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Sample records for normal student volunteers

  1. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Edward F; Henderson, Charles NR; Gudavalli, M Ram; Pickar, Joel G

    2006-01-01

    Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol, volunteers free of neck problems first found a comfortable neutral head posture with eyes closed. They deconditioned their cervical muscles by moving their heads 5 times in either flexion/extension or lateral flexion and then attempted to return to the same starting position. Two conditioning sequences were interspersed within the task: hold the head in an extended or laterally flexed position for 10 seconds; or hold a 70% maximum voluntary contraction in the same position for 10 seconds. A computer-interfaced electrogoniometer was used to measure head position while a force transducer coupled to an auditory alarm signaled the force of isometric contraction. The difference between the initial and final head orientation was calculated in 3 orthogonal planes. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA) with a blocking factor (participants) was used to detect differences in proprioceptive error among the conditioning sequences while controlling for variation between participants. Results Forty-eight chiropractic students participated: 36 males and 12 females, aged 28.2 ± 4.8 yrs. During the neck extension test, actively contracting the posterior neck muscles evoked an undershoot of the target position by 2.1° (p <0.001). No differences in repositioning were found during the lateral flexion test. Conclusion The results suggest that the recent history of cervical paraspinal muscle contraction can influence head repositioning in flexion/extension. To our knowledge this is the first time that

  2. Why Volunteer? Understanding Motivations for Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Clare

    2010-01-01

    The profile of volunteering in English Higher Education (HE) has been enhanced in recent years through various initiatives that have not only funded activities, but have sought to expand the range of volunteering opportunities available to students and recognise the contribution that volunteering can make to students' employability. This expansion…

  3. Student Volunteer: Career Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Coatesville, PA.

    The Student Volunteer Career Elective Program at the Coatesville High School is designed to provide instruction and practical learning experience for 10th grade students who are interested in health careers and training in areas of technical, trades, and administration occupations. It is a cooperative project between the school and the Coatesville…

  4. Volunteer Expert Readers for STEM Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovitz, Cary

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a novel approach to providing undergraduates with feedback on STEM writing assignments via an otherwise untapped educational resource: university alumni and employees who normally play no role in the institution's educational mission. In the Volunteer Expert Reader (VER) approach, students are paired with volunteers whose…

  5. College Students' Volunteering: Factors Related to Current Volunteering, Volunteer Settings, and Motives for Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.; Warta, Samantha; Erichsen, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Research has not explored the types of settings that college students prefer to volunteer for and how these settings might be influenced by personal factors (e.g., demographic, academic major, volunteering motivation, religiosity). Students from a Midwestern university (N = 406, 71.9% female) completed a survey that inquired about their…

  6. A Student Volunteer Services Bureau.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Leslie

    This topical paper discusses a proposal for a student volunteer agency operating with or under the auspices of a college, but as an alternative to a comprehensive community college education. Because of conflicting expectations and inadequate resources, the idea of a year off is seen as an option to obligatory college attendance. Volunteers can…

  7. Matching Expectations for Successful University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…

  8. Matching Expectations for Successful University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam; MacCallum, Judith; Young, Susan; Walker, Gabrielle; Holmes, Kirsten; Haski-Leventha, Debbie; Scott, Rowena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of expectation formation and matching for university student volunteers and their hosts. Design/methodology/approach: This research involved a multi-stage data collection process including interviews with student volunteers, and university and host representatives from six…

  9. Student Volunteering in England: A Critical Moment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darwen, Jamie; Rannard, Andrea Grace

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of student volunteering in English universities, and show how it contributes to some of the core activities of higher education, including teaching and learning, employability, and public engagement. The paper goes on to describe challenges currently faced by student volunteering,…

  10. The personality structure of 'normal' volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, C J; McLaren, P M; Morrison, P J

    1993-01-01

    The personality structure of 65 volunteers for a Phase 1 drug trial was examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. It revealed a common pattern of high extroversion, low neuroticism and psychoticism. The reasons why the study might attract such people are examined and the structure compared with those that take drugs that might have 'strange or dangerous effects'. The likely forms of bias that this personality structure may bring to the trial are explored. PMID:12959318

  11. The Benefits of Volunteering for Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…

  12. Normal range values for thromboelastography in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Scarpelini, S; Rhind, S G; Nascimento, B; Tien, H; Shek, P N; Peng, H T; Huang, H; Pinto, R; Speers, V; Reis, M; Rizoli, S B

    2009-12-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a functional evaluation of coagulation. It has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for trauma, but is not frequently used, partially due to lack of both standardized techniques and normal values. We determined normal values for our population, compared them to those of the manufacturer and evaluated the effect of gender, age, blood type, and ethnicity. The technique was standardized using citrated blood, kaolin and was performed on a Haemoscope 5000 device. Volunteers were interviewed and excluded if pregnant, on anticoagulants or having a bleeding disorder. The TEG parameters analyzed were R, K, alpha, MA, LY30, and coagulation index. All volunteers outside the manufacturer's normal range underwent extensive coagulation investigations. Reference ranges for 95% for 118 healthy volunteers were R: 3.8-9.8 min, K: 0.7-3.4 min, alpha: 47.8-77.7 degrees, MA: 49.7-72.7 mm, LY30: -2.3-5.77%, coagulation index: -5.1-3.6. Most values were significantly different from those of the manufacturer, which would have diagnosed coagulopathy in 10 volunteers, for whom additional investigation revealed no disease (81% specificity). Healthy women were significantly more hypercoagulable than men. Aging was not associated with hypercoagulability and East Asian ethnicity was not with hypocoagulability. In our population, the manufacturer's normal values for citrated blood-kaolin had a specificity of 81% and would incorrectly identify 8.5% of the healthy volunteers as coagulopathic. This study supports the manufacturer's recommendation that each institution should determine its own normal values before adopting TEG, a procedure which may be impractical. Consideration should be given to a multi-institutional study to establish wide standard values for TEG.

  13. Performance of Junctional Tourniquets in Normal Human Volunteers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    PERFORMANCE OF JUNCTIONAL TOURNIQUETS IN NORMAL HUMAN VOLUNTEERS John F. Kragh, Jr., MD, Russ S. Kotwal, MD, MPH, Andrew P. Cap, MD, PhD, James K...Cancio, MD ABSTRACT Background. Inguinal bleeding is a common and pre- ventable cause of death on the battlefield. Four FDA-cleared junctional ...tourniquets (Combat Ready Clamp [CRoC], Ab- dominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet [AAJT], Junc- tional Emergency Treatment Tool [JETT], and SAM Junc- tional

  14. Required Volunteers: Community Volunteerism among Students in College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; LeGro, Kimberly; Porter, Kimberly; Bowling, Nathan A.; Swader, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering implies free choice, but people in some situations can feel compelled to volunteer. Hypotheses about students' volunteer work focused on self-determination and sufficiency of justification for their behavior. We examined required versus nonrequired volunteerism, internal and external motivation for volunteering, and attitudes of…

  15. Required Volunteers: Community Volunteerism among Students in College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; LeGro, Kimberly; Porter, Kimberly; Bowling, Nathan A.; Swader, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering implies free choice, but people in some situations can feel compelled to volunteer. Hypotheses about students' volunteer work focused on self-determination and sufficiency of justification for their behavior. We examined required versus nonrequired volunteerism, internal and external motivation for volunteering, and attitudes of…

  16. Investigation of normal flatus production in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlin, J; Lowis, C; Read, N W

    1991-01-01

    Flatulence can cause discomfort and distress but there are few published data of normal patterns and volumes. Twenty four hour collections were made using a rectal catheter in 10 normal volunteers taking their normal diet plus 200 g baked beans. Total daily volume ranged from 476 to 1491 ml (median 705 ml). Women and men (both n = 5) expelled equivalent amounts. The median daily flatus hydrogen volume was 361 ml/24 h (range 42-1060) and the carbon dioxide volume 68 ml/24 h (range 25-116), three volunteers produced methane (3, 26, and 120 ml/24 h), and the remaining unidentified gas (presumably nitrogen) or gases contributed a median 213 ml/24 h (range 61-476). Larger volumes of flatus were produced after meals than at other times. Flatus produced at a faster rate tended to contain more fermentation gases. Flatus was produced during the sleeping period, but the rate was significantly lower than the daytime rate (median 16 and 34 ml/h respectively). Ingestion of a 'fibre free' diet (Fortisip) for 48 hours significantly reduced the total volume collected in 24 hours (median 214 ml/24 h), reduced the carbon dioxide volume (median 6 ml/24 h), and practically eradicated hydrogen production. The volume of unidentified gas was not significantly affected (median 207 ml/24 h). Thus fermentation gases make the highest contribution to normal flatus volume. A 'fibre free' diet eliminates these without changing residual gas release of around 200 ml/24 h. PMID:1648028

  17. Characteristics and Motivations of College Students Volunteering for Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, R. Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Designed and administered the Student Community Service Involvement Survey to assess students' reasons for volunteering. College students indicated that their motives for involvement in community service were egoistic and altruistic. Demographically, student volunteers were not too different from the general student population. Volunteerism was…

  18. Student Volunteering in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Clare; Quinn, Jocey

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross-party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and…

  19. The Impact of Institutional Mission on Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan Crawford; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Singleton, Royce A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns and predictors of volunteering among students at a liberal arts college with an institutional culture that strongly promotes community service. Results showed that predictors varied across four different types of volunteering: community service, social action, religious service, and service to the college. Year in…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Volunteer Functions Inventory with Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Joseph; Lo, T. Wing; Liu, Elaine S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report an evaluation of the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Volunteer Functions Inventory on a sample of university student volunteers. Reliabilities were high for four out of the six scales of the Inventory (Values, Career, Social, and Understanding) in terms of internal consistency. Items in these four scales also…

  1. The Impact of Institutional Mission on Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Susan Crawford; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Singleton, Royce A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns and predictors of volunteering among students at a liberal arts college with an institutional culture that strongly promotes community service. Results showed that predictors varied across four different types of volunteering: community service, social action, religious service, and service to the college. Year in…

  2. Burnout in College Student Volunteers: A Cross-Level Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Yueh-tzu

    2009-01-01

    Burnout in college students is an issue of concern. It adversely affects the learning of students as well as their overall health and well-being. However, little attention has been paid to burnout in college students who donate their time as volunteers in services to their community. This study examined both individual and group factors…

  3. Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Robert J.

    Aimed specifically at Catholic institutions, this booklet provides guidelines for recruiting and using volunteers in organizational development efforts. The booklet discusses 21 ideas of interest to those who use volunteers in their programs. Topics covered in these 21 short sections are the following: history of volunteerism in America,…

  4. Student Volunteers as Birth Control Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Raymond S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A one-year project on birth control education that used students as birth control educators was initiated to increase student awareness of the need for contraception. Support for this method of disseminating information was demonstrated. The project facilitated student use of the Gynecological Clinic of the Student Health Center. (Author)

  5. Student Volunteers as Birth Control Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Raymond S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A one-year project on birth control education that used students as birth control educators was initiated to increase student awareness of the need for contraception. Support for this method of disseminating information was demonstrated. The project facilitated student use of the Gynecological Clinic of the Student Health Center. (Author)

  6. Differences in Interpersonal Values among Students Involved in Volunteer Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, R. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Assessed interpersonal values of college student volunteers (n=45) involved in community service activities. Found that students' interpersonal values differed relative to whether they were involved through religious, social Greek, or service organizations. Social Greek group was significantly higher on Recognition; service group was significantly…

  7. Disposition and metabolism of the flavonoid chrysin in normal volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Walle, T; Otake, Y; Brubaker, J A; Walle, U K; Halushka, P V

    2001-01-01

    Aims To describe the oral disposition of the dietary flavonoid chrysin in healthy volunteers. Methods Oral 400 mg doses of chrysin were administered to seven subjects. Chrysin and metabolites were assayed in plasma, urine and faeces by h.p.l.c. Results Peak plasma chrysin concentrations were only 3–16 ng ml−1 with AUCs of 5–193 ng ml−1 h. Plasma chrysin sulphate concentrations were 30-fold higher (AUC 450–4220 ng ml−1 h). In urine, chrysin and chrysin glucuronide accounted for 0.2–3.1 mg and 2–26 mg, respectively. Most of the dose appeared in faeces as chrysin. Parallel experiments in rats showed high bile concentrations of chrysin conjugates. Conclusions These findings, together with previous data using Caco-2 cells, suggest that chrysin has low oral bioavailability, mainly due to extensive metabolism and efflux of metabolites back into the intestine for hydrolysis and faecal elimination. PMID:11259985

  8. Lack of interaction between lomefloxacin and caffeine in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Healy, D P; Schoenle, J R; Stotka, J; Polk, R E

    1991-01-01

    Sixteen healthy, nonsmoking adult males participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study to evaluate the influence of chronic lomefloxacin administration on the disposition of caffeine and its major metabolite, paraxanthine, at steady-state conditions. Lomefloxacin (400 mg) or placebo was administered orally once daily for 5 days to xanthine-free volunteers after an overnight fast. Caffeine (200 mg orally) was administered simultaneously with lomefloxacin on days 3 through 5. After a 2-day washout period, subjects were crossed over to the alternate 5-day regimen with caffeine, which was again given on the final 3 days. Blood samples for caffeine, paraxanthine, and lomefloxacin concentration determinations were serially collected for 48 h following the last dose of each regimen. All compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. For the placebo versus lomefloxacin-containing treatments, maximum caffeine concentrations in plasma (4.35 +/- 0.63 versus 4.07 +/- 0.56 micrograms/ml), areas under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h at steady state (30.3 +/- 6.9 versus 29.7 +/- 6.6 micrograms.h/ml), and elimination half-lives of caffeine (4.8 +/- 1.1 versus 4.8 +/- 1.2 h) were not significantly different. In addition, there were no significant changes in the disposition parameters of paraxanthine as a result of lomefloxacin administration. The frequencies of central nervous system-related effects for the two treatments were not statistically different. We conclude that lomefloxacin has no significant effect on the disposition of caffeine in young healthy volunteers. PMID:2069371

  9. Mild Hypothermia Alters Midazolam Pharmacokinetics in Normal Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A.; Bies, Robert R.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Empey, Philip E.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Callaway, Clifton W.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4°C saline infusions and 4°C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37°C saline infusions and 37°C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4°C saline + magnesium and 4°C saline infusions were 35.4 ± 0.4 and 35.8 ± 0.3°C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1′-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4°C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37°C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5°C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted. PMID:20164112

  10. Mild hypothermia alters midazolam pharmacokinetics in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; Zhou, Jiangquan; Tortorici, Michael A; Bies, Robert R; Rittenberger, Jon C; Empey, Philip E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Callaway, Clifton W; Poloyac, Samuel M

    2010-05-01

    The clinical use of therapeutic hypothermia has been rapidly expanding due to evidence of neuroprotection. However, the effect of hypothermia on specific pathways of drug elimination in humans is relatively unknown. To gain insight into the potential effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism and disposition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of midazolam as a probe for CYP3A4/5 activity during mild hypothermia in human volunteers. A second objective of this work was to determine whether benzodiazepines and magnesium administered intravenously would facilitate the induction of hypothermia. Subjects were enrolled in a randomized crossover study, which included two mild hypothermia groups (4 degrees C saline infusions and 4 degrees C saline + magnesium) and two normothermia groups (37 degrees C saline infusions and 37 degrees C saline + magnesium). The lowest temperatures achieved in the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium and 4 degrees C saline infusions were 35.4 +/- 0.4 and 35.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C, respectively. A significant decrease in the formation clearance of the major metabolite 1'-hydroxymidazolam was observed during the 4 degrees C saline + magnesium compared with that in the 37 degrees C saline group (p < 0.05). Population pharmacokinetic modeling identified a significant relationship between temperature and clearance and intercompartmental clearance for midazolam. This model predicted that midazolam clearance decreases 11.1% for each degree Celsius reduction in core temperature from 36.5 degrees C. Midazolam with magnesium facilitated the induction of hypothermia, but shivering was minimally suppressed. These data provided proof of concept that even mild and short-duration changes in body temperature significantly affect midazolam metabolism. Future studies in patients who receive lower levels and a longer duration of hypothermia are warranted.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality of ketoconazole in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y C; Colaizzi, J L; Bierman, R H; Woestenborghs, R; Heykants, J

    1986-01-01

    Ketoconazole is an orally effective, broad-spectrum, systemic antifungal agent. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of ketoconazole given as a 200-mg single dose in a tablet, suspension, or solution were studied in 24 fasting healthy males by using a crossover design. Levels of ketoconazole in plasma were determined for up to 48 h by a sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method. The absorption of ketoconazole was rapid, with mean maximum concentrations of the drug in plasma of 4.2, 5.0, and 6.2 micrograms/ml attained at 1.7, 1.2, and 1.0 h, respectively, after administration of the tablet, suspension, and solution, respectively. The mean distribution and elimination half-life values were 1.5 to 1.7 and 7.5 to 7.9 h, respectively. The mean oral clearance of the solution dose was 209 (+/- 82.9 [standard deviation]) ml/min, and the mean apparent volume of distribution was 88.31 (+/- 68.72) liters. The relative bioavailabilities for the tablet and suspension were 81.2 (+/- 33.5) and 89.0 (+/- 23.1)%, respectively, of that of the solution. The data indicated the bioequivalence of the tablet to the suspension and of the suspension of the solution. Dose proportionality of ketoconazole was also studied in 12 volunteers after they received solution doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg. Linear correlations between the dose and the maximum concentration of the drug in plasma, the time to the maximum concentration, and the area under the concentration-time curve were observed. However, the increase in the area under the curve was more than proportional to the dose given. The levels in plasma seemed to decay at a lower rate after 400- and 800-mg doses. The mean oral clearance decreased from 244.9 to 123.6 and 80.0 ml/min, respectively, as the dose increased from 200 to 400 and 800 mg. The apparent dose-dependent kinetics may have been due to the presystemic elimination and capacity-limited hepatic metabolism which become saturated at higher doses. PMID

  12. Correlates of Sustained Volunteering: Advocacy for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Samantha E.; Burke, Meghan M.; Mason, Carolyn Q.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Parents of students with disabilities often receive support from special education advocates, who may be trained through a variety of programs. Using a web-based survey, this study examined the postgraduation advocacy activities of 83 graduates of one such volunteer advocacy training program. In the one to four years after program graduation,…

  13. How volunteering helps students to develop soft skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanzyanova, Albina

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognised that tertiary education does not provide all of the knowledge and skills required to succeed in modern societies. Personal and interpersonal skills - so-called "soft skills" - are also needed to complement professional skills and expertise, and become an essential part of an individual's personality. One way of acquiring soft skills is volunteering with associations and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper discusses the involvement of French third-level students in voluntary activities and the skills they acquire as a result. The author presents the findings of a study involving a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Results show that many students develop skills linked to their future professional career, that they reflect on this consciously and feel enriched by the experience. The author argues that "non-professional" activities like volunteering can be actively incorporated into students' learning process, making their overall experience of higher education more active, enjoyable and relevant. Learning through action was found to be the most important factor in the acquisition of soft skills. This article aims to contribute to research on the educational dimension of volunteering, demonstrating that it benefits both personal and professional development.

  14. Environmental and Conservation Volunteering as Workplace Integrated Learning for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rowena H.; van Etten, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    This research paper introduces the concept and practice of tertiary sciences students doing environmental volunteering, also known as conservation volunteering, as a core part of their course. First year Natural Sciences students at Edith Cowan University do five days environmental volunteer work with community groups as a practicum, currently…

  15. Environmental and Conservation Volunteering as Workplace Integrated Learning for University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rowena H.; van Etten, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    This research paper introduces the concept and practice of tertiary sciences students doing environmental volunteering, also known as conservation volunteering, as a core part of their course. First year Natural Sciences students at Edith Cowan University do five days environmental volunteer work with community groups as a practicum, currently…

  16. From Service to Action? Students, Volunteering and Community Action in Mid Twentieth-Century Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewis, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering by higher education students in the UK has a long history which remains largely unexplored despite recent research and policy attention. This article offers a brief overview of the development of student volunteering before the 1960s and then discusses a shift from student social service to Student Community Action in the late 1960s…

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Gradients in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Naokazu; MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; YATSUSHIRO, Satoshi; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; ABDULLAH, Afnizanfaizal; KURODA, Kagayaki

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can depict not only anatomical information, but also physiological factors such as velocity and pressure gradient. Measurement of these physiological factors is necessary to understand the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) environment. In this study we quantified CSF motion in various parts of the CSF space, determined changes in the CSF environment with aging, and compared CSF pressure gradient between patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers and six iNPH patients underwent four-dimensional (4D) phase-contrast (PC) MRI. CSF motion was observed and the pressure gradient of CSF was quantified in the CSF space. In healthy volunteers, inhomogeneous CSF motion was observed whereby the pressure gradient markedly increased in the center of the skull and gradually decreased in the periphery of the skull. For example, the pressure gradient at the ventral surface of the brainstem was 6.6 times greater than that at the convexity of the cerebrum. The pressure gradient was statistically unchanged with aging. The pressure gradient of patients with iNPH was 3.2 times greater than that of healthy volunteers. The quantitative analysis of 4D-PC MRI data revealed that the pressure gradient of CSF can be used to understand the CSF environment, which is not sufficiently given by subjective impression of the anatomical image. PMID:26226976

  18. Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V.; Ryals, John A.; Lonergan, Shaun C.; Mitchell, Matthew W.; Wulff, Jacob E.; Alexander, Danny C.; Evans, Anne M.; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Caskey, C. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care. PMID:26283345

  19. Timed Sollerman hand function test for analysis of hand function in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Singh, H P; Dias, J J; Thompson, J R

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the development and application of the timed Sollerman hand function test in normal volunteers and the effect of age, gender, dominance and handedness on hand function. A total of 100 volunteers (50 men and 50 women) aged between 20 to 70 years were asked to complete the Sollerman hand function test. We measured the time taken to complete the 20 tasks using seven grips. Volunteers completed the tasks a mean of 20 seconds quicker with the dominant than with the nondominant hand. Individuals who are strongly right-handed showed a pronounced difference taking less time with the dominant hand. Women took less time to complete all tasks in age groups 30 to 40 years, than women in age groups 20 to 30 years and beyond 40 years using the dominant hand. Men also showed worsening performance with age. The centile curves of the total time taken to complete all 20 Sollerman tasks between the ages of 20 to 70 years will allow investigators to adjust their findings for age before attributing observed differences to disease or its treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Transorbital sonographic evaluation of normal optic nerve sheath diameter in healthy volunteers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Maude, Rapeephan R; Hossain, Md Amir; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Osbourne, Sophie; Sayeed, Katherine Langan Abu; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Samad, Rasheda; Borooah, Shyamanga; Dhillon, Bal; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Maude, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ultrasound is increasingly used as a marker to detect raised intracranial pressure (ICP). ONSD varies with age and there is no clear consensus between studies for an upper limit of normal. Knowledge of normal ONSD in a healthy population is essential to interpret this measurement. In a prospective observational study, ONSD was measured using a 15 MHz ultrasound probe in healthy volunteers in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The aims were to determine the normal range of ONSD in healthy Bangladeshi adults and children, compare measurements in males and females, horizontal and vertical beam orientations and left and right eyes in the same individual and to determine whether ONSD varies with head circumference independent of age. 136 subjects were enrolled, 12.5% of whom were age 16 or under. Median ONSD was 4.41 mm with 95% of subjects in the range 4.25-4.75 mm. ONSD was bimodally distributed. There was no relationship between ONSD and age (≥4 years), gender, head circumference, and no difference in left vs right eye or horizontal vs vertical beam. Ultrasonographic ONSD in Bangladeshi healthy volunteers has a narrow bimodal distribution independent of age (≥4 years), gender and head circumference. ONSD >4.75 mm in this population should be considered abnormal.

  1. Transorbital Sonographic Evaluation of Normal Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter in Healthy Volunteers in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Rapeephan R.; Amir Hossain, Md; Hassan, Mahtab Uddin; Osbourne, Sophie; Sayeed, Katherine Langan Abu; Karim, Mohammed Rezaul; Samad, Rasheda; Borooah, Shyamanga; Dhillon, Bal; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Maude, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by ultrasound is increasingly used as a marker to detect raised intracranial pressure (ICP). ONSD varies with age and there is no clear consensus between studies for an upper limit of normal. Knowledge of normal ONSD in a healthy population is essential to interpret this measurement. Methods In a prospective observational study, ONSD was measured using a 15 MHz ultrasound probe in healthy volunteers in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The aims were to determine the normal range of ONSD in healthy Bangladeshi adults and children, compare measurements in males and females, horizontal and vertical beam orientations and left and right eyes in the same individual and to determine whether ONSD varies with head circumference independent of age. Results 136 subjects were enrolled, 12.5% of whom were age 16 or under. Median ONSD was 4.41 mm with 95% of subjects in the range 4.25–4.75 mm. ONSD was bimodally distributed. There was no relationship between ONSD and age (≥4 years), gender, head circumference, and no difference in left vs right eye or horizontal vs vertical beam. Conclusions Ultrasonographic ONSD in Bangladeshi healthy volunteers has a narrow bimodal distribution independent of age (≥4 years), gender and head circumference. ONSD >4.75 mm in this population should be considered abnormal. PMID:24312515

  2. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-01-17

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations.

  3. The Impact of Work and Volunteer Hours on the Health of Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Alyssa M; Autry, Dana M; Day, Carol R T; Oswalt, Sara B

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of work and volunteer hours on 4 health issues among undergraduate college students. Full-time undergraduate students (N = 70,068) enrolled at 129 institutions who participated in the Spring 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II survey. Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to examine work and volunteer hour impact on depression, feelings of being overwhelmed, sleep, and physical activity. The impact of work and volunteer hours was inconsistent among the health outcomes. Increased work hours tended to negatively affect sleep and increase feelings of being overwhelmed. Students who volunteered were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines, and those who volunteered 1 to 9 hours per week reported less depression. College health professionals should consider integrating discussion of students' employment and volunteering and their intersection with health outcomes into clinical visits, programming, and other services.

  4. Determinants of global left ventricular peak diastolic filling rate during rest and exercise in normal volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Filiberti, A.W.; Bianco, J.A.; Baker, S.P.; Doherty; Nalivaika, L.A.; King, M.A.; Alpert, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Early peak diastolic filling rate (PFR) of the left ventricle (LV) is said to be a sensitive index of LV dysfunction in patients with coronary disease, hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radionuclide (RN0 multigated PFR was measured in 20 normal volunteers (13 males, 7 females, mean age 31 yrs., range 20-43) at rest and during supine bicycle exercise conducted to a symptomatic end-point. At rest, RN PFR was 3.4 +- SD 0.4 end-diastolic vols./sec (range 3.1 - 3.6). During exercise all normal volunteers had a progressive and numerically and statistically significant increase in PFR. Stepwise multiple linear regression (BMPD2R) was applied to the rest and exercise PFR data to develop a linear model describing the main determinants of the RN PFR. The potential independent variables which were included in the model were heart rate (HR), ejection fraction (EF), systolic arterial pressure, systolic ejection rate and exercise stage. Ranking of variables for prediction of RN PFR, and exclusion of less important variables, was done by F value criteria. The final multivariate equation was: LVPFR = -3.84437 + 0.03834 HR + 0.07537 LVEF. The model fit was highly significant (p<0.001), and accounted for 89 per cent of variability in the PFR. The authors conclude that the left ventricular peak filling rate is critically determined by heart rate and by ejection fraction at rest and during exercise.

  5. Passion: Burning in the West--An Investigation on College Students' Volunteer Teaching in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhen, Li

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates college students' volunteer teaching in Western China. A series of investigations were conducted in Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. The results showed that teaching by volunteer college students played a positive role in the development of local education…

  6. Beta1-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and clinical efficacy of betaxolol hydrochloride in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Puckett, Brian J; Allen, Robert C; Castillo, Ivan G; Leffler, Christopher T

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding the beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-AR) and clinical response to betaxolol hydrochloride 0.25% in a small pilot study of normal volunteers. Prospective nonrandomized comparative trial. Forty-eight consecutive normal volunteers who met all eligibility requirements for inclusion into this study. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded. Subjects began treatment with betaxolol (1 drop both eyes twice daily) and underwent follow-up IOP recordings at 3 and 6 weeks. Peripheral blood was obtained for genetic analysis. Response to betaxolol was calculated as the change in mean IOP from baseline (averaged between both eyes and averaged between both follow-up visits). The beta1-AR genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphisms at codons 49 (serine [Ser] or glycine [Gly]) and 389 (arginine [Arg] or Gly). There were 32 Ser49 homozygotes and 16 Gly49 carriers. There were no statistically significant differences between the Ser49 homozygotes and the Gly49 carriers with respect to baseline IOP or response to betaxolol therapy. There were 25 Arg389 homozygotes and 23 Gly389 carriers (22 heterozygotes and 1 Gly389 homozygote). As compared with Gly389 carriers, the Arg389 homozygotes had a higher baseline IOP (15.8 mmHg vs. 13.7 mmHg; P = 0.009) and a greater magnitude of response to betaxolol therapy (-3.4 mmHg vs. -1.5 mmHg; P = 0.0009). The Ser49 homozygote genotype was not independently associated with baseline IOP (P = 0.47) or with a response to betaxolol (P = 0.99). The Arg389 homozygote genotype was independently associated with a higher baseline IOP (P = 0.03) and a greater response to betaxolol (P = 0.03), even after adjusting for baseline IOP. In this small pilot series, a single nucleotide polymorphism at codon 389 in the beta1-AR seems to correlate with a response to betaxolol therapy in normal, nonglaucomatous volunteers. There was no

  7. Effect of beta-blockers on psychomotor performance in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Betts, T A; Knight, R; Crowe, A; Blake, A; Harvey, P; Mortiboy, D

    1985-01-01

    The effects of beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists on psychometric tests including vehicle handling, choice reaction time, and kinetic visual acuity (KVA), are reviewed. The beta-blockers had little effect on the performance tests, with the unexplained but reproducible effect of enhanced KVA performance with atenolol. Although the beta-blockers had little effect on performance tests they were shown to have psychotropic effects in normal volunteers. The reasons for the conflicting evidence concerning the effect of these drugs on performance tests is discussed in relation to the present experiments and to variables that may influence response. It is concluded that one should use tests that are as independent as possible from potentially confounding variables. The use of evoked potentials in the electroencephalogram is one such test. A preliminary study is described in which the effects of beta-blockers were detected using visual evoked responses on the electroencephalogram.

  8. Motivations Underlying Volunteerism: Differences and Similarities between Student and Senior Citizen Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibicky, Mark; And Others

    Many Americans engage in voluntary activities and many of these volunteers traditionally have been college students and older adults. A functional approach to volunteerism suggests that similar acts of volunteerism may actually reflect very different personal, social, and psychological functions for different volunteers. This study examined the…

  9. A Survey Analysis of College Student Volunteers in Hebei Participating in the Western China Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Wang; Fengyong, Yang; Bo, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The survey analysis of college student volunteers from Hebei participating in the Western China Program in 2003 indicated that the volunteers were primarily motivated by the desire to serve the country and to temper themselves. Ninety-eight percent stated that they were confident regarding the coming year or two of service, and most of them…

  10. A Volunteer Program for Abnormal Psychology Students: Eighteen Years and Still Going Strong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scogin, Forrest; Rickard, Henry C.

    1987-01-01

    A volunteer experience in abnormal psychology is described. The program has been operating for 18 years, and student reactions have been quite positive. The program augments the traditional course offerings and provides reciprocal service for the University of Alabama and mental health facilities. Guidelines for implementing a volunteer program…

  11. A Volunteer Program for Abnormal Psychology Students: Eighteen Years and Still Going Strong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scogin, Forrest; Rickard, Henry C.

    1987-01-01

    A volunteer experience in abnormal psychology is described. The program has been operating for 18 years, and student reactions have been quite positive. The program augments the traditional course offerings and provides reciprocal service for the University of Alabama and mental health facilities. Guidelines for implementing a volunteer program…

  12. Motivations, barriers and ethical understandings of healthcare student volunteers on a medical service trip: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Rovers, John; Japs, Kelsey; Truong, Erica; Shah, Yogesh

    2016-03-22

    The motivation to volunteer on a medical service trip (MST) may involve more than a simple desire for philanthropy. Some volunteers may be motivated by an intrinsic interest in volunteering in which the context of the volunteer activity is less important. Others may volunteer because the context of their volunteering is more important than their intrinsic interest in volunteering. Furthermore, MSTs may pose a variety of ethical problems that volunteers should consider prior to engaging in a trip. This study evaluated the motivations and barriers for graduate health care students volunteering for an MST to either the Dominican Republic or Mississippi. Volunteers' understanding of some of the ethical issues associated with MSTs was also assessed. Thirty-five graduate health professions students who volunteered on an MST were asked to complete an online survey. Students' motivations and barriers for volunteering were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale and Fisher's exact test. Ethical understanding of issues in volunteering was assessed using thematic analysis. Students' motivations for volunteering appeared to be related to the medical context of their service more than an inherent desire for volunteer work. Significant differences were seen in motivations and barriers for some student groups, especially those whose volunteer work had less opportunity for clinical service. Thematic analysis revealed two major themes and suggested that students had an empirical understanding that volunteer work could have both positive and negative effects. An understanding of students' motivations for volunteering on an MST may allow faculty to design trips with activities that effectively address student motivations. Although students had a basic understanding of some of the ethical issues involved, they had not considered the impact of a service group on the in-country partners they work with.

  13. Cardiac MRI assessment of left and right ventricular parameters in healthy Australian normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Teo, Karen S L; Carbone, Angelo; Piantadosi, Cynthia; Chew, Derek P; Hammett, Christopher J K; Brown, Michael A; Worthley, Stephen G

    2008-08-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being utilised increasingly for the purposes of cardiovascular imaging. Limited data suggest a high degree of reproducibility for parameters such as left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV and ESV). We sought to investigate reproducibility and establish means for these parameters in a selected normal non-Aboriginal Australian population, using cardiac MRI. Sixty normal volunteers underwent cardiac MRI investigation using a 1.5 T MRI system. Steady state free precession imaging was performed with short axis cine images through the left ventricle obtained. All images were acquired with cardiac gating. Two independent observers then analysed the data set. Data were collected for assessment of left ventricular EF, EDV, ESV, mass and right ventricular volumes. Data are presented as mean+/-S.D. Total imaging time was approximately 15 min. All patients were able to complete the full protocol. Left ventricular parameters: EF 58.5+/-8.0%, LV mass 114.2+/-40.6g, EDV 117.3+/-33.4 mls and ESV 50.0+/-22.2 mls. Right ventricular parameters: EF 45.6+/-11.6%, EDV 163.5+/-52.2 mls and ESV 89.5+/-34.3 mls. Intraclass correlation coefficients for LV: EF 0.84, LV mass 0.84, EDV 0.85 and ESV 0.89. Cardiac MRI provides high quality information about cardiac function with a high level of reproducibility. Cardiac MRI parameters in a normal non-Aboriginal Australian population are provided.

  14. Histamine and Nt-methylhistamine in the circulation during intravenous infusion of histamine in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, B D; Devalia, J L; Wylie, G; Davies, R J

    1988-12-01

    Plasma levels of histamine and Nt-methylhistamine were measured simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography during the intravenous infusion of histamine acid phosphate in six normal volunteers. Progressive, dose-related increases in plasma histamine were noted, reaching a maximum value of 3.1 +/- 0.14 ng ml-1 corresponding to a maximum infusion rate of 180 ng kg-1 min-1 (means +/- SEM). Increases in plasma histamine were accompanied by a significant dose-related fall in mean diastolic blood pressure (baseline 74.0 +/- 4.4 mm Hg falling to 60.0 +/- 3.3 mm Hg at maximum infusion rate, p less than 0.001) and an increase in pulse rate (baseline 76.3 +/- 2.8 beats min-1 rising to 89.24 beats min-1 at maximum infusion rate, p less than 0.05). All subjects exhibited facial flushing, the threshold plasma histamine level for this effect being 1.3 +/- 0.15 ng ml-1 corresponding to an infusion rate of 60 ng kg-1 min-1. Elevation of plasma Nt-methylhistamine was seen in only one subject, who exhibited a level of 0.5 ng ml-1 at the highest infusion rate. These results suggest that measurements of plasma Nt-methylhistamine are unlikely to provide a useful index of histamine release into the circulation.

  15. Effect of aspirin dose, preparation, and withdrawal on platelet response in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jacqueline L; Alberts, Mark J

    2006-09-15

    A significant difference in individual response to aspirin therapy has been described, and studies have shown that a minimal response to aspirin may be associated with increased risk for some cardiovascular events. However, it remains unclear if aspirin dose, coating, or termination alters the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Normal volunteers were randomly assigned to enteric-coated or uncoated aspirin 81 or 325 mg and monitored over 12 days with a point-of-care aspirin assay that incorporates the platelet agonist arachidonic acid. The antiplatelet response was greater with a 325-mg dose than with an 81-mg dose. A coating slowed the antiplatelet response to the 81-mg dose only. There were no differences among the groups after maximum response was achieved between days 4 and 7. There was significant recovery of platelet aggregation <48 hours after the cessation of aspirin, with a return to baseline values by the fifth day. A significant interpatient variation in response to the 4 dosing regimes was observed. In conclusion, the antiplatelet response was more rapid to a 325-mg/day dose of aspirin compared with an 81-mg/day dose. An enteric-coated preparation delayed the time of response to an 81-mg/day dose. These results suggest that aspirin dose and preparation may be important mediators of the antiplatelet effects of aspirin in some patients.

  16. Transthoracic coronary Doppler vibrometry in the evaluation of normal volunteers and patients with coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Comess, Keith A; Choi, Joon Hwan; Xie, Zhiyong; Achenbach, Stephan; Daniel, Werner; Beach, Kirk W; Kim, Yongmin

    2011-05-01

    Coronary artery vibrometry is a new transthoracic Doppler ultrasound method for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. It detects audio-frequency vibrations generated by coronary artery luminal diameter reduction. We studied 31 patients with known or suspected stenosis using coronary artery vibrometry and quantitative coronary angiography and 83 normal volunteers. A tissue vibration difference index (TVDI) was calculated from the left anterior descending, circumflex, left main and right coronary arteries. Accuracy for coronary artery stenosis detection using TVDI was assessed. Sensitivity for detecting coronary stenosis equal or greater than 25% diameter reduction was 89% in the left anterior descending coronary artery (16/18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 64%-98%), 87% in the right coronary artery (13/15, 95% CI = 58%-98%), 83% in the circumflex coronary artery (5/6, 95% CI = 36%-99%) and 100% in the left main artery (3/3, 95% CI = 31%-100%). The median TVDI increased with severity of stenosis, suggesting that this measure might be used to track progression/regression of coronary artery stenosis.

  17. First-Year Students' Plans to Volunteer: An Examination of the Predictors of Community Service Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruce, Ty M.; Moore, John V.

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of community service participation on college student development are extensive and well documented. The characteristics of students that predict volunteerism, however, are not well understood. The purpose of this study is two-fold: first, to estimate the differences in first-year students' decision to volunteer while in college by…

  18. Pharmacokinetics of cefetamet pivoxil (Ro 15-8075) with ascending oral doses in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Y K; Kneer, J; Dubach, U C; Stoeckel, K

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefetamet pivoxil during administration of ascending oral doses were studied in 16 male normal healthy volunteers (age, 24.5 +/- 2.1 years; weight, 73.5 +/- 8.5 kg). The subjects were randomly assigned to four oral treatments of 500, 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 mg of cefetamet pivoxil according to a four-by-four Latin square design. After an overnight fast, the drug was administered 10 min after a standard breakfast. It was found that both the rate and extent of prodrug absorption, measured as cefetamet adsorption, were reduced with increasing doses. The time to maximum concentration of cefetamet in serum was delayed from 4.00 +/- 0.81 to 4.88 +/- 0.96 h (P less than 0.05) when the dose of cefetamet pivoxil was increased from 500 to 2,000 mg. The dose-normalized values of area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for cefetamet and fraction of dose excreted as cefetamet were reduced by averages of 10.3 and 12.5%, respectively, over the dose range studied (P less than 0.05). The changes in rate and extent of prodrug absorption are thought to be the main factors contributing to the nonlinear relationship between maximum concentration in serum and dose. The change in absorption characteristics of cefetamet pivoxil with dose is, however, expected to have few clinical consequences because the magnitudes of these changes are comparable with their respective intragroup variations. PMID:2764545

  19. The Effect of Medical Student Volunteering in a Student-Run Clinic on Specialty Choice for Residency.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ashley; Ismail, Rahim; Gookin, Glenn; Hernandez, Caridad; Logan, Grace; Pasarica, Magdalena

    2017-01-09

     Student-run free clinics (SRFCs) are a recent popular addition to medical school education, and a subset of studies has looked at the influence of SRFC volunteering on the medical student's career development. The majority of the research done in this area has focused on understanding if these SRFCs produce physicians who are more likely to practice medicine in underserved communities, caring for the uninsured. The remainder of the research has investigated if volunteering in an SRFC influences the specialty choice of medical school students. The results of these specialty choice studies give no definitive answer as to whether medical students chose primary or specialty care residencies as a result of their SRFC experience. Keeping Neighbors in Good Health through Service (KNIGHTS) is the SRFC of the University of Central Florida College of Medicine (UCF COM). Both primary and specialty care is offered at the clinic. It is the goal of this study to determine if volunteering in the KNIGHTS SRFC influences UCF COM medical students to choose primary care, thereby helping to meet the rising need for primary care physicians in the United States.  A survey was distributed to first, second, and third-year medical students at the UCF COM to collect data on demographics, prior volunteering experience, and specialty choice for residency. Responses were then combined with records of volunteer hours from the KNIGHTS Clinic and analyzed for correlations. We analyzed the frequency and Pearson's chi-squared values. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.  Our survey had a total response rate of 39.8%. We found that neither the act of becoming a KNIGHTS Clinic volunteer nor the hours volunteered at the KNIGHTS Clinic influenced the UCF COM student's choice to enter a primary care specialty (p = NS). Additionally, prior volunteering/clinical experience or the gender of the medical school student did not influence a student's choice to volunteer at

  20. Increase in body mass index from normal weight to overweight in a cross-sectional sample of healthy research volunteers.

    PubMed

    Courville, Amber B; DiVito, Meagan; Moyer, Lindsay; Rossinoff, Anna; Royster, Caitlin; Psota, Tricia; Ayres, Elaine; Zambell, Kirsten L

    2014-12-01

    Current literature provides limited information about healthy volunteers serving as controls for biomedical research. This study describes trends in body mass index (BMI), a ratio of weight to height (kilograms per square meter), of the population of healthy volunteers at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC) and compares these trends to a nationally representative sample, as reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We hypothesized that BMI trends at the NIH CC would follow those of the US population. This cross-sectional study examined the BMI of healthy volunteers at the NIH CC from 1976 to 1980, 1981 to 1987, 1988 to 1994, 1995 to 1998 and for all subsequent two-year periods onward until 2012. Study data were extracted from the NIH Biomedical Translational Research Information System. Subjects were selected based on a discharge code of "volunteer." Descriptive statistics of volunteers at the NIH CC were calculated for height, weight, age-adjusted BMI, age, and sex, and associations between categorical variables were analyzed using the χ2 test. Differences between BMI categories or periods for continuous independent variables were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Tamhane T2 tests. The 13 898 healthy volunteers with median age of 34 years were 53% female and primarily non-Hispanic whites. Mean BMI was within the normal category from 1976 to 1987. From 1988 on, mean BMI fluctuated but increased overall. The BMI of healthy volunteers at the NIH CC appears to follow national trends as described by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data of increasing body weight during the past three decades followed by a recent plateau.

  1. Increasing medical student exposure to clinical dermatology through participation in volunteer clinics.

    PubMed

    Beroukhim, Kourosh; Nguyen, Catherine; Danesh, Melissa; Lee, Kristina; Liao, Wilson

    2015-10-16

    Over the previous decade, several innovative teaching methods have been introduced to overcome the decreasing allotment of time dedicated to dermatology in U.S. medical school curricula. We report our experience of increasing medical student exposure to clinical dermatology thorough involvement in an extracurricular, volunteer-driven dermatology clinic. The clinic was well received by students and faculty. Our experience demonstrates that volunteer-driven dermatology clinics may be an effective method of teaching and engendering a culture of community outreach among medical students and faculty.

  2. Early Childhood Education Students' Reflections: Volunteering after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Teresa K.; Benedict, Joan

    2007-01-01

    After the hurricanes, faculty asked the students to help with the relief efforts in different ways. Most students volunteered to work in shelters directly with individual or groups of children, youths, and adults. After their experiences, they wrote brief reflections about what they had done. Their comments show that they developed a better…

  3. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the University Context: Peer Acceptance Predicts Intention to Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Emily; Iarocci, Grace

    2014-01-01

    With growing numbers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entering post-secondary institutions, strategies are needed to facilitate the social integration of these students. The goal of this study was to examine the role of various factors in university students' acceptance of, and intention to volunteer with, a peer with ASD.…

  4. Volunteer Expert Readers: Drawing on the University Community to Provide Professional Feedback for Engineering Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovitz, Cary

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a 3-year study utilizing a novel approach to providing students in an introductory engineering course with feedback on drafts of course writing projects. In the Volunteer Expert Reader (VER) approach, students are matched with university alumni or employees who have the background to give feedback from the perspective of the…

  5. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

  6. Identifying College Students Likely to Participate in a Travel Abroad Volunteer Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Sarath A.; Relyea, Clint

    2014-01-01

    Foreign travel provides excellent opportunities for college students to broaden their global mindset. While empirical research focusing on variables that influence student participation in study abroad programs are available, there is a paucity of research that focuses on travel abroad programs relating to participating in volunteer projects.…

  7. Facilitating and Debilitating Test Anxiety Among College Students and Volunteers for Desensitization Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudesman, John; Wiesner, Ezra

    1978-01-01

    Examines whether the degree of facilitating and debilitating test anxiety is different for students who volunteer for test anxiety desensitization workshops than it is for the general college population, whether test anxiety in urban community college students is correlated, and whether either or both of the AAT scales are predictive of student…

  8. Facilitating and Debilitating Test Anxiety Among College Students and Volunteers for Desensitization Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudesman, John; Wiesner, Ezra

    1978-01-01

    Examines whether the degree of facilitating and debilitating test anxiety is different for students who volunteer for test anxiety desensitization workshops than it is for the general college population, whether test anxiety in urban community college students is correlated, and whether either or both of the AAT scales are predictive of student…

  9. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the University Context: Peer Acceptance Predicts Intention to Volunteer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Emily; Iarocci, Grace

    2014-01-01

    With growing numbers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entering post-secondary institutions, strategies are needed to facilitate the social integration of these students. The goal of this study was to examine the role of various factors in university students' acceptance of, and intention to volunteer with, a peer with ASD.…

  10. Identifying College Students Likely to Participate in a Travel Abroad Volunteer Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Sarath A.; Relyea, Clint

    2014-01-01

    Foreign travel provides excellent opportunities for college students to broaden their global mindset. While empirical research focusing on variables that influence student participation in study abroad programs are available, there is a paucity of research that focuses on travel abroad programs relating to participating in volunteer projects.…

  11. Meeting a Higher Education Goal Through a Student Volunteer Counseling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snadowsky, Alvin; Meyer, Daniel

    1975-01-01

    To bridge the schism between academic and student life departments and produce programs offering opportunities for both cognitive development and personal growth, Brooklyn College developed a formal content oriented course, Basic Training for Peer Counselors, as part of a training program for student volunteer counselors in the Drop-In Center. (JT)

  12. Process and Positive Development: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of University Student Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeela, Pádraig; Gannon, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Volunteering among university students is an important expression of civic engagement, but the impact of this experience on the development of emerging adults requires further contextualization. Adopting interpretative phenomenological analysis as a qualitative research approach, we carried out semistructured interviews with 10 students of one…

  13. The Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions and Its Contribution to Overall Missionary Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The Student Volunteer Movement (SVM) for Foreign Missions was founded in 1886 at a Conference in the Mt. Hermon University, an organization designed to recruit college and university students in the United States and later of course through the Western world, for missionary service abroad. The primary leader of the SVM was A. T. Pierson, a major…

  14. The Effect of Medical Student Volunteering in a Student-Run Clinic on Specialty Choice for Residency

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Rahim; Gookin, Glenn; Hernandez, Caridad; Logan, Grace; Pasarica, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Student-run free clinics (SRFCs) are a recent popular addition to medical school education, and a subset of studies has looked at the influence of SRFC volunteering on the medical student’s career development. The majority of the research done in this area has focused on understanding if these SRFCs produce physicians who are more likely to practice medicine in underserved communities, caring for the uninsured. The remainder of the research has investigated if volunteering in an SRFC influences the specialty choice of medical school students. The results of these specialty choice studies give no definitive answer as to whether medical students chose primary or specialty care residencies as a result of their SRFC experience. Keeping Neighbors in Good Health through Service (KNIGHTS) is the SRFC of the University of Central Florida College of Medicine (UCF COM). Both primary and specialty care is offered at the clinic. It is the goal of this study to determine if volunteering in the KNIGHTS SRFC influences UCF COM medical students to choose primary care, thereby helping to meet the rising need for primary care physicians in the United States. Methods: A survey was distributed to first, second, and third-year medical students at the UCF COM to collect data on demographics, prior volunteering experience, and specialty choice for residency. Responses were then combined with records of volunteer hours from the KNIGHTS Clinic and analyzed for correlations. We analyzed the frequency and Pearson’s chi-squared values. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Our survey had a total response rate of 39.8%. We found that neither the act of becoming a KNIGHTS Clinic volunteer nor the hours volunteered at the KNIGHTS Clinic influenced the UCF COM student’s choice to enter a primary care specialty (p = NS). Additionally, prior volunteering/clinical experience or the gender of the medical school student did not influence

  15. Electroencephalographic and psychomotor effects of chlorpromazine and risperidone relative to placebo in normal healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A M; Lynch, P; Rhodes, J; Ervine, C M; Yates, R A

    1999-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effects of single oral doses of chlorpromazine (50 mg) and risperidone (2 mg) relative to placebo on topographical electroencephalometry (CATEEM™) and psychomotor tests in 12 healthy male volunteers. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover design using a double dummy blinding technique was utilized. Chlorpromazine was selected as representative of the ‘typical’ neuroleptics, being also highly sedative. Risperidone has been suggested as representative of the newer ‘atypical’ neuroleptics and is claimed to be only minimally sedative. Volunteers were dosed on 3 separate days with a minimum of 7 days interval between trial days. On each trial day volunteers were dosed twice. Dose 1 consisting of either chlorpromazine 50 mg or placebo to chlorpromazine, and dose 2 either risperidone 2 mg or placebo to risperidone. The volunteers were randomized so that each received either chlorpromazine or risperidone (or neither), but not both on an individual trial day. A 17 electrode quantitative topographical electroencephalograph (EEG) recording was taken for each volunteer before and after each dosing period. Seven psychomotor function tests were used to determine the effects of each treatment on psychomotor performance. Results The data confirm the cited reports of sedation following single oral doses of chlorpromazine 50 mg. However, 7 of the 12 volunteers dosed with risperidone 2 mg also reported drowsiness/lethargy which was of greater severity and duration than 5 of the 12 volunteers who reported somnolence following dosing with chlorpromazine 50 mg. Objective assessment of psychomotor impairment using a short battery of psychomotor function tests mirrored the subjective reports of somnolence in that the impairment in volunteers dosed with risperidone 2 mg was greater in extent and magnitude than in volunteers dosed with chlorpromazine 50 mg. With respect to the cortical quantitative electroencephalogram, both

  16. Academic Credit at Marymount Manhattan College for Student Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Eileen

    The report describes a 2-year project at Marymount Manhattan College (New York) to develop and implement a community service program which provides student participants with tuition credits. Students served in either a shelter for homeless women or with a tutorial program for adults preparing for the high-school equivalency examination. The report…

  17. Academic Credit at Marymount Manhattan College for Student Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Eileen

    The report describes a 2-year project at Marymount Manhattan College (New York) to develop and implement a community service program which provides student participants with tuition credits. Students served in either a shelter for homeless women or with a tutorial program for adults preparing for the high-school equivalency examination. The report…

  18. A Prospective Study of Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis in Neurologically Normal Volunteers in a Japanese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Ryukichi; Nakagawa, Tomonori; Takayoshi, Hiroyuki; Onoda, Keiichi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Nagai, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic stenosis of major intracranial arteries is a leading cause of ischemic stroke in Asia. However, the long-term prognosis of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in healthy volunteers has not been fully examined. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the prognosis of healthy volunteers with asymptomatic ICAS and to determine the risk factors for ICAS, including asymptomatic brain parenchymal lesions. We studied 2,807 healthy Japanese volunteers with no history of stroke (mean age, 62.0 years). They were followed for a mean interval of 64.5 months. The degree of ICAS and the presence of asymptomatic brain lesions were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging. Asymptomatic ICAS was detected in 166 volunteers (5.9%) at the initial examination. Moderate and mild stenoses were observed in 1.5 and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Significant risk factors for ICAS were older age and a history of hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. During follow-up, ischemic stroke developed in 32 volunteers. Seven strokes occurred in the ICAS group, whose stroke incidence rate was higher than that in the non-ICAS group (0.78 vs. 0.18% per year). According to a Cox regression analysis, asymptomatic ICAS was an independent risk factor for future ischemic stroke after adjustment for age. Furthermore, after asymptomatic brain lesions were taken into account, ICAS was still a significant risk factor for stroke onset. In conclusion, even mild to moderate asymptomatic ICAS was a significant risk factor for future stroke, independent of asymptomatic brain lesions, in a healthy Japanese population. Mild to moderate ICAS might be a therapeutic target for stroke prevention. PMID:27047445

  19. A Community-based Education Project: Intertidal Surveys With Student and Adult Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Parker, G.; Bingham, B. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Fidalgo Learning about the Intertidal Project (FLIP) brought together scientists, educators, students and adult volunteers (20-30 total individuals) to conduct studies of the intertidal zone of a section of Fidalgo Island, Wa. in 2003 and 2004. The project goals were to: 1) obtain basic data on diversity and abundance of intertidal species in different habitats, 2) promote public awareness and appreciation of the intertidal zone, and 3) develop a model program for volunteer participation in scientific surveys. The 2-week program began with 2 days of workshops on local intertidal organisms to teach the FLIP participants how to classify and identify the different organisms and substrates they were likely to encounter in the surveys. We provided general lectures on intertidal habitats and on the importance of the intertidal zone to coastal resources. The FLIP participants worked together on identifying organisms, practicing the use of quadrats and data collection before the surveys began. Following 4 days of field surveys, the participants signed up for workshops that included compilation and analysis of the data, photography, nature writing and algae pressing. The final activity was a public tour of the intertidal day held at a local park. 50-60 people of all ages participated. The goal was to educate the public in plant and animal identification and habitat variability as well as "beach etiquette." Successful model program elements included self-selected volunteers and attention to the composition of each survey team, with one scientist/leader per team and one adult and two students or two adults and one student per team (4-5 teams, each completing one transect per site). Program flexibility was also crucial; FLIP volunteers were not required to attend every single day and post-survey workshops were optional. Volunteers participated to different extents and for different lengths of time depending on their abilities and interests. Project ownership was important

  20. Student Volunteers in the National Parks and Forests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Emilie

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed is the Student Conservation Association's program for involving young people in field experiences to assist public conservation agencies. Both high school and college age opportunities are highlighted. (BL)

  1. Who Does a Better Job? Work Quality and Quantity Comparison between Student Volunteers and Students Who Get Extra Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omori, Megumi; Feldhaus, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Although undergraduate students are often involved in academic research as volunteers, paid assistants or to receive extra-credit, very little attention has been paid to how well these students perform when they assist researchers. The current study compares the number of surveys gathered at a large local event and the number of missing entries…

  2. Who Does a Better Job? Work Quality and Quantity Comparison between Student Volunteers and Students Who Get Extra Credit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omori, Megumi; Feldhaus, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Although undergraduate students are often involved in academic research as volunteers, paid assistants or to receive extra-credit, very little attention has been paid to how well these students perform when they assist researchers. The current study compares the number of surveys gathered at a large local event and the number of missing entries…

  3. The extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering among undergraduate nursing students: Implications for pedagogy in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Dyson, S E; Liu, L; van den Akker, O; O'Driscoll, Mike

    2017-03-01

    In the aftermath of the Francis Report nurses are being called to account for an apparent lack of care and compassion, leading to debate around pedagogy in nurse education. Absent from this debate is a consideration of student volunteering within undergraduate nursing programmes and its potential to promote student nurses self-esteem and to enhance the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the extent of and attitudes towards volunteering among nursing students. A mixed methods approach using a specifically developed questionnaire, followed by in-depth interviews to ascertain extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering revealed low levels of volunteering among nursing students. Limited time, limited access, and lack of academic support were cited as reasons. Nevertheless, students displayed positive attitudes towards volunteering. While volunteering has been shown to impact upon students abilities to think critically, to develop personal values and respond to the needs of others, volunteering within the UK undergraduate nursing programme considered here is neither structured nor formalized. Nurse educators should pay attention to the positive benefits of volunteering for nursing students and consider ways in which volunteering might be incorporated into the curriculum.

  4. In vivo, high-frequency three-dimensional cardiac MR elastography: Feasibility in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Arani, Arvin; Glaser, Kevin L; Arunachalam, Shivaram P; Rossman, Phillip J; Lake, David S; Trzasko, Joshua D; Manduca, Armando; McGee, Kiaran P; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive stiffness imaging techniques (elastography) can image myocardial tissue biomechanics in vivo. For cardiac MR elastography (MRE) techniques, the optimal vibration frequency for in vivo experiments is unknown. Furthermore, the accuracy of cardiac MRE has never been evaluated in a geometrically accurate phantom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the necessary driving frequency to obtain accurate three-dimensional (3D) cardiac MRE stiffness estimates in a geometrically accurate diastolic cardiac phantom and to determine the optimal vibration frequency that can be introduced in healthy volunteers. The 3D cardiac MRE was performed on eight healthy volunteers using 80 Hz, 100 Hz, 140 Hz, 180 Hz, and 220 Hz vibration frequencies. These frequencies were tested in a geometrically accurate diastolic heart phantom and compared with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The 3D Cardiac MRE was shown to be feasible in volunteers at frequencies as high as 180 Hz. MRE and DMA agreed within 5% at frequencies greater than 180 Hz in the cardiac phantom. However, octahedral shear strain signal to noise ratios and myocardial coverage was shown to be highest at a frequency of 140 Hz across all subjects. This study motivates future evaluation of high-frequency 3D MRE in patient populations. Magn Reson Med 77:351-360, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Linking Family Life and Health Professionals, Volunteers, and Family Life Students in a Community Hospice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruit, Dorothy

    This paper describes the Portage County, Ohio community hospice program, emphasizing the linkages between family life specialists, health professionals, volunteers, and students. Hospice service is defined as a specialized, home-based program for the management of pain and other symptoms of terminal illness, with the family as the unit of care.…

  6. A Community-Based Volunteer After-School Activity Program Created for Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaser, Thomas C., Jr.

    This practicum was designed to provide an after-school activity program to middle school students not engaged in interscholastic sports. Utilizing community volunteers, an enrichment-prevention program that featured 19 different activities in 2 class sessions per week over a 10-week period was developed and implemented. Activities included…

  7. Finding Common Ground: Exploring Undergraduate Student Volunteering as a Support for Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breithaupt, Andrew G.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Wong, Connie S.; Mesibov, Gary B.; Morrissey, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    There are many unmet needs among parents of children with autism for parent respite and social time for their children. The use of undergraduate student volunteers is a potential strategy for meeting some of these needs. Separate focus groups for parents and for undergraduates were convened to assess feasibility, comfort, reservations, and mutual…

  8. The Effectiveness of Volunteer Tutoring Programs for Elementary and Middle School Students: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Gary W.; Barnett, Joshua H.; Denny, George S.; Albin, Ginger R.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness of volunteer tutoring programs for improving the academic skills of students enrolled in public schools Grades K-8 in the United States and further investigates for whom and under what conditions tutoring can be effective. The authors found 21 studies (with 28 different study cohorts in those studies)…

  9. Student Volunteering and the Active Community: Issues and Opportunities for Teaching and Learning in Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David; Hall, Irene; Cameron, Andrew; Green, Pat

    2004-01-01

    Student volunteering is currently being promoted through the Higher Education Active Community Fund, which runs to August 2004 and may be extended further. This development of higher education's "third mission" has strong links with the government's agenda for citizenship and the active community. This initiative appears to have taken…

  10. Morphological abnormalities in baseline ECGs in healthy normal volunteers participating in phase I studies

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Pooja; Natekar, Mili; Deshmukh, Sheetal; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kothari, Snehal; Narula, Dhiraj; Lokhandwala, Yash

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Morphological abnormalities in 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) are seen in subgroups of healthy individuals like athletes and air-force personnel. As these populations may not truly represent healthy individuals, we assessed morphological abnormalities in ECG in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies, who are screened to exclude associated conditions. Methods: ECGs from 62 phase I studies analyzed in a central ECG laboratory were pooled. A single drug-free baseline ECG from each subject was reviewed by experienced cardiologists. ECG intervals were measured on five consecutive beats and morphological abnormalities identified using standard guidelines. Results: Morphological abnormalities were detected in 25.5 per cent of 3978 healthy volunteers (2495 males, 1483 females; aged 18-76 yr); the presence was higher in males (29.3% vs. 19.2% in females; P<0.001). Rhythm abnormalities were the commonest (11.5%) followed by conduction abnormalities (5.9%), axis deviation (4%), ST-T wave changes (3.1%) and chamber enlargement (1.4%). Incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), short PR interval and right ventricular hypertrophy were common in young subjects (<20 yr) while atrial fibrillation, first degree atrioventricular block, complete RBBB and left anterior fascicular block were more prevalent in elderly subjects (>65 yr). Prolonged PR interval, RBBB and intraventricular conduction defects were more common in males while sinus tachycardia, short PR interval and non-specific T wave changes were more frequent in females. Interpretation & Conclusions: Morphological abnormalities in ECG are commonly seen in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies; and vary with age and gender. Further studies are required to determine whether these abnormalities persist or if some of these disappear on follow up. PMID:22561618

  11. Neither cimetidine nor probenecid affect the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Day, R O; Geisslinger, G; Paull, P; Williams, K M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with cimetidine (1 g day-1, 7 days) and of probenecid (1 g twice daily, 4 days) on the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam (single oral dose, 20 mg) was studied in six healthy volunteers. Cmax was increased significantly when tenoxicam was given with probenecid (2.8 micrograms ml-1 alone, 3.5 micrograms ml-1 after probenecid; P < 0.005). No other pharmacokinetic parameters were altered significantly by either drug. It is concluded that neither cimetidine nor probenecid affects the pharmacokinetics of tenoxicam in a clinically important way. PMID:8148224

  12. Students with autism spectrum disorder in the university context: peer acceptance predicts intention to volunteer.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Emily; Iarocci, Grace

    2014-05-01

    With growing numbers of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entering post-secondary institutions, strategies are needed to facilitate the social integration of these students. The goal of this study was to examine the role of various factors in university students’ acceptance of, and intention to volunteer with, a peer with ASD. Both contact quantity and quality emerged as significant predictors of acceptance; however, for those who had experienced direct contact with individuals with ASD, only perceived quality emerged as significant. Moreover, acceptance played a significant role in participants’ likelihood of signing up to volunteer. These findings point to the central role that positive experiences play in attitude formation for this population.

  13. Effects of GUASHA on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Volunteers under Normal Condition and Weightlifters after Weightlifting Training Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Silsirivanit, Atit; Wang, Yingying; Xie, Dongbei; Yang, Jinsheng; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN), proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters. PMID:26120346

  14. Recruitment for a hospital-based pragmatic clinical trial using volunteer nurses and students.

    PubMed

    Blewer, Audrey L; Li, Jiaqi; Ikeda, Daniel J; Leary, Marion; Buckler, David G; Riegel, Barbara; Desai, Sunita; Groeneveld, Peter W; Putt, Mary E; Abella, Benjamin S

    2016-08-01

    Recruitment of subjects is critical to the success of any clinical trial, but achieving this goal can be a challenging endeavor. Volunteer nurse and student enrollers are potentially an important source of recruiters for hospital-based trials; however, little is known of either the efficacy or cost of these types of enrollers. We assessed volunteer clinical nurses and health science students in their rates of enrolling family members in a hospital-based, pragmatic clinical trial of cardiopulmonary resuscitation education, and their ability to achieve target recruitment goals. We hypothesized that students would have a higher enrollment rate and are more cost-effective compared to nurses. Volunteer nurses and student enrollers were recruited from eight institutions. Participating nurses were primarily bedside nurses or nurse educators while students were pre-medical, pre-nursing, and pre-health students at local universities. We recorded the frequency of enrollees recruited into the clinical trial by each enroller. Enrollers' impressions of recruitment were assessed using mixed-methods surveys. Cost was estimated based on enrollment data. Overall enrollment data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations. From February 2012 to November 2014, 260 hospital personnel (167 nurses and 93 students) enrolled 1493 cardiac patients' family members, achieving target recruitment goals. Of those recruited, 822 (55%) were by nurses, while 671 (45%) were by students. Overall, students enrolled 5.44 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.88, 10.27) more subjects per month than nurses (p < 0.01). After consenting to participate in recruitment, students had a 2.85 (95% CI: 1.09, 7.43) increased chance of enrolling at least one family member (p = 0.03). Among those who enrolled at least one subject, nurses enrolled a mean of 0.51(95% CI: 0.42, 0.59) subjects monthly, while students enrolled 1.63 (95% CI: 1.37, 1.90) per month (p < 0.01). Of

  15. High dose eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester: effects on lipids and neutrophil leukotriene production in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, A B; Filipowicz, B L; Edwards, T J; Hawkey, C J

    1990-01-01

    1. A 93% pure ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid was investigated for tolerability and biochemical effects on neutrophil leukotriene synthesis and plasma lipoproteins when given in high dose. Six healthy volunteers received 6 g eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester daily for 6 weeks, followed by a 4 week wash-out and then 18 g daily for 6 weeks. 2. There was inhibition of neutrophil leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis, with no significant differences between low and high dose. 3. There was a dose dependent increase in leukotriene B5 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid acid synthesis. 4. Plasma triglycerides were reduced maximally on 6 g daily, with no greater suppression at 18 g daily. 5. Plasma cholesterol was only suppressed significantly at 18 g daily. 6. The 6 g daily dose was well tolerated but the 18 g daily dose produced diarrhoea and steatorrhoea. PMID:2169832

  16. Normal spectrum of pulmonary parametric response map to differentiate lung collapsibility: distribution of densitometric classifications in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario; Nemec, Stefan F; Dufresne, Valerie; Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H; Chamberlain, Ryan; Bankier, Alexander A

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary parametric response map (PRM) was proposed for quantitative densitometric phenotypization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about this technique in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal spectrum of densitometric classification of pulmonary PRM in a group of healthy adults. 15 healthy volunteers underwent spirometrically monitored chest CT at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC). The paired CT scans were analyzed by PRM for voxel-by-voxel characterization of lung parenchyma according to 4 densitometric classifications: normal lung (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU); expiratory low attenuation area (LAA) (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); dual LAA (TLC<-950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); uncharacterized (TLC < -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU). PRM spectrum was 78 % ± 10 % normal lung, 20 % ± 8 % expiratory LAA, and 1 % ± 1 % dual LAA. PRM was similar between genders, there was moderate correlation between dual LAA and spirometrically assessed TLC (R = 0.531; p = 0.042), and between expiratory LAA and VolExp/Insp ratio (R = -0.572; p = 0.026). PRM reflects the predominance of normal lung parenchyma in a group of healthy volunteers. However, PRM also confirms the presence of physiological expiratory LAA seemingly related to air trapping and a minimal amount of dual LAA likely reflecting emphysema. • Co-registration of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography allows dual-phase densitometry. • Dual-phase co-registered densitometry reflects heterogeneous regional changes in lung function. • Quantification of lung in healthy subjects is needed to set reference values. • Expiratory low attenuation areas <30 % could be considered within normal range.

  17. Investigation of the biochemical effects of renin inhibition in normal volunteers treated by an ACE inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Chauveau, D; Guyenne, T T; Cumin, F; Chatellier, G; Corvol, P; Ménard, J

    1992-01-01

    1. In order to investigate accurately the biochemical effects of renin inhibition in man, we have developed a sensitive assay to measure angiotensin I (1-10) decapeptide. 2. Angiotensins were extracted from plasma by adsorption to phenylsilylsilica, and angiotensin I (Ang I) was quantified by radioimmunoassay. The detection limit was 0.77 fmol ml-1, and the extraction recovery of [125I]-Ang I added to albumin buffer was 83% at the inflection point (10 fmol ml-1) of the standard curve. The overall recovery was 98.5 +/- 3.5%. The intra- and inter-assay reproducibility was 10.4% and 9.7% respectively. Cross-reactivity of the antiserum used was low (less than 0.3%) with all angiotensin peptides tested except Ang (2-10) nonapeptide. 3. A human pharmacological model was subsequently used to assess in vivo the biochemical effects of the renin inhibitor CGP 38560A. Six healthy volunteers received 20 mg lisinopril, a long-acting ACE-inhibitor. During the following 24 h, the renin-angiotensin system was reset with typically elevated active plasma renin and Ang I, at respectively 275 and 429% of basal values. 4. In a randomized three-way cross-over protocol, the six volunteers received a 30 min infusion of the renin inhibitor CGP 38560A (125 or 250 micrograms kg-1) or 5% glucose. The fall in plasma Ang I was 92% and 97.5% after the lowest and highest dose of the renin inhibitor, respectively. A concomitant increase in active plasma renin was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1315560

  18. Pharmacological investigations of a new renin inhibitor in normal sodium-unrestricted volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    de Gasparo, M; Cumin, F; Nussberger, J; Guyenne, T T; Wood, J M; Menard, J

    1989-01-01

    1. CGP 38 560 A, a low-molecular-weight, non-peptidic renin inhibitor, was well tolerated upon intravenous and oral administration to recumbent healthy volunteers on an unrestricted-sodium diet. 2. After intravenous infusion over 30 min at a rate of 100 ml h-1, doses of 50, 125 and 250 micrograms kg-1 appear to induce a long-lasting inhibition of plasma renin activity. Plasma angiotensin II was decreased in a dose-dependent manner during the infusion and thereafter reverted to the initial level. A concomitant dose-related increase in active plasma renin was observed. Blood pressure was unaffected. The plasma levels of CGP 38 560 reached during infusion were at least 2000-fold higher than the theoretical inhibitory concentration based on in vitro results. 3. After oral administration in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg CGP 38 560 A, inhibition of plasma renin activity was observed, but plasma active renin was unchanged. Blood pressure also remained unaffected. 4. CGP 38 560 was rapidly cleared from plasma with a half-life of 7.6 min for the first phase and 63 min for the second phase. Plasma levels were 100-fold lower after oral administration than after infusion, indicating a low degree of absorption (less than 1% oral bioavailability). PMID:2667598

  19. Assessment of immunity to influenza using artifical challenge of normal volunteers with influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Couch, R B

    1975-01-01

    The candidate humoral mediators of protection against influenza include antibody (Ab) to the viral hemagglutinin (H) or neuraminidase (N) in serum or respiratory secretions. In the present studies these mediators were evaluated principally by low dose live virus challenge of previously vaccinated volunteers. Following IM vaccination with H3N2 virus, Ab appeared in both serum and secretions and direct quantitative relationship between the two was noted. Among individuals vaccinated intranasally with comparable doses, the serum and secretion Ab responses were similar to those after IM vaccination. Irrespective of immunization method, there was a better correlation between protection and titers of serum Ab than titers of Ab in nasal secretions. After vaccination with an N-specific vaccine, an inverse correlation between titer of serum anti-neuraminidase Ab and quantity of virus in secretions occurred. This was reflected in occurrence of illness in those with low Ab titers, infection only in those with intermediate Av titers and no evidence of infection in those with high Av titers. In a naturally occurring outbreak with the England variant, a similar pattern of infection responses occurred among persons with varying titers of serum anti-hemagglutinin Ab. This suggests that, in man, Ab to the H and to the N results in similar host responses to infection and that the extent of infection is determined by magnitude ofAb present.

  20. Acute effects of exercise on MR imaging of skeletal muscle in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, J L; Canby, R C; Parkey, R W; Peshock, R M

    1988-08-01

    Exercise is known to produce changes in the amount and distribution of water in skeletal muscle. Because MR imaging is highly sensitive to changes in water distribution, these changes should be detectable under appropriate imaging conditions. Imaging of the forearms and/or legs was performed in 16 volunteers at 0.35 T, before and after exercise. Exercises included finger flexion and extension, wrist flexion, ankle plantar flexion, and great toe extension. In the case of handgrip exercise, the level of exertion was quantitated. Individual muscles were frequently indistinguishable on preexercise scans. After exercise, active and inactive muscles could be clearly distinguished. For example, in the flexor digitorum profundus, finger flexion resulted in an increase in the image-derived estimate of T1 (T1 postexercise was 1037 +/- 162 msec vs T1 preexercise of 590 +/- 49 msec, p less than .001). T2 also increased (T2 postexercise was 35 +/- 2 msec vs T2 preexercise of 28 +/- 1 msec, p less than .001). Relative spin density also increased (p less than .001). T1, T2, and spin density subsequently decreased with time but were still increased above baseline at 10 min postexercise (p less than .005). Signal changes correlated moderately with the level of exertion (r = .63) and fatigue (r = .45). Vascular occlusion did not prevent intensity changes. Thus, changes in skeletal muscle MR signal intensity occur with exercise and appear to parallel known alterations in water distribution.

  1. The Utilization of High School Students as Volunteers in Special Education. Student Manual. Project Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyahoga Special Education Service Center, Maple Heights, OH.

    This booklet is intended for Ohio high school volunteers who assist in special education programs and who are members of high school chapters of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC). The first section considers the decision to become a volunteer and includes two surveys concerning attitudes toward persons with disabilities and attitudes and…

  2. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of haloperidol, chlorpromazine and sulpiride in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, G R; Cooper, S M; Pilgrim, A J

    1990-01-01

    1. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in four experimental occasions during each of which they were dosed with one of the following anti-psychotic drugs: chlorpromazine (50 mg), haloperidol (3 mg), sulpiride (400 mg) and placebo. Drugs were allocated to subjects in a double-blind, crossover fashion. 2. The subject's mood state, psychometric performance and electroencephalogram (EEG) were assessed pre-dose, and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-dose. Mood states were assessed using 16 visual analogue scales and psychomotor performance was measured using the following tests: elapsed time estimation, tapping rate, choice reaction times, a rapid information processing task, flash fusion threshold, a manipulative motor task, digit span, body sway and tremor. 3. Chlorpromazine and haloperidol significantly reduced subjective ratings of 'alertness' and 'contentedness', and haloperidol significantly reduced feelings of 'calmness'. Sulpiride did not significantly affect any of the visual analogue scales. 4. All three anti-psychotic drugs had similar EEG effects with peak effect 2 to 4 h postdose. The profile was characterised by an increase in the proportion of slow wave activity (delta and theta) as well as decreased alpha (8-14 Hz) and faster (beta) wave activity. 5. Chlorpromazine reduced tapping rate and increased choice reaction movement times. Haloperidol reduced the flash fusion threshold frequency at 6 h post-dose. Sulpiride prolonged the duration of the manipulative motor task, particularly at 48 h post-dose. 6. All three anti-psychotic drugs impaired performance on the rapid information processing task. Chlorpromazine significantly reduced the number of correct letter pair identifications at 2, 4 and 6 h post-dose, haloperidol at 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-dose, and sulpiride at 24 h post-dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2288826

  3. Virtual needle pain stimuli activates cortical representation of emotions in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ushida, Takahiro; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Tanaka, Shigeki; Shinozaki, Jun; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Murata, Yoriko; McLaughlin, Matthew; Arai, Young-Chang P; Tamura, Yurie

    2008-07-04

    Psychological factors are known to play an extremely important role in the maintenance and development of chronic pain conditions. However, it is unclear how such factors relate to the central neural processing of nociceptive transmission in healthy individuals. To investigate this issue, the activation of the brain was studied in 30 healthy volunteers responding to virtual pain stimuli by fMRI. In the first series of the study (non-preconditioned study), 15 participants were shown a digital video demonstrating an injection needle puncturing the right palm. In the second series of the study (pre-conditioned study), same-task paradigms were used for another 15 participants. Prior to the fMRI session, real needle punctuate stimuli were applied to the right palm of participants for pre-conditioning. fMRI analysis revealed that bilateral activations in anterior insula (BA45), parietal operculum (S2: BA40), premotor area, medial globus pallidus, inferior occipital gyrus (BA18), left temporal association cortex, right fusiform gyrus, right parietal association cortex and cerebellum occurred due to the task in the preconditioned group. On the other hand, right parietal operculum (S2: BA40), premotor area, parietal association cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral temporal association cortex were activated in the non-preconditioned group. In addition, activation of anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus and cerebellum significantly increased in the preconditioned group compared with the non-preconditioned group. These results suggest that the virtual needle puncture task caused memory retrieval of unpleasant experiences which is possibly related to empathy for pain, resulting in the activation of specific brain areas.

  4. Normal threshold values for a monofilament sensory test in sural and radial cutaneous nerves in Indian and Nepali volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Inge; Brandsma, Wim; Post, Erik; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-12-01

    The monofilament test (MFT) is a reliable method to assess sensory nerve function in leprosy and other neuropathies. Assessment of the radial cutaneous and sural nerves, in addition to nerves usually tested, can help improve diagnosis and monitoring of nerve function impairment (NFI). To enable the detection of impairments in leprosy patients, it is essential to know the monofilament threshold of these two nerves in normal subjects. The radial cutaneous, sural, ulnar, median and posterior tibial nerves of 245 volunteers were tested. All nerves were tested at three sites on both left and right sides. Normal monofilament thresholds were calculated per test-site and per nerve. We assessed 490 radial cutaneous and 482 sural nerves. The normal monofilament was 2 g (Filament Index Number (FIN) 4.31) for the radial cutaneous and 4 g (FIN 4.56) for the sural nerve, although heavy manual laborers demonstrated a threshold of 10 g (FIN 5.07) for the sural nerve. For median and ulnar nerves, the 200 mg (FIN 3.61) filament was confirmed as normal while the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filament was normal for the posterior tibial. Age and occupation have an effect on the mean touch sensitivity but do not affect the normal threshold for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves. The normal thresholds for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves are determined as the 2 g (FIN 4.31) and the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filaments, respectively. The addition of the radial cutaneous and sural nerve to sensory nerve assessment may improve the diagnosis of patients with impaired sensory nerve function.

  5. Volunteer Magic: Finding and Keeping Library Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Offers suggestions for a successful volunteer program in a school setting. Topics include recruitment strategies, including advertising for parents, grandparents, other groups, and students; training programs for adult volunteers and for students; how to keep volunteers; how to afford rewards; and helpful resources. (LRW)

  6. Effects of repeated oxycodone administration on its analgesic and subjective effects in normal, healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ziva D; Sullivan, Maria A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Manubay, Jeanne M; Haney, Margaret; Foltin, Richard W; Evans, Suzette M; Kowalczyk, William J; Saccone, Phillip A; Comer, Sandra D

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to the analgesic effects of opioids has been demonstrated in laboratory animals after repeated drug administration, yet this effect has been studied less frequently under controlled laboratory conditions in humans. This within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine if tolerance developed to the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of the commonly prescribed opioid oxycodone when it was administered daily for 5 days. The effects of oxycodone’s (0, 5, and 20 mg/70 kg, p.o.) were compared, using a within-session cumulative dosing procedure, on the 1st and 5th days of the ‘daily’ dosing phase to assess for tolerance; active oxycodone was administered on the 2nd-4th days of the daily dosing phase. Changes in the effects of oxycodone were also compared when the medication was only administered on the 1st and 5th day of a 5-day ‘intermittent’ dosing phase; placebo medication was administered on the 2nd–4th days of the intermittent dosing phase. A 9-day ‘washout’ period occurred between phases when no medication was administered. Healthy volunteers (N=10) with no history of drug dependence or current drug use participated in this outpatient study. Analgesia was assessed using the Cold-Pressor Test (CPT), pain and drug effects were measured using a variety of questionnaires, and pupil diameter was monitored as an index of physiological effects. When administered daily, no differences were observed in oxycodone-induced analgesia between the 1st and 5th days, but tolerance did develop to some of the positive subjective effects of oxycodone. In contrast, oxycodone-induced analgesia and participant ratings of some positive subjective drug effects were greater on the 5th day compared to the 1st day of the intermittent dosing phase. No differences in the miotic effects of oxycodone between the 1st and 5th days of either dosing phase were detected. Though obtained under limited experimental conditions, these

  7. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in obese and normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, S L; Hudson, S A; Simpson, G; Munro, J F; Clements, J A

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral propranolol have been compared in six obese and six normal subjects matched for age and sex. After intravenous administration there was no difference in plasma clearance but the volume of distribution was greater (V = 339 l vs 198 l) and the half-life was longer (t1/2 = 5.0 h vs 3.0 h) in the obese group. No important difference in the rate of oral absorption was observed. A trend towards higher systemic availability in the obese group (35% vs 27%) was not statistically significant. PMID:3718810

  8. Effect of repeated sputum induction on cell counts in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, J A; Rogers, D F; Barnes, P J

    1998-02-01

    Sputum induction is becoming more commonly used to assess airway inflammation. Since it is a relatively non-invasive procedure it may be useful for repeated measurements over a short period of time. To assess the repeatability of the method over a 24 hour period, eight healthy, non-smoking, non-atopic subjects (four men) of mean age 30 years underwent sputum induction, repeated at eight hours and 24 hours. Sputum was induced by inhalation of 3.5% saline. Absolute and differential counts of inflammatory cells were performed on the whole sputum after dilution in Hank's balanced salt solution containing 1% dithiothreitol to solubilise the mucus content of the samples. There was a significant rise in the percentage of neutrophils in the eight hour sample compared with the baseline (57%, range 25-94% at eight hours compared with 28%, range 19-60%: median difference 26%). The median baseline percentage of macrophages was 55% (range 26-69%) which fell to 38% (range 3-56%: median difference 22%) at eight hours and 19% (range 14-59%: median difference 25%) at 24 hours. There was no significant change in the differential counts of eosinophils, lymphocytes or columnar epithelial cells, nor in any of the absolute cell counts, at any time point. Sputum induction may have limited utility in serial assessment of neutrophilic airway inflammation in normal subjects within a 24 hour period.

  9. "Daring to Volunteer": Some Reflections on Geographers, Geography Students and Evolving Institutional Support for Community Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Volunteering with our local community organizations (many of them charitable) is clearly set to become more of a feature of our lives as staff and students working in higher education. This activity is seen as potentially valuable in enhancing the student experience, particularly through a strengthening of students' employability prospects. This…

  10. Are Grocery Store Tours Capturing the Right Audience? Characteristics of Students Who Volunteer to Receive a Grocery Store Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Elizabeth; Brunt, Ardith; Stangl, Christa; Borr, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to examine the demographics of students volunteering to receive a grocery store tour in order to assess if these students represent those most in need of the information. Dietetics students trained in giving grocery store tours through a Produce for Better Health grant provided store tours to college student…

  11. Willingness to volunteer during an influenza pandemic: perspectives from students and staff at a large Canadian university

    PubMed Central

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J.; Bailey, Tracey; Haines, Christina; Lake, Robert; Herman, Benjamin; Yonge, Olive; Marrie, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Background  A future influenza pandemic will require greater demand on numerous essential services and a reduced capacity to meet that demand. Recruitment of volunteers is an important issue for pre‐pandemic planning. Objectives  To identify factors and attitudes towards volunteerism in the event of a pandemic of influenza. Participants/methods  A 42‐item web‐questionnaire was administered to all faculty, staff and students at the University of Alberta. Respondents indicated their willingness to volunteer. Responses were dichotomized and logistic regression models were developed to capture the association between willingness to volunteer and (i) demographic and information source variables, (ii) risk perception and general knowledge, and (iii) volunteering attitudes and priority access variables. Results  Many factors predicted willingness to volunteer and several involved interactions with other variables. Individuals who were older, relied on University Health Centre information and who had past volunteerism experience were generally more likely to be willing to volunteer. Those willing to volunteer were more likely to think spread could be prevented by covering mouth when coughing/sneezing, and treatment would include drinking fluids. Those who thought influenza would be treated by antibiotics were less willing to volunteer. Likely volunteers thought that healthcare students should be encouraged to volunteer if there was a healthcare worker shortage. Conclusion  This study provides guidance for those who are preparing universities to deal with pandemic influenza. The results suggest factors that might be important in the recruitment of volunteers during an influenza pandemic and these factors might be relevant for other sectors as well. PMID:19453473

  12. Presence of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in urine of healthy volunteers eating normal diet, but not of inpatients receiving parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Ushiyama, H; Wakabayashi, K; Hirose, M; Itoh, H; Sugimura, T; Nagao, M

    1991-08-01

    For estimation of human exposures to carcinogenic heterocyclic amines, the amounts of four compounds, 3-amino-1, 4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), in human urine were measured. Twenty-four hour urine specimens were collected from ten healthy volunteers eating normal diet (five males and five females) and three inpatients (two males and a female) receiving parenteral alimentation, and the levels of the four heterocyclic amines were measured by HPLC after partial purification by treatment with blue cotton and ion exchange column chromatography. Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, PhIP and MeIQx were detected in the 24 h urine samples of all healthy volunteers at levels of 0.04-1.43 ng, 0.03-0.68 ng, 0.12-1.97 ng and 11-47 ng respectively. As 1.8-4.9% of an oral dose of MeIQx is reported to be excreted unchanged in the urine, the daily exposure of humans to MeIQx was estimated to be 0.2-2.6 micrograms/person. The four heterocyclic amines were not detected in the urine of parenterally fed inpatients. These results indicate that humans are continually exposed to carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in food, and these compounds may not be formed endogenously.

  13. A comparison of the neuro-endocrinological and temperature effects of DU 29894, flesinoxan, sulpiride and haloperidol in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, P; de Vries, M H

    1995-01-01

    1. Nineteen healthy male volunteers participated in a double-blind, six-way, crossover study. With a separation of 1 week between sessions, volunteers received randomly one oral dose of each of the following compounds: 3 or 10 mg of the dopamine (DA2) receptor antagonist and serotonin (5HT1A) agonist DU 29894, 1 mg flesinoxan, 400 mg sulpiride, 3 mg haloperidol or placebo. 2. To assess the dopamine (DA2) antagonistic activity of the different compounds, plasma levels of prolactin were assessed at pre-dose, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 24 h post-dose. To assess the serotonin (5HT1A) agonistic activity, plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol and growth hormone were assessed at the same time-points as well as body temperature; the latter was also assessed 8 h post-dose. Plasma levels of DU 29894 were assessed at pre-dose and 2, 3, 4 and 24 h post-dose. 3. Sulpiride, haloperidol and both doses of 3 mg and 10 mg DU 29894 produced statistically significant increases in prolactin levels. The increase produced by 3 mg was roughly equivalent to that produced by 3 mg haloperidol whereas the increase produced by 10 mg DU 29894 was significantly larger. 4. Only 10 mg DU 29894 and 1 mg flesinoxan produced statistically significant increases in ACTH, cortisol and growth hormone. All compounds either showed a significant attenuation of the normal day time increase of body temperature (3 mg DU 29894, haloperidol and sulpiride) or a true significant decrease in body temperature (10 mg DU 29894 and flesinoxan).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7756102

  14. [Knowledge, practices and attitudes toward volunteer work in an influenza pandemic: cross-sectional study with Peruvian medical students].

    PubMed

    Huapaya, Julio A; Maquera-Afaray, Julio; García, Patricia J; Cárcamo, César; Cieza, Javier A

    2015-05-08

    Reductions in health personnel during disasters or epidemics such as an influenza pandemic may need to include volunteer students. The aim of this article is to determine knowledge and practices about pandemic influenza and the attitudes towards volunteer work in Peruvian medical students. We performed a cross-sectional analytic study by simple sampling using a survey regarding “"knowledge and practices"” about pandemic influenza and the attitudes to volunteer work. From the group of 865 students who were surveyed, 848 accepted to participate in the investigation (54% were male and their mean age was 22.1 ± 3.0). Ninety-seven percent correctly identified the spread routes of influenza and 81% knew its treatment. Regarding preventive measures, covering the mouth when coughing/sneezing and hand-washing were the most commonly recognized options (95% y 92%, respectively), and vaccination was the less recognized one (54%). The most common practice, readily acknowledged as preventive, was covering when coughing/sneezing (86%). Regarding volunteer works, students answered that it is a moral/ethical/professional obligation (77%); that a contingency university service needs to be established (88%), that it does not have to substitute for the lack of workers (49%), and that its role should be related to hospital work (83%). Coming from a public university was more associated to the concept that volunteer work was a moral obligation and that the student should be punished if he/she refuses to be a volunteer, whereas being from a private university was more related to a history of been involved in volunteering programs. In general, medical students have good knowledge and practices toward influenza. There is a good disposition to volunteer their work and skills, recognizing it as a moral/ethical/professional obligation.

  15. Post-traumatic Stress and Growth Among Medical Student Volunteers After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan: Implications for Student Involvement with Future Disasters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters.

  16. Views from the Global South: exploring how student volunteers from the Global North can achieve sustainable impact in global health.

    PubMed

    Ouma, Brian D O; Dimaras, Helen

    2013-07-26

    The body of research and practice regarding student volunteer abroad experiences largely focuses on ensuring the optimal learning experience for the student from the Global North, without equivalent attention to the benefits, if any, to the host institution in the Global South. In this debate article, we examine an often overlooked component of global student volunteer programs: the views of the local partner on what makes for a mutually beneficial partnership between volunteers from the Global North and institutions in the Global South. To guide our discussion, we drew upon the experiences of a Kenyan NGO with a Canadian student volunteer in the summer of 2012, organized via a formalized partnership with a Canadian university. We found that the approach of the NGO to hosting the student mirrored the organizational behaviour theories of Margaret J. Wheatley, who emphasized a disorderly or 'chaotic' approach to acquiring impactful change, coupled with a focus on building solid human relationships. Rather than following a set of rigid goals or tasks, the student was encouraged to critically engage and participate in all aspects of the culture of the organization and country, to naturally discover an area where his priorities aligned with the needs of the NGO. Solid networks and interpersonal connections resulted in a process useful for the organization long after the student's short-term placement ended. Our discussion reveals key features of successful academic volunteer abroad placements: equal partnership in the design phase between organizations in the Global North and Global South; the absence of rigid structures or preplanned tasks during the student's placement; participatory observation and critical engagement of the student volunteer; and a willingness of the partners to measure impact by the resultant process instead of tangible outcomes.

  17. Establishing a volunteer doula program within a nurse-midwifery education program: a winning situation for both clients and students.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Elizabeth G; Collins, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The use of labor doulas is beneficial for mothers and newborns, but availability and cost can be barriers. The Nashville Volunteer Doula Program was formed to provide labor support to clients of a faculty nurse-midwifery practice. The volunteer doula pool is comprised of both nurse-midwifery students who have trained as doulas and community doulas. Training and coordination of volunteers are managed by nurse-midwifery students with faculty support. Students gain valuable exposure to providing supportive care during labor and birth, which augments their nurse-midwifery education. This novel program operates at a low cost and offers benefits to students as well as women who use the doula service. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Payments to normal healthy volunteers in phase 1 trials: avoiding undue influence while distributing fairly the burdens of research participation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2009-02-01

    Clinical investigators must engage in just subject recruitment and selection and avoid unduly influencing research participation. There may be tension between the practice of keeping payments to participants low to avoid undue influence and the requirements of justice when recruiting normal healthy volunteers for phase 1 drug studies. By intentionally keeping payments low to avoid unduly influenced participation, investigators, on the recommendation or insistence of institutional review boards, may be targeting or systematically recruiting healthy adult members of lower socio-economic groups for participation in phase 1 studies. Investigators are at risk of routinely failing to fulfill the obligation of justice, which prohibits the systematic targeting and recruiting of subjects for reasons unrelated to the nature of the study. Insofar as we take seriously the obligation to engage in just subject recruitment and selection, I argue that we must acknowledge the implications low payments might have for subject recruitment and selection and examine the effect of low payments. If low payments de facto target the less well-off for phase 1 studies, we must defend the priority ranking of the obligation to avoid undue influence over the obligation of justice or adopt an alternative recruitment approach. This paper identifies a number of alternatives to the current system of low-value payments to research participants.

  19. Payments to Normal Healthy Volunteers in Phase 1 Trials: Avoiding Undue Influence While Distributing Fairly the Burdens of Research Participation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Clinical investigators must engage in just subject recruitment and selection and avoid unduly influencing research participation. There may be tension between the practice of keeping payments to participants low to avoid undue influence and the requirements of justice when recruiting normal healthy volunteers for phase 1 drug studies. By intentionally keeping payments low to avoid unduly influenced participation, investigators, on the recommendation or insistence of institutional review boards, may be targeting or systematically recruiting healthy adult members of lower socio-economic groups for participation in phase 1 studies. Investigators are at risk of routinely failing to fulfill the obligation of justice, which prohibits the systematic targeting and recruiting of subjects for reasons unrelated to the nature of the study. Insofar as we take seriously the obligation to engage in just subject recruitment and selection, I argue that we must acknowledge the implications low payments might have for subject recruitment and selection and examine the effect of low payments. If low payments de facto target the less well-off for phase 1 studies, we must defend the priority ranking of the obligation to avoid undue influence over the obligation of justice or adopt an alternative recruitment approach. This paper identifies a number of alternatives to the current system of low-value payments to research participants. PMID:19190076

  20. Clinical skills development in student-run free clinic volunteers: a multi-trait, multi-measure study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mio; Altshuler, David; Chadwell, Margit; Binienda, Juliann

    2014-12-12

    At Wayne State University School of Medicine (WSU SOM), the Robert R. Frank Student Run Free Clinic (SRFC) is one place preclinical students can gain clinical experience. There have been no published studies to date measuring the impact of student-run free clinic (SRFC) volunteerism on clinical skills development in preclinical medical students. Surveys were given to first year medical students at WSU SOM at the beginning and end of Year 1 to assess perception of clinical skills, including self-confidence, self-reflection, and professionalism. Scores of the Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) were compared between SRFC volunteers and non-volunteers. There were a total of 206 (68.2%) and 80 (26.5%) survey responses at the beginning and end of Year 1, respectively. Of the 80 students, 31 (38.7%) volunteered at SRFC during Year 1. Statistically significant differences were found between time points in self-confidence (p < 0.001) in both groups. When looking at self-confidence in skills pertaining to SRFC, the difference between groups was statistically significant (p = 0.032) at both time points. A total of 302 students participated in the Year 1 OSCE, 27 (9%) of which were SRFC volunteers. No statistically significant differences were found between groups for mean score (p = 0.888) and established level of rapport (p = 0.394). While this study indicated no significant differences in clinical skills in students who volunteer at the SRFC, it is a first step in attempting to measure clinical skill development outside of the structured medical school setting. The findings lend themselves to development of research designs, clinical surveys, and future studies to measure the impact of clinical volunteer opportunities on clinical skills development in future physicians.

  1. Standardized Patients versus Volunteer Patients for Physical Therapy Students' Interviewing Practice: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sue; Imam, Bita; MacIntyre, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    To compare the use of standardized patients (SPs) and volunteer patients (VPs) for physical therapy students' interviewing practice in terms of students' perception and overall costs. Students in the Master of Physical Therapy programme (n=80) at a Canadian university were divided into 20 groups of 4 and were randomly assigned to interview either an SP (10 groups) or a VP (10 groups). Students completed a survey about their perception of the usefulness of the activity and the ease and depth of information extraction. Survey responses as well as costs of the interview exercise were compared between SP and VP groups. No statistically significant between-groups difference was found for the majority of survey items. The cost of using an SP was $148, versus $50 for a VP. Students' perceptions of the usefulness of the activity in helping them to develop their interview skills and of the ease and depth of extracting information were similar for both SPs and VPs. Because the cost of using an SP is about three times that of using a VP, using VPs seem to be a more cost-effective option.

  2. Depressive symptoms and the self-reported use of alcohol, caffeine, and carbohydrates in normal volunteers and four groups of psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Leibenluft, E; Fiero, P L; Bartko, J J; Moul, D E; Rosenthal, N E

    1993-02-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and the self-reported use of alcohol, carbohydrates, and caffeine in normal volunteers and four groups of psychiatric outpatients. Outpatients and normal volunteers were given a questionnaire asking about their use of each of the three substances in response to each of the 14 depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. They also rated how much each substance improved each symptom. Twenty-six normal volunteers, 35 patients with major depression, 117 patients with seasonal affective disorder, 16 patients with alcohol dependence, and 24 patients with comorbid primary depression and secondary alcohol dependence completed the questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was established. Analysis of variance and stepwise multivariate discriminant function analyses were used to determine if diagnostic groups differed in the reported use and effect of each of the three substances. The responses concerning use and effect of alcohol of patients with alcohol dependence with or without depression were indistinguishable from each other. The responses of the patient groups regarding caffeine and carbohydrate use did not differ from each other, but all differed significantly from the responses of normal volunteers. Discriminant function analysis distinguished alcoholics from nonalcoholics in the relationship between drinking and the symptoms of anger and anhedonia. The relationship between symptoms and substance use varied depending on the substance. Alcoholics without depression were as likely to report drinking in response to depressive symptoms as were those who had had depression. Patients of all diagnostic groups were more likely than normal volunteers to report using caffeine and carbohydrates in response to depressive symptoms.

  3. Views from the global south: exploring how student volunteers from the global north can achieve sustainable impact in global health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The body of research and practice regarding student volunteer abroad experiences largely focuses on ensuring the optimal learning experience for the student from the Global North, without equivalent attention to the benefits, if any, to the host institution in the Global South. In this debate article, we examine an often overlooked component of global student volunteer programs: the views of the local partner on what makes for a mutually beneficial partnership between volunteers from the Global North and institutions in the Global South. Discussion To guide our discussion, we drew upon the experiences of a Kenyan NGO with a Canadian student volunteer in the summer of 2012, organized via a formalized partnership with a Canadian university. We found that the approach of the NGO to hosting the student mirrored the organizational behaviour theories of Margaret J. Wheatley, who emphasized a disorderly or ‘chaotic’ approach to acquiring impactful change, coupled with a focus on building solid human relationships. Rather than following a set of rigid goals or tasks, the student was encouraged to critically engage and participate in all aspects of the culture of the organization and country, to naturally discover an area where his priorities aligned with the needs of the NGO. Solid networks and interpersonal connections resulted in a process useful for the organization long after the student’s short-term placement ended. Summary Our discussion reveals key features of successful academic volunteer abroad placements: equal partnership in the design phase between organizations in the Global North and Global South; the absence of rigid structures or preplanned tasks during the student’s placement; participatory observation and critical engagement of the student volunteer; and a willingness of the partners to measure impact by the resultant process instead of tangible outcomes. PMID:23889908

  4. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a long-acting formulation of the new somatostatin analogue, lanreotide, in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, J M; Legrand, A; Ruiz, J M; Obach, R; De Ronzan, J; Thomas, F

    1994-01-01

    1. The aims of the study were to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters and the hormonal effects of the slow-release formulation of the somatostatin analogue (SR-L) in normal male volunteers. 2. Eight healthy males were studied. For the determination of basal values blood was sampled before the injection of vehicle and then every other hour for 8 h in order to measure plasma GH, prolactin (PRL), TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), insulin and glucagon levels. Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were measured on a single sample. On day 1 of the study, 30 mg SR-L was administered intramuscularly. Blood was drawn just before injection and then every other hour for a period of 8 h. Thereafter, blood was sampled three times a week for 3 weeks in order to measure lanreotide, IGF-1, TSH, fT4 and PRL concentrations. Plasma GH was determined on days 6 and 11 of the study. 3. Plasma lanreotide concentrations rose to 38.3 +/- 4.1 ng ml-1 2 h following injection. The levels then progressively decreased, remaining above 1.5 ng ml-1 until day 11 and reaching 0.92 +/- 0.28 ng ml-1 2 weeks after injection. The apparent plasma half-life and mean residence time were 4.52 +/- 0.50 and 5.48 +/- 0.51 days respectively. 4. By comparison with the control day, plasma insulin concentrations only decreased 2 h following injection, whereas plasma glucagon did not change at any time. 5. Plasma TSH concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced from 2 h to day 4 following SR-L injection.2+ ' PMID:7826822

  5. Medical students as hospice volunteers: reflections on an early experiential training program in end-of-life care education.

    PubMed

    Mott, Melissa L; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Marschke, Michael; Levine, Stacie

    2014-06-01

    Despite an increase in the content of palliative medicine curricula in medical schools, students are rarely exposed to end-of-life (EOL) care through real-patient experiences during their preclinical education. To evaluate the utility and impact of exposure to EOL care for first year medical students (MS-1s) through a hospice volunteer experience. Patients and Families First (PFF), a hospice volunteer training program in EOL care, was piloted on three cohorts of MS-1s as an elective. Fifty-five students received 3 hours of volunteer training, and were then required to conduct at least two consecutive hospice visits on assigned patients to obtain course credit. Students' reflective essays on their experiences were analyzed using qualitative methodology and salient themes were extracted by two investigators independently and then collaboratively. The following five themes were identified from students' reflective essays: perceptions regarding hospice patients; reactions regarding self; normalcy of EOL care at home; impact of witnessing death and dying; and suggestions for improving EOL care education for medical students. Hospice volunteering during preclinical years may provide valuable experiential training for MS-1s in caring for seriously ill patients and their families by fostering personal reflection and empathic skills, thereby providing a foundation for future patient encounters during clinical training.

  6. Nutrition and health education intervention for student volunteers: topic-wise assessment of impact using a non-parametric test.

    PubMed

    Vijayapushpam, T; Antony, Grace Maria; Rao, G M Subba; Rao, D Raghunatha

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact of a classroom-based nutrition and health education intervention among student community volunteers in improving their knowledge on individual topics. Prospective follow-up study. Topic-wise knowledge change among student volunteers on individual topics (twenty-one questions related to nutrition and health, eight questions related to infectious diseases and two questions related to obesity and hypertension) pertaining to nutrition and health was evaluated at baseline and after intervention, using the McNemar test. Six different colleges affiliated to Osmania University, Andhra Pradesh, India. Six hundred and eighty-seven student volunteers under the National Service Scheme, of both genders, average age 19 years. A significant mean improvement of 11.36 (sd 8.49, P < 0.001) was observed in the overall nutrition and health knowledge scores of the student volunteers after the education intervention. The McNemar test showed that knowledge on individual topics related to energy, proteins, fats, adolescent phase, obesity, some lifestyle diseases and infectious diseases improved significantly (P < 0.01). No significant (P > 0.05) improvement was observed in knowledge on the nutritional content of milk and sprouted grams, hypertension, HIV/AIDS, ELISA and malaria. Topics on which our educational intervention could not bring about significant knowledge improvement have been identified and suitable modifications can be carried out to strengthen them.

  7. Innovative curriculum for second-year Harvard-MIT medical students: practicing communication skills with volunteer patients giving immediate feedback

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nadaa B; Pelletier, Stephen R; Shields, Helen M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Medical students are expected to develop excellent communication skills. The purpose of our study was to create an innovative communication skills exercise using real volunteer patients and physician co-teachers for students to practice communication skills while receiving immediate feedback. Method This is a mixed methods study where second-year medical students participated in the communication skills exercise with real patients and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback. Clinical scenarios reflected the patients’ actual experiences. Students acted out roles as physicians. Physicians co-taught with the patients and gave immediate feedback to students. Students completed an anonymous written survey at the end of the exercise. Qualitative and quantitative responses were recorded. Student feedback from the 2014 surveys was used to modify the teaching designs to increase active role play opportunities by having only two students in each group and doubling the number of stations with real patients. Results Students rated the overall exercise and the utility of patient volunteers in learning how to communicate on a Likert scale of 1–5, where in this medical school traditionally 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. In 2014, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.47 (SD 0.621). In 2015, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.03 (SD 0.62). In 2016, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.27 (SD 0.52). ANOVA analysis (p=0.002) and Bonferroni corrections indicate a statistically significant difference between combined mean scores of the exercise in 2014 and 2015 (p=0.001). No difference was shown between 2014 and 2016 or 2015 and 2016. Conclusions Medical students rated practicing communication skills with real patient volunteers and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback in their preclinical years very highly. Student feedback indicated that they preferred active roles and increased opportunities to practice their

  8. Innovative curriculum for second-year Harvard-MIT medical students: practicing communication skills with volunteer patients giving immediate feedback.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadaa B; Pelletier, Stephen R; Shields, Helen M

    2017-01-01

    Medical students are expected to develop excellent communication skills. The purpose of our study was to create an innovative communication skills exercise using real volunteer patients and physician co-teachers for students to practice communication skills while receiving immediate feedback. This is a mixed methods study where second-year medical students participated in the communication skills exercise with real patients and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback. Clinical scenarios reflected the patients' actual experiences. Students acted out roles as physicians. Physicians co-taught with the patients and gave immediate feedback to students. Students completed an anonymous written survey at the end of the exercise. Qualitative and quantitative responses were recorded. Student feedback from the 2014 surveys was used to modify the teaching designs to increase active role play opportunities by having only two students in each group and doubling the number of stations with real patients. Students rated the overall exercise and the utility of patient volunteers in learning how to communicate on a Likert scale of 1-5, where in this medical school traditionally 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. In 2014, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.47 (SD 0.621). In 2015, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.03 (SD 0.62). In 2016, the exercises were rated with a mean score of 1.27 (SD 0.52). ANOVA analysis (p=0.002) and Bonferroni corrections indicate a statistically significant difference between combined mean scores of the exercise in 2014 and 2015 (p=0.001). No difference was shown between 2014 and 2016 or 2015 and 2016. Medical students rated practicing communication skills with real patient volunteers and physician co-teachers giving immediate feedback in their preclinical years very highly. Student feedback indicated that they preferred active roles and increased opportunities to practice their communication skills.

  9. Using the Health Physics Student Volunteer Program for a Research Project Sponsored by the Medical Section of the Health Physics Society.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Joseph; Leinwander, Penny

    2017-04-01

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) Medical Health Physics Section (MHPS) received a request to research data on radiation safety guidance related to the death of patients who have recently received therapeutic doses of sealed or unsealed therapy sources. The MHPS elected to use student volunteers to perform this research. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe and provide a template for the process used by the MHPS to develop a student volunteer program. To implement the student volunteer program, the MHPS collaborated with the HPS Student Support Committee to develop a research proposal and a student volunteer selection process. The research proposal was sent to HPS student members in a call for volunteers. Two student volunteers were chosen based on predetermined qualifications to complete the work effort outlined in the research proposal. This project progressed with the use of milestones and culminated with the students presenting their findings at the annual HPS meeting. The students received HPS student travel awards to present at the conference. This work effort proved to be extremely beneficial to all parties involved.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of an extended release formulation of alprazolam (Xanax XR) in healthy normal adolescent and adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Glue, Paul; Fang, Annie; Gandelman, Kuan; Klee, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of single doses of an extended release formulation of alprazolam (Xanax XR) in adolescent and adult healthy volunteers. This was a randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-period crossover study. Twelve adolescent healthy volunteers (13-17 years) and 12 adult healthy volunteers (20-45 years) received single doses of Xanax XR 1 mg or 3 mg tablets. Blood samples were obtained predose and for 48 hours postdose. Plasma samples were assayed for alprazolam and its two active metabolites alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam and 4-hydroxy-alprazolam using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Safety assessments included clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, and adverse event monitoring. At both dose levels, mean plasma concentration-time profiles of alprazolam, alpha-hydroxy-alprazolam, and 4-hydroxy-alprazolam were similar in adolescent and adult subjects. The ratios of estimated geometric means for AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax between adolescents and adults for both dose levels were 115% (95% CI: [93, 143]) and 111% (95% CI: [95, 129]), respectively. An assessment of dose proportionality between the 3 mg and 1 mg alprazolam doses within both age groups indicated that the AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax were both within 80-125% equivalence limits. Parent-metabolite ratios were similar in both age groups and were consistent with those previously reported. Alprazolam was well tolerated by both age groups. The most common adverse event was somnolence, which occurred in a dose-related manner. Based on the similar pharmacokinetic profiles, dosing of Xanax XR should be similar in adolescents and adults.

  11. Effect of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) ingestion on the hepatobiliary function of normal human male and female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chiang, M; Gray, K; Chappel, C I

    1998-02-01

    A study of the effects of sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB) ingestion was conducted in 13 male and 14 female healthy human volunteers. SAIB, in a gum arabic/water emulsion diluted with orange juice, was ingested once daily, at a dose of 20 mg SAIB/kg body weight in a total volume of 1.16 ml/kg body weight, for a period of 2 wk following a 1-week control period. During the control period, the subjects consumed the same preparation without SAIB. The study was performed in a single-blind manner, each subject serving as his or her own control. Haematology and clinical chemistry tests were conducted on blood samples taken on day -6 and day 0 of the control period and at 7 and 15 days during the SAIB dosing period. In addition to routine haematology and clinical chemistry, specific tests of hepatobiliary function included serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, lactic dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, total and direct bilirubin, bile acids and proteins. None of these parameters were affected by ingestion of SAIB. It was concluded that ingestion of 20 mg SAIB/kg body weight daily for 14 days does not affect the hepatobiliary function of human volunteers.

  12. Longitudinal Effect of a Volunteer Tutoring Program on Reading Skills of Students Identified as At-Risk for Reading Failure: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Senesac, Barbara J.; Silberglitt, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    There is a recent interest in volunteer tutoring programs and research has suggested effectiveness in improving reading skills. Previous research found that the Help One Student to Succeed (HOSTS) volunteer tutoring program increased reading fluency and comprehension over a 5-month interval (Burns, Senesac, & Symington, 2004). The current…

  13. Longitudinal Effect of a Volunteer Tutoring Program on Reading Skills of Students Identified as At-Risk for Reading Failure: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Senesac, Barbara J.; Silberglitt, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    There is a recent interest in volunteer tutoring programs and research has suggested effectiveness in improving reading skills. Previous research found that the Help One Student to Succeed (HOSTS) volunteer tutoring program increased reading fluency and comprehension over a 5-month interval (Burns, Senesac, & Symington, 2004). The current…

  14. Read Today, Lead Tomorrow: How Corporate Grants, Volunteers, and Community Leadership Can Bring About Student Success. The Story of the GE Early Years Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Tim; Tatarian, Lois

    The General Electric (GE) Early Years Initiative, a grant-funded GE Fund, GE's corporate Foundation and GE Elfun, GE's international program created by volunteer organization, has helped elementary school students improve their reading skills through the use of volunteers since 1994. This publication describes Early Years projects, provides…

  15. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of two oral formulations of thiocolchicoside, a GABA-mimetic muscle relaxant drug, in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Perucca, E; Poitou, P; Pifferi, G

    1995-01-01

    The comparative pharmacokinetic and bioavailability profile of two different formulations (tablets and capsules) of thiocolchicoside was investigated in 8 healthy male volunteers after administration of single oral 8 mg doses. Plasma samples were assayed by a capillary gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method following enzymatic hydrolysis of thiocolchicoside to its aglycone (3-demethylthiocolchicine) and no attempt was made to account for the possible occurrence of hydrolysis in vivo. Irrespective of the formulation used, the drug was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, peak levels of about 17 ng/ml being detected within 1 h in most subjects. Elimination was rapid, with mean MRT values of 5-6 h. All kinetic parameters showed considerable interindividual variability but none differed significantly between the two formulations. Relative to the tablet formulation, the oral bioavailability of the capsule formulation was 1.06 +/- 0.39.

  16. Safety and efficacy of coffee enriched with inulin and dextrin on satiety and hunger in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Singer, Joelle; Grinev, Milana; Silva, Veronica; Cohen, Jonathan; Singer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a new beverage on suppressing hunger and improving feelings of satiety in healthy volunteers. In the safety study, participants (n = 269) received either 1) a control beverage-coffee alone (group C); 2) the study beverage-coffee, whey protein, inulin, and dextrin (group S); or 3) an inulin-enriched beverage (I group). The study was held over a 7-d period during which participants were required to consume 2 cups of coffee a day. There were no significant differences between the groups in any reported adverse effects, apart from more abdominal pain after the first cup in group I versus S (P < 0.05). This study showed that a coffee beverage enriched with inulin, dextrin, and whey is safe and has possible benefits with regard to feelings of hunger and satiety 2 h after ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of doxylamine influence on mixed function oxidase activity upon multiple dose oral administration to normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G A; St Peter, J V; Heise, M A; Horowitz, Z D; Salyers, G C; Charles, T T; Brezovic, C; Russell, D A; Skare, J A; Powell, J H

    1996-11-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of doxylamine and phenobarbital on antipyrine/metabolites pharmacokinetics and 6 beta-hydroxycortisol urinary excretion. This study was conducted in 48 healthy male human volunteers (16 per treatment group) using a parallel study design. Treatment groups consisted of 12.5 mg of doxylamine succinate, placebo, or 30 mg of phenobarbital administered orally every 6 h for 17 days. Results indicate that no statistically significant differences were observed between the doxylamine and placebo groups that are indicative of enzyme induction. For the phenobarbital group, a significant increase for antipyrine total (36 versus 45 mL/h/kg) and nonrenal (35 versus 44 mL/h/kg) clearances and 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion (338 versus 529 micrograms) and a significant decrease in the terminal exponential half-life (11 versus 9 h) of antipyrine were observed.

  18. Comparing fractional anisotropy in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia, their healthy siblings, and normal volunteers through DTI.

    PubMed

    Moran, Marcel E; Luscher, Zoe I; McAdams, Harrison; Hsu, John T; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Ludovici, Katharine; Lloyd, Jonae; Rapoport, Judith; Mori, Susumu; Gogtay, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is a neuroimaging method that quantifies white matter (WM) integrity and brain connectivity based on the diffusion of water in the brain. White matter has been hypothesized to be of great importance in the development of schizophrenia as part of the dysconnectivity model. Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), is a rare, severe form of the illness that resembles poor outcome adult-onset schizophrenia. We hypothesized that COS would be associated with WM abnormalities relative to a sample of controls. To evaluate WM integrity in this population 39 patients diagnosed with COS, 39 of their healthy (nonpsychotic) siblings, and 50 unrelated healthy volunteers were scanned using a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence during a 1.5 T MRI acquisition. Each DTI scan was processed via atlas-based analysis using a WM parcellation map, and diffeomorphic mapping that shapes a template atlas to each individual subject space. Fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of WM integrity was averaged over each of the 46 regions of the atlas. Eleven WM regions were examined based on previous reports of WM growth abnormalities in COS. Of those regions, patients with COS, and their healthy siblings had significantly lower mean FA in the left and right cuneus as compared to the healthy volunteers (P < .005). Together, these findings represent the largest DTI study in COS to date, and provide evidence that WM integrity is significantly impaired in COS. Shared deficits in their healthy siblings might result from increased genetic risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2014.

  19. At the boundary of the self: the insular cortex in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia, their healthy siblings, and normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moran, Marcel E; Weisinger, Brian; Ludovici, Katharine; McAdams, Harrison; Greenstein, Deanna; Gochman, Pete; Miller, Rachel; Clasen, Liv; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

    2014-02-01

    The insular cortex (insula), whose normal function involves delineating the boundary between self and non-self stimuli, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, including hallucinations and delusions. Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), that includes the onset of psychosis before age 13, is a severe and continuous form of the illness which shows profound and global progressive cortical brain abnormalities during adolescence which merge in the adult pattern with age. Using prospectively acquired anatomic brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, a matched sample of COS patients, their nonpsychotic full siblings and healthy volunteers, we measured insular volume using the FreeSurfer automated software. COS patients (n=98; 234 scans) had significantly lower right (p=0.003), left (p<0.001), and total (p<0.001) insular volumes than healthy volunteers (n=100; 248 scans). Right insular volume negatively correlated with positive symptoms as measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) (p=0.02), while both left (p=0.01) and right (p=0.006) insula volumes were positively correlated with overall functioning, as measured by the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. COS siblings (n=71; 153 scans), on the other hand, did not differ significantly from normal volunteers suggesting that the insular deficits are more related to the illness state than a familial endophenotype. These results also highlight the salience of the insula in positive symptoms of schizophrenia perhaps resulting from the inability to discriminate between self from the non-self in COS. Further work to connect insular deficits to other neurocircuitries is warranted.

  20. Hemolytic Potential of Tafenoquine in Female Volunteers Heterozygous for Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency (G6PD Mahidol Variant) versus G6PD-Normal Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Bancone, Germana; Harrell, Emma J; Beelen, Andrew P; Kongpatanakul, Supornchai; Möhrle, Jörg J; Rousell, Vicki; Mohamed, Khadeeja; Qureshi, Ammar; Narayan, Sushma; Yubon, Nushara; Miller, Ann; Nosten, François H; Luzzatto, Lucio; Duparc, Stephan; Kleim, Jörg-Peter; Green, Justin A

    2017-07-24

    Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline under investigation for the prevention of relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed quantitatively the hemolytic risk with tafenoquine in female healthy volunteers heterozygous for the Mahidol(487A) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient variant versus G6PD-normal females, and with reference to primaquine. Six G6PD-heterozygous subjects (G6PD enzyme activity 40-60% of normal) and six G6PD-normal subjects per treatment group received single-dose tafenoquine (100, 200, or 300 mg) or primaquine (15 mg × 14 days). All participants had pretreatment hemoglobin levels ≥ 12.0 g/dL. Tafenoquine dose escalation stopped when hemoglobin decreased by ≥ 2.5 g/dL (or hematocrit decline ≥ 7.5%) versus pretreatment values in ≥ 3/6 subjects. A dose-response was evident in G6PD-heterozygous subjects (N = 15) receiving tafenoquine for the maximum decrease in hemoglobin versus pretreatment values. Hemoglobin declines were similar for tafenoquine 300 mg (-2.65 to -2.95 g/dL [N = 3]) and primaquine (-1.25 to -3.0 g/dL [N = 5]). Two further cohorts of G6PD-heterozygous subjects with G6PD enzyme levels 61-80% (N = 2) and > 80% (N = 5) of the site median normal received tafenoquine 200 mg; hemolysis was less pronounced at higher G6PD enzyme activities. Tafenoquine hemolytic potential was dose dependent, and hemolysis was greater in G6PD-heterozygous females with lower G6PD enzyme activity levels. Single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg did not appear to increase the severity of hemolysis versus primaquine 15 mg × 14 days.

  1. A comparison of the gastric and central nervous system effects of two substituted benzamides in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, G R; Sutton, J A

    1986-01-01

    Eight healthy male volunteers participated in a single-blind, random allocation, crossover, comparison of intravenous metoclopramide (10 mg), the peripherally acting, gastrointestinal stimulant BRL 20627 (10 mg) and saline. The central nervous system effects were assessed by quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) and by visual analogue scales. Gastric motility and emptying were assessed by epigastric impedance. Metoclopramide increased the EEG amplitude by 10.4% (a statistically significant, P less than 0.05, effect) and increased frequencies above 22 Hz, whereas both BRL 20627 and placebo had only minor effect on the EEG frequencies and slightly decreased the EEG amplitude. Ratings on visual analogue scales showed that metoclopramide caused statistically significant (P less than 0.01 difference from placebo) restlessness and slight but significantly less (P less than 0.05 difference from placebo) feeling of happiness. Epigastic impedance changes indicated that both metoclopramide and BRL 20627 increased gastric contractile activity, but the rate of gastric emptying was not significantly altered by either drug although it tended to be shortened following metoclopramide but not BRL 20627 treatment. It is concluded that since the published animal data show that BRL 20627 has only weak dopamine antagonistic properties this study further implicates dopamine receptor blockade in the akathisia but not in the gastric effect of metoclopramide. PMID:3755051

  2. Mobilizing Volunteer Tutors to Improve Student Literacy: Implementation, Impacts, and Costs of the Reading Partners Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepper Jacob, Robin; Armstrong, Catherine; Willard, Jacklyn Altuna

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on an evaluation of the "Reading Partners" program, which uses community volunteers to provide one-on-one tutoring to struggling readers in underresourced elementary schools. Established in 1999 in East Menlo Park, California, the mission of "Reading Partners" is to help children become lifelong readers by…

  3. An Internet Dialogue: Mandatory Student Community Service, Court-Ordered Volunteering, and Service-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susan; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Excerpts from an Internet debate identify issues and opinions on mandatory community service as a graduation requirement and court-ordered volunteering. The debate ranges over such topics as quality of the service experience, freedom of choice, intended outcomes, and values conflicts. (SK)

  4. Motives of Volunteering and Values of Work among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocsi, Veronika; Fényes, Hajnalka; Markos, Valéria

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the motives for voluntary work and work values in higher education contexts are examined in a cross-border region in Central Eastern Europe. Our goal is to find out what kind of relationship exists between different types of volunteering and work values among young people. In the theoretical section, we deal with the definition of…

  5. Bronchodilator action of inhaled fenoterol and ipratropium in normal subjects: a teaching exercise for medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R G; Maclagan, J; Cook, D G

    1989-01-01

    1. A pharmacology practical class for preclinical medical students was designed as a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of two bronchodilator drugs. 2. Fenoterol hydrobromide (800 micrograms), ipratropium bromide (80 micrograms) and placebo (propellant only) were given by metered dose inhaler to 79 non-asthmatic volunteers. Their effects on FEV1, heart rate and tremor (assessed by the time taken to thread five sewing needles) were compared. 3. Both drugs caused a significant increase in FEV1: the largest group mean increase was 77 ml, recorded 15 min after fenoterol, and 103 ml, recorded 60 min after ipratropium. 4. Fenoterol also caused a mean increase of 8.7 beats min-1 in heart rate, 5 min after inhalation. This effect was still apparent after 60 min. 5. Fenoterol appeared to prolong needle threading time in some individuals. 6. In subjects who inhaled fenoterol, there were no correlations between the increase in FEV1, the increase in heart rate, or the development of tremor. 7. It is concluded that inhaled fenoterol and ipratropium both cause bronchodilation in normal subjects. Systemic absorption of fenoterol is indicated by the rapid increase in heart rate. The bronchodilator effect of ipratropium suggests that resting airway calibre is governed partly by parasympathetic tone in normal subjects. 8. The bronchodilator and systemic effects of these drugs can be used to demonstrate pharmacological, therapeutic and statistical principles to medical students. PMID:2532922

  6. Implementation of a volunteer university student research assistant program in an emergency department: the nuts and bolts for success.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Patrick E; Crudden, Johanna; Boutis, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    Prospective research studies often advance clinical practice in the emergency department (ED), but they can be costly and difficult to perform. In this report, we describe the implementation of a volunteer university student research assistant program that provides students exposure to medicine and clinical research while simultaneously increasing the capacity of an ED's research program. This type of program provides 15 hours per day of research assistant coverage for patient screening and enrolment for minimal risk research studies, and screening for higher risk studies. The latter is true without the added burden or costs of co-administering university course credit or pay for service, which are common features of most of these types of programs currently in operation. We have shown that our volunteer-based program is effective for an ED's research success as well as for its student participants. For other EDs interested in adopting similar programs, we provide the details on how to get such a program started and highlight the structure and non-monetary incentives that facilitate a program's ongoing success.

  7. A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Select Safety Parameters Among Normal Healthy Volunteers Taking Placebo in Phase 1 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Young, Tina C; Srinivasan, Subasree; Vetter, Marion L; Sethuraman, Venkat; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Zwirtes, Ricardo; Narasimhan, Premkumar; Chuang, Tilda; Smyth, Brendan J

    2017-09-01

    A systematic review of the Bristol-Myers Squibb normal healthy volunteers (NHVs) database identified phase 1 trials that included NHVs administered placebo with the aim of characterizing normal inter- and intraindividual safety parameter variability. Twenty-five single and multiple ascending dose studies, median duration 28 (2 to 63) days, were included in the pooled analysis (355 NHVs). Laboratory evaluations, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and adverse events were assessed. The most commonly occurring adverse event was headache (28 [7.9%] NHVs; 519.5 events/100 person-years). During the dosing period (on placebo), evaluations showed 5.1 events/100 measures of alanine aminotransferase and 7.3 events/100 measures of creatine kinase 1× above the upper limit of normal. Alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase elevations occurred in 28 (7.9%) and 39 (11.0%) NHVs, respectively; 105 (30.3%) NHVs had low and 46 (13.3%) had high diastolic blood pressure. This analysis may inform future study designs and provide a context for interpretation of safety signals in early phase clinical trials. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. First-Year Student Motivations for Service-Learning: An Application of the Volunteer Functions Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Andrew J.; Christensen, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    This study extends a line of research focused on motivational factors that contribute to first-year students' reasons for engaging in service-learning. Among first-year students, altruistically-motivated students (Christensen, Stritch, Kellough, & Brewer, 2015) and minority students (Pearl & Christensen, 2016) were not only more…

  9. Volunteer Motivation and Its Relationship to Satisfaction and Future Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Susan K.; And Others

    To examine the relationship between two types of motivation (altruistic and non-altruistic) and perception of the volunteer experience, 43 volunteer workers at St. Elizabeth's, a mental hospital, were surveyed. These student volunteers from Washington, D.C. area universities completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of their 10-week…

  10. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered “The ’Gita” Inventory of Personality” (GIN) to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Self esteem in terms of competency (COM), global self esteem (GSE), moral and self esteem (MSE), social esteem (SET), family self esteem (FSE), body and physical appearance (BPA), and the lie scale (LIS) were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ). Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 independent samples t-test). There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups (P < 0.001 paired t-test). The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test). The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise. PMID:21234210

  11. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health

  12. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Results: Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). Conclusions: There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga

  13. International Volunteer Programs for Dental Students: Results of 2009 and 2016 Surveys of U.S. Dental Schools.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl F; Rowland, Briana; Horne, Steve; Serio, Francis G

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and nature of international volunteer programs for predoctoral students at U.S. dental schools and to document the change over five years. Web-based surveys were conducted in 2009 and 2016. An invitation to participate in the study, along with a hyperlink to the survey, was emailed to the deans of all U.S. dental schools in the two years. In 2009, 47 of 58 dental school deans responded to the survey, for a response rate of 81%. In 2016, 48 of 64 dental school deans responded, for a response rate of 75%. From 2009 to 2016, the number of schools reporting dental student international experiences increased from 25 to 31. In 2016, 65% of responding schools offered dental student international experiences, an 11.5% increase over the results of the 2009 survey. Concomitantly, the number of deans reporting their students' participation in international opportunities not officially sanctioned by the school decreased from 41 to 34. These findings showed an increase in the number of dental schools providing international experiences for their students and established baseline data to assess trends in the future.

  14. Student Organization Advisor Motives to Volunteer at Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert A.; Kroth, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many higher education institutions require student organization advisors to be employees. Such requirements can be interpreted as barriers to students and can limit the number and types of groups found on college campuses. Using quantitative analysis, this study investigates the motivation of student organization advisors at six public…

  15. Wisdom of generations: a pilot study of the values transmitted in ethical wills of nursing home residents and student volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Regier, Natalie G; Peyser, Hedy; Stanton, Joshua

    2009-08-01

    This is a pilot study that provides a description of the values older persons report in ethical wills and their reasoning for the values they chose, and compares the values in ethical wills of seniors and students. Nursing home residents rarely get the opportunity or venue to discuss these topics and the ethical will enables them to have conversations about issues they feel are important. The 22 Questions for Ethical Wills(c) assessment was administered to 15 residents of a large nursing home in suburban Maryland and to 11 student volunteers. Raters identified recurring themes and independently analyzed the text from the ethical wills based on the themes. Questions that prompted similar responses were combined in the analyses. The most prevalent theme among both nursing home residents and students was "interpersonal relations." Differences between groups of respondents were especially evident for the theme of "education," which was given by over a half of the older persons and none of the students. Greater variability was found in the responses of the older participants, as was a greater likelihood of providing detailed explanations for their relayed values. The 22 Questions for Ethical Wills(c) is a useful methodology to elicit meaningful discussions of values and life lessons in persons both young and old. This process offers an intriguing comparison between the similarities and differences of life views of persons at opposite ends of the age spectrum.

  16. Effects of soybean beta-conglycinin on body fat ratio and serum lipid levels in healthy volunteers of female university students.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshimitsu; Ueda, Aiko; Kohno, Mitsutaka; Fukui, Kensuke; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Hirotsuka, Motohiko; Ishinaga, Masataka

    2004-02-01

    The changes in body fat ratio and serum lipids induced by the ingestion of beta-conglycinin were examined in 41 healthy female university student volunteers. The trend of change in body fat ratio following the ingestion of beta-conglycinin differed between students with a baseline body fat ratio over 25% and those less than 25%. In the former group, the ingestion of beta-conglycinin suppressed the increase in body fat ratio. Moreover the six subjects who had a high total cholesterol level (5.72 mmol/L or higher) tended to have reduced levels of serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, total cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) after the ingestion of beta-conglycinin, although those levels did not change significantly. The number of subjects was only six, therefore it was inferred that significant changes were not observed. Thus, ingestion of soybean beta-conglycinin suppressed the increase in body fat ratio in individuals with a high baseline body fat ratio and reduced relatively high serum levels of lipids. Those results suggest that if soybean beta-conglycinin is ingested continuously (5 g daily), it will be effective in keeping body fat ratio and serum lipid levels normal and eliminating excessive lipids from the body.

  17. Through Our Eyes: Narratives of Three Student Volunteers at Aaniiih Nakoda College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick Wertz, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Many adults pursue college degrees with high hopes of attaining a job and financial stability. However, visualize being not only a full-time college student but also a parent, a rancher, and most importantly, an American Indian. Many students enrolled in higher education in the United States have the luxury of focusing their time on their studies,…

  18. Through Our Eyes: Narratives of Three Student Volunteers at Aaniiih Nakoda College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick Wertz, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Many adults pursue college degrees with high hopes of attaining a job and financial stability. However, visualize being not only a full-time college student but also a parent, a rancher, and most importantly, an American Indian. Many students enrolled in higher education in the United States have the luxury of focusing their time on their studies,…

  19. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Amorim da Silva, Polyanna Waleska; Souza, Robson Arruda; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001). Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001), followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001). Conclusion Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing. PMID:25992037

  20. Effects of ticlopidine or ticlopidine plus aspirin on platelet aggregation and ATP release in normal volunteers: why aspirin improves ticlopidine antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Altman, R; Scazziota, A; Rouvier, J; Gonzalez, C

    1999-10-01

    Aspirin and ticlopidine are used to prevent arterial thrombosis. In some clinical settings ticlopidine is administered with aspirin for improving antithrombotic effect. We administered aspirin (100 mg/day), ticlopidine (500 mg/day), or ticlopidine and aspirin for 7 days to healthy volunteers. Platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by sodium arachidonate, ADP, or a combination of both were measured. Sodium arachidonate (0.25 mmol/L), which produces no platelet aggregation, combined with adenosine diphosphate (1 mumol/L), which produced a reversible platelet aggregation of 20% after ticlopidine, resulted in a synergistic platelet aggregation response in normal (74.6 +/- 9.2%) and in ticlopidine platelet-rich plasma (59.1% +/- 14.9%, p < 0.0001). Synergism after sodium arachidonate (0.75 mmol/L) plus adenosine diphosphate (4 mumol/L) fell from 75.8% +/- 11.0% and 59.1% +/- 15.6% after ticlopidine or aspirin, respectively, to 14.8% +/- 18.0% (p < 0.0001) after ticlopidine plus aspirin. Aspirin and ticlopidine alone did not inhibit adenosine triphosphate release as thoroughly as did aspirin plus ticlopidine. Aspirin or ticlopidine does not adequately prevent platelet activity as ticlopidine plus aspirin do. Addition of aspirin to treatment with ticlopidine improves their antiplatelet activity and better results could be obtained in arterial thrombotic prevention strategies.

  1. Comparing the social skills of students addicted to computer games with normal students.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Eshrat; Kheradmand, Ali; Cheshmi, Maliheh; Abedi, Ahmad; Hedayati, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the social skills of studentsaddicted to computer games with normal students. The dependentvariable in the present study is the social skills. The study population included all the students in the second grade ofpublic secondary school in the city of Isfahan at the educational year of2009-2010. The sample size included 564 students selected using thecluster random sampling method. Data collection was conducted usingQuestionnaire of Addiction to Computer Games and Social SkillsQuestionnaire (The Teenage Inventory of Social Skill or TISS). The results of the study showed that generally, there was a significantdifference between the social skills of students addicted to computer gamesand normal students. In addition, the results indicated that normal studentshad a higher level of social skills in comparison with students addicted tocomputer games. As the study results showed, addiction to computer games may affectthe quality and quantity of social skills. In other words, the higher theaddiction to computer games, the less the social skills. The individualsaddicted to computer games have less social skills.).

  2. Comparing the Social Skills of Students Addicted to Computer Games with Normal Students

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Eshrat; Kheradmand, Ali; Cheshmi, Maliheh; Abedi, Ahmad; Hedayati, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate and compare the social skills of studentsaddicted to computer games with normal students. The dependentvariable in the present study is the social skills. Methods The study population included all the students in the second grade ofpublic secondary school in the city of Isfahan at the educational year of2009-2010. The sample size included 564 students selected using thecluster random sampling method. Data collection was conducted usingQuestionnaire of Addiction to Computer Games and Social SkillsQuestionnaire (The Teenage Inventory of Social Skill or TISS). Findings The results of the study showed that generally, there was a significantdifference between the social skills of students addicted to computer gamesand normal students. In addition, the results indicated that normal studentshad a higher level of social skills in comparison with students addicted tocomputer games. Conclusion As the study results showed, addiction to computer games may affectthe quality and quantity of social skills. In other words, the higher theaddiction to computer games, the less the social skills. The individualsaddicted to computer games have less social skills.). PMID:24494102

  3. Cable parameters, sodium, potassium, chloride, and water content, and potassium efflux in isolated external intercostal muscle of normal volunteers and patients with myotonia congenita

    PubMed Central

    Lipicky, R. J.; Bryant, S. H.; Salmon, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    In isolated fiber bundles of external intercostal muscle from each of 13 normal volunteers and each of 6 patients with myotonia congenita, some or all of the following were measured: concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl-, extracellular volume, water content, K+ efflux, fiber size, fiber cable parameters, and fiber resting potentials. Muscle from patients with myotonia congenita differed significantly (0.001 normal): the membrane resistance was greater (5729 vs. 2619 ω·cm2), the internal resistivity was less (75.0 vs. 123.2 ω·cm), the water content was less (788.2 vs. 808.2 ml/kg wet weight), and the mean resting potential was greater (68 vs. 61 mv). No significant differences were found with respect to the following variables: K+ content (73.5 vs. 66.7 mEq/kg wet weight) and the calculated intracellular K+ concentration (215 vs. 191 mEq/liter fiber water), fiber capacitance (5.90 vs. 5.15 μf/cm2), Na+ content (97.7 vs. 94.1 mEq/kg wet weight), Cl- content (79.0 vs. 74.7 mEq/kg wet weight), mannitol extracellular volume (45.1 vs. 46.6 cc/100 g wet weight), and K+ efflux (23.2 vs. 21.5 moles × 10-12 cm-2·sec-1). These abnormalities of skeletal muscle in human myotonia congenita are like those of skeletal muscle in goats with hereditary myotonia. We tentatively conclude that a decreased Cl- permeability accounts for some of the abnormal electrical properties of skeletal muscle in myotonia congenita. PMID:4940295

  4. School-Based Mentoring Programs: Using Volunteers to Improve the Academic Outcomes of Underserved Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Amanda; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; DuBois, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that school-based mentoring programs like those offered by Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (BBBSA) yield small but statistically significant improvements in the academic performance of mentored students and in their beliefs in their own scholastic efficacy. The present study uses data from a randomized control trial…

  5. Community-based clinic volunteering: an evaluation of the direct and indirect effects on the experience of health science college students.

    PubMed

    Bird, Yelena; Islam, Adiba; Moraros, John

    2016-01-18

    The present study was conducted in a multi service-learning, student managed and operated, community-based clinic. Its aim was to measure the direct and indirect effects of how proximal factors (i.e., 'management', 'support received', 'duration of involvement', and 'average time spent per month') and mediators (i.e., 'training received', 'motivation', and 'commitment') influence distal outcomes (i.e., 'performance', 'satisfaction', and 'overall experience') within a volunteer organization. Participants were recruited through the use of an email list server. An online survey was used containing multi-item measures from validated scales. Data were collected from 170 volunteers from July to August 2013. Data analysis used a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework for the estimation of direct and indirect effects on constructs and variables of interest. Only statistically significant relationships were reported at p < 0.05. In this study, there are several direct effects worthy of note. First, the proximal factor of 'management' plays an important role in influencing the mediators of 'motivation' (standardized beta = 0.55) and 'training received' (0.65) by the student volunteers but has a relatively small impact on their 'commitment' (0.39) to the organization. Second, the mediator of 'motivation' proved to have the strongest impact on the distal outcome of volunteer 'performance' and 'satisfaction' levels (0.41 and 0.58 respectively), whereas 'commitment' (0.44) was the key in determining their 'overall experience' with the organization. These results in turn, help contextualize the indirect effects observed in our study. Namely, the proximal factor of 'management' played a distinctive role in influencing the distal outcomes of volunteer 'performance' (0.32) and 'overall experience' (0.66), whereas the organizational 'support received' by the volunteers was key to their 'satisfaction' (0.21). The findings of the present study shed light into the direct

  6. Enantioselective effects of levodropropizine and dropropizine on psychomotor functions in normal volunteers: a placebo-controlled, double-blind comparative study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Dominijanni, R; Cordaro, C; Perucca, E

    1993-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the l-isomer of dropropizine, a racemic drug widely used as a cough suppressant. Compared with the racemate, levodropropizine retains equal antitussive activity but exhibits considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects in animal models. In order to assess whether the same differential pharmacodynamic profile also applies to man, a double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out to investigate the effects of single oral doses (60 and 120 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine on subjective alertness (scored on visual analogue scales), general tolerability and psychomotor function tests (cancellation, tapping, choice reaction times and critical flicker fusion frequency) in ten normal volunteers. Treatments were administered in random sequence at intervals of at least one week, evaluation procedures being carried out at times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after dosing. Following intake of a 60 mg levodropizine dose, subjective effects and objective estimates of psychomotor function were superimposable to those recorded after placebo. There was a trend for 60 mg dropropizine and 120 mg levodropropizine to produce detrimental effects at occasional evaluations, although the changes associated with these treatments could not be differentiated from placebo on the basis of most subjective scores and psychomotor function tests. Conversely, administration of 120 mg dropropizine was consistently associated with subjective CNS impairment and with reduced performance (compared to baseline) in recognition time, critical flicker fusion thresholds and possibly tapping rate, for up to three hours after dosing. These data are consistent with evidence that racemic dropropizine adversely affects central nervous system function to a greater extent compared with the levo-isomer.

  7. An analysis of science conceptual knowledge in journals of students with disabilities and normally achieving students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigg, Gail S.

    Science education reforms of the last two decades have focused on raising the bar for ALL students which includes students with mild to moderate disabilities. Formative assessment can be used to assess the progress of these students to inquire, understand scientific concepts, reason scientifically, make decisions, and communicate effectively in science. The purpose of this study is to examine the use of science journals as a formative assessment in a guided inquiry unit of study for students with learning disabilities. Two normally achieving students (NA) and five students with learning disabilities (SLD) participated in a study of mammals that utilized journals to record the development of student knowledge through the course of study. Students were interviewed after the lessons were complete using the same prompts required in the journals. Themes were developed from the student writings and their verbal discourse using Grounded Theory. Journals and verbal discourse were rated following the themes of Knowledge Telling (KT) and Knowledge Transformation (KTR). Concept maps were developed for the Pre and Post test lessons (written and verbal discourses) by the raters in an attempt to further explain the knowledge that the students conveyed. The results of this study suggest that SLD are able to demonstrate knowledge about mammals better through verbal discourse than written discourse. While the NA students wrote more and used more technical discourse than did their SLD peers, the conceptual understanding of the topic by the SLD was no less inclusive than their NA peers when accessed verbally. The journals demonstrated limited conceptual growth for the SLD. Further, while lexical density is important to the development of knowledge in science, this study suggests the "conceptual density" may be another important indicator to examine.

  8. Use of biosynthetic human C-peptide in the measurement of insulin secretion rates in normal volunteers and type I diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, K S; Licinio-Paixao, J; Given, B D; Pugh, W; Rue, P; Galloway, J; Karrison, T; Frank, B

    1986-01-01

    We undertook this study to examine the accuracy of plasma C-peptide as a marker of insulin secretion. The peripheral kinetics of biosynthetic human C-peptide (BHCP) were studied in 10 normal volunteers and 7 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Each subject received intravenous bolus injections of BHCP as well as constant and variable rate infusions. After intravenous bolus injections the metabolic clearance rate of BHCP (3.8 +/- 0.1 ml/kg per min, mean +/- SEM) was not significantly different from the value obtained during its constant intravenous infusion (3.9 +/- 0.1 ml/kg per min). The metabolic clearance rate of C-peptide measured during steady state intravenous infusions was constant over a wide concentration range. During experiments in which BHCP was infused at a variable rate, the peripheral concentration of C-peptide did not change in proportion to the infusion rate. Thus, the infusion rate of BHCP could not be calculated accurately as the product of the C-peptide concentration and metabolic clearance rate. However, the non-steady infusion rate of BHCP could be accurately calculated from peripheral C-peptide concentrations using a two-compartment mathematical model when model parameters were derived from the C-peptide decay curve in each subject. Application of this model to predict constant infusions of C-peptide from peripheral C-peptide concentrations resulted in model generated estimates of the C-peptide infusion rate that were 101.5 +/- 3.4% and 100.4 +/- 2.8% of low and high dose rates, respectively. Estimates of the total quantity of C-peptide infused at a variable rate over 240 min based on the two-compartment model represented 104.6 +/- 2.4% of the amount actually infused. Application of this approach to clinical studies will allow the secretion rate of insulin to be estimated with considerable accuracy. The insulin secretion rate in normal subjects after an overnight fast was 89.1 pmol/min, which corresponds with a basal 24-h secretion of 18.6 U

  9. The Effect of Volunteering at a Student-Run Free Healthcare Clinic on Medical Students' Self-Efficacy, Comfortableness, Attitude, and Interest in Working with the Underserved Population and Interest in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kelvin; Kovalskiy, Aleksandr; Desai, Anand; Imran, Amna; Ismail, Rahim; Hernandez, Caridad

    2017-02-23

    The number of primary care physicians in the United States continues to lag behind the number of uninsured people. There has been a growing demand for medical students to improve their self-efficacy, comfortableness, attitude, and interest in working with the underserved and in primary care. This study aims to discern whether volunteering at a student-run, free healthcare clinic has a positive impact on these five variables of interest or not. A 95-item survey was distributed through Qualtrics Survey Software (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA) to medical students from the Class of 2018 and Class of 2019 at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine. They were recruited via emails, Facebook, and in-classroom announcements. Mean responses on a Likert-like scale to different survey items were collected and compared between two study cohorts: Keeping Neighbors In Good Health Through Service (KNIGHTS) Clinic volunteers and non-volunteers. Results from 128 students showed no significant differences in the means between the two cohorts (p-values were not significant). When volunteers were asked the survey item, "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced my attitude towards working with underserved patients," 62% strongly agreed, 26% agreed, 10% were neutral, and 2% disagreed. Based on the results, volunteering at KNIGHTS Clinic may not have a positive impact on the five variables of interest. However, the lack of significance may also be due to certain limitations of this study addressed elsewhere in this paper. With the majority of KNIGHTS Clinic volunteers agreeing that "KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced […their] attitude towards working with underserved patients," there may be a positive impact of volunteering on volunteers' attitude towards working with the underserved.

  10. The New Normal: Social Networking and Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores both the potential and challenges associated with the widespread use of social networking among college students and the implications for civic engagement, equity and inclusion, and student success.

  11. The New Normal: Social Networking and Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This article explores both the potential and challenges associated with the widespread use of social networking among college students and the implications for civic engagement, equity and inclusion, and student success.

  12. Using the All-Volunteer Concept in Adult Basic Education to Serve the Hard to Reach Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockbrader, Golda

    Based on a successful project in Nebraska, this manual was developed for use in establishing a structured all-volunteer adult basic education (ABE) program in small communities or satellite locations. The greater part of the manual covers the various steps a volunteer leader should follow to establish this kind of program, beginning with a section…

  13. Adult Academy Volunteer Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cora, Marie T., Ed.; Wood, Nicole R., Ed.

    This handbook was written specifically for volunteer tutors but is appropriate for teachers, student interns, coordinators, and others working with Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) adult learners. It presents an overview of adult and non-traditional education models, some principles of reading and writing, a…

  14. The Volunteer Tutor's Toolbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Beth Ann, Ed.

    Intended for volunteers in community literacy programs, one-on-one tutors, or parents who want to support classroom learning, this book presents tutoring ideas, teaching activities, and evaluation suggestions. The book guides tutors as they teach students to become independent learners and shows tutors how to provide support but not "do"…

  15. Extending Volunteer Programs in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Henry G.

    Documented here is a project involving three extensions or adaptations for using volunteers in schools. The first adaptation involves a plan for meeting certain major needs of a secondary school with volunteer help. This plan includes components designed to reorganize the secondary school curriculum to allow some of the students to study aspects…

  16. The Effect of Volunteering at a Student-Run Free Healthcare Clinic on Medical Students' Self-Efficacy, Comfortableness, Attitude, and Interest in Working with the Underserved Population and Interest in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kovalskiy, Aleksandr; Desai, Anand; Imran, Amna; Ismail, Rahim; Hernandez, Caridad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The number of primary care physicians in the United States continues to lag behind the number of uninsured people. There has been a growing demand for medical students to improve their self-efficacy, comfortableness, attitude, and interest in working with the underserved and in primary care. This study aims to discern whether volunteering at a student-run, free healthcare clinic has a positive impact on these five variables of interest or not. Methods A 95-item survey was distributed through Qualtrics Survey Software (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA) to medical students from the Class of 2018 and Class of 2019 at the University of Central Florida College of Medicine. They were recruited via emails, Facebook, and in-classroom announcements. Mean responses on a Likert-like scale to different survey items were collected and compared between two study cohorts: Keeping Neighbors In Good Health Through Service (KNIGHTS) Clinic volunteers and non-volunteers. Results Results from 128 students showed no significant differences in the means between the two cohorts (p-values were not significant). When volunteers were asked the survey item, “KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced my attitude towards working with underserved patients,” 62% strongly agreed, 26% agreed, 10% were neutral, and 2% disagreed. Discussion Based on the results, volunteering at KNIGHTS Clinic may not have a positive impact on the five variables of interest. However, the lack of significance may also be due to certain limitations of this study addressed elsewhere in this paper. With the majority of KNIGHTS Clinic volunteers agreeing that “KNIGHTS Clinic positively influenced […their] attitude towards working with underserved patients,” there may be a positive impact of volunteering on volunteers’ attitude towards working with the underserved.   PMID:28367389

  17. Using Maslow's hierarchy to highlight power imbalances between visiting health professional student volunteers and the host community: An applied qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tracey; Akporuno, Orezioghene; Owens, Katrina M; Lickers, Brittany; Marlinga, Jazmin; Lin, Henry C; Loh, Lawrence C

    2017-01-01

    Health professional students from high-income countries increasingly participate in short-term experiences in global health (STEGH) conducted abroad. One common criticism of STEGH is the inherent power differential that exists between visiting learners and the local community. To highlight this power differential, this paper explores perceived benefits as described by volunteer and community respondents and applies Maslow's hierarchy of needs to commonly identified themes in each respondent group. A semistructured survey was used to collect qualitative responses from both volunteers and community members located in a Dominican Republic community, that is, a hotspot for traditionally conducted STEGH. Thematic analysis identified themes of perceived benefits from both respondent groups; each group's common themes were then classified and compared within Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Each respondent group identified resource provision as a perceived benefit of STEGH, but volunteer respondents primarily focused on the provision of highly-skilled, complex resources while community respondents focused on basic necessities (food, water, etc.) Volunteer respondents were also the only group to also mention spiritual/religious/life experiences, personal skills development, and relationships as perceived benefits. Applying Maslow's hierarchy thus demonstrates a difference in needs: community respondents focused on benefits that address deficiency needs at the bottom of the hierarchy while volunteers focused on benefits addressing self-transcendence/actualization needs at the top of the hierarchy. The perceived difference in needs met by STEGH between volunteers and the host community within Maslow's hierarchy may drive an inherent power differential. Refocusing STEGH on the relationship level of the hierarchy (i.e., focusing on partnerships) might help mitigate this imbalance and empower host communities.

  18. A Probabilistic Model of Student Nurses' Knowledge of Normal Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, David Lynn

    1983-01-01

    Vocational and technical education researchers need to be aware of the uses and limits of various statistical models. The author reviews the Rasch Model and applies it to results from a nutrition test given to student nurses. (Author)

  19. Professional Identity Development Through Service Learning: A Qualitative Study of First-Year Medical Students Volunteering at a Medical Specialty Camp.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jimmy; Chretien, Katherine; Kind, Terry

    2015-11-01

    To describe the experience of medical students volunteering at a camp for children with a variety of medical conditions. Rising second-year medical students who had served as counselors for 1 week at a medical specialty camp were invited to participate. We conducted a 2-part qualitative study using on-site focus groups and follow-up individual interviews. Nine medical students participated. Students described their experience as motivating and career reinforcing. It helped them "move beyond the textbook" and deepened their commitment to serving future patients with compassion. One theme that emerged was the idea that their camp experience fostered the development of their professional identities. A 1-week, immersive community service experience at a medical specialty camp played a role in influencing the early formative professional identities of rising second-year medical students. Medical schools could use camps as a promising community service-learning experiences to foster professional identity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Measurement of hand bone mineral content by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry: development of the method, and its application in normal volunteers and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, A A; Brabyn, J; Jones, P W; Davis, M J; Woolf, A D

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To develop a method of measuring hand bone mineral content (BMC) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA); to apply this method of measuring hand BMC to normal volunteers to ascertain causes of variability; and to measure hand BMC in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of varying duration and severity. METHODS--The x ray beam of the Hologic QDR 1000 dual energy x ray absorptiometer was hardened by introducing a perspex-aluminium plate and the analysis software altered to allow for the small tissue bulk of the hand compared with the torso. Ninety five volunteers (46 men age 24-81 and 49 women age 20-83) had scans of both hands. Eight volunteers were assessed repeatedly to establish reproducibility and effect of hand position. Fifty six patients (22 men, 34 women, age range 25-86 years) with RA of differing duration and severity, had hand BMC measurement by DXA. RESULTS--The precision of BMC measurement was 2.3% with no additional variation due to hand position. Hand dominance had no significant effect on BMC. In men, hand BMC correlated with height (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001), weight (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), forearm span (r = 0.5, p = 0.0006) and hand volume (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001). In women hand BMC correlated with height (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001), weight (r = 0.4, p = 0.003), forearm span (r = 0.3, p = 0.03) and hand volume (r = 0.49, p = 0.0008). After correcting for all these variables, male volunteers had significantly higher hand BMC than female volunteers (p = 0.01) and patients with RA had lower hand BMC than normal volunteers (total hand BMC in male volunteers 90.9 gms, 95% CI 86.9-95, in male patients 81.7 gms, 95% CI 73.7-89.6, p < 0.004, total hand BMC in female volunteers 62.2 gms 95% CI 59.8-64.5, female patients 52.3 gms, 95% CI 48.1-56.5, p < 0.005). In patients with RA, the hand BMC showed an inverse correlation with age (r = -0.44, p = 0.01), disease duration (r = -0.62, p = 0.0003), Larsen's grades (r = -0.62, p = 0.0002) and modified Sharp

  1. Handbook for Volunteers: Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for volunteers in Olympic College's Adult Education Volunteer Classroom Assistant Project, this handbook discusses volunteer tutors' roles, characteristics of Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) students, suggested teaching techniques, tips for working with instructors, and college policies and regulations.…

  2. Handbook for Volunteers: Adult Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for volunteers in Olympic College's Adult Education Volunteer Classroom Assistant Project, this handbook discusses volunteer tutors' roles, characteristics of Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) students, suggested teaching techniques, tips for working with instructors, and college policies and regulations.…

  3. Summarization strategies of hearing-impaired and normally hearing college students.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L N; French, L

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the summary writing skills of hearing-impaired and normally hearing college students. Summarization was defined in terms of the following measures: deletion of trivial text information, inclusion of most important ideas, selection of topic sentences, creation of topic statements, and integration of information within and among several paragraphs. Inclusion of opinionated, incorrect, and uninterpretable information was measured also. Thirty hearing-impaired and 30 normally hearing students read and summarized two expository science passages that were controlled for the number of topic (main idea) sentences and that had been rated previously for the importance of "idea units." Students' factual comprehension also was assessed. Hearing-impaired and normally hearing students exhibited a similar pattern of use among several measured summarization strategies, except for the inclusion of opinions or comments in their summaries. Hearing-impaired students were not as sensitive as normally hearing students to importance of ideas and used the following summarization strategies significantly less often: inclusion of important ideas, selection of topic sentences, creation of topic statements, and integration of ideas within and among paragraphs. The results indicated that hearing-impaired college students have basic summarization skills but do not apply summarization strategies as effectively as normally hearing students.

  4. Comparability of Self-Concept among Learning Disabled, Normal, and Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winne, Phillip H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Using 60 fourth- to seventh-grade learning disabled (LD), normal, and gifted students, the comparability of representations of self-concept across groups was analyzed for the Sears and Coopersmith inventories. (Author/SW)

  5. THE UTILIZATION OF VOLUNTEERS AND UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN MEETING SOCIO/CULTURAL DEPRIVATION PROBLEMS IN AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. DEMONSTRATION PROPOSAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BASKIN, SAMUEL

    PROPOSED IS AN EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENT PROJECT FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN COMING TO DAYTON, OHIO, FROM APPALACHIA. THE SOCIAL ACTION COMMITTEE OF A SYNAGOGUE IN DAYTON WOULD "ADOPT" A KINDERGARTEN CLASS FOR A 5-YEAR PERIOD. A COOPERATIVE APPROACH TO WORKING WITH THE CHILDREN WOULD COMBINE THE SERVICES OF VOLUNTEERS RECRUITED FROM THE…

  6. Changes in systemic and pulmonary blood flow distribution in normal adult volunteers in response to posture and exercise: a phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Derek T H; Lee, Kyong-Jin; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Tomlinson, George; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Hemodynamics are usually evaluated in the supine position at rest. This is only a snapshot of an individual's daily activities. This study describes circulatory adaptation, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, to changes in position and exercise. Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow within systemic and pulmonary arteries and veins was performed in 24 healthy volunteers at rest in the prone and supine position and with bicycle exercise in the supine position. No change was seen in systemic blood flow when moving from prone to supine. Exercise resulted in an increased percentage of cardiac output towards the lower body. Changes in position resulted in a redistribution of blood flow within the left lung--supine positioning resulted in decreased blood flow to the left lower pulmonary vein. With exercise, both the right and left lower lobes received increased blood flow, while the upper lobes received less.

  7. Decrease in circulating tryptophan availability to the brain after acute ethanol consumption by normal volunteers: implications for alcohol-induced aggressive behaviour and depression.

    PubMed

    Badawy, A A; Morgan, C J; Lovett, J W; Bradley, D M; Thomas, R

    1995-10-01

    Acute ethanol consumption by fasting male volunteers decreases circulating trytophan (Trp) concentration and availability to the brain as determined by the ratio of (Trp) to the sum of its five competitors ([Trp]/[CAA]ratio). These effects of alcohol are specific to Trp, because levels of the 5 competitors are not increased. The decrease in circulating (Trp) is not associated with altered binding to albumin and may therefore be due to enhancement of hepatic Trp pyrrolase activity. It is suggested that, under these conditions brain serotonin synthesis is likely to be impaired and that, as a consequence, a possible strong depletion of brain serotonin in susceptible individuals may induce aggressive behaviour after alcohol consumption. The possible implications of these findings in the relationship between alcohol and depression are also briefly discussed.

  8. Representing Written Vowels in University Students with Dyslexia Compared with Normal Hebrew Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit

    2004-01-01

    The study investigates dyslexic and normal Hebrew readers' perception of words containing a vowel letter in different orthographic and morphological contexts. In the first experiment, 72 undergraduate education students (half diagnosed with reading disabilities and half normal readers) were asked to judge pointed words with different morphological…

  9. Normalizing English Language Learner Students: A Foucauldian Analysis of Opposition to Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses Foucault's (1977/1995) concept of normalization to analyze contemporary opposition to bilingual education in the United States. These contemporary movements have "normalized" English language learner (ELL) students by appropriating the technology of language in order to become "Americanized." This has become…

  10. EFFECTS OF ORTHOKINETIC SEGMENTS UPON MOTOR RESPONSES OF NORMAL MALE COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRENSHAW, WILLIAM A.

    THIS STUDY ASSESSES THE EFFECTS OF ORTHOKINETIC SEGMENTS UPON THE MOTOR RESPONSES OF NORMAL MALE COLLEGE STUDENTS PERFORMING THE VERTICAL JUMP AND THE STANDING BROAD JUMP. THE VARIOUS PLACINGS OF THE ELASTIC AND INELASTIC FIELDS OF THE SEGMENTS UPON THE AGONIST AND ANTAGONIST THIGH MUSCLES OF STUDENTS WERE NOTED AND COMPARED WITH PERFORMANCE…

  11. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  12. Performance of Normal and Disabled Nigerian Students on a Selective Attention Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uba, Anselm

    1982-01-01

    To determine to what extent disabled students may be selected and integrated into the regular schools in Nigeria, 42 normal and blind students were compared for differences in selective attention in a task involving letters and numbers. The hypothesis was substantiated that, because of the sociocultural stigma attached to blindness, normal…

  13. Self-reported consistency of normal habitual sleep durations of college students.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; Pellegrini, R J; Hawkins, J; Moore, J D

    1978-10-01

    A relationship between hours of sleep/night and the consistency of this normal daily sleep duration was observed for 763 college students who had rated themselves as good sleepers with stable and fairly well established patterns of sleep. Congruent with a limited literature, these data suggest that shorter sleep durations are likely, for college students, to be relatively recently acquired patterns of sleep.

  14. International Students' Perceptions of Their Learning Environment in Graduate Programs at One Normal University in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwin, Thawdar; Aslam, Sarfraz; Mukhale, Phoebe Naliaka

    2017-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the international students' perceptions of their learning environment in graduate programs at one normal university in China. The study used both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The sample comprised 91 international students, 51 Master and 40 doctoral from three schools: Education, Life Sciences…

  15. Effect of Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle on Cardio-respiratory Efficiency in Normal, Overweight and Obese Female Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Samsudeen, Nazrin; Rajagopalan, Archana

    2016-12-01

    The influence of obesity on cardio-respiratory efficiency in the various phases of menstrual cycle is not well understood until now. As majority of Indian women have a favourable attitude towards participation in sports it is significant to understand the variation in exercise performance during different phases of menstrual cycle to have an optimum performance. To evaluate the endurance capacity and cardio-respiratory responses in normal, obese and overweight female undergraduate students during different phases of menstrual cycle. Twenty normal weight, 20 obese and 20 over weight, unmarried, undergraduate female volunteers between the age group of 18-22 years, were recruited by convenient sampling. Cardio-respiratory efficiency was assessed by cardiac efficiency test, respiratory endurance test and respiratory blast test. Overall, exercise efficiency varied significantly during the different phases of the menstrual cycle with the highest during luteal phase and lowest during menstrual phase. Similar trend was observed in all the three weight sub-categories, but it was statistically significant in the normal and overweight category only. There was no significant difference in blast test during menstrual phase, follicular phase and luteal phase of menstrual cycle among three groups of individuals. Overall the obese and overweight females had a decreased value for blast test compared to the normal individuals. Significant difference was observed in endurance test among follicular and luteal phase of normal females but there is no change in overweight and obese. Significant difference was observed in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) among luteal phase in normal and overweight individuals but there is no change in obese females. Overall obese individuals have a significant low PEFR compared to normal and overweight individuals. Significant increase in cardiac and respiratory efficiency was observed in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in normal weight where as

  16. Effect of Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle on Cardio-respiratory Efficiency in Normal, Overweight and Obese Female Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    Samsudeen, Nazrin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The influence of obesity on cardio-respiratory efficiency in the various phases of menstrual cycle is not well understood until now. As majority of Indian women have a favourable attitude towards participation in sports it is significant to understand the variation in exercise performance during different phases of menstrual cycle to have an optimum performance. Aim To evaluate the endurance capacity and cardio-respiratory responses in normal, obese and overweight female undergraduate students during different phases of menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods Twenty normal weight, 20 obese and 20 over weight, unmarried, undergraduate female volunteers between the age group of 18-22 years, were recruited by convenient sampling. Cardio-respiratory efficiency was assessed by cardiac efficiency test, respiratory endurance test and respiratory blast test. Results Overall, exercise efficiency varied significantly during the different phases of the menstrual cycle with the highest during luteal phase and lowest during menstrual phase. Similar trend was observed in all the three weight sub-categories, but it was statistically significant in the normal and overweight category only. There was no significant difference in blast test during menstrual phase, follicular phase and luteal phase of menstrual cycle among three groups of individuals. Overall the obese and overweight females had a decreased value for blast test compared to the normal individuals. Significant difference was observed in endurance test among follicular and luteal phase of normal females but there is no change in overweight and obese. Significant difference was observed in Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) among luteal phase in normal and overweight individuals but there is no change in obese females. Overall obese individuals have a significant low PEFR compared to normal and overweight individuals. Conclusion Significant increase in cardiac and respiratory efficiency was observed in the

  17. Assessment of Left Ventricular 2D Flow Pathlines during Early Diastole Using Spatial Modulation of Magnetization with Polarity Alternating Velocity Encoding (SPAMM-PAV): a study in normal volunteers and canine animals with myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ziheng; Friedman, Daniel; Dione, Donald P.; Lin, Ben A.; Duncan, James S.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Sampath, Smita

    2013-01-01

    A high temporal resolution 2D flow pathline analysis method that describes the spatio-temporal distribution of blood entering the left ventricle during early diastolic filling is presented. Filling patterns in normal volunteers (n=8) and canine animals (baseline (n=1) and infarcted (n=6)) are studied using this approach. Data is acquired using our recently reported MR technique, SPAMM-PAV, which permits simultaneous quantification of blood velocities and myocardial strain at high temporal resolution of 14 ms. Virtual emitter particles, released from the mitral valve plane every time frame during rapid filling, are tracked to depict the propagation of 2D pathlines on the imaged plane. The pathline regional distribution patterns are compared with regional myocardial longitudinal strains and regional chamber longitudinal pressure gradients. Our results demonstrate strong spatial inter-dependence between left ventricular (LV) filling patterns and LV mechanical function. Significant differences in pathline-described filling patterns are observed in the infarcted animals. Quantitative analysis of net kinetic energy for each set of pathlines is performed. Peak net kinetic energy of 0.06±0.01 mJ in normal volunteers, 0.043 mJ in baseline dog, 0.143±0.03 mJ in three infarcted dogs with nominal flow dysfunction, and 0.016±0.007 mJ in three infarcted dogs with severe flow dysfunction is observed. PMID:23044637

  18. Analgesic activity of (+)-1-(3-methyl-4-morpholino-2:2-diphenylbutyryl)pyrrolidine (r.875) in student volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cahal, D. A.

    1958-01-01

    (+)-1-(3-Methyl-4-morpholino-2:2-diphenylbutyryl)pyrrolidine (R.875) raised the threshold to ischaemic pain in healthy human volunteers. The peak effect for all doses was reached after about 2 hr. The drug frequently caused nausea and vomiting but no euphoria. Muscular weakness was experienced by many subjects and was sometimes followed 1 to 2 hr. later by hiccup and muscle twitching, suggesting that R.875 may have an effect on striped muscle. PMID:13523131

  19. Project LOVE (Let Older Volunteers Educate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Sally; Weinrich, Martin C.

    The effect of contact with older adult volunteers on the attitudes of elementary school students was investigated by twice administering questionnaires to all first-, third-, and fourth-grade students at Chapin Elementary School, Chapin, South Carolina. Teachers first administered the questionnaire before the older adults began volunteer work in…

  20. Volunteers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Richard; Johnson, Judith

    The results of nine studies evaluating the effectiveness of volunteer programs in the schools were reviewed in an attempt to answer three questions: What is the value of volunteers to schools? Why do people volunteer to work in classrooms? What is the effect of volunteering on the volunteer? The studies involved were originally intended to…

  1. Working with Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Virginia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This special section features research concluding that volunteers find the time because they believe they have more time to help (Rowland); an extension program using volunteer master teachers (Feather); use of volunteer marketing professionals (Fromer); retaining volunteers through leadership training (Balliette, Smith); "problem" volunteers and…

  2. Working with Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Virginia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This special section features research concluding that volunteers find the time because they believe they have more time to help (Rowland); an extension program using volunteer master teachers (Feather); use of volunteer marketing professionals (Fromer); retaining volunteers through leadership training (Balliette, Smith); "problem" volunteers and…

  3. Youth Volunteering in the States: 2002 to 2006. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Sara E.; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    Volunteer rates vary tremendously across states and age groups. In recent years, young people have exhibited rising volunteering rates, particularly high school students and college freshmen, but 2006 witnessed a drop in the volunteering rate among. When comparing the volunteer rates for different age groups from 2002 to 2006, 16-18 year olds…

  4. Effect of intravenous digoxin on the heart at rest and during isometric exercise: a noninvasive study in normal and autonomically blocked volunteers.

    PubMed

    Partanen, J

    1988-02-01

    Nine healthy volunteers were studied with echocardiography and systolic time intervals before and after administration of 1 mg digoxin intravenously at supine rest and during 3-min isometric handgrip exercise. Eight of them were also studied following autonomic blockade, atropine (0.04 mg/kg), and propranolol (0.2 mg/kg) administered intravenously, otherwise the study program was the same. At rest, intravenous digoxin decreased the heart rate from 61 +/- 3 to 50 +/- 2 beats/min (p less than 0.001). Blood pressure, preload [defined as left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)] or afterload [estimated as left ventricular midsystolic circumferential wall stress (WS)], did not change. Fractional shortening increased from 29 +/- 2 to 33 +/- 2% (p less than 0.05), and the electromechanic systole time index (QS2i) decreased from 522 +/- 7 to 500 +/- 5 ms (p less than 0.01). The results indicate improved contractility due to digoxin. During handgrip, the heart rate decreased from 73 +/- 5 to 65 +/- 5 beats/min (p less than 0.01) as a result of digoxin. The LVEDD, WS or ejection phase indices, and systolic time intervals, did not change, suggesting that digoxin does not affect inotropy during isometric exercise. There was no changes in heart rate, preload or afterload, as a result of intravenous digoxin during autonomic blockade. Fractional shortening rose from 25 +/- 1 to 29 +/- 2 (p less than 0.05) and QS2i fell from 561 +/- 3 to 533 +/- 4 ms (p less than 0.001). The results indicate increased inotropy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, John S; Donovan, Jennifer L; Devane, C Lindsay; Taylor, Robin M; Ruan, Ying; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2003-12-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is the most commonly used herbal preparation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to determine whether a characterized saw palmetto product affects the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 or 3A4 in healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally at baseline and again after exposure to saw palmetto (320-mg capsule once daily) for 14 days. Dextromethorphan metabolic ratios and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after saw palmetto treatment. The mean ratio of dextromethorphan to its metabolite was 0.038 +/- 0.044 at baseline and 0.048 +/- 0.080 after 14 days of saw palmetto administration (P =.704, not significant [NS]), indicating a lack of effect on CYP2D6 activity. The area under the plasma alprazolam concentration versus time curve was 476 +/- 178 h. ng. mL(-1) at baseline and 479 +/- 125 h. ng. mL(-1) after saw palmetto treatment (P =.923, NS), indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. The elimination half-life of alprazolam was 11.4 +/- 3.1 hours at baseline and 11.6 +/- 2.7 hours after saw palmetto treatment (P =.770, NS), also indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. Our results indicate that extracts of saw palmetto at generally recommended doses are unlikely to alter the disposition of coadministered medications primarily dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways for elimination. These conclusions must be weighed in the context of the study's limited assessments and regarded as only the initial investigation into the drug interaction potential of saw palmetto.

  6. Effect of electronic toilet system (bidet) on anorectal pressure in normal healthy volunteers: influence of different types of water stream and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Seungbum; Song, Yoon Suk; Seo, Mi Sun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo

    2011-01-01

    Although bidets are widely used in Korea, its effects on anorectal pressures have not been studied in detail in terms of the water settings used. Twenty healthy volunteers were placed on a toilet equipped with a bidet, and anorectal pressures were measured with a manometry catheter inserted into the rectum and anal canal before and after using the bidet at different water forces (40, 80, 160, 200 mN), temperatures (24°C vs 38°C), and water jet widths (narrow vs wide). The pressure at anal high pressure zone decreased from 96.1 ± 22.5 to 81.9 ± 23.3 mmHg at water jet pressure of 40 mN and 38°C wide water jet (P < 0.001), from 94.3 ± 22.4 to 80.0 ± 24.1 mmHg at water jet pressure of 80 mN and 38°C narrow water jet (P < 0.001), and from 92.3 ± 22.4 to 79.6 ± 24.7 mmHg at a water jet pressure of 80 mN and 38°C wide water jet (P < 0.001). At other settings, no significant changes were observed. Our results indicate that, in addition to cleansing effect, bidet could be used to reduce anal resting pressure in the same manner as the traditional warm sitz bath under the conditions of low or medium water jet pressure, a warm water temperature, and a wide type water jet.

  7. Effect of Electronic Toilet System (Bidet) on Anorectal Pressure in Normal Healthy Volunteers: Influence of Different Types of Water Stream and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Seungbum; Song, Yoon Suk; Seo, Mi Sun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Choe, Eun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Although bidets are widely used in Korea, its effects on anorectal pressures have not been studied in detail in terms of the water settings used. Twenty healthy volunteers were placed on a toilet equipped with a bidet, and anorectal pressures were measured with a manometry catheter inserted into the rectum and anal canal before and after using the bidet at different water forces (40, 80, 160, 200 mN), temperatures (24℃ vs 38℃), and water jet widths (narrow vs wide). The pressure at anal high pressure zone decreased from 96.1 ± 22.5 to 81.9 ± 23.3 mmHg at water jet pressure of 40 mN and 38℃ wide water jet (P < 0.001), from 94.3 ± 22.4 to 80.0 ± 24.1 mmHg at water jet pressure of 80 mN and 38℃ narrow water jet (P < 0.001), and from 92.3 ± 22.4 to 79.6 ± 24.7 mmHg at a water jet pressure of 80 mN and 38℃ wide water jet (P < 0.001). At other settings, no significant changes were observed. Our results indicate that, in addition to cleansing effect, bidet could be used to reduce anal resting pressure in the same manner as the traditional warm sitz bath under the conditions of low or medium water jet pressure, a warm water temperature, and a wide type water jet. PMID:21218033

  8. Volunteering and Volunteers: Benefit-Cost Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…

  9. Volunteering and Volunteers: Benefit-Cost Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Femida; Mook, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of volunteering from a benefit-cost perspective. Both the individual making a decision to volunteer and the organization making a decision to use volunteer labor face benefits and costs of their actions, yet these costs and benefits almost always remain unarticulated, perhaps because the common perception of…

  10. Medical Students and AIDS: A Few Avoid the Victims; Some Volunteer to Help, and All Are Very Careful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Future physicians say they view acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) as an unfortunate reality that must be addressed, but with great care. The epidemic has not changed medical students' specialties. Fear of contagion, lack of a cure, unpleasant symptoms, and the youth of many victims are difficult realities for students. (MSE)

  11. On the Influence of Poverty Relief and Educational Aid on Normal University Students' Specialty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Pei

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of poverty relief and educational aid on the development of normal university students in their specialty; in particular, it focuses on its influence on their teaching internship, their study of professional courses, and the formation of professional ethics. The implementation of poverty relief and educational…

  12. Study and Practice of the Cultivation of Mathematics Teaching Design Ability for Normal College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zhenhui; Chen, Hanlin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the course reform of elementary education, the requirements that the classroom teaching should fully embody the new concept of education and inspire students to actively participate in classroom teaching are higher and higher, so high school teachers should have stronger teaching design ability. To make normal college…

  13. Self-Concepts of Students with Learning Disabilities and Their Normally Achieving Peers: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Seleshi

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to test the assumption that children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficient self-concepts, a number of studies have compared the self-concepts of students with learning disabilities and their normally achieving (NA) peers. The purpose of this paper is to review recent studies that investigated the academic, social and general…

  14. On the Influence of Poverty Relief and Educational Aid on Normal University Students' Specialty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Pei

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of poverty relief and educational aid on the development of normal university students in their specialty; in particular, it focuses on its influence on their teaching internship, their study of professional courses, and the formation of professional ethics. The implementation of poverty relief and educational…

  15. What Are the Differences between Scientifically Gifted and Normal Students in the Aspects of Creativity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Ji-Eun; Han, Ki-Soon; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Park, Byung-Gun; Choe, Seung-Urn

    2002-01-01

    Compares and analyzes three different measures of creativity in (n=135) gifted and (n=161) normal students to understand the nature of creativity and propose guidelines for measuring creativity. Uses Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking (TTCT), Test of Creative Problem Solving and Finding in Science (CPFS), and Creative Behavior Checklist in…

  16. When Volunteers Attack!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.

  17. The Virtues of Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Personnel Journal, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents 10 basic steps to use as guidelines in setting up a corporate volunteer program: develop a philosophy, survey the community and employees, isolate a need and outline program functions, recruit volunteers, motivate employees, place volunteers carefully, monitor and evaluate program and volunteers, review goals and results, and consider…

  18. A Volunteer Training Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Moira; Rogers, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Volunteering SA (VSA) has responded to the need to revise and expand the training offered to volunteers. It has developed a volunteer training framework to provide structure and guidance for the sector in making policy and financial decisions about directions and type of training that volunteers require and desire, where the training can lead and…

  19. When Volunteers Attack!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Working with alumni volunteers shouldn't create horror and suspense. Following a few key steps can help maintain a smooth relationship between alumni volunteers and the alumni relations office staff. In this article, the author discusses how to manage volunteers and keep the alumni volunteer relationship on track.

  20. The healthcare volunteer.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, H P; Chang, C F

    1994-01-01

    Every year, volunteers contribute billions of dollars worth of time to the healthcare industry. Despite their contributions, however, little is known about who these volunteers are, what they do, why they volunteer, as well as the costs and benefits they bring to institutions. This article examines these and other characteristics of the healthcare volunteer.

  1. Postural control assessment in students with normal hearing and sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Lemos, Andrea; Macky, Carla Fabiana da Silva Toscano; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Children with sensorineural hearing loss can present with instabilities in postural control, possibly as a consequence of hypoactivity of their vestibular system due to internal ear injury. To assess postural control stability in students with normal hearing (i.e., listeners) and with sensorineural hearing loss, and to compare data between groups, considering gender and age. This cross-sectional study evaluated the postural control of 96 students, 48 listeners and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years, of both genders, through the Balance Error Scoring Systems scale. This tool assesses postural control in two sensory conditions: stable surface and unstable surface. For statistical data analysis between groups, the Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used. Students with hearing loss showed more instability in postural control than those with normal hearing, with significant differences between groups (stable surface, unstable surface) (p<0.001). Students with sensorineural hearing loss showed greater instability in the postural control compared to normal hearing students of the same gender and age. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers' perception and actual well-being of volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life

  3. Perceptions and attitudes of pharmacy students towards volunteering at health promotional programs: a cross-sectional study from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Zehan Shahnaz; Rasheedy, Alian A L; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2015-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the perceptions and understanding of future pharmacists towards volunteerism in health promotional activities. The study was designed as a cross sectional, descriptive survey. All pharmacy undergraduates (n = 293) from the first, second and third professional years enrolled at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia were targeted for the study. A pre validated, 15-itemed questionnaire was used for data collection and was analysed by using SPSS. Dichotomous groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to evaluate the trend of association. Where significant associations were reported, effect size was calculated by using Kendall tau correlation coefficient. p value of <0.05 was considered to be of statistical significance. Out of 200 respondents, 185 completed the study with a response rate of 92.5 %. Agreement with mandatory status of volunteerism at community services was significant with gender (p = 0.003) and year of study (p = 0.045). Confidence in performing health promotional activities (p = 0.001, τ = 0.155) and needed communication skills during health promotional activities (p = 0.022, τ = 0.322) were also significantly associated with year of study with a moderate positive trend from junior to senior classes. Although pharmacy undergraduates showed positive interest and will to volunteer at the health promotional programs, certain issues were also highlighted. Therefore, in order to address these challenges, pharmacy curriculum needs to include a greater emphasis on role of pharmacists in public health. This can be achieved by having a dedicated core course as part of pharmacy curriculum.

  4. Wisdom of Generations: A Pilot Study of the Values Transmitted in Ethical Wills of Nursing Home Residents and Student Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Regier, Natalie G.; Peyser, Hedy; Stanton, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This is a pilot study that provides a description of the values older persons report in ethical wills and their reasoning for the values they chose, and compares the values in ethical wills of seniors and students. Nursing home residents rarely get the opportunity or venue to discuss these topics and the ethical will enables them to have…

  5. Wisdom of Generations: A Pilot Study of the Values Transmitted in Ethical Wills of Nursing Home Residents and Student Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Regier, Natalie G.; Peyser, Hedy; Stanton, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This is a pilot study that provides a description of the values older persons report in ethical wills and their reasoning for the values they chose, and compares the values in ethical wills of seniors and students. Nursing home residents rarely get the opportunity or venue to discuss these topics and the ethical will enables them to have…

  6. Environmental volunteer well-being: Managers’ perception and actual well-being of volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an

  7. Purple loosestrife volunteers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a perennial plant native to Eurasia where it grows along streams, rivers, and wet seepage areas (fig. 1). Seeds were inadvertently brought to North American territories in the ballast water of ships. Purple loosestrife was also intentionally planted throughout North America for its ornamental flowers but has since escaped cultivation to spread to wetlands.Some purple loosestrife plants release millions of seeds during the summer season, and these seeds readily disperse to new wetlands via water, animals, and even on people’s shoes. In addition, both its roots and stem fragments can sprout and begin new plants.When purple loosestrife invades a wetland, the species sometimes becomes more dominant than the original native wetland species, such as cattails and sedges. While many people think that purple loosestrife reduces the value of wetlands for wildlife, these claims are disputed. Most people agree, however, that purple loosestrife grows more prolifically in North America than elsewhere, probably because the species has left its native enemies behind in Eurasia and Australia. Although we do not understand how well the species grows in various climates, there is some thought that purple loosetrife may never fully invade the southern United States. Studies looking at the species’ response to temperature and analyses of its growth patterns across latitudes can help us determine its future threat to uninvaded portions of the United States. This is where volunteers come in.Volunteers in North America, Eurasia, and Australia are helping assess purple loosestrife growth in their regions (fig. 2). The program is part of Dr. Beth Middleton’s project to compare the role of purple loosestrife in its native and invasive habitats. Anyone can participate, and volunteers currently include high school and college students, retirees, professionals from all disciplines, agency personnel, and university faculty. Volunteers collect data

  8. Understanding the Ideology of Normal: Making Visible the Ways in Which Educators Think about Students Who Seem Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brooke Anne

    2013-01-01

    The conceptualization of normal in schools is problematic. It mediates perceptions about ability, achievement and behavior. Normal implies a hierarchy, naturalizing the idea that some students can achieve better than others. This practice places the blame on the student by locating the problem within the child while failing to consider ways to…

  9. School failure in students who are normal-hearing or deaf: with or without cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina Costa; Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of cochlear implants on the school failure of deaf who attend mainstream classes by comparing them to their normal-hearing peers as well as deaf without cochlear implants. This case-control study included participants aged 8-18 years. The number of school years failed was obtained from school records. The greatest differences in achievement levels were found between hearing students and those who were deaf without cochlear implants. Cochlear implants provide educational opportunities for hearing-impaired students, yet those without cochlear implants remain at a great disadvantage. These findings suggest that measures promoting greater equity and quality for all deaf students allow achievement levels closer to those of the not impaired.

  10. Volunteering, income and health

    PubMed Central

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income. PMID:28273163

  11. Volunteers Help Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Isolde Chapin

    A discussion of ways in which both adult and young Americans are volunteering to aid in the positive development of young people is presented in this booklet. The wide variety of programs that are designed to use volunteers and the need for additional volunteers are described. These programs are discussed under the following topic headings: School…

  12. First clinical trials of a new heteropolymer technology agent in normal healthy volunteers and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: safety and proof of principle of the antigen-heteropolymer ETI-104

    PubMed Central

    Iking-Konert, C; Stocks, S; Weinsberg, F; Engelbrecht, R; Bleck, E; Perniok, A; Fischer-Betz, R; Pincus, S; Nardone, L; Schneider, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The heteropolymer technology was developed to remove pathogens from the circulation. Objectives: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of a single administration and to establish proof of principle for ETI-104 in normal healthy volunteers (NHV) and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Methods: The drug was given intravenously to 11 NHV and six patients with SLE. Over 28 days, vital signs were noted, a haematological and chemical analysis of blood and urine was carried out, and adverse events were recorded. CR1 receptor numbers, the ability of antigen based heteropolymers to bind to red blood cells (RBCs), and the clearance of high avidity and total anti-dsDNA antibodies were measured by Farr assays and FACS analysis. Results: No safety measure differed significantly from normal in both groups; no drug related serious adverse events occurred. ETI-104 rapidly bound to RBCs in NHV and patients with SLE. Binding of the drug to RBCs of patients with SLE also caused a rapid reduction of circulating anti-dsDNA antibodies in the plasma 15 minutes after administration, with a maximum reduction of 55% (range 43–62). At 28 days statistically significant decreases were maintained in three patients, while in the other three the values had returned to baseline levels. Conclusion: These clinical trials established the safety and the proof of principle of the new immunoconjugate ETI-104. This provides the basis for further development of this technology for numerous indications—for example, therapeutic options for autoimmune diseases or viral and bacterial infections. PMID:15308520

  13. Evidence of hearing loss in a 'normally-hearing' college-student population.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, C G; Hensley, B N; Campbell, K C M; Hall, J W; Guire, K

    2011-03-01

    We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25-8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ≥25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ≥20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for 'notched' audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students' hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects.

  14. Participation of healthy volunteers in research projects.

    PubMed

    Macrae, F A; Mackay, I R; Fraser, J R

    1989-03-20

    Research that involves healthy normal volunteers frequently is performed. This article examines ethical guide-lines for the recruitment of healthy volunteers in research projects. Ethical decisions on projects that are based on patient-volunteers or healthy normal volunteers should balance the risk to the volunteer and the collective benefit to the community. For healthy normal volunteers that risk should be minimal or trivial. Investigators should follow recruitment practices that avoid approaches to persons who are dependent upon them in some way, and should carry the day-to-day ethical responsibility even after institutional ethical approval has been granted. Pilot studies and self-experimentation readily can transgress ethical guide-lines. Compensation for mishaps or injuries that occur during research in which there is no question of negligence (for example, an unforeseeable reaction in a phase-1 drug trial) is an unresolved issue which should be addressed by the research community. It is recommended that action be taken to ensure that healthy volunteers who participate in approved research have redress in the rare event of an accident, whether this is a result of negligence, chance or misadventure. Hospitals/institutions or other bodies that sponsor research should extend their insurance to cover specifically such unforeseeable events in which there may be liability, and to have the facility for a payment of beneficence in the case of accidents in which liability cannot be established.

  15. The Comparison of the Visuo-Spatial Abilities of Dyslexic and Normal Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on a comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities (correct rate and speed) between dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. There were a total of 120 10-12 year old students. Thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Taiwan (T.W. dyslexia) and thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Hong Kong (H.K.…

  16. The Comparison of the Visuo-Spatial Abilities of Dyslexic and Normal Students in Taiwan and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on a comparison of the visuo-spatial abilities (correct rate and speed) between dyslexic and normal students in Taiwan and Hong Kong. There were a total of 120 10-12 year old students. Thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Taiwan (T.W. dyslexia) and thirty students had been diagnosed as dyslexic in Hong Kong (H.K.…

  17. [Features of emotional stability in volunteers of gerontology programs].

    PubMed

    Dolgova, V I

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the characteristics of emotional stability in volunteers of gerontology programs (among the students of the Faculty of Psychology), depending on the structure of their life meaning and values, personal factors and professional important qualities. It is shown that the emotional stability of volunteers determines the main directions to explore the potential of the psyche of volunteers; modeling appropriate professiogram; organization of volunteer work in a particular program.

  18. Representing written vowels in university students with dyslexia compared with normal Hebrew readers.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Rachel; Ravid, Dorit

    2004-06-01

    The study investigates dyslexic and normal Hebrew readers' perception of words containing a vowel letter in different orthographic and morphological contexts. In the first experiment, 72 undergraduate education students (half diagnosed with reading disabilities and half normal readers) were asked to judge pointed words with different morphological structures with and without the grapheme W. Half of the words had consistent (obligatory) W and half had inconsistent (optional) W. In the second experiment, the same procedure was repeated using the same words without pointing marks. Response latencies and accuracy were measured. In both experiments, dyslexic readers did less well than normal readers, they had lower scores on accurate lexical decisions, and they took more time over these decisions. They also exhibited some deviant patterns indicating that they cannot make use of orthographic and morphological cues which are available to normal readers, especially in the pointed experiment. Processing pointed words placed a heavier cognitive burden on the dyslexic readers. These findings are in line with other studies of adult dyslexic reader/writers, and support a reading / spelling processing model, which claims that internal orthographic representations of words are increasingly strengthened with each exposure during reading, but not all graphemes are strengthened equally. The general implication is that the ambiguities that exist in the relationships between orthography, phonology and morphology underlie spelling knowledge and are particularly difficult for dyslexic readers.

  19. Oral health conditions and behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing college students at Ratchasuda College, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Kositpumivate, Waritorn

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to explore oral health and oral health related behaviors among hearing impaired and normal hearing students at Rachasuda College. The association between socioeconomic factors, hearing status, oral health behaviors, oral hygiene levels and dental caries status were also examined. The students filled out a self-administered questionnaire with assistance of a sign language video to obtain personal and behavior information. A total of 180 students, 83 normal hearing and 97 hearing impaired students completed the questionnaire and underwent an oral examination. The prevalences of caries were 53.6% and 50.6% among students with hearing impairment and normal hearing, respectively (p=0.354). After age stratification, the hearing impaired students aged 18-21 years had significantly less filled teeth (p=0.012), and those older than 21 years had less missing teeth due to caries than normal-hearing students (p=0.023). Poor oral hygiene was found in 51.8% and 42.2% of normal and hearing-impaired students, respectively (p=0.365). Caries status was significantly associated with maternal education level (OR 3.56; 95% CI: 1.52-8.32) and oral hygiene (OR 3.26; 95% CI: 1.64-6.45). The high prevalence of dental caries and poor oral hygiene among college students is alarming. Hearing impairment did not appear to affect the prevalences of these conditions compared to those with normal hearing. Oral health education tools need to be developed and utilized for both normal hearing and hearing impaired college students in Thailand.

  20. Induction of systemic TH1-like innate immunity in normal volunteers following subcutaneous but not intravenous administration of CPG 7909, a synthetic B-class CpG oligodeoxynucleotide TLR9 agonist.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Arthur M; Efler, Susan M; Wittpoth, Michael; Al Adhami, Mohammed J; Davis, Heather L

    2004-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of normal human volunteers with a B-class CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) TLR9 agonist, CPG 7909, induced a TH1-like pattern of systemic innate immune activation manifested by expression of IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-alpha, and IFN-inducible chemokines. Serum IP-10 was found to be the most sensitive assay for subcutaneous CPG 7909 stimulation; its level was significantly increased in all subjects at all dose levels, including the lowest tested dose of just 0.0025 mg/kg. This pattern of chemokine and cytokine induction was markedly different from that previously reported to be induced by TLR9 stimulation in rodents, most likely reflecting species-specific differences in the cell types expressing TLR9. Subcutaneous CPG 7909 injection induced transient shifts in blood neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, consistent with the increased chemokine expression. Levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein were also increased. A second subcutaneous CPG 7909 injection administered 2 weeks after the first elicited similar immune responses, showing little or no tolerance to the effects of repeated in vivo TLR9 stimulation. Subjects developed dose-dependent transient injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms but otherwise tolerated injection well, with no evidence of organ toxicity or systemic autoimmunity. The activation of innate immunity was dependent on the route of ODN administration, since intravenous injection caused no such effects. These studies indicate that in vivo activation of TLR9 by subcutaneous administration of CPG 7909 could be a well-tolerated immunotherapeutic approach for induction of TH1 innate immune activation.

  1. Volunteers. Time is money.

    PubMed

    Browne, P

    2000-02-03

    An audit of volunteers' work at a district general hospital showed its value to be more than 127,000 Pounds. For every 1 Pound the trust invested in volunteers there was a return of 5.57 Pounds. The research showed that volunteers gave 35,464 hours of their free time to the hospital last year. The national average is 27,000 hours per trust.

  2. Evidence of hearing loss in a “normally-hearing” college-student population

    PubMed Central

    Le Prell, C. G.; Hensley, B.N.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Hall, J. W.; Guire, K.

    2011-01-01

    We report pure-tone hearing threshold findings in 56 college students. All subjects reported normal hearing during telephone interviews, yet not all subjects had normal sensitivity as defined by well-accepted criteria. At one or more test frequencies (0.25–8 kHz), 7% of ears had thresholds ≥25 dB HL and 12% had thresholds ≥20 dB HL. The proportion of ears with abnormal findings decreased when three-frequency pure-tone-averages were used. Low-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 2.7% of ears and high-frequency PTA hearing loss was detected in 7.1% of ears; however, there was little evidence for “notched” audiograms. There was a statistically reliable relationship in which personal music player use was correlated with decreased hearing status in male subjects. Routine screening and education regarding hearing loss risk factors are critical as college students do not always self-identify early changes in hearing. Large-scale systematic investigations of college students’ hearing status appear to be warranted; the current sample size was not adequate to precisely measure potential contributions of different sound sources to the elevated thresholds measured in some subjects. PMID:21288064

  3. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students.

    PubMed

    Castejón, Juan L; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications.

  4. Differences in Learning Strategies, Goal Orientations, and Self-Concept between Overachieving, Normal-Achieving, and Underachieving Secondary Students

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879

  5. Inclusive Volunteering: Benefits to Participants and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kimberly D.; Schleien, Stuart J.; Rider, Cecilia; Hall, Crystal; Roche, Megan; Worsley, James

    2002-01-01

    Examined the benefits of volunteerism for people with disabilities as well as their non-disabled peers and the agency in which they served. Participants were college students who were matched with adolescents from a local school for students with disabilities. After two semesters of volunteer work for a local museum, benefits were discussed and…

  6. America's Teenagers as Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knauft, E. B.

    Two national in-home interview surveys conducted by the Gallup Organization and information from a national workshop conference attended by 70 teen volunteers from 28 states and 200 teachers and adult leaders indicate that about three-fifths of youth aged 12 to 17 volunteer an average of just over 3 hours a week. The most frequent volunteer…

  7. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  8. Recruiting Library Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Parent volunteers can be an important asset to a well-run school library. Parent volunteers are that extra pair of hands and extra eyes. Monotonous and even tedious tasks can be accomplished quickly by people searching for ways to spend a little time with adult conversation while providing a benefit to their children. And eventually they can…

  9. Involvement of Volunteers in Agricultural Education Programs in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda S.; Rosencrans, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Secondary and middle school agriculture teachers in New Mexico (n=90) considered volunteers essential program components. Volunteers served as chaperones, guest speakers, event coaches, and in student organizations. The 13% who did not use them were either new, had small programs, or found it time consuming. Benefits included exposing students to…

  10. Introductory Psychology Grades and Volunteers for Extra Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Timothy A.

    The motivation of students to volunteer to participate in research studies was explored in two studies. The first study explored the motivation of 300 introductory psychology students at a large midwestern university to volunteer for research participation when one exam point was offered for each hour of participation. Study two, which was…

  11. An acoustic analysis of laughter produced by congenitally deaf and normally hearing college students.

    PubMed

    Makagon, Maja M; Funayama, E Sumie; Owren, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Relatively few empirical data are available concerning the role of auditory experience in nonverbal human vocal behavior, such as laughter production. This study compared the acoustic properties of laughter in 19 congenitally, bilaterally, and profoundly deaf college students and in 23 normally hearing control participants. Analyses focused on degree of voicing, mouth position, air-flow direction, temporal features, relative amplitude, fundamental frequency, and formant frequencies. Results showed that laughter produced by the deaf participants was fundamentally similar to that produced by the normally hearing individuals, which in turn was consistent with previously reported findings. Finding comparable acoustic properties in the sounds produced by deaf and hearing vocalizers confirms the presumption that laughter is importantly grounded in human biology, and that auditory experience with this vocalization is not necessary for it to emerge in species-typical form. Some differences were found between the laughter of deaf and hearing groups; the most important being that the deaf participants produced lower-amplitude and longer-duration laughs. These discrepancies are likely due to a combination of the physiological and social factors that routinely affect profoundly deaf individuals, including low overall rates of vocal fold use and pressure from the hearing world to suppress spontaneous vocalizations.

  12. Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.

    PubMed

    Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

    2014-10-01

    One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP.

  13. Youth Volunteering in the States: 2002 and 2003. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Sara E.

    2004-01-01

    Volunteer rates vary tremendously across states and age groups. In recent years, young people have exhibited rising volunteering rates, particularly high school students and college freshmen. When comparing the volunteer rates for different age groups in 2002 and 2003, 16-18 year olds volunteer at consistently higher rates than their college-age…

  14. Volunteering for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1999-04-01

    HIV/AIDS researchers are finding it increasingly difficult to recruit volunteers for their studies, and are working on designing studies that are more broadly applicable and palatable to the volunteers. Studies offer both opportunities and risks for people who volunteer. This overview describes the basics of trial design and practice, with the purposes of each trial phase clearly described. Participation requires informed consent, and before entering a study patients should ask, among other things, what side effects they can expect, and who will manage their treatment.

  15. Volunteers assess marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Evans, S M; Foster-Smith, J; Welch, R

    2001-08-01

    Much less is known about marine biodiversity than that of terrestrial and freshwater environments. There is surprisingly little information about even the most common of organisms that live on the seashore. Science has limited resources to study them and volunteers can therefore make significant contributions. This article considers the value of a project in which volunteers are mapping the distribution and abundance of littoral animals and plants of the Northumberland coast.

  16. Chinese Writing of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Normal-Hearing Peers from Complex Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huiyuan; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks are built in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers. One is transformed from a treebank of writing produced by Chinese deaf or hard-of-hearing students, and the other from a treebank of writing produced by their Chinese normal-hearing counterparts. Two major findings are obtained through comparison of the statistical features of the two networks. On the one hand, both linguistic networks display small-world and scale-free network structures, but the network of the normal-hearing students' exhibits a more power-law-like degree distribution. Relevant network measures show significant differences between the two linguistic networks. On the other hand, deaf or hard-of-hearing students tend to have a lower language proficiency level in both syntactic and lexical aspects. The rigid use of function words and a lower vocabulary richness of the deaf or hard-of-hearing students may partially account for the observed differences. PMID:27920733

  17. Chinese Writing of Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Normal-Hearing Peers from Complex Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huiyuan; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals usually face a greater challenge to learn to write than their normal-hearing counterparts. Due to the limitations of traditional research methods focusing on microscopic linguistic features, a holistic characterization of the writing linguistic features of these language users is lacking. This study attempts to fill this gap by adopting the methodology of linguistic complex networks. Two syntactic dependency networks are built in order to compare the macroscopic linguistic features of deaf or hard-of-hearing students and those of their normal-hearing peers. One is transformed from a treebank of writing produced by Chinese deaf or hard-of-hearing students, and the other from a treebank of writing produced by their Chinese normal-hearing counterparts. Two major findings are obtained through comparison of the statistical features of the two networks. On the one hand, both linguistic networks display small-world and scale-free network structures, but the network of the normal-hearing students' exhibits a more power-law-like degree distribution. Relevant network measures show significant differences between the two linguistic networks. On the other hand, deaf or hard-of-hearing students tend to have a lower language proficiency level in both syntactic and lexical aspects. The rigid use of function words and a lower vocabulary richness of the deaf or hard-of-hearing students may partially account for the observed differences.

  18. The stingy hour: how accounting for time affects volunteering.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Sanford E; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    These studies examined how the practice of accounting for one's time-so that work can be billed or charged to specific clients or projects-affects the decision to allocate time to volunteer activities. Using longitudinal data collected from law students transitioning to their first jobs, Study 1 showed that exposure to billing time diminished individuals' willingness to volunteer, even after controlling for attitudes about volunteering held before entering the workforce as well as the individual's specific opportunity costs of volunteering time. Studies 2-5 experimentally manipulated billing time and confirmed its causal effect on individuals' willingness to volunteer and actual volunteering behavior. Study 5 showed that the effect of exposure to billing time on volunteering occurred above and beyond any effects on general self-efficacy or self-determination. Individual differences moderated the effects of billing, such that people who did not value money as much were less affected.

  19. Comparison of the tolerability of recombinant human hyaluronidase + normal saline and recombinant human hyaluronidase + lactated ringer's solution administered subcutaneously: A phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Dychter, Samuel S.; Ebel, David; Mead, Tonya R.; Yocum, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20) (150 U) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to facilitate subcutaneous fluid administration in adults and children. Objective: This Phase IV, double-blind, randomized pilot study was designed to compare the tolerability, flow rate, and safety profile of subcutaneous infusions of normal saline (NS) and lactated Ringer's (LR) solutions following subcutaneous administration of rHuPH20. Methods: Healthy volunteers received 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U) in each thigh, followed by simultaneous gravity-driven subcutaneous infusions of 500 mL of LR solution into 1 thigh and NS solution into the contralateral thigh. Subjects rated infusion-site discomfort in each thigh using a 100-mm (0 = no pain to 100 = most severe pain) visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline (ie, after catheter placement/ rHuPH20 injection and just prior to the start of the infusions) and at the following times: after infusion of 250 mL, after infusion of 500 mL (end of infusion), and when thigh circumference returned to within 5% of baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. The primary tolerability end point was the maximal increase from baseline in infusion-site discomfort on the VAS. Secondary end points included infusion flow rate, change in thigh circumference, subject preference for leftversus right-thigh infusion, and safety profile measures. Results: Fifteen subjects (14 women, 1 man; mean age, 41 years [range, 20–60 years]) were included in the study. Mean (SD) maximal increase from baseline VAS pain score was significantly greater with NS solution than with LR solution (20.0 [19.4] vs 9.4 [18.3] mm, respectively; P = 0.005). Mean infusion flow rate was not significantly different between the NS and LR solutions (384.1 [118.1] vs 395.8 [132.8] mL/h). No significant differences between solutions were observed in mean maximal change in thigh circumference (5.2% [1.6%] vs 5.3% [1.5%]). All subjects expressed

  20. Embedding Volunteer Activity into Paramedic Education.

    PubMed

    Ross, Linda; Kabidi, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Paramedics require a wide range of skills that are beyond clinical or technical skills in order to meet the demands of the role and provide quality and compassionate care to patients. Non-technical or "soft" skills and attributes are generally challenging to teach and develop in the classroom setting. Volunteerism provides an opportunity for students to gain exposure to different communities and develop interpersonal skills. This cross-sectional study used one-on-one interviews with 12 third-year Bachelor of Emergency Health (Paramedic) students from Monash University, Australia, who completed a community volunteering program. Results suggest that paramedic students see volunteering as a highly valuable means of developing a number of skills crucial to their future roles and paramedic practice. Volunteering also provided students with an opportunity to learn about themselves and the broader community, develop confidence, and improve overall job-readiness and employability. This study demonstrates that embedding volunteering into paramedic education is an effective way to develop the broad range of paramedic attributes required for the role. These experiences allow students to make the important transition to a job-ready graduate paramedic who can provide holistic patient-centred care.

  1. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  2. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  3. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers.

  4. Influence of the Faculty on College Student Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberti, Robert E.

    This study assesses the effect of informal faculty-student interaction in small groups on college students. The central hypothesis states that behavioral development of college students is enhanced by informal contact with faculty beyond normal associations during regular classroom periods. The sample consisted of 60 volunteer men and women…

  5. Opinion of the Ministry of Education on Vigorously Promoting Educational Aid Work by Normal University Students during Teaching Internships (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This is a policy that aims at improving teaching practices in rural schools in China. Normal university students are encouraged to participate in educational aid work in disadvantaged schools as a fulfillment of their teaching internship. The policy supports the policies of free compulsory education for rural school issued in the past. In…

  6. On the Training Model of China's Local Normal University Students during the Transitional Period from the Perspective of Happiness Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiwei, Huang

    2016-01-01

    As a theory based on the hypothesis of "happy man" about human nature, happiness management plays a significant guiding role in the optimization of the training model of local Chinese normal university students during the transitional period. Under the guidance of this theory, China should adhere to the people-oriented principle,…

  7. Sentence Demonstration Ability in Learning Disabled and Normal College Students: Analysis of Presentation Mode, Sentence Length, and Meaningfulness Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; And Others

    A sentence demonstration task was used to examine the information processing skills of 14 normal and 14 learning disabled college students. The effects of sentence meaningfulness (meaningful vs. nonsense), sentence length (two vs. four vs. six vs. eight items), and presentation mode (words vs. logographs) were evaluated. A Population Membership by…

  8. Body weight perception among high school students and its influence on weight management behaviors in normal weight students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ursoniu, Sorin; Putnoky, Salomeia; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates body weight perception and its influence on weight management behaviors in normal weight adolescents in Timis County, Romania. We hypothesized that misperception of overweight in normal weight adolescents would be positively associated with unhealthy weight control behaviors. From 2908 respondents participating in the survey we selected a total of 2093 normal weight high school students for the analysis. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 22.64% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (36.48%) were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (8.15%) (P < 0.0001). After adjusting for age and gender, students who perceived themselves as overweight were more likely to exercise (OR = 2.85; 95% CI: 2.25-3.61), eat less food, fewer calories or low fat foods (OR = 3.54; 95% CI: 2.78-4.51), fast for 24 hours or more (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.28-2.49), take diet pills, powders or tea (OR = 3.93; 95% CI: 2.62-5.89), vomit or take laxatives (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.15-3.34) to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight, compared to students who did not perceive themselves as overweight. A significant proportion of normal weight high school students misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight management behaviors. These results should be considered when establishing prevention programs and educational components that address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods should be performed even among normal weight adolescents.

  9. Intergenerational Volunteer Program in Special Education: A Manual for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Dennis; And Others

    The manual is designed to help special education administrators, teachers, and other interested people to develop an intergenerational school volunteer program. Background information on the program serving Alleghany County (Pennsylvania) is provided along with a review of benefits for students, teachers, volunteers, and the schools. Concerns of…

  10. An Evaluation of the Academic Volunteer and Mentor Service Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illig, David C.

    This report evaluates the performance of the California Academic Volunteer and Mentor Service Program, addressing an assessment of the impact of mentoring on middle school and high school student achievement, attendance, and behavior. The program's goal is to use volunteer mentors to provide support to children at risk of academic failure and…

  11. "When You See a Normal Person …": Social Class and Friendship Networks among Teenage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papapolydorou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on social capital theory to discuss the way social class plays out in the friendships of teenage students. Based on data from individual interviews and focus groups with 75 students in four London secondary schools, it is suggested that students tend to form friendships with people who belong to the same social-class background as…

  12. How Deaf and Normally Hearing Students Convey Meaning within and between Written Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The compositions of 49 students (ages 10-14) with deafness or hearing impairments and 49 typical students were compared to investigate the frequency and proportional distribution of written-language variables. Differences were found between the strategies chosen by the students with deafness or hearing impairments in both syntax and semantics and…

  13. "When You See a Normal Person …": Social Class and Friendship Networks among Teenage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papapolydorou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on social capital theory to discuss the way social class plays out in the friendships of teenage students. Based on data from individual interviews and focus groups with 75 students in four London secondary schools, it is suggested that students tend to form friendships with people who belong to the same social-class background as…

  14. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  15. Volunters for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Jane Kahan

    1983-01-01

    Describes "volunteers for schools," a new concept of community involvement based on changing educational needs. Explains the need for community education programs to encourage community involvement in education and the benefits that can result from increased community involvement in elementary-secondary schools. Notes key elements of…

  16. Volunteer Recording Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Braille and Talking Book Library, Phoenix.

    This manual for volunteers begins with a brief introduction to Arizona's Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, which is one of 56 libraries appointed by the Librarian of Congress to provide public library service to persons with visual or physical impairments. Introductory materials include explanations of the general policies and…

  17. Retired RNs: perceptions of volunteering.

    PubMed

    Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor.

  18. Volunteer Service Agreements: A New Strategy for Volunteer Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Phyllis

    As new types of volunteers come into the field--working people, retirees, executives--new methods are needed to hold their interest and ensure their cooperation while preserving the goals of the organizations they serve. Some of those organizations, especially museums, are using volunteer service agreements to attract and hold volunteers and to…

  19. Are Your Volunteers Insured? and Volunteers: A Valuable Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mary; And Others

    1992-01-01

    These two fact sheets, written for crisis nurseries and respite care programs serving children with disabilities, provide information on the value of volunteers and the importance of insurance coverage for program volunteers. "Volunteers: A Valuable Resource" (Becky Montgomery, Nancy Smith) gives guidelines on screening, selecting,…

  20. Comparison of Reading Performance between Visually Impaired and Normally Sighted Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Zainora; Omar, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare reading performance between visually impaired and normally sighted school children. Participants (n = 299) were divided into three groups: normal vision (NV, n = 193), visually impaired print reader (PR, n = 52), and Braille reader (BR, n = 54). Reading performance was determined by measuring reading rate and…

  1. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  2. The Possibility of Learning Curved Mirrors' Structure by a Normal Blind Inborn Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, M. Sahin

    2009-01-01

    To take a physics course blind students must be assisted using teaching methods and aids adapted to their own perception capabilities. Touchable objects are very important for them because they have huge difficulties to visualize the third spatial dimension. However, appropriate resources and methods for blind students are not yet available. In…

  3. The New Normal: Senior Student Affairs Officers Speak out about Budget Cutting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, C. Renee; Hanish, Jan; Phillips, Calvin; Waggoner, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the experiences of leaders in student affairs in higher education and to document the strategies they used to cut budgets and the results of these actions, the authors conducted a qualitative research study using public institutions as case studies. Data were gathered in 2005 through phone interviews with senior student affairs…

  4. "I Assume They Don't Think!": Teachers' Perceptions of Normal Technical Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heng, Mary Anne; Atencio, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about students in a particular grouping hierarchy are shaped by their ideological views. Within education systems that have high international profiles, such as Singapore, what has been less explored is how teachers think about and interact with students who are seemingly positioned as being "low-ability"…

  5. The New Normal: Senior Student Affairs Officers Speak out about Budget Cutting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, C. Renee; Hanish, Jan; Phillips, Calvin; Waggoner, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the experiences of leaders in student affairs in higher education and to document the strategies they used to cut budgets and the results of these actions, the authors conducted a qualitative research study using public institutions as case studies. Data were gathered in 2005 through phone interviews with senior student affairs…

  6. Normal Science and the Paranormal: The Effect of a Scientific Method Course on Students' Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morier, Dean; Keeports, David

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of an interdisciplinary course on the scientific method on the attitudes of 34 college students toward the paranormal. Results indicated that the course substantially reduced belief in the paranormal, relative to a control group. Student beliefs in their own paranormal powers, however, did not change. (Author/MSE)

  7. A Study of Conservation Abilities Between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Students in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bey Lih; Gonzales, B. Robert

    1987-01-01

    The study compared the conservation abilities of 80 prelingually deaf and 80 hearing students (ages 9-12) in the Republic of China. Results indicated a significant difference in conservation ability between groups favoring the hearing students and no significant difference in conservation ability between age levels for the deaf group. (DB)

  8. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  9. Volunteer donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Dan A

    2002-02-01

    Volunteer donor apheresis has evolved from early plasmapheresis procedures that collected single components into technically advanced multicomponent procedures that can produce combinations of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma units. Blood collection and utilization is increasing annually in the United States. The number of apheresis procedures is also increasing such that single donor platelet transfusions now exceed platelet concentrates from random donors. Donor qualifications for apheresis vary from those of whole blood. Depending on the procedure, the donor weight, donation interval, and platelet count must be taken into consideration. Adverse effects of apheresis are well known and fortunately occur in only a very small percentage of donors. The recruitment of volunteer donors is one of the most challenging aspects of a successful apheresis program. As multicomponent apheresis becomes more commonplace, it is important for collection centers to analyze the best methods to recruit and collect donors.

  10. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students), Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowicz, Karolina; Rewiuk, Krzysztof; Halicka, Monika; Kalwak, Weronika; Rybak, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students), targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy < 24 hours, surgical hospitalization, isolation due to infectious disease, and discharge to other medical wards). Every day trained volunteers delivered a multicomponent standardized intervention targeted at risk factors of in-hospital complications to the intervention group. The control group, selected using a retrospective individual matching strategy (1 : 1 ratio, regarding age, gender, and time of hospitalization), received standard care. Outcome Measures. Hospitalization time, deaths, falls, delirium episodes, and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed retrospectively from medical documentation. Results. 130 patients (38.4% males) participated in the study, with 65 in the intervention group. Antipsychotic medications were initiated less frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was a trend towards a shorter hospitalization time and a not statistically significant decrease in deaths in the intervention group. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological multicomponent intervention targeted at delirium risk factors effectively reduced length of hospitalization and need for initiating antipsychotic treatment in elderly patients at the internal medicine ward. PMID:28164113

  11. Nonpharmacological Interventions Targeted at Delirium Risk Factors, Delivered by Trained Volunteers (Medical and Psychology Students), Reduced Need for Antipsychotic Medications and the Length of Hospital Stay in Aged Patients Admitted to an Acute Internal Medicine Ward: Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Stanislaw; Piotrowicz, Karolina; Rewiuk, Krzysztof; Halicka, Monika; Kalwak, Weronika; Rybak, Paulina; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological multicomponent prevention delivered by trained volunteers (medical and psychology students), targeted at delirium risk factors in geriatric inpatients, was assessed at an internal medicine ward in Poland. Patients and Methods. Participants were recruited to intervention and control groups at the internal medicine ward (inclusion criteria: age ≥ 75, acute medical condition, basic orientation, and logical contact on admission; exclusion criteria: life expectancy < 24 hours, surgical hospitalization, isolation due to infectious disease, and discharge to other medical wards). Every day trained volunteers delivered a multicomponent standardized intervention targeted at risk factors of in-hospital complications to the intervention group. The control group, selected using a retrospective individual matching strategy (1 : 1 ratio, regarding age, gender, and time of hospitalization), received standard care. Outcome Measures. Hospitalization time, deaths, falls, delirium episodes, and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed retrospectively from medical documentation. Results. 130 patients (38.4% males) participated in the study, with 65 in the intervention group. Antipsychotic medications were initiated less frequently in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was a trend towards a shorter hospitalization time and a not statistically significant decrease in deaths in the intervention group. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological multicomponent intervention targeted at delirium risk factors effectively reduced length of hospitalization and need for initiating antipsychotic treatment in elderly patients at the internal medicine ward.

  12. Volunteer Labor Sorting across Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Lewis M.; Weisbrod, Burton A.

    2002-01-01

    Volunteer labor is generally analyzed as a homogeneous activity, implying that the marginal effects of tax changes and demographic shifts are equal across industries and forms of volunteering. Here the homogeneity assumption is tested by estimating and comparing volunteer labor supply functions in three sectors that rely on volunteer…

  13. Volunteer Management Support Program Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to serve as a guide for governing the operation and management of the Volunteer Management Support Program (VMSP). Outlined in the section on program guidelines are the structure and operations of the VMSP. The remainder of the guide, which deals with volunteer guidelines, explains VMSP volunteer responsibilities,…

  14. Volunteers Help Stretch Local Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Maureen Godsey

    1985-01-01

    Discusses use of volunteers to augment local government services such as libraries, parks, paralegal aid, elderly care, data processing. Outlines requirements of successful programs and steps toward initiating volunteer programs. Presents case studies of volunteer programs in two Maryland communities and 41 examples of how local governments can…

  15. Recruiting and Supporting Latino Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Beverly B.

    This booklet is intended to help volunteer recruiters better understand characteristics of the Latino community that might impact volunteering. It also suggests strategies or steps to use in successfully recruiting and supporting Latino volunteers. Information is based on a study of Latinos and volunteerism conducted in Oregon in 1999. The…

  16. Methodology for Teachers. Volunteer's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Daniel D.; And Others

    The Volunteer's Manual of "Methodology for Teachers" was written to (1) provide Peace Corps/Korea TESOL volunteers with a simple, complete guide to methodology for teaching English in Korea; and (2) provide these volunteers with a simple, complete guide for teaching this methodology to Korean English teachers in inservice training programs. For…

  17. Special Report: Volunteers in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Noel

    1976-01-01

    Many New York librarians view volunteers as a serious job threat; their unions back them in their opposition to volunteers; and some administrators are afraid to launch volunteer programs during the budget crunch because of their probably adverse effect on staff morale. (Author)

  18. Volunteers Help Stretch Local Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Maureen Godsey

    1985-01-01

    Discusses use of volunteers to augment local government services such as libraries, parks, paralegal aid, elderly care, data processing. Outlines requirements of successful programs and steps toward initiating volunteer programs. Presents case studies of volunteer programs in two Maryland communities and 41 examples of how local governments can…

  19. Self-selection for personality variables among healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pieters, M S; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Schoemaker, H C; Cohen, A F

    1992-01-01

    1. Healthy student volunteers (n = 103) participating in ongoing clinical pharmacological research completed the Dutch Personality Inventory (DPI), the Dutch version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-DY) and the Dutch version of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). 2. The volunteers were more extrovert (P less than 0.001), more flexible (P less than 0.001), more tolerant or less impulsive (P less than 0.001), had more self-confidence and initiative (P less than 0.001), and were more satisfied and optimistic (P less than 0.01) when compared with the general norm. When compared with a student norm, volunteers had lower levels of state (P less than 0.001) and trait (P less than 0.05) anxiety. The general sensation seeking tendency of volunteers was higher than in the student norm group (P less than 0.001). The volunteers had a greater tendency to thrill-and-adventure-seeking (P less than 0.001) and to disinhibition (P less than 0.01). 3. Hence, volunteers were a selected sample of the total population of students. This may influence the interpretation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. 4. Personality screening should be added to the screening procedures for volunteers.

  20. School-Based Mentoring: A Study of Volunteer Motivations and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Gomm, Robert Jeff; Shatzer, Ryan H.; Wall, D. Gary

    2010-01-01

    While research has been conducted concerning the effects of school-based mentoring on at risk students, limited work has focused on the volunteer mentors. This study examined the motivations of adult volunteers and the benefits of their participation in a six-month, school-based mentoring program. A total of 31 volunteers completed adapted…

  1. School-Based Mentoring: A Study of Volunteer Motivations and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldarella, Paul; Gomm, Robert J.; Shatzer, Ryan H.; Wall, D. Gary

    2010-01-01

    While research has been conducted concerning the effects of school-based mentoring on at-risk students, limited work has focused on the volunteer mentors. This study examined the motivations of adult volunteers and the benefits of their participation in a six-month, school-based mentoring program. A total of 31 volunteers completed adapted…

  2. Prevocational Training Units for Trainable Mentally Handicapped Students: With Suggested Uses for Educable, "Normal," and Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Michael B.

    This program is designed to provide an individualized series of vocationally useful sub-skills in a wide variety of areas to trainable mentally handicapped students in a prevocational program. The Introduction and General Information section is categorized into What the Program Is Designed to Do, Who Can Use the Program, How to Modify the Program…

  3. [A self-improvement and participatory career development education program involving internships and volunteer training experience for pharmacy students: results verified in a follow-up survey three years after participation].

    PubMed

    Kurio, Wasako; Konishi, Motomi; Okuno, Tomofumi; Nakao, Teruyuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Tsuji, Takumi; Yamamuro, Akiko; Yamamoto, Yumi; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Yanada, Kazuo; Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Kohno, Takeyuki; Ogita, Kiyokazu; Sone, Tomomichi

    2014-01-01

    The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, offers the Self-improvement and Participatory Career Development Education Program: Internship and Volunteer Training Experience for Pharmacy Students to third-year students. We previously reported that the training experience was effective in cultivating important attributes among students, such as a willingness to learn the aims of pharmacists, an awareness of their own role as healthcare workers, and a desire to reflect on their future careers and lives. A follow-up survey of the participants was carried out three years after the training experience. The questionnaire verified that the training experience affected attendance at subsequent lectures and course determination after graduation. We confirmed the relationship between the participants' degree of satisfaction with the training experience and increased motivation for attending subsequent lectures. Through the training experience, participants discovered future targets and subjects of study. In addition, they became more interested in subsequent classroom lessons and their future. The greater the participants' degree of satisfaction with their training experience, the more interest they took in practical training and future courses. The present study clarified that the training experience was effective in cultivating important attributes such as a willingness to learn and an interest in future courses. Moreover, the training positively affected the course determination after graduation.

  4. Effectiveness of an electronic histology tutorial for first-year dental students and improvement in "normalized" test scores.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Harold; Kermalli, Jaffer; Freeman, Eric; Tenenbaum, Howard; Locker, David; Cohen, Howard

    2006-12-01

    The effectiveness of an electronic histology tutorial (EHT) as a mode of learning was assessed by comparing performance on two term tests for an EHT class of sixty-nine students and five prior classes (n=347) who learned by traditional methods. The aims of this study were to 1) develop and introduce a self-instructional, computer-aided approach to guide student learning in the first-year histology course at the University of Toronto Faculty of Dentistry; 2) evaluate the effectiveness of the self-study electronic histology tutorial by comparing students' test scores for the EHT group to students' scores in previous years; and 3) evaluate students' acceptance of this novel mode of learning by means of a satisfaction questionnaire. The EHT group performed significantly better on both the general histology and oral histology term tests than the five prior control years (p<0.001), yet there were no significant differences in overall GPA between the groups, suggesting that the improvement was specific to the EHT/histology course grades (p=0.1 to 0.47). A statistically significant improvement in performance per unit overall GPA was noted in the test group, which demonstrated an increase in this test score normalized ratio (TSNR) of 3-18 percent in the general histology term test and 7-21 percent in the oral histology term test over the control groups. In addition to determining the effects of the EHT on grade performance, this study sought to evaluate students' acceptance of this alternative mode of learning in comparison to the standard teaching model by means of a satisfaction questionnaire. Overall, students' responses to the questionnaire were positive with an overall mean level of agreement for all ten responses of 4.5 out of 5 (90 percent).

  5. Increasing Metacomprehension in Learning Disabled and Normally Achieving Students through Self-Questioning Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bernice Y. L.; Jones, Wayne

    1982-01-01

    Training to self-monitor reading comprehension was undertaken with 120 learning disabled eighth and ninth graders and normally achieving sixth graders. It was hypothesized that insufficient metacomprehension is one possible cause underlying learning disabled adolescents' comprehension problems. (Author/SEW)

  6. Development of School-Aged Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Normally Hearing Students' Written Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the written language of students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing addressed, among other topics, level of reading skills, development of language skills after age 12, and evidence of a critical age for language learning. Data collection methods, research outcomes, and an overview of other articles in the theme issue are discussed. (CR)

  7. Challenges in volunteering from cancer care volunteers perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kamaludin, Kauthar Mohamad; Muhammad, Mazanah; Wahat, Nor Wahiza Abdul; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.

  8. Existing Student Study Team Processes in Selected Volunteer Special Education Local Plan Areas, School Districts, and Schools in California: A Descriptive Evaluation Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Program Evaluation and Research.

    This final report constitutes the culmination of findings and recommendations of a series of working papers on a project which conducted a cooperative study of existing student study team (SST) processes in nine California special education local plan areas. The project is thought to be the first in the nation to describe the characteristics of…

  9. Scientist volunteers: Doing science with children

    SciTech Connect

    Kirwan, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    The number of scientists who are volunteering to visit school classrooms is growing. Unfortunately, scientists have a tendency to cram too much information into their presentation. The result is almost always disastrous. The best thing a scientist can do is provide students with a positive science experience that may cause them to re-evaluate their attitude toward science. One of the best ways to do this is to involve students in a novel hands-on activity that engages and maintains their interest. Guidelines for developing such activities are provided.

  10. Reasons Why Canadian Seniors Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Prince, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    A study examined types of and reasons for volunteering among Canadian adults over 64 (n=1,569) and compared them with those given by adults aged 45-64 (n=5,563). Results indicate that the older group volunteers out of self-interest and are more likely to volunteer because of a feeling of obligation and social value than those aged 45-64. (JOW)

  11. [Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status].

    PubMed

    Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Realizar un análisis nutricional del modelo dietético en un grupo de alumnos de Educación Primaria (9-12 años) con estado nutricional normal. Material y Métodos: Registro de consumo de alimentos de dos días lectivos consecutivos en una muestra de 353 alumnos de Educación Primaria (188 varones y 165 mujeres) con una situación nutricional normal. Se ha calculado el consumo calórico y de macronutrientes, minerales y vitaminas comparándose con las ingestas recomendadas. Resultados: El valor medio del aporte calórico diario era de 2.066,9 kcal. Los cereales (33%), lácteos (19%) y carnes (17%) aportaban el 70% de la ingesta calórica total. Las proteínas aportaban el 20,3% de la ingesta calórica, los glúcidos el 48,8%, los lípidos el 30,9%, y las grasas saturadas el 12,6%. La ingesta de colesterol era excesiva y 2/3 de la ingesta proteica eran de origen animal. El valor medio de la ingesta de calcio, yodo y vitaminas A, D y E eran inferiores a los aportes dietéticos recomendados. Conclusiones: El modelo dietético de los alumnos de Educación Primaria con estado nutricional normal difiere del prototipo mediterráneo, con un consumo excesivo de carnes, limitado de cereales y lácteos, y deficiente en verduras y hortalizas, frutas, legumbres y pescados; dando lugar a un incremento del aporte de proteínas y grasas animales en detrimento de los hidratos de carbono complejos y un aporte deficiente de calcio, yodo y vitaminas A, D y E.

  12. [Results of concentration training in normally intelligent students with poor concentration].

    PubMed

    Vehreschild, T; Kossow, H J; Schulz-Wulf, G

    1984-03-01

    The contribution reports on the efficiencies of two different concentration training programmes tested on 40 normally intelligent boys with severely reduced concentration. Twenty of the boys received rhythmic music therapy and the other 20 received a special teaching programme based on psychological principles. Psychostimulants were also administered to 10 boys in each group. The success of treatment was assessed by comparison with an untreated group of pupils with reduced concentration. The boys who received additional psychostimulants achieved the greatest gain in learning as a result of concentration training. The special teaching programme is generally superior to rhythmic musical training.

  13. Identity Formation, Marijuana and "The Self": A Study of Cannabis Normalization among University Students.

    PubMed

    Mostaghim, Amir; Hathaway, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people's understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger online survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, ON, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using "pot" was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman's contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood.

  14. Identity Formation, Marijuana and “The Self”: A Study of Cannabis Normalization among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Mostaghim, Amir; Hathaway, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past half-century, as use of marijuana has become more widespread in Canadian society, there are indications of a normalizing process in societal reactions and experiences of use. Among other research avenues, these trends suggest a need for further exploration of young people’s understandings of how they make the choice to use or not and how decisions relate to presentation of the self. This study draws on interviews with 30 undergraduates recruited from a larger online survey of respondents at the University of Guelph, ON, Canada. In probing their perceptions of the use of marijuana, we often found that trying/using “pot” was the default option, whereas choosing not to use required more conscious effort. With specific reference to Goffman’s contribution to a situated understanding of the self, our findings are interpreted with emphasis on further theoretical development of the normalization thesis and on the role of marijuana in identity formation among persons in the process of transition to adulthood. PMID:24348431

  15. Development needs of volunteer pharmacy practice preceptors.

    PubMed

    Assemi, Mitra; Corelli, Robin L; Ambrose, Peter J

    2011-02-10

    To determine the training needs and interests of volunteer pharmacy preceptors. Volunteer preceptors (n=576) were surveyed on various aspects of precepting and their needs related to additional training. Two hundred thirty-six preceptors (40.9%) responded. Preceptors were less confident about enforcing attendance policies, identifying and managing unmotivated or failing students, identifying dishonesty or plagiarism, and handling conflict. While only 29.5% of respondents agreed that having an APPE student decreased their overall workload, approximately half (48.1%) indicated that student pharmacists helped them complete their daily tasks and 67.8% agreed that APPE students extended patient care. Respondents who had received training were significantly more confident than preceptors who had not received training in their abilities to clarify expectations, evaluate a student's knowledge, and foster skills related to critical thinking and problem solving. Training programs for pharmacy preceptors are effective; however, important areas in which additional training is needed or desired were identified among both new and experienced preceptors.

  16. Psychosocial Differences between Elderly Volunteers and Non-Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, K.I.; Linn, Margaret W.

    1980-01-01

    Volunteer workers over sixty-five were compared to retired elderly who did not engage in work activity. Volunteers had significantly higher degree of life satisfaction, stronger will to live, and fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization. No differences were found on demographics or background. (Author)

  17. Psychosocial Differences between Elderly Volunteers and Non-Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, K.I.; Linn, Margaret W.

    1980-01-01

    Volunteer workers over sixty-five were compared to retired elderly who did not engage in work activity. Volunteers had significantly higher degree of life satisfaction, stronger will to live, and fewer symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization. No differences were found on demographics or background. (Author)

  18. "I Have Won a World Championship and Now I Can Retire": Exploring Normal Technical Students' Ways of Unpacking Academic Expectations in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Pauline S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which lower tracked, "normal technical" students unpack academic requirements and expectations to achieve academic success. Set in Singapore, the study documents the lived experiences of four individuals from the "normal technical" course who have succeeded academically. The…

  19. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  20. Handbook for Library Volunteers. Rev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Bruno Park School District, San Bruno, CA.

    The functions and responsibilities of a school library and of the library personnel are presented in this handbook for parent library volunteers. Topics covered are: (1) the role of the library media center; (2) an outline of a volunteer's duties and daily routines; (3) the responsibilities of the district library specialist, the teacher, and the…

  1. Volunteer Development. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Certain practices in volunteer development have proved successful to help organizations make the best use of their volunteers. Development should be a comprehensive, continuous process through which individuals can extend, update, and adapt their knowledge, skills, and abilities to enhance their performance and potential. A model for volunteer…

  2. Grandparenting Roles and Volunteer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jendrek, Margaret Platt

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examine whether grandparenting roles are related to formal volunteering among older adults. Method. Logistic regression is used to examine the likelihood of volunteering based on grandchild care using data from the 2004 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (n = 13,785). Longitudinal analyses utilize treatment effects models to examine changes in volunteering for grandparents who begin nonresidential grandchild care between the 2004 and 2008 waves (n = 10,811). Results. Results show that grandparents raising coresidential grandchildren have lower odds of volunteering than grandparents providing no regular grandchild care. However, grandparents who provide nonresidential grandchild care are more likely to volunteer than grandparents not providing grandchild care and those raising a coresidential grandchild. Grandparents who provide nonresidential care for grandchildren engage in more volunteering before assuming grandchild care, and their volunteerism increases after becoming a caregiver for a grandchild. Discussion. Consistent with resource theory and the accumulation of roles, providing nonresidential grandchild care may draw grandparents into formal volunteer activity. The lower human capital resources evidenced by grandparents raising coresidential grandchildren may play a role in their lower likelihood of formal volunteering. PMID:24721748

  3. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  4. Volunteer Voice. 1992-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volunteer Voice, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Four issues of "Volunteer Voice," a newsletter of the Tacoma, Washington Community House Training Project, are presented. The project provides English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction and support to refugees. Contents of Number 1 (Summer 1992) include an account of one volunteer's initial encounter; a game for teaching adverbs; instructions…

  5. Effects of Cooperative vs Individualistic Learning Experiences on Interpersonl Attraction between Learning-Disabled and Normal-Progress Elementary School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Barbara; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences were compared on interpersonal attraction between nonhandicapped students and learning-disabled peers and achievement. Results indicate that greater interpersonal attraction between the learning-disabled and normal-progress students and higher achievement resulted in the…

  6. Dream Interpretation Sessions: Who Volunteers, Who Benefits, and What Volunteer Clients View as Most and Least Helpful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of college students participating in a dream interpretation session found that compared to nonvolunteers, students who volunteered had more positive attitudes towards dreams, recalled dreams more frequently, were more open, were higher in absorption, and were more often female. Helpful aspects of dream interpretations included insights…

  7. Receptivity to Persons with Mental Retardation: A Study of Volunteer Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaire results of college students (N=78) concerning attitudes toward the mentally retarded and interest in volunteering service with the retarded indicated that the importance students placed on such values as equality was the best predictor of volunteer interest. (Author/DB)

  8. Allied health disaster volunteering.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Alphonso; Wilson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Allied health practitioners will play an important role in providing medical care following a disaster. The clinical and laboratory skills possessed by allied health practitioners will be of extreme importance in the processing of disaster victims. The degree that allied health practitioners can help process disaster victims will play a large role in helping stabilize survivors of man-made or natural disasters. Those allied health practitioners skilled in triage, patient assessment, and emergency treatment of those injured can make a large difference in improving the utilization of human resources at an emergency site and thereby potentially improve treatment outcomes. Failure of a health professional to preregister as a health volunteer can affect the quality and responsiveness of a community's surge capacity. The rationale for advance registration ensures that the time-intensive effort of identifying professional credentials and licenses does not consume or divert resources that are necessary for mitigation of the immediate emergency. Of equal importance for allied health practitioners are the liability issues that exist in providing health care services outside of a formal employment agreement.

  9. Growing Your Career through Volunteering and Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Riordan, C. A.; Meth, C.

    2007-12-01

    From giving your first paper at a scientific meeting to chairing committees that make multi-million dollar decisions, scientific organizations provide critical opportunities for growing your career. Many organizations support student activities by providing travel grants and fellowships - an important first step towards joining the larger scientific community. Beyond these standard opportunities, organizations also provide opportunities for students interested in gaining leadership experience, a skill not typically acquired in graduate science programs. For example, the Consortium for Leadership's Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship provides research funds to graduate students, but also introduces the fellows to the communication skills needed to become successful members of their scientific community. Beyond student opportunities, volunteering provides mid-career and established scientists further experience in leadership. Opportunities exist in advising government science policy, guiding large-scale research programs, organizing large scientific meetings, and serving on non-profit boards. The variety of volunteer and leadership opportunities that are available give scientists at all stages of their career a chance to expand and diversify their experience, leading to new successes.

  10. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  11. Volunteer Monitoring to Protect Wetlands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The involvement of volunteers in ecological monitoring is a realistic, cost-effective, and beneficial way to obtain important information which might otherwise be unavailable due to lack of resources at government agencies.

  12. The Future of Volunteer Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    In the next decade, voluntary agencies will experience shifts in relationships with four constituencies: government, individuals, business, and funders. Trends influencing volunteer programs will include technology, diversity, collaboration, and new-paradigm thinking and leading. (SK)

  13. Volunteer Program Assessment at the University of Nebraska at Omaha: A Metropolitan University's Collaboration with Rural and Spanish-Speaking Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Lisa L.; Graeve-Cunningham, Victoria M.; Trent, Sheridan B.; Weddington, Stephanie A.; Thurley, Adam R.; Prange, Kelly A.; Allen, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    The Volunteer Program Assessment at UNO (VPA-UNO), a faculty-led student group, partners with nonprofit and governmental agencies to provide free assessments and consultations to enhance volunteer engagement, organizational commitment and retention. Three recent initiatives are discussed representing an intentional effort of a metropolitan…

  14. Characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for voluntary counseling and HIV testing among unmarried male undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Adewole, D A; Lawoyin, T O

    2004-06-01

    The 2001 HIV sero-prevalence survey in Nigeria revealed a rate of 5.8 percent with those under the age of 25 years having the highest prevalence rate. Most University students fall within this age group. This study is part of a larger study on the sexual behavior of youths and young adults and was designed to compare the characteristics of volunteers and non-volunteers for voluntary confidential counseling and HIV testing (VCT) among males. Six hundred and nine male undergraduate students were randomly selected and enrolled for the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Of the 609, 51 (8.3%) volunteered to have their blood screened for HIV. All volunteers who received pre-test counseling went for the HIV test. Volunteers were significantly older than the non-volunteers (P<0.0001), and were more likely to be sexually experienced (P=0.002). Among the sexually experienced, the volunteers were older at first sexual intercourse (FSI) (P<0.0001), and were more likely to have used a condom at FSI (P=0.001). Volunteers had significantly higher knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (P=0.006), and the attitude to HIV/AIDS in both groups was positive. The marriage pattern of their parents with regard to polygyny was similar, and fewer volunteers had fathers in the higher socio-economic class and mothers who had completed secondary education (P<0.00001, (P=0.02). Among the 51 volunteers, 8 (15.7%) tested positive. Those who tested positive were less likely to have lived with parents, and were all sexually experienced. Those who screened positive were also more likely to be currently sexually active and to have fathers with low level of education. Three (5.9%) of volunteers did not return for results and posttest counseling. One of the three was positive for HIV. Of those who tested positive, 3 (37.5%) reported not using the condom at all, while the rest were using it only occasionally. VCT among the youths is possible however, small numbers encountered in the

  15. Are Volunteer Satisfaction and Enjoyment Related to Cessation of Volunteering by Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris; Infurna, Frank J; Hutchinson, Ianeta

    2016-05-01

    Previous research indicates that volunteer satisfaction and enjoyment do not exert direct effects on the cessation of volunteering by older adults. This study examined whether satisfaction with and enjoyment of volunteering indirectly affect volunteer cessation via hours volunteered. Our sample consisted of participants in the Americans' Changing Lives study (N = 380) who were 65 years old and older and who volunteered at Wave 1. Volunteer satisfaction, volunteer enjoyment, hours volunteered, and several covariates were assessed at Wave 1, and volunteer cessation was assessed 3 years later at Wave 2. Volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment were positively associated with hours volunteered, and more hours volunteered was associated with decreased likelihood of volunteer cessation. The indirect effects of volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment on volunteer cessation via hours volunteered were -.023 (p = .059) and -.036 (p = .015), respectively. The dynamics of volunteer cessation are important because a volunteer shortage is forecasted and because the benefits of volunteering may attenuate when volunteering stops. Future research should test the proposed causal sequence using longitudinal data with at least 3 waves. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Discriminative stimulus effects of diazepam and buspirone in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Rush, C R; Critchfield, T S; Troisi, J R; Griffiths, R R

    1995-01-01

    A within-subject design was used to characterize the effects of dose manipulations on discriminative and self-reported effects of oral diazepam and buspirone. Subjects were trained to discriminate diazepam (10 mg) versus placebo (n = 10), or buspirone (10 or 15 mg) versus placebo (n = 9). The compounds were identified to subjects by letter code before discrimination training began. In later sessions, correct identifications at 2 hr after the oral administration of drug earned money. All subjects showed accurate discrimination performance during the test-of-acquisition phase. In a low-dose generalization phase, diazepam and buspirone produced dose-related increases in drug identifications across a four-fold range of doses. In a subsequent low-dose training phase, in which subjects were trained to discriminate progressively lower drug doses, the median lowest discriminable dose of diazepam and buspirone was 2.5 and 7.5 mg, respectively. Dose-response functions for drug identifications were shifted leftward in the low-dose training phase relative to the low-dose generalization phase, suggesting that reinforcement of progressively lower doses enhances drug discriminability. The self-reported effects of diazepam and buspirone were similar (e.g., both drugs increased ratings of drug strength and clumsy/uncoordinated) and different (e.g., diazepam but not buspirone increased ratings of drowsy/sleepy; buspirone but not diazepam increased ratings of tense/nervous). This study demonstrates discriminative and self-reported effects of diazepam and buspirone at doses lower than previously shown to be behaviorally active, and suggests that at commonly used clinical doses, diazepam is relatively more discriminable than buspirone. PMID:7751833

  17. Parallel Volunteer Learning during Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi

    2012-01-01

    Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…

  18. Engaging Older Adult Volunteers in National Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Amanda Moore; Greenfield, Jennifer C.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lee, Yung Soo; McCrary, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer-based programs are increasingly designed as interventions to affect the volunteers and the beneficiaries of the volunteers' activities. To achieve the intended impacts for both, programs need to leverage the volunteers' engagement by meeting their expectations, retaining them, and maximizing their perceptions of benefits. Programmatic…

  19. Assessing the Value of Volunteer Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Eleanor

    1999-01-01

    Looks at methods of converting estimates of volunteer time into dollar value of volunteered time. Suggests an alternative strategy that acknowledges the importance of taxes, the provision of volunteer-assisted services at less-than-market prices, and the value of experiences gained by the volunteer. (JOW)

  20. Exploring Volunteering of Committed Young Catholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of volunteer levels of Catholics from various World regions who attended an international youth Catholic festival. Volunteering levels, types of volunteering, reason for volunteering, Catholic group membership and pro-social values are analysed. An online survey was administered five months after the Festival to…

  1. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programmes

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese

    2001-01-01

    The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...

  2. Nothing's Free: Calculating the Cost of Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, W. Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Most school district administrators recognize the benefits of using parent and community volunteers, including improved school-community relations. But volunteers are not cost free. At their best, volunteers can be a valuable resource for schools and districts. At their worst, volunteers can consume already limited resources. However, their use…

  3. Volunteering among Young People. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents information on the frequency of volunteering, trends in volunteering, and the organizations for which young people volunteer, utilizing data from multiple sources. Unlike many surveys, it shows that volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. Findings of the Civic and…

  4. Parallel Volunteer Learning during Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Green, Jeremy; Derby, Amy; Bothum, Candi

    2012-01-01

    Lack of time is a hindrance for volunteers to participate in educational opportunities, yet volunteer success in an organization is tied to the orientation and education they receive. Meeting diverse educational needs of volunteers can be a challenge for program managers. Scheduling a Volunteer Learning Track for chaperones that is parallel to a…

  5. Volunteering Among Young People. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. However, measuring volunteer rates among all adults is a difficult task. In recent years, efforts at measuring volunteering have produced widely different estimates, largely because of the methods employed to measure volunteering. For example, the…

  6. The relationship between diabetes attitudes and treatment among free clinic patients and volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Nourian, Maziar M; Myers, Kyl; Saunders, AnnMarie; Solis, Silvia P; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-12-01

    Free clinics provide free primary care to the under or uninsured and have been playing an important role in serving the socio-economically disadvantaged. Free clinic patients represent a group of people who experience significant barriers to receiving diabetes prevention and intervention. This study examined diabetes attitudes among free clinic patients and volunteers. English or Spanish speaking patients and volunteers (N = 384), aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Diabetic patients and volunteers shared similar levels of diabetes attitudes compared to non-diabetic patients. Among patients, ethnicity, education level, diabetes education, and family history affected diabetes attitudes. Among volunteers, diabetes education was an important factor associated with positive diabetes attitudes. Whether the volunteer is a healthcare professional or student was related only to one aspect of diabetes attitudes, seriousness of type 2 diabetes. The results, indicating free clinic diabetic patients and volunteers shared similar levels of diabetes attitudes, were positive for maintaining and developing diabetes education programs at a free clinic. Unfortunately, the average length of volunteering at this free clinic was short and student volunteers likely leave the clinic upon graduation. Future research should examine issues of volunteer retention in free clinics. Diabetes education for patients may need to be diversified according to ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and educational level. Finally, non-healthcare professional volunteers could potentially be involved in diabetes education at a free clinic.

  7. Functioning styles of personality disorders and five-factor normal personality traits: a correlation study in Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Lan; Mu, Ling; Chen, Dahong; Song, Qi; Zhou, Mengping; Zhang, Weijuan; Hou, Jun; Li, Zhigang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jianhui; He, Chengsen

    2003-09-17

    Previous studies show that both the categorical and dimensional descriptors of personality disorders are correlated with normal personality traits. Recently, a 92-item inventory, the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) was designed as a more efficient and precise first-level assessment of personality disorders. Whether the PERM constructs are correlated with those of the five-factor models of personality needs to be clarified. We therefore invited 913 students from poly-technical schools and colleges in China to answer the PERM, the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FFNPQ), and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Most personality constructs had satisfactory internal alphas. PERM constructs were loaded with FFNPQ and ZKPQ traits clearly on four factors, which can be labelled as Dissocial, Emotional Dysregulation, Inhibition and Compulsivity, as reported previously. FFNPQ Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness and Extraversion formed another Factor, named Experience Hunting, which was not clearly covered by PERM or ZKPQ. The PERM constructs were loaded in a predictable way on the disordered super-traits, suggesting the PERM might offer assistance measuring personality function in clinical practice.

  8. Volunteers to Prevent Emotional Problems in Children. Summary Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ruth

    The Counseling Service of Addison County, a community mental health clinic, began in 1966 as a four-year project under a National Institutes of Mental Health grant to determine whether emotional problems could be prevented by the early assignment of college student volunteers (from Middlebury College) to underachievers in the early grades of…

  9. NASA Administrator Bolden Volunteers with the DC Cares Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-14

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden spent time volunteering with DC Cares at the Park View Recreation Center in Washington, DC for their Santa's Workshop program, Monday, Dec. 14, 2009. Mr. Bolden spoke with students about his experience as a former NASA astronaut and current NASA Administrator, encouraging them to study math and science and to stay in school. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Improved School Attendance through Adult Volunteer Reading Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkmann, Brian; Bye, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Poor school attendance is a problem in many schools throughout the United States. A study was conducted on students in an elementary school who were all paired with adult volunteer reading partners to assess whether attendance improved the year the reading program was implemented. The study involved a pre- and posttest exploratory research design…

  11. Understanding Volunteer Peer Health Educators' Motivations: Applying Social Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Nicole Aydt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Researchers conducted focus group interviews with college student peer health educators to determine what factors motivated them to volunteer for a peer health education program. Examination of their life experiences, motivations, and program expectations indicated that life experiences, belief in the effectiveness of peer health education, and…

  12. How To Start a Volunteer Literacy Program in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of the Secretary of State, Springfield.

    Prepared by the office of the Illinois Secretary of State and State Librarian, this manual describes the components and basic start-up steps of successful volunteer literacy programs. The 17 short sections provide an overview of the following topics: (1) purpose and mission; (2) determining need in your community; (3) recruiting students; (4)…

  13. More than Volunteering: Active Citizenship through Youth Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This pack aims to provide materials to help all those involved in youth volunteering and post-16 citizenship education to ensure that there are some citizenship learning outcomes from these valuable experiences. The pack has been produced by the Post-16 Citizenship Support Programme to help the integration of citizenship education into post-16…

  14. The Effects of Varied Ratios of Positive and Negative Nonverbal Audience Feedback on Selected Attitudes and Behaviors of Normal Speaking College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwind, Jack Alan

    Based on a theoretical rationale derived from dissonance theory, this study investigated the effects of 80%/20% ratios of positive/negative and negative/positive audience feedback on perceptual, attitudinal, and behavioral responses of normal speaking college students. Twenty-six skilled speakers and 30 unskilled speakers were randomly assigned to…

  15. Influence of Student Engagement, Moods and Completed Assignments with on Normalized Gains and Growth in Reading Literature Using iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepworth, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how engagement, mood and number of assignments completed on computerized differentiated homework using an iPad in a one-to-one mobile device environment influenced the growth index and normalized gain in reading literature benchmark assessments of students in grades five, six, and seven. Furthermore,…

  16. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  17. A brief report on the relationship between self-control, video game addiction and academic achievement in normal and ADHD students.

    PubMed

    Haghbin, Maryam; Shaterian, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Davood; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, research into video game addiction has grown increasingly. The present research aimed to examine the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement of normal and ADHD high school students. Based on previous research it was hypothesized that (i) there would be a relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement (ii) video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between male and female students, and (iii) the relationship between video game addiction, self-control and academic achievement would differ between normal students and ADHD students. The research population comprised first grade high school students of Khomeini-Shahr (a city in the central part of Iran). From this population, a sample group of 339 students participated in the study. The survey included the Game Addiction Scale (Lemmens, Valkenburg & Peter, 2009), the Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister & Boone, 2004) and the ADHD Diagnostic checklist (Kessler et al., 2007). In addition to questions relating to basic demographic information, students' Grade Point Average (GPA) for two terms was used for measuring their academic achievement. These hypotheses were examined using a regression analysis. Among Iranian students, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, and academic achievement differed between male and female students. However, the relationship between video game addiction, self-control, academic achievement, and type of student was not statistically significant. Although the results cannot demonstrate a causal relationship between video game use, video game addiction, and academic achievement, they suggest that high involvement in playing video games leaves less time for engaging in academic work.

  18. Women's Center Volunteer Intern Program: Building Community While Advancing Social and Gender Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Margaret A.; Vlasnik, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    This program description explores the purpose, structure, activities, and outcomes of the volunteer intern program at the Wright State University Women's Center. Designed to create meaningful, hands-on learning experiences for students and to advance the center's mission, the volunteer intern program builds community while advancing social and…

  19. Burnout among Volunteers in the Social Services: The Impact of Gender and Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…

  20. Burnout among Volunteers in the Social Services: The Impact of Gender and Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether gender and employment status affect burnout, motives for volunteering, and difficulties associated with volunteer activity in social and community services in Israel. The sample included 375 men and women aged 16 through 80. Participants were divided into four groups by employment status: high school students, employed…

  1. English as a Second Language: A Collection of Methods and Materials for Training Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Council of Alaska, Fairbanks.

    This manual addresses a variety of issues in the recruitment and training of volunteer English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers. Sections on general topics focus on: recruiting tutors, recruiting students, determining when and where to train volunteers, developing the training workshop agenda, evaluating the workshop, introducing the training…

  2. Women's Center Volunteer Intern Program: Building Community While Advancing Social and Gender Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Margaret A.; Vlasnik, Amber L.

    2015-01-01

    This program description explores the purpose, structure, activities, and outcomes of the volunteer intern program at the Wright State University Women's Center. Designed to create meaningful, hands-on learning experiences for students and to advance the center's mission, the volunteer intern program builds community while advancing social and…

  3. Communication Training for Hospice Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Stephen L.; Coffman, Victoria T.

    1993-01-01

    Details communication-related portions of new volunteer training process for Hospice organization. Description covers both theoretical intentions of training and contextual applications. Topics addressed include trusting, listening, talking about death and dying, communicating/interacting effectively, being assertive, taking responsibility,…

  4. Volunteers in Court: A Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheier, Ivan H.; Goter, Leroy P.

    The manual's purpose is to draw together the body of knowledge gained from the experience of the approximately 10,000 unpaid local citizens currently providing volunteer probation services in about 125 courts. The manual draws heavily from the core experience with the Boulder Juvenile Court, Boulder, Colorado. The first chapter presents a general…

  5. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  6. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  7. Volunteer recruitment: the role of organizational support and anticipated respect in non-volunteers' attraction to charitable volunteer organizations.

    PubMed

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2008-09-01

    In 3 experiments the authors examined how specific characteristics of charitable volunteer organizations contribute to the recruitment of new volunteers. In line with predictions, Study 1 revealed that providing non-volunteers with information about organizational support induced anticipated feelings of respect, which subsequently enhanced their attraction to the volunteer organization. However, information about the current success of the volunteer organization did not affect anticipated pride (as among those who seek paid employment) and in fact caused potential volunteers to perceive the organization as being in less need for additional volunteers. Study 2 further showed that information about support from the volunteer organization is a more relevant source of anticipated respect and organizational attraction than support from co-volunteers. Study 3 finally showed that information about task and emotional support for volunteers contributes to anticipated respect and organizational attractiveness and that this increases the actual willingness of non-volunteers to participate in the volunteer organization. Interventions aimed at attracting volunteers and avenues for further research are discussed.

  8. Accuracy of shade matching performed by colour blind and normal dental students using 3D Master and Vita Lumin shade guides.

    PubMed

    Vafaee, F; Rakhshan, V; Vafaei, M; Khoshhal, M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 3D Master or VitaLumin shade guides could improve colour selection in individuals with normal and defective colour vision. First, colour perception of 260 dental students was evaluated. Afterwards, 9 colour blind and 9 matched normal subjects tried to detect colours of 10 randomly selected tabs from each kit and the correct/false answers were counted. Of the colour-defective subjects, 47.8% and 33.3% correctly detected the shade using 3D Master and VitaLumin, respectively. These statistics were 62.2% and 42.2% in normal subjects. In normal participants, but not in colour blind ones, 3D Master significantly improved shade matching accuracy compared to VitaLumin.

  9. Volunteers as customers: a service quality perspective.

    PubMed

    Keaveney, S M; Saltzman, M; Sullivan, N

    1991-01-01

    Not-for-profit service firms depend upon volunteer employees for the success of their programs. This article offers a change in perspective--volunteer as customer instead of employee--to stimulate insights and provide recommendations about attracting and retaining volunteers. The volunteer is viewed as a customer, the service purchased is the volunteer experience, paid for in the currency of donated time and energy, and the not-for-profit service firm is seen as being in the business of designing, managing, communicating, and delivering a quality volunteer experience.

  10. Value-Expressive Volunteer Motivation and Volunteering by Older Adults: Relationships With Religiosity and Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; O'Rourke, Holly P; Keller, Brian; Johnson, Kathryn A; Enders, Craig

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the interplay among religiosity, spirituality, value-expressive volunteer motivation, and volunteering. We examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering and whether religiosity moderated the relations between (a) spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation and (b) value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering. After applying multiple imputation procedures to data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study among participants 64-67 years old who survived beyond 2004 (N = 8,148), we carried out regression analyses to predict value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering from religiosity and spirituality controlling for demographic variables, physical, emotional, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, and personality traits. Both religiosity and spirituality were significant (p < .001) positive predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation. Value-expressive volunteer motivation and religiosity were significant (p < .001) positive predictors, whereas spirituality was a significant (p < .001) negative predictor, of volunteering. Religiosity amplified the relation between value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering (p < .05) but did not moderate the relation between spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation (p > .45). Religiosity may provide the way, and value-expressive volunteer motivation the will, to volunteer. The implications of our findings for the forecasted shortage of older volunteers are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Lessons Learned Preparing Volunteer Midwives for Service in Haiti: After the Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Barbara O'Malley

    2013-01-01

    Midwives for Haiti is an organization that focuses on the education and training of skilled birth attendants in Haiti, a country with a high rate of maternal and infant mortality and where only 26% of births are attended by skilled health workers. Following the 2010 earthquake, Midwives for Haiti received requests to expand services and numerous professional midwives answered the call to volunteer. This author was one of those volunteers. The purpose of the study was: 1) to develop a description of the program's strengths and its deficits in order to determine if there was a need to improve the preparation of volunteers prior to service and 2) to make recommendations aimed at strengthening the volunteers' contributions to the education of Haiti and auxiliary midwives. Three distinct but closely related questionnaires were developed to survey Haitian students, staff midwives, and volunteers who served with Midwives for Haiti. Questions were designed to elicit information about how well the volunteers were prepared for their experience, the effectiveness of translation services, and suggestions for improving the preparation of volunteers and strengthening the education program. Analysis of the surveys of volunteers, staff, midwives, and the Haitian students generated several common themes. The 3 groups agreed that the volunteers made an effective contribution to the program of education and that the volunteer midwives need more preparation prior to serving in Haiti. The 3 groups also agreed on the need for better translators and recommended more structure to the education program. The results of this study are significant to international health care organizations that use volunteer health care professionals to provide services. The results support a growing body of knowledge that international health aid organizations may use to strengthen the preparation, support, and effectiveness of volunteer health providers.

  12. L'impact de l'enseignement de la biologie sur la construction de la distinction entre normal et pathologique chez les eleves du secondaire Marocain (The Impact of Teaching Biology on the Way Moroccan High School Students Construe the Difference between Normal and Pathological).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khzami, Salah-Eddine; Favre, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Study of the distinction between the notions of the normal and the pathological among Moroccan high school students and their teachers of biology found that students confused the registers of the normal/abnormal with the healthy/pathological, a fact that is at odds with current teaching in biology. It also found a possible link to the values held…

  13. The GEMS Model of Volunteer Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken, III; Deppe, Catherine A.; Castillo, Jaime X.; Wells, Betty J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes GEMS, a spiral model that profiles volunteer administration. Components include Generate, Educate, Mobilize, and Sustain, four sets of processes that span volunteer recruitment and selection to retention or disengagement. (SK)

  14. NUSC Technical Volunteer Service (TVS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-12

    are supplied in the figures and appendixes. * ,~a TD 6719 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ..................................... ii...and believed that the volunteer engineer would, for example, design sewage -treatment plants, solve drainage problems, or write the town’s future...Kline, an expert in waste water treatment and hazardous mater- ials at the Naval Air Engineering Center has been available for questions around sewage

  15. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  16. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  17. 76 FR 20215 - National Volunteer Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's story has been... they see a need. During National Volunteer Week, we celebrate the profound impact of volunteers and... April 10 through April 16, 2011, as National Volunteer Week. I call upon all Americans to observe this...

  18. Volunteers for Refugee Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.

    The Volunteers for Refugee Self-Sufficiency (V-FoRSS) uses volunteers to meet the self-sufficiency needs of the refugee community in Phoenix, Arizona. The majority of the volunteers with V-FoRSS are home outreach tutors who provide English as a second language (ESL) and social adjustment skills instruction to adult Indochinese refugees. Classes…

  19. Rationale for Community Volunteers in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa, Pete

    In seeking to provide Teacher Corps personnel with resource materials that can be utilized in establishing school volunteer programs, this booklet offers a brief history of volunteerism in American schools, reasons for establishing volunteer programs, and information about where and how to recruit volunteers. Volunteerism was an early tradition in…

  20. Youth Sport Volunteering: Developing Social Capital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Tess; Bradbury, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the capacity of youth sport volunteering to contribute to the development of social capital. Following a review of the emergence of social capital as a key theme in UK sport policy, the paper focuses on the ability of a structured sports volunteering programme to equip young people with skills for effective volunteering, and…

  1. The Contribution of Social Resources To Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John; Musick, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a theory of how social capital contributes to volunteering, hypothesizing that social capital has a stronger effect on volunteering among people with more human capital and socioeconomic status. Specifies a test (of the effects) of social capital on volunteering and discusses the findings (of the test) in detail. (CMK)

  2. Substitute or Complement?: Spousal Influence on Volunteering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotolo, Thomas; Wilson, John

    2006-01-01

    Social scientists have documented the influence of family statuses on volunteering, ignoring intrafamily effects. Using newly issued data from the Current Population Survey on the volunteer behavior of 19,626 American couples, we test two competing theories concerning spousal influences on volunteering. Substitution theory predicts that spouses…

  3. Volunteers: The Life-Line of Hospice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchner, Michael A.; Finn, Mark B.

    1988-01-01

    Survey of 68 hospice volunteers found volunteers to be relatively young, well-educated, in good health, motivated by religious beliefs and personal experience, and prepared for jobs after training and some on-the-job experience. Volunteers were most satisfied when working in direct contact with patients and families and in the hospital.…

  4. Project LASER Volunteer, Marshall Space Flight Center Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Education Department, over 400 MSFC employees have volunteered to support educational program during regular work hours. Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering, and Research) provides support for mentor/tutor requests, education tours, classroom presentations, and curriculum development. This program is available to teachers and students living within commuting distance of the NASA/MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama (approximately 50-miles radius). This image depicts students viewing their reflections in an x-ray mirror with Marshall optic engineer Vince Huegele at the Discovery Laboratory, which is an onsite MSFC laboratory facility that provides hands-on educational workshop sessions for teachers and students learning activities.

  5. Project LASER Volunteer, Marshall Space Flight Center Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Education Department, over 400 MSFC employees have volunteered to support educational program during regular work hours. Project LASER (Learning About Science, Engineering, and Research) provides support for mentor/tutor requests, education tours, classroom presentations, and curriculum development. This program is available to teachers and students living within commuting distance of the NASA/MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama (approximately 50-miles radius). This image depicts students viewing their reflections in an x-ray mirror with Marshall optic engineer Vince Huegele at the Discovery Laboratory, which is an onsite MSFC laboratory facility that provides hands-on educational workshop sessions for teachers and students learning activities.

  6. Volunteering within Initial Teacher Education: Factors That Boost and Block Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Daniella J.; Archer, Jennifer; Tajin, Rukhsana T.

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary professional experience can be a powerful way for initial teacher education (ITE) students to develop an understanding of schools and their communities. Do ITE students make use of these opportunities? There is little Australian research that explores genuine volunteering that does not "require" students to engage with the…

  7. How healthy are the "Healthy volunteers"? Penetrance of NAFLD in the biomedical research volunteer pool.

    PubMed

    Takyar, Varun; Nath, Anand; Beri, Andrea; Gharib, Ahmed M; Rotman, Yaron

    2017-09-01

    Healthy volunteers are crucial for biomedical research. Inadvertent inclusion of subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as controls can compromise study validity and subject safety. Given the rising prevalence of NAFLD in the general population, we sought to identify its prevalence and potential impact in volunteers for clinical trials. We conducted a cross-sectional study of subjects who were classified as healthy volunteers between 2011 and 2015 and had no known liver disease. Subjects were classified as presumed NAFLD (pNF; alanine aminotransferase [ALT] level ≥ 20 for women or ≥ 31 for men and body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg/m(2) ), healthy non-NAFLD controls (normal ALT and BMI), or indeterminate. A total of 3160 subjects participated as healthy volunteers in 149 clinical trials (1-29 trials per subject); 1732 of these subjects (55%) had a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) and 1382 (44%) had abnormal ALT. pNF was present in 881 subjects (27.9%), and these subjects were older than healthy control subjects and had higher triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and HbA1c and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 for all). The 149 trials included 101 non-interventional, 33 interventional, and 15 vaccine trials. The impact on study validity of recruiting NAFLD subjects as controls was estimated as likely, probable, and unlikely in 10, 41, and 98 trials, respectively. The proportion of pNF subjects (28%-29%) did not differ by impact. Only 14% of trials used both BMI and ALT for screening. ALT cutoffs for screening were based on local reference values. Grade 3-4 ALT elevations during the study period were rare but more common in pNF subjects than in healthy control subjects (4 versus 1). NAFLD is common and often overlooked in volunteers for clinical trials, despite its potential impact on subject safety and validity of study findings. Increased awareness of NAFLD prevalence and stricter ALT cutoffs may ameliorate

  8. The Volunteers Speak: A World-Wide Survey of Peace Corps Volunteers. ACTION Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    A survey questionnaire was mailed to all active Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) in the summer of 1975. Based on an internal analysis of the 3,479 respondents (a 66% return), the following findings represent the manner in which PCVs perceive their volunteer experience. Perceived volunteer accomplishments and morale are very high. Volunteers believe…

  9. Wasted Resources: Volunteers and Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    lack a credible mechanism for managing the influx of volunteers showing up to help after a disaster occurs. While some states have started pilot...President Reagan’s cabinet “proposed a tattoo to identify all citizens and the President blurted out, ‘My God, that’s the mark of the beast.”63...improvised, “A couple of times I showed my Marine tattoo , and they said go ahead…We didn’t forge anything, we just made them up with our own pictures, and

  10. National survey of volunteer pharmacy preceptors.

    PubMed

    Skrabal, Maryann Z; Jones, Rhonda M; Nemire, Ruth E; Boyle, Cynthia J; Assemi, Mitra; Kahaleh, Abby A; Soltis, Denise A; Allen, Rondall E; Hritcko, Philip M; O'Sullivan, Teresa A; Destache, Christopher J

    2008-10-15

    To survey pharmacy preceptors regarding experiential education and determine the implications of the findings on colleges and schools of pharmacy. An online survey was sent to 4,396 experiential sites. The survey instrument consisted of 41 questions regarding the experiential education environment from the preceptor's perspective (eg, experiential load, time-quality issues, compensation, etc). One thousand one hundred sixty-three preceptors responded (26.5%) to the survey. Concerning experiential load, 73% took 2 or more students in the past year and almost half of the sites had to turn placements away. Nearly all preceptors felt that the more time they spent with students, the higher quality the experience, and 20% felt they didn't have enough time to provide a quality experience. Thirty-six percent of respondents chose monetary stipend as the form of compensation they valued most. This study provides insights into the issues that concern volunteer preceptors and the findings could be used to enhance the quality of experiential education in pharmacy.

  11. Diclofenac phonophoresis in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rosim, Giovana C; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro; Mazzer, Nilton

    2005-03-01

    A quantitative study of sodium diclofenac (Voltaren Emulgel, Novartis) phonophoresis was undertaken in humans. Fourteen healthy human volunteers were submitted to ultrasound irradiation on two 225-cm2 areas on the dorsum (group A), followed by the application of the medication gel, and the plasma diclofenac mass was measured at 1, 2 and 3 h later by high performance liquid chromatography. The same procedure was repeated one month later with the same volunteers but with the ultrasound equipment switched off for the control group (group B). The plasma diclofenac mass was significantly higher in group A than in group B at 1 h (0.0987 microg/mL as opposed to 0.0389 microg/mL; p=0.01) and 2 h (0.0724 microg/mL as opposed to 0.0529 microg/mL; p=0.01), but not at 3 h (0.0864 microg/mL as opposed to 0.0683 microg/mL; p=0.16). The authors conclude that previously applied therapeutic ultrasound irradiation enhances the percutaneous penetration of the topical diclofenac gel, although the mechanism remains unclear.

  12. Six Differentiated Strategies for ESL Literacy for Birth to Third Grade Developmentally Disabled and Normal Students of Hispanic Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James; Jaramillo, Olga

    2013-01-01

    When one effectively employs the strategies of exploratory-learning, wait-time, intervention, guided reading, meaning, and phonological-morphological-syntactical awareness-for infants and on up-to 3rd grade students-all-in a Montessori-like-learning-literacy-setting replete with semantical interactions with phonology, syllabology, morphology, and…

  13. Rethinking Silence as Support: Normalizing Lesbian and Gay Teacher Identities through Models and Conversations in Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, David M.

    2007-01-01

    In the vein of action research, the author examines his practice of matching lesbian and gay student teachers with a lesbian or gay cooperating teacher for field placement. This article addresses several questions. In what ways, if any, do lesbian and gay teachers help new teachers cope with and interrupt homophobia? How do they help student…

  14. The interplay of frequency of volunteering and prosocial motivation on purpose in life in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Kim, Ga Young

    2016-01-01

    One developmental task in emerging adulthood is finding meaning and purpose in life. Volunteering has been touted as one role that fosters purpose in life. We examined whether the association between frequency of volunteering and purpose in life varies with pleasure-based prosocial motivation and pressure-based prosocial motivation in a sample of 576 undergraduates, ages 18-22 years old. In a regression analysis predicting purpose in life, the frequency of volunteering by pleasure-based prosocial motivation by pressure-based prosocial motivation interaction effect was significant (p = .042). Simple slopes analyses revealed that frequency of volunteering was not significantly (p = .478) related to purpose in life among college students who were low in both pleasure-based and pressure-based prosocial motivation. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of prosocial motivation for understanding whether emerging adults' purpose in life will be enhanced by volunteering.

  15. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  16. Online video bridges gap between orientation and first session for arts in medicine volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    An online video assignment was developed to facilitate transition from the orientation session to the first contact with hospital patients for music therapy majors and other students enrolled in an Arts in Medicine service learning course (AIMS). All students (N = 84) completed a 2 hour hospital orientation session. After the orientation session the experimental group (n = 42) completed an online video assignment before volunteering at the hospital The control group (n = 42) began volunteering after the orientation session without completing the video assignment. Analysis indicates the majority of both groups initiated their first session independently without assistance from other AIMS volunteers, an experienced AIM volunteer, an AIM assistant, or hospital staff member. The majority of both groups also engaged at least one patient during their first visit at the hospital. Content analysis of "first contact" weekly reports, however, indicated experimental group students wrote longer reports and included more positive comments, particularly about patients, compared to control group students. Volunteers in the experimental group also began their contacts as scheduled on the course calendar compared to later starting dates of control group volunteers.

  17. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  18. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  19. In the Service of Others: How Volunteering Is Integral to the Tribal College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talahongva, Patty

    2016-01-01

    Today, the spirit of volunteering is very much alive at every tribal college and university (TCU). From fundraisers for food pantries to educational activities that help fellow students, TCUs help forge reciprocity among students and staff. Volunteerism is integral to the tribal college experience. Volunteerism at three tribal colleges--Cankdeska…

  20. In the Service of Others: How Volunteering Is Integral to the Tribal College Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talahongva, Patty

    2016-01-01

    Today, the spirit of volunteering is very much alive at every tribal college and university (TCU). From fundraisers for food pantries to educational activities that help fellow students, TCUs help forge reciprocity among students and staff. Volunteerism is integral to the tribal college experience. Volunteerism at three tribal colleges--Cankdeska…

  1. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  2. Recruiting Young Volunteers in an Area of Selective Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings from a small qualitative case study of a youth volunteering brokerage organisation in England, operating in an area of selective state education. Data show how brokerage workers felt grammar schools managed their students in a concerted way to improve students' chances of attending university. Conversely, workers…

  3. The Volunteers Speak--Again: The Second Annual Survey of Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Richard; Williams, Frederick B.

    Questionnaires were sent to all active Peace Corps volunteers between July and September 1976. Completed questionnaires were returned by 62% of the volunteers who were in the field at the time of the survey. Analyses were conducted to provide basic descriptive information about volunteers, information on differences between groups or types of…

  4. Education and Outreach for Volunteer Planetary Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    When a large meteor exploded over Chelyabinsk in 2013, people saw the bright flash and rushed to windows. Then the blast wave hit and many were injured by flying glass fragments. Education about airbursts might have reduced the casualties. Education and Public Outreach (EPO) can also be important in broadening public involvement in preparations for dealing with cosmic hazards. Amateur astronomers have an important role in discovering potentially hazardous asteroids and comets, and also in making follow-up observations after discovery. This is especially important for Southern Hemisphere observing sites where professional observers are relatively few. The Planetary Society makes small Shoemaker grants to aid amateur astronomers in this work. Much more could be done if educators, students and the general public were aware of the opportunity and the need. Beyond this, public engagement is essential to raise and maintain support for active agencies, including the UN-sponsored International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG). This paper will describe and advocate EPO efforts in support of these and other Volunteer Planetary Defense activities.

  5. Classroom Supervision of Volunteers: Handbook for Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) instructors at Olympic College, this handbook provides information on the college's efforts to train volunteers as classroom assistants in ABE/ESL education, as well as guidelines for working with volunteers. The first section of the handbook provides background on the…

  6. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  7. 75 FR 20891 - National Volunteer Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8500 of April 16, 2010 National Volunteer Week, 2010 By the President of the... country. This week, we recognize their enduring contributions and encourage more Americans, especially our... groups the capacity to tackle local concerns. During National Volunteer Week, we honor the ordinary...

  8. 77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... April 12, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former Prisoner of War... 8797 of April 9, 2012 National Volunteer Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  9. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  10. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  11. Self-Organized Volunteers in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Kun

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports some findings from a longitudinal study of a group of volunteers at an independent school in China. Founded by a committed group of volunteers, Springfield School has been self-sustaining and has provided junior high school education for the past eight years. The author describes the demographic and education background of the…

  12. SVP [School Volunteer Program] Leader's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed to aid school-level administrators of the School Volunteer Program (SVP), this handbook is organized into five sections as follows: (1) what the responsibilities of SVP leaders are, including SVP resource person and volunteer chairman job description; (2) with whom SVP leaders work, including communication network, division of…

  13. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  14. Non-Alumni Advisory Board Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Judy; Nehls, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Advisory boards typically offer guidance, support, social, and financial capital to academic units within colleges and universities. They are generally comprised of prominent volunteers from the community and appropriate industries or businesses. The results of this exploratory study found that non-alumni advisory board volunteers developed…

  15. Classroom Supervision of Volunteers: Handbook for Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, C. Russell

    Designed for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and English as a Second Language (ESL) instructors at Olympic College, this handbook provides information on the college's efforts to train volunteers as classroom assistants in ABE/ESL education, as well as guidelines for working with volunteers. The first section of the handbook provides background on the…

  16. Tutoring ESL: A Handbook for Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Deborah L.; And Others

    This handbook is designed for use by Tacoma Community House volunteer tutors of English as a Second Language (ESL) as a supplement to basic volunteer training. The handbook includes detailed information in areas briefly covered during training and specific instructional ideas and class activities. A section on getting started discusses the…

  17. Sterilization for Large Volunteer Temporary Clinics.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Eve

    2015-12-01

    Large portable clinics staffed by volunteers present many unique challenges, including establishing appropriate instrument processing services. This article explores many of the specific steps an organization can take to ensure a safe care environment for patients and a safe working environment for volunteers.

  18. Volunteers in Leisure. A Management Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedrick, Ted; Henderson, Karla

    The first chapter of this monograph presents some major themes and fundamental issues surrounding leisure activities volunteers and their management from a system perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the results of a survey conducted to obtain a status report of selected volunteer system characteristics. The third chapter focuses on dealing with…

  19. 45 CFR 1306.22 - Volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Volunteers. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...) Special efforts must be made to have volunteer participation, especially parents, in the classroom...

  20. Using mealtime volunteers to support patients.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, Joanne

    Malnutrition in a wide range of hospital patients continues to occur. Using a suggestion from Age UK, in 2010 volunteers were introduced to the Royal Hampshire County Hospital to support nursing staff at mealtimes. Feedback from nursing staff, patients and the volunteers on their introduction has been gathered to look at the impact they have had.

  1. Working with Youth: Approaches for Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Based on advice and information from Peace Corps volunteers, staff, and experts, this manual provides creative, innovative ideas for activities for youth that are founded on development principles. Part 1 provides information about these different kinds of youth a volunteer may encounter in the community: in-school, out-of-school, differently…

  2. Working with Youth: Approaches for Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Based on advice and information from Peace Corps volunteers, staff, and experts, this manual provides creative, innovative ideas for activities for youth that are founded on development principles. Part 1 provides information about these different kinds of youth a volunteer may encounter in the community: in-school, out-of-school, differently…

  3. Guidelines for the Physical Education Volunteer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Rex

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen guidelines for the proper coordination of physical education volunteers are given. Proper placement and training methods are discussed, and program evaluation objectives are considered. The responsibilities of the volunteer in relation to the teaching and learning process and to the school and community are examined. (JN)

  4. No Surprises: Controlling Risks in Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Kostin, Gwynne

    This booklet provides general and specific advice to volunteer programs to help them manage physical, economic, legal, personnel, and public relations risks. It examines various myths about the risks that volunteer programs face and outlines a strategy for implementing a risk management process. This process can be used to identify and assess…

  5. Volunteering and Adult Education: A Historical View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichlin, Seth

    1982-01-01

    Current rationales for volunteering are seen as marketing strategies developed by organizers in the independent sector and used to help recruit volunteers for particular causes. Voluntarism in America was once thought to be a civic duty, but it is now seen as a vital component of adult education. (MLW)

  6. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  7. Volunteer map data collection at the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eric, B. Wolf; Poore, Barbara S.; Caro, Holly K.; Matthews, Greg D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1994, citizen volunteers have helped the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) improve its topographic maps. Through the Earth Science Corps program, citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in 2001, as many as 300 volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process.

  8. Meaningful Commitment: Finding Meaning in Volunteer Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Tatjana; Hoof, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that volunteer work is associated with various aspects of meaning making by employing a multi-dimensional model of meaning operationalized by the "Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire" ("SoMe"). An empirical study comparing 168 volunteers with a representative sample of the general population (N =…

  9. Handbook on Volunteers in Army Community Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This handbook has been prepared for the purpose of offering guidance and assistance in the development and administration of a volunteer program within Army Community Service. It contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 is the Introduction. Chapter 2, Volunteers Are Partners and Team Members, considers the importance of attitudes, agreement on volunteer…

  10. College Experience and Volunteering. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    College experience and volunteering are positively correlated. Measurable differences in civic activity exist between young people who attend college and young people who do not. This fact sheet explores volunteering as civic engagement among youth with college experience, ages 19-25, which was down for the second year in a row in 2006. The…

  11. The anatomic basis for ventricular arrhythmia in the normal heart: what the student of anatomy needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hai, Jo Jo; Lachman, Nirusha; Syed, Faisal F; Desimone, Christopher V; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-09-01

    The traditional route for teaching cardiac anatomy involves didactic instruction, cadaver dissections, and familiarization with the main structure and relationships of the cardiac chambers, valves, and vasculature. In contemporary cardiac electrophysiology, however, a very different view of anatomy is required including details rarely appreciated with a general overview. In this review, we discuss the critical advances in cardiac electrophysiology that were possible only because of understanding detailed anatomic relationships. While we briefly discuss the clinical relevance, we explain in depth the necessary structural information for the student of clinical anatomy. Interspersed through the text are boxes that highlight and summarize the critical pieces of knowledge to be borne in mind while studying the fascinating structural anatomy of the human heart. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A questionnaire study of Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) volunteers: health risk and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Prakash; Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Maybin, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Every year several hundred Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO) volunteers are placed in developing countries where they live and work among the local population. This study analyzes the risk and problems encountered by VSO volunteers overseas. Information was collected from 219 returned VSO volunteers (out of 609; response rate 36%) recruited in the United Kingdom, using a self-administered questionnaire. During the period April 2006 to March 2007 volunteers were given a questionnaire by the VSO medical unit in London with a return envelope. Diarrhea was the most prevalent problem (79.9%), especially for the younger volunteers. Skin and dental problems were next most prevalent. More than one in six had experienced accidents and nearly one-fourth acts of aggression (including verbal) or violence. Most (87.5%) lived in regions with mosquito-borne diseases, 11.6% of these had smear positive malaria. Of all volunteers, 11.0% had placed themselves at risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Unprotected sexual intercourse (45.0%) and split condoms (30.0%) were the main sexual health risk factors. Just over one-fourth of volunteers reported ongoing medical/psychological problems on return, the most common being diarrhea (25.0%), skin disease (15.4%), gynecological problems (13.5%), and injuries (9.6%). Volunteers experience a range of health problems during and after their placement in the developing world. Our study shows the importance of (1) predeparture health preparation of volunteers and (2) medical care and advice for volunteers. This advice is also important for travelers in similar conditions such as those visiting relatives, long-term backpackers, and students working in or traveling to developing countries. Further research is needed to help explain some of the findings and study ways of preventing accidents and illness.

  13. Hospice palliative care volunteers: the benefits for patients, family caregivers, and the volunteers.

    PubMed

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Terminally ill patients and family caregivers can benefit greatly from the support and care provided by trained hospice palliative care volunteers. The benefits of doing this kind of volunteer work also extend to the volunteers themselves, who often say they receive more than they give from the patients/families they are "privileged" to be with. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how hospice palliative care volunteerism benefits both the patients and families who utilize this service as well as the volunteers. A review of studies demonstrating how terminally ill patients, and especially family caregivers, can benefit from the use of hospice palliative care volunteers and how the volunteers themselves benefit from their experiences. Terminally ill patients and families receive many benefits from using the services of hospice palliative care volunteers, including emotional support, companionship, and practical assistance (e.g., respite or breaks from caregiving). Volunteering in hospice palliative care also provides many benefits for the volunteers, including being able to make a difference in the lives of others, personal growth, and greater appreciation of what is really important in life. More needs to be done to promote the value of hospice palliative care volunteers to those who can really benefit from their support and care (i.e., patients and their families) as well as to help people recognize the potential rewards of being a hospice palliative care volunteer. It is a win-win situation.

  14. 45 CFR 1217.6 - Roles of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roles of volunteers. 1217.6 Section 1217.6 Public... VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.6 Roles of volunteers. VISTA volunteer leaders may have the following roles: (a) Primary contact with VISTA volunteers on personal and administrative matters. (b) Aid in...

  15. Program Evaluation of "Young at Heart": Examining Elderly Volunteers' Generativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jean Pearson; Reifman, Alan; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2003-01-01

    Elderly volunteers in the Young at Heart child care program (n=14), Meals on Wheels (n=14), other volunteer activities (n=24), and nonvolunteers (n=49) were compared. Although child-care volunteers were expected to score highest in generativity, volunteers in other activities did, followed by Young at Heart volunteers. (Contains 10 references.)…

  16. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  17. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  18. Top Ten Myths and Realities of Working with Teen Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Kellie

    1998-01-01

    Discusses misconceptions about teen volunteers in public libraries: teens who hang out make good volunteers; teens who apply want to work; parents aren't important; incorporating volunteers is easy; enthusiasm means commitment; volunteers will tell you if they don't enjoy the job; non-performers are easy to fire; teens volunteer because they need…

  19. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and completion of secondary school were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescent volunteering was associated with an increased likelihood of volunteering in young adulthood (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.20 - 1.39; N = 2,648) and of Grade 12 completion (OR 1.14; CI 1.03 - 1.28; N = 2,648), after controlling for family socioeconomic status and adolescent school adjustment. These findings suggest that adolescent volunteering may lead to further involvement in young adult volunteering and have a positive effect on school completion.

  20. HIV risk behavior among Peace Corps Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Moore, J; Beeker, C; Harrison, J S; Eng, T R; Doll, L S

    1995-07-01

    At least 10 former Peace Corps volunteers are believed to have acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their time of service. To assess HIV risk behavior among current Peace Corps volunteers, cross-sectional data were collected from 1242 randomly selected volunteers in 28 countries in 1991. 474 (38%) were stationed in sub-Saharan Africa. Non-sexual HIV-related risk activities included injection from local health facilities (209) and ears or body parts pierced (59). Of the 1018 volunteers who were unmarried or not living with a spouse, 61% of men and 60% of women indicated they had at least one sexual partner during their time of service; 30% and 20%, respectively, had three or more partners. Only 17 men and 12 women reported having a same-sex partner. 52% of sexually active Peace Corps volunteers stationed in Eastern Europe, 43% of those in Central or South America, 36% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 32% in Asia and the Pacific had a sexual partner from the host country. 32% of these volunteers used condoms on every occasion with partners from the host country, 49% used condoms some of the time, and 19% never used them. For male volunteers, consistent condom use was negatively associated with alcohol use and positively related to the perception that HIV was a problem in the host country; for female volunteers, younger age and fewer partners were the significant correlates of condom use. The inconsistent use of condoms in countries where HIV is widespread suggests a need for Peace Corps leaders to educate volunteers about local seroprevalence rates, cultural differences in sexual negotiation, and the importance of condom use.

  1. PREPARING HEALTH PROFESSIONS VOLUNTEERS TO SERVE GLOBALLY.

    PubMed

    Carey, Rebekah E; Carter-Templeton, Heather; Paltzer, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Scant literature exists to describe the global health and collaboration competence of international healthcare professional volunteers. An educational program to prepare volunteers for short-term service in resource-poor settings was developed. Pre- and post- program competence and team collaboration levels were assessed in 18 healthcare professionals. A significant improvement (p < .05) occurred in global health competence after education. Formal educational preparation of international health volunteers can enhance their overall effectiveness when serving in resource-poor settings. Extensive resources for global health education are referenced.

  2. STEM professional volunteers in K-12 competition programs: Educator practices and impact on pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zintgraff, Alfred Clifton

    This mixed methods dissertation study explored how secondary school educators in specific K-12 competition programs recruited and deployed STEM professional volunteers. The study explored which practices were viewed as most important, and how practices related to constructivist pedagogy, all from the viewpoint of educators. The non-positivist approach sought new knowledge without pursuing generalized results. Review of the literature uncovered extensive anecdotal information about current practices, and suggested that large investments are made in engaging volunteers. One National Science Foundation-sponsored study was identified, and its recommendations for a sustained research agenda were advanced. Three study phases were performed, one to explore practices and operationalize definitions, a second to rate practice's importance and their relation to pedagogy, and a third to seek explanations. Educators preferred recruiting local, meaning recruiting parents and former students, versus from industry or other employers. Most educators preferred volunteers with mentoring skills, and placing them in direct contact with students, versus deploying volunteers to help with behind-the-scenes tasks supporting the educator. Relationships were identified between the highest-rated practices and constructivism in programs. In STEM professional volunteers, educators see affordances, in the same way a classroom tool opens affordances. A model is proposed which shows educators considering practicality, pedagogy, knowledge and skills, and rapport when accessing the affordances opened by STEM professional volunteers. Benefits are maximized when programs align with strong industry clusters in the community.

  3. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahabian, Masoud; Esmaeili, Habib-Allah; Rajbai, Omid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2008-12-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of a 1 week treatment of saffron tablets. Volunteers were divided into 3 groups of 10 each (5 males and 5 females). Group I received placebo; groups 2 and 3 received 200 and 400mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic parameters done in pre- and post-treatment periods. Clinical examination showed no gross changes in all volunteers after intervention. Saffron with higher dose (400mg) decreased standing systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures significantly. Saffron decreased slightly some hematological parameters such as red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. Saffron increased sodium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. This study showed that saffron tablets may change some hematological and biochemical parameters. However, these alterations were in normal ranges and they were not important clinically.

  4. Bioavailability of ranitidine in healthy Mexican volunteers: effect of food.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Olguín, H; Flores, J; Pérez, G; Hernández, G; Flores, C; Guillé, A; Camacho, A; Toledo, A; Carrasco, M; Lares, I

    2002-01-01

    Is well known that food can affect the bioavailability of several drugs, its impact is major for those drugs that have to act near of drug absorption. Documentation about alterations of ranitidine bioavailability by effect of food is poor. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of food over the bioavailability of ranitidine. Twenty healthy Mexican volunteers were included for the study. The study was made in two stages, in the first one the volunteers had 12 hour fast and took a 300 mg of oral dose of ranitidine (without food, WOF) and blood samples were drawn. Two weeks later, the volunteers took a normal diet just before ranitidine intake (with food, WF). The area under the curve (AUC) was 30% greater in WOF, Cmax was 921.5 ng/ml (WF) vs. 1685.2 (WOF), and t1/2 was 2.70 +/- 1.38 (WF) h vs 3.66 +/- 1.34 (WOF). The AUC, Cmax and t1/2 were statistically different. It is evident that there are differences in the drug disposition due to the presence of food, then, it is possible that the efficacy of ranitidine as inhibitor of gastric secretion being limited by food.

  5. 32 CFR 1627.3 - Classification of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLUNTEERS FOR INDUCTION § 1627.3 Classification of volunteers. When a registrant who is eligible to volunteer files an Application for Voluntary Induction, he shall be classified in Class 1-A and processed for induction....

  6. 32 CFR 1627.2 - Registration of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLUNTEERS FOR INDUCTION § 1627.2 Registration of volunteers. (a) If a person who is required to be registered but who has failed to register volunteers for induction, he shall be registered. (b)...

  7. 32 CFR 1627.2 - Registration of volunteers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLUNTEERS FOR INDUCTION § 1627.2 Registration of volunteers. (a) If a person who is required to be registered but who has failed to register volunteers for induction, he shall be registered. (b)...

  8. Role of clinical tutors in volunteering work camps.

    PubMed

    Alloni, Rossana; D'Elia, Annunziata; Navajas, Francisca; De Gara, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The Università Campus Bio-Medico (Italy) promotes a summer volunteering work camp (Workcamp Perù) as a social activity for medical and non-medical students. Some junior doctors participate as 'clinical tutors', together with tutors from other professions; all clinical tutors have some teaching experience in our teaching hospital. The campsite is located in the South of Peru in the Cañete Valley, an area characterised by extreme poverty and a severe lack of infrastructure. During the five Workcamp Perù trips that have been organised so far, health science students have carried out many activities for disease prevention and health education, and bio-medical engineering students have organised sessions on the safety of electrical installations, for accident prevention. We observed that in this setting tutorial activity is fundamental, because it not only offers students an opportunity to learn but also encourages them to react in a more personal and reflective manner to various stressful situations, which often occur in the work camp. The professional competence of the tutor plays an important role before the work camp, in defining the learning objectives for the students and involving them in training sessions held prior to the work camp. Also, during the camp, tutors work with students and also direct the daily briefing and debriefing sessions that are the most important learning activity. For medical tutors involved in the work camp the volunteering experience is a challenge for developing their specific professional and teaching skills, but it also provides an enriching experience in both professional and personal terms. We consider these work camps to be a useful experience in the training of our clinical tutors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Measuring the Dollar Value of Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ironmonger, Duncan

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of sample surveys to estimate the amount of time spent volunteering. States that it is necessary to estimate the number of hours involved and to establish an appropriate value per hour. (SK)

  10. A Zen Approach to Volunteer Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Michael L.; Cahill, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    New York University's Zen approach to community service focuses on the principles of mindfulness, awareness, compassion, and engagement in the present moment. It enables a more holistic approach to the measurement of volunteer management objectives. (SK)

  11. Volunteering Internationally: Why, Where and How.

    PubMed

    Frost, David E; Kelly, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Oral health volunteers have an important role in addressing oral health care shortages around the world, but to be effective they need to understand and prepare for the challenges of working overseas.

  12. Planning Educational Volunteer Forums: Steps to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Ken III

    2000-01-01

    Five steps that can help ensure the success of workshops, conferences, or forums for extension volunteers: constructing the steering/planning committee; contracting facilities; planning the program; arranging for food, meals, and catering; and developing the budget. (SK)

  13. Medical volunteers: guidelines for success and safety.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.; Cole-Hoover, Gwendolyn; Berry, Paula K.; Hoover, Evan T.; Harris, Betsy; Rageh, Deman; Weaver, W. Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Many African Americans from a variety of medical specialties are interested in satisfying a life-long dream of visiting Africa by volunteering their services to faith-based and private volunteer organizations doing missionary work on the continent. While this can be an extremely rewarding experience in which measurable good can be accomplished, this path can also be strewn with many obstacles that will affect both the success of the mission and the personal well-being of the volunteer. The American Medical Team for Africa is a nonprofit, tax-exempt, volunteer organization that has been doing medical missionary work in Africa since 1993. This manuscript is a compilation of this 10-year experience that has established some very useful guidelines for insuring a successful and safe mission if you are fortunate enough to have this opportunity. PMID:15719877

  14. Self-regulation of eating and physical activity is lower in obese female college students as compared to their normal weight counterparts.

    PubMed

    Campos-Uscanga, Yolanda; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Romo-González, Tania

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is characterized, among other features, by overeating, reduced physical activity and an abnormal accumulation of body fat. These features are thought to result, at least in part, from the individual's inability to self-regulate their eating and physical activity behaviors (E&PaB). Self-regulation of the E&PaB is a three-step sequential process: self-observation, self-evaluation and self-reaction. However, it is yet unclear whether deficient self-regulation of E&PaB could predispose, facilitate and/or consolidate obesity. Unraveling this issue is fundamental in order to more precisely define the role of self-regulation of E&PaB in the management of obesity. This research was focused on the question of whether or not self-regulation of E&PaB is related to obesity in female undergraduate students. This population segment seems especially vulnerable to developing obesity since they undergo a significant shift of their E&PaB upon their university enrollment. To address this question, a cross-sectional study with 108 female undergraduate students with normal weight (n = 80) or obesity (n = 28) was performed, in which self-regulation of eating habits and physical activity was measured by two validated scales and a personal data questionnaire. Female undergraduate students displaying lower E&PaB self-reactions were consistently overweight or obese. In addition, a multivariate analysis identified high levels of self-reaction towards eating habits related to a minor presence of overweight issues or obesity. Self-regulation should be an essential component in the strategies for obesity prevention as an integral approach that must include orientation about healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. In addition, further studies on the effect of self-regulation in the treatment of the obesity are needed.

  15. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  16. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby

    2002-01-01

    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  17. Analysis of field reports from anaesthesia volunteers in low- to middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Pieczynski, Lauren M; Laudanski, Krzysztof; Speck, Rebecca M; McCunn, Maureen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify key experiences and common motifs of volunteer doctors who have participated in anaesthesia-related volunteer experiences abroad through the Health Volunteers Overseas (HVO) programme. An additional goal was to understand the effects of medical volunteerism in developing countries on the volunteers themselves. After a medical mission with HVO, anaesthesia volunteers submit a post-experience report. Twenty-five reports were randomly selected from the 58 available trip reports, including five from each of the five countries collaborating with HVO. Data in the reports were analysed using a modified grounded theory and constant comparative technique until thematic saturation was achieved. Three major discoveries emerged from the analysis of post-experience reports: (i) anaesthesia residents and attending physicians find their volunteer experiences in the developing world to be personally rewarding and positive; (ii) most participants feel their educational interventions have a positive impact on local students and anaesthesia providers, and (iii) global volunteerism poses challenges, primarily caused by lack of resource availability and communication issues. Our results give new insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by a cohort of HVO-sponsored anaesthesia volunteers while abroad and validates the positive effects these global health experiences have on the volunteers themselves. This group of anaesthesia volunteers was able to further their personal and professional growth, sharpen their physical diagnosis and clinical reasoning skills in resource-poor environments and, most importantly, provide education and promote an exchange of ideas and information. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Holding on to what you have got: keeping hospice palliative care volunteers volunteering.

    PubMed

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Jones, Richard

    2013-08-01

    In all, 119 hospice palliative care volunteers from 3 community-based hospice programs completed the Volunteer Retention Questionnaire (VRQ), a 33-item survey designed for this study. The VRQ asks volunteers to rate the importance of each item to their decision to continue volunteering. The items that received the highest mean importance ratings included enjoying the work they do, feeling adequately prepared/trained to perform their role, and learning from their patients' experiences/listening to their patients' life stories. Being recognized (eg, pins for years of service or being profiled in the hospice newsletter), receiving phone calls/cards from their volunteer coordinator on special occasions, and being reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses were among the items that received the lowest mean importance ratings. Suggestions for improving volunteer retention are provided.

  19. Effects of different sleep deprivation protocols on sleep perception in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P <0.05). Both RD and TD groups showed PI similar to controls during the recovery period. Selective REM sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical volunteers in commercial flight medical diversions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kevin K C; Cocks, Robert A; Poon, W K; Chan, Emily Y Y; Rainer, Timothy H; Graham, Colin A

    2013-05-01

    In-flight medical emergencies are difficult to manage and medical volunteers can be valuable when these events occur. The study objective was to examine the role of medical volunteers in medical emergencies which resulted in medical flight diversions. This was a retrospective cohort study of medical diversions in a large Hong Kong commercial airline from December 2003 to November 2008. This study is derived from a database of in-flight medical events which has been previously reported. The presence of medical volunteers, the need for diversion, and the outcome for all in-flight medical events were recorded. The records of the medical diversion incidents were reviewed in detail and symptom-based categorization applied. Medical volunteers were available in 1439 (35.4%) of the 4068 medical events and in 39 (84.8%) of the 46 cases which required medical diversions. Suspected stroke cases, as categorized under the nonspecific category, was the most common, followed by chest pains and deaths. Medical volunteers presented more often for more serious events, and may be due to the airline medical incident policy and medical legal concerns for volunteers. This study identified measures which may reduce medical diversions, including cabin crew training for stroke screening, and promote the use of the Medical Information Form (MEDIF) and indemnity forms. Recommendations for medical diversion may require more specialized training than is currently given in undergraduate medical courses, and may benefit from better communication with ground-based medical advice services.

  1. Existing Student Study Team Processes in Selected Volunteer Special Education Local Plan Areas, School Districts, and Schools in California: A Descriptive Evaluation Study. Draft Preliminary Findings. Working Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Roxanne L.

    The paper is the third of a series of working papers developed by a project which conducted a cooperative study of existing student study team (SST) processes in nine California special education local plan areas. The working papers augment the final report by providing detailed descriptions of the methods used and the preliminary findings. This…

  2. Healthy Volunteer 2020: Comparing Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics with Healthy People 2020 national objectives.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Susan J; Newman, Jeannette; Ferguson, Rennie W; Jung, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) provides a set of quantifiable objectives for improving the health and well-being of Americans. This study examines Peace Corps Volunteers' health metrics in comparison with the Leading Health Indicators (LHIs) in order to set baseline measures for Volunteers' health care and align our measurements with Healthy People 2020 standards. Health data from multiple internal Peace Corps datasets were compared with relevant LHIs and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Seventeen (65%) of the 26 LHIs were relevant to Peace Corps Volunteers. Of these, Volunteers' health measures met or were more favorable than the goals of 13 (76%) of the LHIs. There were no data available for 4 (24%) of the LHIs. The entire Volunteer population has full access to primary care, oral health, and reproductive health services. No suicides or homicides were reported among Volunteers during the analyzed time period. Utilizing the LHIs, we have identified high-priority public health issues relevant for the Peace Corps Volunteer population. We discuss the need for quality data to measure and monitor Volunteers' health progress and outcomes over time, and also to standardize our measurements with Healthy People 2020 benchmarks. This framework may foster greater collaboration to engage in health promotion and disease prevention activities driven by evidence-based information, which may, in turn, encourage healthy behavior among Volunteers.

  3. Normal clotting.

    PubMed

    Moran, Theresa A; Viele, Carol S

    2005-11-01

    To review the normal coagulation process and the mechanisms that lead to abnormal clotting. Primary and tertiary literature and the authors' clinical experience. The process of coagulation is complex and can be easily misunderstood. It is important to be familiar with normal coagulation before one can comprehend the coagulopathies associated with malignancies. A thorough understanding of the coagulation process is a critical prerequisite to caring for patients with clotting disorders. Once the normal clotting process is understood, the abnormal becomes easier to recognize and the cancer-associated dysfunctions more readily identified.

  4. There Are Infinitely Many Normal Distributions: Not All Normal Distributions Are Standard Normal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Carolyn M.

    Many researchers and students assume that the univariate distribution has a single, ubiquitous "bell" shape, perhaps because most books only portray the "standard normal" or normal z-score distribution. This paper shows that the normal curve can have infinitely many appearances. It illustrates that the width to height ratio can…

  5. Learning in Later Life: Benefits and Challenges for Volunteers and Agencies.

    PubMed

    Findsen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Older adults in most societies are keen volunteers in a myriad of contexts for the betterment of individuals and for the agencies in which they volunteer. This article discusses how volunteerism among older adults may enhance their learning and the kinds of benefits and challenges they encounter in their work for employing authorities. It also considers how agencies can be better attuned to the lifelong learning aspirations of older volunteers. Research related to older adults, lifelong learning and the character of volunteerism is reviewed with examples provided from New Zealand and Australia of older adults' participation in volunteerism and consequential impact. While volunteerism is normally viewed as a "win-win" situation for the volunteers and the organisations in which knowledge is further developed for varied purposes (economic sufficiency; personal development; active citizenship; social inclusion), there are nevertheless challenges for both parties. The article explores salient factors which function as enhancers or limitations for older volunteers in their work and learning. It is important that the motives of volunteers for participation are fully transparent and understood by the older adults themselves and by the relevant agencies. Organisations can provide considerable opportunities for older people to engage in continuing learning/ education but they need to be aware of effective recruitment and retention strategies; older people can provide a much needed labour resource where their previous life experiences can be drawn upon and they should be fully cognisant of the organisation's mission and how they can help to enhance it.

  6. Neighbourly Acts--Volunteering, Social Capital and Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jennifer; Bittman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Robert Putnam's view of social capital considers the decline in volunteering as a crisis for democracy. However, data on volunteering in Australia from 1974-1997 indicate that there is likely to be a significant increase in total volunteer hours. Beyond the contribution to democratic society, the values implicit in volunteering increase the…

  7. Characteristics of the Essence of Volunteering in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagurova, Angelina Alexandrovna; Ivanovna, Efremova Galina; Aleksandrovna, Bochkovskaya Irina; Denisenko, Sergey Ivanovich; Valerievich, Tarasov Mihail; Viktorovna, Nekrasova Marina; Potutkova, Svetlana Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the basic ideas of volunteering; it analyzes the data of psychological studies on social activity and it highlights the importance of studying the motivational part of volunteering. The conclusion on structure and content of volunteering is made. Key focus is on the fact that volunteering is of particular importance in the…

  8. Neighbourly Acts--Volunteering, Social Capital and Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jennifer; Bittman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Robert Putnam's view of social capital considers the decline in volunteering as a crisis for democracy. However, data on volunteering in Australia from 1974-1997 indicate that there is likely to be a significant increase in total volunteer hours. Beyond the contribution to democratic society, the values implicit in volunteering increase the…

  9. Above and Beyond: Secondary Activities for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Judy; And Others

    This manual focuses on what prompts Peace Corps volunteers to get involved, activities that volunteers have tried while on assignment, and a series of guidelines volunteers can apply to secondary activity, which is organized during school recesses or at times when the Volunteer is otherwise unoccupied. The book is divided into three sections. Part…

  10. Effect of volunteers on maize gene flow.

    PubMed

    Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Melé, Enric; Serra, Joan; Salvia, Jordi; Pla, Maria; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima

    2009-08-01

    Regulatory approvals for deliberate release of GM maize events into the environment have lead to real situations of coexistence between GM and non-GM, with some fields being cultivated with GM and conventional varieties in successive seasons. Given the common presence of volunteer plants in maize fields in temperate areas, we investigated the real impact of GM volunteers on the yield of 12 non-GM agricultural fields. Volunteer density varied from residual to around 10% of plants in the field and was largely reduced using certain cultural practices. Plant vigour was low, they rarely had cobs and produced pollen that cross-fertilized neighbour plants only at low--but variable--levels. In the worst-case scenario, the estimated content of GMO was 0.16%. The influence of GM volunteers was not enough to reach the 0.9% adventitious GM threshold but it could potentially contribute to adventitious GM levels, especially at high initial densities (i.e. above 1,000 volunteers/ha).

  11. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  12. Volunteer Management in Boards of Probation: Perceptions of Equity, Efficiency, and Reciprocity among Vermont Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesire, J. D.; Karp, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide "Reparative Probation" intervention was evaluated in Vermont in which volunteers serve on local Boards and meet with probationers to negotiate a "reparative contract." Our sample (n = 229) was drawn from the universe of Vermont volunteers who completed a 54-question instrument measuring perceived equity, efficiency,…

  13. A New Breed of Volunteer Calls for a New Volunteer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    PTAs have always faced the challenge of competing for volunteer time. A PTA's primary volunteer base is made up of parents of public school children, and parents are being pulled in many directions, as their children are more engaged than ever in multiple extracurricular activities that may have their own specialized parent groups. Parents with…

  14. Volunteer Management in Boards of Probation: Perceptions of Equity, Efficiency, and Reciprocity among Vermont Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesire, J. D.; Karp, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide "Reparative Probation" intervention was evaluated in Vermont in which volunteers serve on local Boards and meet with probationers to negotiate a "reparative contract." Our sample (n = 229) was drawn from the universe of Vermont volunteers who completed a 54-question instrument measuring perceived equity, efficiency,…

  15. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  16. Intimacy, domesticity and pet therapy with the elderly: expectation and experience among nursing home volunteers.

    PubMed

    Savishinsky, J S

    1992-06-01

    A study of volunteers in three nursing homes revealed that their role had several unexpected consequences for institutional residents and for the volunteers themselves. The research, carried out in geriatric facilities in upstate New York, focused on community members and college students working in a pet therapy program, through which they brought companion animals to various institutions on a weekly basis. Visiting people and pets re-created an aura of domesticity for residents who had been cut off from homes and families by age and illness. Consonant with this domestic perception by residents was the self-image that volunteers developed of their role: most came to see themselves as family and friends to patients rather than as visitors, strangers, or adjunct staff. Volunteering, however, was an emotionally demanding experience that some people handled more successfully than others. While certain individuals found the costs of this unexpected intimacy to be too high, others discovered significant rewards in what one person called its 'selfish altruism.' Several factors were found to mediate how volunteers felt about what they did, and whether or not they continued with their work over a long period of time. These variables included: (a) the motives that people had for becoming volunteers, (b) their prior experience doing this kind of work, (c) their career orientations, and current family and living situation, and (d) the image that they had of the elderly in general and nursing homes in particular.

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging reliably differentiates patients with schizophrenia from healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ardekani, Babak A; Tabesh, Ali; Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G; Bilder, Robert M; Szeszko, Philip R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain are able to reliably differentiate patients with schizophrenia from healthy volunteers. DTI and high resolution structural magnetic resonance scans were acquired in 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FA and MD maps were estimated from the DTI data and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurologic Institute standard stereotactic space. Individuals were divided randomly into two groups of 50, a training set, and a test set, each comprising 25 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. A pattern classifier was designed using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on the training set of images to categorize individuals in the test set as either patients or healthy volunteers. Using the FA maps, the classifier correctly identified 94% of the cases in the test set (96% sensitivity and 92% specificity). The classifier achieved 98% accuracy (96% sensitivity and 100% specificity) when using the MD maps as inputs to distinguish schizophrenia patients from healthy volunteers in the test dataset. Utilizing FA and MD data in combination did not significantly alter the accuracy (96% sensitivity and specificity). Patterns of water self-diffusion in the brain as estimated by DTI can be used in conjunction with automated pattern recognition algorithms to reliably distinguish between patients with schizophrenia and normal control subjects.

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reliably Differentiates Patients With Schizophrenia from Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Ardekani, Babak A.; Tabesh, Ali; Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Bilder, Robert M.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine whether fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain are able to reliably differentiate patients with schizophrenia from healthy volunteers. DTI and high resolution structural magnetic resonance scans were acquired in 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FA and MD maps were estimated from the DTI data and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurologic Institute standard stereotactic space. Individuals were divided randomly into two groups of 50, a training set and a test set, each comprising 25 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. A pattern classifier was designed using Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis based on the training set of images to categorize individuals in the test set as either patients or healthy volunteers. Using the FA maps the classifier correctly identified 94% of the cases in the test set (96% sensitivity and 92% specificity). The classifier achieved 98% accuracy (96% sensitivity and 100% specificity) when using the MD maps as inputs to distinguish schizophrenia patients from healthy volunteers in the test dataset. Utilizing FA and MD data in combination did not significantly alter the accuracy (96% sensitivity and specificity). Patterns of water self-diffusion in the brain as estimated by DTI can be used in conjunction with automated pattern recognition algorithms to reliably distinguish between patients with schizophrenia and normal control subjects. PMID:20205252

  19. Notice on Implementing the Plan of College Graduate Volunteer Service in Western China (2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Western China Program, initiated through this policy jointly issued in 2003 by the several ministries of the government and the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League, organizes 5,000 college students annually to engage in full-time volunteer services in western China. The document states details about the recruitment and preservice…

  20. The Ecology of Volunteerism among College Women: Identifying Campus Environments That Inform Volunteering Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axlund McBride, RaeLyn; Lott, Joe L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between campus environments, female college student peer culture, and the tendency to volunteer while in college. The authors used Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development (1977, 2005) as a framework to (a) identify one multi-faceted campus environment that is linked to volunteerism among college…

  1. How School Volunteers Can Help To Raise Standards and Enthusiasm for Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary; Thorogood, Lynne; Jones, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Discusses findings from evaluation of national "School Friends" project set up by British Telecom (BT) in the United Kingdom, in which BT employees volunteered to assist with literacy learning in primary schools. Notes evaluation findings that industry role models raised students' confidence and enthusiasm for reading, especially among…

  2. The Appalachian Volunteers: A Case Study of Community Organization and Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Billy D.

    The Appalachian Volunteers (AV's), conceived of by Federal, State, and private interests in February 1964, were sponsored by the Council of the Southern Mountains. The organization undertook weekend and vacation projects using college students to repair and renovate one-room schools in isolated areas of eastern Kentucky, later including summer…

  3. Does "Compulsory Volunteering" Affect Subsequent Behavior? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of "compulsory volunteerism" for adolescents on subsequent volunteer behavior exploiting the introduction of a mandatory community service program for high school (HS) students in Ontario, Canada. We use difference-in-differences approach with a large longitudinal dataset. Our estimates show that the…

  4. Leveraging Volunteers: An Experimental Evaluation of a Tutoring Program for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Armstrong, Catherine; Bowden, A. Brooks; Pan, Yilin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the impacts and costs of the Reading Partners program, which uses community volunteers to provide one-on-one tutoring to struggling readers in under-resourced elementary schools. The evaluation uses an experimental design. Students were randomly assigned within 19 different Reading Partners sites to a program or control…

  5. Lao Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Abrew, Kamini; Khamphasinovanh, Thong

    This Lao language textbook is the second draft of a book developed for teaching Lao to United States Peace Corps volunteers (PCVs) and is designed to be used with a Lao language instructor familiar with competency based curricula. It is not designed for self-instruction, although after some hours of use, students may be familiar enough with the…

  6. The Ecology of Volunteerism among College Women: Identifying Campus Environments That Inform Volunteering Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axlund McBride, RaeLyn; Lott, Joe L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between campus environments, female college student peer culture, and the tendency to volunteer while in college. The authors used Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development (1977, 2005) as a framework to (a) identify one multi-faceted campus environment that is linked to volunteerism among college…

  7. Personality Types and Mental Health Experiences of Those Who Volunteer for Helplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Hannah; Reniers, Renate; Vollm, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Telephone helplines have long been recognized to provide an effective way to reach individuals in crisis and several advantages of this anonymous form of intervention have been described. Most helplines use volunteers to respond to calls, including those specifically set up for students. Our study investigates differences in the personality traits…

  8. TESOL Tutor Time Homework Center: A Collaboration of Volunteer Preservice Teachers in the Public Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariza, Eileen N.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the inception and progress of a university-public school collaboration in which preservice teachers, working toward endorsement in teaching English to speakers of other languages, volunteer to teach English as a second language students, providing academic support, homework help, language practice, and comprehensive explanations for…

  9. Love 'em or they'll leave: motivating volunteers.

    PubMed

    McDowell, D

    1999-11-01

    Running a successful volunteer-based service does not begin and end with the recruitment of volunteers. You need to first consider what is in it for the prospective volunteer, define why you want volunteers and then decide exactly what you want those volunteers to do. Then you recruit them, face-to-face, ensuring that every prospect is offered something specific to do and is welcomed into your EMS family.

  10. 20 CFR 10.731 - What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers... COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Special Provisions Peace Corps Volunteers § 10.731 What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for...

  11. 20 CFR 10.731 - What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for compensation purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers... COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Special Provisions Peace Corps Volunteers § 10.731 What is the pay rate of Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders for...

  12. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  13. Assessing change in health professions volunteers' perceptions after participating in Special Olympics healthy athlete events.

    PubMed

    Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Boyd, Linda D; Tivis, Rick

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed perceptions of health professions student and faculty volunteers who participated with athletes at the 2009 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Healthy Athlete venues. The volunteers' perceptions and expectations of the abilities of intellectually disabled athletes were measured by administering pre-event and post-event questionnaires consisting of demographic questions and the Prognostic Belief Scale (PBS). Invitations to participate in the study were sent to 165 students and faculty members; of those, eighty (48.5 percent response rate) responded to the pre-event questionnaire, and sixty-seven (40.6 percent response rate) responded to the post-event questionnaire. Of the eighty respondents to the pre-event questionnaire, fifty-five (68.7 percent) also completed the post-event questionnaire. The ANOVA comparing pre- and post-event PBS scores between groups found a trend towards higher scores among the volunteers, but analysis did not demonstrate a significant effect in either group (p=.68) or the interaction of group by time (p=.46). Despite the findings from the PBS, participants' statements suggest the experience had an impact on their perceptions and expectations. Although not statistically significant, this study found a positive trend pre- to post-event in the volunteers' perceptions of the abilities of athletes with intellectual disabilities. In addition to didactic and clinical education, volunteer experiences may enhance care providers' knowledge, skill, and confidence levels for treating clients with intellectual disabilities.

  14. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects

  15. Assisting TMR Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnquist, Antoinette E.

    1988-01-01

    High-school art teachers and student volunteers from advanced studio classes worked with trainable mentally retarded students on art projects such as abstract design paintings and note cards and potato-printed placemats. The impact of the experience on the handicapped students, the student aides, and the teachers is noted. (JDD)

  16. Assisting TMR Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnquist, Antoinette E.

    1988-01-01

    High-school art teachers and student volunteers from advanced studio classes worked with trainable mentally retarded students on art projects such as abstract design paintings and note cards and potato-printed placemats. The impact of the experience on the handicapped students, the student aides, and the teachers is noted. (JDD)

  17. Volunteers in the earthquake hazard reduction program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    With this in mind, I organized a small workshop for approximately 30 people on February 2 and 3, 1978, in Menlo Park, Calif. the purpose of the meeting was to discuss methods of involving volunteers in a meaningful way in earthquake research and in educating the public about earthquake hazards. The emphasis was on earthquake prediction research, but the discussions covered the whole earthquake hazard reduction program. Representatives attended from the earthquake research community, from groups doing socioeconomic research on earthquake matters, and from a wide variety of organizations who might sponsor volunteers

  18. Volunteers build Bay St. Louis playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    More than 650 volunteers - many of them employees at NASA's Stennis Space Center - weathered rain and cold to transform Bay St. Louis' old City Park into a playground Dec. 17. Volunteers assembled and erected a slide, swing set, jungle gym, sand box and planter benches in an eight-hour time frame. The playground was the first new structure built in the town devastated by Hurricane Katrina and the first on the Gulf Coast after the storm. The project was financed and led by nonprofit organization KaBOOM!, whose vision is to create a great place to play within walking distance of every child in America.

  19. Volunteers build Bay St. Louis playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    More than 650 volunteers - many of them employees at NASA's Stennis Space Center - weathered rain and cold to transform Bay St. Louis' old City Park into a playground Dec. 17. Volunteers assembled and erected a slide, swing set, jungle gym, sand box and planter benches in an eight-hour time frame. The playground was the first new structure built in the town devastated by Hurricane Katrina and the first on the Gulf Coast after the storm. The project was financed and led by nonprofit organization KaBOOM!, whose vision is to create a great place to play within walking distance of every child in America.

  20. Volunteer Interacting with a Rotating Chair Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brad McLain for the Space Biology Museum Network spins a volunteer in a rotating chair to illustrate how dependent the human vestibular system is on visual cues. The volunteer's thumbs indicate which way she thinks she is turning. Similar tests are conducted on astronauts to study how they adapt to space and readapt to Earth. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.