interventional strategies to enhance brain function and resulting behavior. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. [Bronchial hyperreactivity in athletes].

    PubMed

    Carlsen, K H

    1994-01-01

    Elite athletics, particularly endurance sports, are characterised by a high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Findings in several studies suggest short-term high intensity physical activity to cause a transient increase in BHR. Recent studies in Oslo have shown that regular physical endurance training over several years, particularly when combined with such climatic factors as low air temperatures, may result in an increased risk of BHR and EIA among elite athletes--e.g., cross-country skiers. Inhalation beta 2-agonists and steroids have been used by many athletes in endurance sports, particularly skiers. Athletes with symptoms of BHR or EIA should be examined with lung function tests and exercise testing, and the effect of antiasthmatic drugs should be ascertained. Inhaled beta 2-agonists have no beneficial effect upon physical performance in nonasthmatic athletes, and may have a slight limiting effect upon physical endurance.

  3. Bronchial rupture and fatal tension pneumothorax following routine venipuncture in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, D R

    1997-01-01

    A five-month-old Siamese kitten suffered a bronchial tear and subsequently a fatal tension pneumothorax during routine venipuncture. No other injuries and no underlying diseases were identified upon gross postmortem and histopathological examinations. The pathogenesis of the bronchial tear was undetermined. Bronchial ruptures are unreported in animals; they are well recognized as rare injuries in humans with chest trauma. The pathogenesis of the bronchial rupture most likely was due to occlusion of the upper airways (directly or due to laryngospasm), along with pressure on the chest, or due to stretching and twisting of the tracheobronchial tree.

  4. Macrophages promote benzopyrene-induced tumor transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in a bionic airway chip culture and in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhao; Wang, Lei; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells using a BaP-induced tumor transformation model with a bionic airway chip in vitro and in animal models. The bionic airway chip culture data showed that macrophages promoted BaP-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, which was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB and STAT3 pathways to induce cell proliferation, colony formation in chip culture, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Blockage of interleukin (IL)-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling or inhibition of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 expression abrogated the effect of macrophages on malignant transformation in the bionic airway chip culture. In vivo, macrophages promoted lung tumorigenesis in a carcinogen-induced animal model. Similarly, blockage of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 using siRNA transfection decreased the carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in rats. We demonstrated that macrophages are critical in promoting lung tumorigenesis and that the macrophage-initiated TNF-α/NF-κB/cyclinD1 and IL-6/STAT3/cyclinD1 pathways are primarily responsible for promoting lung tumorigenesis. PMID:25823926

  5. Macrophages promote benzopyrene-induced tumor transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in a bionic airway chip culture and in animal models.

    PubMed

    Li, Encheng; Xu, Zhiyun; Zhao, Hui; Sun, Zhao; Wang, Lei; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2015-04-20

    We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells using a BaP-induced tumor transformation model with a bionic airway chip in vitro and in animal models. The bionic airway chip culture data showed that macrophages promoted BaP-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, which was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB and STAT3 pathways to induce cell proliferation, colony formation in chip culture, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Blockage of interleukin (IL)-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling or inhibition of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 expression abrogated the effect of macrophages on malignant transformation in the bionic airway chip culture. In vivo, macrophages promoted lung tumorigenesis in a carcinogen-induced animal model. Similarly, blockage of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 using siRNA transfection decreased the carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in rats. We demonstrated that macrophages are critical in promoting lung tumorigenesis and that the macrophage-initiated TNF-α/NF-κB/cyclinD1 and IL-6/STAT3/cyclinD1 pathways are primarily responsible for promoting lung tumorigenesis.

  6. A quantitative transcriptome reference map of the normal human hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caracausi, Maria; Rigon, Vania; Piovesan, Allison; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara

    2016-01-01

    We performed an innovative systematic meta-analysis of 41 gene expression profiles of normal human hippocampus to provide a quantitative transcriptome reference map of it, i.e. a reference typical value of expression for each of the 30,739 known mapped and the 16,258 uncharacterized (unmapped) transcripts. For this aim, we used the software called TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper), which is able to generate transcriptome maps based on gene expression data from multiple sources. We also analyzed differential expression by comparing the hippocampus with the whole brain transcriptome map to identify a typical expression pattern of this subregion compared with the whole organ. Finally, due to the fact that the hippocampus is one of the main brain region to be severely affected in trisomy 21 (the best known genetic cause of intellectual disability), a particular attention was paid to the expression of chromosome 21 (chr21) genes. Data were downloaded from microarray databases, processed, and analyzed using TRAM software. Among the main findings, the most over-expressed loci in the hippocampus are the expressed sequence tag cluster Hs.732685 and the member of the calmodulin gene family CALM2. The tubulin folding cofactor B (TBCB) gene is the best gene at behaving like a housekeeping gene. The hippocampus vs. the whole brain differential transcriptome map shows the over-expression of LINC00114, a long non-coding RNA mapped on chr21. The hippocampus transcriptome map was validated in vitro by assaying gene expression through several magnitude orders by "Real-Time" reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The highly significant agreement between in silico and experimental data suggested that our transcriptome map may be a useful quantitative reference benchmark for gene expression studies related to human hippocampus. Furthermore, our analysis yielded biological insights about those genes that have an intrinsic over-/under-expression in the hippocampus.

  7. Characterizing the normal proteome of human ciliary body

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ciliary body is the circumferential muscular tissue located just behind the iris in the anterior chamber of the eye. It plays a pivotal role in the production of aqueous humor, maintenance of the lens zonules and accommodation by changing the shape of the crystalline lens. The ciliary body is the major target of drugs against glaucoma as its inhibition leads to a drop in intraocular pressure. A molecular study of the ciliary body could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in glaucoma. Thus far, no large-scale proteomic investigation has been reported for the human ciliary body. Results In this study, we have carried out an in-depth LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of normal human ciliary body and have identified 2,815 proteins. We identified a number of proteins that were previously not described in the ciliary body including importin 5 (IPO5), atlastin-2 (ATL2), B-cell receptor associated protein 29 (BCAP29), basigin (BSG), calpain-1 (CAPN1), copine 6 (CPNE6), fibulin 1 (FBLN1) and galectin 1 (LGALS1). We compared the plasma proteome with the ciliary body proteome and found that the large majority of proteins in the ciliary body were also detectable in the plasma while 896 proteins were unique to the ciliary body. We also classified proteins using pathway enrichment analysis and found most of proteins associated with ubiquitin pathway, EIF2 signaling, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Conclusions More than 95% of the identified proteins have not been previously described in the ciliary body proteome. This is the largest catalogue of proteins reported thus far in the ciliary body that should provide new insights into our understanding of the factors involved in maintaining the secretion of aqueous humor. The identification of these proteins will aid in understanding various eye diseases of the anterior segment such as glaucoma and presbyopia. PMID:23914977

  8. Disseminated typical bronchial carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Novković, Dobrivoje; Skuletić, Vesna; Vuković, Jelena; Cerović, Snezana; Tomić, Ilija; Karlicić, Vukojica; Stojisavljević, Marko

    2013-05-01

    Bronchial carcinoids belong to a rare type of lung tumors. If they do not expose outstanding neuroendocrine activity, they develop without clearly visible symptoms. They are often detected during a routine examination. According to their clinical pathological features, they are divided into typical and atypical tumors. Typical bronchial carcinoids metastasize to distant organs very rarely. Localized forms are effectively treated by surgery. The methods of conservative treatment should be applied in other cases. We presented a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid lung tumor detected by a routine examination. Additional analysis (chest X-ray, computed tomography of the chest, ultrasound of the abdomen, skeletal scintigraphy, bronhoscopy, histopathological analysis of the bioptate of bronchial tumor, as well as bronchial brushing cytology and immunohistochemical staining performed with markers specific for neuroendocrine tumor) proved a morphologically typical lung carcinoid with dissemination to the liver and skeletal system, which is very rarely found in typical carcinoids. The presented case with carcinoid used to be showed morphological and pathohistological characteristics of typical bronchial carcinoid. With its metastasis to the liver and skeletal system it demonstrated unusual clinical course that used to be considered as rare phenomenon. Due to its frequent asymptomatic course and varied manifestation, bronchial carcinoid could be considered as a diagnostic challenge requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Impact of gemifloxacin on the normal human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Barker, P J; Sheehan, R; Teillol-Foo, M; Palmgren, A C; Nord, C E

    2001-02-01

    Gemifloxacin is a new fluoroquinolone that has been shown to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of gemifloxacin on the human intestinal microflora. Gemifloxacin was given in oral doses of 320 mg for 7 days to 10 healthy subjects and 5 subjects received a once-daily dose of matched placebo for 7 days. Faecal samples were collected prior to administration (days -8 and -6), during the administration period (days 2 and 4) and after withdrawal of administration (days 8, 11, 21, 28 and 56). In the aerobic intestinal microflora the numbers of enterobacteria were suppressed during the gemifloxacin administration and the numbers of enterococci and streptococci were also decreased. No other aerobic microorganisms were affected. In the anaerobic microflora the numbers of anaerobic cocci and lactobacilli were suppressed during the gemifloxacin administration while no other changes occurred. The microflora was normalized 49 days after the administration of gemifloxacin had stopped. No selection or overgrowth of resistant bacterial strains or yeasts occurred. The ecological impact of gemifloxacin was shown to be selective and similar to that of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin.

  10. Accelerated aging syndromes, are they relevant to normal human aging?

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Oliver; Stewart, Colin L

    2011-09-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria (HGPS) and Werner syndromes are diseases that clinically resemble some aspects of accelerated aging. HGPS is caused by mutations in theLMNA gene resulting in post-translational processing defects that trigger Progeria in children. Werner syndrome, arising from mutations in the WRN helicase gene, causes premature aging in young adults. What are the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these disorders and what aspects of the diseases resemble physiological human aging? Much of what we know stems from the study of patient derived fibroblasts with both mutations resulting in increased DNA damage, primarily at telomeres. However, in vivo patients with Werner's develop arteriosclerosis, among other pathologies. In HGPS patients, including iPS derived cells from HGPS patients, as well as some mouse models for Progeria, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) appears to be among the most severely affected tissues. Defective Lamin processing, associated with DNA damage, is present in VSM from old individuals, indicating processing defects may be a factor in normal aging. Whether persistent DNA damage, particularly at telomeres, is the root cause for these pathologies remains to be established, since not all progeroid Lmna mutations result in DNA damage and genome instability.

  11. Neuropeptides of human thymus in normal and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Mignini, F; Sabbatini, M; D'Andrea, V; Cavallotti, C

    2011-05-01

    Human thymus of healthy subjects and patients affected by thymoma-associated Myastenia Gravis were studied in order to visualize and compare the morphological distributive pattern of four neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, neuropeptide Y, and neurotensin. Based on our observations, we formulated hypotheses on their relations in neuro-immunomodulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Immuno-histochemical staining for neuropeptides was performed and morphological and morphometrical analyses were conducted on healthy and diseased thymus. In normal thymus, a specific distributive pattern was observed for the several neuropeptide-positive nerves in different thymus lobular zones. In particular substance P-positive fibers were observed in subcapsular zone, specifically located into parenchyma, where they represent the almost total amount of fibers; neurotensin-positive fibers were observed primarily located in parenchyma than perivascular site of several thymus lobular zones, and more abundant the cortico-medullary and medullary zones. Instead VIP- and NPY-positive fibers were widely distributed in perivascular and parenchymal sites of several thymus lobular zones. In thymoma, the distribution of neuropeptide-positive fibers was quantitatively reduced, while cells immunopositive to VIP and substance P were quantitatively increased and dispersed. Observation of the perivascular and parenchymal distribution of the analyzed neuropeptides suggests evidence that a regulatory function is performed by nerves and cells that secrete neuropeptide into the thymus. The alteration of neuropeptide patterns in thymoma suggests that these neurotransmitters play a role in autoimmune diseases such as Myastenia Gravis.

  12. 7Li NMR study of normal human erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettegrew, J. W.; Post, J. F. M.; Panchalingam, K.; Withers, G.; Woessner, D. E.

    The biological action of lithium is of great interest because of the therapeutic efficacy of the cation in manic-depressive illness. To investigate possible molecular interactions of lithium, 7Li NMR studies were conducted on normal human erythrocytes which had been incubated with lithium chloride. The uptake of lithium ions was followed by 7Li NMR, using a dysprosium, tripolyphosphate shift reagent. Lithium uptake followed single-exponential kinetics with a time constant of 14.7 h. The intracellular lithium relaxation times were T 1 ⋍ 5 s and T 2 ⋍ 0.15 s, which implies a lengthening of the lithium correlation time. It was found that lithium does not interact significantly with hemoglobin, the erythrocyte membrane, or artificial phospholipid membranes. Based on measurements of lithium T1 and T2 in concentrated agar gels, the large difference between T1 and T2 for intracellular lithium ions may be due to diffusion of the hydrated lithium ion through heterogeneous electrostatic field gradients created by the erythrocyte membrane-associated cytoskeletal network. Lithium binding to the membrane-associated cytoskeleton, however, cannot be ruled out. Because of the large differences between T1 and T2 of intracellular lithium ions, 1Li NMR may be a sensitive and promising noninvasive method to probe the intracellular environment.

  13. Syneretic response of aging normal human lens to pressure.

    PubMed

    Bettelheim, Frederick A; Lizak, Martin J; Zigler, J Samuel

    2003-01-01

    The study was designed to observe whether a reversible syneretic response to pressure is operative in normal human lenses and whether such a response demonstrates a uniform age dependence. Seven sections (from the anterior outer cortex to the posterior outer cortex) of 10 human lenses were imaged at 2 atmospheres (atm) pressure and the T(1) (spin-lattice) and T(2) (spin-spin) relaxation data on each section were collected. The pressure was then released and NMR relaxographic data were collected under 1 atm. Both T(1) and T(2) relaxation times were at their minimum in the nuclear region and at their maximum at the two outer cortexes. With increasing pressure, T(2) relaxation times decreased. The pressure-dependent change in T(2) relaxation times decreased with age. Changes in T(1) relaxation times showed no consistent pressure or age dependence. The population index of T(2) relaxation, M(2), had a maximum in the nucleus and a minimum in the two cortexes. The population index of T(1) relaxation, M(1,) was minimal in the nucleus and maximal at the two cortexes. M(2) increased with increasing pressure, whereas M(1) did not show consistent pressure dependence. The percentage of change in M(2) (DeltaM(2)) showed a statistically significant increase with increasing age, whereas the %DeltaM(1) showed no significant age-dependent trend. The positional dependence of relaxation times and the population indexes indicated that spin-spin relaxation represents the behavior of the bound water and the spin-lattice relaxation that of total water. As pressure increases, the strength of hydrogen bonding as well as the amount of bound water increases. The pressure-induced change in the total water is minimal. Thus, the free water-to-bound water ratio decreases with increasing pressure, demonstrating a significant syneretic response. The extent of reversible syneretic response decreases with age and is actually reversed in older lenses. The implication is that the ability of the human

  14. Congenital bronchial atresia with regional emphysema associated with pectus excavatum.

    PubMed Central

    van Klaveren, R J; Morshuis, W J; Lacquet, L K; Cox, A L; Festen, J; Heystraten, F M

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of congenital bronchial atresia with pectus excavatum are reported. Costosternal retraction during the efforts to overcome the airway obstruction due to encroachment on normal lung tissue by the hyperinflated segments may play a part in causing pectus excavatum. Images PMID:1494776

  15. Genotoxicity of short single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial and mesothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Falck, Ghita C-M; Singh, Rajinder; Suhonen, Satu; Järventaus, Hilkka; Vanhala, Esa; Catalán, Julia; Farmer, Peter B; Savolainen, Kai M; Norppa, Hannu

    2013-11-08

    Although some types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been described to induce mesothelioma in rodents and genotoxic effects in various cell systems, there are few previous studies on the genotoxicity of CNTs in mesothelial cells. Here, we examined in vitro DNA damage induction by short multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs; 10-30 nm × 1-2 μm) and single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs; >50% SWCNTs, ~40% other CNTs; <2 nm × 1-5 μm) in human mesothelial (MeT-5A) cells and bronchial epithelial (BEAS 2B) cells, using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and the immunoslot blot assay for the detection of malondialdehyde (M1dG) DNA adducts. In BEAS 2B cells, we also studied the induction of micronuclei (MN) by the CNTs using the cytokinesis-block method. The cells were exposed to the CNTs (5-200 μg/cm(2), corresponding to 19-760 μg/ml) for 24 and 48h in the comet assay and for 48 and 72 h in the MN and M1dG assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed more MWCNT fibres and SWCNT clusters in BEAS 2B than MeT-5A cells, but no significant differences were seen in intracellular dose expressed as area of SWCNT clusters between TEM sections of the cell lines. In MeT-5A cells, both CNTs caused a dose-dependent induction of DNA damage (% DNA in comet tail) in the 48-h treatment and SWCNTs additionally in the 24-h treatment, with a statistically significant increase at 40 μg/cm(2) of SWCNTs and (after 48 h) 80 μg/cm(2) of both CNTs. SWCNTs also elevated the level of M1dG DNA adducts at 1, 5, 10 and 40 μg/cm(2) after the 48-h treatment, but both CNTs decreased M1dG adduct level at several doses after the 72-h treatment. In BEAS 2B cells, SWCNTs induced a statistically significant increase in DNA damage at 80 and 120 μg/cm(2) after the 24-h treatment and in M1dG adduct level at 5 μg/cm(2) after 48 h and 10 and 40 μg/cm(2) after 72 h; MWCNTs did not affect the level of DNA damage but produced a decrease in M1dG adducts in the 72-h treatment. The CNTs did not affect the level of

  16. Fragmentation of DNA in morphologically normal human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Conrado; Franchi, Anahí; Taylor, Steven; Morshedi, Mahmood; Bocca, Silvina; Oehninger, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa with normal morphological appearance. Prospective study. Academic tertiary center. Fertile, subfertile, and infertile men were studied. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-fluorescein nick-end labeling assay and morphology assessment by phase contrast in the swim-up fractions. Simultaneous assessment of the percentage of normally shaped sperm and DNA fragmentation. No DNA fragmentation was found in spermatozoa with normal morphology in any of the samples from the fertile group. In only one sample from the subfertile group did we observed normally shaped sperm cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation. However, in all the samples from the infertile group, we observed normal spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Spermatozoa from this late group exhibited a high proportion of DNA damage. In infertile men with moderate and severe teratozoospermia, the spermatozoa with apparently normal morphology present in the motile fractions after swim-up may have DNA fragmentation.

  17. Clinical iron deficiency disturbs normal human responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Frise, Matthew C; Cheng, Hung-Yuan; Nickol, Annabel H; Curtis, M Kate; Pollard, Karen A; Roberts, David J; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Iron bioavailability has been identified as a factor that influences cellular hypoxia sensing, putatively via an action on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. We therefore hypothesized that clinical iron deficiency would disturb integrated human responses to hypoxia. We performed a prospective, controlled, observational study of the effects of iron status on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Individuals with absolute iron deficiency (ID) and an iron-replete (IR) control group were exposed to two 6-hour periods of isocapnic hypoxia. The second hypoxic exposure was preceded by i.v. infusion of iron. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was serially assessed with Doppler echocardiography. Thirteen ID individuals completed the study and were age- and sex-matched with controls. PASP did not differ by group or study day before each hypoxic exposure. During the first 6-hour hypoxic exposure, the rise in PASP was 6.2 mmHg greater in the ID group (absolute rises 16.1 and 10.7 mmHg, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 2.7-9.7 mmHg, P = 0.001). Intravenous iron attenuated the PASP rise in both groups; however, the effect was greater in ID participants than in controls (absolute reductions 11.1 and 6.8 mmHg, respectively; 95% CI for difference in change, -8.3 to -0.3 mmHg, P = 0.035). Serum erythropoietin responses to hypoxia also differed between groups. Clinical iron deficiency disturbs normal responses to hypoxia, as evidenced by exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary hypertension that is reversed by subsequent iron administration. Disturbed hypoxia sensing and signaling provides a mechanism through which iron deficiency may be detrimental to human health. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01847352). M.C. Frise is the recipient of a British Heart Foundation Clinical Research Training Fellowship (FS/14/48/30828). K.L. Dorrington is supported by the Dunhill Medical Trust (R178/1110). D.J. Roberts was supported by R&D funding from National Health Service (NHS) Blood and Transplant and

  18. Clinical iron deficiency disturbs normal human responses to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Frise, Matthew C.; Cheng, Hung-Yuan; Nickol, Annabel H.; Curtis, M. Kate; Pollard, Karen A.; Roberts, David J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Dorrington, Keith L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Iron bioavailability has been identified as a factor that influences cellular hypoxia sensing, putatively via an action on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. We therefore hypothesized that clinical iron deficiency would disturb integrated human responses to hypoxia. METHODS. We performed a prospective, controlled, observational study of the effects of iron status on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Individuals with absolute iron deficiency (ID) and an iron-replete (IR) control group were exposed to two 6-hour periods of isocapnic hypoxia. The second hypoxic exposure was preceded by i.v. infusion of iron. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was serially assessed with Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS. Thirteen ID individuals completed the study and were age- and sex-matched with controls. PASP did not differ by group or study day before each hypoxic exposure. During the first 6-hour hypoxic exposure, the rise in PASP was 6.2 mmHg greater in the ID group (absolute rises 16.1 and 10.7 mmHg, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 2.7–9.7 mmHg, P = 0.001). Intravenous iron attenuated the PASP rise in both groups; however, the effect was greater in ID participants than in controls (absolute reductions 11.1 and 6.8 mmHg, respectively; 95% CI for difference in change, –8.3 to –0.3 mmHg, P = 0.035). Serum erythropoietin responses to hypoxia also differed between groups. CONCLUSION. Clinical iron deficiency disturbs normal responses to hypoxia, as evidenced by exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary hypertension that is reversed by subsequent iron administration. Disturbed hypoxia sensing and signaling provides a mechanism through which iron deficiency may be detrimental to human health. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01847352). FUNDING. M.C. Frise is the recipient of a British Heart Foundation Clinical Research Training Fellowship (FS/14/48/30828). K.L. Dorrington is supported by the Dunhill Medical Trust (R178/1110). D.J. Roberts was

  19. [Rhino-bronchial syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gani, F; Vallese, G; Piglia, P; Senna, G; Mezzelani, P; Pozzi, E

    2000-12-01

    A close anatomical and functional relationship between superior and inferior airways is well documented. A typical example is offered by the close relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma whose close connection is documented by epidemiological and pathological data. The mechanisms which can explain this phenomenon are not fully known but naso-bronchial reflexes, mouth-breathing due to nasal obstruction and aspiration of nasal secretions seem all to be important. Moreover it has been recently proved that the treatment of rhinitis can improve the concomitant asthma thus confirming their relationship. Another less frequent association is between sinusitis and asthma. Such a connection seems to be frequent in patients suffering of atopic rhinitis but also in patients presenting a nasal obstruction of different nature such as deviations of the nasal septum, adenoid hypertrophy etc. Also in this case a correct medical or surgical treatment of sinusitis can improve asthma symptomathology. Finally a classic example of involvement of superior and inferior airways is represented by the syndrome of ASA intolerance. These patients in fact initially complain of rhinitis which afterwards is complicated by the onset of nasal polyposis and asthma which can prove clinically very severe. Nowadays, anyway, there is no evidence that the treatment of rhinitis or polypectomy can improve the clinical course of asthma. In conclusion, diseases of superior and inferior airways must be considered in strict connection and need the same global treatment.

  20. Alloantigen presenting function of normal human CD34+ hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, D; Andrews, R G; Hansen, J A; Ryncarz, R; Faerber, M A; Anasetti, C

    1996-10-01

    The identification of the CD34 molecule, expressed almost exclusively on human hematopoietic stem cells and committed progenitors, and the development of CD34-specific monoclonal antibodies have made procurement of relatively pure populations of CD34+ marrow cells for autologous transplantation feasible. Characterization of the immunogenicity of CD34+ marrow cells may facilitate the design of successful strategies to use these cells for allogeneic transplantation. CD34+ marrow cells from normal volunteers were enriched to greater than 98% purity by immunoaffinity chromatography on column followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Purified CD34+ cells were tested for expression of HLA-DR and other accessory molecules, and function in hematopoietic colony growth and mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) assays. Greater than 95% CD34+ cells were positive for HLA-DR and 74% +/- 10% were highly positive for CD18, the common beta-chain of a leukointegrin family. CD34+/CD18- cells were small, agranular lymphocytes which contained the majority of precursors for colony-forming cells detected in long-term cultures. They produced almost no stimulation of purified T cells from HLA-DR-incompatible individuals in bulk MLC or in limiting dilution assay. In contrast, CD34+/CD18+ cells were large, were enriched for cells forming mixed colonies in short- but not long-term assays, and were capable of stimulating allogeneic T cells. CD86, a natural ligand for the T-cell activation molecule CD28, was coexpressed with CD18 in 6% +/- 3% of CD34+ cells. CD34+/CD86+ cells, but not CD34+/CD86- cells, exhibited strong alloantigen presenting function. Thus, pluripotent hematopoietic activity and alloantigen presenting function are attributes of distinct subsets of CD34+ marrow cells. CD34+/CD18- or CD34+/CD86- cells may be more effective than either the whole CD34+ population or unseparated marrow in engrafting allogeneic recipients and may also facilitate induction of tolerance.

  1. Effects of formaldehyde on normal xenotransplanted human tracheobronchial epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Ura, H.; Nowak, P.; Litwin, S.; Watts, P.; Bonfil, R. D.; Klein-Szanto, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    Epithelial cells obtained from autopsies of full-term fetuses or infants less than 1 year old were isolated, amplified in primary cultures and inoculated in deepithelialized rat tracheas. These tracheas were then sealed and transplanted subcutaneously into irradiated athymic nude mice. Four weeks after transplantation the tracheal lumen was completely covered by epithelium, most of which was of mucociliary respiratory type. At this stage, tracheal transplants containing tracheobronchial epithelium from 20 different donors were exposed to silastic devices containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg paraformaldehyde. The tracheal transplants were examined histologically at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks after transplantation. Before sacrifice, all animals were injected with a single pulse of tritiated thymidine. Important epithelial alterations could be seen in the formaldehyde treated transplants with a maximum effect visible at 2 weeks after exposure. The highest dose of 2 mg produced, in most cases, numerous areas of epithelial erosion and inflammation whereas this effect was not as evident with the lower doses. All doses produced areas of hyperplastic epithelium alternating with areas of pleomorphic-atrophic epithelium. Although the differences in predominance of different types of epithelium was not clearly dose-dependent, the labeling index (LI) showed dose dependence between 2 and 4 weeks after initiation of exposure. The maximum mean LI was three to four times higher than normal, although in some focal hyperplastic-metaplastic lesions the LI was increased up to 20 times. These studies show that formaldehyde, although toxic at higher doses, is able to elicit at lower doses a proliferative response of the human respiratory epithelium that is not preceded by a massive toxic effect. This response is similar, although less intense than that of the rat respiratory epithelium in which formaldehyde proved to be a carcinogen. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:2913828

  2. Color Vision Sensitivity in Normally Dichromatic Species and Humans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    postre - ceptoral color processing. To test this, we determined color discrimination thresholds in normally occurring dichromats, including the chipmunk, the 13-lined ground squirrel, and the tree shrew.

  3. Quantitative architectural analysis of bronchial intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Korbelik, Jagoda; Lam, Stephen

    2000-04-01

    Considerable variation exists among pathologist in the interpretation of intraepithelial neoplasia making it difficult to determine the natural history of these lesion and to establish management guidelines for chemoprevention. The aim of the study is to evaluate architectural features of pre-neoplastic progression in lung cancer, and to search for a correlation between architectural index and conventional pathology. Quantitative architectural analysis was performed on a series of normal lung biopsies and Carcinoma In Situ (CIS). Centers of gravity of the nuclei within a pre-defined region of interest were used as seeds to generate a Voronoi Diagram. About 30 features derived from the Voronoi diagram, its dual the Delaunay tessellation, and the Minimum Spanning Tree were extracted. A discriminant analysis was performed to separate between the two groups. The architectural Index was calculated for each of the bronchial biopsies that were interpreted as hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild, moderate or severe dysplasia by conventional histopathology criteria. As a group, lesions classified as CIS by conventional histopathology criteria could be distinguished from dysplasia using the architectural Index. Metaplasia was distinct from hyperplasia and hyperplasia from normal. There was overlap between severe and moderate dysplasia but mild dysplasia could be distinguished form moderate dysplasia. Bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions can be degraded objectively by architectural features. Combination of architectural features and nuclear morphometric features may improve the quantitation of the changes occurring during the intra-epithelial neoplastic process.

  4. Increased phase synchronization of spontaneous calcium oscillations in epileptic human versus normal rat astrocyte cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázsi, Gábor; Cornell-Bell, Ann H.; Moss, Frank

    2003-06-01

    Stochastic synchronization analysis is applied to intracellular calcium oscillations in astrocyte cultures prepared from epileptic human temporal lobe. The same methods are applied to astrocyte cultures prepared from normal rat hippocampus. Our results indicate that phase-repulsive coupling in epileptic human astrocyte cultures is stronger, leading to an increased synchronization in epileptic human compared to normal rat astrocyte cultures.

  5. Isolating bronchial epithelial cell preparations from gross lung specimens.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Seog Joo; Koh, Jae Soo; Kim, Young-Joon; Park, Jong Ho

    2009-10-01

    Tissue microdissection is appropriate for separating pure cells from heterogeneous tissues. Recently, we have focused on whole genome DNA methylation patterns of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and needed to obtain the appropriate counterpart cells of lung SCC. However, in some regions of human tissues, such as in bronchial epithelium, it is difficult to apply tissue microdissection as a means to isolate pure cells from a heterogenous mixture of cells. Accordingly, we developed the pop brush method to retrieve sufficient amounts of pure bronchial epithelium from gross lung specimens, and this method enables us to study epigenetic variations of lung SCC.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  11. The Significance of Bronchial Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Maisel, John C.; Silvers, G. Wayne; George, Marlyce S.; Dart, Gladys A.; Petty, Thomas L.; Mitchell, Roger S.

    1972-01-01

    In a 4-year period, 196 lungs from patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were examined postmortem for the presence of atrophy in segmental and subsegmental bronchi. As a result of simultaneous postmortem spirometry, cinefluorobronchography and partitioning of airways resistance, plus later assessment of anatomic emphysema, bronchial atrophy emerges as only one of at least three factors usually cooperating in production of abnormal expiratory airway collapse. In selected cases, bronchial atrophy appears to be an important contributor to expiratory airways obstruction. ImagesFig 1 PMID:5021107

  12. Processing bronchial sonograms to detect respiratory cycle fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh; Zhdanov, D. S.; Zemlyakov, I. Yu; Svetlik, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the authors' results of work on the development of a method for the automated assessment of the state of the human bronchopulmonary system based on acoustic data. In particular, the article covers the method of detecting breath sounds on bronchial sonograms obtained during the auscultation process.

  13. Reduced in vitro erythroid progenitor cell growth in bronchial cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Masters, G S; Baines, P; Bailey-Wood, R; Gorvett, T; Littlewood, T; Bentley, P; Parry-Jones, H; Jacobs, A

    1987-01-01

    Peripheral blood and bone marrow were studied in 21 men with disseminated untreated bronchial cancer in an attempt to define abnormalities of erythropoiesis associated with the development of anaemia. Haemoglobin concentration at or below 13 g/dl was present in 13 cases. Marrow morphology was normal in all cases except one, in which small numbers of tumour cells were found. Clonal assay of erythroid progenitors showed a significant decrease in the number of BFU-E (p = 0.03) and CFU-E (p = 0.01) compared with cultures from normal marrow (12 subjects). The growth of granulocyte and macrophage progenitors (GM-CFCs) was similar in patients with bronchial cancer and normal subjects. When normal marrow was incubated in the presence of serum from bronchial cancer patients, no inhibitory factors could be detected either for BFU-E or CFU-E growth. In all patients circulating T8 numbers were significantly raised (p = 0.0002). Consequently, the median T4:T8 ratio in blood was 1.2, and this was significantly lower than the ratio of 1.7 found in 20 normal subjects (p = 0.036). In 18 patients the bone marrow T4:T8 ratio of 1.1 was significantly lower than the ratio of 2.9 found in seven normal subjects (p = 0.04). Total blood white cell counts, neutrophils, and monocyte numbers were also increased (p = 0.0001; p = 0.0001; p = 0.002). PMID:3818975

  14. Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshimichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Haruta, Tsunemitsu; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Keogh, John P; Tamai, Ikumi

    2010-02-01

    Ipratropium bromide, an anticholinergic drug used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, has low oral bioavailability, but systemic exposure, superior to oral administration, can be achieved by inhalation. Therefore, we investigated the pulmonary absorption mechanism of ipratropium using human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. [3H]Ipratropium uptake by BEAS-2B cells was temperature-dependent and saturable, with a K(m) value of 78.0 microM, suggesting involvement of carrier-mediated uptake. An RT-PCR study showed that organic cation/carnitine transporters OCTN1 and OCTN2 are expressed in BEAS-2B cells, but organic cation transporters (OCTs) are not. Uptake of [3H]ipratropium by HEK293 cells expressing OCTN1 (HEK293/OCTN1) and OCTN2 (HEK293/OCTN2) was significantly increased, compared with mock-transfected cells, and the estimated K(m) values were 444 microM and 53.0 microM, respectively. Finally, the contributions of OCTN1 and OCTN2 to ipratropium uptake were evaluated by measuring [3H]ipratropium uptake by BEAS-2B cells in which OCTN1 or OCTN2 gene expression had been silenced. Knock-down of OCTN1 or OCTN2 suppressed the uptake of [3H]ipratropium to 78.2% and 14.8% of that by control BEAS-2B cells, respectively. In addition, another anticholinergic, tiotropium, was also taken up by both HEK293/OCTN1 and HEK293/OCTN2 cells. Therefore, ipratropium and tiotropium are taken up primarily by OCTN2, and to a lesser extent by OCTN1, in bronchial epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with the pharmacological activity of the drugs after administration via inhalation.

  15. In vitro suppression of normal human bone marrow progenitor cells by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, H N; Crumpacker, C S; Chatis, P A

    1991-01-01

    Incubation of normal human nonadherent and T-cell-depleted bone marrow cells with HIVIIIB at multiplicities of infection (MOI) ranging from 0.0001:1 to 1:1 reverse transcriptase (RT) units resulted in the dose-dependent suppression of the in vitro growth of erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), and T-lymphocyte (CFU-TL) colonies of progenitor cells. Maximum inhibition of colony formation was observed at a 1:1 ratio of virus to bone marrow cells. At this MOI, BFU-E and CFU-GM colonies were inhibited by 60 to 80%, while CFU-TL colonies were totally suppressed. Inhibition of colony formation was also observed at an MOI of 0.1:1 but not with further log dilutions of the virus. Incubation of the virus with antibody to gp160 resulted in the complete reversal of stem cell suppression and the normalization of colony growth in vitro. For BFU-E and CFU-GM colonies, this reversal was observed with dilutions of antibody up to 1:100 and was no longer observed at titers greater than 1:500. The CFU-TL colony number normalized at titers between 1:10 and 1:50. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) also suppressed by 50% the growth of colonies derived from CD34+ stem cell fractions. Infection of CD34+ cells and T-cell-depleted, nonadherent cell fractions was demonstrated by detection with HIV-specific DNA probe following amplification by polymerase chain reaction. The results suggest that HIV can directly i