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Sample records for normal korean population

  1. Determinants for Heart Rate Variability in a Normal Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyung-Mee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the normal ranges and the determinants for various parameters of the short-term heart rate variability (HRV) measurements in a large Korean sample of healthy people. HRV measurements were obtained in 2,748 healthy men and 735 healthy women 18-65 yr of age. The mean total power (TP), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio were 1,358.9 ± 1,840.8 ms2, 417.3 ± 807.6 ms2, 254.1 ± 414.1 ms2, and 2.4 ± 20.9 ms2 in the frequency-domain spectral analysis. The mean standard deviation of the normal-to-normal (NN) interval (SDNN) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD) were 39.6 ± 22.1 ms and 29.7 ± 18.1 ms in the time-domain analysis. The female subjects had significantly higher SDNN, RMSSD, and HF values than the male subjects. After controlling for age, there was no statistically significant difference in the SDNN. Quantile regression analysis showed that age and mean heart rate had a significant impact on short-term HRV measurement. Given that both clinicians and researchers are increasingly relying on short-term HRV assessment in measuring stress, our work suggests that age and gender should be considered as independent determinants for HRV. PMID:22022180

  2. Normal 2-Dimensional Strain Values of the Left Ventricle: A Substudy of the Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in Korean Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, Sang Yeub; Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background It is important to understand the distribution of 2-dimensional strain values in normal population. We performed a multicenter trial to measure normal echocardiographic values in the Korean population. Methods This was a substudy of the Normal echOcardiogRaphic Measurements in KoreAn popuLation (NORMAL) study. Echocardiographic specialists measured frequently used echocardiographic indices in healthy people according to a standardized method at 23 different university hospitals. The strain values were analyzed from digitally stored images. Results Of a total of 1003 healthy participants in NORMAL study, 2-dimensional strain values were measured in 501 subjects (265 females, mean age 47 ± 15 years old) with echocardiographic images only by GE echocardiographic machines. Interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, systolic and diastolic LV dimensions, and LV ejection fraction were 7.5 ± 1.0 mm, 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, 29.9 ± 2.8 mm, 48.9 ± 3.6 mm, and 62 ± 4%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain (LS) values of apical 4-chamber (A4C) view, apical 3-chamber (A3C) view, apical 2-chamber (A2C) view, and LV global LS (LVGLS) were −20.1 ± 2.3, −19.9 ± 2.7, −21.2 ± 2.6, and −20.4 ± 2.2%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (LVLSR) values of the A4C view, A3C view, A2C view, and LV global LSR (LVGLSR) were −1.18 ± 0.18, −1.20 ± 0.21, −1.25 ± 0.21, and −1.21 ± 0.21−s, respectively. Females had lower LVGLS (−21.2 ± 2.2% vs. −19.5 ± 1.9%, p < 0.001) and LVGLSR (−1.25 ± 0.18−s vs. −1.17 ± 0.15−s, p < 0.001) values than males. Conclusion We measured LV longitudinal strain and strain rate values in the normal Korean population. Since considerable gender differences were observed, normal echocardiographic cutoff values should be differentially applied based on sex. PMID:28090256

  3. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  4. Normal patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine in young adults radiological analysis in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong Suh; Chung, Sung Soo; Kang, Kyung Chung; Park, Se Jun; Shin, Seong Kee

    2011-12-01

    Radiological analysis and classification of normal patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine. To classify the patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine in young asymptomatic adults and analyze the differences in the various spinal and pelvic parameters according to these patterns. Previous studies reported that the overall sagittal pattern and balance were more important than the normative values. There are few studies on white populations, classifying the normal patterns of sagittal curvature, and no studies on Asian populations. Whole spine, standing lateral radiographs of 86 Korean volunteers were taken. The pelvic and spinal parameters (total thoracic kyphosis, horizontal thoracic level, thoracolumbar junctional angle (TLJA), total lumbar lordosis, lower lumbar lordosis, horizontal lumbar level (HLL), lumbar inclination, pelvic tilt, sacral slope (SS), pelvic incidence, spinal balance, spinopelvic balance, and sacropelvic balance) were measured and the correlations of all parameters were analyzed. The volunteers were classified in to three types according to their HLL. The data were analyzed statistically to determine the differences in the parameters and balance between the three types. The HLL showed a significant correlation with the lumbar inclination, junctional level, TLJA, spinal balance, spinopelvic balance, and SS on analyzing the correlation of the parameters. As HLL moved caudally, the TLJA and lumbar inclination increased, whereas the lower lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, and SS decreased and spinal balance became more negative. There were no significant differences in total thoracic kyphosis and sacropelvic balance between the three types. The patterns of sagittal alignment could be classified into three types showing that the spinal balance becomes more negative, the lumbar inclination and TLJA increase, the SS and pelvic incidence decrease, and lumbar lordotic curves becomes shorter as the patterns of sagittal curvature move toward type 3

  5. Comparison of Radiological Parameters between Normal and Patellar Dislocation Groups in Korean Population: A Rotational Profile CT-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo

    2016-12-01

    Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan.

  6. Comparison of Radiological Parameters between Normal and Patellar Dislocation Groups in Korean Population: A Rotational Profile CT-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. Results There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. Conclusions The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan. PMID:27894178

  7. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people.

  9. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyong; Baek, William S; Lee, Eunkyung; Koh, Kyung S; Kim, Baek-Kyu; Baek, Rongmin

    2014-02-01

    There are numerous nasometric studies to date, including normative nasalance scores for various languages as well as nasometric differences in age, gender, race and region except the Korean language. In this regard, we sought to establish normative nasalance scores for Koreans. We created speech samples based on the everyday use of phonemes in the Korean language which were syntactically simple for children. In addition, we analysed nasometric features based on age and gender and confirmed test-retest reliability. The study included 108 children (54 girls and 54 boys, aged 7-11 years) and 108 adults (54 women and 54 men, aged 18-29 years) with normal articulation, resonance, voice and hearing. Nasometer II 6400 was used to measure the nasalance scores. The subjects read or repeated three speech stimuli, each consisting of 33, 36 and 24 syllables: (1) an oral passage devoid of nasal consonants, (2) an oro-nasal passage and (3) nasal sentences. For each stimulus, mean nasalance scores were obtained and gender or age dependence was analysed, using two-way analyses of variance. The mean nasalance scores for the oral passage, oro-nasal passage and nasal sentences were 11.69% (standard deviation (SD) 3.68), 34.04% (SD 4.88) and 63.72% (SD 6.07), respectively. Female speakers exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than male speakers on the oro-nasal passage (p = 0.000) and nasal sentences (p = 0.004). Children exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than adults on nasal sentences (p = 0.000). The nasalance scores in children and females were a little higher. Korean normative data will provide reference information in the evaluation and treatment of resonance problems. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low prevalence of classical galactosemia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Hee; Cheon, Chong Kun; Kim, Jae-Min; Kang, Minji; Kim, Joo Hyun; Yang, Song Hyun; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2011-01-01

    This study described the clinical and molecular genetic features of classical galactosemia in Korean population to contribute to the insight in the spectrum of galactosemia in the world, as little is known about the spectrum and incidence of galactosemia in Asia. During the 11-year study period, only three Korean children were identified as having classical galactosemia on the basis of the enzymatic and molecular genetic analysis. Asians have been reported to have mutations distinct from those of Caucasians and African Americans, indicating that galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase mutations are ethnically diverse. Our three patients had a total of three mutations (c.252+1G > A, p.Q169H and p.E363K), two of which were novel (p.E363K and c.252+1G > A) mutations. Interestingly, c.252+1G > A, which leads to skipping of exon 2, was observed in all three patients (three of six alleles), indicating that this mutation may be common in Koreans with classical galactosemia. Screening for classical galactosemia in 158,126 Korean newborns identified no patient with classical galactosemia. In conclusion, our findings provide further evidence for the ethnic diversity of classical galactosemia, which may be as rare in Koreans as in other Asian populations.

  11. Estimating radiation risk induced by CT screening for Korean population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Won Seok; Yang, Hye Jeong; Min, Byung In

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the radiation risks induced by chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) screening for healthcare and to determine the cancer risk level of the Korean population compared to other populations. We used an ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator to compute the organ effective dose induced by CT screening (chest, low-dose chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis CT). A risk model was applied using principles based on the BEIR VII Report in order to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) using the Korean Life Table 2010. In addition, several countries including Hong Kong, the United States (U.S.), and the United Kingdom, were selected for comparison. Herein, each population exposed radiation dose of 100 mSv was classified according to country, gender and age. For each CT screening the total organ effective dose calculated by ImPACT was 6.2, 1.5, 5.2 and 11.4 mSv, respectively. In the case of Korean female LAR, it was similar to Hong Kong female but lower than those of U.S. and U.K. females, except for those in their twenties. The LAR of Korean males was the highest for all types of CT screening. However, the difference of the risk level was negligible because of the quite low value.

  12. Association between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome risk among Korean population: based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2, 2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyeun; Lim, Juwon; Kye, Soshin; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-05-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been linked to metabolic syndrome. However, community-based data for healthy Korean individuals are lacking. We aimed to assess the vitamin D status and the association of 25(OH)D deficiency with metabolic syndrome in the South Korean population (latitude 33-38°N). In this population-based study, we assessed 5559 South Korean adults selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2, 2008. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was 56.0%. Subjects with vitamin D deficiency were younger and had higher education, lower physical activity, and lower alcohol consumption than those with normal vitamin D levels. The overall risk of metabolic syndrome was not associated with 25(OH)D concentration. The adjusted OR of reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased across the quintiles of 25(OH)D concentrations (OR=0.72; 95% confidence interval=0.54-0.95 for comparisons of lowest vs. highest quintile; P for trend=0.003). A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was noted in the general South Korean population. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with the risk of having reduced HDL-C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  14. Whole genome sequencing of 35 individuals provides insights into the genetic architecture of Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a significant decline in the costs associated with next-generation sequencing, it has become possible to decipher the genetic architecture of a population by sequencing a large number of individuals to a deep coverage. The Korean Personal Genomes Project (KPGP) recently sequenced 35 Korean genomes at high coverage using the Illumina Hiseq platform and made the deep sequencing data publicly available, providing the scientific community opportunities to decipher the genetic architecture of the Korean population. Methods In this study, we used two single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling pipelines: mapping the raw reads obtained from whole genome sequencing of 35 Korean individuals in KPGP using BWA and SOAP2 followed by SNV calling using SAMtools and SOAPsnp, respectively. The consensus SNVs obtained from the two SNV pipelines were used to represent the SNVs of the Korean population. We compared these SNVs to those from 17 other populations provided by the HapMap consortium and the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and identified SNVs that were only present in the Korean population. We studied the mutation spectrum and analyzed the genes of non-synonymous SNVs only detected in the Korean population. Results We detected a total of 8,555,726 SNVs in the 35 Korean individuals and identified 1,213,613 SNVs detected in at least one Korean individual (SNV-1) and 12,640 in all of 35 Korean individuals (SNV-35) but not in 17 other populations. In contrast with the SNVs common to other populations in HapMap and 1KGP, the Korean only SNVs had high percentages of non-silent variants, emphasizing the unique roles of these Korean only SNVs in the Korean population. Specifically, we identified 8,361 non-synonymous Korean only SNVs, of which 58 SNVs existed in all 35 Korean individuals. The 5,754 genes of non-synonymous Korean only SNVs were highly enriched in some metabolic pathways. We found adhesion is the top disease term associated with SNV-1 and Nelson syndrome is

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole in healthy Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ji-Young; Chae, Soo-Wan; Kim, Min-Gul

    2016-04-01

    Aripiprazole is widely used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aimed to develop a combined population pharmacokinetic model for aripiprazole in healthy Korean subjects and to identify the significant covariates in the pharmacokinetic variability of aripiprazole. Aripiprazole plasma concentrations and demographic data were collected retrospectively from previous bioequivalence studies that were conducted in Chonbuk National University Hospital. Informed consent was obtained from subjects for cytochrome P450 (CYP) genotyping. The population pharmacokinetic parameters of aripiprazole were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling with first-order conditional estimation with interaction method. The effects of age, sex, weight, height, and CYP genotype were assessed as covariates. A total of 1,508 samples from 88 subjects in three bioequivalence studies were collected. The two-compartment model was adopted, and the final population model showed that the CYP2D6 genotype polymorphism, height and weight significantly affect aripiprazole disposition. The bootstrap and visual predictive check results were evaluated, showing that the accuracy of the pharmacokinetic model was acceptable. A population pharmacokinetic model of aripiprazole was developed for Korean subjects. CYP2D6 genotype polymorphism, weight, and height were included as significant factors affecting aripiprazole disposition. The population pharmacokinetic parameters of aripiprazole estimated in the present study may be useful for individualizing clinical dosages and for studying the concentration-effect relationship of the drug.

  16. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat’s selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome. PMID:27989103

  17. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-12-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

  18. Erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jang, I J; Shin, S G; Lee, K H; Yim, D S; Lee, M S; Koo, H H; Kim, H K; Sohn, D R

    1996-11-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is the enzyme responsible for the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs. The enzyme, present in human red blood cells (RBC), is known to exhibit genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences in its activity have been demonstrated. We have studied the role of TPMT polymorphism in Koreans and compared enzyme activity between this and other ethnic groups. In a population of 360 unrelated healthy Korean subjects TPMT activity showed a large interindividual variation ranging from 3.2 to 22.9 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1 with a median value of 12.0 and mode of 11.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1. The enzyme activity was higher in male subjects than that in female (median values; 12.2 vs 11.2, 95% confidence interval of the difference; -2.1, 4.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1). All subjects had detectable TPMT activity, but contrary to previous reports in other ethnic groups, this was distributed unimodally. The median RBC TPMT activity was very similar to values found in Caucasian populations, higher than in Floridian blacks and lower than that of a Norwegian Saami population.

  19. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  20. Population behaviors and language maintenance--a case of the Korean-speaking community in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingsheng

    2004-01-01

    With the regard to language maintenance, one of the most successful in over fifty of ethno-linguistic communities in China is the Korean community with more than two millions of Korean-speakers, in which there have been Regulations Regarding the Ethnic Language Use, and a maintenance-orientated and bilingual education system. However, language attrition comes to be occurring in the Korean community because more than two hundred thousands of Korean-speaking migrants have streamed from the Korean-rural community to the Chinese-urban community for the last twenty years. This paper, in urban-anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives, is aiming at an analysis of the cause of population moves and the urbanization process of the Korean community as well as their impact on the language maintenance and bilingual education in the Korean community. It is mainly divided into four sections, namely, (1) the situation of Korean-speaking community; (2) the problem of language maintenance; (3) the impact of Korean-speakers moves on language maintenance; (4) the impact of negative growth of population, and (5) the impact of uneven ratio of female population.

  1. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  2. Association between HbA1c and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly Koreans with normal fasting glucose

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Yong-ho; Song, Bo Mi; Choi, Hansol; Park, Ji Hye; Rhee, Yumie; Kim, Chang Oh

    2017-01-01

    Aim We examined whether glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is associated to carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly Korean population with normal fasting glucose. Methods Using data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1,133 participants (335 men and 798 women) with a mean age of 71.8 years. All participants had fasting blood glucose less than 100mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) and HbA1c level below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol). They were also free from a history of cardiovascular disease, known type 2 diabetes mellitus or use of anti-diabetes medications. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT) using ultrasonography. The association between HbA1c and carotid IMT was investigated using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results HbA1c levels were independently and positively associated with carotid IMT (β = 0.020, p = 0.045) after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake. However, fasting insulin and glucose levels were not associated with carotid IMT. Conclusion HbA1c levels were positively associated with carotid atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid IMT, in an elderly population with normoglycemia. Our study suggested that higher HbA1c level is an effective and informative marker of carotid atherosclerosis in an elderly population. PMID:28178313

  3. A Simple Screening Score for Diabetes for the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-ho; Bang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Hee Man; Park, Seok Won; Kim, Dae Jung

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We developed and validated a self-assessment score for diabetes risk in Korean adults and compared it with other established screening models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2001 and 2005 data were used to develop a diabetes screening score. After excluding patients with known diabetes, 9,602 participants aged ≥20 years were selected. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or nonfasting plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL. The SAS Survey Logistic Regression analysis was used to determine predictors of undiagnosed diabetes (n = 341). We validated our model and compared it with other existing methods using the KNHANES 2007–2008 data (n = 8,391). RESULTS Age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, waist circumference, smoking, and alcohol intake were independently associated with undiagnosed diabetes. We calculated a diabetes screening score (range 0–11), and a cut point of ≥5 defined 47% of adults as being at high risk for diabetes and yielded a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 54%, positive predictive value of 6%, and positive likelihood ratio of 1.8 (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73). Comparable results were obtained in validation datasets (sensitivity 80%, specificity 53%, and AUC = 0.73), showing better performance than other non-Asian models from the U.S. or European population. CONCLUSIONS This self-assessment score may be useful for identifying Korean adults at high risk for diabetes. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the utility and feasibility of this score in various settings. PMID:22688547

  4. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  5. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  6. Feasibility of Translaminar Screw Placement in Korean Population: Morphometric Analysis of Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kurniawan, Ferry; Lee, Junho; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement in Koran population, and compare the acceptance rate using previously reported data in American population. Materials and Methods The translaminar lengths, thickness, heights, and sagittal-diagonal measurements were performed. The feasibility analysis was performed using unilateral and bilateral 3.5 mm cervical screw placement on the CT scans within 0.5 mm of safety margin. We also performed radiographic analysis of the morphometric dimensions and the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement at C3-C7. Results Korean population had similar or significantly shorter translaminar lengths and thickness (lengths and thickness in C7 among males; lengths in C6-C7 and thickness in C4 among females) than American population, but had similar or significantly longer translaminar heights and sagittal-diagonal measurements (heights in C3-C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C6 among males; heights in C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C7 among females). Unilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C4-C6 were significantly smaller between Korean and American female population. Bilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3 and C5-C6 were significantly larger between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American female population. Conclusion The feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement is different depending on different ethnics. Subaxial cervical unilateral translaminar screw placement among Korean male population and bilateral placement at C4-C7 among Korean female population are more acceptable than American population. PMID:25510760

  7. High normal urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio predicts development of hypertension in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Keun; Moon, Soo Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Park, Min Suk

    2014-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is known as a risk factor for hypertension. Recently it was suggested that urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), even within the normal range, can be associated with hypertension, but the temporal relationship between normal range UACR and hypertension was not confirmed. Therefore the aim of this study was to verify an association between normal range UACR and the development of hypertension in Korean men. This prospective cohort study was performed on 1,284 initially non-hypertensive Korean men. The total follow-up period was 4,109.5 person-years and the mean follow-up period was 3.2±1.51 years. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for the risk of hypertension development. After adjusting for multiple covariates, the HR (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident hypertension, comparing the second to the fourth quartiles of UACR level to the first quartile, were 1.35 (95% CI: 0.93-1.97), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.07-2.25) and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.31-2.71), respectively (P for trend=0.001). High UACR within the normal range was significantly associated with hypertension development. Furthermore, this association remained significant after adjusting for multiple baseline covariates. 

  8. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  9. Association between intermediate uveitis and toxocariasis in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Woo; Sim, Yoonseob; Jee, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of ocular toxocariasis (OT) presenting with intermediate uveitis in the Korean population.We studied intermediate uveitis patients using ocular and systemic evaluations and a Toxocara IgG serology test.Of 50 intermediate uveitis patients, 19 were seropositive for Toxocara IgG. Of the 19 OT patients, 4 presented with recurrence within 6 months and were significantly younger than nonrecurrence patients (P = 0.009). Thirteen patients had a history of eating raw cow liver.There were 14 males and 5 females in the OT group, and 11 males and 20 females in the non-OT group (P = 0.009). There was bilateral involvement in 7 out of 19 patients in the OT group, and 20 out of 31 patients in non-OT group (P = 0.033).Intermediate uveitis patients in OT were predominately male and had more unilateral presentation than non-OT patients.

  10. Association between intermediate uveitis and toxocariasis in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-woo; Sim, Yoonseob; Jee, Donghyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of ocular toxocariasis (OT) presenting with intermediate uveitis in the Korean population. We studied intermediate uveitis patients using ocular and systemic evaluations and a Toxocara IgG serology test. Of 50 intermediate uveitis patients, 19 were seropositive for Toxocara IgG. Of the 19 OT patients, 4 presented with recurrence within 6 months and were significantly younger than nonrecurrence patients (P = 0.009). Thirteen patients had a history of eating raw cow liver. There were 14 males and 5 females in the OT group, and 11 males and 20 females in the non-OT group (P = 0.009). There was bilateral involvement in 7 out of 19 patients in the OT group, and 20 out of 31 patients in non-OT group (P = 0.033). Intermediate uveitis patients in OT were predominately male and had more unilateral presentation than non-OT patients. PMID:28151857

  11. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530

  12. Radiological Parameters of Undegenerated Cervical Vertebral Segments in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Lee, HeeSang; Cho, Jae Hwan; Jung, Jin Il

    2017-01-01

    Background Several scoring systems for cervical disc and facet joint degeneration, using radiography or computed tomography, have been developed and tested for reliability. However, definitions of disc height and facet joint space narrowing vary. To our knowledge, no study has reported quantitative data for normal radiologic values of the cervical spine in the Korean population. The purpose of this study is to determine normal cervical disc height, disc height ratio, and facet joint space values, and investigate the correlation between demographic data and these values. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent artificial disc replacement of the cervical spine. Disc heights and facet joint spaces were measured using cervical neutral lateral radiographs and computed tomography. The means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals of the values were determined. Results We measured 148 intervertebral discs and 352 posterior facet joints. The mean disc height measured by plain radiography and computed tomography was 5.57 ± 0.81 mm and 4.94 ± 0.94 mm, respectively. The mean facet joint space values measured by plain radiography and computed tomography were 1.94 ± 0.45 mm and 1.43 ± 0.39 mm, respectively. The disc heights and facet joint space values measured by plain radiography were greater than those measured by computed tomography. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval of the disc height ratio calculated by plain radiography and computed tomography was greater than 0.94 at all levels except for C5–6. Patient height and disc height showed a tendency of positive correlation. Conclusions In a Korean population, the normal cervical disc height was about 5.0 mm and the normal facet joint space was 1.4 mm. Disc height ratio can reliably identify normal cervical disc height in patients with mild degeneration. Patient height was positively correlated with disc height and facet joint space. Thus, when selecting a cervical

  13. Divisive normalization in olfactory population codes

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Shawn R; Bhandawat, Vikas; Wilson, Rachel Irene

    2010-01-01

    In many regions of the visual system, the activity of a neuron is normalized by the activity of other neurons in the same region. Here we show that a similar normalization occurs during olfactory processing in the Drosophila antennal lobe. We exploit the orderly anatomy of this circuit to independently manipulate feedforward and lateral input to second-order projection neurons (PNs). Lateral inhibition increases the level of feedforward input needed to drive PNs to saturation, and this normalization scales with the total activity of the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) population. Increasing total ORN activity also makes PN responses more transient. Strikingly, a model with just two variables (feedforward and total ORN activity) accurately predicts PN odor responses. Finally, we show that discrimination by a linear decoder is facilitated by two complementary transformations: the saturating transformation intrinsic to each processing channel boosts weak signals, while normalization helps equalize responses to different stimuli. PMID:20435004

  14. Oxford shoulder score in a normal population

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Nicholas David; Court-Brown, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The function of the asymptomatic normal shoulder may differ according to gender and could also deteriorate with age. This may result in a disparity in the normal Oxford shoulder score (OSS) according to these variables. If a difference were to exist an adjusted OSS, for age and gender, could be calculated from the raw score using the expected normal score. Aim: The aim of this study was to define a normal OSS in an asymptomatic population according to age and gender. Materials and Methods: During the study period 202 patients aged from 20 years to 99 years with subjectively asymptomatic shoulders completed an OSS. These patients presented to the study center during a 1 week period for management of disorders out with their shoulder girdle. Patients with a known prior shoulder pathology, injury, or polyarthropathy were excluded. Results: The mean OSS varied according age and gender. There was a significant correlation between age and the OSS, with an increasing score (worse) being associated with older age (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001). The mean OSS for females was 18.8 (12-42, SD 5.4) and for males was 16.3 (12-30, SD 4.5), this difference was significant (P = 0.0001). We propose that a normalized OSS could be calculated as a percentage by the using the expected normal for that patient's age and gender as demonstrated in this study ((raw score/normal score) × 100). Conclusion: Our study provides normal data for an urban population presenting to orthopedic services and allows for a relative OSS to be calculated from the raw score. PMID:24926158

  15. Association between handgrip strength and cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and mild cognitive impairment in elderly adults. [Subjects] Study participants included 2,982 adults (1,366 males and 1,616 females), aged 65 years or older. [Methods] This population-based cross-sectional study used the baseline database from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. [Results] The odds ratio for mild cognitive impairment showed a significant linear decrease in relation to the quartile of handgrip strength, independent of potential covariates, in both men and women. Moreover, after excluding incident cases of mild cognitive impairment, the results showed that greater handgrip strength was associated with higher cognitive function scores in the elderly. [Conclusion] The findings presented here suggest that handgrip strength is associated with a risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Korean elderly. Moreover, greater handgrip strength is associated with higher cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly individuals. PMID:26834379

  16. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H.; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. Methods We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0±9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3±3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0±15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8±3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β = 0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β = −0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β = −0.072, agreeableness β = 0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β = −0.202, agreeableness: β = 0.227) (P<0.05). Conclusion Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention

  17. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Shim, Unjin; Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227) (P<0.05). Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of abnormal BMI.

  18. Glaucomatous Optic Nerve Changes and Thyroid Dysfunction in an Urban South Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Da Yeong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve change and thyroid factors in Korean population. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects who underwent health screening in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Detailed history taking and systemic and ocular examination including fundus photography were performed for all participants. All fundus photographs were divided into two groups based on disc and RNFL appearance: nonglaucoma and glaucoma group. Subjects were also divided into quartiles of each thyroid function parameter, and the relationship with IOP and glaucoma were analysed. Results. In univariate analysis, free T4, T3, and TSH in normal subjects and T3 in thyroid disease group were associated with the IOP. After adjusting for age and sex, the IOP tended to slightly decrease according to the level of the quartile of free T4 and T3 in normal subjects. In terms of glaucoma, on multivariate analysis, it did not show a significant correlation with any thyroid function tests. Conclusions. In normal subjects, the IOP tended to be decreased according to the level of free T4 and T3 but the amounts were clinically insignificant. Thyroid factors are not an independent risk factor for the development of glaucoma. PMID:28553551

  19. A rapid method for simultaneous screening of multi-gene mutations associated with hearing loss in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Borum; Baek, Jeong-In; Oh, Se-Kyung; Na, Kyung Jin; Bae, Jae Woong; Choi, Soo Young; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses.

  20. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management.

  1. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an elderly urban Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Han-Ik; Eun Kim, Jung; Woong Kim, Ki; Jung Kim, Yu; Lee, Keun-Wook; Hyun Kim, Jee; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2011-09-01

    Research on the epidemiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MGUS in an elderly urban Korean population. A random sample of 1118 Korean elders was selected from residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea 1 year from August 2005. We obtained plasma samples remaining after scheduled tests for the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. The mean age of the study population was 72 years (range, 65-97 years). To screen for MGUS, immunofixation and free light-chain (FLC) assays were performed. Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted MGUS prevalence rates in 680 responders were estimated as 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.6%], and the estimated age-adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 4.3% in men (95% CI = 1.9-6.6%) and 2.6% in women (95% CI = 1.0-4.2%). Abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 10% of MGUS cases. Multivariate analysis of 945 participants revealed that significant risk factors for MGUS included advanced age, male sex, hyperproteinemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and abnormal FLC ratio. MGUS is less prevalent among elderly Koreans (3.3%) than other races. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of MGUS in the Korean elderly population. Our findings should be confirmed with additional studies analyzing follow-up samples from 2010.

  2. Shallow Population Genetic Structures of Thread-sail Filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) Populations from Korean Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M; Park, W; Nam, Y K; Kim, D S

    2012-02-01

    Genetic diversities, population genetic structures and demographic histories of the thread-sail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer were investigated by nucleotide sequencing of 336 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in 111 individuals collected from six populations in Korean coastal waters. A total of 70 haplotypes were defined by 58 variable nucleotide sites. The neighbor-joining tree of the 70 haplotypes was shallow and did not provide evidence of geographical associations. Expansion of S. cirrhifer populations began approximate 51,000 to 102,000 years before present, correlating with the period of sea level rise since the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. High levels of haplotype diversities (0.974±0.029 to 1.000±0.076) and nucleotide diversities (0.014 to 0.019), and low levels of genetic differentiation among populations inferred from pairwise population F ST values (-0.007 to 0.107), support an expansion of the S. cirrhifer population. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed weak but significant genetic structures among three groups (F CT = 0.028, p<0.05), and no genetic variation within groups (0.53%; F SC = 0.005, p = 0.23). These results may help establish appropriate fishery management strategies for stocks of S. cirrhifer and related species.

  3. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min-Su; Hwang, Geol; Han, Sanghoon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Young Don; Kang, Ki-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Guk Myung; Han, Kyoung Hee

    2016-07-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders.

  4. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot.

  5. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  6. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  7. Carrier frequency of GJB2 (connexin-26) mutations causing inherited deafness in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Hee; Park, Hong-Joon; Kang, Eun-Joo; Ryu, Jae-Song; Lee, Anna; Yang, Young-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the GJB2 gene are associated with hereditary hearing loss. Although most studies of GJB2 mutations have dealt with hearing-impaired patients, there are few reports of the frequency of these mutations in the general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of GJB2 mutations causing inherited deafness in the general Korean population. Blood samples were obtained from 2,072 newborns with normal hearing. The dried blood samples were subjected to PCR to amplify the entire coding region of the GJB2 gene, which was followed by direct DNA sequencing. A total of 24 different sequence variants were identified in the coding region of GJB2, including eight pathogenic mutations (p.V37I, p.G45E, p.R143 W, c.176_191del16, c.235delC, c.292_298dup7, c.299_300delAT and c.605ins46), four polymorphisms (p.V27I, p.E114G, p.G160S and p.I203T), six unclassified variants (p.G4D, p.S85Y, p.T123 N, p.R127H, p.A171T and p.F191L) and six novel variants (p.W3T, p.I20L, p.K41E, c.147C > T, c.186C > T and c.576A > G). Pathogenic mutations causing inherited deafness were identified in 3% (62/2,072) of the newborns with normal hearing. Of the eight pathogenic mutations found, p.V37I was the most common (1.35%, 28/2,072), followed by c.235delC (1.25%, 26/2,072). These data provide information about carrier frequency for GJB2-based hearing loss and have important implications for genetic diagnostic testing for inherited deafness in the Korean population.

  8. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  9. A nested case-control study on the high-normal blood pressure as a risk factor of hypertension in Korean middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the 'high-normal blood pressure' as a risk factor of hypertension for applying primary prevention strategy in Korean people. To keep time sequence of events, and to prevent information bias, nested case control study was chosen for avoiding measurement errors because hypertension is a benign disease. Source population consisted of the 'Seoul Cohort' participants and follow-up was done by using Korea Medical Insurance Corporation's database on the utilization of health services from January 1, 1993 to June 30, 1997. Incidence cases were ascertained through the chart review, telephone contacts, and direct blood pressure measurements. Controls included the pairing of 4 individuals to each case on the basis of age. The statistically significant risk factors of hypertension were body mass index, dietary fiber, alcohol consumption, weekly activity, and history of quitting smoking as well as high-normal blood pressure (p<0.05). The multivariate odds ratio of high-normal blood pressure adjusted for all risk factors was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.31-2.56). Thus, the 'high-normal blood pressure' is considered as a risk factor for hypertension in Korean middle-aged men, which suggests that the vigorous lifestyle modification for persons with 'high-normal blood pressure' is needed. PMID:12068135

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of Korean and Chinese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Korean and Chinese cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations are major soybean gene pools. Information has been reported comparing genetic diversity between soybeans from the two countries using an unequal number of accessions and only 6 to 35 genetic markers. This study compares diffe...

  11. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in the American and Korean Population: An 8-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heeyoon; Shin, Yong Un; Siegel, Nicole H; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Sobrin, Lucia; Patel, Achal; Durand, Marlene L; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba

    2016-07-26

    To study the clinical features of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in sample patient populations from the USA and South Korea over an 8-year period. We reviewed data from 128 eyes of 60 American and 48 Korean patients diagnosed with EE and compared their clinical characteristics. Fungemia and liver abscess were the most common extraocular infection sources among American (26.7%) and Korean patients (33.3%), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida species were the most common pathogens of EE in the Korean and the American patients, respectively. Endophthalmitis caused by fungi had a better visual prognosis than that caused by bacteria (p = 0.001). Vitrectomy was beneficial for eyes with EE due to virulent bacteria presenting with worse than counting finger vision. The predisposing conditions and responsible organisms for EE vary in different regions of the world. The visual prognosis was strongly influenced by the underlying pathogen.

  12. Association of the adiponectin gene variations with risk of ischemic stroke in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Cheong, My-Young; Bang, Ok-Sun; Cha, Min-Ho; Park, Young-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidence of variations in adiponectin (AdipoQ) genes that are associated with ischemic stroke has not been consistent, and it is unclear whether the same loci contribute to these associations in the Korean population. Using a Korean population, we tested ischemic stroke-associated AdipoQ markers. In a preliminary genome-wide association study using 320 250 k Affymetrix NSP chips, AdipoQ was found to be associated with ischemic stroke in Koreans. To study of AdipoQ, a further 673 ischemic stroke patients and 267 unrelated individuals without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack were examined in a case-control study. Six polymorphisms (rs182052G > A, rs16861205G > A, rs822391T > C, rs822396A > G, rs12495941G > T and rs3774261A > G) that had a minor allele frequency of over 1% were strongly associated with stroke (p < 0.05). Two of these, rs822391T > C and rs822396A > G showed this association on both dominant and additive logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and sex. The haplotypes ht 1 (AGGCGG and AAGTAG) were significantly associated with susceptibility to stroke. Our findings show that polymorphisms in AdipoQ are associated with risk for ischemic stroke in the Korean population. This study lends further support to the putative role of AdipoQ in stroke.

  13. Association of serum ferritin levels with smoking and lung function in the Korean adult population: analysis of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan Ho; Goag, Eun Kyung; Lee, Su Hwan; Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-catalyzed oxidative stress contributes to lung injury after exposure to various toxins, including cigarette smoke. An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Ferritin is a key protein in iron homeostasis, and its capacity to oxidize and sequester the metal preventing iron prooxidant activity implicates its possible role in the alteration of antioxidant imbalance. We investigated the relationship among cigarette smoking, lung function, and serum ferritin concentration in a large cohort representative of the Korean adult population. Materials and methods Among 50,405 participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2014, 15,239 adult subjects older than 40 years with serum ferritin levels and spirometric data were selected for this study. Results The mean age was 56.5 years for men (43%) and 56.9 years for women (57%). The prevalence of airway obstruction was 13.4%, which was significantly higher in men than in women, and increased in former or current smokers. The median levels of serum ferritin were highest in the airway obstruction group, followed by the restrictive pattern group, and lowest in the normal lung function group. The median ferritin levels were increased by smoking status and amounts in each spirometric subgroup. In multivariable regression analysis, serum ferritin was positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, whereas the smoking amount was negatively associated with the adjustment with age, sex, height, and weight. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were increased in former or current smokers and were increased with smoking amount in all subgroups of participants categorized according to spirometric results. The result was also evident in the subgroups divided by obstructive severity. While smoking amount was inversely related to lung function, higher

  14. Lack of association between Y-chromosomal haplogroups and prostate cancer in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook; Yoo, Tag-Keun; Kim, Sung-Joo; Shin, Dong-Jik; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Kim, Eun-Tak; Bae, Yoon-Sun

    2007-01-24

    The Y chromosome has recently been suggested to have an association with prostate cancer risk in human populations. Since this chromosome is haploid and lacks recombination over most of its length, haplotypes constructed from binary markers throughout the chromosome can be used for association studies. To assess the possible Y-chromosomal contribution to prostate cancer risk, we have therefore analyzed 14 Y-chromosomal binary markers in 106 prostate cancer cases and 110 controls from the Korean population. In contrast to previous findings in the Japanese population, no statistically significant difference in the distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup frequencies was observed between the case and control groups of Koreans. Thus, our data imply that the previously reported associations between Y-chromosomal lineages and a predisposition to, or protection against, prostate cancer might be explained by statistical fluctuations, or by genetic effects that are seen only in some environments.

  15. Sonographic Growth Charts for Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children: a Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kidney length is the most useful parameter for clinical measurement of kidney size, and is useful to distinguish acute kidney injury from chronic kidney disease. In this prospective observational study of 437 normal children aged between 0 and < 13 years, kidney length was measured using sonography. There were good correlations between kidney length and somatic values, including age, weight, height, and body surface area. The rapid growth of height during the first 2 years of life was intimately associated with a similar increase in kidney length, suggesting that height should be considered an important factor correlating with kidney length. Based on our findings, the following regression equation for the reference values of bilateral kidney length for Korean children was obtained: kidney length of the right kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.102; kidney length of the left kidney (cm) = 0.051 × height (cm) + 2.280. This equation may aid in the diagnosis of various kidney disorders. PMID:27366007

  16. Genome-wide association of serum bilirubin levels in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Wook; Kim, Hee-Jin; Ju, Hyoungseok; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jeon, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Han-Chul; Kim, Ka-Kyung; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Siwoo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong Sung

    2010-09-15

    A large-scale, genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic variations influencing serum bilirubin levels using 8841 Korean individuals. Significant associations were observed at UGT1A1 (rs11891311, P = 4.78 x 10(-148)) and SLCO1B3 (rs2417940, P = 1.03 x 10(-17)), which are two previously identified loci. The two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated (rs11891311, P = 3.18 x 10(-15)) or marginally significant (rs2417940, P = 8.56 x 10(-4)) in an independent cohort of 1096 individuals. In a conditional analysis adjusted for the top UGT1A1 variant (rs11891311), another variant in UGT1A1 (rs4148323, P = 1.22 x 10(-121)) remained significant; this suggests that in UGT1A1 at least two independent genetic variations influence the bilirubin levels in the Korean population. The protein coding variant rs4148323, which is monomorphic in European-derived populations, may be specifically associated with serum bilirubin levels in Asians (P = 2.56 x 10(-70)). The SLCO1B3 variant (rs2417940, P = 1.67 x 10(-18)) remained significant in a conditional analysis for the top UGT1A1 variant. Interestingly, there were significant differences in the associated variations of SLCO1B3 between Koreans and European-derived populations. While the variant rs2417940 at intron 7 of SLCO1B3 was more significantly associated in Koreans, variants rs17680137 (P = 0.584) and rs2117032 (P = 2.76 x 10(-5)), two of the top-ranked SNPs in European-derived populations, did not reach the genome-wide significance level. Also, variants in SLCO1B1 did not reach genome-wide significance in Koreans. Our result supports the idea that there are considerable ethnic differences in genetic association of bilirubin levels between Koreans and European-derived populations.

  17. Analysis of extended haplotype in Korean cattle (Hanwoo) population

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dajeong; Choi, Bong Hwan; Cho, Yong Min; Chai, Han Ha; Jang, Gul Won; Gondro, Cedric; Jeoung, Yeoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean cattle (Hanwoo) are categorized into three breeds based on color: brown, brindle, and black. Among these breeds, brown Hanwoo has been subjected to intensive selection to improve meat traits. To identify genetic traces driven by recent selection in brown Hanwoo, we scanned the genomes of brown and brindle Hanwoo using a bovine SNP chip. We identified 17 candidate selection signatures in brown Hanwoo and sequenced four candidate regions from 10 individuals each of brown and brindle Hanwoo. In particular, non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene (K88M, L189H, and R302Q) might have had mutational effects on protein structure as a result of altering the purine pathway during nucleotide breakdown. The ADSL gene was previously reported to affect meat quality and yield in livestock. Meat quality and yield are main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, and our results support a potential causal influence of non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 514-519] PMID:27470211

  18. Limb length and dementia in an older Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Stewart, R; Shin, I; Yoon, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There has been little research into risk factors for dementia outside Western settings, in particular the importance of early life nutrition as estimated by adult body size. This study investigated the associations of arm and leg length with cognitive impairment and dementia in a community sample of older Korean people. Methods: 746 community residents aged 65 or over were clinically assessed for dementia and cognitive impairment. The following were also measured: arm length (demispan), leg length (iliac crest height), and sitting height (standing height minus iliac crest height). Reproductive history was also ascertained in women. Results: Shorter demispan and leg length were associated with increased age and lower education. They were also associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease after adjustment for these factors. These associations were only significant in women but were not explained substantially by timing of the menarche or menopause. The association between lower education and dementia was also stronger in women, but was not explained substantially by limb length. Conclusions: Shorter limb length was associated with lower childhood socioeconomic status, as estimated by the presence/duration of formal education. It was also independently associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Sex differences in this association might be explained by gender disadvantage in early life for this cohort or by different associations with health states (for example, cardiovascular disease) later in life. PMID:12640055

  19. Relationship between the Korean Version of the Sniffin' Stick Test and the T&T Olfactometer in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Moon; Park, Il-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Heung-Man

    2011-12-01

    The Korean version of the Sniffin' stick (KVSS) test is widely used in Korea to evaluate olfactory function. However, its validity and reliability have not been studied well. In this study, the authors administered the KVSS and the T%T olfactometer test to evaluate olfactory function and to establish relationships between these two test measures. Two hundred and eleven patients participated in this prospective randomized study. One hundred and nine patients with no olfactory symptoms and 102 patients with decreased olfaction participated. All participants were underwent KVSS II and T&T olfactometer testing. The mean recognition threshold of the T&T olfactometer was -1.8±0.9 for patients with normal olfaction and 4.0±2.6 for patients with decreased olfaction. The mean Threshold-Discrimination-Identification score of the KVSS II was 30.0±3.8 for patients with normal olfaction and 15.9±7.1 for patients with decreased olfaction. Correlation coefficient between the two tests was significantly high (r(s)=-0.725, P<0.01). The KVSS and T&T olfactometry test are both reliable tests of olfactory function and their results are well correlated with each other.

  20. Relationship between the Korean Version of the Sniffin' Stick Test and the T&T Olfactometer in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Moon; Park, Il-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Shin, Jae-Min

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The Korean version of the Sniffin' stick (KVSS) test is widely used in Korea to evaluate olfactory function. However, its validity and reliability have not been studied well. In this study, the authors administered the KVSS and the T%T olfactometer test to evaluate olfactory function and to establish relationships between these two test measures. Methods Two hundred and eleven patients participated in this prospective randomized study. One hundred and nine patients with no olfactory symptoms and 102 patients with decreased olfaction participated. All participants were underwent KVSS II and T&T olfactometer testing. Results The mean recognition threshold of the T&T olfactometer was -1.8±0.9 for patients with normal olfaction and 4.0±2.6 for patients with decreased olfaction. The mean Threshold-Discrimination-Identification score of the KVSS II was 30.0±3.8 for patients with normal olfaction and 15.9±7.1 for patients with decreased olfaction. Correlation coefficient between the two tests was significantly high (rs=-0.725, P<0.01). Conclusion The KVSS and T&T olfactometry test are both reliable tests of olfactory function and their results are well correlated with each other. PMID:22232713

  1. Genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 gene in the Korean population with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-12-15

    The TMPRSS3 gene (DFNB8/10), which encodes a transmembrane serine protease, is a common hearing loss gene in several populations. Accurate functions of TMPRSS3 in the hearing pathway are still unknown, but TMPRSS3 has been reported to play a crucial role in inner ear development or maintenance. To date, 16 pathogenic mutations have been identified in many countries, but no mutational studies of the TMPRSS3 gene have been conducted in the Korean hearing loss population. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 in 40 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss to identify the aspect and frequency of TMPRSS3 gene mutations in the Korean population. A total of 22 variations were detected, including a novel variant (p.V291L) and a previously reported pathogenic mutation (p.A306T). The p.A306T mutation which has been detected in only compound heterozygous state in previous studies was identified in homozygous state for the first time in this study. Moreover, the clinical evaluation identified bilateral dilated vestibules in the patient with p.A306T mutation, and it suggested that p.A306T mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene might be associated with vestibular anomalies. In conclusion, this study investigated that only 2.5% of patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss were related to TMPRSS3 mutations suggesting low prevalence of TMPRSS3 gene in Korean hearing loss population. Also, it will provide the information of genotype-phenotype correlation to understand definite role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system.

  2. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  3. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  4. Background and data configuration process of a nationwide population-based study using the korean national health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Ko, Kyung Soo; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2014-10-01

    The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform.

  5. Population genetic structure and natural selection of apical membrane antigen-1 in Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-11-16

    Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is a leading candidate antigen for blood stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation is a major obstacle in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, the genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PvAMA-1 among Korean P. vivax isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 66 Korean patients with vivax malaria. The entire PvAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced and the polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Thirty haplotypes of PvAMA-1, which were further classified into seven different clusters, were identified in the 66 Korean P. vivax isolates. Domain II was highly conserved among the sequences, but substantial nucleotide diversity was observed in domains I and III. The difference between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggested that the gene has evolved under natural selection. No strong evidence indicating balancing or positive selection on PvAMA-1 was identified. Recombination may also play a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvAMA-1. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of nucleotide diversity across the entire PvAMA-1 gene using a single population sample from Korea. Korean PvAMA-1 had limited genetic diversity compared to PvAMA-1 in global isolates. The overall pattern of genetic polymorphism of Korean PvAMA-1 differed from other global isolates and novel amino acid changes were also identified in Korean PvAMA-1. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed, which is likely to play an important role in generating genetic diversity across the PvAMA-1. These results provide useful information for the understanding the population structure of P. vivax circulating in Korea and have important

  6. A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Features of Pernicious Anemia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Han-Jo; Bae, Sang-Byung; Lee, Kyu-Taek; Yang, Young-Jun; Park, Suk-Young; Cho, Do-Yeun; Kim, Nae Yu; Cho, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    To determine the approximate incidence and clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data for patients with pernicious anemia who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 at five hospitals in Chungnam province. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, who accounted for 24% of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. The approximate annual incidence of pernicious anemia was 0.3 per 100,000. The median age was 66 (range, 32-98) yr, and the male/female ratio was 1.25. Anemia-associated discomfort was the most common symptom (79.4%), followed by gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms (78.4% and 38.1%, respectively). Pancytopenia was found in 36 patients (37.1%), and autoimmune disorders were found in 15 patients (15.5%). Antibody to intrinsic factor was detected in 62 (77.5%) of 80 patients examined, and antibody to parietal cells was detected in 35 (43.2%) of 81 patients examined. Of the 34 patients who underwent tests for Helicobacter pylori, 7 (12.5%) were positive. The anemia-associated and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved completely in all patients after intramuscular injection of cobalamin, whereas neurological symptoms remained in some. In conclusion, pernicious anemia is less frequent in Koreans than in Western populations; however, the clinical features of this disorder in Koreans do not differ from those of Western cases. PMID:23400269

  7. Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu-Won; Park, Yong-Jin

    2017-03-01

    Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population-selective or -adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice and ten wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry inference study clearly showed that the genetic distance of Korean weedy rice was far from the wild rice and near with cultivated rice. Furthermore, 537 genes showed evidence of recent positive or divergent selection, consistent with some adaptive traits. This study indicates that Korean weedy rice originated from hybridization of modern indica/indica or japonica/japonica rather than wild rice. Moreover, weedy rice is not only a notorious weed in rice fields, but also contains many untapped valuable traits or haplotypes that may be a useful genetic resource for improving cultivated rice.

  8. Acromion Index in Korean Population and Its Relationship with Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kum, Dong Ho; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Keun Min; Lee, Eun Su; Park, Yong Bok; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-06-01

    Among the many causes of rotator cuff tears, scapular morphology is associated with the accelerating degenerative process of the rotator cuff. Acromion index (AI) was previously introduced and compared in two populations. We enrolled 100 Korean patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative arthroscopic findings between January and December 2013. Another 100 Korean patients with an intact rotator cuff tendon identified on magnetic resonance imaging and other shoulder diseases, such as frozen shoulder and instability, were enrolled as controls. We retrospectively compared these 100 rotator cuff tear patients (mean age, 63 years) and 100 controls (mean age, 51 years) in this study. Two independent orthopedic surgeons assessed the AI on radiographs. We performed an interobserver reliability test of the AI assessment, and then compared the AI between two groups. The measurement of the AI showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.82). The mean AI in the rotator cuff tear group was 0.68 and it was significantly different between groups (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval). The AI was not related to tear size. Our study showed that the AI was an effective predictive factor for rotator cuff tears in a Korean population.

  9. Association between pterygium and obesity status in a South Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seonjoo; Paik, Ji-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Na, Kyung-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the association between pterygium and obesity status by examining a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. This population-based, cross-sectional study comprised 16,234 adults (aged ≥19 years) who had participated in the fifth annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. The enrolled subjects underwent interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. We compared body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), according to the presence of pterygium. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with pterygium after adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activities, educational levels, outdoor occupation, area of residence, and daily sun exposure duration. The prevalence rate of pterygium tended to increase as the BMI increased only in women, and both male and female subjects with higher WC were likely to have more pterygium in both sexes. In the multivariate analysis, overweight women had an odd ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 1.16 (0.86–1.55) and obese women had an OR (95% CI) of 1.35 (1.02–1.77) compared to women with normal weight (P for trend for ORs = 0.04). Compared to women without abdominal obesity, abdominally obese women had an OR (95% CI) of 1.26 (1.01–1.58). There was no significant association between obesity and pterygium in men. The present study provides epidemiologic evidence of an association between obesity and pterygium in women. Further studies are needed to examine the sex difference in the pathogenesis of pterygium. PMID:27977614

  10. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  11. Entire Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing on Massively Parallel Sequencing for the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome analysis has been a potent tool in forensic practice as well as in the understanding of human phylogeny in the maternal lineage. The traditional mtDNA analysis is focused on the control region, but the introduction of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) has made the typing of the entire mtDNA genome (mtGenome) more accessible for routine analysis. The complete mtDNA information can provide large amounts of novel genetic data for diverse populations as well as improved discrimination power for identification. The genetic diversity of the mtDNA sequence in different ethnic populations has been revealed through MPS analysis, but the Korean population not only has limited MPS data for the entire mtGenome, the existing data is mainly focused on the control region. In this study, the complete mtGenome data for 186 Koreans, obtained using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) technology and retrieved from rather common mtDNA haplogroups based on the control region sequence, are described. The results showed that 24 haplogroups, determined with hypervariable regions only, branched into 47 subhaplogroups, and point heteroplasmy was more frequent in the coding regions. In addition, sequence variations in the coding regions observed in this study were compared with those presented in other reports on different populations, and there were similar features observed in the sequence variants for the predominant haplogroups among East Asian populations, such as Haplogroup D and macrohaplogroups M9, G, and D. This study is expected to be the trigger for the development of Korean specific mtGenome data followed by numerous future studies. PMID:28244283

  12. Number of existing permanent teeth is associated with chronic kidney disease in the elderly Korean population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun

    2017-04-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between the number of existing permanent teeth and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a representative sample of the elderly Korean population. A total of 2,519 subjects who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were cross-sectionally examined. The number of existing permanent teeth was evaluated by clinical oral examination. CKD was defined based on definition and classification by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed controlling for age, gender, income, education, tooth-brushing frequency, periodontitis, state of dentition, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. Subgroup analyses by age and gender were also performed. The number of teeth was significantly associated with CKD after controlling for all potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.70 for lower number of teeth; AOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.23 for moderate number of teeth). In the subgroup analyses, the association was highlighted in females aged 75 years over (AOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.05 to 6.20 for lower number of teeth; AOR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.80 for moderate number of teeth). Our findings suggest that the number of existing permanent teeth may be associated with CKD among Korean elderly.

  13. Characterization of molecular subtypes of Korean breast cancer: An ethnically and clinically distinct population

    PubMed Central

    HAN, WONSHIK; NICOLAU, MONICA; NOH, DONG-YOUNG; JEFFREY, STEFANIE S.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of Korean breast cancer. A cDNA microarray study (>42k clones) was performed on 69 breast cancers and three normal breast tissues. The subjects had a high percentage of HER-2 expression, hormone receptor negativity, and young onset. Molecular subtypes according to gene expression profiles were determined and their correlations to the clinicopathologic characteristics and patients outcome were analyzed. The tumors were subdivided into luminal-, normal breast-like, ERBB2+, and basal-like subtypes according to the correlations to the previously described intrinsic genes and five centroids. Only a few tumors were highly correlated to the luminal B and normal-like centroids. The high grade tumors with high p53 and Ki-67 were found more commonly in non-luminal tumors. Distant recurrence-free survival was worse in ERBB2+ and basal-like subgroups than luminal tumors. In an unsupervised clustering with 864 genes, many interesting gene clusters were observed, some of which had not been previously described. Although the Korean breast cancers showed generally similar molecular phenotypes as Western studies, some distinct gene expression patterns and their association to clinical outcomes were observed. PMID:20514396

  14. Characterization of molecular subtypes of Korean breast cancer: an ethnically and clinically distinct population.

    PubMed

    Han, Wonshik; Nicolau, Monica; Noh, Dong-Young; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of Korean breast cancer. A cDNA microarray study (>42k clones) was performed on 69 breast cancers and three normal breast tissues. The subjects had a high percentage of HER-2 expression, hormone receptor negativity, and young onset. Molecular subtypes according to gene expression profiles were determined and their correlations to the clinicopathologic characteristics and patients outcome were analyzed. The tumors were subdivided into luminal-, normal breast-like, ERBB2+, and basal-like subtypes according to the correlations to the previously described intrinsic genes and five centroids. Only a few tumors were highly correlated to the luminal B and normal-like centroids. The high grade tumors with high p53 and Ki-67 were found more commonly in non-luminal tumors. Distant recurrence-free survival was worse in ERBB2+ and basal-like subgroups than luminal tumors. In an unsupervised clustering with 864 genes, many interesting gene clusters were observed, some of which had not been previously described. Although the Korean breast cancers showed generally similar molecular phenotypes as Western studies, some distinct gene expression patterns and their association to clinical outcomes were observed.

  15. Molecular fragil X screening in normal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, W.C.; Black, S.H.; Fallon, L.

    1996-07-12

    In December, 1993, we initiated a pilot project in which DNA fragile X (fraX) testing was offered during routine prenatal or genetic counseling to all pregnant women seen at the Genetics & IVF Institute, most of whom were referred for the indication of advanced maternal age. A brochure on fragile X syndrome was sent to each patient prior to her appointment and was reviewed by a counselor or physician during the counseling session. As of June 1995, 3,345 patients were offered testing; 474 women with no identified family history of mental retardation or learning disability and 214 women with a positive family history accepted the test on a self-pay basis. The second population screened was 271 potential donors in our anonymous egg donor program. DNA from blood was tested by Southern blot using EcoRI/EagI and StB12.3. If an expansion was detected, CGG repeat number was determined by PCR-based analysis. Among the 474 patients with unremarkable family histories, three fraX carriers were identified (repeat sizes = 60+), whereas none were found in the 214 patients with a positive family history. Among the potential egg donors, two high borderline patients were identified (repeat sizes = between 50 and 59). Our ongoing study indicates that screening of pregnant or preconceptual populations for fraX carrier status using DNA testing is accepted by many patients and is an important addition to current medical practice. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Establishment of a resource population of SLA haplotype-defined Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Ok; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Yu-Joo; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Sung-Soo; Ko, Moon-Suck; Park, Chankyu; Smith, Douglas M; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2010-05-01

    The highly polymorphic porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or the swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), has been repeatedly associated with variations in swine immune response to pathogens and vaccines as well as with production traits. The SLA antigens are also important targets for immunological recognition of foreign tissue grafts. We recently established a resource population of Korean native pigs as models for human transplantation and xenotransplantation research. In this study, 115 animals derived from three generations of the Korean native pigs were genotyped for three SLA class I (SLA-2, SLA-3 and SLA-1) and three SLA class II loci (DRB1, DQB1, DQA) using PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) at the allele group resolution. A total of seven SLA haplotypes (Lr-5.34, Lr-7.23, Lr-31.13, Lr-56.23, Lr-56.30, Lr-59.1, Lr-65.34), comprising six unique class I and five unique class II haplotypes, were characterized in the founding animals. Class I haplotype Lr-65.0 and class II haplotype Lr-0.34 were novel; and together with Lr-56.0 these haplotypes appeared to be breed-specific. In the progeny population, Lr-7.23 and Lr-56.30 appeared to be the most prevalent haplotypes with frequencies of 34.7% and 31.6%, respectively; the overall homozygosity was 27.4%. This resource population of SLA-defined Korean native pigs will be useful as large animal models for various transplantation and xenotransplantation experiments, as well as for dissecting the roles of SLA proteins in swine disease resistance and production traits.

  17. Constraining Accreting Binary Populations in Normal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmer, Bret; Hornschemeier, A.; Basu-Zych, A.; Fragos, T.; Jenkins, L.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray emission from accreting binary systems (X-ray binaries) uniquely probe the binary phase of stellar evolution and the formation of compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes. A detailed understanding of X-ray binary systems is needed to provide physical insight into the formation and evolution of the stars involved, as well as the demographics of interesting binary remnants, such as millisecond pulsars and gravitational wave sources. Our program makes wide use of Chandra observations and complementary multiwavelength data sets (through, e.g., the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey [SINGS] and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey [GOODS]), as well as super-computing facilities, to provide: (1) improved calibrations for correlations between X-ray binary emission and physical properties (e.g., star-formation rate and stellar mass) for galaxies in the local Universe; (2) new physical constraints on accreting binary processes (e.g., common-envelope phase and mass transfer) through the fitting of X-ray binary synthesis models to observed local galaxy X-ray binary luminosity functions; (3) observational and model constraints on the X-ray evolution of normal galaxies over the last 90% of cosmic history (since z 4) from the Chandra Deep Field surveys and accreting binary synthesis models; and (4) predictions for deeper observations from forthcoming generations of X-ray telesopes (e.g., IXO, WFXT, and Gen-X) to provide a science driver for these missions. In this talk, we highlight the details of our program and discuss recent results.

  18. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and minor depressive disorder in an elderly Korean population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Seok Bum; Huh, Yoonseok; Choi, Eun Ae; Youn, Jong Choul; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Kim, Jin Sun; Woo, Jong Inn; Kim, Ki Woong

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MnDD) in a randomly selected community-dwelling Korean elderly population. This study was conducted as a part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). A study population of 1118 Korean elders was randomly sampled from residents of Seongnam, Korea aged 65 years or older. Standardized face-to-face interviews and neurological and physical examinations were conducted on 714 respondents using the Korean version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. MDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria, and MnDD according to research criteria proposed in Appendix B of the DSM-IV criteria. Age-, gender- and education-standardized prevalence rates in Korean elders aged 65 years or older were estimated as 5.37% (95% CI=3.72-7.03) for MDD, 5.52% (95% CI=3.84-7.19) for MnDD, and 10.89% (95% CI=8.60-13.17) for overall late-life depression (LLD). A prior MDD episode (OR=3.07, 95% CI=1.38-6.82 in MDD, OR=3.44, 95% CI=1.49-7.94 in MnDD), female gender (OR=3.55, 95% CI=1.53-8.24 in MDD, OR=2.68, 95% CI=1.19-6.04 in MnDD) and history of stroke or TIA (OR=3.45, 95% CI=1.62-7.35 in MDD, OR=2.95, 95% CI=1.34-6.52 in MnDD) were associated with the risks of both MDD and MnDD. Lack of formal education (OR=2.75, 95% CI=1.30-5.85) and low income (OR=2.83, 95% CI=1.02-7.88) were associated with the risk of MDD only. Quality of life (QOL) of the MDD and MnDD patients was worse than that of non-depressed elders (P<0.001, ANOVA). MnDD was as prevalent as MDD in Korean elders and impacted QOL as MDD did. MnDD patients may increase in the future with accelerated population aging and westernization of lifestyle in Korea. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection and Ranking Procedures for Multivariate Normal Populations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper deals with selection and ranking procedures for multivariate normal populations. Procedures for selecting a subset containing the (unknown) population with the smallest generalized variance, the largest Mahalanobis distance function and the largest (smallest) multiple correlation coefficient are described. The paper also surveys other known results in ranking problems for these populations and mentions some unsolved problems. (Modified author abstract)

  20. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

  1. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. RESULTS No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. CONCLUSION Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds. PMID:28435617

  2. DUOX2 Mutations Are Frequently Associated With Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, June-Hee; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. Methods A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. Results The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. Conclusions The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population. PMID:26709262

  3. Sterile Inflammation after Intravitreal Injection of Aflibercept in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Young; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the frequency and clinical features of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population. Methods A single-center, retrospective study was performed in patients who received intravitreal aflibercept from July 2013 through January 2015. Results A total of four cases of post-injection sterile inflammation were identified from 723 aflibercept injections in 233 patients. Patients presented 1 to 13 days after intravitreal aflibercept injection (mean, 5 days). The mean baseline visual acuity was 20 / 60, which decreased to 20 / 112 at diagnosis but ultimately recovered to 20 / 60. Three cases had inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber (mean, 2.25+; range, 0 to 4+), and all cases had vitritis (mean, 3+; range, 2+ to 4+). No patients had pain. Only one patient underwent anterior chamber sampling (culture negative) and injection of antibiotics. Three of four patients were treated with a topical steroid, and all experienced improvement in their symptoms and signs of inflammation. Conclusions The overall incidence of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population was 4 of 723 injections (0.55%), or 4 of 233 patients (1.79%). Sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection typically presents without pain, and the visual outcomes are generally favorable. PMID:26457038

  4. Urologic Diseases in Korean Military Population: a 6-year Epidemiological Review of Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We sought to describe the incidence rate of the urologic disease in the Korean military by reviewing diagnoses made in active duty soldiers from 2008 to 2013. A total of 72,248 first visits were generated in the Defense Medical Statistics Information System (DMSIS) with its gradually increasing trend over 6 years. A sharp increase of first visit was observed after implementation of the regular health check-up for all conscripted soldiers since 2013. Urolithiasis, prostatitis, epididymoorchitis, urethritis, and varicocele were prevalent. Prostatitis was the highest diagnosis made in the outpatient service, while varicocele was ranked the highest in the inpatient service. The incidence rates of urologic disease varied from 12.3 to 34.2 cases per 1,000 person-years. The urologic disease in conscripted men showed different distribution when we separated the population into conscripted and professional soldiers. Epididymoorchitis was the highest disease followed by urolithiasis, dysuresia, and balanoposthitis in 2013. This study underscores that the urologic disease has spent significant amount of health care resources in the Korean military. This calls for further study to find any significant difference and contributing factors of the urologic disease in the military and the civilian population. PMID:27914143

  5. Urologic Diseases in Korean Military Population: a 6-year Epidemiological Review of Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Young; Yoon, Chang Gyo

    2017-01-01

    We sought to describe the incidence rate of the urologic disease in the Korean military by reviewing diagnoses made in active duty soldiers from 2008 to 2013. A total of 72,248 first visits were generated in the Defense Medical Statistics Information System (DMSIS) with its gradually increasing trend over 6 years. A sharp increase of first visit was observed after implementation of the regular health check-up for all conscripted soldiers since 2013. Urolithiasis, prostatitis, epididymoorchitis, urethritis, and varicocele were prevalent. Prostatitis was the highest diagnosis made in the outpatient service, while varicocele was ranked the highest in the inpatient service. The incidence rates of urologic disease varied from 12.3 to 34.2 cases per 1,000 person-years. The urologic disease in conscripted men showed different distribution when we separated the population into conscripted and professional soldiers. Epididymoorchitis was the highest disease followed by urolithiasis, dysuresia, and balanoposthitis in 2013. This study underscores that the urologic disease has spent significant amount of health care resources in the Korean military. This calls for further study to find any significant difference and contributing factors of the urologic disease in the military and the civilian population.

  6. Associations of Moyamoya patients with HLA class I and class II alleles in the Korean population.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hoon; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Yoo, Do-Sung; Huh, Pil-Woo; Cho, Kyung-Souk; Kim, Dal-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is characterized by progressive cerebrovascular occlusion at the peripheral internal carotid artery and development of abnormal collateral circulation at the cerebral basal region. Although abnormal thrombogenesis, inflammation and autoimmune process might be involved in the etiology, the genetic pathogenesis of Moyamoya disease is still unknown. To evaluate the association of Moyamoya disease with HLA alleles in the Korean population, we investigated HLA class I and class II alleles in 28 Moyamoya patients and 198 unrelated healthy controls. The frequency of HLA-B35 allele was significantly increased in the patients compared to the controls (32.1% vs. 10.1%, RR=4.2, p<0.008). Further analysis of HLA-B35 on onset age and sex showed that this allele was significantly increased compared to the controls in both late-onset and female group. Especially, HLA-B35 was the most significantly increased in female of late-onset group compared to the controls. These results suggest that HLA-B35 may be an useful genetic marker for Moyamoya disease, and particularly in females of late onset group in the Korean population. PMID:14676447

  7. Incidence and Prognostic Impact of DNMT3A Mutations in Korean Normal Karyotype Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Choi, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Shine Young; Yi, Jongyoun; Oh, Seung Hwan; Kim, In-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Hoi; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Lee, Eun Yup; Song, Moo-Kon; Shin, Ho-Jin; Chung, Joo Seop

    2015-01-01

    Background. DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) mutation was recently introduced as a prognostic indicator in normal karyotype (NK) AML and we evaluated the incidence and prognostic impact of DNMT3A mutations in Korean NK AML patients. Methods. Total 67 NK AML patients diagnosed during the recent 10 years were enrolled. DNMT3A mutations were analyzed by direct sequencing and categorized into nonsynonymous variations (NSV), deleterious mutations (DM), and R882 mutation based on in silico analysis results. Clinical features and prognosis were compared with respect to DNMT3A mutation status. Results. Three novel (I158M, K219V, and E177V) and two known (R736H and R882H) NSVs were identified and the latter three were predicted as DMs. DNMT3A NSVs, DMs, and R882 mutation were identified in 14.9%–17.9%, 10.3%–10.4%, and 7.5% of patients, respectively. DNMT3A mutations were frequently detected in FLT3 ITD mutated patients (P = 0.054, 0.071, and 0.071 in NSV, DMs, and R882 mutation, resp.) but did not affect clinical features and prognosis significantly. Conclusions. Incidences of DNMT3A NSVs, DMs, and R882 mutation are 14.9%–17.9%, 10.3%–10.4%, and 7.5%, respectively, in Korean NK AML patients. DNMT3A mutations are associated with FLT3 ITD mutations but do not affect clinical outcome significantly in Korean NK AML patients. PMID:25650308

  8. Association between Total Sleep Duration and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jong-Yeon; Choi, Won-Jung; Chang, Hoo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine the association between sleep duration and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Data obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, and probability-cluster survey of civilian non-institutionalized Korean residents. Participants: A total of 15,236 subjects (6,638 males and 8,598 females) ≥ 19 years old. Measurements and Results: The weighted prevalence of self-reported short sleep duration (≤ 5 h/day) was 11.7% in males and 15% in females, and of long sleep duration (≥ 9 h/day) was 6.7% in males and 8.9% in females. A U-shaped relationship existed, with both short and long sleep durations associated with a higher suicidal ideation risk. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health status. After controlling for covariates, people with short sleep were 38.1% more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR = 1.381, 95% CI 1.156-1.650) than people with sleep duration of 7 h/day. Suicidal ideation was 1.196 times higher (95% CI: 0.950-1.507) in long-sleeping people than people sleeping 7 h/day, although statistically not significant. Inclusion of depressive mood (a potential confounder) in multiple logistic regression models attenuated but did not eliminate the sleep duration/suicidal ideation association. Limitations: Sleep duration and suicidal ideation were assessed only by self-report. Conclusions: The sleep duration/suicidal ideation relationship is U-shaped in the Korean adult population. Self-reported habitual sleep duration may be a useful behavioral indicator for both individual and societal suicidal ideation risk. Citation: Kim JH; Park EC; Cho WH; Park JY; Choi WJ; Chang HS. Association between total sleep duration and suicidal ideation

  9. Social Network Characteristics and Body Mass Index in an Elderly Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Joon; Rhee, Yumie; Park, Yeong-Ran; Chu, Sang Hui; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Research has shown that obesity appears to spread through social ties. However, the association between other characteristics of social networks and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between social network characteristics and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in an elderly Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 657 Koreans (273 men, 384 women) aged 60 years or older who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Network size is a count of the number of friends. Density of communication network is the number of connections in the social network reported as a fraction of the total links possible in the personal (ego-centric) network. Average frequency of communication (or meeting) measures how often network members communicate (or meet) each other. The association of each social network measure with BMI was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the men with lower density (<0.71) and higher network size (4-6) had the higher BMI (β=1.089, p=0.037) compared to the men with higher density (>0.83) and lower size (1-2), but not in the women (p=0.393). The lowest tertile of communication frequency was associated with higher BMI in the women (β=0.885, p=0.049), but not in the men (p=0.140). Conclusions Our study suggests that social network structure (network size and density) and activation (communication frequency and meeting frequency) are associated with obesity among the elderly. There may also be gender differences in this association. PMID:24349655

  10. Social network characteristics and body mass index in an elderly Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Joon; Youm, Yoosik; Rhee, Yumie; Park, Yeong-Ran; Chu, Sang Hui; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that obesity appears to spread through social ties. However, the association between other characteristics of social networks and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between social network characteristics and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) in an elderly Korean population. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 657 Koreans (273 men, 384 women) aged 60 years or older who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Network size is a count of the number of friends. Density of communication network is the number of connections in the social network reported as a fraction of the total links possible in the personal (ego-centric) network. Average frequency of communication (or meeting) measures how often network members communicate (or meet) each other. The association of each social network measure with BMI was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. After adjusting for potential confounders, the men with lower density (<0.71) and higher network size (4-6) had the higher BMI (β=1.089, p=0.037) compared to the men with higher density (>0.83) and lower size (1-2), but not in the women (p=0.393). The lowest tertile of communication frequency was associated with higher BMI in the women (β=0.885, p=0.049), but not in the men (p=0.140). Our study suggests that social network structure (network size and density) and activation (communication frequency and meeting frequency) are associated with obesity among the elderly. There may also be gender differences in this association.

  11. REM sleep behavior disorder in the Korean elderly population: prevalence and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suk-Hoon; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Sang Don; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

    2013-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and subclinical RBD in the Korean elderly population. A community-based Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia and time-synchronized video-polysomnography (vPSG) in a laboratory. Sleep laboratory in a university hospital. 348 individuals aged 60 years or older. N/A. Among 696 subjects who were invited to participate in a vPSG study, 348 completed the vPSG. RBD was diagnosed when subjects showed REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) in the vPSG, and had history of complex and vigorous behaviors during sleep or abnormal REM sleep behaviors in the vPSG. Subjects with RSWA but no abnormal REM sleep behaviors were diagnosed with subclinical RBD. Seven subjects (5 male, 2 female) had RBD, three of whom (1 male, 2 female) had Parkinson disease. Two subjects reported history of sleep-related injury. The crude prevalence of RBD and idiopathic RBD was 2.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54% to 3.49%) and 1.15% (95% CI = 0.03% to 2.27%). An age and sex-adjusted prevalence estimate of RBD and idiopathic RBD in the Korean elderly was 2.01% and 1.34%. Eighteen subjects were diagnosed with subclinical RBD, and the prevalence of subclinical RBD was estimated to be 4.95%. RBD and subclinical RBD are not rare in the elderly in the community with abnormal REM sleep behaviors of RBD being mild to injurious and violent. The clinical significance and long-term progression of subclinical RBD needs to be further explored, given the prevalence and its possible relation to RBD.

  12. The prevalence of and risk factors for Barrett's esophagus in a Korean population: A nationwide multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Chung, Moon Gi; Park, Seon Mee; Baik, Gwang Ho; Nah, Byung Kyu; Nam, Su Youn; Seo, Kang Seok; Ko, Byung Sung; Jang, Jae-Young; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Kim, Ji Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Jin Il; Cho, Mee-Yon; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Soo-Heon; Jung, Hyun Chae; Chung, In-Sik

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in the general Korean population by evaluating screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. In addition, the risk factors for BE were identified. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy examination was performed in 25,536 subjects who had upper endoscopy screening from January 2006 to July 2006. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were confirmed to have BE by pathology, thus the prevalence of BE was calculated to be 0.84%. The endoscopic findings were subdivided into 2 groups: BE without reflux esophagitis (RE), which included 167 (77.7%), and BE with RE, which included 48 (22.3%). The analysis of symptoms showed that only 60.1% of the subjects with BE had reflux symptoms. Chest pain [odds ratio (OR): 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.11] and epigastric soreness (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.93) were found more frequently in the subjects with BE compared with the normal subjects. The multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for all subjects with BE were a male sex (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32-2.50), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.28-3.20), hiatal hernia (OR: 5.66, 95% CI: 3.70-8.66), and an age > or = 60 compared with an age < 40 (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.07-3.09). There was no significant difference associated with RE. The prevalence of BE in Korean patients presenting for a routine health check-up was 0.84%, lower than reported in Western countries. Among the subjects with BE 77.7% did not have endoscopic erosions and there were no reflux symptoms in 39.9%. These results suggest that regular endoscopic screening with a high index of suspicion is necessary for the diagnosis of BE.

  13. Myopia is Inversely Associated With the Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the South Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Chao, Daniel L; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Chen, Rebecca; Lin, Shan C

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. Recent studies have suggested that myopia may be negatively correlated with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. We sought to further investigate the association between refractive error and the likelihood of having diabetic retinopathy in a cross-sectional, population-based study of the South Korean population. Cross-sectional study. Data were included from right eyes of 13 424 participants who were 40 years and older with gradable fundus photographs of the Fourth and the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using standard fundus photographs. Autorefraction data were collected to calculate spherical equivalent of refraction in diopters (D) and further classified into 4 groups: hyperopia (≥1.0 D), emmetropia (-0.99 D to 0.99 D), mild myopia (-1.0 D to -2.99 D), and moderate to high myopia (≤-3.0 D). Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. A multivariate model was used to evaluate the association between the diagnosis of any diabetic retinopathy and the refractive status. Mild myopia and moderate to high myopia groups were negatively associated with development of any diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio [OR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.97 and OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.88, respectively). In addition, for every 1 D increase in spherical equivalent, there was a 30% increase of having diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.08-1.58). Our results from a population-based study suggest that myopic status is associated with lower odds of having diabetic retinopathy in the South Korean population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent trends in hepatitis B virus infection in the general Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuck; Shin, A Ri; Chung, Hoe Hoon; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Shim, Jae-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the major cause of chronic liver disease in Korea, but viral prevalence has decreased because of hepatitis B vaccination programs. In this study, we investigated longitudinal changes in HBV in fection in the general Korean population. Methods HBV surface antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg) seropositivity was assessed from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (I to V). In total, 50,140 subjects were tested for serum HBsAg positivity over a period of 12 years (1998 to 2010). Results The prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity decreased over the study period. The rates of HBsAg carriers were 4.61% in 1998, 4.60% in 2001, 3.69% in 2005, 3.01% in 2008, and 2.98% in 2010 (p < 0.0001). The reduction in HBV infection rates was more prominent in younger age groups. Among teenagers (10 to 19 years), the percentage of HBsAg carriers decreased from 2.2% in 1998 to 0.12% in 2010 (p < 0.0001). Among those aged 10 to 39 years, the percentage of HBV infection decreased from 4.72% in 1998 to 2.29% in 2010 (p < 0.0001). However, no decreasing trend in HBsAg positivity was observed among those aged 50 or older (p > 0.05). Neither gender nor socioeconomic status were associated with the decreased prevalence of HBsAg carriers. Conclusions HBV infection has decreased in the Korean population since the advent of vaccination programs. However, the decrease is limited to the younger population, and viral persistence remains in the middle-aged and older population. PMID:23864799

  15. Probabilistic dietary exposure to ethyl carbamate from fermented foods and alcoholic beverages in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Ryu, D; Kim, C-I; Lee, J-Y; Choi, A; Koh, E

    2017-09-04

    The occurrence of ethyl carbamate was investigated in fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the Korean total diet study. The concentrations of ethyl carbamate ranged from not detected to 166.5 μg kg(-1). Dietary exposure to ethyl carbamate was estimated by the probabilistic method. Estimated intakes of ethyl carbamate from foods and alcoholic beverages were 4.12 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) per day for average consumers and 12.37 ng kg(-1) bw/day for 95th percentile high consumers. The major foods contributing to ethyl carbamate exposure were soy sauce (63%), followed by maesilju (plum liqueur, 30%), whisky (5%), and bokbunjaju (black raspberry wine, 2%). On the basis of the benchmark dose lower confidence limit 10% (BMDL10) of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw/day, margins of exposure were 128,000 for mean exposure and 40,000 for 95th percentile exposure. This indicates that the exposure of the Korean general population for ethyl carbamate is of low concern. However, careful vigilance should be continued for high consumers of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

  16. Association study between OCTN1 functional haplotypes and Crohn's disease in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Suk; Park, Hyo Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ae

    2017-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with multifactorial causes including environmental and genetic factors. Several studies have demonstrated that the organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1) non-synonymous variant L503F is associated with susceptibility to CD. However, it was reported that L503F is absent in Asian populations. Previously, we identified and functionally characterized genetic variants of the OCTN1 promoter region in Koreans. In that study, four variants demonstrated significant changes in promoter activity. In the present study, we determined whether four functional variants of the OCTN1 promoter play a role in the susceptibility to or clinical course of CD in Koreans. To examine it, the frequencies of the four variants of the OCTN1 promoter were determined by genotyping using DNA samples from 194 patients with CD and 287 healthy controls. Then, associations between genetic variants and the susceptibility to CD or clinical course of CD were evaluated. We found that susceptibility to CD was not associated with OCTN1 functional promoter variants or haplotypes showing altered promoter activities in in vitro assays. However, OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes showing decreased promoter activities were significantly associated with a penetrating behavior in CD patients (HR=2.428, p=0.009). Our results suggest that the OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes can influence the CD phenotype, although these might not be associated with susceptibility to this disease. PMID:28066136

  17. Waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in the Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    So, Eun Sun; Yoo, Kwang Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim is to determine the appropriate cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean elderly population. We analyzed the WC cutoff values of four groups divided according to sex and age with a total of 2,224 elderly participants aged 65 years old and above from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using the receiver operating characteristic curve and multiple logistic regression. The WC cutoff values associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome were 89.6 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women for those who were 65 to 74 years old, and 89.9 cm for men and 87.9 cm for women for those who were 75 years old or older. WC cutoff points for estimating metabolic risk are similar in elderly men and women. Age-specific optimal WC cutoff points should be considered especially for elderly women in screening for metabolic syndrome.

  18. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  19. Anemia and activities of daily living in the Korean urban elderly population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Lim, Soo; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Young Joo; Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak-Chul; Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and its impact on health-related quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly Koreans. Of the 1,118 randomly sampled elderly Koreans aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea, on Aug. 1, 2005, we estimated the prevalence of anemia from 695 responders. We investigated the risk factors of anemia using a merged sample of this random sample and 270 volunteers enrolled from Seongnam residents aged 85 years or older. We diagnosed anemia according to the World Health Organization criteria. The estimated age- and gender-standardized prevalence of anemia was 8.33 % for the overall random sample (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 6.28-10.39), 10.58 % in men (95 % CI 7.09-14.07), and 6.85 % in women (95 % CI 4.37-9.34). The identified risk factors were age ≥80 years, male, iron deficiency, history of stroke, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Anemia was associated with impairment in physical functioning (p = 0.031) and instrumental ADL (p < 0.001). This is the first report about anemia's prevalence in community-dwelling Korean elders, adjusted and standardized according to the city's and nation's population. Timely diagnosis of anemia and correction of its treatable cause may improve QOL and ADL in elderly individuals.

  20. Novel GALT variations and mutation spectrum in the Korean population with decreased galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Classic galactosemia (OMIM #230400) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT, EC2.7.7.12) protein due to mutations in the GALT gene. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive and updated mutation spectrum of GALT in a Korean population. Methods Thirteen unrelated patients screened positive for galactosemia in a newborn screening program were included in this study. They showed a reduced GALT enzyme activity in red blood cells. Direct sequencing of the GALT gene and in silico analyses were done to evaluate the impact of novel variations upon GALT enzyme activity. We also reviewed previous reports for GALT mutations in Koreans. Results We identified six novel likely pathogenic variations including three missense (p.Ala101Asp, p.Tyr165His, and p.Pro257Thr), one small deletion/insertion [c.826_827delinsAA (p.Ala276Asn)], one frameshift (p.Asn96Serfs*5), and one splicing (c.378-1G > C) likely pathogenic variations. The most frequent variation was the Duarte variant (c.940A > G, 35.3%), followed by c.507G > C (p.Gln169His, 9.6%), among 34 Korean patients. Other mutations were widely scattered. None of the eight common mutations used for targeted mutation analysis in Western countries including p.Gln188Arg, p.Ser135Leu, p.Lys285Asn, p.Leu195Pro, p.Tyr209Cys, p.Phe171Ser, c.253-2A > G, and a 5 kb deletion, had been found in Koreans until this study. Conclusions Considering the mutation spectrum in Koreans, direct sequence analysis of entire GALT exons is recommended for accurate diagnosis. The mutations responsible for GALT deficiency in the Korean population were clearly different from those of other populations. PMID:25124065

  1. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y; Pasquale, Louis R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97). A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  2. Association of peptic ulcer disease with obesity, nutritional components, and blood parameters in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Keun Ho; Lee, Bum Ju

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common disorder, but whether an association exists between PUD and anthropometric indicators remains controversial. Furthermore, no studies on the association of PUD with anthropometric indices, blood parameters, and nutritional components have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters, nutritional components, and lifestyle factors with PUD in the Korean population. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of the South Korean population using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters and nutritional components among patients with PUD. Age was the factor most strongly associated with PUD in women (p = <0.0001, odds ratio (OR) = 0.770 [0.683-0.869]) and men (p = <0.0001, OR = 0.715 [0.616-0.831]). In both crude and adjusted analyses, PUD was highly associated with weight (adjusted p = 0.0008, adjusted OR = 1.251 [95%CI: 1.098-1.426]), hip circumference (adjusted p = 0.005, adjusted OR = 1.198 [1.056-1.360]), and body mass index (adjusted p = 0.0001, adjusted OR = 1.303 [1.139-1.490]) in women and hip circumference (adjusted p = 0.0199, adjusted OR = 1.217 [1.031-1.435]) in men. PUD was significantly associated with intake of fiber (adjusted p = 0.0386, adjusted OR = 1.157 [1.008-1.328], vitamin B2 (adjusted p = 0.0477, adjusted OR = 1.155 [1.001-1.333]), sodium (adjusted p = 0.0154, adjusted OR = 1.191 [1.034-1.372]), calcium (adjusted p = 0.0079, adjusted OR = 1.243 [1.059-1.459]), and ash (adjusted p = 0.0468, adjusted OR = 1.152 [1.002-1.325] in women but not in men. None of the assessed blood parameters were associated with PUD in women, and only triglyceride level was associated with PUD in men (adjusted p = 0.0169, adjusted OR = 1.227 [1.037-1.451]). We found that obesity was associated with PUD in the Korean population; additionally, the

  3. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Main outcome measure(s) Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Results Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03–2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67–21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95

  4. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children: Effects of age, vowel context, and stimulus length.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seunghee; Cho, Seong-Hyeon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking children and adults and to determine whether age, vowel contexts, and stimulus length influence nasalance scores. Fifty-seven children aged 4-6 years and 17 adults participated in the study. Mean nasalance scores were obtained for eight sentences devoid of nasal consonants divided into the vowel/a/and/i/contexts; the sentences consisted of 4, 8, 16, and 31 syllables. All subjects were asked to repeat the speech stimuli twice after the examiner. The headset of the nasometer was replaced between the first and second recordings. An average value of the nasalance scores from the two recordings for each stimulus was calculated and used in the statistical analysis as a representative measure for each subject. Mean and standard deviations of nasalance scores were obtained for each speech stimulus and each age group. The statistical analysis indicated significant effects of age and vowel context and a significant interaction between age and the vowel context on nasalance scores. However, the effect of stimulus length on nasalance scores was not significant. All speakers had higher nasalance scores for the vowel/i/contexts than for the vowel/a/contexts. Adults had higher nasalance scores compared to children in both vowel contexts. These normal nasalance values from Korean-speaking children aged 4-6 years will provide important reference information for resonance assessment of children with cleft palate who have been considered for secondary palatal surgery. The results of the study suggest that subjects' age and the vowel content of speech stimuli should be carefully considered when interpreting the nasalance scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name "eelgrass") is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061-0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern tip of

  6. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name “eelgrass”) is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061–0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern

  7. [Comparison of the systemic vascular resistance and the correlative factors in Han and Korean populations of China.].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang-Xing; Qi, Bao-Shen; Zhou, Xiao-Mei; Han, Shao-Mei; Zhu, Guang-Jin

    2009-12-25

    In the present study, the differences in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and the correlated risk factors between Han and Korean residents were investigated. 1 647 Hans and 876 Koreans from Mudanjiang and Hailin areas of Heilongjiang Province were examined with BIOZ Cardio Dynamics Monitor. A series of factors were determined, including SVR, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), cardiac output index (CI) and heart rate (HR). The data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 statistic software. When SVR/SVRI were compared between Han and Korean populations by t-test, it was shown that statistic difference existed in the following age and gender groups: (1) For SVR: male 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 (P<0.001), 31-40 (P<0.01), 19-30 (P<0.05) age groups; female 15-18, 31-40, 51-60 (P<0.001), 41-50 (P<0.01), and 61-70 (P<0.05) age groups; (2) For SVRI, male 41-50, 51-60 (P<0.05) age groups; female 10-14, 51-60 (P<0.001), 15-18, 31-40 (P<0.01), and 41-50 (P<0.05) age groups. Covariance analysis suggests that, excluding the contributions of gender, age and body mass index (BMI), the differences in SVR/SVRI between the two populations are still significant (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that SVR difference between Han and Korean populations is attributed to MAP, DBP, CI, SBP, HR; While SVRI difference between two populations is attributed to MAP, DBP, SBP, CI, HR, strongly to weakly, respectively. These results suggest the higher SVR and SVRI are possibly correlated with the relatively higher blood pressure of Korean, compared with that of Han population.

  8. Cone-beam computed tomography for the assessment of root–crown ratios of the maxillary and mandibular incisors in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Suk; Kim, Cheol-Soon; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2017-01-01

    Objective This retrospective, cross-sectional study aimed to establish reference data for normal crown and root lengths and the root–crown ratios (R/C ratios) for the mature maxillary and mandibular incisors in a Korean population by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods We included 672 Korean patients (141 men and 531 women; mean age, 27.2 ± 7.7 years) who underwent CBCT examinations during various dental treatments. Crown and root lengths and the R/C ratios of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were measured using CBCT data, which were analyzed to detect significant differences between demographic factors as well as sagittal and vertical skeletal or occlusal relationships. Results Teeth of the same type in each half-arch were symmetrical. The mean R/C ratios varied from 1.1 to 1.2 for the maxillary incisors and from 1.3 to 1.4 for the mandibular incisors. Crown and root lengths were greater in men than in women, regardless of tooth type. Root lengths and R/C ratios for the mandibular incisors were significantly greater in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion or an excessive overjet than in the other patients. The R/C ratios for the mandibular incisors were lower in patients with an open bite than in those with a normal or deep bite. Moreover, the R/C ratios for the mandibular incisors increased with age. Conclusions The data obtained in our study can serve as reference values for crown and root lengths and the R/C ratios for the maxillary and mandibular incisors in the Korean population. PMID:28127538

  9. Risk prediction of pulmonary tuberculosis using genetic and conventional risk factors in adult Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eun Pyo; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2017-01-01

    A complex interplay among host, pathogen, and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The lack of replication of published genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings limits the clinical utility of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a GWAS using 467 PTB cases and 1,313 healthy controls obtained from two community-based cohorts in Korea. We evaluated the performance of PTB risk models based on different combinations of genetic and nongenetic factors and validated the results in an independent Korean population comprised of 179 PTB cases and 500 healthy controls. We demonstrated the polygenic nature of PTB and nongenetic factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were strongly associated with PTB risk. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance; instead, we were able to replicate the associations between PTB and ten SNPs near or in the genes, CDCA7, GBE1, GADL1, SPATA16, C6orf118, KIAA1432, DMRT2, CTR9, CCDC67, and CDH13, which may play roles in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Among the replicated SNPs, an intergenic SNP, rs9365798, located downstream of the C6orf118 gene showed the most significant association under the dominant model (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.32–1.92, P = 2.1×10−6). The performance of a risk model combining the effects of ten replicated SNPs and six nongenetic factors (i.e., age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin) were validated in the replication set (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population. PMID:28355295

  10. Determining the optimal surveillance interval after a colonoscopic polypectomy for the Korean population?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Lok; Lee, Hye Min; Jeon, Jung Won; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il; Park, Dong Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Western surveillance strategies cannot be directly adapted to the Korean population. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of metachronous neoplasia and the optimal surveillance interval in the Korean population. Methods Clinical and pathological data from index colonoscopy performed between June 2006 and July 2008 and who had surveillance colonoscopies up to May 2015 were compared between low- and high-risk adenoma (LRA and HRA) groups. The 3- and 5-year cumulative risk of metachronous colorectal neoplasia in both groups were compared. Results Among 895 eligible patients, surveillance colonoscopy was performed in 399 (44.6%). Most (83.3%) patients with LRA had a surveillance colonoscopy within 5 years and 70.2% of patients with HRA had a surveillance colonoscopy within 3 years. The cumulative risk of metachronous advanced adenoma was 3.2% within 5 years in the LRA group and only 1.7% within 3 years in the HRA group. The risk of metachronous neoplasia was similar between the surveillance interval of <5 and ≥5 years in the LRA group; however, it was slightly higher at surveillance interval of ≥3 than <3 years in the HRA group (9.4% vs. 2.4%). In multivariate analysis, age and the ≥3-year surveillance interval were significant independent risk factors for metachronous advanced adenoma (P=0.024 and P=0.030, respectively). Conclusions Patients had a surveillance colonoscopy before the recommended guidelines despite a low risk of metachronous neoplasia. However, the risk of metachronous advanced adenoma was increased in elderly patients and those with a ≥3-year surveillance interval. PMID:28239321

  11. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.

  12. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  13. Founder haplotype analysis of Fanconi anemia in the Korean population finds common ancestral haplotypes for a FANCG variant.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population.

  14. Estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion is correlated with blood pressure in Korean population: 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jieun; Lee, Jeonghwan; Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    No large-scale studies have investigated the association between salt intake and hypertension in Korean population. To investigate the relationship of blood pressure to salt consumption, we analyzed data from 19,476 participants in the 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES). Urinary sodium excretion over 24-hr (24HUNa) was estimated from spot urine tests using Tanaka's equation. The study subjects were stratified into hypertensive and normotensive groups. Hypertensive participants (n=6,552, 33.6%) had higher estimated 24HUNa, 150.4±38.8 mEq/day, than normotensive participants, 140.5±34.6 mEq/day (P<0.001). The association between 24HUNa and blood pressure outcomes was not affected by adjustment for other risk factors for hypertension (odds ratio 0.001; 95% confidence interval 0.001-0.003; P<0.001). Increases in 24HUNa of 100 mEq/day were associated with a 6.1±0.3/2.9±0.2 mmHg increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure in all participants. This effect was stronger in hypertensive participants (increase of 8.1±0.5/3.4±0.3 mmHg per 100 mEq/day) and smaller in normotensive participants (2.9±0.3/1.3±0.2 mmHg). These results support recommendations for low salt intake in Korean population to prevent and control adverse blood pressure levels.

  15. The single nucleotide polymorphism T1128C in the signal peptide of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was not identified in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ding, B; Bertilsson, L; Wahlestedt, C

    2002-06-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T1128C, which causes an amino acid change from leucine(7) to proline(7) in the signal peptide of neuropeptide Y (NPY), has been found to be associated with multiple clinical parameters or disease. However, this SNP was not identified in the Japanese population. We asked if this is also true in the Korean population. Genotyping was conducted by pyrosequencing, a newly developed real-time high-throughput SNP scoring technique. All 242 Korean subjects showed T1128/T1128 genotype. The T1128C SNP does not appear to exist in this Korean population.

  16. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun Hwi; Shin, Seung-Ho; Byun, Sung Wan; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. The data from KNHANES 2010-2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing thresholds at all of the tested frequencies worsened with

  17. Barriers, Attitudes, and Dietary Behaviors Regarding Sodium Reduction in the Elderly Korean-Chinese Population in Yanbian, China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Cui, Wenying; Jin, Meixiang

    2017-06-01

    This research investigated the barriers, attitudes, and dietary behaviors related to sodium reduction among the elderly Korean-Chinese population in Yanbian, China. We conducted this pilot study using both descriptive research and a focus group interview at the elderly community center in Yanbian. In total, 21 elderly Korean-Chinese (average age, 71 years) were examined. The findings showed that the top three barriers to sodium reduction were 1) the difficulties associated with having meals with others, 2) a preference for liquid based-dishes, and 3) the lack of taste in low-sodium dishes. Although the participants strongly believed that a reduced-sodium diet would improve their health, they were poorly aware of the amount of sodium in various foods and dishes. In particular, the focus group interviews with eight participants (mean age, 67 years) revealed that salt-preserved foods (e.g., Korean pickled cabbage called 'kimchi' and soybean paste) were frequently consumed as part of their food culture, and that very salty dishes were served at restaurants, both of which lead to a high sodium intake. This study provides useful preliminary data to help design a nutrition intervention program for sodium reduction that targets the elderly Korean-Chinese population in China.

  18. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  19. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population.

  20. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium and past effective population size in three Korean cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Sudrajad, P; Seo, D W; Choi, T J; Park, B H; Roh, S H; Jung, W Y; Lee, S S; Lee, J H; Kim, S; Lee, S H

    2017-02-01

    The routine collection and use of genomic data are useful for effectively managing breeding programs for endangered populations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) using high-density DNA markers has been widely used to determine population structures and predict the genomic regions that are associated with economic traits in beef cattle. The extent of LD also provides information about historical events, including past effective population size (Ne ), and it allows inferences on the genetic diversity of breeds. The objective of this study was to estimate the LD and Ne in three Korean cattle breeds that are genetically similar but have different coat colors (Brown, Brindle and Jeju Black Hanwoo). Brindle and Jeju Black are endangered breeds with small populations, whereas Brown Hanwoo is the main breeding population in Korea. DNA samples from these cattle breeds were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead Chip. We examined 13 cattle breeds, including European taurines, African taurines and indicines, and hybrids to compare their LD values. Brown Hanwoo consistently had the lowest mean LD compared to Jeju Black, Brindle and the other 13 cattle breeds (0.13, 0.19, 0.21 and 0.15-0.22 respectively). The high LD values of Brindle and Jeju Black contributed to small Ne values (53 and 60 respectively), which were distinct from that of Brown Hanwoo (531) for 11 generations ago. The differences in LD and Ne for each breed reflect the breeding strategy applied. The Ne for these endangered cattle breeds remain low; thus, effort is needed to bring them back to a sustainable tract. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Methods Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Korean version was used to evaluate neuroticism, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR)-Korean version was used to evaluate body dissatisfaction, and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES)-Korean version was used to evaluate self-esteem. The 5-HTTLPR genotype by neuroticism (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total BDDE-SR score, and 5-HTTLPR genotype by BDDE-SR (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total SES score. Results The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism (high : low) with respect to body dissatisfaction showed no main effects of genotype whereas neuroticism did influence the BDDE-SR score and no interaction of the genotype with neuroticism. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and BDDE-SR (high : low) with respect to self-esteem score showed no main effects of genotype whereas BDDE-SR did influence the self-esteem score and no interaction of the genotype with body dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and neuroticism does not affect body dissatisfaction and an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and body dissatisfaction does not affect self-esteem in a young adult Korean population. PMID:25598828

  2. No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Chee, Ik-Seung

    2014-12-01

    Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Korean version was used to evaluate neuroticism, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR)-Korean version was used to evaluate body dissatisfaction, and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES)-Korean version was used to evaluate self-esteem. The 5-HTTLPR genotype by neuroticism (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total BDDE-SR score, and 5-HTTLPR genotype by BDDE-SR (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total SES score. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism (high : low) with respect to body dissatisfaction showed no main effects of genotype whereas neuroticism did influence the BDDE-SR score and no interaction of the genotype with neuroticism. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and BDDE-SR (high : low) with respect to self-esteem score showed no main effects of genotype whereas BDDE-SR did influence the self-esteem score and no interaction of the genotype with body dissatisfaction. These results suggest that an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and neuroticism does not affect body dissatisfaction and an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and body dissatisfaction does not affect self-esteem in a young adult Korean population.

  3. Relationship between Social Network and Stage of Adoption of Gastric Cancer Screening among the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between social support and stages of adoption of cancer screening. Here we investigated associations between both structural and functional aspects of social support and stages of adoption of gastric cancer screening in the general population of Korea. The study population was derived from the 2011 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 3,477 randomly selected respondents aged 40-74 years. Respondents were classified according to their stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening: precontemplation (13.2%), contemplation (18.0%), action/maintenance (56.1%), relapse risk (8.5%), and relapse stage (4.1%). Respondents with larger social networks were more likely to be in the contemplation/action/maintenance, or the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation stage (OR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.52-2.91; p for tend=0.025). Emotional and instrumental supports were not associated with any stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening. However, respondents who reported receiving sufficient informational support were more likely to be in the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation, or the contemplation/action/maintenance stage (p for trend=0.016). Interventions involving interactions between social network members could play an important role in increasing participation in gastric cancer screening.

  4. A population pharmacokinetic analysis of the influence of nutritional status of digoxin in hospitalized Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo An; Yun, Hwi-yeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2014-03-01

    Safe and effective use of digoxin in hospitalized populations requires information about the drug's pharmacokinetics and the influence of various factors on drug disposition. However, no attempts have been made to link an individual's digoxin requirements with nutritional status. The main goal of this study was to estimate the population pharmacokinetics of digoxin and to identify the nutritional status that explains pharmacokinetic variability in hospitalized Korean patients. Routine therapeutic drug-monitoring data from 106 patients who received oral digoxin at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were retrospectively collected. The pharmacokinetics of digoxin were analyzed with a 1-compartment, open-label pharmacokinetic model by using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling tool (NONMEM) and a multiple trough screening approach. The effect of demographic characteristics and biochemical and nutritional indices were explored. Estimates generated by using NONMEM indicated that the CL/F of digoxin was influenced by renal function, serum potassium, age, and percentage of ideal body weight (PIBW). These influences could be modeled by following the equation CL/F (L/h) = 1.36 × (creatinine clearance/50)(1.580) × K(0.835) × 0.055 × (age/65) × (PIBW/100)(0.403). The interindividual %CV for CL/F was 34.3%, and the residual variability (SD) between observed and predicted concentrations was 0.225 μg/L. The median estimates from a bootstrap procedure were comparable and within 5% of the estimates from NONMEM. Correlation analysis with the validation group showed a linear correlation between observed and predicted values. The use of this model in routine therapeutic drug monitoring requires that certain conditions be met which are consistent with the conditions of the subpopulations in the present study. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the effects of nutritional status on digoxin pharmacokinetics. The present study established important sources of

  5. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. Results The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. Conclusion The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected. PMID:27668883

  6. Phenotype of Normal Spirometry in an Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    McAvay, Gail; Van Ness, Peter H.; Casaburi, Richard; Jensen, Robert L.; MacIntyre, Neil; Gill, Thomas M.; Yaggi, H. Klar; Concato, John

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: In aging populations, the commonly used Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) may misclassify normal spirometry as respiratory impairment (airflow obstruction and restrictive pattern), including the presumption of respiratory disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]). Objectives: To evaluate the phenotype of normal spirometry as defined by a new approach from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI), overall and across GOLD spirometric categories. Methods: Using data from COPDGene (n = 10,131; ages 45–81; smoking history, ≥10 pack-years), we evaluated spirometry and multiple phenotypes, including dyspnea severity (Modified Medical Research Council grade 0–4), health-related quality of life (St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score), 6-minute-walk distance, bronchodilator reversibility (FEV1 % change), computed tomography–measured percentage of lung with emphysema (% emphysema) and gas trapping (% gas trapping), and small airway dimensions (square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm). Measurements and Main Results: Among 5,100 participants with GLI-defined normal spirometry, GOLD identified respiratory impairment in 1,146 (22.5%), including a restrictive pattern in 464 (9.1%), mild COPD in 380 (7.5%), moderate COPD in 302 (5.9%), and severe COPD in none. Overall, the phenotype of GLI-defined normal spirometry included normal adjusted mean values for dyspnea grade (0.8), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (15.9), 6-minute-walk distance (1,424 ft [434 m]), bronchodilator reversibility (2.7%), % emphysema (0.9%), % gas trapping (10.7%), and square root of the wall area for a standardized airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (3.65 mm); corresponding 95% confidence intervals were similarly normal. These phenotypes remained normal for GLI-defined normal spirometry across GOLD spirometric categories. Conclusions: GLI-defined normal spirometry, even

  7. A simple dosing scheme for intravenous busulfan based on retrospective population pharmacokinetic analysis in korean patients.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sangmin; Kim, Gayeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Un-Jib; Noh, Gyujeong; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lee, Dongho

    2012-08-01

    Busulfan is an antineoplastic agent with a narrow therapeutic window. A post-hoc population pharmacokinetic analysis of a prospective randomized trial for comparison of four-times daily versus once-daily intravenous busulfan was carried out to search for predictive factors of intravenous busulfan (iBu) pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study the population PK of iBu was characterized to provide suitable dosing recommendations. Patients were randomized to receive iBu, either as 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h or 3.2 mg/kg daily over 4 days prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In total, 295 busulfan concentrations were analyzed with NONMEM. Actual body weight and sex were significant covariates affecting the PK of iBu. Sixty patients were included in the study (all Korean; 23 women, 37 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [10.9] years; weight, 66.5 [11.3] kg). Population estimates for a typical patient weighing 65 kg were: clearance (CL) 7.6 l/h and volume of distribution (V(d)) 32.2 l for men and 29.1 L for women. Inter-individual random variabilities of CL and V(d) were 16% and 9%. Based on a CL estimate from the final PK model, a simple dosage scheme to achieve the target AUC(0-inf) (defined as median AUC(0-inf) with a once-daily dosage) of 26.18 mg/l·hr, was proposed: 24.79·ABW(0.5) mg q24h, where ABW represents the actual body weight in kilograms. The dosing scheme reduced the unexplained interindividual variabilities of CL and Vd of iBu with ABW being a significant covariate affecting clearance of iBU. We propose a new simple dosing scheme for iBu based only on ABW.

  8. A Simple Dosing Scheme for Intravenous Busulfan Based on Retrospective Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sangmin; Kim, Gayeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Un-Jib; Noh, Gyujeong; Lee, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    Busulfan is an antineoplastic agent with a narrow therapeutic window. A post-hoc population pharmacokinetic analysis of a prospective randomized trial for comparison of four-times daily versus once-daily intravenous busulfan was carried out to search for predictive factors of intravenous busulfan (iBu) pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study the population PK of iBu was characterized to provide suitable dosing recommendations. Patients were randomized to receive iBu, either as 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h or 3.2 mg/kg daily over 4 days prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In total, 295 busulfan concentrations were analyzed with NONMEM. Actual body weight and sex were significant covariates affecting the PK of iBu. Sixty patients were included in the study (all Korean; 23 women, 37 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [10.9] years; weight, 66.5 [11.3] kg). Population estimates for a typical patient weighing 65 kg were: clearance (CL) 7.6 l/h and volume of distribution (Vd) 32.2 l for men and 29.1 L for women. Inter-individual random variabilities of CL and Vd were 16% and 9%. Based on a CL estimate from the final PK model, a simple dosage scheme to achieve the target AUC0-inf (defined as median AUC0-inf with a once-daily dosage) of 26.18 mg/l·hr, was proposed: 24.79·ABW0.5 mg q24h, where ABW represents the actual body weight in kilograms. The dosing scheme reduced the unexplained interindividual variabilities of CL and Vd of iBu with ABW being a significant covariate affecting clearance of iBU. We propose a new simple dosing scheme for iBu based only on ABW. PMID:22915993

  9. Association between Mitofusin 2 Gene Polymorphisms and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jong; Park, Jin Kyung; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Su Kang; Han, Changsu; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Young Youl; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent and early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The morphologic changes observed in the AD brain could be caused by a failure of mitochondrial fusion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of two genes involved in mitochondrial fusion mechanisms, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2), were associated with AD in the Korean population by analyzing genotypes and allele frequencies. Methods One coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MFN2, rs1042837, and two coding SNPs in the OPA1, rs7624750 and rs9851685, were compared between 165 patients with AD (83 men and 82 women, mean age 72.3±4.41) and 186 healthy control subjects (82 men and 104 women, mean age 76.5±5.98). Results Among these three SNPs, rs1042837 showed statistically significant differences in allele frequency, and genotype frequency in the co-dominant 1 model and in the dominant model. Conclusion These results suggest that the rs1042837 polymorphism in MFN2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:28096879

  10. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)-0.18 × age (years)-1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP-CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups. In the normal population (n = 12,069), the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg) was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15), but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636). Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16). TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients.

  11. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)—0.18 × age (years)—1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP–CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups. Results In the normal population (n = 12,069), the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg) was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15), but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636). Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16). Conclusions TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ

  12. Novel FLG null mutations in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis and comparison of the mutational spectra in Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Young Min

    2015-09-01

    Filaggrin is essential for the development of the skin barrier. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin have been identified as major predisposing factors for atopic disorders. Molecular analysis of the FLG gene in this study showed nine null and one unclassified mutation in 13 of 81 Korean patients with atopic dermatitis (AD): five novel null mutations (i.e. p.S1405*, c.5671_5672delinsTA, p.W1947*, p.G2025* and p.E3070*); four reported null mutations (i.e. c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022*); and one unclassified mutation (i.e. c.306delAAAGCACAG). These variants are nonsense, premature termination codon or in-frame deletion expected to cause loss-of-function of FLG. Genotype-phenotype correlation is not obvious in Korean AD patients with FLG null mutations. According to a review of the mutational spectra of the FLG gene in the Asian populations, FLG null mutations appeared to be unique in each population but some mutations such as p.R501*, c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022* were commonly found in at least two of the selected Asian populations including Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Singaporean Chinese or Taiwanese. Further investigations on a larger group of Korean AD would be necessary to elucidate its clinical pathogenesis and mutational spectrum related to specific FLG null mutations for AD.

  13. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls.

  14. Association of Renal Manifestations with Serum Uric Acid in Korean Adults with Normal Uric Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Jae; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have reported that hyperuricemia is associated with the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidences also suggest that hyperuricemia may have a pathogenic role in the progression of renal disease. Paradoxically, uric acid is also widely accepted to have antioxidant activity in experimental studies. We aimed to investigate the association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and uric acid in healthy individuals with a normal serum level of uric acid. We examined renal function determined by GFR and uric acid in 3,376 subjects (1,896 men; 1,480 women; aged 20-80 yr) who underwent medical examinations at Gangnam Severance Hospital from November 2006 to June 2007. Determinants for renal function and uric acid levels were also investigated. In both men and women, GFR was negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, uric acid, log transformed C reactive protein, and log transformed triglycerides. In multivariate regression analysis, total uric acid was found to be an independent factor associated with estimated GFR in both men and women. This result suggests that uric acid appears to contribute to renal impairment in subjects with normal serum level of uric acid. PMID:21165292

  15. Association between alcoholism and the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA receptor genes on chromosome 5q33-34 in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Soo; Park, So-Young; Lee, Chul-Soon; Sohn, Jin-Wook; Hahn, Gyu-Hee; Kim, Bong-Jo

    2006-06-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated that genes play an important role in the development of alcoholism. We investigated the association between alcoholism and the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA receptor genes on chromosome 5q33-34 in Korean population. The genotype of the GABAA receptor gene polymorphisms were determined by performing polymerase chain reaction genotyping for 172 normal controls and 162 male alcoholics who are hospitalized in alcoholism treatment institute. We found a significant association between the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA alpha1 and GABAA alpha6 receptor gene and alcoholism. The GG genotype of the GABAA alpha1 receptor gene was associated with the onset age of alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and a high score on the Korean version of the ADS. However, there was no association between the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA beta2 and gamma2 receptor gene and alcoholisms. Our finding suggest that genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA alpha1 and GABAA alpha6 receptor gene may be associated with the development of alcoholism and that the GG genotype of the GABAA alpha1 receptor gene play an important role in the development of the early onset and the severe type of alcoholism.

  16. Forensic and population genetic analyses of eighteen non-CODIS miniSTR loci in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han Jun; Kim, Ki Cheol; Yoon, Cha Eun; Kim, Wook

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the variation of eighteen miniSTR loci in 411 randomly chosen individuals from Korea to increase the probability that a degraded sample can be typed, as well as to provide an expanded and reliable population database. Six multiplex PCR systems were developed (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161; multiplex IV: D3S4529, D8S1115 and D18S853; multiplex V: D6S1017, D11S4463 and D17S1301; multiplex VI: D5S2500, D9S1122 and D21S1437). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated to evaluate the suitability and robustness of these non-CODIS miniSTR systems. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were observed, except for D4S2364, D5S2500 and D20S161 loci. A multidimensional scaling plot based on allele frequencies of the six miniSTR loci (D1S1677, D2S441, D4S2364, D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045) showed that Koreans appeared to have most genetic affinity with Chinese and Japanese than to other Eurasian populations compared here. The combined probability of match calculated from the 18 miniSTR loci was 2.902 × 10(-17), indicating a high degree of polymorphism. Thus, the 18 miniSTR loci can be suitable for recovering useful information for analyzing degraded forensic casework samples and for adding supplementary genetic information for a variety of analyses involving closely related individuals where there is a need for additional genetic information.

  17. A preliminary study of new single polymorphisms in the T helper type 17 pathway for psoriasis in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Hur, M S; Choi, B G; Kim, M J; Lee, Y W; Choe, Y B; Ahn, K J

    2017-02-01

    Psoriasis is a polygenic and multi-factorial disease showing ethnic differences in terms of its severity and frequency. Therapies targeting interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and Janus kinases (JAKs) are in clinical development for the treatment of psoriasis, and their success suggests the essential role of these molecules in psoriasis. To investigate the genetic susceptibility in T helper type 17 (Th17) cell signal transduction pathways for promoting psoriasis, we performed candidate gene and linkage disequilibrium analysis. In 208 patients and 266 normal controls, we analysed 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 genes (CAMP, IL17A, IL17F, IL17RA, IL22, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT3, TLR7, TLR9 and TYK2; abbreviations: CAMP, human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide; STAT-3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TYK2, tyrosine kinase 2). Patients with psoriasis showed a strong association for IL17F rs763780 [odds ratio (OR) = 3·27, P = 0·04], which results in a histidine-to-arginine substitution, and JAK2 rs2274471 (OR = 2·66, P = 0·02). In addition, JAK2 rs7849191 showed a protective pattern, met the significance threshold (OR = 0·77, P = 0·05) and showed a tendency for an inverse association with the frequency of early-onset psoriasis under age 40 years (P = 0·07). In haplotype analysis, JAK1 rs310241A/rs2780889T showed a protective effect (OR = 0·73, P = 0·03) in psoriasis. In conclusion, we report two new psoriasis-susceptibility loci, in IL17F and JAK2, as well as a newly identified late-onset associated protective JAK2 locus and a protective JAK1 haplotype in the Korean population. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  18. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moonjung; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60–79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period. PMID:28346495

  19. The association of resting heart rate with diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in the Korean adult population: The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyuk In; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-04-01

    Investigate the association of resting heart rate (RHR) with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in a data set that represents the whole Korean adult population. The data of 18,640 adults, that represent the whole Korean adult population, was used to examine the association of resting heart rate (RHR) with blood related variables, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Compared to participants with a RHR of <60 beats per minute (bpm), participants with a RHR of ≥90 bpm had higher odds of diabetes {3.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-6.90], 3.34 (95% CI 1.83-6.10)} and metabolic syndrome [3.55 (95% CI 2.19-5.74), 2.15 (95% CI 1.37-3.35)], for men and women, respectively. Furthermore, compared to the participants with normal BMI (<23 kg/m(2)) normal RHR (<80 bpm), participants with high BMI (≥23 kg/m(2)) high RHR (≥80 bpm) had higher odds of diabetes [2.51 (95% CI 1.83-3.46), 4.89 (95% CI 3.63-6.58)], hypertension [3.88 (95% CI 3.00-5.01), 2.61 (95% CI 2.07-3.28)], and metabolic syndrome [9.67 (95% CI 7.42-12.61), 13.09 (95% CI 10.25-16.73)], for men and women, respectively. RHR shows a positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The combined association of RHR with BMI increases the potency of RHR as a marker of diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. This study shows that RHR has an important role to play as a potential clinical measurement and prognostic marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between blood lead levels and blood pressures in a non-smoking healthy Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Rae; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun; Kim, Kyoung Kon

    2017-09-01

    in a healthy Korean population, irrespective of sociodemographic factors and metabolic derangements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Facial soft-tissue analysis of Korean adults with normal occlusion using a 3-dimensional laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Baik, Hyoung-Seon; Jeon, Jai-Min; Lee, Hwa-Jin

    2007-06-01

    Developments in computer technology have made the 3-dimensional (3D) diagnosis of facial soft tissues possible, opening the window for 3D soft-tissue evaluation in orthodontic treatment planning and posttreatment results. Korean adults (30 men, 30 women) with normal occlusion were scanned with a 3D laser scanner, and 3D facial images were made with the Rapidform 2004 program (Inus Technology, Seoul, Korea). Reference planes in the facial soft tissues of the 3D image were established, and a 3D coordinate system (X-axis, left/right; Y-axis, superior/inferior; Z-axis, anterior/posterior) was established; 29 measurement points were assigned on the 3D image, and 39 linear measurements, 8 angular measurements, and 29 linear distance ratios were obtained. Significant differences between the sexes were found in nasofrontal angle (men, 142 degrees; women, 147 degrees) and transverse nasal prominence (men, 112 degrees; women, 116 degrees) (P <.05). Transverse upper lip prominence was 107 degrees in the men and 106 degrees in the women, and transverse mandibular prominence was 76 degrees in both sexes. The distance between lower lip vermilion border (Li) and Me' was 0.4 times mandibular body length (Me' - Go'), and mouth height was also 0.4 times the mouth width. The linear distance ratios from the coronal reference plane to fronto-temporal point, zygomatic point, pronasale, upper lip point, labrale inferior, and soft-tissue menton were -1, -1, 1, 0.5, 0.5, and -0.6, respectively. These data could be guidelines for the 3D evaluation of the facial image, because the 3D facial model constructed by the averaged coordinate values could be a template for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

  2. The impact of differences between subjective and objective social class on life satisfaction among the Korean population in early old age: Analysis of Korean longitudinal study on aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between employment status and obesity in a Korean elderly population, based on the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Yong-Jae; Linton, John A; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between employment status and obesity prevalence in an elderly Korean, using a nationally representative sample. This cross-sectional study included 2991 participants (1396 men and 1595 women) aged 60 years or older. Employment status was categorized into full-time employees, part-time employees, and an unemployed group, based on a self-reported questionnaire. According to Asia Pacific regional guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI)≥25kg/m(2). Mean BMI in women was highest in the unemployed group, whereas the mean BMI in men did not differ significantly between employment groups. The obesity prevalence in full-time employees, part-time employees, and the unemployed group were 25.1%, 25.5%, and 27.1% in men and 36.0%, 37.9%, and 40.4% in women, respectively. Compared to the full-time employees, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) for obesity were 1.172 (0.765-1.795) and 1.164 (0.843-1.609) in the part-time employees, and 1.451 (1.054-1.999) and 1.399 (1.090-1.795) in the unemployed group, for men and women, respectively, after adjusting for age, lifestyle factors (physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, daily calorie intake), socioeconomic factors (education level and household income), and inflammatory factor (white blood cell (WBC) counts). Unemployment appears to be significantly related to a higher prevalence risk of obesity in an elderly Korean population, regardless of age, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and inflammatory factor.

  4. Blood selenium status in normal Punjabi population of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Farrakh M; Chaudhri, Mohammad Anwar; Watling, John; Hasnain, Shahida

    2011-10-01

    Selenium concentrations in the blood of 112 (56 females and 56 males) normal subjects, from different regions of the Punjab (Pakistan), have been determined using the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The whole blood selenium concentrations were found to be 452 ± 12 ppb (parts per billion or nano-gram of Se per gram freeze-dried blood or 96 ± 3 μg/L ), with 470 ± 16 ppb (or 100 ± 4 μg/L) in female and 435 ± 16 ppb (or 92 ± 4 μg/L) in male population. Compared with other populations of the world [corrected] these levels are similar with the exception of the low-selenium-region of China. [corrected].

  5. Family history of gastric cancer is associated with the risk of colorectal neoplasia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Kim, Nam Hee; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Park, Soo-Kyung; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il

    2017-10-01

    Family history of cancers at different sites except for colorectum has not been evaluated as a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). To investigate CRN risk according to family history of cancers at 12 different sites, including stomach and colorectum. A cross-sectional study was performed on 139,497 asymptomatic Koreans who underwent colonoscopy as part of a health check-up. The mean age of the study population was 41.6 and the prevalence of CRN was 16.3%. Multivariate analyses revealed that family histories of CRC (adjusted odds ratio; confidence interval, 1.26; 1.17-1.35) and gastric cancer (1.07; 1.01-1.13) were independent risk factors for CRN. Notably, the risk of CRN increased even more for participants with family histories of both CRC and gastric cancer (1.38; 1.12-1.70). Family history of CRC was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged both <50 and ≥50 years, whereas family history of gastric cancer was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged <50 years (1.22; 1.14-1.30), but not in participants aged ≥50 years (1.08; 0.99-1.18). Family history of gastric cancer was an independent risk factor for CRN, especially in those aged <50years. Persons with family histories of gastric cancer and CRC, especially those with family histories of both, may need to begin colonoscopy earlier. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with periodontal disease in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Wook; Han, Seung Yeop; Lim, Sung Bin; Cho, Kyu Bong; Ban, Ju Yeon

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the core enzyme in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which catalyzes the production of angiotensin II (Ang II). The aim of this study was to determine whether ACE gene is associated with the development of the periodontal disease. To investigate whether ACE is involved in the development of the periodontal disease, 199 periodontal disease patients and 165 control subjects were studied. The ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). SNPStats and SPSS 18.0 were used for the analysis of genetic data. Logistic regression models were performed to determine odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P value. Genotypic frequencies of I/I, I/D, and D/D were 25.4%, 42.3%, and 32.3% vs. 35.3%, 41.7%, and 23.1% (periodontal disease group vs. control group), respectively. In the genotype analysis of the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism, codominant and log-additive models both showed significant association with periodontal disease [OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.05-3.61, P=0.036 in the codominant model (I/I vs. D/D); OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02-1.90, P = 0.034 in the log-additive model (I/I vs. I/D vs. D/D)]. These results suggest that the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism may be associated with the susceptibility to the periodontal disease in the Korean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association study between growth hormone receptor (GHR ) gene polymorphisms and obesity in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seung-Ae

    2016-01-01

    A main target of growth hormone (GH) is adipose tissue in human body. The GH secretion in obesity patients is impaired. It is needless to say that growth hormone receptor (GHR) is necessary in GH hormone signaling. The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development of obesity. A total of 211 overweight/obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2 and 157 nonoverweight/obese controls with a BMI of 18.5–23.0 kg/m2 were involved in this study. Seven SNPs including the rs6451620 (intron), rs4130114 (intron), rs4410646 (intron), rs6898743 (intron), rs4394131 (intron), rs6182 (Cys440Phe), and rs6184 (Pro579Thr) and rs2229765 SNPs of GHR gene were genotyped. Genotyping was performed using custom DNA chip. SNPStats was used to calculate the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P-value. The link-age disequilibrium block and haplotypes among seven SNPs were determined using Haploview version 4.2. Dominant, recessive, and log-additive genetic models were conducted for genetic analyzing. Among tested SNPs in GHR gene, rs4410646 and rs6898743 showed significant association with obesity (rs4410646, P=0.02 in dominant model and P=0.036 in log-additive model; rs6898743, P=0.039 in dominant model and P=0.044 in log-additive model). In summary, these results suggest that GHR gene polymorphisms might play a role in the development of obesity in the Korean population. PMID:28119888

  8. Polymorphism of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Affects the Clinical Phenotypes of Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Su Kang; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Je, Goun; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Seung Joon; Yeo, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2293054 [Ile734Ile], rs1047735 [His902His], rs2293044 [Val1353Val], rs2682826 (3'UTR) of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke. Methods We enrolled 120 ischemic stroke patients and 314 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (NIHSS, <6 and ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI, <60 and ≥60). SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, and HelixTree programs were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to analyze genetic data. Results No SNPs of the NOS1 gene were found to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2293054 was associated with the NIHSS scores of ischemic stroke patients in codominant (p=0.019), dominant (p=0.007), overdominant (p=0.033), and log-additive (p=0.0048) models. Also, rs2682826 revealed a significant association in the recessive model (p=0.034). In allele frequency analysis, we also found that the T alleles of rs2293054 were associated with lower NIHSS scores (p=0.007). Respectively, rs2293054 had a significant association in the MBI scores of ischemic stroke in codominant (p=0.038), dominant (p=0.031), overdominant (p=0.045), and log-additive (p=0.04) models. Conclusion These results suggest that NOS1 may be related to the clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korean population. PMID:26949676

  9. The genetic effect of copy number variations on the risk of alcoholism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joon Seol; Jung, Myung Hun; Lee, Boung Chul; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Lee, Jin Sol; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by excessive alcohol consumption, has been a leading cause of morbidity and premature death. This condition is believed to be influenced by genetic factors. As copy number variation (CNV) has been recently discovered in human genome, genomic diversity of human genome is more frequent than previously thought. Many studies have reported evidences that CNV is associated with the development of complex diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that CNV can predict the risk of alcoholism. Using the Illumina HumanHap660W-Quad BeadChip (∼660 k markers), genome-wide genotyping was performed to obtain signal and allelic intensities from 116 alcoholic cases and 1,022 healthy controls (total n = 1,138) in a Korean population. To identify alcoholism-associated CNV regions, we performed a genome-wide association analysis, using multivariate logistic regression model controlling for age and gender. We identified a total of 255,732 individual CNVs and 3,261 CNV regions (1,067 common CNV regions, frequency > 1%) in this study. Results from multivariate logistic regression showed that the chr20:61195302-61195978 regions were significantly associated with the risk of alcoholism after multiple corrections (p = 5.02E-05, p(corr) = 0.04). Most of the identified variations in this study overlapped with the previously reported CNVs in the Database of Genomic Variants (95.3%). The identified CNVs, which encompassed 3,226 functional genes, were significantly enriched in the cellular part, in the membrane-bound organelle, in the cell part, in developmental processes, in cell communication, in neurological system process, in sensory perception of smell and chemical stimulus, and in olfactory receptor activity. This is the first genome-wide association study to investigate the relationship between common CNV and alcoholism. Our results suggest that the newly identified CNV regions may contribute to the development of alcoholism

  10. Epidermal growth factor gene polymorphism is different between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Jong-Woo; Song, Ji Young; Hong, Mee-Suk; Jin, Sheng-Yu; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Park, Hae Jeong; Choe, Bong-Keun; Lee, Jung Joo; Yim, Sung-Vin; Hong, Seok-Il; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Ha, Eunyoung; Park, Yeon Hee

    2005-02-21

    Low incidence of cancer in schizophrenia is one of the interesting puzzles in psychiatric field over decades. Analysis of genetic difference between schizophrenia and lung cancer might provide us with possible clues to understand molecular mechanisms of pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), one of the potent growth promoting factors, has been studied for its roles in cancer development. EGF is also known to be involved in cognitive function. In order to analyze the genetic difference between schizophrenia and lung cancer, polymorphism of EGF gene was studied from 174 schizophrenia patients, 122 lung cancer patients and 132 controls in Korean population. Genotype frequency analysis of EGF gene (AluI restriction site, 5'-UTR, rs4444903) in the EGF gene was studied. The genotype and allele frequencies of the AluI polymorphism showed significant differences between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients [p<0.0001; p<0.0001, odds ratio (95% CI), 0.3690 (0.2600-0.5236)]. When compared with controls, schizophrenia patients showed no significant differences from controls in genotype and allele frequencies [p=0.5151; p=0.3516, odds ratio (95% CI), 0.8589 (0.6235-1.1830)]. However, lung cancer patients showed significant differences from controls in genotype and allele frequencies [p<0.0001; p<0.0001, odds ratio (95% CI), 2.3275 (1.6082-3.3687)]. These results indicate that schizophrenia is not associated with AluI polymorphism of EGF gene and EGF gene polymorphism is different between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients.

  11. Genome-wide association study with the risk of schizophrenia in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Park, Byung Lae; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Namgoong, Suhg; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Shin, Joong-Gon; Park, Chul Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Hwang, Jaeuk; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Woo, Sung-Il

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is regarded as a multifactorial and polygenic brain disorder that is attributed to different combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have identified numerous risk factors, but the replication results remain controversial and ambiguous. To identify schizophrenia susceptibility loci in the Korean population, we performed a GWAS using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad V1.0 Microarray. We genotyped 1,140,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 350 Korea schizophrenia patients and 700 control subjects, and approximately 620,001 autosomal SNPs were passed our quality control. In the case-control analysis, the rs9607195 A>G on intergenic area 250 kb away from the ISX gene and the rs12738007 A>G on the intron of the MECR gene were the most strongly associated SNPs with the risk of schizophrenia (P = 6.2 × 10(-8) , OR = 0.50 and P = 3.7 × 10(-7) , OR = 2.39, respectively). In subsequent fine-mapping analysis, 6 SNPs of MECR were genotyped with 310 schizophrenia patients and 604 control subjects. The association of the MECR rs12738007, a top ranked-SNP in GWAS, was replicated (P = 1.5 × 10(-2) , OR = 1.53 in fine mapping analysis, P = 1.5 × 10(-6) , OR = 1.90 in combined analysis). The identification of putative schizophrenia susceptibility loci could provide new insights into genetic factors related with schizophrenia and clues for the development of diagnosis strategies.

  12. Comparing Results of Five Glomerular Filtration Rate-Estimating Equations in the Korean General Population: MDRD Study, Revised Lund-Malmö, and Three CKD-EPI Equations

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Misuk; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Hyesun; Cho, Han-Ik; Yang, Hyun Suk; Navarin, Silvia; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a widely used index of kidney function. Recently, new formulas such as the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations or the Lund-Malmö equation were introduced for assessing eGFR. We compared them with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in the Korean adult population. Methods The study population comprised 1,482 individuals (median age 51 [42-59] yr, 48.9% males) who received annual physical check-ups during the year 2014. Serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (CysC) were measured. We conducted a retrospective analysis using five GFR estimating equations (MDRD Study, revised Lund-Malmö, and Cr and/or CysC-based CKD-EPI equations). Reduced GFR was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results For the GFR category distribution, large discrepancies were observed depending on the equation used; category G1 (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) ranged from 7.4-81.8%. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, the other four equations overestimated GFR, and CysC-based equations showed a greater difference (-31.3 for CKD-EPICysC and -20.5 for CKD-EPICr-CysC). CysC-based equations decreased the prevalence of reduced GFR by one third (9.4% in the MDRD Study and 2.4% in CKD-EPICysC). Conclusions Our data shows that there are remarkable differences in eGFR assessment in the Korean population depending on the equation used, especially in normal or mildly decreased categories. Further prospective studies are necessary in various clinical settings. PMID:27578504

  13. Sensory dynamics of visual hallucinations in the normal population

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Joel; Chiou, Rocco; Rogers, Sebastian; Wicken, Marcus; Heitmann, Stewart; Ermentrout, Bard

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations occur in both normal and clinical populations. Due to their unpredictability and complexity, the mechanisms underlying hallucinations remain largely untested. Here we show that visual hallucinations can be induced in the normal population by visual flicker, limited to an annulus that constricts content complexity to simple moving grey blobs, allowing objective mechanistic investigation. Hallucination strength peaked at ~11 Hz flicker and was dependent on cortical processing. Hallucinated motion speed increased with flicker rate, when mapped onto visual cortex it was independent of eccentricity, underwent local sensory adaptation and showed the same bistable and mnemonic dynamics as sensory perception. A neural field model with motion selectivity provides a mechanism for both hallucinations and perception. Our results demonstrate that hallucinations can be studied objectively, and they share multiple mechanisms with sensory perception. We anticipate that this assay will be critical to test theories of human consciousness and clinical models of hallucination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17072.001 PMID:27726845

  14. Attenuation Tomography of Northern California and the Yellow Sea / Korean Peninsula from Coda-source Normalized and Direct Lg Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L

    2008-07-16

    Inversions for regional attenuation (1/Q) of Lg are performed in two different regions. The path attenuation component of the Lg spectrum is isolated using the coda-source normalization method, which corrects the Lg spectral amplitude for the source using the stable, coda-derived source spectra. Tomographic images of Northern California agree well with one-dimensional (1-D) Lg Q estimated from five different methods. We note there is some tendency for tomographic smoothing to increase Q relative to targeted 1-D methods. For example in the San Francisco Bay Area, which contains high attenuation relative to the rest of it's region, Q is over-estimated by {approx}30. Coda-source normalized attenuation tomography is also carried out for the Yellow Sea/Korean Peninsula (YSKP) where output parameters (site, source, and path terms) are compared with those from the amplitude tomography method of Phillips et al. (2005) as well as a new method that ties the source term to the MDAC formulation (Walter and Taylor, 2001). The source terms show similar scatter between coda-source corrected and MDAC source perturbation methods, whereas the amplitude method has the greatest correlation with estimated true source magnitude. The coda-source better represents the source spectra compared to the estimated magnitude and could be the cause of the scatter. The similarity in the source terms between the coda-source and MDAC-linked methods shows that the latter method may approximate the effect of the former, and therefore could be useful in regions without coda-derived sources. The site terms from the MDAC-linked method correlate slightly with global Vs30 measurements. While the coda-source and amplitude ratio methods do not correlate with Vs30 measurements, they do correlate with one another, which provides confidence that the two methods are consistent. The path Q{sup -1} values are very similar between the coda-source and amplitude ratio methods except for small differences in the Da

  15. Risk Factors for Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Shin, Gwang Rae; Choi, Young Je

    2017-04-01

    To determine the risk factors for non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in Korean patients, medical records from 45 Korean patients group and 45 healthy controls group were retrospectively reviewed. 10 NAION risk factors, including age, sex, associated systemic disease, past medical/social history, and fundus findings were analyzed. Significant risk factors for NAION in Korean patients were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) = 3.613, p = 0.020), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 5.200, p = 0.001), smoking (OR = 3.58, p = 0.014), microaneurysm/haemorrhage (OR = 5.375, p = 0.024), and crowded small cup (OR = 17.200, p < 0.001).

  16. Evaluation of root anatomy of permanent mandibular premolars and molars in a Korean population with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Beom; Kim, NamRyang; Park, Seojin; Kim, Yoonji; Ko, Youngkyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the root/number of roots and morphology of mandibular premolars and molars in a Korean population, and to evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars having distolingual (DL) roots, three-rooted mandibular second molars, and C-shaped roots in mandibular second molars. Methods: Serial axial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the mandibles were collected from 430 Korean patients. The total number of roots in the mandibular premolars and molars was counted, and the incidence and the correlations between left- and right-side occurrences and between males and females were analyzed. Results: The majority of mandibular first premolars and second premolars had one root (99.9% and 99.4%, respectively). Three-fourth of first molars (77.4%) had one mesial and one distal root, and the incidence of a three-rooted tooth having DL root was 22.3%. A little more than half the number of mandibular second molars (54.5%) were two-rooted. Finally, 2.3% of the second molars had three roots having one DL root, and 41.3% had C-shaped roots. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars and C-shaped roots in mandibular second molars among a Korean population, detected using CBCT, and the results showed similarities with previous reports about other Asian populations. It may be suggested that CBCT is a practical method of evaluating the number and shape of teeth. Data regarding the occurrence and morphology of the roots may provide useful information to dental practitioners. PMID:23407684

  17. The relationship between Lewis/Secretor genotypes and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Doo; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Ki, Chang-Seok; Han, Kyou Sup; Kim, Jin Q

    2010-02-01

    The Lewis histo-blood group system consists of 2 major antigens-Lea and Leb-and a sialyl Lewis antigen-carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9. We investigated the distribution of Lewis genotypes and evaluated the relationship between the Lewis/Secretor genotypes and the serum level of CA 19-9 in a Korean population to identify whether the serum CA 19-9 levels are influenced by the Lewis/Secretor genotypes. The study included 242 individuals who had no malignancies. Lewis genotyping was performed for the 59T>G, 508G>A and 1067T>A polymorphic sites. The Secretor genotype was determined through analysis of the 357C>T and 385A>T polymorphic sites and the fusion gene. Serum CA 19-9 level was analyzed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Individuals carrying the 3 common genotypes-Le/Le, Le/le(59,508), and Le/le(59,1067)-accounted for 95% of the study population. In the Korean population, the allelic frequencies of Le, Le(59), le(59,508), and le(59,1067) were 0.731, 0.010, 0.223, and 0.035, respectively. We found a significant difference in serum CA 19-9 concentrations among the 9 Lewis/Secretor genotype groups (P<0.001). The serum CA 19-9 levels in subjects with genotype groups 1 and 2 (Le/- and se/se) were higher than those with genotype groups 3-6 (Le/- and Se/-; 15.63 vs 6.64 kU/L, P<0.001). Le/Le, Le/le(59,508), and Le/le(59,1067) are frequent Lewis genotypes in Koreans. Because serum CA 19-9 levels are significantly influenced by the Lewis/Secretor genotypes, caution is suggested when interpreting the serum CA 19-9 levels.

  18. Dream-Enacting Behaviors in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Svob, Connie; Kuiken, Don

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the prevalence and gender distributions of behaviors enacted during dreaming (“dream-enacting [DE] behaviors”) in a normal population; the independence of such behaviors from other parasomnias; and the influence of different question wordings, socially desirable responding and personality on prevalence. Design: 3-group questionnaire study Setting: University classrooms Participants: Three undergraduate samples (Ns = 443, 201, 496; mean ages = 19.9 ± 3.2 y; 20.1 ± 3.4 y; 19.1 ± 1.6 y) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Subjects completed questionnaires about DE behaviors and Social Desirability. Study 1 employed a nonspecific question about the behaviors, Study 2 employed the same question with examples, and Study 3 employed 7 questions describing specific behavior subtypes (speaking, crying, smiling/laughing, fear, anger, movement, sexual arousal). Somnambulism, somniloquy, nightmares, dream recall, alexithymia, and absorption were also assessed. Factor analyses were conducted to determine relationships among DE behaviors and their independence from other parasomnias. Prevalence increased with increasing question specificity (35.9%, 76.7%, and 98.2% for the 3 samples). No gender difference obtained for the nonspecific question, but robust differences occurred for more specific questions. Females reported more speaking, crying, fear and smiling/laughing than did males; males reported more sexual arousal. When controlling other parasomnias and dream recall frequency, these differences persisted. Factor solutions revealed that DE behaviors were independent of other parasomnias and of dream recall frequency, except for an association between dream-talking and somniloquy. Sexual arousal was related only to age. Behaviors were independent of alexithymia but moderately related to absorption. Conclusions: Dream-enacting behaviors are prevalent in healthy subjects and sensitive to question wording but not social desirability

  19. National survey of prevalent HIV strains: limited genetic variation of Korean HIV-1 clade B within the population of Korean men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gab Jung; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Shin, Bo Gyeong; Kee, Mee Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of HIV is the result of an explosive combination of factors-a high rate of mutation, replication dynamics, frequent recombination, and natural selection. To understand the evolution of the distinctive Korean HIV-1 B clade, we investigated the characteristics of the genetic variation of the HIV-1 subtype B env gene within the group of Korean men who have sex with men (MSM). From 1985 to 2005, 700 HIV-1-infected Koreans were sequenced at the V1 to V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, 560 isolates were identified as HIV-1 subtype B, and 489 of the 560 isolates were HIV-1 Korean clade B. Based on epidemiologic investigation, 249 of 700 HIV-1-infected patients were HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM. Interestingly, the proportion of the GPGS motif in MSM infected by Koreans was 1.6 times higher than in MSM infected by foreigners, and the genetic expansions of diversity and divergence for HIV-1 subtype B in Korean MSM were 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. This was much lower than those observed in other countries. Therefore, our findings imply that the HIV strains in this group were closely related. This result may be helpful for understanding the evolution of the distinct HIV-1 Korean B clade.

  20. [Species composition and main populations spatial distribution pattern in Korean pine broadleaved forest in Xiaoxing' An Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Ya; Wang, Li-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Korean pine broadleaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the species composition and diameter class structure, and by using point pattern analysis, analyzed the spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of the main populations. In the Reserve, there were a total of 16 species with diameter greater than 1 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. Coniferous trees such as Pinus koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis were dominant. The diameter class structure of the populations presented as an inverse "J" curve, indicating a good regeneration across the community. The main populations were mostly in aggregated distribution pattern, except that the P. koraiensis populations at the scales of 19-21 m and 44 m as well as the Acer tegmentosum populations close to the largest research scale were in random distribution. The P. koraiensis populations at all research scales were approximately in random distribution, and had the minimum aggregation. A. nephrolepis, Tilia amurensis, and A. tegmentosum populations all presented a random distribution trend. Except that the P. koraiensis and A. nephrolepis at 2-3 m scale and the A. nephrolepis and A. tegmentosum populations at 37-81 m scale had significant positive association, no significant associations were observed between other populations. All the tree species presented an overall non-significant positive association.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in the korean population: results of the fifth KoreaNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Ju Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ≥10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ≥65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed.

  2. Anthropometric indices as predictors of hypertension among men and women aged 40-69 years in the Korean population: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Won; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Baek, Tae-Hwa; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-02-13

    Obesity is one of the most significant risk factors for hypertension. However, there is controversy regarding which measure is the best predictor of hypertension risk. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in subjects as predictive indicators for development of hypertension. The data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), a large population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 4,454 subjects (2,128 men and 2,326 women) aged 40-69 years who did not have hypertension at baseline were included in this study. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or anti-hypertensive medication use during the 4-year follow up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare discrimination abilities for anthropometric indices for hypertension. Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, diabetes and family history of hypertension by sexes. In men, the area under the ROC curve (AROC) was 0.62 for WC, WHR, and WHtR and 0.58 for BMI. In women, the AROCs for BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were 0.57, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.68, respectively. After adjustment for risk factors, a 1 standard deviation increase in BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were significantly related to incident hypertension, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.39, 1.50, 1.40 and 1.49 in men, 1.31, 1.44, 1.35 and 1.48 in women). The central obesity indices WC, WHR, and WHtR were better than BMI for the prediction of hypertension in middle-aged Korean people. WHtR facilitates prediction of incident hypertension because of the single standard regardless of sex, ethnicity, and age group. Therefore, WHtR is recommended as a screening tool for the prediction of hypertension.

  3. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API® strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. PMID:24151137

  4. Comparative study of normal and sensitive skin aerobic bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Hillion, Mélanie; Mijouin, Lily; Jaouen, Thomas; Barreau, Magalie; Meunier, Pauline; Lefeuvre, Luc; Lati, Elian; Chevalier, Sylvie; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the sensitive skin syndrome, a frequent skin disorder characterized by abnormal painful reactions to environmental factors in the absence of visible inflammatory response, could be linked to a modification in the skin bacterial population. A total of 1706 bacterial isolates was collected at the levels of the forehead, cheekbone, inner elbow, and lower area of the scapula on the skin of normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers of both sexes and of different ages. Among these isolates, 21 strains were randomly selected to validate in a first step the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)-Biotyper process as an efficient identification tool at the group and genus levels, by comparison to API(®) strips and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identification techniques. In a second step, identification of the skin microbiota isolates by the MALDI-Biotyper tool allowed to pinpoint some differences in terms of bacterial diversity with regard to the collection area, and the volunteer's age and gender. Finally, comparison of the skin microbiota from normal and sensitive skin syndrome-suffering volunteers pointed out gender-related variations but no detectable correlation between a phylum, a genus or a dominant bacterial species and the sensitive skin phenotype. This study reveals that there is no dysbiosis of aerobic cultivable bacteria associated with the sensitive skin syndrome and further demonstrates that the MALDI-Biotyper is a powerful technique that can be efficiently employed to the study of cultivable human skin bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on bacteria in the sensitive skin syndrome. These results are of potential importance for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, which are looking for new strategies to treat this multiparametric disorder. © 2013 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cancer screening rate in diabetic patients in the Korean Population; Results from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Chuck, Kumban Walter; Hwang, Minji; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Boyoung

    2017-08-10

    To investigate the screening rate for gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in people with diabetes compared with people without diabetes. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2007-2009 was used. Cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over and women who were 30 years old and over were included. Lifetime screening rate and regular screening rate were compared in people with and without diabetes. People with diabetes received less cancer screening than people without diabetes in their lifetime (53.5% vs 59.5, p=0.0009 for gastric, 60.5% vs 71.5%, p<0.0001 for breast, and 49.1% vs 59.6%, p<0.0001 for cervical cancer). People with diabetes received lower recommended screening than people without diabetes in gastric (38.9% vs 42.9%, p=0.0003), breast (38.8% vs 44.6%, p<0.0001), and cervical cancer (35.1% vs 51.2%, p=<0.0001). When the sub-group analyses was done with respect to socioeconomic factors, there was a significant lower ever screening and recommended screening rate in diabetic population in most socioeconomic sub-groups. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for socioeconomic factors, people with diabetes showed less ever screening rate for gastric and cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.7-0.9; OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6-0.9), and lower regular screening rate in breast and cervical cancer (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6-0.9; OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5-0.9). Cancer screening rate in people with diabetes was lower than in people without diabetes. Considering the higher cancer risk in people with diabetes efforts to increase screening rate in these high risk group populations should be implemented.

  6. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu Jin; Kang, Suk-Hoon; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma.

  7. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  8. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  9. Metabolic markers associated with insulin resistance predict type 2 diabetes in Koreans with normal blood pressure or prehypertension.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Min-Ju; Reaven, Gerald

    2016-03-22

    Questions remain as to the association between essential hypertension and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The premise of this analysis is that insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia is a major predictor of T2DM, and the greater the prevalence of insulin resistance within any population, normotensive or hypertensive, the more likely T2DM will develop. The hypothesis to be tested is that surrogate estimates of insulin resistance will predict incident T2DM to a significant degree in persons with normal blood pressure or prehypertension. Analysis of data from a population-based survey of 10, 038 inhabitants of rural and urban areas of Korea, ≥40 years-old, initiated in 2001, with measures of demographic and metabolic characteristics at baseline and 8-years later. Participants were classified as having normal blood pressure or prehypertension, and three simple manifestations of insulin resistance related to the pathophysiology of T2DM used to predict incident T2DM: (1) glycemia (plasma glucose concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PG); (2) hyperinsulinemia (plasma insulin concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PI); and (3) dyslipidemia (ratio of fasting plasma triglyceride/high/density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration = TG/HDL-C ratio). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95 % CI) for incident T2DM were highest (P < 0.001) in the quartile of individuals with the highest 2-hour PG concentrations, ranging from 5.84 (3.37-10.1) in women with prehypertension to 12.2 (7.12-21.00) in men with normal blood pressure. T2DM also developed to a significantly greater degree in subjects within the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C ratios, with HRs varying from 2.91 (1.63-2.58) in women with prehypertension (P < 0.001) to 1.77 (1.12-2.81, P < 0.05) in men with prehypertension. The least predictive index of insulin resistance was the 2-hour PI concentration. Subjects with normal blood pressure in the highest

  10. Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body 2008: 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine in urine of the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Sul, Donggeun; Ahn, Ryoungme; Im, Hosub; Oh, Eunha; Kim, Jae Hyoun; Kim, Jin Gyoung; Kim, PanGyi; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Park, Won Yeul; Son, Bu Soon; Shin, Daeyewn; Shim, Ae-Sug; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Kee Jae; Lee, Sun-dong; Lee, Jong Wha; Lee, Chae Kwan; Jang, Bong-Ki; Choi, Kyungho; Han, Don-Hee; Hwang, Moon-Young; Lee, Jin Heon

    2012-10-01

    The Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body conducts representative Korean population studies, which were first initiated in 2005 in Korea. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2009 to determine the exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general population. The study population consisted of 4702 adult subjects from 196 sampling locations including coastal, rural, and urban areas. The urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine were measured for exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine. The geometric means of the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol and cotinine concentrations in the Korean general population were 0.15 μg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.17), 3.84 μg/L (95% CI: 3.57-4.11) and 47.42 μg/L (95% CI: 40.52-54.32) respectively. When these values were compared with reference ranges for the United States and Germany, the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine were very similar for Korea and Germany, however, these levels were slightly lower in the United States. This study is the first nationwide survey of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in Korea and provides a background reference range for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative analysis of SMN1 gene and estimation of SMN1 deletion carrier frequency in Korean population based on real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Mi; Kim, Sang-Wun; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Jin, Hyun-Seok; Koo, Soo Kyung; Jo, Inho; Kang, Seongman; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2004-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by homozygous absence of the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1) in approximately 94% of patients. Since most carriers have only one SMN1 gene copy, several SMN1 quantitative analyses have been used for the SMA carrier detection. We developed a reliable quantitative real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye and studied 13 patients with SMA and their 24 parents, as well as 326 healthy normal individuals. The copy number of the SMN1 gene was determined by the comparative threshold cycle (Ct) method and albumin was used as a reference gene. The homozygous SMN1 deletion ratio of patients was 0.00 and the hemizygous SMN1 deletion ratio of parents ranged from 0.39 to 0.59. The deltadelta Ct ratios of 7 persons among 326 normal individuals were within the carrier range, 0.41-0.57. According to these data, we estimated the carrier and disease prevalence of SMA at 1/47 and 1/8,496 in Korean population, respectively. These data indicated that there would be no much difference in disease prevalence of SMA compared with western countries. Since the prevalence of SMA is higher than other autosomal recessive disorders, the carrier detection method using real-time PCR could be a useful tool for genetic counseling.

  12. Population plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its active metabolite S18982 in healthy Korean volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Youn; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Choe, Sangmin; Jung, Jin Ah; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Ivabradine, a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current (If ), is used for heart failure and coronary heart disease and is mainly metabolized to S18982. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ivabradine and S18982 in healthy Korean volunteers. Subjects in a phase I study were randomized to receive 2.5, 5, or 10 mg of ivabradine administered every 12 hours for 4.5 days, and serial plasma and urine concentrations of ivabradine and S18982 were measured. The plasma PK of ivabradine was best described by a 2-compartment model with mixed 0- and first-order absorption, linked to a 2-compartment model for S18982. The introduction of interoccasional variabilities and period as covariate into absorption-related parameters improved the model fit. Urine data have been applied to estimate renal and nonrenal clearance, enabling a more detailed description of the elimination process. We developed a population PK model describing the plasma and urine PK of ivabradine and S18982 in healthy Korean adult males. This model might be useful for predicting the plasma and urine PK of ivabradine, potentially helping to identify the optimal dosing regimens in various clinical situations.

  13. Disability and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly cancer survivors: Case-control study in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Kyung

    2016-10-01

    Advanced age is a significant risk factor for cancer and functional disabilities increase with age. The purpose of this case-control study of Korean individuals was to determine the effect of cancer and cancer treatment on functional disability and quality of life (QOL). Thus, we compared community-dwelling elderly cancer patients (ECPs) with individuals from the general elderly population (GEP) who never had diagnoses of cancer. We selected 1776 ECP who were at least 65 years-old from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1766 individuals from the GEP who closely resembled the ECPs. Functional disability was measured using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and QOL was measured by the EuroQol Group EQ-5D. ECPs were more dependent in preparation of food, doing laundry, and shopping (IADL scale), and in mobility and usual activities (EQ-5D). Although ECP had more problems with pain, discomfort, anxiety, and depression, they were more independent in self-care and handling of financial responsibilities. ECPs had multiple physical and psychological symptoms that adversely affected functional disability and QOL, but higher functional ability, such as self-care and handling of financial responsibilities. Promotion of self-care by ECPs is pivotal for effective management in community practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. No association of the MCP-1 promoter A-2518G polymorphism with bipolar disorder in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Roh, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Kyu Young; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Namyoung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2007-10-29

    It has been suggested that bipolar disorder is associated with altered immune function. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that influences both neural and immune functions. We thus hypothesized that MCP-1 may be related to the development or pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between the A-2518G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the MCP-1 promoter and bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder (n=183; bipolar I=145, bipolar II=38) and healthy controls (350) were recruited for the study. No significant allelic or genotypic association was detected between the A-2518G polymorphism and any sample of bipolar disorder patients. When we pooled the healthy controls and the cases of bipolar I disorder from previous Korean studies and this study, we again found no significant association. No significant difference in either allele frequency or genotype distribution was observed between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. There was no difference in the age at onset of bipolar disorder among the three genotype groups. Our data suggest that the A-2518G polymorphism of MCP-1 is not a major susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder in the Korean population. However, the physiological role of MCP-1 is highly suggestive of its being associated with bipolar disorder, and further analyses of other SNPs of MCP-1 remain to be performed.

  15. The Number of Teeth Is Inversely Associated With Metabolic Syndrome: A Korean Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun

    2017-09-01

    Objectives of this research are to determine the relationship between number of natural teeth and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a representative sample of the Korean population. From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 13,066 participants aged >19 years. The number of teeth was assessed by clinical oral examination. MetS was defined based on the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between number of teeth and MetS adjusted for the following criteria: 1) age; 2) sex; 3) income; 4) education; 5) toothbrushing frequency; 6) periodontitis; 7) smoking; 8) drinking; 9) physical activity; and 10) diabetes mellitus. The number of existing permanent teeth was inversely associated with MetS after controlling for all confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04 to 1.36 for 20 to 27 teeth; AOR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.67 for 0 to 19 teeth). Association between fewer teeth and MetS increased for individuals aged ≥40 years and for women. The number of teeth found is inversely proportional to occurrence of MetS.

  16. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene polymorphisms as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sun Young; Kim, Un Kyung; Cho, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hee Keun; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Nam Keun; Hwang, Seong Gyu

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer death in South Korea, but genetic susceptibility factors of HCC have not been examined extensively. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) play an essential role in both DNA synthesis and methylation and polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, 677C>T, 1298A>C and the MTRR gene, 66A>G, are associated with several types of malignancy. In this study, the allelic frequencies and genotype distribution of three polymorphisms in the MTHFR and MTRR genes from 96 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 201 controls were examined to assess the association between these polymorphisms and the development of HCC in this Korean population. The 66AG+GG (G allele-bearing) genotype of the MTRR gene was significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC (odds ratio, OR, 1.687; 95% confidence interval, CI=1.022-2.787). Moreover, the combination of MTHFR 1298AA/MTRR 66AG+GG (OR=1.854, 95% CI=1.005-3.420) and MTHFR 1298AC+CC/MTRR 66AG+GG (OR=2.733, 95% CI=1.195-6.249) showed a significant association with HCC risk. In the data classified by age and etiology, MTRR 66A>G over the age of 65 years, MTHFR 1298A>C under the age of 65 years and the MTRR 66AG+GG genotype in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients were increased risk factors for the disease. The MTHFR 1298A>C and the MTRR 66A>G genotypes were associated with an increased risk of HCC in this Korean population. Further studies involving larger and varied populations could provide a potential tool for cancer risk assessment in patients who are at risk of developing HCC.

  17. Evaluation of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density and Radiographic Hand and Knee Osteoarthritis in a Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kee Jeong; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Tae Kyun; Chang, Chong Bum; Jang, Hak Chul; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports on the relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA) have tended to disagree, especially in non-weight bearing joints such as the hand joints. We aimed to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and hand and knee OA in a general Korean elderly population. Methods We evaluated femur neck BMD and the hand and knee radiographs of 143 men and 123 women over 65 years of age who participated in a population-based cohort study. The Kellgren-Lawrence criteria for grading OA were implemented, and grade 2 or higher were categorized as radiographic OA. BMD was compared according to the existence of radiographic OA in the hand and knee using analysis of covariance, and correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between BMD and radiographic OA grade. Results After controlling for age and body mass index, there was no significant difference in BMD between participants with and without hand OA (p = 0.717 in male and p = 0.862 in female), between those with and without knee OA (p = 0.974 in male and p = 0.563 in female), and between those with only hand OA and those with only knee OA (p = 0.920 in male and p = 0.961 in female). Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between BMD and the radiographic OA grade of the hands (p = 0.182 in male and p = 0.897 in female) and knees (p = 0.245 in male and p = 0.098 in female). Conclusions In our cohort of the general Korean elderly population, no association was found between osteoporosis and OA, regardless of the weight bearing status of the joints. PMID:25177462

  18. Gender differences in health-related quality of life associated with abdominal obesity in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Jeon, Seonhui; Lee, Juneyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Overall obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a low level of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but little is known about abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC), would be significantly associated with HRQOL independent of overall obesity, and if so, whether the association would differ by gender among the Korean population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants Using data from the 2007–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 13 754 men and women aged 19–65 years were selected, and information about height (cm), weight (kg), WC (cm) and the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for HRQOL were taken. Results Not only an overall obesity (as categorised into obese, overweight or non-overweight groups based on BMI) but also an abdominal obesity (defined by WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women) was significantly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic variables and a number of comorbidities. Even after adjusting BMI effect, the association between abdominal obesity and lower EQ-5D scores remained significant for women, but not for men. Conclusions Among the Korean population aged 19–65 years, abdominal obesity was associated with impaired HRQOL, independently of overall obesity. Furthermore, this association differed by gender, being significant only for women. Therefore, primary healthcare professionals should pay attention to gender differences in the impact of obesity on HRQOL when evaluating population-based health programmes. PMID:24464522

  19. Four SNPs on chromosome 9p21 in a South Korean population implicate a genetic locus that confers high cross-race risk for development of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gong-Qing; Li, Lin; Rao, Shaoqi; Abdullah, Kalil G; Ban, Ji Min; Lee, Bok-Soo; Park, Jeong Euy; Wang, Qing K

    2008-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified 4 SNPs on chromosome 9p21 associated with CAD (rs10757274 and rs2383206) and myocardial infarction (MI: rs2383207 and rs10757278) in White populations in Northern Europe and North America. We aimed to determine whether this locus confers significant susceptibility to CAD in a South Korean population, and thus cross-race susceptibility to CAD. We performed a case-control association study with 611 unrelated CAD patients and 294 normal controls from South Korea. Allelic associations of SNPs and SNP haplotypes with CAD were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to adjust effects of clinical covariates. We found that 4 SNPs on chromosome 9p21 were associated with susceptibility to CAD in a South Korean population. The association remained significant after adjusting for significant clinical covariates (P=0.001 to 0.024). We identified one risk haplotype (GGGG; P=0.017) and one protective haplotype (AAAA; P=0.007) for development of CAD. Further analysis suggested that the SNPs probably confer susceptibility to CAD in a dominance model (covariates-adjusted P=0.001 to 0.024; OR=2.37 to 1.54). This represents the first study that expands association of these 9p21 SNPs with CAD beyond White populations. Chromosome 9p21 is an important susceptibility locus that confers high cross-race risk for development of CAD.

  20. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

  1. Optimal Interval for Repeated Gastric Cancer Screening in Normal-Risk Healthy Korean Adults: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Sang Yop; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate the optimal interval for gastric cancer screening in Korean adults with initial negative screening results. Materials and Methods This study consisted of voluntary Korean screenees aged 40 to 69 years who underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies after testing negative in the baseline screening performed between January 2007 and December 2011. A new case was defined as the presence of gastric cancer cells in biopsy specimens obtained upon gastroscopy. The follow-up periods were calculated during the months between the date of baseline screening gastroscopy and positive findings upon subsequent screenings, stratified by sex and age group. The mean sojourn time (MST) for determining the screening interval was estimated using the prevalence/incidence ratio. Results Of the 293,520 voluntary screenees for the gastric cancer screening program, 91,850 (31.29%) underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies between January 2007 and December 2011. The MSTs in men and women were 21.67 months (95% confidence intervals [CI], 17.64 to 26.88 months) and 15.14 months (95% CI, 9.44 to 25.85 months), respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that the optimal interval for subsequent gastric screening in both men and women is 24 months, supporting the 2-year interval recommended by the nationwide gastric cancer screening program. PMID:25687874

  2. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Lee, I. K.; Piao, M. Y.; Gu, M. J.; Yun, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. H.; Baik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March. PMID:26950877

  3. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers.

    PubMed

    Kang, H J; Lee, I K; Piao, M Y; Gu, M J; Yun, C H; Kim, H J; Kim, K H; Baik, M

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  4. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and its Comorbidity among Korean Children in a Community Population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children according to socio-demographic factors and the distribution of ADHD subtypes in a community in Korea. A screening survey using the Korean version of ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) was conducted between 2007 and 2008, and clinical interviews by a pediatric psychiatrist were performed for selected children between 2009 and 2010. A total of 49,573 elementary school students, between ages of 7 and 12, constituted the target population, among which 38,365 students (77.2%) and respective parents gave consent to participate. Of the participants, 200 screened children were clinically examined to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD and its comorbidity in the population, after adjusting for nonresponse and nonparticipation. The prevalence of ADHD was 11.7% in boys and 5.2% in girls, with an overall prevalence of 8.5%. The combined type of inattentive and hyperactive was the most frequent at 4.7% of the whole population. Children were more likely to have ADHD if their parents were separated and had less education. Most commonly combined comorbidity was autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (10.1%). The prevalence of ADHD in the school-aged population is an essential information for improving the quality of public health mental services for evaluation and treatment of ADHD. PMID:28145641

  5. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and its Comorbidity among Korean Children in a Community Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Jung; Park, Inho; Lim, Myung Ho; Paik, Ki Chung; Cho, Sungja; Kwon, Ho Jang; Lee, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Seung Jin; Ha, Mina

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children according to socio-demographic factors and the distribution of ADHD subtypes in a community in Korea. A screening survey using the Korean version of ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) was conducted between 2007 and 2008, and clinical interviews by a pediatric psychiatrist were performed for selected children between 2009 and 2010. A total of 49,573 elementary school students, between ages of 7 and 12, constituted the target population, among which 38,365 students (77.2%) and respective parents gave consent to participate. Of the participants, 200 screened children were clinically examined to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD and its comorbidity in the population, after adjusting for nonresponse and nonparticipation. The prevalence of ADHD was 11.7% in boys and 5.2% in girls, with an overall prevalence of 8.5%. The combined type of inattentive and hyperactive was the most frequent at 4.7% of the whole population. Children were more likely to have ADHD if their parents were separated and had less education. Most commonly combined comorbidity was autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (10.1%). The prevalence of ADHD in the school-aged population is an essential information for improving the quality of public health mental services for evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

  6. Regional glucose metabolism using PETT in normal and psychiatric populations

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, J.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of /sup 18/F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (/sup 18/FDG) in 150 subjects including normals, schizophrenics, senile dementias, and primary affective disorders was studied. Some of the data analyzed to date are discussed.

  7. Reward dependence is related to norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Joo; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Lee, Min-Soo

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that approximately 50% of the variance in personality traits is genetic. The goal of this study was to investigate a relationship between personality traits and the T-182C polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene. The participants included 115 healthy adults with no history of psychiatric disorders and other physical illness during the past 6 months. All participants were tested with the Temperament and Character Inventory and genotyped norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphism. Differences on the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions among three groups were examined with one-way analysis of variance. Our study suggests that the norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism is associated with reward dependence in Koreans, but the small number of study participants and their sex and age heterogeneity limits generalization of our results. Further studies are necessary with a larger number of homogeneous participants to confirm whether the norepinephrine transporter gene is related to personality traits.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of 16 Y chromosomal STR loci in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Hee; Kim, Nam Ye; Hong, Seung Beom; Cho, Nam Soo; Kim, Jong Jin; Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Won

    2008-03-01

    Allele frequencies and haplotypes of 16 Y chromosomal STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR((R)) Yfilertrade mark system were obtained from a sample of 526 unrelated Korean male individuals. A total of 478 haplotypes were observed in the 526 individuals studied, of which 440 were unique. The overall haplotype diversity for the 16 Y-STR loci was 0.9996, and the discrimination capacity was 0.9087. We found 13 atypical alleles, including null, duplicated and microvariant alleles. Microvariants have been characterized by sequencing, 14.1 allele at DYS458 showing the flanking site mutation, 13.1 and 15.2 allele at DYS385a/b showing changes in the repeat structure.

  9. Influence of cigarette smoking on coronary artery and aortic calcium among random samples from populations of middle-age Japanese and Korean men

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Choo, Jina; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Kadota, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Masaki, Kamal; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H.; Curb, J. David; Shin, Chol

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Vascular calcification such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) is associated with CHD. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking is associated with coronary artery and aortic calcifications in Japanese and Koreans with high smoking prevalence. Methods Random samples from populations of 313 Japanese and 302 Korean men aged 40 to 49 were examined for calcification of the coronary artery and aorta using electron beam computed tomography. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) were quantified using the Agatston score. We examined the associations of cigarette smoking with CAC and AC after adjusting for conventional risk factors and alcohol consumption. Current and past smokers were combined and categorized into two groups using median pack-years as a cutoff point in each of Japanese and Koreans. The never smoker group was used as a reference for the multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The odds ratios of CAC (score ≥10) for smokers with higher pack-years were 2.9 in Japanese (P<0.05) and 1.3 in Koreans (non-significant) compared to never smokers. The odds ratios of AC (score ≥100) for smokers with higher pack-years were 10.4 in Japanese (P<0.05) and 3.6 in Koreans (P<0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with CAC and AC in Japanese men, while cigarette smoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with AC but not significantly with CAC in Korean men. PMID:22844083

  10. Occurrence of diverse dsRNA in a Korean population of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Moon; Kim, Jung-Mi; Chung, Hea-Jong; Lim, Jin-Young; Kwon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myoung-Ju; Cha, Byeong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Sub; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2008-10-01

    We analysed 676 isolates from 33 Korean Cryphonectria parasitica subpopulations in Korea for dsRNA incidence and diversity. dsRNA was detected in 84 isolates. Although the dsRNA banding patterns varied in several minor bands, infected isolates could be categorized into two groups. The most common banding pattern occurred in 77 isolates and contained a 12.7-kb band indicative of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), and several accompanying minor bands with sizes ranging from 0.9-5kb. Northern blot analysis revealed that all 12.7-kb fragments in the dsRNA-containing isolates hybridized to probes corresponding to open reading frames (ORFs) A and B from the reference CHV1 strain (GenBank accession no. M57938). In addition, the sequence of a 1.4-kb cDNA fragment from a representative isolate of the most common group showed 99% sequence similarity to ORF A of CHV1. However, the other group of seven isolates had distinctive bands of 3.5 and 3.3kb, but not the 12.7-kb band. Sequence comparison showed that cloned fragments of these dsRNAs were similar to those of the coat protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of chrysovirus, which indicates the occurrence of chrysovirus in the Korean population. Fungal strain identity was assessed via RFLP analysis of the ITS regions. Among the 84 tested isolates, six had different ITS-RFLP patterns (RFLP-II) from that (RFLP-I) of C. parasitica, and are believed to be C. nitschkei, a sympatric species reported on chestnut trees in Japan. The chrysovirus and CHV1 were detected in strains showing both RFLP patterns. However, the chrysovirus was more frequent in the RFLP-II group.

  11. Metabolic syndrome predicts long-term mortality in subjects without established diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Won, Ki-Bum; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Han, Donghee; Sung, Jidong; Choi, Su-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the different features of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Asian populations compared with Western populations, the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on long-term mortality according to DM status has not yet been elucidated in the Asian population. After performing 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) using clinical variables including age, gender, smoking, and individual MetS components between DM and non-DM subjects from the data of the Korea Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification registry, mortality was evaluated according to DM and MetS in 14,956 asymptomatic Korean subjects. The mean follow-up duration was 53.1 months (interquartile range: 33–80). The overall prevalence of MetS was 60%. DM subjects had higher mortality compared with non-DM subjects (1.2% vs 0.7%, respectively; P = 0.001); the cumulative mortality by Kaplan–Meier analysis was higher in DM subjects than in non-DM subjects (log-rank P = 0.001). DM increased the risk of mortality in PSM participants (hazard ratio [HR] 1.74; P = 0.001). In non-DM subjects, MetS (HR 2.32) and one of its components, central obesity (HR 1.97), were associated with an increased risk of mortality (both P < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the risk of mortality according to MetS or its components in DM subjects. After adjusting for confounding risk factors, it was shown that MetS independently increased the risk of mortality in non-DM subjects. Compared with non-DM subjects, DM subjects have an increased risk of long-term mortality among PSM participants. MetS appears to have an independent impact on mortality in subjects without established DM among the asymptomatic Korean population. Our results may not be applicable to the whole subjects with MetS because the PSM using MetS components was performed between subjects with and without DM which was very high risk for adverse clinical events. PMID:27930521

  12. Unpacking Parent Involvement: Korean American Parents' Collective Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which a group of Korean American parents perceived and responded to institutional inequalities in a family-school partnership. In their school, which had a growing Asian population, the dominant group's middle-class perspective on parent involvement became normal and operated as an overarching structure. Drawing…

  13. Association of CFTR gene variants with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in a Korean population with a low prevalence of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Su-Young; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Koh, Won-Jung

    2013-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that in Caucasian populations, mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are associated with susceptibility to lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, there is little data available in Asian populations, in which the prevalence of CF is very low. Therefore, we investigated this potential relationship in a Korean population. Sixty patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for NTM lung disease were screened for genetic alterations in the CFTR gene by whole-exon resequencing. For all identified CFTR gene variants, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) genotyping was performed. Genotype and haplotype data were compared between 360 patients with NTM lung disease and 446 healthy controls. Among 13 CFTR genetic variants that were found by whole-exon resequencing, Q1352H showed a significantly higher frequency in NTM patients than in controls, giving an odds ratio (OR) of 4.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-12.78). A haplotype with Q1352H showed the strongest association with the disease, with an OR of 3.73 (95% CI, 1.50-9.25). Furthermore, all Q1352H alleles were associated with the V allele of the V470M variant. Our results suggest that CFTR gene variants may increase susceptibility to NTM lung disease in the Korean population. Q1352H appears to be strongly related to NTM lung disease susceptibility in the Korean population.

  14. Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

  15. A Korean version of the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS-K): psychometric evaluation with a population of Koreans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Lee, Young Whee; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Kim, Yong Seong; Han, Seung Jin

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) in Korean patients with Type 2 diabetes. The English-language version of the ADS was translated into Korean using a forward-and-backward translation technique. The Korean version of the ADS (ADS-K) was administered to 250 patients who were recruited from two university hospitals. The data were analyzed using principal-component analysis, Cronbach's alpha, analysis of variance, t test, and Pearson's correlation. Six of seven items were meaningfully clustered into a two-factor structure by principal-component analysis, these factors accounting for 63.75% of the total variance. The underlying structure was consistent regardless of either gender or the presence of complications. The Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from .71 to .79, indicating an acceptable internal consistency reliability. As hypothesized, the ADS-K score was moderately correlated with the diabetes-specific quality of life and had satisfactory convergent validity. The known-groups validity of the ADS-K was established using depression groups and HbA1c control status. The ADS-K demonstrated good psychometric properties. In addition, it possessed satisfactory practical properties, such as acceptability and feasibility. Therefore, the ADS-K appears to be suitable for use in both clinical research and clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Population dynamics of natural antibodies in normal and autoimmune individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Varela, F; Andersson, A; Dietrich, G; Sundblad, A; Holmberg, D; Kazatchkine, M; Coutinho, A

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the quantities of naturally occurring autoantibodies in the serum of normal, unmanipulated individuals. These changes over time following broad-band complex dynamical patterns that are similar in mouse and man. The patterns more likely reflect the network architecture of the natural antibody repertoire, regulating the activation and decay of individual clones. The temporal changes of both disease-specific and nonspecific autoantibodies are consistently modified in autoimmune individuals. PMID:2062870

  17. Physiological aspects of circulating immune complexes in the normal population.

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, C E; Orozco, A; Sánchez, P; Ortega, G; Bianco, N E

    1982-01-01

    Circulating immune complexes (CIC) have been investigated in 100 normal subjects; the RIA-Raji and the C1q-BA conventional methods, as well as a new solid phase microassay utilizing purified C1q and the systematic search of cryoprecipitates were employed. CIC serum levels did not differ in regards to sex; in relation to age, values for C1q-BA were identical in subjects from 0 to 60 years and also in those beyond age 60; the differences encountered by RIA-Raji or by the C1q-SP microassay in these two main groups were not statistically significant. Cryoprecipitates were present in 100% of the 68 examined subjects. Immunoglobulins (G, A and M), anti-nucleic acid (DNA and Poly A) and CIC (by the three methods) were present in the cryoprecipitates while lymphocytotoxins, rheumatoid factor and C3 were undetectable; protein content of the cryoprecipitates increased significantly with age, reaching a normal superior limit of 0.52 mg/ml beyond age 30. These findings further support the role played by CIC in normal immune response and may help in the understanding of the physiopathology of clinical conditions associated with immune complexes. PMID:6981474

  18. Household and area income levels are associated with smoking status in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Yun, Woo-Jun; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lee, Young-Hoon; Ryu, So-Yeon; Park, Soon-Woo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-01-31

    Some previous studies have suggested that area-level characteristics have effects on smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between household income and area income on smoking in Korean adults. This study was based on the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) performed in South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 222,242 subjects (103,124 men and 119,118 women) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking status was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Income status was determined by monthly household income. Household income was categorized as: <1 million won; <2 million won; <3 million won; and ≥3 million won. Area-level income categorized as quartiles. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The analysis was conducted separately urban and rural, by sex. The lowest household income group had a higher risk of smoking than the highest household income group in both urban and rural areas for both men and women after adjusting for individual characteristics (urban men: odds ration [OR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.53; rural men: OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.25-1.42; urban women: OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.06-2.76; rural women: OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.83). In men, the lowest area-level income group had a higher risk for smoking than the highest area-level income group in urban areas after adjusting for individual characteristics and household income (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.33). In women, the lowest area-level income group had a lower risk for smoking than the highest area-level income group in rural areas after adjusting for individual characteristics and household income (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.70). However, no association was observed between area-level income and smoking in rural areas for men or in urban areas for women. The results showed that smoking is strongly associated with household income status in both men and women, and area-level income is partly associated with smoking

  19. Technique failure in Korean incident peritoneal dialysis patients: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shina; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Hann, Hoo Jae; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Seung-Jung; Kang, Duk-Hee; Choi, Kyu Bok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol

    2016-12-01

    Technique failure is an important issue for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In this study, we aimed to analyze technique failure rate in detail and to determine the predictors for technique failure in Korea. We identified all patients who had started dialysis between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008, in Korea, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. A total of 7,614 PD patients were included, and the median follow-up was 24.9 months. The crude incidence rates of technique failure in PD patients were 54.1 per 1,000 patient-years. The cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year technique failure rates of PD patients were 4.9%, 10.3%, and 15.6%, respectively. However, those technique failure rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis were overestimated compared with the values by competing risks analysis, and the differences increased with the follow-up period. In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus and Medical Aid as a crude reflection of low socioeconomic status were independent risk factors in both the Cox proportional hazard model and Fine and Gray subdistribution model. In addition, cancer was independently associated with a lower risk of technique failure in the Fine and Gray model. Technique failure was a major concern in patients initiating PD in Korea, especially in diabetic patients and Medical Aid beneficiaries. The results of our study offer a basis for risk stratification for technique failure.

  20. The prevalence and morphologic classification of distolingual roots in the mandibular molars in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Je Seon; Choi, Hyung-Jun; Jung, Il-Young; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and concurrency rate of distolingual (DL) roots on mandibular molars and to classify them according to their morphologic features. Serial cross-sectional computed tomography images of the mandibles were collected retrospectively from 1,775 Korean patients of Mongoloid origin. The incidence of DL roots was calculated for each molar, and their patterns of concurrence were analyzed with the Fisher exact test. DL roots were categorized into five groups according to their morphologic characteristics using the three-dimensional reconstructed images. The incidence rate of DL roots was highest for first molars (24.5%) and lowest for second molars (0.7%). They were often present concurrently in adjacent molars (p < 0.004). The morphologic characteristics of DL roots in the first molars varied greatly from a severely curved type (type III, 40.5%) to an underdeveloped small type or a conical type (2.5% and 1.4%, respectively). Data regarding the pattern of occurrence and the morphologic features of DL roots can provide useful information to clinicians, leading to higher rate of success of endodontic treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  2. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chung, So-Hyang; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Differences in knowledge of dementia among older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: A representative nationwide sample of Korean elders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Soowon; Kim, Ki Woong; Kwon, Ji Eyon; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Chang-Uk; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Lack of knowledge about a disease could impede early diagnosis and may lead to delays in seeking appropriate medical care. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge of dementia (KOD) and to find the determinants of KOD among three groups: older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. A representative nationwide sample of 6141 Korean elders aged 65 years or older participated in face-to-face interviews and answered 14 questions pertaining to general information, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of dementia. Stepwise multiple regressions and path analyses probed the relationships between various sociodemographic variables and KOD. The percentage of correct responses was only 62%. The item 'A person who remembers things that happened in the past does not have dementia' was answered correctly (false) by only 24.8-27% of the respondents in all groups. Older adults with normal cognition had higher KOD scores than those with MCI or dementia. In the normal-cognition group, KOD scores were higher among highly educated, younger, and literate women with no depression and a family history of dementia. In contrast with the determinants in the normal-cognition group, only the ability to read and write predicted KOD scores in the dementia group. Efforts to enhance KOD in elder adults are needed. Public education regarding the differences between dementia and healthy aging may increase KOD among normal elders and those with MCI. Among elders with dementia, educational materials that do not require literacy may be more helpful in increasing KOD with the aim of preventing treatment delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foveal shape and structure in a normal population.

    PubMed

    Tick, Sarah; Rossant, Florence; Ghorbel, Itebeddine; Gaudric, Alain; Sahel, José-Alain; Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Paques, Michel

    2011-07-29

    The shape of the human fovea presents important but still poorly characterized variations. In this study, the variability of the shape and structure of normal foveae were examined. In a group of 110 eyes of 57 healthy adults, the shape and structure of the fovea were analyzed by automated segmentation of retinal layer on high-resolution optical coherence tomography scans. In an additional group of 10 normal eyes of 10 patients undergoing fluorescein angiography, the size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) was correlated to foveal shape. From the thickest to the thinnest fovea, there was a structural continuum ranging from a shallow pit with continuity of the inner nuclear layer (INL) over the center (seven eyes; 6.7%), to a complete separation of inner layers overlying a flat and thinner central outer nuclear layer (ONL; eight eyes; 7.3%). Central foveal thickness correlated inversely to the degree of inner layer separation and to the surface of the FAZ. Foveal structure strongly correlates with its neurovascular organization. The findings support a developmental model in which the size of the FAZ determines the extent of centrifugal migration of inner retinal layers, which counteracts in some way the centripetal packing of cone photoreceptors.

  5. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2‒10, 0.1333‒1.0000, and 0.1228‒0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  6. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-09-07

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2-10, 0.1333-1.0000, and 0.1228-0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests.

  7. Two-Stage Sampling Procedures for Comparing Means When Population Distributions Are Non-Normal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen

    Two-stage sampling procedures for comparing two population means when variances are heterogeneous have been developed by D. G. Chapman (1950) and B. K. Ghosh (1975). Both procedures assume sampling from populations that are normally distributed. The present study reports on the effect that sampling from non-normal distributions has on Type I error…

  8. Pathways Involved in Sasang Constitution from Genome-Wide Analysis in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sung-Gon; Kim, Jong-Yeol; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Sasang constitution (SC) medicine, a branch of Korean traditional medicine, classifies the individual into one of four constitutional types (Taeum, TE; Soeum, SE; Soyang, SY; and Taeyang, TY) based on physiologic characteristics. The authors of the current article recently reported individual genetic elements associated with SC types via genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. However, to understand the biologic mechanisms underlying constitution, a comprehensive approach that combines individual genetic effects was applied. Design Genotypes of 1222 subjects of defined constitution types were measured for 341,998 genetic loci across the entire genome. The biologic pathways associated with SC types were identified via GWA analysis using three different algorithms—namely, the Z-static method, a restandardized gene set assay, and a gene set enrichment assay. Results Distinct pathways were associated (p<0.05) with each constitution type. The TE type was significantly associated with cytoskeleton-related pathways. The SE type was significantly associated with cardio- and amino-acid metabolism–related pathways. The SY type was associated with enriched melanoma-related pathways. TY subjects were excluded because of the small size of that sample. Among these functionally related pathways, core-node genes regulating multiple pathways were identified. TJP1, PTK2, and SRC were selected as core-nodes for TE; RHOA, and MAOA/MAOB for SE; and GNAO1 for SY (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The current authors systematically identified the biologic pathways and core-node genes associated with SC types from the GWA study; this information should provide insights regarding the molecular mechanisms inherent in constitutional pathophysiology. PMID:22889377

  9. Clinical characteristics and long-term observation of simple renal cysts in a healthy Korean population.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Duck

    2016-03-01

    Although simple renal cysts are common in older patients, little is known concerning their development and natural history. We investigated the characteristics of simple renal cysts and risk factors for their development in healthy Korean adults. The medical records of 10,261 subjects who participated in a multiphase health screening program at our institution in 2002 were reviewed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine various risk factors for renal cyst formation including sex, age, BMI, serum creatinine, estimated GFR, proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. In 65 patients and 79 simple renal cysts with annual follow-up for 10 years, sequential changes in size and risk factors related to cyst growth rate were analyzed. The prevalence of simple renal cysts was 5.43 %. Age (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.001), proteinuria (p = 0.011), microscopic hematuria (p < 0.001), estimated GFR (p < 0.001), and hypertension (p < 0.001) had a significant influence on the occurrence of simple renal cysts. The average growth rates of simple renal cysts over the 10-year follow-up period were 1.43 mm (6.5 %) per year. Age <50 years was the only significant predictor of growth rates of renal cysts in the multivariate analysis (β = 2.37; 95 % CI 0.52, 4.22; p = 0.013). Age, BMI, renal dysfunction, proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension were found to be risk factors for the presence of simple renal cysts. Simple renal cysts in younger patients (<50 years) tend to have a more rapid increase in size, but generally do not progress to aggressive disease.

  10. The Association between Alcohol Consumption and β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Sang Ick

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and insulin secretion and sensitivity using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Alcohol consumption levels were categorized into four groups: (i) abstainers, (ii) low (<5 g/day), (iii) intermediate (<30 g/day), and (iv) high (≥30 g/day) alcohol consumption. β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were estimated using the insulinogenic index (IGI60), and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), respectively. IGI60 and ISI were dichotomized into high and low groups using median cut-off values and four groups were defined (G-I: high IGI60/high ISI; G-II: high IGI60/low ISI; G-III: low IGI60/high ISI; and G-IV: low IGI60/low ISI). Men consumed 26.5 g alcohol per day on average, whereas women only consumed 5.7 g/day, so women were excluded from subsequent analyses due to their low drinking levels. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides (TG) in men, but was negatively associated with IGI60 (p < 0.05). TG levels were only increased in individuals with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II) or decreased β-cell function (G-III) with high alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption increased HDL cholesterol in the four groups (p < 0.001). In subjects with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II), intermediate and high alcohol consumption increased the risk of high cholesterol and TG. In individuals with decreased β-cell function (G-III), alcohol consumption increased the risk of high TG and high AST levels. High alcohol consumption was significantly associated with reduced insulin secretion. In addition, alcohol consumption was related to some metabolic risk factors depending on insulin secretion or sensitivity. PMID:27854254

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma screening in a hepatitis B virus-infected Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Ha; Heo, Nae Yun; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Tae Oh; Yang, Sung Yeun; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Moon, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoon; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Heon Young

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening has been recommended for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected individuals in an effort to detect HCC at a sufficiently early stage to provide potentially curative treatments. The study reported here is the first to address the rate of HCC screening use in an HBV endemic area. Data were collected from 11,147 adults aged ≥40 years who participated in the 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had a valid HBV surface antigen test. Current HCC screening was defined as either receiving an ultrasonography or an α-fetoprotein measurement in the past year. Prevalence estimates were weighted. The response rate was 78.4 %, and 436 cases of HBV infection were identified. The overall seroprevalence of the HBV surface antigen was 4.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.9-4.4 %]. Of the 436 HBV-infected subjects, only 23.2 % (95 % CI 19.5 -27.4 %) were aware that they had been infected, and approximately 27 % (27.1 %; 95 %CI 23.2-to 31.5 %) were up to date with their HCC screening tests; more than half (52.9 %, 95 % CI 48.2-57.5) had never been screened. In a multivariate analysis that included various sociodemographic variables, only self-reported awareness of HBV infection was significantly associated with current HCC screening tests (odds ratio 2.82; 95 % CI 1.64-4.84). Adoption of HCC screening as a standard practice among HBV-infected Korean adults aged ≥40 years is suboptimal. Evidence-based programs in communities and education for both healthcare providers and HBV-infected persons are needed to improve the implementation of HCC screening in clinical practice.

  12. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

  13. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Kim, Bo Hyun; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31-0.65) and 1.61 (1.02-2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46-0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32-0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03-2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk.

  14. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31–0.65) and 1.61 (1.02–2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46–0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32–0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03–2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01–1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:28050556

  15. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Peripheral Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Lee, Seung Wook

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze and compare risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects and Methods The sample included 7936 Korean patients aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized from 1994 to 2004. Of the 7936 subjects, PAD (n=415), CAD (n=3686), and normal controls (Control) (n=3835) were examined at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center. Results The mean age (years) of PAD subjects was 64.4 (±9.3), while CAD subjects was 61.2 (±9.9), and Control subjects was 59.9 (±9.1) (p<0.01). The proportion of males was 90.6% for PAD, 71.4% for CAD, and 75.5% for Control subjects (p<0.01). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease were significantly higher in subjects with PAD or CAD compared to those in Control. However, the ORs for high density lipoprotein, being overweight, and being obese were significantly lower in PAD subjects compared to those in Control. Conclusion We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD. PMID:23755078

  16. Association between small for gestational age and intrauterine fetal death: comparing a customized South Korean growth standard versus a population-based fetal growth chart.

    PubMed

    Moon, Myoungjin; Baek, Min Jung; Ahn, Eunhee; Odibo, Anthony O

    2016-03-01

    To determine if a customized growth standard developed for an ethnically homogeneous South Korean population is better at identifying (SGA) fetuses at risk for intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD), compared with a current population based-growth standard. A retrospective cohort study comparing the identification of SGA fetuses at risk for IUFD using a customized versus a population based-chart. The association between a SGA infant defined as a birth weight <10th percentile using the South Korean population chart versus the customized chart and IUFD were compared. Intrauterine fetal death was defined as fetal demise occurring after 20 weeks gestation. Statistical analyses including OR, 95% confidence interval (CI), and screening accuracy using each chart were performed. The customized singleton chart identified 11 (8.2%) of the SGA pregnancies detected by the population chart and classified 15 additional fetuses as SGA. Those identified as SGA using the customized chart had an OR for IUFD that was approximately 15 times as high as those identified using the population chart. The customized chart also showed a higher sensitivity and specificity for identifying SGA pregnancies at risk for IUFD. In this ethnically homogenous population, the customized growth chart showed improved discrimination in identifying SGA pregnancies at risk for fetal death than the population-based growth chart.

  17. [Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test: normalization and standardization for Spanish population].

    PubMed

    Ojeda, N; Del Pino, R; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N; Schretlen, D J; Pena, J

    2016-12-01

    Introduccion. La evaluacion cognitiva de Montreal (MoCA) es un test de cribado breve que evalua el estado cognitivo general, y resulta un recurso alternativo, muy util, al tradicional test minimental. Objetivo. Normalizar y estandarizar el test MoCA, teniendo en cuenta las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la poblacion española (datos INE, 2012). Sujetos y metodos. El estudio se enmarca dentro del proyecto Normacog, en el que se evaluo a 700 participantes (18-86 años). Se analizaron el efecto de la edad, el nivel educativo y el sexo sobre el rendimiento del test MoCA, y se crearon los percentiles, las puntuaciones escalares para nueve rangos de edad y la puntuacion escalar normalizada ajustada por edad y nivel educativo. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo de la edad, el nivel educativo y el sexo sobre el rendimiento cognitivo en el test MoCA. Sin embargo, el sexo solo presento un efecto significativo sobre dos dominios cognitivos: atencion y recuerdo diferido. La edad, la educacion y el sexo explicaron entre el 1% y el 32,3% de la varianza en las variables analizadas del test. Los participantes mas mayores con menor nivel de educacion formal obtuvieron peor rendimiento cognitivo. Se obtuvieron los percentiles y las puntuaciones escalares para cada rango de edad y la puntuacion escalar normalizada individual. Conclusion. Se presentan los datos normativos del test MoCA adecuados a las caracteristicas sociodemograficas de la sociedad española y los puntos de corte propuestos para discriminar entre rendimiento cognitivo normal y deterioro cognitivo leve segun los diferentes rangos de edad.

  18. Assessment of Dechlorane compounds in foodstuffs obtained from retail markets and estimates of dietary intake in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongchul; Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Juntae; Suh, Junghyuck; Kang, Youngwoon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-06-30

    A total of 175 samples, composed of 35 different foodstuffs, were obtained from retail markets in Korea and analyzed to investigate the contamination status and dietary intake of Dechlorane compounds. The concentrations of Dechlorane Plus (DP), mirex, Dechlorane (Dec) 602 and 603 ranged from ND to 169.85 pg/g wet weight (ww), 107.30 pg/g ww, 20.81 pg/g ww, 0.41 pg/g ww, respectively, while Dechlorane (Dec) 604 was not detected in any samples. Strong correlations between anti- and syn-DP and between mirex and Dec 602 were observed. The average anti-isomer fractional abundance (fanti) was 0.78±0.11 which was larger than the technical DP value (fanti=0.75). The estimated dietary daily intake of DP, 11.2×10(3) pg/day, was one to three orders of magnitude higher than other Dechloranes. Grain was the most contributed food group to dietary daily intake of DP for Korean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction identification of microorganisms in previously root-filled teeth in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Jung, Il-Young; Lee, Chan-Young; Siqueira, José F

    2004-07-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that microorganisms are the primary causative agents of endodontic treatment failures. This study intended to assess the occurrence of nine putative endodontic pathogens in root-filled teeth associated with periradicular lesions in a South Korean population using a culture-independent molecular approach. Fourteen root-filled teeth with persistent periradicular diseases were selected for retreatment. After removal of the root canal filling, the canals were sampled, and a polymerase chain reaction assay using taxon-specific oligonucleotide primers was used for microbial detection. Bacteria were present in all cases, as revealed by amplification using ubiquitous 16S rDNA primers. The most frequently detected taxon was Enterococcus faecalis (64%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (21%) and Tannerella forsythensis (14%). The results of this study using a highly sensitive identification method are concurrent with those from other geographical locations using diverse identification methods in that E. faecalis is the main species found in cases of root-filled teeth associated with periradicular lesions.

  20. Differential Association of Metabolic Risk Factors with Open Angle Glaucoma according to Obesity in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yun-Ah; Choi, Jin A; Park, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    The associations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) with intraocular pressure and primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) have been reported. This study aimed to determine whether a difference in association exists between OAG and metabolic risk factors according to obesity status among Korean adults. A total of 8,816 participants (≥40 years) in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were classified into obese, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of MetS was 40.1% in non-obese OAG and 66.0% in obese OAG. The prevalence of OAG increased with increasing number components for MetS in total population and in non-obese subjects (P < 0.001, respectively), while the prevalence of OAG was not associated with number of components for MetS in obese subjects (P = 0.14). In non-obese individuals, subjects with high triglycerides, high blood pressure (BP), and MetS were more likely to have OAG compared with those without high triglycerides, high BP, and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. However, MetS or its components exhibited no significant association with glaucoma status in obese individuals. Our study provides understanding on the differences in association of OAG with MetS and its components according to obesity status. PMID:28004731

  1. Ultrasonographic reference values for assessing normal radial nerve ultrasonography in the normal population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Wu, Shan; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasound has been used recently to characterize median and ulnar nerves, but is seldom used to characterize radial nerves. The radial nerve is more frequently involved in entrapment syndromes than the ulnar and median nerves. However, the reference standard for normal radial nerves has not been established. Thus, this study measured the cross-sectional areas of radial nerves of 200 healthy male or female volunteers, aged 18 to 75, using high-resolution ultrasound. The results showed that mean cross-sectional areas of radial nerves at 4 cm upon the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and mid-humerus (midpoint between the elbow crease and axilla) were 5.14 ± 1.24 and 5.08 ± 1.23 mm2, respectively. The age and the dominant side did not affect the results, but the above-mentioned cross-sectional areas were larger in males (5.31 ± 1.25 and 5.19 ± 1.23 mm2) than in females (4.93 ± 1.21 and 4.93 ± 1.23 mm2, respectively). In addition, the cross-sectional areas of radial nerves were positively correlated with height and weight (r = 0.38, 0.36, respectively, both P < 0.05). These data provide basic clinical data for the use of high-resolution ultrasound for the future diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:25422648

  2. Dried Blood Spot Testing for Seven Steroids Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry With Reference Interval Determination in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Borahm; Lee, Mi-Na; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Jong Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) using immunoassays generates a large number of false-positive results. A more specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been introduced to minimize unnecessary follow-ups. However, because of limited data on its use in the Korean population, LC-MS/MS has not yet been incorporated into newborn screening programs in this region. The present study aims to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven steroids in dried blood spots (DBS) for CAH screening, and to define age-specific reference intervals in the Korean population. Methods We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine the reference intervals of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone simultaneously in 453 DBS samples. The samples were from Korean subjects stratified by age group (78 full-term neonates, 76 premature neonates, 89 children, and 100 adults). Results The accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and extraction recovery were satisfactory for all the steroids at three concentrations; values of intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variance, bias, and recovery were 0.7-7.7%, -1.5-9.8%, and 49.3-97.5%, respectively. The linearity range was 1-100 ng/mL for cortisol and 0.5-50 ng/mL for other steroids (R2>0.99). The reference intervals were in agreement with the previous reports. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS method and the reference intervals validated in the Korean population can be successfully applied to analyze seven steroids in DBS for the diagnosis of CAH. PMID:26354345

  3. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  4. Excessive Sleep and Lack of Sleep Are Associated With Slips and Falls in the Adult Korean Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impacts of excessive sleep duration on falls. This study investigated the associations between sleep duration and falls among Korean adults in a wide range of age groups while adjusting for numerous confounding factors. Data collected from study participants ranging in age from 19 to 109 years old were analyzed from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). Sleep duration was divided into 5 groups: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9  hours per day. The relations between sleep duration and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, days of vigorous or moderate physical activity, income, education, alcohol use, smoking, stress, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and asthma were controlled for as confounding factors. Associations between sleep duration and falls were analyzed in 19 to 40, 41 to 60, and 61+ year age groups. Furthermore, the relations between sleep duration and indoor versus outdoor falls were analyzed. Both ≤6 and ≥8  hours of sleep per day were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time and ≥2 times per year) in the overall adult population (P < 0.001 in both instances). In a subgroup analysis, sleep durations of ≤5 and ≥9  hours were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time a year) in each age group. Six hours of sleep was not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times per year) in the 61+ year age group, and 8 and 9  hours of sleep were not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times a year) in the 19 to 40 year age group. This study demonstrated that long as well as short sleep durations are associated with an increased incidence of falls. However, these relations were not evident in elderly populations with short sleep durations or in young adults with long

  5. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of rebamipide in healthy Korean subjects with the characterization of atypical complex absorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien; Yoo, Hee-Doo; Tran, Phuong; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of rebamipide (Reba) in healthy male Korean subjects was analyzed using the nonlinear mixed effects modeling method. The possible effects of physiological covariates and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene 3435C>T polymorphism on PK parameters were also investigated. Data were collected from a bioequivalence study, in which 26 subjects who participated in the study were administered a single oral dose of 100 mg Reba; only data from the reference formulation were used. Reba showed a relatively large inter-individual variability (from 2.6- to 3.3-fold) in the PK parameters with double peaks or the concentration plateau after the peak concentration in its serum concentration-time profiles. The population PKs of Reba was best described by a one-compartment model with three fraction absorption processes followed a single Weibull-type function and two first-order kinetics, and lag times. The study suggests that the efflux transporter MDR1 3435C>T allele affects the substantial inter-individual variability in the absorption of Reba according to genetic polymorphism. A significant difference was found in the absorption rate ka 1 among the MDR1 3435C>T genotype groups (P < 0.05) (CT group, 79.8% increase; and TT group, 115% increase). The use of combined MDR1 3435C>T and body mass index as covariates for ka 1 exerted a more significant effect (P < 0.05). In addition, body surface area significantly affected the apparent total clearance (P < 0.05).

  6. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  7. Lack of Association between Polymorphisms of the Dopamine Receptor D4 and Dopamine Transporter Genes and Personality Traits in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Hong Shick

    2006-01-01

    Human personality traits have a considerable genetic component. Cloninger et al. were the first to postulate that certain personality traits, such as novelty seeking, are related to the dopamine neurotransmitter system. In this study, we investigated the associations between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III and dopamine transporter (DAT1) polymorphisms and personality traits. The DRD4 and DAT1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped in 214 healthy Korean subjects, whose personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). There were no significant differences between scores of TCI temperament dimensions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) and DRD4 gene polymorphism. The DAT1 gene polymorphisms also showed no significant association with any of the temperament subscales of the TCI. These data suggest that DRD4 and DAT1 gene polymorphism may not associated with personality traits in a Korean population. PMID:17191306

  8. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  9. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  10. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…

  11. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…

  12. Genetic population structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex in Korean cereals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small grain cereals are frequently contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium species. Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are known as a head blight pathogens and mycotoxin producers. In order to characterize the FGSC populations associated with cereals in Korea, barley, corn, maiz...

  13. Development of the Perceived Stress Inventory: A New Questionnaire for Korean Population Surveys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon Sook; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jun Hyung; Yang, Yun Jun; Cho, Jung Jin; Ahn, Gwiyeoroo; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Sung, Eunju

    2015-11-01

    Given emerging evidence of the association between stress and disease, practitioners need a tool for measuring stress. Several instruments exist to measure perceived stress; however, none of them are applicable for population surveys because stress conceptualization can differ by population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Perceived Stress Inventory (PSI) and its short version for use in population surveys and clinical practice in Korea. From a pool of perceived stress items collected from three widely used instruments, 20 items were selected for the new measurement tool. Nine of these items were selected for the short version. We evaluated the validity of the items using exploratory factor analysis of the preliminary data. To evaluate the convergent validity of the PSI, 387 healthy people were recruited and stratified on the basis of age and sex. Confirmatory analyses and examination of structural stability were also carried out. To evaluate discriminatory validity, the PSI score of a group with depressive symptoms was compared with that of a healthy group. A similar comparison was also done for persons with anxious mood. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor construct (tension, depression, and anger) for the PSI. Reliability values were satisfactory, ranging from 0.67 to 0.87. Convergent validity was confirmed through correlation with the Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. People with depressive or anxious mood had higher scores than the healthy group on the total PSI, all three dimensions, and the short version. The long and short versions of the PSI are valid and reliable tools for measuring perceived stress. These instruments offer benefits for stress research using population-based surveys.

  14. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women.

  15. Relationship between high serum ferritin level and glaucoma in a South Korean population: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    PubMed

    Gye, Hyo Jung; Kim, Joon Mo; Yoo, Chungkwon; Shim, Seong Hee; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki Chul; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and glaucoma in a South Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 164 029 subjects who underwent screening at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013. All subjects underwent a physical examination, answered sociodemographic and behavioural questions, and provided samples for laboratory analyses. A digital fundus photograph of both eyes was taken, and all photographs were reviewed by ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists determined if an eye had glaucoma based on criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and the appearance of the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc. The mean serum ferritin level was 56.98 ng/mL in women and 223.82 ng/mL in men. After adjusting for age, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) and total vitamin D level, males in the highest quartile for serum ferritin level had a higher OR for glaucoma than males in the lowest quartile (OR=1.176, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.342, p=0.016); we did not observe this relationship among women. Other markers of iron metabolism, such as iron level, transferrin saturation and TIBC, and inflammation measures, including WBC, HsCRP and total vitamin D, were not associated with glaucoma. High serum ferritin level was associated with a high risk of glaucoma in men, but not in women. Because serum ferritin is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it might play a role in glaucoma development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The influence of prehypertension, controlled and uncontrolled hypertension on left ventricular diastolic function and structure in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju Young; Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kang, Jeong Gyu; Choi, Joong-Myung; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jae-Hon

    2017-01-26

    Although hypertension is a clear risk factor for cardiovascular disease, how prehypertension and controlled hypertension influence left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and structure remain to be elucidated. Thus, this study was intended to investigate the link between LV diastolic dysfunction and structural changes in different categories of hypertension. A cohort of 52 111 Korean adults receiving echocardiograms was enrolled. The study population was stratified into five groups according to the following categories of hypertension and blood pressure (BP): normotensive (<120/80 mm Hg), prehypertensive (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), controlled hypertensive (<140/90 mm Hg), newly recognized hypertensive and uncontrolled hypertensive (⩾140/90 mm Hg). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the odds ratios (ORs) for LV hypertrophy (LVH) and increased relative wall thickness (RWT), and the adjusted mean values of diastolic parameters were used to examine differences in LV diastolic function. We found a significant relationship between elevated BP and LVH. In addition, an association was observed with LV remodeling (increased RWT). The ORs of LV hypertrophy, remodeling and adjusted mean values of echocardiographic parameters showed dose-response relationships across the study groups, in the order (from lowest to highest) of normotensive, prehypertensive, controlled hypertension, newly recognized hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension. The full adjusted ORs of increased RWT were 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-1.87) in prehypertension, 2.02 (95% CI: 1.74-2.34) in controlled hypertension, 2.85 (95% CI: 2.35-3.43) in newly recognized hypertension and 3.31 (95% CI: 2.68-4.07) in uncontrolled hypertension. The present study results suggest the importance of early detection and proper management of hypertension.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 26 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.191.

  17. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7-40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5-55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5-156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17-2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02-2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p < 0.05). In terms of pack years, very heavy smokers were significantly more likely to have laryngeal disorder, while self-reported voice problems were significantly more likely for heavy smokers but not very heavy smokers. The results of this study imply that chronic smoking has a significant relationship with dysphonia. Longitudinal studies are required in future work to verify the causality between lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia.

  18. Validation of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26) in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sub; Shin, Jong Ki; Son, Seung Min; An, Sung Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26). Translation/retranslation of the English version of QUALEFFO was conducted, and all steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were performed. The Korean version of the visual analog scale measure of pain, QUALEFFO-26 and the previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) were mailed to 162 consecutive patients with osteoporosis. Factor analysis and reliability assessment by kappa statistics of agreement for each item, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α were conducted. Construct validity was also evaluated by comparing the responses of QUALEFFO-26 with the responses of SF-36 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Factor analysis extracted 3 factors. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement greater than 0.6. The QUALEFFO-26 showed good test/retest reliability (QUALEFFO-26: 0.8271). Internal consistency of Cronbach's α was found to be very good (QUALEFFO-26: 0.873). The Korean version of QUALEFFO-26 showed good significant correlation with SF-36 total score and with single SF-36 domains scores. The adapted Korean version of the QUALEFFO-26 was successfully translated and showed acceptable measurement properties and, as such, is considered suitable for outcome assessments in the Korean-speaking patients with osteoporosis.

  19. Relationship Between Types of Exercise and Quality of Life in a Korean Metabolic Syndrome Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Ho; Son, Sun Han; Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) significantly correlates with exercise. MetS also has an independent and inverse correlation to quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have examined the association between exercise and QoL in people with MetS. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship between exercise and QoL in a MetS population. This was a cross-sectional study using public data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014 (n = 7550). MetS was defined on the basis of the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Demographic factors, three types of exercise (resistance, flexibility, walking), five subsets of EuroQoL (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), and QoL scores (EQ-VAS), were investigated. Independent associations of each exercise on five subsets of QoL were determined using odds ratios (OR) adjusted for four demographic factors (age group, sex, weight change, and area of residence) using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of MetS was 26.4% and the ratio of subjects performing resistance, flexibility, or walking exercise was 17.7%, 45.8%, and 71.5% among this population, respectively. EQ-VAS of exercisers was significantly higher than that of non-exercisers in resistance, flexibility, and walking exercise. Although resistance and flexibility exercise did not correlate with any subsets of QoL, mobility and self-care were significantly associated with walking exercise (OR = 0.635, 95% CI = 0.439-0.919 and OR = 0.577, 95% CI = 0.348-0.958, respectively). All exercisers showed higher QoL scores than non-exercisers. Among QoL subsets, mobility and self-care were independently associated with walking exercise in the MetS population. Regular walking exercise was important to higher QoL in those with MetS. This is the first clinical report to indicate that QoL could be independently influenced by walking exercise.

  20. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and insulin resistance in Korean adolescents: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Lee, Jee-Yon; Dong, Jae June; Lee, Duk-Chul; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-11-01

    Studies have suggested the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, few studies have examined the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in the general adolescent population. This study aimed to examine the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. A total of 2649 participants aged 12-18 years were selected from the 2007 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values greater than the 80th percentile. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables increased proportionally with TG/HDL-C quartiles. Compared to individuals in the lowest TG/HDL-C quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.91 in boys and 2.38 in girls after adjusting for confounding variables. This study suggests that TG/HDL-C could be a convenient marker for identifying Korean adolescents with insulin resistance.

  2. Cathepsin D levels are reduced in patients with preeclampsia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Yeon; Lee, Maria; Kang, Hye Won; Moon, ChongSoo

    2013-12-01

    To compare the circulating levels of cathepsin D in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Fifty pregnant and 20 healthy non-pregnant patients were enrolled in this study. Of the 50 pregnant patients, 15 were preeclamptic and 35 patients were normotensive. Serum levels of soluble cathepsin D were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Cathepsin D levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic patients than normotensive pregnant patients (p=0.033). The serum levels of cathepsin D in preeclamptic and non-pregnant healthy patients showed similar results. The serum levels of cathepsin D were not positively correlated with preeclampsia severity or the incidence of delivery of small for gestational age infants. We conclude that a reduced cathepsin D level is an important factor that may contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, possibly by inhibiting normal trophoblastic invasion. These results contribute to the understanding of this serious obstetric problem. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective Observation of 5-Year Clinical Course of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo Ri; Oh, Tae Keun

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common clinical condition, whereas it's natural course has not been identified distinctly. We evaluated the natural history of 169 SCH patients over 5-yr and the prognostic factors including thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid ultrasonographic (USG) findings related to develop overt hypothyroidism. After 5 yr, 47.3% of patients showed normalization of TSH, while 36.7% of patients remained persistence of high level of TSH, and overt hypothyroidism developed in 11.2% of patients. There were painless thyroiditis (2.9%) and hyperthyroidism (1.7%) during 5 yr follow-up. The thyroid nodule was seen in 48.6% of patients. Most of patients had 1 to 2 nodules whereas only 3% of patients with thyroid nodule had more than 6 nodules. Overt hypothyroidism patients had more heterogenous echogenecity in USG compared to patients with normalization or persistent SCH (76.5% vs 50.0% vs 35.0%, P = 0.048) and higher prevalence positive anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO Ab) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) and titer of anti-TPO Ab than other two groups. The cut off values for prediction of overt hypothyroidism were TSH > 7.45 µIU/mL, free T4 < 1.09 ng/dL and Anti-TPO Ab > 560 IU/mL. SCH has various courses and initial TSH, free T4, presence of thyroid autoantibody, titer of thyroid autoantibody; and thyroid USG findings can serve as a prognostic factor for progression of overt hypothyroidism. These parameters suggest consideration to initiate thyroid hormone treatment in SCH. PMID:24265525

  4. Reproducibility study of Overactive Bladder Symptom Score questionnaire and its response to treatment (RESORT) in Korean population with overactive bladder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Jin; Homma, Yukio; Oh, Seung-June

    2014-02-01

    The Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) is comprised of 4 items with a single total score for quantification of OAB symptoms and has been reported as sensitive to treatment-related changes. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Korean version in patients with OAB symptoms. Two prospective trials were conducted at two teaching hospitals. The Part I study evaluated the internal consistency and test-retest reliability among 42 enrolled patients, and the Part II trial assessed the construct validity and anticholinergic responsiveness in 50 enrolled patients and 50 controls. Internal consistency was found acceptable, with Cronbach's α of 0.73 for total OABSS score. From a 2-week test-retest, Spearman's rho of each item ranged from 0.53 to 0.82, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.80, showing the high stability. Acceptable discriminant validity was demonstrated, with substantially different correlations of OABSS scores with an International Prostate Symptom Score-storage and voiding score sum, and significant differences between patients and controls. Convergent validity was acceptable, with moderate correlations between each OABSS item and the corresponding 3-day frequency-volume chart variables. The Korean version was found considerably responsive to symptom changes following 12-week solifenacin treatment, as judged by moderate or large effect sizes, standardized response means, and the Guyatt Responsiveness Index. With good psychometric properties and responsiveness, the Korean version of the OABSS may offer researchers and clinicians a valid and reliable measure for the assessment of OAB symptoms in the Korean population.

  5. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  6. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  7. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woojin

    2010-09-07

    Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI) and National Medical Care Aid (AID). This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of patients diagnosed into dementia or schizophrenia categories

  8. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  9. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  10. Incidence of three roots and/or four root canals in the permanent mandibular first molars in a Korean sub-population.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ju-Kyong; Peters, Ove A; Lee, Woocheol; Son, Sung-Ae; Park, Jeong-Kil; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars (PMFMs) with four canals and their morphological characteristics among a Korean population from using cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCTs). Among the 705 CBCTs screened, 472 patient cases possessing at least one PMFM were identified. A total of 780 PMFMs were evaluated in axial section series to determine the number of roots and canals. The incidences of three-rooted PMFMs were compared with regard to gender and location. For distal root(s) with two canals, inter-orifice distances (IOD) between distobuccal and distolingual canals were measured at pulpal floor and furcation levels. The difference of IOD between males and females was also analyzed using chi-square tests. Among the 472 CBCTs of 225 females and 247 males, 84 females and 107 males were found to have at least one three-rooted PMFM. Among the 780 PMFMs, 191 PMFMs (24.5%, 89 of 397 left and 102 of 383 right) were found to have three roots. The prevalence of distal root(s) with two canals was 34.2% (267 of 780). From the molars with two distal canals, the mean IOD between distobuccal and distolingual canals at the pulpal floor level was 3.1 mm in males and 2.9 mm in females (p = 0.0428). The occurrence of three-rooted PMFMs among a Korean population was 24.5% and was higher than other countries and ethnicities. Understanding the prevalence of PMFMs with a distolingual root and/or canal in a Korean population and the IOD between distobuccal and distolingual canals may be useful for successful endodontic treatments. Acknowledgment of potential incidence of three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars with four canals and the distance between two distal canals may increase the success rate of root canal treatment by reducing the missing canal untreated.

  11. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  12. Association study of microRNA polymorphisms with hepatocellular carcinoma in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hee; Min, Kyung Tae; Jeon, Young Joo; Kwon, Chang-Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Park, Pil Won; Hong, Sung Pyo; Rim, Kyu Seong; Kwon, Sung Won; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Kim, Nam Keun

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that common genetic polymorphisms alter the processing of microRNA (miRNA) and may be associated with the development and progression of cancer. The association of miRNA polymorphisms with HCC survival was analyzed in 159 HCC patients and 201 controls by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The risk of HCC was significantly lower for the miR-499A>G, AG+GG in HCC patients (AOR=0.603, 95% CI=0.370-0.984) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC patients (AOR=0.561, 95% CI 0.331-0.950). In addition, the risk of HCC was significantly lower for the miR-149C>T, CT and CT+CC in HCC patients (CT; AOR=0.542, 95% CI=0.332-0.886, CT+CC; AOR=0.536, 95% CI=0.335-0.858) and HBV-related HCC patients (CT: AOR=0.510, 95% CI 0.305-0.854, CT+CC: AOR=0.496, 95% CI 0.302-0.813). The miR-149C>T polymorphism was also associated with survival rate of HCC patients in OKUDA II stage. miR-149C>T and miR-499A>G were associated with HBV-related HCC. Further studies on larger populations will need to be conducted to confirm these results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High intake of whole grains and beans pattern is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the association between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in the 3871 healthy Korean adults from the 2007 to 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The whole grains and beans pattern was associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance (OR for highest quintile=0.80, 95% CI=0.61-1.03, P for trend=0.013).

  14. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Moon, Min Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes.

  15. Association of sleep quality in Behcet disease with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Son, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ji-Min; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyon

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disturbance is prime concern in patients with Behcet disease. The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of sleep quality, in Korean patients suffering from Behcet disease. We further investigated the relationship between depression, quality of life and the clinical findings of Behcet disease. The study was performed by the cross-sectional design. Sleep quality was assessed by the Korean version of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Disease activity of Behcet disease was evaluated by Behcet disease current activity form (BDCAF). Depression was assessed by the Korean version of Beck depression inventory second edition (BDI-2). Quality of life was assessed by the Korean version of the Leeds Behcet disease quality of life measure (BDQoL). Among the 100 patients studied, 42% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 9). These patients have a higher BDI-2, total BDCAF and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score (p < 0.001, p = 0.022, and p = 0.005). Considering BDCAF, the frequency of genital ulcer was significantly higher (p = 0.01). Behcet was higher in females. The BDQoL was lower in poor sleeper group (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Among 7 PSQI components, daytime dysfunction was higher in patients with high disease activity (p = 0.03). Total PSQI score were strongly correlated with BDCAF, BDI-2, BDQoL, and pain VAS score (p = 0.02, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Low sleep quality is directly associated with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean patients with Behcet disease.

  16. Association of sleep quality in Behcet disease with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jimin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Son, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ji-Min; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyon

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Sleep disturbance is prime concern in patients with Behcet disease. The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of sleep quality, in Korean patients suffering from Behcet disease. We further investigated the relationship between depression, quality of life and the clinical findings of Behcet disease. Methods The study was performed by the cross-sectional design. Sleep quality was assessed by the Korean version of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Disease activity of Behcet disease was evaluated by Behcet disease current activity form (BDCAF). Depression was assessed by the Korean version of Beck depression inventory second edition (BDI-2). Quality of life was assessed by the Korean version of the Leeds Behcet disease quality of life measure (BDQoL). Results Among the 100 patients studied, 42% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 9). These patients have a higher BDI-2, total BDCAF and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score (p < 0.001, p = 0.022, and p = 0.005). Considering BDCAF, the frequency of genital ulcer was significantly higher (p = 0.01). Behcet was higher in females. The BDQoL was lower in poor sleeper group (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Among 7 PSQI components, daytime dysfunction was higher in patients with high disease activity (p = 0.03). Total PSQI score were strongly correlated with BDCAF, BDI-2, BDQoL, and pain VAS score (p = 0.02, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Low sleep quality is directly associated with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean patients with Behcet disease. PMID:28192886

  17. Strong founder effect of p.P240L in CDH23 in Koreans and its significant contribution to severe-to-profound nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Korean pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Ah Reum; Kim, Nayoung K D; Kim, Min Young; Jeon, Eun-Hee; Kim, Bong Jik; Han, Young Eun; Chang, Mun Young; Park, Woong-Yang; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2015-08-13

    Despite the prevalence of CDH23 mutations in East Asians, its large size hinders investigation. The pathologic mutation p.P240L in CDH23 is common in East Asians. However, whether this mutation represents a common founder or a mutational hot spot is unclear. The prevalence of CDH23 mutations with prelingual severe-to-profound sporadic or autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss (arSNHL) is unknown in Koreans. From September 2010 to October 2014, children with severe-to-profound sporadic or arSNHL without phenotypic markers, and their families, were tested for mutations in connexins GJB2, GJB6 and GJB3. Sanger sequencing of CDH23 p.P240L was performed on connexin-negative samples without enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA), followed by targeted resequencing of 129 deafness genes, including CDH23, unless p.P240L homozygotes were detected in the first screening. Four p.P240L-allele-linked STR markers were genotyped in 40 normal-hearing control subjects, and the p.P240L carriers in the hearing-impaired cohort, to identify the haplotypes. Four (3.1 %) of 128 children carried two CDH23 mutant alleles, and SLC26A4 and GJB2 accounted for 18.0 and 17.2 %, respectively. All four children showed profound nonsyndromic SNHL with minimal residual hearing. Interestingly, all had at least one p.P240L mutant allele. Analysis of p.P240L-linked STR markers in these children and other postlingual hearing-impaired adults carrying p.P240L revealed that p.P240L was mainly carried on a single haplotype. p.P240L contributed significantly to Korean pediatric severe arSNHL with a strong founder effect, with implications for future phylogenetic studies. Screening for p.P240L as a first step in GJB2-negative arSNHL Koreans without EVA is recommended.

  18. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD.

  19. Estimated Number of Korean Adults with Back Pain and Population-Based Associated Factors of Back Pain : Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Objective We estimated the number of Korean adults with back pain and evaluated population-based associated factors of back pain from a representative sample data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods The number of Korean adults who experienced back pain (experienced patients), those who experienced back pain lasting for three or more months during the past year (chronic patients), and those who were currently suffering from back pain (current patients) were estimated by analyzing the data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007 using surveyfreq procedure of the SAS statistical package. Population-based odds ratios for being experienced, chronic, and current patient according to demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and occupation), and lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) were estimated using surveylogistic procedure. Results It was estimated that there were 5,554,256 (proportion, 15.4%; 95% CI, 4,809,466 - 6,299,046) experienced patients, 2,060,829 (5.7%; 1,557,413-2,564,246) chronic patients, and 3,084,188 (8.5%; 2,600,197 - 3,568,179) current patients among 36,107,225 Korean adults aged 20-89 years in 2007. Each of explanatory variables was significantly associated with at least one of the response variables for back pain. Conclusion Based on our study results, further efforts to investigate epidemiology of back pain, to evaluate associated factors, and to improve treatment outcomes are needed. PMID:20041054

  20. The pattern and prevalence of hypodontia in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Chung, C J; Han, J-H; Kim, K-H

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern and prevalence of hypodontia in the Korean population along with its association with the dental and skeletal polymorphisms. The diagnostic materials including casts, panoramic radiographs, and lateral cephalograms of 1622 Korean subjects (611 males, 1011 females) were used to evaluate the pattern and prevalence of hypodontia as well as its association with the congenital absence of the third molar. The changes in the tooth size and skeletal characteristics of the hypodontia group were evaluated using cast/cephalometric analysis and compared with the standard values of normal occlusion in Koreans. The prevalence of hypodontia in Koreans was 11.2%. The mandibular lateral incisor and second premolar were the most frequently absent. Congenital absence of the third molar was observed more frequently in the hypodontia group than in the non-hypodontia group. The prevalence of hypodontia in Class III malocclusion was significantly higher than in Class I or Class II malocclusion. The pattern and prevalence of hypodontia can vary in different ethnic groups. In Koreans, the special features of hypodontia were its association with a higher level of congenital missing third molars and skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  1. Identification of a Copy Number Variation on Chromosome 20q13.12 Associated with Osteoporotic Fractures in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-Joon; Hwang, Mi Yeong; Moon, Sanghoon; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Go, Min Jin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures (OFs) are critical hard outcomes of osteoporosis and are characterized by decreased bone strength induced by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration in bone tissue. Most OFs cause acute pain, hospitalization, immobilization, and slow recovery in patients and are associated with increased mortality. A variety of genetic studies have suggested associations of genetic variants with the risk of OF. Genome-wide association studies have reported various single-nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations (CNVs) in European and Asian populations. To identify CNV regions associated with OF risk, we conducted a genome-wide CNV study in a Korean population. We performed logistic regression analyses in 1,537 Korean subjects (299 OF cases and 1,238 healthy controls) and identified a total of 8 CNV regions significantly associated with OF (p < 0.05). Then, one CNV region located on chromosome 20q13.12 was selected for experimental validation. The selected CNV region was experimentally validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The CNV region of chromosome 20q13.12 is positioned upstream of a family of long non-coding RNAs, LINC01260. Our findings could provide new information on the genetic factors associated with the risk of OF. PMID:28154514

  2. Urinary concentrations of acrylamide (AA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) and associations with demographic factors in the South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Heon; Lee, Kee Jae; Ahn, Ryoungme; Kang, Hee Sook

    2014-09-01

    Acrylamide (AA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) are important urinary biomarkers of acrylamide exposure in human biomonitoring, because AA is classified as a probable carcinogen in humans. In this study, urinary AA and AAMA were assessed in the South Korean adult population aged 18-69, based on the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey conducted in 2009. Urinary metabolites in samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS system. Relying on data from 1873 representative South Korean adults, the population-weighted geometric means of urinary AA and AAMA concentrations were 6.8 ng/ml (95% CI: 6.4-7.3), and 30.0 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.2-31.8), respectively. The creatinine-adjusted geometric means of AA and AAMA were 6.2 μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 5.8-6.7) and 26.4μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 24.9-28.0), respectively. When covariates for predictors of urinary metabolites were adjusted simultaneously in a log-linear multiple regressions, the strongest predictors of urinary AA were education (OR=1.08-1.28; 95% CI: 1.11-1.48; p=0.0024) and age (OR=0.66-0.84; 95% CI: 0.54-0.97; p=0.0003), and those of urinary AAMA were smoking status (OR=1.16-2.63; 95% CI: 0.98-3.08; p=0.001) and education (OR=1.12-1.19; 95% CI: 1.02-1.38; p=0.0425). The ratio of current/never smokers for urinary AA was 1.3, whereas the same ratio for urinary AAMA was 3.0. These findings suggested that most South Koreans had detectable levels of AA and AAMA (98.7% and 99.4%, respectively) in their urine and that the body burden of AA and AAMA varied according to demographic, geographic, and lifestyle (smoking) factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The normalization of explosive functional movements in a diverse population of elite American football players.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the need to normalize, for body mass, explosive functional tasks in a population exhibiting diverse body masses. Measures investigated in elite college American football players attending the National Football League's annual combine (n = 1,136) were the 9.1-, 18.3-, and 36.6-m sprints, vertical and horizontal jumps, 18.3-m shuttle, and 3-cone drill. To determine the relationship between body mass and performance outcomes, Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were generated using log-transformed data. Task-specific allometric exponents, accounting for body mass, were also determined. The strength of the correlations suggests that sprint and jump abilities are associated with body mass, whereas change-of-direction ability is not. The determined allometric exponents range between 0.296 and -0.463 for the sprint and jump tasks and are -0.022 and -0.006 for the 18.3-m shuttle and the 3-cone drill, respectively. In populations exhibiting relatively large variations in body mass, normalization of sprint and jump abilities is recommended, whereas normalization of change-of-direction ability is unwarranted. Novel suggestions derived from the present research are that sprint and jump abilities in diverse populations warrant normalization and that physical attributes associated with explosive functional movements deserve attribute-specific consideration when contemplating normalization.

  4. Low trihalomethane formation in Korean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeyong; Choi, Youshik; Cho, Soonhang; Lee, Dongsoo

    2003-01-20

    Organics in water have the potential to generate harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) during the chlorination process. To clarify the regulatory implications of Korean THMs levels which appear to be significantly lower than those in the US where the Stage 1 and 2 D/DBPs rule has been promulgated, the characteristics of THMs formation were investigated on five major river waters in Korea. Water samples were taken from 12 water treatment plants on five major rivers that serve as drinking water sources for more than 90% of the Korean population. Trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), total organic halide formation potential (TOXFP) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)) were determined and compared with those from US data. A survey of existing data [J Korean Soc Water Qual; 16(4) 2000b 431-443] provided evidence that THMs levels in treated drinking water in Korea were one-third of those reported in the US. The lower THMs levels were mainly attributable to the differences in the level and THMFP of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The DOC levels and the THMFP normalized to DOC were approximately 60% of those in the US. Results which combined could quantitatively account for the lower THMs levels (i.e. 0.6 x 0.6 approximately 1/3) in Korea. The observed Korean THMs levels were over-predicted by the THMs model () developed in the US. The level of THMFP was found to be similar if normalized for aromaticity as measured by UV(254). These findings suggest that: (i) the case for more stringent THMs control is not likely to be a high priority among issues of drinking water quality in Korea; and (ii) significant variation of THMFP level may exist over different geographic regions; hence (iii) independent THMs models should be developed to make accurate predictions for different regions.

  5. Age-Related Cataract Is Associated with Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in the South Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated events lead to several chronic diseases. We investigated the association between allergic conditions and age-related cataracts in the South Korean adult population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from 1,170 participants aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age-related cataracts and allergic conditions, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific serum IgE levels, after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, sun exposure, blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as histories of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis). Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related cataract was greater in participants with higher total serum IgE levels (OR = 1.37; P = 0.044). In particular, increased IgE levels were significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR = 1.42; P = 0.032). However, allergen-specific serum IgE levels did not differ significantly between groups. In the trend analysis, no significant relationship was observed between serum IgE and any type of age-related cataract. Conclusion Increased total serum IgE level is independently associated with age-related cataracts after adjustment for confounding factors. PMID:27861567

  6. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  8. The Investigation on the Distribution of Malassezia Yeasts on the Normal Korean Skin by 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo-Jung; Lim, Sang-Hee; Ko, Jong-Hyun; Oh, Byung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Min; Song, Young-Chan; Yim, Seon-Mi; Lee, Yang-Won; Choe, Yong-Beom

    2009-01-01

    Background Malassezia yeasts are normal flora of the skin that are discovered in 75~98% of health subjects, but since its association with various skin disorders have been known, many studies have been conducted in the distribution of the yeasts. Objective To isolate, identify, and classify Malassezia yeasts from the normal human skin of Koreans by using the rapid and accurate molecular biology method (26S rDNA PCR-RFLP) which overcome the limits of morphological and biochemical methods, and to gather a basic database that will show its relation to various skin diseases. Methods Malassezia yeasts were cultured from clinically healthy human skin using scrub-wash technique at five sites (forehead, cheek, chest, upper arm, and thigh) and swabbing technique at scalp in 160 participants comprised of 80 males and 80 females aged from 0 to 80. Identification of obtained strains were placed into the one of the 11 species by 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP. Results An overall positive culture rate was 62.4% (599/960). As shown in the experiment groups by their age, the positive culture rate was the highest (74.2%) in the age 21~30 and 31~40 (89/120). In the experiment groups by different body areas, the scalp showed the highest positive culture rate of 90% (144/160). On analysis of 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP, M. globosa was the most predominant species in the age 0~10 (32.8%), 11~20 (28.9%), 21~30 (32.3%). M. restricta was identified as predominant species in the age 41~50 (27.9%), 61~70 (31.5%) and 71~80 (24.0%). In the age 31~40 years, M. sympodialis was found to be the most common species (24.6%). According to body site, M. restricta was more frequently recovered in the scalp (56.8%), forehead (39.8%) and cheek (24.0%) and while M. globosa was more frequently recovered in the chest (36.8%). Higher positive culture rates of Malassezia yeasts were shown in male subjects than female counterparts in all body areas except scalp (p<0.05). Especially in this study, M. dermatis, newly isolated

  9. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results. PMID:22185194

  10. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Naab, Thorsten; and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  11. Incorporation of stochastic variability in mechanistic population pharmacokinetic models: handling the physiological constraints using normal transformations.

    PubMed

    Tsamandouras, Nikolaos; Wendling, Thierry; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Galetin, Aleksandra; Aarons, Leon

    2015-08-01

    The utilisation of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models for the analysis of population data is an approach with progressively increasing impact. However, as we move from empirical to complex mechanistic model structures, incorporation of stochastic variability in model parameters can be challenging due to the physiological constraints that may arise. Here, we investigated the most common types of constraints faced in mechanistic pharmacokinetic modelling and explored techniques for handling them during a population data analysis. An efficient way to impose stochastic variability on the parameters of interest without neglecting the underlying physiological constraints is through the assumption that they follow a distribution with support and properties matching the underlying physiology. It was found that two distributions that arise through transformations of the normal, the logit-normal generalisation and the logistic-normal, are excellent for such an application as not only they can satisfy the physiological constraints but also offer high flexibility during characterisation of the parameters' distribution. The statistical properties and practical advantages/disadvantages of these distributions for such an application were clearly displayed in the context of different modelling examples. Finally, a simulation study clearly illustrated the practical gains of the utilisation of the described techniques, as omission of population variability in physiological systems parameters leads to a biased/misplaced stochastic model with mechanistically incorrect variance structure. The current methodological work aims to facilitate the use of mechanistic/physiologically-based models for the analysis of population pharmacokinetic clinical data.

  12. Inspiratory Flow Limitation in a Normal Population of Adults in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana O.; Tufik, Sergio; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu A.; Guilleminault, Christian; de Godoy, Luciana B. M.; Castro, Laura S.; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) during sleep occurs when airflow remains constant despite an increase in respiratory effort. This respiratory event has been recognized as an important parameter for identifying sleep breathing disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate how much IFL normal individuals can present during sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study derived from a general population sample. Setting: A “normal” asymptomatic sample derived from the epidemiological cohort of São Paulo. Patients and Participants: This study was derived from a general population study involving questionnaires and nocturnal polysomnography of 1,042 individuals. A subgroup defined as a nonsymptomatic healthy group was used as the normal group. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All participants answered several questionnaires and underwent full nocturnal polysomnography. IFL was manually scored, and the percentage of IFL of total sleep time was considered for final analysis. The distribution of the percentage of IFL was analyzed, and associated factors (age, sex, and body mass index) were calculated. There were 95% of normal individuals who exhibited IFL during less than 30% of the total sleep time. Body mass index was positively associated with IFL. Conclusions: Inspiratory flow limitation can be observed in the polysomnography of normal individuals, with an influence of body weight on percentage of inspiratory flow limitation. However, only 5% of asymptomatic individuals will have more than 30% of total sleep time with inspiratory flow limitation. This suggests that only levels of inspiratory flow limitation > 30% be considered in the process of diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea in the absence of an apnea-hypopnea index > 5 and that < 30% of inspiratory flow limitation may be a normal finding in many patients. Citation: Palombini LO; Tufik S; Rapoport DM; Ayappa IA; Guilleminault C; de Godoy LBM; Castro LS; Bittencourt L

  13. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  14. Feasibility, comparability, and reliability of the standard gamble compared with the rating scale and time trade-off techniques in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Ha; Lee, Sang-Il; Jo, Min-Woo

    2017-08-11

    The standard gamble (SG) method is the gold standard for valuing health states as a utility, although it is accepted that it is difficult to valuate health states. This study was conducted in order to compare the SG with the rating scale (RS) and time trade-off (TTO) techniques in terms of their feasibility, comparability, and reliability in a valuation survey of the general Korean population. Five-hundred members of the general Korean population were recruited using a multi-stage quota sampling method in Seoul and its surrounding areas, Korea. Respondents evaluated 9 EQ-5D-5L health states using a visual analogue scale (VAS), SG, and TTO during a personal interview. Feasibility was assessed in aspects of the level of difficulty, administration time, and inconsistent responses. Comparability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman approach. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using the ICC. Of the three methods, VAS was the easiest and quickest method to respond. The SG method did not differ significantly compared to the TTO method in administration time as well as the level of difficulty. The SG and TTO values were highly correlated (r = 0.992), and the average mean difference between the SG and the TTO values was 0.034. The ICCs of the VAS, SG, and TTO scores were 0.906, 0.841, and 0.827, respectively. This study suggests that the SG method compared with the VAS and TTO method was feasible and offered a reliable tool for population-based, health state valuation studies in Korea.

  15. Forecasting the number of human immunodeficiency virus infections in the korean population using the autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Sung Soon; Chu, Chaeshin; Kee, Mee-Kyung

    2013-12-01

    From the introduction of HIV into the Republic of Korea in 1985 through 2012, 9,410 HIV-infected Koreans have been identified. Since 2000, there has been a sharp increase in newly diagnosed HIV-infected Koreans. It is necessary to estimate the changes in HIV infection to plan budgets and to modify HIV/AIDS prevention policy. We constructed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to forecast the number of HIV infections from 2013 to 2017. HIV infection data from 1985 to 2012 were used to fit ARIMA models. Akaike Information Criterion and Schwartz Bayesian Criterion statistics were used to evaluate the constructed models. Estimation was via the maximum likelihood method. To assess the validity of the proposed models, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) between the number of observed and fitted HIV infections from 1985 to 2012 was calculated. Finally, the fitted ARIMA models were used to forecast the number of HIV infections from 2013 to 2017. The fitted number of HIV infections was calculated by optimum ARIMA (2,2,1) model from 1985-2012. The fitted number was similar to the observed number of HIV infections, with a MAPE of 13.7%. The forecasted number of new HIV infections in 2013 was 962 (95% confidence interval (CI): 889-1,036) and in 2017 was 1,111 (95% CI: 805-1,418). The forecasted cumulative number of HIV infections in 2013 was 10,372 (95% CI: 10,308-10,437) and in 2017 was14,724 (95% CI: 13,893-15,555) by ARIMA (1,2,3). Based on the forecast of the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections and the current cumulative number of HIV infections, the cumulative number of HIV-infected Koreans in 2017 would reach about 15,000.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehyeung; Park, Ah Yeon; Baek, Younghwa

    2017-01-01

    Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG) to HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC), LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio-associated variants, two LDLC

  17. Evaluation of forensic genetic parameters of 12 STR loci in the Korean population using the Investigator(Ⓡ) HDplex kit.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju Yeon; Kim, Eun Hye; Oh, Yu-Li; Park, Hyun-Chul; Hwang, Jung Ho; Lim, Si-Keun

    2017-04-11

    We genotyped and calculated the forensic parameters of 10 non-CODIS loci and 2 CODIS loci of 990 Korean individuals using the Investigator(Ⓡ) HDplex kit. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) or genetic linkage disequilibrium were observed. The calculated matching probability and power of discrimination ranged from 0.0080 to 0.2014, and 0.7986 to 0.9920, respectively. We conclude that the markers of the kit are highly informative corroborative tools for forensic DNA analysis.

  18. Information processing deficits in psychiatric populations: Implications for normal workload assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Philip D.

    1988-01-01

    In one study, schizophrenics, bipolar manics, and mentally normal individuals were administered a digit recall task. The total performance of schizophrenics looked much like that of a normal processor under a higher load level. The manics' performance was intermediate. Primary performance was particularly poor among the mentally ill subjects. In a second study, three groups in the same populations as in the first study were asked to shadow and recall verbatim eight descriptive text passages. Distraction effects were found for schizophrenics only in the areas of percentage of words correctly shadowed and recall variables; the two areas were not correlated, however. It appears that, for schizophrenics, distraction disrupts the ability to effectively shadow information to a greater extent than it disrupts the ability to encode information for recall. The two studies imply that capacity-carrying abnormalities that affect the quantity but not the quality of information processing can be useful in pointing to information processing of normal humans under high load conditions.

  19. A Nation-Wide Epidemiological Study of Newly Diagnosed Primary Spine Tumor in the Adult Korean Population, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Seil; Kim, Jinhee; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Na Rae; Sohn, Moon Jun; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective This 2009–2011 nation-wide study of adult Koreans was aimed to provide characteristics, medical utilization states, and survival rates for newly diagnosed patients with primary nonmalignant and malignant spine tumors. Methods Data for patients with primary spine tumors were selected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. The data included their age, sex, health insurance type, co-morbidities, medical cost, and hospital stay duration. Hospital stay duration and medical costs per person occurring in one calendar year were used. In addition, survival rates of patients with primary malignant spine tumors were evaluated. Results The incidence rate of a primary spine tumor increased with age, and the year of diagnosis (p≤0.0001). Average annual medical costs ranged from 1627 USD (pelvis & sacrum & coccyx tumors) to 6601 USD (spinal cord tumor) for primary nonmalignant spine tumor and from 12137 USD (spinal meningomas) to 20825 USD (pelvis & sacrum & coccyx tumors) for a primary malignant spine tumor. Overall survival rates for those with a primary malignant spine tumor were 87.0%, 75.3%, and 70.6% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The Cox regression model results showed that male sex, medicare insurance were significantly positive factors affecting survival after a diagnosis of primary malignant spine tumor. Conclusion Our study provides a detailed view of the characteristics, medical utilization states, and survival rates of patients newly diagnosed with primary spine tumors in Korea. PMID:28264240

  20. Identification of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein populations using a next generation sequencer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Young; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Heebal

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leucocyte antigen (encoded by BoLA) has been widely studied to identify the association with many traits related to immunity. Exon2 of BoLA-DRB3 is extremely polymorphic, and more than 100 alleles have been identified. We investigated polymorphisms of BoLA-DRB3.2 in Korean native cattle and Holstein populations using a next generation sequencer of the GS-FLX Titanium system. We found 38 alleles including 11 new alleles (BoLA-DRB3*1303, *4702, *7101, *7501, *7201, *7301, *7601, *1104, *7701, *7401 and *50021) in Hanwoo, and nine alleles including one new allele (BoLA-DRB3*7601) in Holstein. The 454 sequencing method is a promising alternative technology for high throughput genotyping of BoLA-DRB3.2 because of its technical advantages that allow it to overcome the disadvantages of sequence-based typing methods.

  1. Natural killer cell subsets and receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy Korean population: Reference range, influence of age and sex, and correlation between NK cell receptors and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Phan, Minh-Trang; Chun, Sejong; Kim, Sun-Hee; Ali, Alaa Kassim; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Cho, Duck

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) natural killer (NK) cell subsets and analyze their receptors expression in a healthy Korean population, and to determine whether receptor expression correlates with age, sex, and cytotoxicity. We performed multicolor flow cytometry assays to analyze the expression of various NK cell receptors (CD16, NKG2A, NKG2C, NKG2D, CD57, DNAM-1, CD8a, CD62L, NKp30, and NKp46) on both CD3(-)/CD56(dim) and CD3(-)/CD56(bright) NK cells in whole-blood samples from 122 healthy donors. The expression of these receptors was compared according to age (<30years, n=22, 30-60years, n=73 and >60years, n=27) and gender (male, n=61, female, n=61). NK cell cytotoxicity assays were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 18 individuals. The results were compared to the expression levels of NKp30 and NKp46 receptors. A normal reference range for NK cell receptor expression in two NK cell subsets was established. NKp46 and NKG2D expression gradually decreased with age (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) whereas NK cell proportion and numbers, frequencies of CD56(dim) cells, and CD57 expression increased with age (p<0.01 in all cases). Men showed greater NK cell proportion and numbers, frequencies of CD56(dim) cells, and CD57 expression compared to those of women (p<0.05 and p<0.001; p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). Notably, the expression of NKp46 was negatively correlated with NK cell frequency (r=-0.42, p<0.001). Furthermore, NK cell cytotoxicity was found to positively correlate with NCR expression (p=0.02), but not NK cell proportion (p=0.80). We have established a profile of NK cell surface receptors for a Korean population, and revealed that age and gender have an effect on the expression of NK cell receptors in the population. Our data might explain why neither NK cell numbers nor proportions correlate with NK cell cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and

  2. Dietary potassium intake is beneficial to bone health in a low calcium intake population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Kong, S H; Kim, J H; Hong, A R; Lee, J H; Kim, S W; Shin, C S

    2017-05-01

    Dietary potassium may neutralize acid load and reduce calcium loss from the bone, leading to beneficial effect on bone mineral density. In this nationwide Korean population study, dietary potassium intake was associated with improved bone mineral density in older men and postmenopausal women. Nutrition is a major modifiable factor that affects bone health. The accompanying anion in dietary potassium may act as an alkaline source by neutralizing the acid load and reducing calcium loss from the bone. We aimed to evaluate the association between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in the Korean population. We analyzed a total of 3135 men aged >50 years and 4052 postmenopausal women from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The daily food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. When we divided the participants into tertiles based on the intake of potassium intake, the highest potassium intake tertile group showed a significantly higher total hip and femur neck BMD as compared to lower tertile groups (0.914 ± 0.004, 0.928 ± 0.003, 0.925 ± 0.004 mg/day across the tertiles, P = .014 for total hip; 0.736 ± 0.003, 0.748 ± 0.003, 0.750 ± 0.004 mg/day, P = .012 for femur neck). Postmenopausal women in the highest potassium intake tertile group showed significantly higher lumbar, total hip, and femur neck BMD as compared to those in lower potassium intake tertile groups (0.793 ± 0.004, 0.793 ± 0.003, 0.805 ± 0.004 mg/day across the tertiles, P = .029 for lumbar spine; 0.766 ± 0.003, 0.770 ± 0.002, 0.780 ± 0.003 mg/day, P = .002 for total hip; 0.615 ± 0.003, 0.619 ± 0.002, 0.628 ± 0.003 mg/day, P = .002 for femur neck). Dietary potassium intake was positively associated with BMD in men aged >50 years and postmenopausal women, indicating the

  3. Korean speech sound development in children from bilingual Japanese-Korean environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoung Suk; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Yoon Mi; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Sun Jun

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates Korean speech sound development, including articulatory error patterns, among the Japanese-Korean children whose mothers are Japanese immigrants to Korea. The subjects were 28 Japanese-Korean children with normal development born to Japanese women immigrants who lived in Jeonbuk province, Korea. They were assessed through Computerized Speech Lab 4500. The control group consisted of 15 Korean children who lived in the same area. The values of the voice onset time of consonants /p(h)/, /t/, /t(h)/, and /k(*)/ among the children were prolonged. The children replaced the lenis sounds with aspirated or fortis sounds rather than replacing the fortis sounds with lenis or aspirated sounds, which are typical among Japanese immigrants. The children showed numerous articulatory errors for /c/ and /l/ sounds (similar to Koreans) rather than errors on /p/ sounds, which are more frequent among Japanese immigrants. The vowel formants of the children showed a significantly prolonged vowel /o/ as compared to that of Korean children (P<0.05). The Japanese immigrants and their children showed a similar substitution /n/ for /ɧ/ [Japanese immigrants (62.5%) vs Japanese-Korean children (14.3%)], which is rarely seen among Koreans. The findings suggest that Korean speech sound development among Japanese-Korean children is influenced not only by the Korean language environment but also by their maternal language. Therefore, appropriate language education programs may be warranted not only or immigrant women but also for their children.

  4. Analysis of C-shaped root canal configuration in maxillary molars in a Korean population using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyoung-Hoon; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of root fusion and C-shaped root canals in maxillary molars, and to classify the types of C-shaped canal by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods Digitized CBCT images from 911 subjects were obtained in Chosun University Dental Hospital between February 2010 and July 2012 for orthodontic treatment. Among them, a total of selected 3,553 data of maxillary molars were analyzed retrospectively. Tomography sections in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were displayed by PiViewstar and Rapidia MPR software (Infinitt Co.). The incidence and types of root fusion and C-shaped root canals were evaluated and the incidence between the first and the second molar was compared using Chi-square test. Results Root fusion was present in 3.2% of the first molars and 19.5% of the second molars, and fusion of mesiobuccal and palatal root was dominant. C-shaped root canals were present in 0.8% of the first molars and 2.7% of the second molars. The frequency of root fusion and C-shaped canal was significantly higher in the second molar than the first molar (p < 0.001). Conclusions In a Korean population, maxillary molars showed total 11.3% of root fusion and 1.8% of C-shaped root canals. Furthermore, root fusion and C-shaped root canals were seen more frequently in the maxillary second molars. PMID:26877991

  5. The association of 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) gene polymorphisms with prostate cancer in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Young; Kim, Hae Jong; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Myung, Soon Chul

    2015-01-01

    Steroid 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) modifies testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SRD5A2 gene might affect DHT. We sought to understand the relationship of SRD5A2 SNPs to prostate cancer in the Korean population. Twenty-six common SNPs in the SRD5A2 gene were assessed in 272 prostate cancer cases and 173 controls. Single-locus analyses were conducted by using conditional logistic regression. Additionally, we performed a haplotype analysis for the SRD5A2 SNPs tested. Among the 20 SNPs and 4 haplotypes, there were no statistically significant results in the prostate cancer patients and the controls. In the logistic analysis of SRD5A2 polymorphisms with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) criteria, two SNPs (rs508562, rs11675297) and haplotype 1 displayed significant results (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; p=0.05; OR, 1.88-2.02; p=0.01-0.04; OR, 0.59; p=0.02, respectively). rs508562, rs11675297, rs2208532, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.49; p=0.05; OR, 2.02; p=0.05; OR, 2.01; p=0.04; OR, 0.56-0.64, p=0.03-0.04, respectively) had significant associations with Gleason score. rs508562, rs11675297, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.41-2.34; p=0.004-0.05; OR, 1.74-1.82; p=0.03-0.05; OR, 0.42-0.67; p=0.0005-0.03, respectively) were significantly associated with clinical stage. We conclude that there was no significant association between SRD5A2 SNPs and the risk of prostate cancer in the Korean population. However, we found that some SNPs and 1 haplotype influenced PSA level, Gleason score, and clinical stage.

  6. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P < 0.01 were selected to test their synergistic interactions. For age at natural menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  7. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ko, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC) levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database. We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed. During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163). These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels. The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Population normalization with ammonium in wastewater-based epidemiology: application to illicit drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Been, Frederic; Rossi, Luca; Ort, Christoph; Rudaz, Serge; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2014-07-15

    Fluctuations in ammonium (NH4+), measured as NH4-N loads using an ion-selective electrode installed at the inlet of a sewage treatment plant, showed a distinctive pattern which was associated to weekly (i.e., commuters) and seasonal (i.e., holidays) fluctuations of the population. Moreover, population size estimates based on NH4-N loads were lower compared to census data. Diurnal profiles of benzoylecgonine (BE) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were shown to be strongly correlated to NH4-N. Characteristic patterns, which reflect the prolonged nocturnal activity of people during the weekend, could be observed for BE, cocaine, and a major metabolite of MDMA (i.e., 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine). Additional 24 h composite samples were collected between February and September 2013. Per-capita loads (i.e., grams per day per 1000 inhabitants) were computed using census data and NH4-N measurements. Normalization with NH4-N did not modify the overall pattern, suggesting that the magnitude of fluctuations in the size of the population is negligible compared to those of illicit drug loads. Results show that fluctuations in the size of the population over longer periods of time or during major events can be monitored using NH4-N loads: either using raw NH4-N loads or population size estimates based on NH4-N loads, if information about site-specific NH4-N population equivalents is available.

  9. Human growth hormone (GH1) gene polymorphism map in a normal-statured adult population

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristina; Audí, Laura; Carrascosa, Antonio; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Ulied, Angels; Andaluz, Pilar; Arjona, Rosa; Albisu, Marian; Clemente, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Yeste, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Objective GH1 gene presents a complex map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire promoter, coding and noncoding regions. The aim of the study was to establish the complete map of GH1 gene SNPs in our control normal population and to analyse its association with adult height. Design, subjects and measurements A systematic GH1 gene analysis was designed in a control population of 307 adults of both sexes with height normally distributed within normal range for the same population: −2 standard deviation scores (SDS) to +2 SDS. An analysis was performed on individual and combined genotype associations with adult height. Results Twenty-five SNPs presented a frequency over 1%: 11 in the promoter (P1 to P11), three in the 5′UTR region (P12 to P14), one in exon 1 (P15), three in intron 1 (P16 to P18), two in intron 2 (P19 and P20), two in exon 4 (P21 and P22) and three in intron 4 (P23 to P25). Twenty-nine additional changes with frequencies under 1% were found in 29 subjects. P8, P19, P20 and P25 had not been previously described. P6, P12, P17 and P25 accounted for 6·2% of the variation in adult height (P = 0·0007) in this population with genotypes A/G at P6, G/G at P6 and A/G at P12 decreasing height SDS (−0·063 ± 0·031, −0·693 ± 0·350 and −0·489 ± 0·265, Mean ± SE) and genotypes A/T at P17 and T/G at P25 increasing height SDS (+1·094 ± 0·456 and +1·184 ± 0·432). Conclusions This study established the GH1 gene sequence variation map in a normal adult height control population confirming the high density of SNPs in a relatively small gene. Our study shows that the more frequent SNPs did not significantly contribute to height determination, while only one promoter and two intronic SNPs contributed significantly to it. Studies in larger populations will have to confirm the associations and in vitro functional studies will elucidate the mechanisms involved. Systematic GH1 gene analysis in patients with growth delay and suspected

  10. [Oxidative stress; a comparative study between normal and morbid obesity group population].

    PubMed

    De Tursi Ríspoli, Leonardo; Vázquez Tarragón, Antonio; Vázquez Prado, Antonio; Sáez Tormo, Guillermo; Mahmoud Ismail, Ali; Gumbau Puchol, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    To determine the level of oxidative stress in morbid obese patients by comparing their results to those of a normal population. We have studied the metabolites most representative of OS, both in the blood (MDA, 8-oxo-dG, GSSG and the ratio GSSG/GSH) and in the urine (8-oxo-dG), as well as the GSH antioxidant. A descriptive analysis of the sample was performed. The Kolmogorv-Smirnov test was used to assess whether the distribution of the different metabolites was normal. In the case of normal distribution, the Student's t test was used to compare the means, the Mann-Whitney U test was used for non-parametric data, with a significance level of p < 0.05 for hypothesis contrast. There were 28 patients in each group, without statistically significant differences regarding age and gender. The group of patients with morbid obesity presented an average BMI of 50.1 ± 4 and 23.9 ± 6 in the group with normal weight. 67.8% of the patients with morbid obesity had other comorbidities. There were no associated pathologies in the control group. All the values for the different OS metabolites were higher in the group of patients with morbid obesity than in the control group, whereas the activity of the antioxidant systems (GSH) was lower in the group with morbid obesity. The figures of OS metabolites obtained in the group of patients with morbid obesity confirm the presence of OS in obesity at a pathological level given the differences obtained in the group of normal population. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. The association between temporomandibular disorders and suicide ideation in a representative sample of the South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate in a representative sample of South Koreans (1) the prevalence of and associations between general pain, temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and suicide ideation (SI), and (2) whether the associations between general pain, TMD, and SI differ according to cancer history. Data were from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV; N = 16,658). KNHANES IV participants provided reports regarding their cancer history, EQ-5D (a measure of health status from the EuroQoL Group), and TMD symptoms including clicking of one or both temporomandibular joints, pain, and mouth-opening limitation (MOL). Participants were assessed for any SI over the last 12 months, as a dependent variable. The independent variables were pain/discomfort (EQ-PD) reported by the subjects on the EQ-5D, severe TMD (tenderness or reduced jaw mobility once or more per week), and total TMD (occurrence of clicking, tenderness on palpation, or reduced jaw mobility [opening < 30 mm] once or more per week). Demographic information (age and gender), socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation, and marital status), behavioral factors (smoking and binge drinking), and cancer history were evaluated as covariates. The association of TMD with SI was assessed by the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals. In fully adjusted models, elevated PRs for SI were observed for each pain condition (PR = 1.26 for total TMD, PR = 1.35 for severe TMD, and PR = 1.75 for EQ-PD). In the subgroup analyses by cancer history, the PRs were higher in the cancer history (+) group; the order of magnitude was severe TMD (PR = 2.20), EQ-PD (PR = 2.16), and total TMD (PR = 2.02). Pain conditions, including TMD pain, might aggravate SI among those with a cancer history. These findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating that TMD warrants further attention in relation to suicide.

  12. Spectral effect: each population must have its own normal midnight salivary cortisol reference values determined

    PubMed Central

    Tanakol, Refik; Karpuzoglu, Hande; Abbasoglu, Semra; Yarman, Sema; Boztepe, Harika; Alagol, Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The mesurement of midnight salivary cortisol provides the most sensitive method for screening of Cushing's sendrome. However the clinical significance of spectral error is the requirement for determination of normal reference values in each population for each test, which will be used as the diagnostic method. Salivary cortisol levels may be affected by individual factors such as nutrition, sleep, medication, activity, and gender. Being a non-invasive method, midnight salivary cortisol (MSC) has been used as a valuable indicator of free plasma cortisol. Material and methods Midnight salivary cortisol was assessed in randomly selected 100 Turkish patents who underwent to a detailed physical examination. Saliva samples were collected at 00:00 to plastic tubes with the help of plastic pipettes, without brushing their teeth, but after rinsing their mouth. Salivary cortisol was measured with luminescense immunoassay kit. Differences and correlations were analysed. Results The mean midnight salivary cortisol of the healthy population was 0.21 ±0.03 µg/dl. Body mass index, age, sex, smoking, exercise, educational status alcohol, had no effect on the MSC. Conclusions Consequently, normal salivary cortisol reference ranges must be used for different assays and different populations in order to evaluate more accurately pituitary-adrenal axis pathology in clinical practice. PMID:24273572

  13. Spectral effect: each population must have its own normal midnight salivary cortisol reference values determined.

    PubMed

    Mert, Meral; Tanakol, Refik; Karpuzoglu, Hande; Abbasoglu, Semra; Yarman, Sema; Boztepe, Harika; Alagol, Faruk

    2013-10-31

    The mesurement of midnight salivary cortisol provides the most sensitive method for screening of Cushing's sendrome. However the clinical significance of spectral error is the requirement for determination of normal reference values in each population for each test, which will be used as the diagnostic method. Salivary cortisol levels may be affected by individual factors such as nutrition, sleep, medication, activity, and gender. Being a non-invasive method, midnight salivary cortisol (MSC) has been used as a valuable indicator of free plasma cortisol. Midnight salivary cortisol was assessed in randomly selected 100 Turkish patents who underwent to a detailed physical examination. Saliva samples were collected at 00:00 to plastic tubes with the help of plastic pipettes, without brushing their teeth, but after rinsing their mouth. Salivary cortisol was measured with luminescense immunoassay kit. Differences and correlations were analysed. The mean midnight salivary cortisol of the healthy population was 0.21 ±0.03 µg/dl. Body mass index, age, sex, smoking, exercise, educational status alcohol, had no effect on the MSC. Consequently, normal salivary cortisol reference ranges must be used for different assays and different populations in order to evaluate more accurately pituitary-adrenal axis pathology in clinical practice.

  14. Serum Creatinine Levels Are Significantly Influenced by Renal Size in the Normal Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Di Zazzo, Giacomo; Stringini, Gilda; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Muraca, Maurizio; Malena, Saverio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Clinical and experimental data have shown that differences in nephron endowment result in differences in renal mass and predisposition to chronic renal failure, hypertension, and proteinuria. We hypothesized that a significant proportion of the variance in GFR, as estimated by serum creatinine, is attributable to differences in renal size in normal children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A total of 1748 normal renal ultrasounds that were performed in children older than 6 months were reviewed. For each ultrasound, serum creatinine, serum blood urea nitrogen, and systolic and diastolic office BP were recorded. Renal size was evaluated as a function of renal length and thickness. All data were normalized for height, weight, age, and gender. Results When expressed as SD scores, a significant correlation was found between kidney size and serum creatinine (P < 0.0001) and between kidney size and serum blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.002). When dividing kidney size data per quintiles, a difference of 0.51 SD score in serum creatinine was observed between the lowest and highest quintile. No significant correlation was found with office BP measurements. Conclusions These data show that, even in the normal pediatric population, differences in renal function are significantly explained by differences in renal mass. Methodologic limitations of this study are likely to underestimate this relationship. PMID:20884775

  15. Serum creatinine levels are significantly influenced by renal size in the normal pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Di Zazzo, Giacomo; Stringini, Gilda; Matteucci, Maria Chiara; Muraca, Maurizio; Malena, Saverio; Emma, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental data have shown that differences in nephron endowment result in differences in renal mass and predisposition to chronic renal failure, hypertension, and proteinuria. We hypothesized that a significant proportion of the variance in GFR, as estimated by serum creatinine, is attributable to differences in renal size in normal children. A total of 1748 normal renal ultrasounds that were performed in children older than 6 months were reviewed. For each ultrasound, serum creatinine, serum blood urea nitrogen, and systolic and diastolic office BP were recorded. Renal size was evaluated as a function of renal length and thickness. All data were normalized for height, weight, age, and gender. When expressed as SD scores, a significant correlation was found between kidney size and serum creatinine (P < 0.0001) and between kidney size and serum blood urea nitrogen (P < 0.002). When dividing kidney size data per quintiles, a difference of 0.51 SD score in serum creatinine was observed between the lowest and highest quintile. No significant correlation was found with office BP measurements. These data show that, even in the normal pediatric population, differences in renal function are significantly explained by differences in renal mass. Methodologic limitations of this study are likely to underestimate this relationship.

  16. Dietary supplement use and its effect on nutrient intake in Korean adult population in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) data.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Kim, D W; Baek, Y J; Moon, S-H; Jung, H J; Song, Y J; Paik, H-Y

    2014-07-01

    Although there is an increasing trend of dietary supplement (DS) use, few researches have evaluated nutrient intake from DS. This study aimed to establish a nutrient database (NDB) for DS and estimate the effect of DS on total nutrient intake by Korean adults. The NDB for DS was established using the label information of products reported in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV. Of the 16,031 participants who were ≥20 years old, 2053 products were reported as being taken by 5606 subjects. But nutrient composition could be identified by searching product name only in 1158 products consumed by 3844 subjects (DS users). Total nutrient intake of DS users was obtained by combining intakes from diet and DS. Dietary supplement use was higher in women, in middle-aged people and in those with higher education and low smoking and drinking preferences. Nutrients obtained from food were higher in DS users than in nonusers for most nutrients, particularly in women. When total nutrient intake was evaluated in DS users, the percentage of subjects whose intake was below the estimated average requirement for Koreans decreased for several vitamins and minerals, but the percentage of subjects whose intake was above the tolerable upper intake levels increased for vitamin A, vitamin C and iron. The newly developed NDB for DS will be an important resource for more accurate assessment of nutrient intake as well as evaluation of the relationship between nutrition and health. Further research is needed to update a more comprehensive NDB applicable to diverse populations.

  17. Body fat percentage and hemoglobin levels are related to blood lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations in a Korean Adult Population (KNHANES 2008-2010).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-03-01

    Body stores of lead, cadmium, and mercury are determined by the levels in the circulation, and their levels in blood may be related to hemoglobin levels and their absorption by soft tissue and bone. We investigated the association of body fat percentage, hemoglobin levels, and nutrient intakes with the blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in a Korean adult population. This study was based on data from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (n = 4,522, aged ≥ 20 years), which examined nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters. A multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates of age, body mass index, residence area, education level, smoking and drinking status, and bone mineral density for men, with menopausal status added for women in addition to covariates for men indicated that blood lead and mercury levels were negatively associated with body fat percentage only in men, and blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels were positively related to hemoglobin levels in both genders. Additionally, blood lead levels were negatively associated with fat and carbohydrate intake in both men and women but blood mercury levels were only in men, but not women. Sodium intake was a positive predictor of blood lead levels in both genders but was a positive predictor of blood cadmium levels only in men. In conclusion, body fat percentage and hemoglobin levels need to be recognized as confounding factors when considering blood levels of lead, cadmium and mercury as biomarkers for their exposure. Fat, carbohydrates and sodium intakes are also associated with heavy metal levels in the circulation.

  18. Determination of the relationship between genotypes and chromosomal aberration frequencies in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, M.; Tucker, J.

    1997-10-01

    Individual differences in cancer susceptibility may be attributed in part to genetic differences in the genes which code for enzymes involved in metabolic activation and detoxification of environmental procarcinogens. Polymorphisms of certain genes functioning in this manner (CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, NAT1, NAT2, GSTT1, GSTM1) have been linked to an increased risk of some cancers. An increased level of genomic instability, often reflected as an increase in chromosomal aberrations (CA), has also been associated with an elevated risk of cancer. Accurate polymorphism frequency determinations for these genes in a normal population is needed to establish whether these frequencies are different in a diseased population. In this work, analyses are being performed on over 100 normal individuals, ranging from 0 to 80 years of age, to determine CA frequency and genotypes. Individual exposure and health data have also been obtained from all individuals in the study. These analyses will provide a baseline frequency for the various gene polymorphisms in a normal (mainly Caucasian) population, and will determine whether a relationship between the CA frequency and certain polymorphisms and or genotypes exists. In addition the interaction between environmental exposures (such as smoking), genotypes and CA frequencies are being examined. At present 24 individuals have been genotyped for GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP2D6(T) and their CA frequencies determined. Genotype frequencies of 21% for GSTM1 B, 4% for GSTM1 null, 29% for GSTM1 A, 21% for GSTM1 B, 4% for GSTM1 A,B, and 0% for CYP2D6(T) have been determined from the small sample analyzed to date. We plan to extend our genotype analysis to include the remaining CYP2D6 polymorphisms, CYP2E1, CYP1A1, NAT1 and NAT2.

  19. Analysis of spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal and pathological ears.

    PubMed

    Miura, Makoto; Sando, Isamu; Hirsch, Barry E; Orita, Yorihisa

    2002-12-01

    This study analyzed features of total and segmental spiral ganglion cell populations in children with normal ears and those with various pathological conditions. Sixty-three human temporal bone specimens, obtained from 43 children 4 days to 9 years of age, were studied histopathologically. These specimens were divided into 5 diagnostic groups: group 1, normal ears (13 ears); group 2, congenital infectious diseases (13 ears); group 3, chromosomal aberrations (11 ears); group 4, multiple craniofacial anomalies with hereditary or genetic causes (21 ears); and group 5, perinatal and postnatal asphyxia (5 ears). Eighteen of the 63 ears had documented profound deafness. In either normal ears (group 1) or those with various pathological conditions (groups 2 through 5), the total number of ganglion cells did not change as a function of age during the first 10 years. The total number of ganglion cells was significantly larger in group 1 (33,702) than in each of groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 (p < .01), and the number was significantly larger in group 2 than in each of groups 4 and 5 (p < .01 and p < .05, respectively). The ratio of basal to apical ganglion cell populations remained constant in both normal and pathological ears. Each ratio of the number of basal and apical ganglion cells in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 to the mean number in group 1 (basal and apical survival ratios) was at least approximately 40%. There was no statistical difference between these two ratios in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5. The mean (+/-SD) total number of ganglion cells in ears with documented profound deafness was 15,417 +/- 5,944, which is approximately 40% of those present in normal ears. Our results suggest that normally, cochlear neurons are completely present at birth and minimally regress during the first decade of life. In addition, although intergroup differences among various pathological groups were present, the majority of pathological ears had more than 10,000 spiral ganglion cells present. Cochlear

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of modafinil in Chinese Han, Mongolian, Korean, Uygur, and Hui healthy subjects determined by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guo; Longshan, Zhao; Kehua, Wu; Dongya, Xia; Wei, Lu; Zheng, Guan; Chenhui, Deng

    2010-04-01

    Modafinil is being used as a novel wake-promoting psychostimulant. To develop rational dosing schemes, given that China has 56 ethnicities that may have various response to modafinil, it is essential to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of modafinil in some selected ethnicities. One- and two-compartment models were used to fit the plasma concentration time data of 49 Chinese healthy volunteers, including the ethnicities of Han, Mongolian, Korean, Uygur, and Hui, using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. The data were best described using a two-compartment model with linear elimination. The influences of ethnicity, sex, height, body weight, and body mass index on modafinil pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The estimated population parameters of modafinil were as follows: clearance of central compartment was 3.51 L/h and clearance of intercompartment was 7.41 L/h; the volume of the central compartment was 3.85 L and the volume of the peripheral compartment was 45.8 L. The interindividual variability in clearance of central compartment and clearance of intercompartment were 23.2% and 22.1%, and in volume of the central compartment and volume of the peripheral compartment were 90.9% and 16.6%, respectively. A population pharmacokinetic model was established and validated, which adequately described the population pharmacokinetics of modafinil in Chinese healthy volunteers. The results indicated that sex has a significant effect on the metabolism of modafinil, whereas ethnicity has a significant effect on the volume of the central compartment. A good fit was achieved from the population pharmacokinetic analysis that could assist in establishing appropriate modafinil dose regimens.

  1. Prevalence and Predictors of Early Discontinuation of Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy After Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation in Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Cho, Mi Hee; Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Jae Moon; Shin, Joong Hyun; Lee, Seung Pyo; Lee, Hyejin; Lim, Yoo Kyoung; Kim, Eun Ha; Kim, Hyun Kyoung

    2016-11-15

    The administration of antiplatelet drugs for months after a drug-eluting stent implantation is critical in decreasing the risk of complications, and premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy before the recommended period is the most important predictor for late complications. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and associated factors of premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy in patients in Korea. This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort data. Patients who were treated with dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were identified with medication prescription data. The Kaplan-Meier failure time plot was used to illustrate the cumulative probability of treatment discontinuation. Cox regression analysis was conducted to compare predictors of early discontinuation of DAPT. The characteristics of the early discontinuation group were not significantly different from the guideline concordance group, except for a higher prevalence of disability and a lower rate of chronic kidney disease. In a Cox regression model, the presence of hypertension was identified as a negative predictor of early discontinuation, and disability was not a statistically significant predictor. The prevalence of early discontinuation was 31.0% and seems to be significantly higher than those reported from prospective studies, which may more accurately reflect the real-world situation. In conclusion, physicians should make more effort to educate patients on the risk associated with premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stent, and further studies investigating the reasons for nonadherence of DAPT are needed to improve DAPT compliance.

  2. Contributions of multiple refugia during the last glacial period to current mainland populations of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lei; Kudureti, Ayijiamali; Bai, Weining; Chen, Rongzhang; Wang, Tianming; Wang, Hongfang; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The northern microrefugia that existed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are a key factor in the demographic history of species. Pinus koraiensis has a unique distribution in northeast Asia. The Changbai Mountains and the Korean peninsula (CM/KP) are usually considered to be the LGM refugia for P. koraiensis. However, the Xiaoxingan Range (XR), at the northern part of this species’ distribution, is another possible refugium. We used chloroplast sequencing and ten nuclear single-copy gene loci to calculate the genetic diversity pattern of P. koraiensis. The probabilities of a single LGM refugium and of multiple LGM refugia were calculated based on approximate Bayesian computation. The effect of the latitudinal gradient on genetic diversity was not significant. However, unique alleles occurred at low frequencies in CM/KP and XR. A conservative estimate of the coalescence time between CM/KP and XR is 0.4 million years ago, a time prior to the LGM. Gene flow between CM/KP and XR was estimated to be more than one in per generation, an amount that may be sufficient to limit genetic divergence between the regions. Our study strongly supports the hypothesis that XR was another LGM refugium in addition to CM/KP. PMID:26691230

  3. Prevalence of symptomatic hip, knee, and spine osteoarthritis nationwide health survey analysis of an elderly Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Ho; Hong, Jae-Young; Han, Kyungdo; Suh, Seung-Woo; Park, Si-Young; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Han, Seung-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis is prominent among the elderly, with symptoms originating from multiple parts of the body. A cross-sectional study of a nationwide survey was performed to describe the prevalence of and identify factors related to symptomatic hip, knee, and spine osteoarthritis. This cross-sectional study collected data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-5; 2010–2012). After excluding ineligible subjects, there were 8976 subjects in this study (3830 males and 5146 females). All subjects reported symptoms and disabilities related to osteoarthritis. Plain radiographs of the spine, hip, and knee were taken in all subjects. Overall, 9.3% of male participants and 28.5% of female participants were diagnosed with symptomatic osteoarthritis according to survey criteria. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence in all age groups (P < 0.05). Multiple-joint osteoarthritis was diagnosed in 10.8% of male patients and 22.8% of female patients with osteoarthritis. Several demographic and lifestyle variables were related to osteoarthritis morbidity. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were also related to osteoarthritis morbidity. In addition, mental distress and quality of life were significantly compromised in osteoarthritis. There were more significant relationships for these factors among women with a higher prevalence of multijoint osteoarthritis. A significant proportion of the elderly with single- or multiple-joint osteoarthritis had a variety of pain origins that were closely related. Osteoarthritis was also significantly related to several factors, including mental distress and quality of life. PMID:28328825

  4. Prevalence of symptomatic hip, knee, and spine osteoarthritis nationwide health survey analysis of an elderly Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Ho; Hong, Jae-Young; Han, Kyungdo; Suh, Seung-Woo; Park, Si-Young; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Han, Seung-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is prominent among the elderly, with symptoms originating from multiple parts of the body. A cross-sectional study of a nationwide survey was performed to describe the prevalence of and identify factors related to symptomatic hip, knee, and spine osteoarthritis.This cross-sectional study collected data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-5; 2010-2012). After excluding ineligible subjects, there were 8976 subjects in this study (3830 males and 5146 females). All subjects reported symptoms and disabilities related to osteoarthritis. Plain radiographs of the spine, hip, and knee were taken in all subjects.Overall, 9.3% of male participants and 28.5% of female participants were diagnosed with symptomatic osteoarthritis according to survey criteria. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence in all age groups (P < 0.05). Multiple-joint osteoarthritis was diagnosed in 10.8% of male patients and 22.8% of female patients with osteoarthritis. Several demographic and lifestyle variables were related to osteoarthritis morbidity. Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were also related to osteoarthritis morbidity. In addition, mental distress and quality of life were significantly compromised in osteoarthritis. There were more significant relationships for these factors among women with a higher prevalence of multijoint osteoarthritis.A significant proportion of the elderly with single- or multiple-joint osteoarthritis had a variety of pain origins that were closely related. Osteoarthritis was also significantly related to several factors, including mental distress and quality of life.

  5. Fermented and non-fermented soy food consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese and Korean populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Kang, Moonsu; Lee, Jung-Sug; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Soy food is known to contribute greatly to a reduction in the risk of gastric cancer (GC). However, both Japanese and Korean populations have high incidence rates of GC despite the consumption of a wide variety of soy foods. One primary reason is that they consume fermented rather than non-fermented soy foods. In order to assess the varying effects of fermented and non-fermented soy intake on GC risk in these populations, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Twenty studies assessing the effect of the consumption of fermented soy food on GC risk were included, and 17 studies assessing the effect of the consumption of non-fermented soy food on GC risk were included. We found that a high intake of fermented soy foods was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.44, I(2) = 71.48), whereas an increased intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a decreased risk of GC (overall summary OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.54-0.77, I(2) = 64.27). These findings show that a high level of consumption of non-fermented soy foods, rather than fermented soy foods, is important in reducing GC risk. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Normal range of cambridge low contrast test; a population based study.

    PubMed

    Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Heravian, Javad; Abdolahinia, Tahereh; Norouzi Rad, Reza; Asgari, Soheila; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    To determine the range of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its determinants in a normal population, Mashhad, Iran. In this cross-sectional population based study, 4,453 individuals were invited of whom 3,132 persons agreed to participate (response rate, 70.4%). CS data from 2,449 eligible individuals were analyzed. CS was determined using the Cambridge low contrast square-wave grating test, and its associations with age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) refractive error, were analyzed. Mean age of the participants was 29.1±17.3 (range, 4-89) years and 66.4% were female. Mean CS was 239.6±233.3 and 234.6±228.6 cps in right and left eyes, respectively. Mean binocular CS was 310.9±249.0 cps. Multiple linear regression showed that CS was inversely correlated with older age (β=-1.1, P<0.001), female gender (β=-40.1, P<0.001), poorer BCVA (β=-165.4, P<0.001), and severity of myopia (β=-10.2, P<0.001). The normal range of Cambridge low-contrast grating test reported herein may serve as a reference for the general population in Iran. Our findings can be used for both research and clinical applications, particularly for evaluations of the outcomes of refractive surgery. In the current study, CS was lower in older subjects, myopic individuals and patients with lower BCVA.

  7. Birth outcomes of Korean women in Hawaii.

    PubMed Central

    Mor, J M; Alexander, G R; Kieffer, E C; Baruffi, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the end of the Korean War, immigration of Koreans to the United States has increased rapidly. In 1990, 11.6 percent of all Asians in the United States were of Korean ethnicity, and it is projected that Koreans will outnumber all other Asian groups, except Filipinos, in the United States by the year 2030. Despite the growing size of this population, very little is known about their health status. This study, using 1979-89 Hawaii vital record data, investigates the relationship between maternal sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care utilization factors, and birth outcomes among Koreans as compared with Caucasians. The ethnic term "Caucasian" is used in Hawaii's vital records and is synonymous with non-Hispanic whites. Korean mothers were more likely to be older and have lower educational attainment, and less likely to be adolescent, single, or to have received adequate prenatal care than Caucasian mothers. More than 80 percent of the Korean mothers were foreign born. Significantly higher risks for very preterm delivery (less than 33 weeks) and very low birth weight births were observed for Koreans as compared with Caucasians. Nativity had no effect on birth outcome in this population. The results of this study suggest that prevention of preterm birth is an important focus for improving pregnancy outcomes in this growing ethnic group. PMID:8341786

  8. The ST segment of the ambulatory electrocardiogram in a normal population.

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, R S; Cashman, P M; Lahiri, A; Raftery, E B

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of the ST segment in everyday life was studied by ambulatory electrocardiography in 111 normal volunteers. Fifteen were excluded because of abnormal exercise responses (10 subjects) and significant postural ST segment shifts (five subjects). This left 62 men and 34 women, mean (SD) age 40.5 (12.6) years (range 20-67 years). Ambulatory monitoring of leads CM5 and CC5 for 24 hours was followed by a maximal treadmill exercise test. The tapes of the ambulatory monitoring were analysed by a computer aided system. The computer printed trend plots of the ST segment (measured both at the J point and at J + 60 ms) to detect episodes of ST segment elevation and depression, which were confirmed by visual analysis of real time printouts. Twelve subjects showed "ischaemic" ST segment depression and nine subjects showed ST segment elevation. Eight people with ambulatory ST segment changes were studied during exercise by radionuclide ventriculography and thallium-201 imaging scans. Although seven of the eight thallium studies were normal, radionuclide ventriculography showed functional impairment in five cases. Seven of the 10 subjects with abnormal exercise tests were similarly investigated and their results followed the same pattern, with normal thallium images in six and functional impairment in four. Ambulatory electrocardiography was repeated in 20 people after a median of 20 days. The ST segment changes were reproducible. ST segment changes of an apparently ischaemic nature occur even in a carefully defined normal population but they do not necessarily represent latent clinically significant coronary artery disease. This indicates that ST segment changes seen in patients with known obstructive coronary artery disease should be interpreted with caution. PMID:3408617

  9. Do normal pupil diameter differences in the population underlie the color selection of #thedress?

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Kavita; Bisla, Kulvinder; Mulpuru, SaiKrishna; Varadharajan, Srinivasa

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental question that arises from the color conundrum of #thedress is "What are the phenomena that underlie the individual differences in the reported colors when all other conditions like light and device for the display are identical?" A survey of 384 participants showed near-equal distribution into blue/black (b/b) and white/gold (w/g) groups. We looked at pupil size differences in a sample population of 53 individuals from these two groups and a group that switched from w/g to b/b. Our results showed that the w/g and switch groups had significantly lower pupil size than the b/b group (w/gpopulation, and we found a statistically significant difference (w/gpopulation difference in normal pupil size influencing color observation which was exposed by the dress.

  10. Thyroid function parameters in normal pregnancies in an iodine sufficient population

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Zanon, Birgit; Heim, Kurt; Ortner, Karina; Moncayo, Helga

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe thyroid function parameters (fT3, fT4 and TSH) in the course of normal pregnancies. Methods Data were obtained between 2006 and 2007 at the University Hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. The starting point was the identification of women who had had a normal birth as recorded in the birth registry of Tyrol. Thyroid function parameters were determined using methods implemented at the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Innsbruck. Results The fT3 and fT4 values were normally distributed. Grouping the results by trimester revealed the following values: 4.93 ± 0.59, 4.54 ± 0.48, and 4.27 ± 0.45 pmol/l for fT3; and 15.23 ± 2.43, 13.79 ± 1.99, and 13.32 ± 0.2.01 pmol/l for fT4, respectively. The values corresponding to the 10th-percentile were 3.9 pmol/l for fT3 and 11.3 pmol/l for fT4, respectively. TSH values showed a typical left skewed distribution, thus the mean values were calculated after log transformation of the data. The corresponding mean trimestral values for TSH were 1.46 ± 1.29, 1.68 ± 1.23, and 1.70 ± 2.22 mIU/l, respectively. Conclusion In an iodine sufficient population, thyroid function parameters in normal pregnancies do not differ from those in non-pregnant women. Our previously defined reference range for TSH of 0.3 to 3.5 mIU/l is equally valid for normal pregnancies. General significance The question of cognition and IQ development of children has been proposed to be associated with thyroid function. The addition of data regarding normal thyroid function during pregnancy will contribute to this research. PMID:26674060

  11. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Korean manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and their application to wild populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, E M; An, H S; Kang, J H; An, C M; Dong, C M; Hong, Y K; Park, J Y

    2014-10-07

    Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is a valuable and intensively exploited shellfish species in Korea. Despite its importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. For the genetic characterization of R. philippinarum, expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers were developed using next-generation sequencing. A total of 5879 tandem repeats containing di- to hexanucleotide repeat motifs were obtained from 236,746 reads (mean = 413 bp). Of the 62 loci screened, 24 (38.7%) were successfully amplified, and 10 were polymorphic in 144 individuals from 2 manila clam populations (Incheon and Geoje, Korea). The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17 in the Incheon population and from 3 to 13 in the Geoje population (overall AR = 7.21). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were estimated to be 0.402 and 0.555, respectively. Hence, there is less genetic variability in the Geoje population than in the Incheon population, although no significant reductions of genetic diversity were found between the populations (P > 0.05). However, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the populations (FST = 0.064, P < 0.001). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding coefficients (mean FIS = 0.22-0.26) were detected in both populations. The 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci used in this study will be useful for future genetic mapping studies and for characterizing population structures, monitoring genetic diversity for successful aquaculture management, and developing conservation strategies for manila clam populations in Korea.

  12. Role of depression in diabetes management in an ethnic minority population: a case of Korean Americans with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyong To; Kim, Kim Byeng; Ko, Jisook; Jang, Yuri; Levine, David; Lee, Hochang Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Comorbid depression and diabetes mellitus (DM) compound challenges to disease management such as low health literacy, insufficient access to care, and social or linguistic isolation. Korean Americans (KAs), predominantly first-generation immigrants, suffer from a high prevalence of type 2 DM and depression. Limited research on KAs has prevented the development of effective interventions. Objectives To compare the prevalence of depression in KAs with DM and all Americans with/without DM, and to explore correlates of comorbid DM and depression and strategies to address KAs' DM and depression. Methods KAs' data were from a clinical trial of a community-based self-help intervention to improve KAs' DM and mental health outcomes. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data sets enabled comparison. Clinical indicators included hemoglobin A1C, lipid panel, and body mass index. Psychobehavioral indicators included self-efficacy for DM management, quality of life, and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)). Results More KAs with DM had depression (44.2%) than did all Americans with DM (28.7%) or without DM (20.1%). Significantly more KAs with DM had mild (29.3%) or clinical (14.9%) depression than did Americans with DM (mild, 17.2%; clinical, 11.5%) or without (mild, 13.8%; clinical, 6.3%). One of six KAs with DM (16.9%) thought of suicide or self-harm (Americans with/without =5.0%, 2.8%). The self-help intervention reduced the mean PHQ-9 from 5.4 at baseline to 4.1 at 12 months. Limitations External validity might be limited; KAs' data were from one study site. Conclusions The prevalence of depression and DM among KAs warrants the development of efficacious interventions. Trial registration number NCT01264796. PMID:28405343

  13. Measurement of Quasi Normal Modes for a population of Binary Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Costa, Carlos Filipe; Klimenko, Sergey; Tiwari, Shubhanshu

    2017-01-01

    Perturbed solutions of the Kerr Black Hole (BH) are superimposition of damped sinusoids, named Quasi Normal Modes (QNM). These modes are completely defined by the final black hole parameters, mass and spin. Numerical simulations support that Binary BHs (BBH), after merging, produce a final BH emitting gravitational waves as described by the QNMs. This signal is very weak and hence the extraction of a QNM is quite challenging for the current generation of the ground based detectors. I will present a method for extraction of superimposed QNMs from future multiple observations of BBH merger signals in the advanced interferometers. We show that we can coherently sum up QNMs from the different signals and measure QNM parameters to prove the Kerr nature of a detected BHs population. NSF grant PHY 1505308.

  14. Can Functional Cardiac Age be Predicted from ECG in a Normal Healthy Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd; Starc, Vito; Leban, Manja; Sinigoj, Petra; Vrhovec, Milos

    2011-01-01

    In a normal healthy population, we desired to determine the most age-dependent conventional and advanced ECG parameters. We hypothesized that changes in several ECG parameters might correlate with age and together reliably characterize the functional age of the heart. Methods: An initial study population of 313 apparently healthy subjects was ultimately reduced to 148 subjects (74 men, 84 women, in the range from 10 to 75 years of age) after exclusion criteria. In all subjects, ECG recordings (resting 5-minute 12-lead high frequency ECG) were evaluated via custom software programs to calculate up to 85 different conventional and advanced ECG parameters including beat-to-beat QT and RR variability, waveform complexity, and signal-averaged, high-frequency and spatial/spatiotemporal ECG parameters. The prediction of functional age was evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis using the best 5 univariate predictors. Results: Ignoring what were ultimately small differences between males and females, the functional age was found to be predicted (R2= 0.69, P < 0.001) from a linear combination of 5 independent variables: QRS elevation in the frontal plane (p<0.001), a new repolarization parameter QTcorr (p<0.001), mean high frequency QRS amplitude (p=0.009), the variability parameter % VLF of RRV (p=0.021) and the P-wave width (p=0.10). Here, QTcorr represents the correlation between the calculated QT and the measured QT signal. Conclusions: In apparently healthy subjects with normal conventional ECGs, functional cardiac age can be estimated by multiple linear regression analysis of mostly advanced ECG results. Because some parameters in the regression formula, such as QTcorr, high frequency QRS amplitude and P-wave width also change with disease in the same direction as with increased age, increased functional age of the heart may reflect subtle age-related pathologies in cardiac electrical function that are usually hidden on conventional ECG.

  15. Comparison of fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Leila; Hariri, Mitra; Hajishafiei, Maryam; Ghasemi, Shekoofe; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; khorvash, Fariborz; Iraj, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stroke happens when blood flow to parts of brain stops. Stroke is sometimes called “brain attack.” Risk factor is something that increases the chance of getting a disease. Some risk factors for stroke cannot be changed, but some can be altered. The chance of stroke is higher in people who live an unhealthy lifestyle by: Being overweight as a result of over-eating, eating too much fat, smoking, etc., Therefore, we compared the fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population. Materials and Methods: Sixty nine patients with stroke (46 men and 23 women) as cases and 60 subjects (30 men and 30 women) as controls during April 2009 and May 2010 from Alzzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran were evaluated. Dietary intakes were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) through their close relatives such as spouse, daughter or mother. Also, anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and waist extracted from their medical files, however, body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Result: The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) both in men and women with stroke were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 for men and P = 0.05 and P = 0.02 for women, respectively). Also, the mean intake of hydrogenated fats, butter, cream, mayonnaise sauce and nuts were higher in men with stroke with respect in control group; while, women with stroke consumed more hydrogenated fats, vegetable oils, cream and mayonnaise sauce than controls. Conclusion: Increased fat intake was observed in patients with stroke compared with normal population. PMID:23961288

  16. Population meta-analysis of low plasma glucose thresholds in full-term normal newborns.

    PubMed

    Alkalay, Arie L; Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura; Elashoff, Janet D; Farber, Sergio J; Simmons, Charles F

    2006-02-01

    There is extreme variation in the definition of low plasma glucose levels in newborn infants in the first postnatal days, ranging from < 30 to < or = 60 mg/dL. The goal of the present study was to define low thresholds (< or = 5th percentile) of plasma glucose concentrations in full-term normal newborns during the first 72 hours of life. Population meta-analysis was performed on published studies of neonatal hypoglycemia ascertained by MedLine search. One-way analysis of variance was computed across the studies for each of the following four postnatal time periods: 1 to 2 (physiological nadir), 3 to 23, 24 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours. The estimated < or = 5th percentiles of neonatal hypoglycemia during 1 to 2, 3 to 23, 24 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours after birth were < or = 28, < or = 40, < or = 41, and < or = 48 mg/dL, respectively. Based on this statistical definition, we recommend that low thresholds of plasma glucose levels of 28, 40, and 48 mg/dL be adopted in full-term normal newborns at 1 to 2, 3 to 47, and 48 to 72 hours of life, respectively.

  17. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  18. Neurophysiological aspects of brainstem processing of speech stimuli in audiometric-normal geriatric population.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Rangasayee, R; Ansari, M A H

    2017-03-01

    Poor auditory speech perception in geriatrics is attributable to neural de-synchronisation due to structural and degenerative changes of ageing auditory pathways. The speech-evoked auditory brainstem response may be useful for detecting alterations that cause loss of speech discrimination. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response in adult and geriatric populations with normal hearing. The auditory brainstem responses to click sounds and to a 40 ms speech sound (the Hindi phoneme |da|) were compared in 25 young adults and 25 geriatric people with normal hearing. The latencies and amplitudes of transient peaks representing neural responses to the onset, offset and sustained portions of the speech stimulus in quiet and noisy conditions were recorded. The older group had significantly smaller amplitudes and longer latencies for the onset and offset responses to |da| in noisy conditions. Stimulus-to-response times were longer and the spectral amplitude of the sustained portion of the stimulus was reduced. The overall stimulus level caused significant shifts in latency across the entire speech-evoked auditory brainstem response in the older group. The reduction in neural speech processing in older adults suggests diminished subcortical responsiveness to acoustically dynamic spectral cues. However, further investigations are needed to encode temporal cues at the brainstem level and determine their relationship to speech perception for developing a routine tool for clinical decision-making.

  19. Age-Related Change in Vestibular Ganglion Cell Populations in Individuals With Presbycusis and Normal Hearing.

    PubMed

    Gluth, Michael B; Nelson, Erik G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to establish that the decline of vestibular ganglion cell counts uniquely correlates with spiral ganglion cell counts, cochlear hair cell counts, and hearing phenotype in individuals with presbycusis. The relationship between aging in the vestibular system and aging in the cochlea is a topic of ongoing investigation. Histopathologic age-related changes the vestibular system may mirror what is seen in the cochlea, but correlations with hearing phenotype and the impact of presbycusis are not well understood. Vestibular ganglion cells, spiral ganglion cells, and cochlear hair cells were counted in specimens from individuals with presbycusis and normal hearing. These were taken from within a large collection of processed human temporal bones. Correlations between histopathology and hearing phenotype were investigated. Vestibular ganglion cell counts were positively correlated with spiral ganglion cell counts and cochlear hair cell counts and were negatively correlated with hearing phenotype. There was no statistical evidence on linear regression to suggest that the relationship between age and cell populations differed significantly according to whether presbycusis was present or not. Superior vestibular ganglion cells were more negatively correlated with age than inferior ganglion cells. No difference in vestibular ganglion cells was noted based on sex. Vestibular ganglion cell counts progressively deteriorate with age, and this loss correlates closely with changes in the cochlea, as well as hearing phenotype. However, these correlations do not appear to be unique in individuals with presbycusis as compared with those with normal hearing.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Determination of Normal Pituitary Gland Dimensions in Zaria, Northwest Nigerian Population.

    PubMed

    Ibinaiye, Philip Oluleke; Olarinoye-Akorede, Sefia; Kajogbola, Olugbenga; Bakari, Adamu Girei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the dimensions of normal pituitary gland using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) and to determine their relationship with age and sex. Cranial MRI scans of 100 individuals with clinically normal pituitary function (58 males and 42 females) and in the age range 14-82 years were reviewed in order to obtain volumetric measurements of the pituitary gland. The height, width, and depth of the pituitary were obtained from mid-sagittal and coronal planes, while the volume was calculated from these measured parameters. The data obtained were stratified based on age and sex for analysis. Statistical tests applied included Student's t-test and Pearson correlation. A minimum level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. The mean pituitary volumes were 334.1 ± 145.8 mm(3) and 328.1 ± 129.2 mm(3) while the mean pituitary heights were 6.45 ± 1.7 mm and 6.46 ± 1.57 mm in males and females, respectively. Although there was no statistically significant difference between pituitary height and pituitary volume in both sexes, they correlated negatively with increasing age (r = -202, P = 0.04 and r = -410, P = 0.000, respectively). Both parameters were highest in pubertal subjects and declined steadily with age, with a second peak occurring only for pituitary height in the sixth decade. The mean pituitary widths (9.08 ± 2.59 mm and 9.21 ± 1.86 mm) and depths (10.59 ± 1.71 mm and 10.49 ± 1.57 mm) in males and females, respectively, did not show remarkable changes with age and sex in the individuals studied. With this study, we have provided reference values in Nigerian population for the dimensions of normal pituitary gland, in order to facilitate assessment and diagnosis in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  1. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

  2. Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sandra B; Mudar, Raksha A

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies.

  3. Normal variation at the myotonic dystrophy locus in global human populations.

    PubMed Central

    Zerylnick, C; Torroni, A; Sherman, S L; Warren, S T

    1995-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a dominant neuromuscular disease that results from an unstable CTG-repeat expansion in the 3' UTR of the myotonin kinase gene at 19q13.3. This repeat is normally polymorphic with a trimodal distribution reflecting 5-, 11-17-, and 19-30-repeat-length alleles. An absolute association between expanded CTG alleles and the 1-kb insertion allele of an intragenic polymorphism in Caucasians has led to the proposal that the 5-repeat allele gives rise to alleles of 19-30 repeats, from which expanded alleles are derived, a transition not involving the 11-17-repeat alleles. A survey of eight global populations confirms the stability of the 11-17-repeat alleles but shows disociation between the 1-kb insertion polymorphism and both the 5- and 19-30-repeat-length alleles. These data indicate more than one ancestral allele from which expanded alleles are derived and suggest that widely variable population frequencies of DM may reflect distinct frequencies of such predisposed alleles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7825567

  4. Characteristics and significant predictors of detecting underlying diseases in adults with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria: a large case series of a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minyong; Lee, Sangchul; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Chang Wook

    2015-04-01

    To provide detailed characteristics of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, as well as to identify the significant predictors of detecting underlying diseases of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, by evaluating a large Korean population. We obtained data from healthy adults over the age of 20 years who underwent the health-screening program from 2005 to 2010 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, resulting in 56,632 participants included in the analysis. Patients who had microscopic hematuria (five red blood cells/high-power field) were referred to a urological outpatient clinic for further urological evaluation. An underlying disease of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria was predefined as a urinary stone, renal mass, urothelial cancer or other relevant lesions. At the initial urinalysis, 6.2% (3517/56,632) were diagnosed with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Of these, 1619 participants underwent repeat urinalysis within 1 year after screening, and 911 (56.3%) participants were detected with microscopic hematuria again. We identified 131 lesions (3.7%) as underlying diseases for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria, with urinary stone as the most common cause. Just six lesions were malignant: three renal cell carcinomas and three bladder cancers. Male sex and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors for detection of underlying diseases of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Herein we report the largest screening case series of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria including approximately 60,000 asymptomatic participants studied at a single institution. These findings provide clinical practice information for the management of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Lack of Association between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphisms and Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sung; Lim, Sewon; Ha, Juwon; Lee, Min-Soo; Oh, Kang-Seob

    2011-12-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the pathophysiology of anxiety. We analyzed the association of the BDNF gene polymorphism, G196A (val66met), in the coding region of exon XIIIA in chromosome 11p13, and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). Patients with GSAD (n=73) and age-matched control subjects (n=152) were tested for the BDNF (val66met) polymorphism. A clinical interview and a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were conducted by trained psychiatrists in order to diagnose GSAD. The symptomatic characteristics of the GSAD patients were assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Retrospective Self Report of Inhibition, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of the genotypes (χ(2)=0.961, degree of freedom [df]=2, p=0.619), alleles (χ(2)=0.415, df=1, p=0.519), or allele (methionine) carriers (χ(2)=0.019, df=1, p=0.889) between the patients and controls. In addition, when we compared the severity of social anxiety symptom as determined by the clinical scales with the genotypes of the BDNF gene, we could not find any significant differences between the genotypes or allele carriers. These results do not support the hypothesis that the BDNF gene might be a candidate gene for susceptibility or severity of GSAD in the Korean population in this study.

  6. Serum prostate-specific antigen is better correlated to body surface area than body mass index in a population of healthy Korean men.

    PubMed

    Song, Miho; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Song, Yun Seob; Kim, Yongbae

    2010-06-01

    It has been suggested that the larger vascular volume among obese men causes a dilution effect, decreasing the concentration of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, plasma volume is proportional to body surface area (BSA) rather than to body mass index (BMI). We determined whether serum PSA level is better correlated to BSA than BMI in a population of ostensibly healthy Korean men. Data from 2604 men who visited our health promotion center were evaluated. All men underwent anthropometric measurements, digital rectal examination, serum PSA determination, and transrectal ultrasound examination. The correlation between serum PSA and other parameters was statistically analyzed. The mean age was 49.9 years and the mean serum PSA level was 1.14 ng/mL. The multivariate analysis revealed that the serum PSA was positively correlated with age, prostate volume, and negatively correlated with BSA only and not with BMI. In addition, BSA, rather than BMI, was the significant factor in predicting the prostate volume. Our results suggest that men with larger BSA (rather than BMI), have larger prostate volumes, and lower serum PSA.

  7. Study of the normal heart size in Northwest part of Iranian population: a cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; Hedjazi, Arya; Sajjadian, Maryam; Ghoroubi, Naser; Mohammadi, Maryam; Erfani, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The heart is in a muscular organ in the middle mediastinum. According to our knowledge, there is no standard data about the anthropologic parameters of normal Iranian hearts. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the normal heart size in Iranian cadavers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 550 cadavers (104 female/446 male) from June 2014 to July 2015 in the Razavi Khorasan province of Iran were included in the study. After approval of the Ethical Committee, cadavers were divided into 10 groups based on age groups. Length, width, weight, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and heart valves were measured using vernier caliper. Finally, data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean values of the demographic data were as follows: age= 42.12 ± 21.34 years; weight = 60.38 ± 15.32 kg; height = 158.14 ± 23.77 cm; and BMI = 24.66 ± 17.60 kg/m2. The mean values of the heart length, width, chordae tendineae, pupillary muscles, weight, and index of the heart were 11.41 ± 2.15 cm, 8.21 ± 4.38 cm, 19.41 ± 6.70, 5.74 ± 1.96, 247.78 ± 62.27 grams, and 5.74 ± 1.96, respectively. In addition, the circumference of the tricuspid valve, circumference of the mitral valves, and tricuspid and mitral areas were 8.80 ± 1.11 cm, 9.43 ± 1.44 cm, 4.11 ± 0.71 cm2, and 4.50 ± 0.90 cm2, respectively. Conclusion: Mean values of the heart’s length and width was similar to previous reports from western population. The circumference of the tricuspid valve was less than the textbook’s data, while circumference of the mitral valves was more than it. The study findings provide valuable information about standard data of the heart in the Iranian population, which is useful for surgeons as well as anthropologists. However, multi-center studies with a larger sample size are required to complete data about anatomical characteristics of normal hearts. PMID:27777697

  8. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between cytochrome CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in a Korean study population.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun Hyun; Lee, Yong Seong; Kim, Hae Jong; Lee, Shin Young; Myung, Soon Chul

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated genetic variants of the androgen metabolism genes CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 to determine whether they play a role in the development of prostate cancer (PCa) in Korean men. The study population included 240 pathologically diagnosed cases of PCa and 223 age-matched controls. Among the 789 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database variants detected, 129 were reported in two Asian groups (Han Chinese and Japanese) in the HapMap database. Only 21 polymorphisms of CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 were selected based on linkage disequilibrium in Asians (r2 = 1), locations (SNPs in exons were preferred), and amino acid changes and were assessed. In addition, we performed haplotype analysis for the 21 SNPs in CYP17A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A43 genes. To determine the association between genotype and haplotype distributions of patients and controls, logistic analyses were carried out, controlling for age. Twelve sequence variants and five major haplotypes were identified in CYP17A1. Five sequence variants and two major haplotypes were identified in CYP3A4. Four sequence variants and four major haplotypes were observed in CYP3A43. CYP17A1 haplotype-2 (Ht-2) (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.18) was associated with PCa susceptibility. CYP3A4 Ht-2 (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.02-3.43) was associated with PCa metastatic potential according to tumor stage. rs17115149 (OR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.04-3.68) and CYP17A1 Ht-4 (OR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.07-4.11) showed a significant association with histologic aggressiveness according to Gleason score. Genetic variants of CYP17A1 and CYP3A4 may play a role in the development of PCa in Korean men.

  10. Transcranial Doppler for monitoring the cerebral blood flow dynamics: normal ranges in the Italian female population.

    PubMed

    Liboni, W; Allais, G; Mana, O; Molinari, F; Grippi, G; Negri, E; Benedetto, C

    2006-09-01

    This study was aimed at recording, by means of a transcranial Doppler (TCD) device, the values of blood flow velocities (BFV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in physiological conditions, in a population of healthy women in various ages of their life, in order to establish normative data in an Italian female population. Our sample consisted of 100 healthy women (mean age 38 +/-15.14 years, range 12-78) that underwent an investigation of the intracranial circulation by means of TCD. Patients were subdivided into 4 age groups: less than 20 years; 20-34 years; 35-50 years; more than 50 years. No statistically significant differences were present between the mean BFV in the left and right MCAs of the subjects considered as a unique population (left MCA 68.06+/-9.22 cm/s; right MCA 66.71+/-8.79 cm/s). The BFVs tended to significantly decrease with the increasing of age. In fact, they were so distributed: left MCA 82.55+/-6.85 cm/s and right MCA 80.27+/-4.13 cm/s in the younger group; left MCA 72.15+/-6.37 cm/s and right MCA 70.68+/-6.79 cm/s in women aged 20-34; left MCA 63.85+/-7.08 cm/s and right MCA 63.06+/-7.29 cm/s in women aged 35-50; left MCA 60.67+/-6.85 cm/s and right MCA 59.10+/-5.36 cm/s in the last group. The present study defined a normal age-related range of variations in MCA BFVs, useful for future comparisons in studies involving pathological female subjects.

  11. Multiplex pyrosequencing method to determine CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3 polymorphisms simultaneously: its application to a Korean population and comparisons with other ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ah; Song, Wan-Geun; Lee, Hae-Mi; Joo, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ji-Young

    2014-11-01

    Warfarin is an anticoagulant that is difficult to administer because of the wide variation in dose requirements to achieve a therapeutic effect. CYP2C9, VKROC1, and CYP4F2 play important roles in warfarin metabolism, and their genetic polymorphisms are related to the variability in dose determination. In this study we describe a new multiplex pyrosequencing method to identify CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), VKORC1*2 (rs9923231), and CYP4F2*3 (rs2108661) simultaneously. A multiplex pyrosequencing method to simultaneously detect CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3 alleles was designed. We assessed the allele frequencies of the polymorphisms in 250 Korean subjects using the multiplex pyrosequencing method. The results showed 100 % concordance between single and multiplex pyrosequencing methods, and the polymorphisms identified by pyrosequencing were also validated with the direct sequencing method. The allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in this population were as follows: 0.040 for CYP2C9*3, 0.918 for VKORC1*2, and 0.416 for CYP4F2*3. Although the allele frequencies of the CYP2C9*3 and VKROC1*2 were comparable to those in Japanese and Chinese populations, their frequencies in this Korean population differed from those in other ethnic groups; the CYP4F2*3 frequency was the highest among other ethnic populations including Chinese and Japanese populations. The pyrosequencing methods developed were rapid and reliable for detecting CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2, and CYP4F2*3. Large ethnic differences in the frequency of these genetic polymorphisms were noted among ethnic groups. CYP4F2*3 exhibited its highest allele frequency among other ethnic populations compared to that in a Korean population.

  12. Comparison of Outcomes after Device Closure and Medication Alone in Patients with Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Stroke in Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeonggeun; Kang, Woong Chol; Kim, Sihoon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Park, Yae Min; Chung, Wook-Jin; Choi, Deok Young; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Hwang, Hee Young; Ahn, Taehoon

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of device closure and medical therapy in prevention of recurrent embolic event in the Korean population with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). Consecutive 164 patients (men: 126 patients, mean age: 48.1 years, closure group: 72 patients, medical group: 92 patients) were enrolled. The primary end point was a composite of death, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or peripheral embolism. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups, except age, which was higher in the medical group (45.3±9.8 vs. 50.2±6.1, p<0.0001), and risk of paradoxical embolism score, which was higher in the closure group (6.2±1.6 vs. 5.7±1.3, p=0.026). On echocardiography, large right-to-left shunt (81.9% vs. 63.0%, p=0.009) and shunt at rest/septal hypermobility (61.1% vs. 23.9%, p<0.0001) were more common in the closure group. The device was successfully implanted in 71 (98.6%) patients. The primary end point occurred in 2 patients (2 TIA, 2.8%) in the closure group and in 2 (1 death, 1 stroke, 2.2%) in the medical group. Event-free survival rate did not differ between the two groups. Compared to medical therapy, device closure of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke did not show difference in reduction of recurrent embolic events in the real world's setting. However, considering high risk of echocardiographic findings in the closure group, further investigation of the role of PFO closure in the Asian population is needed.

  13. Development of a Korean family attitude scale: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Schepp, Karen G; Jung, Young-Mi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and pilot test a Korean version of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS). We developed the Korean FAS using the translation/back-translation method. Two English monolinguals assessed its translation validity by comparing the original with a back-translated English version. Translation equivalence of the FAS and the refined Korean FAS was evaluated in a convenience sample of 56 bilingual Korean college students. The internal consistency of the Korean FAS and the FAS was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively. Mean scores on the two versions did not differ (t = -0.14, p = 0.89). The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.37 (p < .001). Although the Korean FAS needs further refinement and psychometric testing, it was translated to reflect the original version and was a reliable instrument for the Korean population.

  14. Accurate Estimation of Effective Population Size in the Korean Dairy Cattle Based on Linkage Disequilibrium Corrected by Genomic Relationship Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Heebal

    2013-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium between markers or genetic variants underlying interesting traits affects many genomic methodologies. In many genomic methodologies, the effective population size (Ne) is important to assess the genetic diversity of animal populations. In this study, dairy cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChips for over 777,000 SNPs located across all autosomes, mitochondria and sex chromosomes, and 70,000 autosomal SNPs were selected randomly for the final analysis. We characterized more accurate linkage disequilibrium in a sample of 96 dairy cattle producing milk in Korea. Estimated linkage disequilibrium was relatively high between closely linked markers (>0.6 at 10 kb) and decreased with increasing distance. Using formulae that related the expected linkage disequilibrium to Ne, and assuming a constant actual population size, Ne was estimated to be approximately 122 in this population. Historical Ne, calculated assuming linear population growth, was suggestive of a rapid increase Ne over the past 10 generations, and increased slowly thereafter. Additionally, we corrected the genomic relationship structure per chromosome in calculating r2 and estimated Ne. The observed Ne based on r2 corrected by genomics relationship structure can be rationalized using current knowledge of the history of the dairy cattle breeds producing milk in Korea. PMID:25049757

  15. Accurate estimation of effective population size in the korean dairy cattle based on linkage disequilibrium corrected by genomic relationship matrix.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Hyun; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Kyoung-Do; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Heebal

    2013-12-01

    Linkage disequilibrium between markers or genetic variants underlying interesting traits affects many genomic methodologies. In many genomic methodologies, the effective population size (Ne) is important to assess the genetic diversity of animal populations. In this study, dairy cattle were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChips for over 777,000 SNPs located across all autosomes, mitochondria and sex chromosomes, and 70,000 autosomal SNPs were selected randomly for the final analysis. We characterized more accurate linkage disequilibrium in a sample of 96 dairy cattle producing milk in Korea. Estimated linkage disequilibrium was relatively high between closely linked markers (>0.6 at 10 kb) and decreased with increasing distance. Using formulae that related the expected linkage disequilibrium to Ne, and assuming a constant actual population size, Ne was estimated to be approximately 122 in this population. Historical Ne, calculated assuming linear population growth, was suggestive of a rapid increase Ne over the past 10 generations, and increased slowly thereafter. Additionally, we corrected the genomic relationship structure per chromosome in calculating r(2) and estimated Ne. The observed Ne based on r(2) corrected by genomics relationship structure can be rationalized using current knowledge of the history of the dairy cattle breeds producing milk in Korea.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Determination of Normal Pituitary Gland Dimensions in Zaria, Northwest Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ibinaiye, Philip Oluleke; Olarinoye-Akorede, Sefia; Kajogbola, Olugbenga; Bakari, Adamu Girei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dimensions of normal pituitary gland using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) and to determine their relationship with age and sex. Materials and Methods: Cranial MRI scans of 100 individuals with clinically normal pituitary function (58 males and 42 females) and in the age range 14–82 years were reviewed in order to obtain volumetric measurements of the pituitary gland. The height, width, and depth of the pituitary were obtained from mid-sagittal and coronal planes, while the volume was calculated from these measured parameters. The data obtained were stratified based on age and sex for analysis. Statistical tests applied included Student's t-test and Pearson correlation. A minimum level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The mean pituitary volumes were 334.1 ± 145.8 mm3 and 328.1 ± 129.2 mm3 while the mean pituitary heights were 6.45 ± 1.7 mm and 6.46 ± 1.57 mm in males and females, respectively. Although there was no statistically significant difference between pituitary height and pituitary volume in both sexes, they correlated negatively with increasing age (r = −202, P = 0.04 and r = −410, P = 0.000, respectively). Both parameters were highest in pubertal subjects and declined steadily with age, with a second peak occurring only for pituitary height in the sixth decade. The mean pituitary widths (9.08 ± 2.59 mm and 9.21 ± 1.86 mm) and depths (10.59 ± 1.71 mm and 10.49 ± 1.57 mm) in males and females, respectively, did not show remarkable changes with age and sex in the individuals studied. Conclusion: With this study, we have provided reference values in Nigerian population for the dimensions of normal pituitary gland, in order to facilitate assessment and diagnosis in patients with abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. PMID:26167387

  17. Normal Mutation Rate Variants Arise in a Mutator (Mut S) Escherichia coli Population

    PubMed Central

    Turrientes, María-Carmen; Baquero, Fernando; Levin, Bruce R.; Martínez, José-Luis; Ripoll, Aida; González-Alba, José-María; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; Baquero, Maria-Rosario; Rodríguez-Domínguez, Mario-José; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan-Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The rate at which mutations are generated is central to the pace of evolution. Although this rate is remarkably similar amongst all cellular organisms, bacterial strains with mutation rates 100 fold greater than the modal rates of their species are commonly isolated from natural sources and emerge in experimental populations. Theoretical studies postulate and empirical studies teort the hypotheses that these “mutator” strains evolved in response to selection for elevated rates of generation of inherited variation that enable bacteria to adapt to novel and/or rapidly changing environments. Less clear are the conditions under which selection will favor reductions in mutation rates. Declines in rates of mutation for established populations of mutator bacteria are not anticipated if such changes are attributed to the costs of augmented rates of generation of deleterious mutations. Here we report experimental evidence of evolution towards reduced mutation rates in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli with an hyper-mutable phenotype due a deletion in a mismatch repair gene, (ΔmutS). The emergence in a ΔmutS background of variants with mutation rates approaching those of the normal rates of strains carrying wild-type MutS was associated with increase in fitness with respect to ancestral strain. We postulate that such an increase in fitness could be attributed to the emergence of mechanisms driving a permanent “aerobic style of life”, the negative consequence of this behavior being regulated by the evolution of mechanisms protecting the cell against increased endogenous oxidative radicals involved in DNA damage, and thus reducing mutation rate. Gene expression assays and full sequencing of evolved mutator and normo-mutable variants supports the hypothesis. In conclusion, we postulate that the observed reductions in mutation rate are coincidental to, rather than, the selective force responsible for this evolution. PMID:24069167

  18. Quantifying interactions between accommodation and vergence in a binocularly normal population.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Laura E; Seidel, Dirk; Day, Mhairi; Gray, Lyle S

    2014-12-01

    Stimulation of the accommodation system results in a response in the vergence system via accommodative vergence cross-link interactions, and stimulation of the vergence system results in an accommodation response via vergence accommodation cross-link interactions. Cross-link interactions are necessary in order to ensure simultaneous responses in the accommodation and vergence systems. The crosslink interactions are represented most comprehensively by the response AC/A (accommodative vergence) and CA/C (vergence accommodation) ratios, although the stimulus AC/A ratio is measured clinically, and the stimulus CA/C ratio is seldom measured in clinical practice. The present study aims to quantify both stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios in a binocularly normal population, and determine the relationship between them. 25 Subjects (mean ± SD age 21.0 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from the university population. A significant linear relationship was found between the stimulus and response ratios, for both AC/A (r² = 0.96, p < 0.001) and CA/C ratios (r² = 0.40, p < 0.05). Good agreement was found between the stimulus and response AC/A ratios (95% CI -0.06 to 0.24 MA/D). Stimulus and response CA/C ratios are linearly related. Stimulus CA/C ratios were higher than response ratios at low values, and lower than response ratios at high values (95% CI -0.46 to 0.42 D/MA). Agreement between stimulus and response CA/C ratios is poorer than that found for AC/A ratios due to increased variability in vergence responses when viewing the Gaussian blurred target. This study has shown that more work is needed to refine the methodology of CA/C ratio measurement.

  19. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jaraj, Daniel; Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-02-16

    We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1-20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1-16.3). Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Frequency of autoimmune diseases in those suffering from vitiligo in comparison with normal population.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Shahla Babaee; Qadim, Hamideh Herizchi; Nazeman, Leila; Fadaii, Roohollah; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-15

    Vitiligo is more common in people with certain autoimmune diseases. Here we studied the association between vitiligo and autoimmune diseases. In this case control study, 86 patients with vitiligo were questioned about the location of vitiligo, family history, treatment and therapeutic response. All patients were examined both clinically and with laboratory tests to detect the presence of autoimmune disorders including autoimmune thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, insulin dependent diabetes, and Systemic Lupus Erythematic (SLE) and Addison disease. We compared the prevalence of autoimmune disorder in vitiligo patients with that in a group of age-and gender-matched normal population. Average age of disease onset was 21.8 +/- 11 years; 61% of patients were female and 39% were male. The most common locations of vitiligo were hands (33.7%) and face (32.1%). The most common pattern of onset was vulgaris type (40%). Nearly one-fourth of patients had a positive family history of vitiligo. Prevalence of thyroid disorders in vitiligo patients and control group was 21.1 and 7%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.008). The most common autoimmune disorder in patient with vitiligo was hypothyroidism. Family history had a poor prognostic effect on response to therapy.

  1. Mapping of superficial extremity veins: normal diameters and trends in a vascular patient-population.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Dan E; Kelly, Patrick; Gaughan, John P; van Bemmelen, Paul S

    2012-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of superficial extremity veins is a common procedure. To establish normal values for vein-size in a population of vascular patients and to assess if measurements remain unchanged over time, we analyzed a database with results of 28,130 measurements in 2420 separate saphenous and 3206 cephalic veins. Mean size of the great saphenous vein ranges from 2.3 mm to 4.4 mm but did not follow a tapering pattern as is often assumed. The distal calf segment is smaller than the ankle segment. The mean cephalic vein size in the upper arm (2.4 mm) was smaller than at the antecubital level (2.7 mm). A decrease in vein diameter over time was noted in many locations and this reached statistical significance (p < 0.005 for the thigh segment). The clinical significance of this is a need to repeat ultrasonic vein-mapping if more than a year elapses between ultrasound and surgical vein harvest.

  2. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  4. MOOD STATES, SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY, AND IN VIVO β-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR FUNCTION IN A NORMAL POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G.; Mills, Paul J.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and β-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or β-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25–50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). β-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of β-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or β-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) β-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. PMID:17583588

  5. Mortality and risk of dementia in normal-pressure hydrocephalus: A population study.

    PubMed

    Jaraj, Daniel; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Östling, Svante; Skoog, Ingmar

    2017-08-01

    We examined mortality, dementia, and progression of hydrocephalic symptoms among untreated individuals with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in a population-based sample. A total of 1235 persons were examined between 1986 and 2012. Shunted individuals were excluded. We examined 53 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement (probable iNPH: n = 24, asymptomatic or possible iNPH: n = 29). Comparisons were made with individuals without hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement. The 5-year mortality was 87.5% among those with probable iNPH. The hazard ratio (HR) for death was 3.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5-6.0) for probable iNPH. Those with possible iNPH and asymptomatic hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement had increased risk of developing dementia, HR 2.8 (95% CI: 1.5-5.2). Only two individuals with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement remained asymptomatic. In the present sample, persons with clinical and imaging signs of iNPH had excess mortality and an increased risk of dementia. The data also suggest that radiological signs of iNPH might be more important than previously supposed. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic characterization of hatchery populations of Korean spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Kim, H Y; Kim, J B; Chang, D S; Park, K D; Lee, J W; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-08-28

    The spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus, is an important commercial and recreational fishery resource in Korea. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of three cultured populations in Korea were assessed using multiplex assays with 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci; 144 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 28, with an average of 13.1. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.724 and 0.753, respectively. Low levels of inbreeding were detected according to the inbreeding coefficient (mean FIS = 0.003-0.073). All hatchery populations were significantly differentiated from each other (overall fixation index (FST) = 0.027, P < 0.01), and no population formed a separate cluster. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, mantel test, and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. For optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the spotted sea bass stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both L. maculatus fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  7. Effective Population Size and Signatures of Selection Using Bovine 50K SNP Chips in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Inferring the effective population size and the pattern of selection signatures is of interest both from an evolutionary perspective and to improve models for mapping of quantitative trait genes. We used DNA samples of 61 sires and 486 progeny of the Hanwoo, genotyped by the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip, to analyze the genetic structure. Our study showed a persistent decline in effective population size throughout the period considered, but suggested a marked decline at one distinctive time point (100th generation) and two sharp decline intervals (50th–25th generation and 25th–10th generation). This pattern can be explained by Hanwoo formation and the modern breeding program. Our results revealed 95 regions exhibiting the footprint of recent positive selection at a threshold level of 0.01. We found an overlap of the 11 core regions presenting top P-values and those that had previously been identified as harboring quantitative trait loci from other breeds. The information generated from this study can be used to better understand the mechanism of selection in Hanwoo breeding, and provide important implications for the design and application of association studies in the Hanwoo population. PMID:26244003

  8. Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, En Young; Paik, Ki Chung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lim, Myung Ho

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the relationship between allele frequency distribution and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been actively studied. In Korea, the relationship between the genetic type and alleles for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been studied in ADHD patients. ADHD was diagnosed in 60 patients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Version IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL), and they were selected for the study. For the control group, normal volunteers were chosen. Blood samples were taken from the 160 subjects. DNA was extracted from blood lymphocytes, and PCR was performed for COMT NlaIII VNTR polymorphism. For the case-control analyses, allele and genotype frequencies were compared using the chi(2) method. When the ADHD group and the normal control group were compared, significant difference was seen on the COMT genetic type, but was not seen on the allele distribution. As a result, it is viewed that there is no relationship between ADHD and the COMT gene, but final decision is indefinite.

  9. Stigma of mental illnesses as perceived by north korean defectors living in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors.

  10. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5′-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans. PMID:27623749

  11. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting Eight Parasites Customized to the Korean Population: Potential Use for Detection in Diarrheal Stool Samples from Gastroenteritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kee, Seung Jung; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Chai, Jong Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook; Shin, Myung Geun

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases occur worldwide and can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis; however, their diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in low-endemism countries. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of eight intestinal parasites and prospectively evaluated it for patients with gastroenteritis. The assay targeted Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Gymnophalloides seoi. Performance characteristics were evaluated based on recovery after DNA extraction, analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and interference characteristics. Clinical performance was validated against microscopy on 123 diarrheal samples. The assay demonstrated strong correlations between DNA concentrations and Ct values (R2, 0.9924-0.9998), and had a high PCR efficiency (83.3%-109.5%). Polymerase chain reactions detected as few as 10-30 copies of genomic DNA, and coefficient of variance was 0-7%. There was no cross-reactivity to the other 54 microorganisms tested. Interference occurred only in presence of high concentrations of erythrocytes or leukocytes. This assay had a higher correct identification rate (100.0% vs. 90.2%) and lower incorrect ID rate (0.0% vs. 9.8%) when compared to microscopy. Overall, this assay showed a higher sensitivity (100.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 80.5-100.0) than microscopy (29.4%; 95% CI 10.31-55.96), and the specificity levels were comparable for both methods (100.0%; 95% CI 96.58-100.0). This newly developed multiplex real-time PCR assay offers a potential use for detecting intestinal parasitic pathogens customized to the Korean population.

  12. Lack of Association between Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphisms and Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Sung; Lim, Sewon; Ha, Juwon; Lee, Min-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several lines of evidence suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the pathophysiology of anxiety. We analyzed the association of the BDNF gene polymorphism, G196A (val66met), in the coding region of exon XIIIA in chromosome 11p13, and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). Methods Patients with GSAD (n=73) and age-matched control subjects (n=152) were tested for the BDNF (val66met) polymorphism. A clinical interview and a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were conducted by trained psychiatrists in order to diagnose GSAD. The symptomatic characteristics of the GSAD patients were assessed with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Retrospective Self Report of Inhibition, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Results There were no significant differences in the frequencies of the genotypes (χ2=0.961, degree of freedom [df]=2, p=0.619), alleles (χ2=0.415, df=1, p=0.519), or allele (methionine) carriers (χ2=0.019, df=1, p=0.889) between the patients and controls. In addition, when we compared the severity of social anxiety symptom as determined by the clinical scales with the genotypes of the BDNF gene, we could not find any significant differences between the genotypes or allele carriers. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that the BDNF gene might be a candidate gene for susceptibility or severity of GSAD in the Korean population in this study. PMID:23430242

  13. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the estrogen receptor-β gene, rs1256049, is associated with knee osteoarthritis in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Woo; Song, Joo Hyoun; Choi, Won Suk; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Olga; Park, Yong Gyu; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Park, Won Sang

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens affect articular cartilage metabolism via estrogen receptors (ER) in chondrocytes and are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study is to determine whether the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) is associated with an increased susceptibility to knee OA. The possible influence of the SNP of the ER-β was investigated in 286 OA patients and 294 healthy subjects as controls. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay and a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay were used to identify the Rsa polymorphism genotype among healthy controls and OA patients, respectively. For rs1256049 (Rsa), frequencies of genotypes GG, GA, and AA were 49.0% (144/294), 43.5% (128/294), and 7.5% (22/294) in healthy controls, and 35.3% (101/286), 45.5% (130/286), and 19.2% (55/286) in OA patients. Frequencies of alleles G and A among healthy controls were 70.7% (416/588) and 29.3% (172/588); whereas those among OA patients were 58.0% (332/572) and 42.0% (240/572). Statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of rs1256049 were observed between OA patients and controls (P<0.0001). In particular, the risk of OA was significantly increased in carriers with the rs1256049A allele and rs1256049 AA homozygotes. These results suggest a close association of rs1256049 ER-β polymorphisms with susceptibility to OA in the Korean population. The rs1256049 polymorphism of the estrogen receptor-β gene can potentially be used to identify genetically high-risk subgroup of osteoarthritis in advance and to understand pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilot study for family-based association analysis of schizophrenia in a Korean population: Analysis for candidate genes positionally on chromosome 18q21.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Jung; Lee, Byung Dae; Kim, Choongrak

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia is the most devastating mental illness that causes severe deterioration in social and occupational functioning. This is a pilot study for family-based association analysis of schizophrenia in a Korean population to search candidate genes functionally relevant and positionally on chromosome 18. We have recruited 27 probands (with psychosis) with their parents and siblings whenever possible. We analyzed 20 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) of seven neuronal genes in chromosome 18 for DNA samples that was checked for the data quality and genotype error. For testing of association, we performed family-based association tests analyses with each individual SNP, using the phenotype of psychosis. And then, we performed family-based association tests haplotype analyses with each individual SNP, using the phenotype of psychosis. Finally, we performed linkage disequilibrium analyses for the phenotype of schizophrenia. We found one significant SNPs of one neuronal gene in chromosome 18 (P value < 0.05) for the qualitative phenotype of psychosis (rs1893490:MAPK4). We also found significant haplotypes of four SNPs in mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAPK4) gene of chromosome 18 (P value < 0.1) for the phenotype of psychosis (rs1893490-rs3892158-rs3752088-rs3794899). Two SNPS within the MAPK4 gene (rs3794899, rs3794901), plus SNPs within the malic enzyme 2 (rs685533, rs12277), and SMAD4 genes (rs8096092, rs2298617) were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other (D' > 0.60). The present findings provide convergent evidence (fine mapping of a chromosomal locus 18q21 associated with schizophrenia) suggesting that a specific MAPK4 could be a candidate gene for causing a spectrum of schizophrenia phenotype. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting Eight Parasites Customized to the Korean Population: Potential Use for Detection in Diarrheal Stool Samples from Gastroenteritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kee, Seung Jung; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Chai, Jong Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook; Shin, Myung Geun

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases occur worldwide and can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis; however, their diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in low-endemism countries. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of eight intestinal parasites and prospectively evaluated it for patients with gastroenteritis. The assay targeted Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Gymnophalloides seoi. Performance characteristics were evaluated based on recovery after DNA extraction, analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and interference characteristics. Clinical performance was validated against microscopy on 123 diarrheal samples. The assay demonstrated strong correlations between DNA concentrations and Ct values (R2, 0.9924–0.9998), and had a high PCR efficiency (83.3%–109.5%). Polymerase chain reactions detected as few as 10–30 copies of genomic DNA, and coefficient of variance was 0–7%. There was no cross-reactivity to the other 54 microorganisms tested. Interference occurred only in presence of high concentrations of erythrocytes or leukocytes. This assay had a higher correct identification rate (100.0% vs. 90.2%) and lower incorrect ID rate (0.0% vs. 9.8%) when compared to microscopy. Overall, this assay showed a higher sensitivity (100.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 80.5–100.0) than microscopy (29.4%; 95% CI 10.31–55.96), and the specificity levels were comparable for both methods (100.0%; 95% CI 96.58–100.0). This newly developed multiplex real-time PCR assay offers a potential use for detecting intestinal parasitic pathogens customized to the Korean population. PMID:27861635

  16. Cross-sectional relationship between dietary carbohydrate, glycaemic index, glycaemic load and risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary carbohydrate, glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on the risk of the metabolic syndrome, especially in populations with white rice as the staple food. The study examined the cross-sectional relationship between carbohydrate, GI, GL and risk of the metabolic syndrome. There were a total of 910 middle-aged Korean adults. Dietary carbohydrate, GI and GL were determined by an interview-administered FFQ. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The risk of developing the metabolic syndrome was positively related to dietary carbohydrate (P for trend = 0.03), GI (P for trend = 0.03) and GL intakes (P for trend = 0.02) in women after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Among the components of developing the metabolic syndrome, the risk of high TAG and low HDL-cholesterol were positively related to high GI and GL intakes in women. The risk of developing the metabolic syndrome was considerably higher in the highest quintiles of carbohydrate (OR 6.44; 95 % CI 2.16, 19.2), GI (OR 10.4; 95 % CI 3.24, 33.3) and GL intakes (OR 6.68; 95 % CI 2.30, 19.4) than in the lowest quintiles among women with a BMI >/= 25 kg/m2. However, there was no difference in risk across quintiles of carbohydrate, GI and GL among women with a BMI < 25 kg/m2. In conclusion, both the quantity and quality of carbohydrate intake has a positive relationship with the risk of the metabolic syndrome in women but this relationship was dependent on the BMI level.

  17. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P < 0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P < 0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P < 0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P = 0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population.

  18. Right Ventricular Mechanics using a Novel Comprehensive Three-View Echocardiographic Strain Analysis in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Forsha, Daniel; Risum, Niels; Kropf, P Andrea; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Smith, P Brian; Kanter, Ronald J; Samad, Zainab; Sogaard, Peter; Barker, Piers; Kisslo, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background While quantitative RV strain analysis may be useful in congenital and acquired heart disease populations with RV failure, a comprehensive, standardized approach is lacking. An 18 segment RV strain analysis obtained from 3 standardized RV apical echo images was used to determine the feasibility, normal values and reproducibility of the method in normal adults. Methods Forty healthy, prospectively-enrolled volunteers with no cardiac history and normal QRS duration received an echo optimized for strain analysis including 3 RV apical views. 2D speckle tracking longitudinal strain analysis was performed on EchoPAC software. Eleven retrospectively-identified subjects with RV disease were included as a pilot population. All had been imaged using the same protocol including the 3 RV apical views. Results All control subjects had normal anatomic morphology and function by echo. Feasibility of the RV strain analysis was good (adequate tracking in 696/720 (97%) of segments). RV global peak systolic strain was −23 ± 2%. Peak strain was highest in the RV free wall and lowest in the septum. Dyssynchrony indices demonstrated no dyssynchrony using LV criteria. Reproducibility of most strain measures was acceptable. This methodology identified important disease not seen in the 4-chamber apical view alone in the pilot population of 11 patients with RV disease. Strain pattern and values were different from the control population indicating differences do exist from normal. Conclusions The 18 segment RV strain analysis is feasible with strain measures falling into discrete ranges in this normal population. Those with RV disease illustrate the potential utility of this approach. These data indicate that this model can be utilized for more detailed studies evaluating abnormal RV populations where its full potential can be assessed. PMID:24508364

  19. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Population structure and domestication revealed by high-depth resequencing of Korean cultivated and wild soybean genomes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions.

  1. Population Structure and Domestication Revealed by High-Depth Resequencing of Korean Cultivated and Wild Soybean Genomes†

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions. PMID:24271940

  2. Between-day reliability of repeated plantar pressure distribution measurements in a normal population.

    PubMed

    Gurney, Jason K; Kersting, Uwe G; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of repeated plantar pressure distribution measurements during normal gait across multiple testing sessions. Testing sessions were conducted on 5 separate days at approximately the same time of day. Nine subjects (five males, four females, age 26+/-8.4 years) who were free of any musculoskeletal injury were recruited. A capacitive pressure distribution platform (EMED AT, Novel GmbH, Munich, Germany), sampling at 50Hz was used to collect plantar pressure patterns during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Four parameters were investigated: peak pressure, maximum force, impulse, and contact time, and these were investigated in 10 areas of the foot after using the PRC mask method of subdividing the foot into ten anatomical areas of interest. Individual means of all the five repeated trials for each foot were calculated, and these values were used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CoV) for all parameters. The results of this investigation show a generally good level of reliability, the quality of which is dependent on the region of the foot and the parameter investigated. Areas with typically high loading characteristics, such as the central forefoot showed a higher level of reliability in the ICC's (>0.9) than less loaded areas such as the medial midfoot (<0.8). The conclusion of this study is that plantar pressure distribution measurements can be used in comparative evaluations since the measures of repeatability are satisfactory for the parameters and foot regions usually used in the investigation of clinical populations such as neuropathic diabetics.

  3. Morphological measurements of the posterior surface of the normal proximal tibia in a healthy Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Luo, Cong-Feng; Shi, Hui-Peng; Yang, Guang; Zhong, Biao; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2014-03-01

    To measure and calculate the morphological parameters and determine the anatomical characteristics of the posterior surface of the proximal tibia in a healthy Chinese population. A total of 150 volunteers with normal knees were enrolled. The parameters in the multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction images were measured and calculated by two independent qualified observers. The differences and correlation were investigated. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess inter-observer reliability. The posterior margin of the tibial plateau is presented as two superior arc-shapes. The central angles of these arcs were 118°±14° (medial) and 106°±20° (lateral). The radii of these arcs both showed a skewed distribution. The median radii of the arcs were 22 mm in the medial and 20mm in the lateral. There were two significant angles present in the sagittal plane of the posterior cortex of the proximal tibia. The first angles were 39°±7° (medial) and 47°±7° (lateral). The second angles were 39°±4° (medial) and 41°±5° (lateral). Significant differences were observed in the central angles and the first angles but not in the second angles between the medial and lateral. There were no significant differences between different gender groups, and between left and right limbs. All of these parameters exhibited excellent to moderate ICC. Due to the varying anatomic morphology between the postero-medial and postero-lateral surface of the proximal tibia, the internal fixation implants of these two parts should be designed differently. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  5. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population.We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3-8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough.The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities.This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the epidemiology.

  6. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-Chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as 'Inactive', 'Active', and 'Very active' groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53-0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63-0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59-1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67-0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15-0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52-1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75-1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71-0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations.

  7. Association of the FGA and SLC6A4 genes with autistic spectrum disorder in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ro, Myungja; Won, Seongsik; Kang, Hyunjun; Kim, Su-Yeon; Lee, Seung Ku; Nam, Min; Bang, Hee Jung; Yang, Jae Won; Choi, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Su Kang; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kwack, Kyubum

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurobiological disorder characterized by distinctive impairments in cognitive function, language, and behavior. Linkage and population studies suggest a genetic association between solute carrier family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4) variants and ASD. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ASD with 3 alternative models (additive, dominant, and recessive). Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of SNPs on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores as a quantitative phenotype. In the present study, we examined the associations of SNPs in the SLC6A4 gene and the fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) gene. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the risk of ASD and rs2070025 and rs2070011 in the FGA gene. The gene-gene interaction between SLC6A4 and FGA was not significantly associated with ASD susceptibility. However, polymorphisms in both SLC6A4 and the FGA gene significantly affected the symptoms of ASD. Our findings indicate that FGA and SLC6A4 gene interactions may contribute to the phenotypes of ASD rather than the incidence of ASD. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Identification of novel OCT4 genetic variant associated with the risk of chronic hepatitis B in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Gon; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Lee, Kwanghyun; Ju, Bong-Gun; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Cheong, Jae Youn; Cho, Sung Won; Park, Neung Hwa; Namgoong, Suhg; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Kim, Yoon Jun; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis B viral infection is a serious risk factor for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted to identify important genetic variant associated with the risk of CHB. In our previous GWAS, TCF19 was identified as one of the susceptibility genes for CHB risk (P=4.2×10(-9) at rs1419881). In order to discover possible additional causal variants around TCF19, we performed an association study by genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OCT4, a nearby gene to TCF19. Nineteen OCT4 genetic variants were selected and genotyped in 3902 subjects (1046 CHB patients and 2856 population controls). Logistic regression analysis revealed that OCT4 rs1265163 showed the most significant association signal for the risk of CHB (OR=1.46, P=4.78×10(-12) ). Linkage disequilibrium and conditional analysis confirmed rs1265163 in OCT4 as a novel genetic marker for CHB susceptibility. The genetic risk scores (GRSs) were calculated to visualize the combined genetic effects of all known CHB-associated loci, including OCT4 rs1265163, which had been identified in this study. Individuals with higher cumulative GRSs showed significantly increased ORs. The luciferase activity of rs885952, a tagging SNP of rs1265163, showed that OCT4 promoter activity was significantly different between the wild-type and SNP mutant form (P<.05). This follow-up study to our previous GWAS identified a possible causal genetic variant associated with the risk of CHB, and findings from this study may prove useful in the understanding of genetic susceptibility to CHB. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study of Orthostatic Hypotension and Supine-Standing Blood Pressure Changes in Two Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyung-Won; Kim, Sung Soo

    2013-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is defined by a 20-mm Hg difference of systolic blood pressure (dtSBP) and/or a 10-mm Hg difference of diastolic blood pressure (dtDBP) between supine and standing, and OH is associated with a failure of the cardiovascular reflex to maintain blood pressure on standing from a supine position. To understand the underlying genetic factors for OH traits (OH, dtSBP, and dtDBP), genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using 333,651 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were conducted separately for two population-based cohorts, Ansung (n = 3,173) and Ansan (n = 3,255). We identified 8 SNPs (5 SNPs for dtSBP and 3 SNPs for dtDBP) that were repeatedly associated in both the Ansung and Ansan cohorts and had p-values of <1 × 10-5 in the meta-analysis. Unfortunately, the SNPs of the OH case control GWAS did not pass our p-value criteria. Four of 8 SNPs were located in the intergenic region of chromosome 2, and the nearest gene (CTNNA2) was located at 1 Mb of distance. CTNNA2 is a linker between cadherin adhesion receptors and the actin cytoskeleton and is essential for stabilizing dendritic spines in rodent hippocampal neurons. Although there is no report about the function in blood pressure regulation, hippocampal neurons interact primarily with the autonomic nervous system and might be related to OH. The remaining SNPs, rs7098785 of dtSBP trait and rs6892553, rs16887217, and rs4959677 of dtDBP trait were located in the PIK3AP1 intron, ACTBL2-3' flanking, STAR intron, and intergenic region, respectively, but there was no clear functional link to blood pressure regulation. PMID:24124408

  10. Simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning of lumbar corrective surgery: radiological analysis in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong Suh; Chung, Sung Soo; Park, Se Jun; Kim, Dong Min; Shin, Seong Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at deriving a lordosis predictive equation using the pelvic incidence and to establish a simple prediction method of lumbar lordosis for planning lumbar corrective surgery in Asians. Eighty-six asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled in the study. The maximal lumbar lordosis (MLL), lower lumbar lordosis (LLL), pelvic incidence (PI), and sacral slope (SS) were measured. The correlations between the parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis. Predictive equations of lumbar lordosis through simple regression analysis of the parameters and simple predictive values of lumbar lordosis using PI were derived. The PI strongly correlated with the SS (r = 0.78), and a strong correlation was found between the SS and LLL (r = 0.89), and between the SS and MLL (r = 0.83). Based on these correlations, the predictive equations of lumbar lordosis were found (SS = 0.80 + 0.74 PI (r = 0.78, R (2) = 0.61), LLL = 5.20 + 0.87 SS (r = 0.89, R (2) = 0.80), MLL = 17.41 + 0.96 SS (r = 0.83, R (2) = 0.68). When PI was between 30° to 35°, 40° to 50° and 55° to 60°, the equations predicted that MLL would be PI + 10°, PI + 5° and PI, and LLL would be PI - 5°, PI - 10° and PI - 15°, respectively. This simple calculation method can provide a more appropriate and simpler prediction of lumbar lordosis for Asian populations. The prediction of lumbar lordosis should be used as a reference for surgeons planning to restore the lumbar lordosis in lumbar corrective surgery.

  11. Normal weight adiposity in a Swedish population: how well is cardiovascular risk associated with excess body fat captured by BMI?

    PubMed Central

    Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Mehlig, Kirsten; Subramoney, Sreevidya; Lissner, Lauren; Björck, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to examine how well body mass index (BMI) reflects cardiovascular risk associated with excess adiposity in a Swedish population by examining the association between body fat, BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total of 3,010 adults participated. Normal weight adiposity was defined as the combination of BMI < 25 kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥35% for women and ≥25% for men. Associations with blood pressure, blood lipids, apolipoproteins and C‐reactive protein were analysed in age‐adjusted regression models. Results The majority of the individuals with overweight and obesity were correctly classified to adiposity, while a wide range of body fat was observed among the normal weight subjects. In total, 9% of the participants were categorised as normal weight with adiposity. Compared with the normal weight leanness group, participants with normal weight adiposity had higher levels of serum triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, C‐reactive protein, apolipoptotein B and the apolipoprotein B/A‐I ratio. In normal weight men, adiposity was also associated with higher blood pressure and lower high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions Higher percentage of body fat was associated with less favourable risk factor profile even in subjects who were normal weight. Thus, it might be relevant to screen for metabolic risk factors in the upper end of the normal weight category. PMID:27721982

  12. Relationship between socioeconomic status and mortality after femur fracture in a Korean population aged 65 years and older

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Femur fracture is an emerging public health concern in aging societies, owing to the substantially high morbidity and mortality. Because the recent increase in femur fracture incidence in Asian populations is comparable to that in the West, it is necessary to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality after femur fracture in developed Asian societies. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Claims Database. During 2002 to 2013, femur fractures were newly diagnosed in 5441 patients among 1025,340 enrollees. Multiple logistic regression and the Cox proportional model were used to investigate the associations between individual SES and probability of surgery and mortality after femur fracture. Of 5441 patients, 1928 (35.4%) received surgery. Patients with low (odds ratio [OR] = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75–0.99) and middle (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.74–0.98) income were less likely to undergo surgery than high-income patients. Patients with low (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01–1.24) and middle (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08–1.33) income had a higher HR for mortality. This difference was more prominent in patients who underwent surgery (low income: HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.94–1.21; middle income: HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04–1.33) than in patients with conservative treatment (low income: HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.04–1.49; middle income: HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.08–1.56). Femur-fracture patients with low SES are less likely to receive surgery for and more likely to die after femur fracture. The difference in mortality risk remained even when only the patients who received surgery were considered, suggesting that we need to consider support measures for these deprived patients. PMID:27930508

  13. Normalized Diurnal and Between-Day Trends in Illicit and Legal Drug Loads that Account for Changes in Population

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Alex J.; Ort, Christoph; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Berset, Jean-Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Drug concentrations in composite municipal wastewater samples and census-based estimates of population are used to derive daily loads of illicit substances that are indexed to population. However, such estimates do not provide information on the diurnal trends of substance excretion nor can they account for changes in population. To address these limitations, a series of 1 h composites created by sampling wastewater influent at 6 min intervals was collected over four consecutive days at a single wastewater treatment plant. Creatinine (a urinary indicator), caffeine, methamphetamine, benzoylecgonine (BZE), and cocaine were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Diurnal trends and between-day trends were substance specific and related to the number of estimated doses and excretory half-life. Normalization to creatinine yielded trends in substances that differed significantly from non-normalized trends by accounting for changes in population within the municipality studied. Increases in normalized substance excretion observed during early morning hours originate from individuals among the resident population of the municipality due to the absence of commuters. PMID:22804833

  14. The Effects of Earphone Use and Environmental Lead Exposure on Hearing Loss in the Korean Population: Data Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Huh, Da-An; Choi, Yun-Hee; Moon, Kyong Whan

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have reported that frequent earphone use and lead exposure are risk factors for hearing loss, most of these studies were limited to small populations or animal experiments. Several studies that presented the joint effect of combined exposure of noise and heavy metal on hearing loss were also mainly conducted on occupational workers exposed to high concentration. We investigated both the individual and joint effects of earphone use and environmental lead exposure on hearing loss in the Korean general population. We analyzed data from 7,596 Koreans provided by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) during the period 2010-2013. The pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz frequencies was computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA ≥ 25 dB in one or both ears. A dose-response relationship in hearing loss with earphone use time and blood lead level is observed after adjustment for confounding factors. With a 1-hour increase in earphone use time and 1 μg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, the odds of hearing loss increased by 1.19 and 1.43 times, respectively. For hearing loss, the additive and multiplicative effect of earphone use and blood lead level were not statistically significant. Earphone use and environmental lead exposure have an individual effect on hearing loss in the general population. However, the estimated joint effect of earphone use and lead exposure was not statistically significant.

  15. A feminist critique of breast cancer research among Korean women.

    PubMed

    Im, E O

    2000-08-01

    Studies indicate ethnic differences in incidence, mortality, and survival rate of breast cancer. Despite the low incidence rate of breast cancer among the Korean population, Koreans are reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer. In this article, using a feminist perspective, the reasons why Korean women have been reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer are analyzed through a critical review of research among Korean women. A total of 469 studies (145 unpublished master's theses and doctoral dissertations and 324 articles published in South Korea and in the United States) were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued in terms of biases present in the research process. Through a feminist critique of the literature, four possible reasons are proposed: androcentric views and assumptions underlying the research, modesty issues imbedded in Korean culture, the victim-blaming tendency of Korean culture, and intense emotions without adequate support.

  16. Putative functional variants of XRCC1 identified by RegulomeDB were not associated with lung cancer risk in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Jin, Chengcheng; Jung, Deuk Kju; Choi, Yi Young; Choi, Jin Eun; Lee, Won Kee; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Seok, Yangki; Lee, Eungbae; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project revealed that nearby or distantly located non-coding DNA regulates the expression of coding genes. RegulomeDB (http://regulome.stanford.edu) is a new database that can be used to predict whether a variant affects transcription factor binding and gene expression. We investigated the association between lung cancer risk and potentially functional polymorphisms of XRCC1 that were selected using RegulomeDB in a Korean population. A total of 185 polymorphisms of XRCC1 were evaluated using RegulomeDB. Strong evidence suggested that 10 polymorphisms, from among the 185, affected XRCC1 expression with scores of 1a-1f that were based on the RegulomeDB scoring system. The rs2854510 polymorphism was rare in Asians (minor allele frequency < 0.05). Eight polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD). The rs2854509 polymorphism, which was one of the 8 polymorphisms in LD, and rs7248167, which was not in the LD block, were genotyped in 610 lung cancer patients and 607 age- and sex-matched controls. Additionally, four polymorphisms of XRCC1 (rs25487, rs25489, rs1799782, and rs3213245), which were investigated with regard to their association with lung cancer risk in previous studies, were also genotyped. Two polymorphisms (rs2854509 and rs7248167) that were predicted to affect XRCC1 expression based on their RegulomeDB scores were not associated with lung cancer risk (P = 0.31 and 0.93, respectively). When stratified according to age, gender, smoking status, and tumor histology, the two polymorphisms of XRCC1 were not associated with lung cancer risk. Among the four polymorphisms that were previously studied, only rs25489 of XRCC1 was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (dominant model, adjusted odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.83, P = 0.002). Although RegulomeDB is an attractive tool for predicting the regulatory potential of variants, the two polymorphisms that were selected using Regulome

  17. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    PubMed

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  18. Korean Language Maintenance in Los Angeles. Professional Papers K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    Characteristics of the Korean population in Los Angeles, intergenerational cultural problems, and efforts to promote language maintenance are described. The majority of Koreans in Los Angeles have been in the United States less than 10 years. A high percentage are from middle class and professional backgrounds. The traditional hierarchical family…

  19. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  20. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  1. Cumulative skin irritation test of sanitary pads in sensitive skin and normal skin population.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Maibach, Howard

    2007-01-01

    We performed a randomized, paired, double-blind trial involving 14 participants with self-declared normal skin and 15 participants with self-declared sensitive skin to test the cutaneous compatibility of materials of low irritation potential for skin irritation (sanitary pads) elicited by repetitive topical application. Two test products patches and two control substance patches were applied to the lateral aspect of the upper arm once daily under fully occlusive conditions for 4 days. The positive control patch was moistened with sodium lauryl sulphate (0.1% w/v) and the negative control patch was moistened with 0.9% sodium chloride, as were the two test material patches. The patches were removed, skin irritation (erythema) graded, and new patches applied after each 24-hour period. There was no significant difference in skin irritation from the test patches between the sensitive and normal skin groups. The two test patches and the negative control patch were significantly less irritating than the positive control in both test groups. Both test patches were comparable to the negative control patch in the normal and sensitive skin groups. The test materials produced similar degrees of skin irritation among both groups. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in skin compatibility when the two feminine hygiene product test patches were worn by self-declared normal and sensitive skin groups.

  2. Differences in Eye Movements Control among Dyslexic, Retarded and Normal Readers in the Spanish Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos, F. J.; Vila, J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between dyslexia and eye movement control in Spanish-speaking children. Finds no significant differences between dyslexic and retarded readers in their eye movements during reading tasks only; no significant differences between retarded and normal readers in ocular tracking but differences between each of the groups and…

  3. Cognitive Change in Elderly Populations: "Normal" Aging, Senile Dementia and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Paul J.

    Cognitive change in the elderly can be due to several etiological factors which are empirically difficult to separate and clinically problematic to differentiate. Normal aging is accompanied by behavioral slowing. The slowing down of psycho-motor processes results in a lowered intelligence quotient, but cannot be taken as unequivocal evidence for…

  4. Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for metabolic disorders. No study of the association of sarcopenia with insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MS) according to age group and obesity status in the general population has been reported. We investigated these associations in the Korean population. Participants included 4558 males and 5874 females, who were ≥20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys of the Korean population (2009 and 2010). Age was categorized according to three groups (20-39, 40-59, and ≥ 60 years). Obesity was defined according to body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by weight (Wt) (%) of > 2SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. After adjustment for confounding variables, sarcopenia showed a significant association with HOMA-IR in the non-obese group (P<0.001). Sarcopenia was found to be a risk factor for diabetes in the non-obese group (OR, 2.140; 95% CI, 1.549-2.956; P<0.001). Sarcopenia also showed an association with MS in the non-obese group (OR, 2.209; 95% CI, 1.679-2.906; P<0.001), but not in the obese-group. However, these results were not relevant to young age group. In conclusion, sarcopenia showed an association with insulin resistance, diabetes, and MS, in the non-obese population. Sarcopenia may be an early predictor for diabetes and MS susceptibility in the non-obese population, particularly in elderly people.

  5. What is "normal" disability? An investigation of disability in the general population.

    PubMed

    Mewes, Ricarda; Rief, Winfried; Stenzel, Nikola; Glaesmer, Heide; Martin, Alexandra; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-03-01

    Many studies have investigated the highly relevant association between pain and disability in clinical groups using the Pain Disability Index (PDI). To interpret these results, knowledge of disability in the general population is crucial. Moreover, to investigate criterion validity of the PDI, the influence on health care utilisation (HCU) is of special interest. In the present study, a broadened version of the PDI was psychometrically evaluated with a large representative sample of the general population. The independent impact of disability on HCU was also investigated. A representative sample of the German general population (N=2510) was screened for disability, somatic complaints, mental health (PHQ) and HCU. Following a psychometric evaluation of the PDI, data are provided about the distribution of disability in the general population. For the prediction of HCU, stepwise linear regression analysis was calculated. The psychometric evaluation of the PDI revealed a one-factor solution, high reliability, and satisfactory construct validity. Percentage scores for the distribution of disability are provided for those people reporting at least one pain/somatic symptom. These data allow a better description of disability in clinical samples. Somatic complaints, disability, unemployment or retirement, depression and anxiety explained 26% of the variance for HCU. The PDI is an economical, reliable and valid self-rating instrument for assessing disability caused by physical symptoms. HCU in the general population is determined by the number and severity of somatic complaints and also by disability. Symptoms and disability play a crucial but somewhat independent role.

  6. Ethnic coefficients for glomerular filtration rate estimation by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equations in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung Sik; Cha, Ran-hui; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Song, Ka Heon; Gu, Namyi; Yu, Kyung Sang; Lim, Chun Soo; Han, Jin Suk; Kim, Suhnggwon; Kim, Yon Su

    2010-11-01

    Race and ethnicity are influential in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We aimed to find the Korean coefficients for the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equations and to obtain novel proper estimation equations. Reference GFR was measured by systemic inulin clearance. Serum creatinine (SCr) values were measured by the alkaline picrate Jaffé kinetic method, then, recalibrated to CX3 analyzer and to isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The Korean coefficients for the 4 and 6 variable MDRD and IDMS MDRD study equations based on the SCr recalibrated to CX3 and to IDMS were 0.73989/0.74254 and 0.99096/0.9554, respectively. Coefficients for the 4 and 6 variable MDRD equations based on the SCr measured by Jaffé method were 1.09825 and 1.04334, respectively. The modified equations showed better performances than the original equations. The novel 4 variable equations for Korean based on the SCr measured and recalibrated to IDMS were 107.904×SCr(-1.009)×age(-0.02) (×0.667, if woman) and 87.832×SCr(-0.882)×age(0.01) (×0.653, if woman), respectively. Modified estimations of the MDRD and IDMS MDRD study equations with ethnic coefficients and the novel equations improve the performance of GFR estimation for the overall renal function.

  7. AKARI near-infrared background fluctuations arise from normal galaxy populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgason, K.; Komatsu, E.

    2017-05-01

    We show that measurements of the fluctuations in the near-infrared background (NIRB) from the AKARI satellite can be explained by faint galaxy populations at low redshifts. We demonstrate this using reconstructed images from deep galaxy catalogues (Hawk-I UDS/GOODS Survey and S-Cosmic Assembly Deep Near-Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and two independent galaxy population models. In all cases, we find that the NIRB fluctuations measured by AKARI are consistent with faint galaxies and there is no need for a contribution from unknown populations. We find that a steep Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum for the underlying sources is not required as previously reported. The apparent Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum at large angular scales is likely a consequence of galaxies being removed systematically to deeper levels in the longer wavelength channels.

  8. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Medicine Seoul, Korea * S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUM ARY Urban rats captured in Seoul and four nearby Korean cities were found to have...rattus, urban Korean cities, 1980. . . . 15 Table 2. Isolation of Hantaan virus from antigen-positive wild house rats, Korea , 1980 .... ........... .. 16...Figures Figure 1. Map of Seoul City, South Korea and metropolitan area showing locations of urban Korean hemorrhagic fever cases, andRattu s positive

  9. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    South Korea , China, the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan and Russia will be examined to determine prospects from Korean reunification...the “tilt” of a unified Korea , and with it, the future Northeast Asian strategic environment. 1 PROSPECTS FROM KOREAN REUNIFCATION Throughout most of...the 20th century, the Korean people have yearned for the establishment of an independent and unified Korea . Before World War II, this was denied to

  10. Levels of plasma soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) in normal Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, B; Raju, K R; Anand, V; Malu, S; Padmanabhan, S; Tiwari, S C; Das, N; Srivastava, L M

    1999-07-01

    A decrease in the membrane anchored erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) is reported as an acquired phenomenon in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with concomitant rise in soluble CR1 (sCR1) levels in plasma. There is a need to establish the normal range of sCR1 in Indian adults to assess the function and disease association of this protein. The plasma sCR1 levels of 50 healthy individuals have been estimated by an indigenously developed sandwich ELISA. sCR1 levels from 26 patients suffering from nephropathies had also been assayed which was much higher than the normal controls. This observation suggests sCR1 as a potential market for the assessment of disease activity in nephropathies.

  11. Normal haematological reference values in the adult black population of the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Tikly, M; Blumsohn, D; Solomons, H D; Govender, Y; Atkinson, P M

    1987-07-18

    Normal haematological reference values for healthy adult blacks residing on the Witwatersrand are given. The haemoglobin concentration was 13.95 +/- 0.8 g/dl for women and 15.82 +/- 1.05 g/dl for men. Leucocyte counts were lower than those found in whites, being 5.60 +/- 1.51 X 10(9)/l for both sexes. Platelet counts were 280 +/- 59.4 X 10(9)/l for men and 317 +/- 64.0 X 10(9)/l for women. The differential counts and other parameters are given in the text.

  12. Normal values and determinants of circadian urine production in older men: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Blanker, Marco H; Bernsen, Roos M D; Ruud Bosch, J L H Ruud; Thomas, Siep; Groeneveld, Frans P M J; Prins, Ad; Bohnen, Arthur M

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated circadian urine production and its determinants in a large population based sample of older men. We collected data on 1,688 men 50 to 78 years old, without radical prostatectomy, prostate or bladder cancer, neurogenic bladder disease or negative advice from their general practitioner, recruited from the population of Krimpen, the Netherlands. Measurements consisted of self-administered questionnaires, including the International Prostate Symptom Score, a 3-day frequency-volume chart, transrectal prostatic ultrasound, uroflowmetry and post-void residual volume. Hourly urine production was determined and urine production day-to-night ratio was calculated from the frequency-volume chart. Men younger than 65 years showed a clear circadian urine production pattern, whereas in older men this pattern was less clear. Smoking, use of diuretic drugs, post-void residual and 24-hour polyuria reinforced the circadian pattern, in favor of daytime urine production. The urine production day-to-night ratio was not associated with prostate enlargement, reduced urinary flow rate, body weight, hypertension, cardiac symptoms, diabetes mellitus, use of antidepressants, cardiac or hypnotic drugs. Urine production in men younger than 65 years showed a clear circadian pattern in contrast to men older than 65 years. These data can be used as a reference when describing urine production patterns in select populations. In daily practice frequency-volume charts can be used to determine urine production. This method is inexpensive, easy to use and provides valid information on urine production in a natural environment.

  13. Odontoid process inclination in normal adults and in an adult population with Chiari malformation Type I.

    PubMed

    Besachio, David A; Khaleel, Ziyad; Shah, Lubdha M

    2015-12-01

    Posterior odontoid process inclination has been demonstrated as a factor associated with Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) in the pediatric population; however, no studies to date have examined this measurement in the adult CM-I population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate craniocervical junction (CCJ) measurements in adult CM-I versus a control group. The odontoid retroflexion, odontoid retroversion, odontoid height, posterior basion to C-2 line measured to the dural margin (pB-C2 line), posterior basion to C-2 line measured to the dorsal odontoid cortical margin (pB-C2* line), and clivus-canal angle measurements were retrospectively analyzed in adult patients with CM-I using MRI. These measurements were compared with normative values established from CT scans of the cervical spine in adults without CM-I. A statistically significant difference was found between 55 adults with CM-I and 150 sex-matched controls (125 used for analysis) in the mean clivus-canal angle and the mean pB-C2 line. These data suggest that there are sex-specific differences with respect to measurements at the CCJ between men and women, with women showing a more posteriorly inclined odontoid process. There were also differences between the CM-I and control groups: a more acute clivus-canal angle was associated with CM-I in the adult population. These CCJ findings could have an influence on presurgical planning.

  14. Korean: A Guide to the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This language guide, written for United States Armed Forces personnel, serves as an introduction to the Korean language and presents important words and phrases for use in normal conversation. Linguistic expressions are classified under the following categories: (1) greetings and general phrases, (2) location, (3) directions, (4) numbers, (5)…

  15. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies.

  16. Risk of Progression to Hypertension in a Low-Income Mexican Population with Pre-hypertension and Normal Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Stern, Michael P; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood pressure (BP) levels below the pre-hypertension category may be associated with the risk of developing hypertension. We estimated the incidence rates of hypertension in low-income Mexican population according to several subcategories of baseline BP within normal and pre-hypertension categories. METHODS A total of 1572 nonhypertensive men (n=632) and non-pregnant women (n=940), aged 35 to 64 years at baseline, were followed for a median of 5.8 years. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, or self-reported physician diagnosis with anti-hypertensive medications. RESULTS During follow-up, 267 subjects developed hypertension, of whom 83 were men and 184 were women. Age-adjusted incidence rate was higher in women (37.1 per 1000 person-years) than in men (23.7 per 1000 person-years). There was a significant association between BP levels at baseline and hypertension incidence even within the normal category. For the upper levels of normal SBP (110-119 mm Hg), the HR (95%CI) was 2.43 (1.50-3.93) in women and 2.44 (1.05-5.69) in men, compared with SBP <110 mm Hg. For the upper levels of normal DBP (70-79 mm Hg), the HR (95%CI) was 2.33 (1.65-3.31) in women and 1.80 (0.92-3.52) in men, compared with DBP <70 mm Hg, after adjustment for recognized predictors. CONCLUSIONS High risk of hypertension incidence was associated with levels of BP even within the normal category. This information could help define a population at high risk of progression to hypertension, in order to establish preventive measures. PMID:17765131

  17. Apparently abnormal Wechsler Memory Scale index score patterns in the normal population.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Roman Marcus; Grups, Josefine; Evans, Brittney; Simco, Edward; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition may involve examination of multiple memory index score contrasts and similar comparisons with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition ability indexes. Standardization sample data suggest that 15-point differences between any specific pair of index scores are relatively uncommon in normal individuals, but these base rates refer to a comparison between a single pair of indexes rather than multiple simultaneous comparisons among indexes. This study provides normative data for the occurrence of multiple index score differences calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations and validated against standardization data. Differences of 15 points between any two memory indexes or between memory and ability indexes occurred in 60% and 48% of the normative sample, respectively. Wechsler index score discrepancies are normally common and therefore not clinically meaningful when numerous such comparisons are made. Explicit prior interpretive hypotheses are necessary to reduce the number of index comparisons and associated false-positive conclusions. Monte Carlo simulation accurately predicts these false-positive rates.

  18. Evidence of hearing loss in a “normally-hearing” college-student population

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Hensley, B.N.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Hall, J. W.; Guire, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25–8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ≥25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ≥20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for “notched” audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students’ hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects. PMID:21288064

  19. Comparison of Endolymphatic Duct Dimensions and Jugular Bulb Abnormalities Between Meniere Disease and a Normal Population.

    PubMed

    Karatas, Abdullah; Kocak, Ayhan; Cebi, Isil Taylan; Salviz, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Meniere disease (MD) has not been fully understood. According to the widely accepted theory, imbalances due to overproduction and/or impaired absorption of endolymph may cause endolymphatic hydrops, which is the hallmark pathological finding in MD. Some developmental temporal bone abnormalities may impair endolymph circulation and absorption, and these abnormalities could be a part of MD pathophysiology. However, structural features of the temporal bone cannot explain MD pathophysiology definitively. The authors aimed to determine the length and width of the endolymphatic duct (ED) along with jugular bulb (JB) abnormalities in MD patients and normal controls using high-resolution computed tomography, and to discuss the results supporting and opposing endolymphatic hydrops based on the data obtained. Thirty-six ears of 18 patients with unilateral MD and 34 ears of 17 normal subjects were enrolled. Jugular bulb abnormalities and ED dimensions were evaluated in 3 groups: affected and unaffected ears of MD patients, and healthy controls. The ED dimensions and JB abnormalities were evaluated with high-resolution computed tomography. The ED was found to be significantly shorter and narrower in the affected ears of the MD patients than in the healthy control group. In addition, more JB abnormalities were detected in the affected ears of the MD patients than in the healthy control group. However, there was no difference between the affected and unaffected ears of the MD patients. Structural ED abnormalities and JB abnormalities may be predisposing factors for the development of Meniere disease, but cannot fully explain MD pathophysiology.

  20. Evidence of hearing loss in a 'normally-hearing' college-student population.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, C G; Hensley, B N; Campbell, K C M; Hall, J W; Guire, K

    2011-03-01

    We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25-8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ≥25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ≥20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for 'notched' audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students' hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects.

  1. A bipolar population counter using wave pipelining to achieve 2.5 x normal clock frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Derek C.; De Micheli, Giovanni; Flynn, Michael J.; Huston, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Wave pipelining is a technique for pipelining digital systems that can increase clock frequency in practical circuits without increasing the number of storage elements. In wave pipelining, multiple coherent waves of data are sent through a block of combinational logic by applying new inputs faster than the delay through the logic. The throughput of a 63-b CML population counter was increased from 97 to 250 MHz using wave pipelining. The internal circuit is flowthrough combinational logic. Novel CAD methods have balanced all input-to-output paths to about the same delay. This allows multiple data waves to propagate in sequence when the circuit is clocked faster than its propagation delay.

  2. A bipolar population counter using wave pipelining to achieve 2.5 x normal clock frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Derek C.; De Micheli, Giovanni; Flynn, Michael J.; Huston, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Wave pipelining is a technique for pipelining digital systems that can increase clock frequency in practical circuits without increasing the number of storage elements. In wave pipelining, multiple coherent waves of data are sent through a block of combinational logic by applying new inputs faster than the delay through the logic. The throughput of a 63-b CML population counter was increased from 97 to 250 MHz using wave pipelining. The internal circuit is flowthrough combinational logic. Novel CAD methods have balanced all input-to-output paths to about the same delay. This allows multiple data waves to propagate in sequence when the circuit is clocked faster than its propagation delay.

  3. A state-trait analysis of alpha density and personality variables in a normal population.

    PubMed

    Degood, D E; Valle, R S

    1975-10-01

    In Study I eyes-open and eyes-closed percentage time resting alpha in normal young male adults was correlated positively with psychological test scores that reflected greater energy, feelings of confidence and control, and lesser social inhibition. Study II was consistent with Study I in that alpha density was related inversely to a projective measure of maladustment as well as measures of state and trait anxiety. The effects of visual stimulation on the size of the relationship between alpha and psychological trait measures suggested that this is a highly unstable relationship likely to appear only when experimental arrangements maximize the congruency betweey psychological states and traits. Finally, it was suggested that the application of a state-trait rationale to alpha phenomenon might be useful to organize the relationship between physiological and psychological variables and could serve as a starting point for conceptualizing the potential effects of biofeed-back applications.

  4. Evoked taste thresholds in a normal population and the application of electrogustometry to trigeminal nerve disease.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, R; Ferguson, M M; Strang, R; Turner, J W; Bone, I

    1987-01-01

    No standardised method for taste threshold measurement is available and therefore comparison between clinical studies is difficult. An electrogustometer was evaluated in normal subjects. No sex difference in taste threshold was noted; however, there was a significant elevation in detection threshold with age and smoking. Electrogustometric values both in patients before and after surgery for trigeminal neuralgia and in patients with trigeminal sensory neuropathy were determined. Many patients with trigeminal nerve disorders had abnormal electrogustometric detection thresholds suggesting that there is possibly an accessory taste pathway through the trigeminal nerve, although in some individuals the site of lesion may be in the brain stem. Electrogustometry is a convenient method for clinically assessing taste. Images PMID:3819752

  5. The Effects of Earphone Use and Environmental Lead Exposure on Hearing Loss in the Korean Population: Data Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Moon, Kyong Whan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have reported that frequent earphone use and lead exposure are risk factors for hearing loss, most of these studies were limited to small populations or animal experiments. Several studies that presented the joint effect of combined exposure of noise and heavy metal on hearing loss were also mainly conducted on occupational workers exposed to high concentration. Objectives We investigated both the individual and joint effects of earphone use and environmental lead exposure on hearing loss in the Korean general population. Methods We analyzed data from 7,596 Koreans provided by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) during the period 2010–2013. The pure-tone average (PTA) of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz frequencies was computed, and hearing loss was defined as a PTA ≥ 25 dB in one or both ears. Results A dose-response relationship in hearing loss with earphone use time and blood lead level is observed after adjustment for confounding factors. With a 1-hour increase in earphone use time and 1 μg/dL increase in blood lead concentration, the odds of hearing loss increased by 1.19 and 1.43 times, respectively. For hearing loss, the additive and multiplicative effect of earphone use and blood lead level were not statistically significant. Conclusions Earphone use and environmental lead exposure have an individual effect on hearing loss in the general population. However, the estimated joint effect of earphone use and lead exposure was not statistically significant. PMID:28030613

  6. High-Resolution HLA-A Typing in Normal Iranian Population

    PubMed

    Hadadianpour, Azadeh; Samiee Aref, Mohammad Hasan; Zeinali, Sirous

    2017-09-27

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene is a highly polymorphic region. HLA typing is required to match patients and donors for transplantation; therefore, development of HLA registries is necessary for finding HLA match donors. HLA system is highly informative, and numerous studies have been conducted on HLA allele distribution in different populations. In this study, 100 unrelated Iranian individuals were typed for HLA-A locus using sequence-based typing method. Samples were subjected to the PCR, followed by Sanger sequencing and software analysis. A*02:01 (13%) and A*24:02 (12%) were the two most frequent alleles, while A*01:14, A*02:05, A*02:11, A*02:34, A*02:50, A*11:04, A*23:02, A*24:34, A*25:01, A*26:09, A*26:43, A*29:67, A*30:54, A*31:02, A*31:66, A*32:03, A*32:04, A*33:03, and A*66:15 alleles had the least frequencies (1%). This is the first report of HLA-A allele level typing in a randomized population of Iran and can be useful for development of national registries of HLA-typed volunteer marrow donors and local cord blood banks.

  7. Prognostic implication of the tumor location according to molecular subtypes in axillary lymph node-positive invasive ductal cancer in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Taek; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Sei Joong; Kim, Hyun Ah; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Heung Kyu; Suh, Young Jin

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have not considered the axillary lymph node status when investigating the prognostic role of tumor location according to each molecular subtype. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic implication of tumor location according to each molecular subtype in Korean invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients with axillary lymph node metastasis. Data from 7856 Korean IDC women with axillary lymph node metastasis were retrospectively analyzed. According to tumor location, patients were divided into the following groups: upper-outer quadrant, lower-outer quadrant, upper-inner quadrant, lower-inner quadrant (LIQ), and central group. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were evaluated according to tumor location and molecular subtype. A subgroup analysis based on tumor size categorization was also performed. The patients' mean age was 47.97 ± 9.64 years, and the median follow-up time was 90 months. The LIQ group showed significantly worse prognosis in OS and BCSS (76.4 and 83.3 %, respectively) compared with the other groups, which was only significant in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression and triple-negative (TN) subtypes. In the subgroup analysis according to tumor size, the LIQ group showed a significantly worse prognosis in OS and BCSS compared with the other groups, in HER2 and TN subtypes, and only in patients with more than T2 stage. In Korean IDC patients with axillary lymph node metastasis, LIQ tumor location was associated with poor prognosis among those with HER2 and TN molecular subtypes and especially in those with more than T2 stage.

  8. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0–18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of blepharoptosis in Korean adult population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Cho, J; Zhao, D; Woo, K I; Kim, Y-D; Kim, S; Yang, S W

    2017-03-24

    PurposeThis study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of involutional blepharoptosis in a nationwide representative sample in Korea.MethodsCross-sectional study 20 941 Korean men and women 40 years of age and older who participated in last 2 years (2008 and 2009) of the 4th wave of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and the first 2 years (2010 and 2011) of KNHANES V. Ocular examinations were performed by ophthalmologists trained in procedure and grading methods, and blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance <2 mm on either eye.ResultsThe prevalence of involutional blepharoptosis in the Korean adult was 13.5% (95% CI: 12.1%, 14.9%). It was increasing along with aging (5.4% among 40's and 32.8% in people over 70 years old). A statistically significant negative association between levator function and blepharoptosis was found. With right eye, while only 5.4% (95% CI: 4.5%, 6.2%) had blepharoptosis among people whose levator function was excellent (≥12 mm), 71.4% (95% CI: 60.0%, 85.9%) of people whose levator function was poor (≤4 mm) had blepharoptosis. Hypertension, diabetes, higher body mass index (BMI), and lower education had statistically significant association with blepharoptosis adjusting all other confounders.ConclusionsThe distribution and proportional changes of levator function and marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) with aging implicate a contributory role of muscular degeneration. Strong association with hypertension, diabetes, BMI, and education level suggests that etiology of involutional blepharoptosis would be multifactorial and further investigation would be necessary to determine precise mechanism and contribution of factors.Eye advance online publication, 24 March 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.43.

  10. Male fertility in natural populations of red deer is determined by sperm velocity and the proportion of normal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Malo, Aurelio F; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana J; García, Andrés J; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2005-04-01

    Male reproductive success is determined by the ability of males to gain sexual access to females and by their ability to fertilize ova. Among polygynous mammals, males differ markedly in their reproductive success, and a great deal of effort has been made to understand how selective forces have shaped traits that enhance male competitiveness both before and after copulation (i.e., sperm competition). However, the possibility that males also may differ in their fertility has been ignored under the assumption that male infertility is rare in natural populations because selection against it is likely to be strong. In the present study, we examined which semen traits correlate with male fertility in natural populations of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus). We found no trade-offs between semen traits. Our analyses revealed strong associations between sperm production and sperm swimming velocity, sperm motility and proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa, and sperm viability and acrosome integrity. These last two variables had the lowest coefficients of variation, suggesting that these traits have stabilized at high values and are unlikely to be related to fitness. In a fertility trial, our results show a large degree of variation in male fertility, and differences in fertility were determined mainly by sperm swimming velocity and by the proportion of morphologically normal sperm. We conclude that male fertility varies substantially in natural populations of Iberian red deer and that, when sperm numbers are equal, it is determined mainly by sperm swimming velocity and sperm morphology.

  11. Physiologic responses during rest on a sleep system at varied degrees of firmness in a normal population.

    PubMed

    Lahm, Ryan; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2002-09-15

    This study explores the hypothesis that a high degree of sustained muscle activity associated with a sub-optimal spinal orientation may compromise an individual's ability to relax or initiate sleep. Data from 22 participants who were considered to be part of a normal, back-pain-free population were used in these studies. Participants laid down on a mattress in a foetal position (i.e. on their sides) at three varying bed pressures while EMG activities, heart rates, blood pressures, subjective comfort levels and spinal alignment data were recorded. Minor effects of mattress inflation pressures were associated with changes in EMG activity, heart rate, blood pressure and/or subjective comfort. In contrast, spinal alignment assessment revealed significant differences between the three different inflation pressures studied (827.4, 2413.2 and 3999.0 Pa). It was concluded that in a population of normal participants, although mattress inflation pressure induced significant changes in spinal alignment, these changes were of little physiological consequence. Nevertheless, this data provides baseline information needed to assess similar correlations in a symptomatic population (e.g. those with either acute or chronic neck or back pain).

  12. Spoken Korean: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukoff, Fred

    This text is designed for students planning to learn spoken Korean. Ten lessons and two review sections based on cultural experiences commonly shared by Koreans are included in the text. Grouped in series of five lessons, the instructional materials include (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  13. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  14. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 400 cases have been being reportee every year

  15. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  16. Koreans in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two questions about Koreans in business are left unanswered in this article. First, what will happen to Korean entrepreneurship if monopoly capitalism continues to extend its influence into all branches of the economy. The second question concerns the issue of race relations. (Author/AM)

  17. Intercorrelations among plasma high density lipoprotein, obesity and triglycerides in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Albrink, M.J.; Krauss, R.M.; Lindgren, F.T.; von der Groeben, J.; Pan, S.; Wood, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    The interrelationships among fatness measures, plasma triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were examined in 131 normal adult subjects: 38 men aged 27 to 46, 50 men aged 47 to 66, 29 women aged 27 to 46 and 24 women aged 47 to 66. None of the women were taking estrogens or oral contraceptive medication. The HDL concentration was subdivided into HDL/sub 2b/, HDL/sub 2a/ and HDL by a computerized fitting of the total schileren pattern to reference schlieren patterns. Anthropometric measures employed included skinfolds at 3 sites, 2 weight/height indices and 2 girth measurements. A high correlation was found among the various fatness measures. These measures were negatively correlated with total HDL, reflecting the negative correlation between fatness measures and HDL/sub 2/ (as the sum of HDL/sub 2a/ and /sub 2b/). Fatness measures showed no relationship to HDL/sub 3/. There was also an inverse correlation between triglyceride concentration and HDL/sub 2/. No particular fatness measure was better than any other for demonstrating the inverse correlation with HDL but multiple correlations using all of the measures of obesity improved the correlations. Partial correlations controlling for fatness did not reduce any of the significnt correlations between triglycerides and HDL/sub 2/ to insignificance. The weak correlation between fatness and triglycerides was reduced to insigifnicance when controlled for HDL/sub 2/.

  18. Propagation of normal human epithelial cell populations using an in vivo culture system. Description and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Szanto, A. J.; Terzaghi, M.; Mirkin, L. D.; Martin, D.; Shiba, M.

    1982-01-01

    A new model using xenotransplanted human epithelia was developed for the study of toxic and carcinogenic effects of chemicals. Epithelial cells from the respiratory tract of 4 male and 3 female premature and fullterm fetuses were enzymatically removed and inoculated into deepithelialized rat tracheas. These were sealed at both ends and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 3-4 weeks, a normal mucociliary epithelium covered the tracheal lumen. At this stage the epithelial cells could be isolated again and transplanted into new denuded rat tracheas. This passaging could be repeated up to six times, each permitting an amplification factor of approximately 3. Tracheal transplants containing cells of human origin (in vivo Passages 2-4) were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Hyperplasias, squamous metaplasias, and dysplasias were seen 1-8 weeks after initiation of treatment, indicating that the responses of human and rodent epithelial cells to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are similar. Initial experiments with skin and esophageal epithelia suggest that other covering epithelia could also be used in this fashion for evaluation of toxicants and carcinogens that are likely to come into contact with these tissues. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:6821529

  19. Application of an objective biological assay of human interferons to clinical specimens and a survey of a normal population.

    PubMed Central

    Forti, R L; Moldovan, R A; Mitchell, W M; Callicoat, P; Schuffman, S S; Davies, H A; Smith, D M

    1985-01-01

    A rapid, quantitative, and nonsubjective method of interferon assay is described, which can be readily applied to clinical specimens. Automated data acquisition and data reduction allowed a significant increase in volume per unit of time over existing methodologies. Plasma always yielded higher (usually 2:1) interferon values than did serum obtained simultaneously. Ranges of interferon levels in plasma in normal control populations are reported as well as ranges for clinical virology laboratory technicians and patients with terminal malignancies or collagen vascular diseases. PMID:2581992

  20. The 677C>T mutation of the MTHFR gene increases the risk of venous thromboembolism in Koreans and a meta-analysis from Asian population.

    PubMed

    Jang, Moon Ju; Jeon, Young Joo; Choi, Won-Il; Choi, Yi Seul; Kim, Su Yeoun; Chong, So Young; Oh, Doyeun; Kim, Nam Keun

    2013-06-01

    The frequency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations varies between racial and ethnic groups, and there are also conflicting data regarding MTHFR gene mutations in Asian patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to examine the association between common MTHFR gene mutations (677C>T and 1298A>C) and risk of VTE in Koreans. This study was a retrospective case-control study. We enrolled 203 patients with VTE and 403 controls. For the 677C>T polymorphism, there was no difference in the frequency of the CT genotype and TT genotype between the patients with VTE and the controls. However, in the recessive analysis (CC + CT vs TT), the frequency of the TT genotype was significantly higher in VTE than in controls (odds ratio = 1.700; 95% confidence interval = 1.108-2.607, P = .015). In conclusion, the TT genotype of MTHFR 677C>T increases the risk of VTE in Koreans. This finding was supported by meta-analysis of previous Asian studies.

  1. Is nutritional labeling associated with individual health? The effects of labeling-based awareness on dyslipidemia risk in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Yeob; Kweon, Ki Hong; Kim, Min Jae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Jang, Suk-Yong; Kim, Woorim; Han, Kyu-Tae

    2016-09-15

    In 1995, the South Korean government made nutrition labeling compulsory, which has positively impacted patients with certain chronic diseases, such as dyslipidemia. We investigated the association between nutrition labeling-based awareness and the risk of dyslipidemia among individuals not yet diagnosed. Our study used data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys administered during 2010-2014 (n = 17,687). We performed multiple or logistic regression analysis to examine the association between nutritional analysis and various outcome variables. Approximately 70 % of the respondents (n = 11,513) were familiar with nutrition labeling, of which 20 % (n = 3172) decided what food to buy based on that information. This awareness yielded mostly positive results on outcome indicators, such as triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In general, individuals who used nutritional labels to make decisions regarding food purchases had a lower risk of dyslipidemia than individuals who did not (OR: 0.806, 95 % CI: 0.709-0.917). Utilizing nutrition labels for making food choices correlated with a lower risk of dyslipidemia in certain subgroups. Based on our findings, we recommend that health policymakers and medical professionals consider promoting nutrition labeling as an alternative method for managing certain chronic diseases in South Korean patients.

  2. Association of DCDC2 Polymorphisms with Normal Variations in Reading Abilities in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Jun; Song, Shuang; Tardif, Twila; Burmeister, Margit; Villafuerte, Sandra M; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The doublecortin domain-containing 2 (DCDC2) gene, which is located on chromosome 6p22.1, has been widely suggested to be a candidate gene for dyslexia, but its role in typical reading development over time remains to be clarified. In the present study, we explored the role of DCDC2 in contributing to the individual differences in reading development from ages 6 to 11 years by analysing data from 284 unrelated children who were participating in the Chinese Longitudinal Study of Reading Development (CLSRD). The associations of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DCDC2 with the latent intercept and slope of children's reading scores were examined in the first step. There was significant support for an association of rs807724 with the intercept for the reading comprehension measure of reading fluency, and the minor "G" allele was associated with poor reading performance. Next, we further tested the rs807724 SNP in association with the reading ability at each tested time and revealed that, in addition to significant associations with the two main reading measures (reading fluency and Chinese character reading) over multiple testing occasions, this SNP also showed associations with reading-related cognitive skills, including morphological production, orthographic judgment and phonological processing skills (rapid number naming, phoneme deletion, and tone detection). This study provides support for DCDC2 as a risk gene for reading disability and suggests that this gene is also operative for typical reading development in the Han population.

  3. Association of DCDC2 Polymorphisms with Normal Variations in Reading Abilities in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuang; Tardif, Twila; Burmeister, Margit; Villafuerte, Sandra M.; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The doublecortin domain-containing 2 (DCDC2) gene, which is located on chromosome 6p22.1, has been widely suggested to be a candidate gene for dyslexia, but its role in typical reading development over time remains to be clarified. In the present study, we explored the role of DCDC2 in contributing to the individual differences in reading development from ages 6 to 11 years by analysing data from 284 unrelated children who were participating in the Chinese Longitudinal Study of Reading Development (CLSRD). The associations of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DCDC2 with the latent intercept and slope of children’s reading scores were examined in the first step. There was significant support for an association of rs807724 with the intercept for the reading comprehension measure of reading fluency, and the minor “G” allele was associated with poor reading performance. Next, we further tested the rs807724 SNP in association with the reading ability at each tested time and revealed that, in addition to significant associations with the two main reading measures (reading fluency and Chinese character reading) over multiple testing occasions, this SNP also showed associations with reading-related cognitive skills, including morphological production, orthographic judgment and phonological processing skills (rapid number naming, phoneme deletion, and tone detection). This study provides support for DCDC2 as a risk gene for reading disability and suggests that this gene is also operative for typical reading development in the Han population. PMID:27100778

  4. Retinal Fibre Layer Thickness Measurement in Normal Paediatric Population in Sweden Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ntoula, Evangelia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and both age and refraction error in healthy children using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patients and Methods. 80 healthy children with a mean age of 9.1 years (range 3.8 to 16.7 years) undergoing routine ocular examination at the orthoptic section of the Ophthalmology Department were recruited for this cross-sectional study. After applying cycloplegia, the peripapillary RNFL thickness was measured in both eyes using the Topcon 3D OCT 2000 device. Results. 138 eyes were included in the analysis. The average refractive error (SE) was +1.7 D (range −5.25 to +7.25 D). The mean total RNFL thickness was 105 μm ± 10.3, the mean superior RNFL thickness was 112.7 μm ± 16.5, and the mean inferior RNFL thickness was 132.6 μm ± 18.3. We found no statistically significant effect of age on RNFL thickness (ANOVA, f = 0.33, p = 0.56). Refraction was proven to have a statistically significant effect (ANOVA, f = 67.1, p < 0.05) in RNFL measurements. Conclusions. Data obtained from this study may assist in establishing a normative database for a paediatric population. Refraction error should be taken into consideration due to its statistically significant correlation with RNFL thickness. PMID:27980862

  5. Characterization of skin friction coefficient, and relationship to stratum corneum hydration in a normal Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y H; Song, S P; Luo, W; Elias, P M; Man, M Q

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that some cutaneous biophysical properties vary with age, gender and body sites. However, the characteristics of the skin friction coefficient in different genders and age groups have not yet been well established. In the present study, we assess the skin friction coefficient in a larger Chinese population. A total of 633 subjects (300 males and 333 females) aged 0.15-79 years were enrolled. A Frictiometer FR 770 and Corneometer CM 825 (C&K MPA 5) were used to measure the skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration, respectively, on the dorsal surface of the hand, the forehead and the canthus. In the females, the maximum skin friction coefficients on both the canthus and the dorsal hand skin were observed around the age of 40 years. In the males, the skin friction coefficient on the dorsal hand skin gradually increased from 0 to 40 years of age, and changed little afterward. Skin friction coefficients on some body sites were higher in females than in age-matched males in some age groups. On the canthus and the dorsal hand skin of females, a positive correlation was found between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In contrast, in males, the skin friction coefficient was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration on the forehead and the dorsal hand skin (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The skin friction coefficient varies with age, gender and body site, and positively correlates with stratum corneum hydration on some body sites. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Characterization of Skin Friction Coefficient, and Relationship to Stratum Corneum Hydration in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y.H.; Song, S.P.; Luo, W.; Elias, P.M.; Man, M.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Studies have demonstrated that some cutaneous biophysical properties vary with age, gender and body sites. However, the characteristics of the skin friction coefficient in different genders and age groups have not yet been well established. In the present study, we assess the skin friction coefficient in a larger Chinese population. Methods A total of 633 subjects (300 males and 333 females) aged 0.15–79 years were enrolled. A Frictiometer® FR 770 and Corneometer® CM 825 (C&K MPA 5) were used to measure the skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration, respectively, on the dorsal surface of the hand, the forehead and the canthus. Results In the females, the maximum skin friction coefficients on both the canthus and the dorsal hand skin were observed around the age of 40 years. In the males, the skin friction coefficient on the dorsal hand skin gradually increased from 0 to 40 years of age, and changed little afterward. Skin friction coefficients on some body sites were higher in females than in age-matched males in some age groups. On the canthus and the dorsal hand skin of females, a positive correlation was found between skin friction coefficient and stratum corneum hydration (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In contrast, in males, the skin friction coefficient was positively correlated with stratum corneum hydration on the forehead and the dorsal hand skin (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion The skin friction coefficient varies with age, gender and body site, and positively correlates with stratum corneum hydration on some body sites. PMID:21088455

  7. [Normal macular thickness and volume using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a reference population].

    PubMed

    Solé González, L; Abreu González, R; Alonso Plasencia, M; Abreu Reyes, P

    2013-09-01

    To establish normal values of macular thickness and volume obtained by the Cirrus SD-OCT (Carl ZeissMeditec, Dublin, CA, U.S.A.). Secondly, to assess the association between macular thickness and volume, sex and age. A prospective study was conducted on patients who were seen in a hospital Retina Unit, and who only had retinal disease in one eye. All the Macular Cube 512 × 128 scan protocols were performed by the same operator. Only the healthy eye was scanned in each patient. A total of 100 eyes of 100 patients were analysed. The mean central foveal thickness was 261.31 ± 17.67 microns, and was significantly (P<.05) higher in males (267.74 ± 16.98 microns) than in females (255.60 ± 16.40 microns). The mean obtained for the volume of the cube was 10.09 ± 0.37mm 3, and the mean thickness of 280.33 ± 10.34 cube um, with no statistically significant differences between gender being found (P<.05). The mean macular thickness is less at central level, increases in the inner perifoveal ring, and then decreases in the outer perifoveal ring. Furthermore, of all quadrants the greatest thickness was the nasal (328.27 ± 12.96 microns), followed by the upper (326.27 ± 11.89 microns), lower (322.53 ± 12.37mm) sectors, with the temporal sector being the thinnest (313.35 ± 14.20 microns). The mean age of the patients was 60.86 ± 14 years. The mean central foveal thickness and the thickness of the inner perifoveal ring are significantly higher in men than in women. Both the mean volume and thickness of the cube, as well as nasal and inner superior sectors decrease with age, being significantly only in women. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Chinese and Korean characters engage the same visual word form area in proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals.

  9. Why are Korean American Physicians Reluctant to Recommend Colorectal Cancer Screening to Korean American Patients? Exploratory Interview Findings

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Rick, Albert J.; Cha, Jennifer; Bastani, Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Background Korean Americans have one of the lowest screening rates for colorectal cancer. Although physician recommendation is one of the most important predictors of cancer screening across populations, only few Korean American patients receive such a recommendation. Methods We interviewed 14 Korean American physicians in Los Angeles area who primarily serve Korean Americans to explore why they are reluctant to recommend colorectal cancer screening to their Korean patients. Results Physicians identified barriers attributable to themselves (i.e., lack of knowledge, fear of medicolegal liability), their patients (i.e., patient’s unfamiliarity with the concept of screening), and the health care system (i.e., lack of referral network, poor reimbursement). Discussion Our results suggest the need for multi-faceted interventions directed at the physicians, their patients, and the health care system. Further research is needed to validate our results and to assess the extent to which they apply to physicians from other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:18607728

  10. A van der Waals-like Transition Between Normal and Cancerous Phases in Cell Populations Dynamics of Colorectal Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Kang; Wang, Li-Fang; Shen, Jian; Yousif, Alssadig A. M.; He, Peng; Shao, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Kirunda, John B.; Jia, Ya

    2016-11-01

    Based on a deterministic continuous model of cell populations dynamics in the colonic crypt and in colorectal cancer, we propose four combinations of feedback mechanisms in the differentiations from stem cells (SCs) to transit cells (TCs) and then to differentiated cells (DCs), the four combinations include the double linear (LL), the linear and saturating (LS), the saturating and linear (SL), and the double saturating (SS) feedbacks, respectively. The relative fluctuations of the population of SCs, TCs, and DCs around equilibrium states with four feedback mechanisms are studied by using the Langevin method. With the increasing of net growth rate of TCs, it is found that the Fano factors of TCs and DCs go to a peak in a transient phase, and then increase again to infinity in the cases of LS and SS feedbacks. The “up-down-up” characteristic on the Fano factor (like the van der Waals loop) demonstrates that there exists a transient phase between the normal and cancerous phases, our novel findings suggest that the mathematical model with LS or SS feedback might be better to elucidate the dynamics of a normal and abnormal (cancerous) phases.

  11. The allele combinations of three loci based on, liver, stomach cancers, hematencephalon, COPD and normal population: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gai, Liping; Liu, Hui; Cui, Jing-Hui; Yu, Weijian; Ding, Xiao-Dong

    2017-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to examine the specific allele combinations of three loci connected with the liver cancers, stomach cancers, hematencephalon and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore the feasibility of the research methods. We explored different mathematical methods for statistical analyses to assess the association between the genotype and phenotype. At the same time we still analyses the statistical results of allele combinations of three loci by difference value method and ratio method. All the DNA blood samples were collected from patients with 50 liver cancers, 75 stomach cancers, 50 hematencephalon, 72 COPD and 200 normal populations. All the samples were from Chinese. Alleles from short tandem repeat (STR) loci were determined using the STR Profiler plus PCR amplification kit (15 STR loci). Previous research was based on combinations of single-locus alleles, and combinations of cross-loci (two loci) alleles. Allele combinations of three loci were obtained by computer counting and stronger genetic signal was obtained. The methods of allele combinations of three loci can help to identify the statistically significant differences of allele combinations between liver cancers, stomach cancers, patients with hematencephalon, COPD and the normal population. The probability of illness followed different rules and had apparent specificity. This method can be extended to other diseases and provide reference for early clinical diagnosis.

  12. The normal chemistry of multiple stellar populations in the dense globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Gratton, R. G.; D'Orazi, V.; Lucatello, S.; Sollima, A.; Momany, Y.; Catanzaro, G.; Leone, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present the abundance analysis of 82 red giant branch stars in the dense, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6093 (M 80), the largest sample of stars analysed in this way for this cluster. From high-resolution UVES spectra of 14 stars and intermediate resolution GIRAFFE spectra for the other stars we derived abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu. On our UVES metallicity scale the mean metal abundance of M 80 is [Fe/H] = -1.791 ± 0.006 ± 0.076 (±statistical ±systematic error) with σ = 0.023 (14 stars). M 80 shows star-to-star variations in proton-capture elements, and the extension of the Na-O anti-correlation perfectly fit the relations with (i) total cluster mass; (ii) horizontal branch morphology; and (iii) cluster concentration previously found by our group. The chemistry of multiple stellar populations in M 80 does not look extreme. The cluster is also a representative of halo globular clusters concerning the pattern of α-capture and Fe-group elements. However we found that a significant contribution from the s-process is required to account for the distribution of neutron-capture elements. A minority of stars in M 80 seem to exhibit slightly enhanced abundances of s-process species, compatible with those observed in M 22 and NGC 1851, although further confirmation from larger samples is required. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 083.D-0208.Full Tables 2, 3, 5-9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A116Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Evaluation of shoulder balance in the normal adolescent population and its correlation with radiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Akel, Ibrahim; Pekmezci, Murat; Hayran, Mutlu; Genc, Yasemin; Kocak, Ozgur; Derman, Orhan; Erdoğan, Ilkay; Yazici, Muharrem

    2008-03-01

    A descriptive clinical study in healthy adolescents was done to evaluate the clinical shoulder balance and analyze the correlation between clinical and radiological parameters which are currently used to evaluate shoulder balance. In addition to trunk shift and rib hump, shoulder balance is one of the criteria that are used to evaluate the outcomes in spinal deformity surgery. Several methods have been proposed to evaluate the shoulder balance in scoliotic patients; however, there is no uniformity to these methods in the current literature. Patients who applied to pediatric clinic without musculoskeletal pathology formed the patient population. Volunteers were asked to fill out a questionnaire assessing shoulder balance perception and had their clinical photograph taken simultaneously with a P-A chest X-ray. The clinical shoulder balance was evaluated through analysis of the clinical photograph. The X-rays were used to evaluate the radiological shoulder balance. The evaluated parameters included coracoid height difference (CHD), clavicular angle (CA), the clavicle-rib cage intersection difference (CRID), clavicular tilt angle difference (CTAD), and T1-tilt. The study group was composed of 48 male and 43 female patients with an average age of 13.6 +/- 2.1 (10-18) years. In the questionnaire, all patients stated that their shoulders were level. The digital photographs revealed that only 17(18.7%) adolescents had absolutely level shoulders. The average height difference between shoulders was 7.5 +/- 5.8 mm. The average CHD was 6.9 +/- 5.8 mm, average CA was 2.2 +/- 1.7 degrees , average CRID was 4.8 +/- 3.6 mm, average CTAD was 4 +/- 3.2 degrees , and average T1-tilt was 1.3 +/- 1.4 degrees . CHD, CA, and CRID demonstrated high correlation with clinical pictures, whereas CTAD demonstrated moderate and T1-tilt demonstrated only mild correlation. The radiological parameters used to evaluate the shoulder balance correlate with the clinical appearance. Contrary to popular

  14. Genome-wide comparison of the transcriptomes of highly enriched normal and chronic myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Jonathan M; Gucwa, Jessica L; Esopi, David; Gurel, Meltem; Haffner, Michael C; Vala, Milada; Nelson, William G; Jones, Richard J; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2013-05-01

    The persistence leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) despite tyrosine kinase inhibition (TKI) may explain relapse after TKI withdrawal. Here we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis of highly refined CML and normal stem and progenitor cell populations to identify novel targets for the eradication of CML LSCs using exon microarrays. We identified 97 genes that were differentially expressed in CML versus normal stem and progenitor cells. These included cell surface genes significantly upregulated in CML LSCs: DPP4 (CD26), IL2RA (CD25), PTPRD, CACNA1D, IL1RAP, SLC4A4, and KCNK5. Further analyses of the LSCs