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Sample records for normal zebrafish pronephros

  1. Scribble participates in Hippo signaling and is required for normal zebrafish pronephros development

    PubMed Central

    Skouloudaki, Kassiani; Puetz, Michael; Simons, Matias; Courbard, Jean-Remy; Boehlke, Christopher; Hartleben, Björn; Engel, Christina; Moeller, Marcus J.; Englert, Christoph; Bollig, Frank; Schäfer, Tobias; Ramachandran, Haribaskar; Mlodzik, Marek; Huber, Tobias B.; Kuehn, E. Wolfgang; Kim, Emily; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht; Walz, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Spatial organization of cells and their appendages is controlled by the planar cell polarity pathway, a signaling cascade initiated by the protocadherin Fat in Drosophila. Vertebrates express 4 Fat molecules, Fat1–4. We found that depletion of Fat1 caused cyst formation in the zebrafish pronephros. Knockdown of the PDZ domain containing the adaptor protein Scribble intensified the cyst-promoting phenotype of Fat1 depletion, suggesting that Fat1 and Scribble act in overlapping signaling cascades during zebrafish pronephros development. Supporting the genetic interaction with Fat1, Scribble recognized the PDZ-binding site of Fat1. Depletion of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a transcriptional co-activator inhibited by Hippo signaling, ameliorated the cyst formation in Fat1-deficient zebrafish, whereas Scribble inhibited the YAP1-induced cyst formation. Thus, reduced Hippo signaling and subsequent YAP1 disinhibition seem to play a role in the development of pronephric cysts after depletion of Fat1 or Scribble. We hypothesize that Hippo signaling is required for normal pronephros development in zebrafish and that Scribble is a candidate link between Fat and the Hippo signaling cascade in vertebrates. PMID:19439659

  2. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Gary F.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  3. Zebrafish pronephros tubulogenesis and epithelial identity maintenance are reliant on the polarity proteins Prkc iota and zeta.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Gary F; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-12-15

    The zebrafish pronephros provides an excellent in vivo system to study the mechanisms of vertebrate nephron development. When and how renal progenitors in the zebrafish embryo undergo tubulogenesis to form nephrons is poorly understood, but is known to involve a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the acquisition of polarity. Here, we determined the precise timing of these events in pronephros tubulogenesis. As the ternary polarity complex is an essential regulator of epithelial cell polarity across tissues, we performed gene knockdown studies to assess the roles of the related factors atypical protein kinase C iota and zeta (prkcι, prkcζ). We found that prkcι and prkcζ serve partially redundant functions to establish pronephros tubule epithelium polarity. Further, the loss of prkcι or the combined knockdown of prkcι/ζ disrupted proximal tubule morphogenesis and podocyte migration due to cardiac defects that prevented normal fluid flow to the kidney. Surprisingly, tubule cells in prkcι/ζ morphants displayed ectopic expression of the transcription factor pax2a and the podocyte-associated genes wt1a, wt1b, and podxl, suggesting that prkcι/ζ are needed to maintain renal epithelial identity. Knockdown of genes essential for cardiac contractility and vascular flow to the kidney, such as tnnt2a, or elimination of pronephros fluid output through knockdown of the intraflagellar transport gene ift88, was not associated with ectopic pronephros gene expression, thus suggesting a unique role for prkcι/ζ in maintaining tubule epithelial identity separate from the consequence of disruptions to renal fluid flow. Interestingly, knockdown of pax2a, but not wt1a, was sufficient to rescue ectopic tubule gene expression in prkcι/ζ morphants. These data suggest a model in which the redundant activities of prkcι and prkcζ are essential to establish tubule epithelial polarity and also serve to maintain proper epithelial cell type identity in the tubule by

  4. Loss of vhl in the zebrafish pronephros recapitulates early stages of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Haley R; Metelo, Ana M; Kamei, Caramai N; Peterson, Randall T; Drummond, Iain A; Iliopoulos, Othon

    2016-08-01

    Patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease harbor a germline mutation in the VHL gene leading to the development of several tumor types including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In addition, the VHL gene is inactivated in over 90% of sporadic ccRCC cases. 'Clear cell' tumors contain large, proliferating cells with 'clear cytoplasm', and a reduced number of cilia. VHL inactivation leads to the stabilization of hypoxia inducible factors 1a and 2a [HIF1a and HIF2a (HIF2a is also known as EPAS1)] with consequent up-regulation of specific target genes involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and erythropoiesis. A zebrafish model with a homozygous inactivation in the VHL gene (vhl(-/-)) recapitulates several aspects of the human disease, including development of highly vascular lesions in the brain and the retina and erythrocytosis. Here, we characterize for the first time the epithelial abnormalities present in the kidney of the vhl(-/-) zebrafish larvae as a first step in building a model of ccRCC in zebrafish. Our data show that the vhl(-/-) zebrafish kidney is characterized by an increased tubule diameter, disorganized cilia, the dramatic formation of cytoplasmic lipid vesicles, glycogen accumulation, aberrant cell proliferation and abnormal apoptosis. This phenotype of the vhl(-/-) pronephros is reminiscent of clear cell histology, indicating that the vhl(-/-) mutant zebrafish might serve as a model of early stage RCC. Treatment of vhl(-/-) zebrafish embryos with a small-molecule HIF2a inhibitor rescued the pronephric abnormalities, underscoring the value of the zebrafish model in drug discovery for treatment of VHL disease and ccRCC.

  5. Loss of vhl in the zebrafish pronephros recapitulates early stages of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Haley R.; Metelo, Ana M.; Kamei, Caramai N.; Peterson, Randall T.; Drummond, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease harbor a germline mutation in the VHL gene leading to the development of several tumor types including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In addition, the VHL gene is inactivated in over 90% of sporadic ccRCC cases. ‘Clear cell’ tumors contain large, proliferating cells with ‘clear cytoplasm’, and a reduced number of cilia. VHL inactivation leads to the stabilization of hypoxia inducible factors 1a and 2a [HIF1a and HIF2a (HIF2a is also known as EPAS1)] with consequent up-regulation of specific target genes involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and erythropoiesis. A zebrafish model with a homozygous inactivation in the VHL gene (vhl−/−) recapitulates several aspects of the human disease, including development of highly vascular lesions in the brain and the retina and erythrocytosis. Here, we characterize for the first time the epithelial abnormalities present in the kidney of the vhl−/− zebrafish larvae as a first step in building a model of ccRCC in zebrafish. Our data show that the vhl−/− zebrafish kidney is characterized by an increased tubule diameter, disorganized cilia, the dramatic formation of cytoplasmic lipid vesicles, glycogen accumulation, aberrant cell proliferation and abnormal apoptosis. This phenotype of the vhl−/− pronephros is reminiscent of clear cell histology, indicating that the vhl−/− mutant zebrafish might serve as a model of early stage RCC. Treatment of vhl−/− zebrafish embryos with a small-molecule HIF2a inhibitor rescued the pronephric abnormalities, underscoring the value of the zebrafish model in drug discovery for treatment of VHL disease and ccRCC. PMID:27491085

  6. The tbx2a/b transcription factors direct pronephros segmentation and corpuscle of Stannius formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Bridgette E; Li, Yue; Marra, Amanda N; Cheng, Christina N; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    The simplified and genetically conserved zebrafish pronephros is an excellent model to examine the cryptic processes of cell fate decisions during the development of nephron segments as well as the origins of associated endocrine cells that comprise the corpuscles of Stannius (CS). Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we found that transcripts of the zebrafish genes t-box 2a (tbx2a) and t-box 2b (tbx2b), which belong to the T-box family of transcription factors, were expressed in the caudal intermediate mesoderm progenitors that give rise to the distal pronephros and CS. Deficiency of tbx2a, tbx2b or both tbx2a/b reduced the size of the distal late (DL) segment, which was accompanied by a proximal convoluted segment (PCT) expansion. Further, tbx2a/b deficiency led to significantly larger CS clusters. These phenotypes were also observed in embryos with the from beyond (fby)(c144) mutation, which encodes a premature stop codon in the tbx2b T-box sequence. Conversely, overexpression of tbx2a and tbx2b in wild-type embryos expanded the DL segment where cells were comingled with the adjacent DE, and also decreased CS cell number, but notably did not alter PCT development-providing independent evidence that tbx2a and tbx2b are each necessary and sufficient to promote DL fate and suppress CS genesis. Epistasis studies indicated that tbx2a acts upstream of tbx2b to regulate the DL and CS fates, and likely has other targets as well. Retinoic acid (RA) addition and inhibition studies revealed that tbx2a and tbx2b are negatively regulated by RA signaling. Interestingly, the CS cell expansion that typifies tbx2a/b deficiency also occurred when blocking Notch signaling with the chemical DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester). Ectopic activation of Notch in Tg(hsp70::Gal4; UAS::NICD)(NICD) embryos led to a reduced CS post heat-shock induction. To further examine the link between the tbx2a/b genes and Notch during CS formation, DAPT

  7. Evaluation of the teratogenic effects of three traditional Chinese medicines, Si Jun Zi Tang, Liu Jun Zi Tang and Shenling Baizhu San, during zebrafish pronephros development

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yu-Ju; Wang, Bo-Cheng; Wen, Chi-Chung; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lee, Hsun-Hua; Lee, Fei-Peng; Yang, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of three common Chinese medical prescriptions, Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZT), Liu Jun Zi Tang (LJZT) and Shenling Baizhu San (SLBS), during zebrafish pronephros development. We used the transgenic zebrafish line Tg(wt1b:EGFP) to assess the teratogenic effects using 12 different protocols, which comprised combinations of 4 doses (0, 25, 250, 1,250 ng/mL) and 3 exposure methods [methods I, 12–36 hours post fertilization (hpf), II, 24–48 hpf, and III, 24–36 hpf]. As a result, few defects in the kidneys were observed in the embryos exposed to 25 ng/mL of each medical prescription. The percentage of kidney malformation phenotypes increased as the exposure concentrations increased (25 ng/mL, 0–10%; 250 ng/mL, 0–60%; 1,250 ng/mL, 80–100%). Immunohistochemistry for α6F, which is a basolateral and renal tubular differentiation marker, revealed no obvious defective phenotypes in either SJZT- or LJZT-treated embryos, indicating that these Chinese medical prescriptions had minimal adverse effects on the pronephric duct. However, SLBS-treated embryos displayed a defective phenotype in the pronephric duct. According to these findings, we suggest (1) that the Chinese medical prescriptions induced kidney malformation phenotypes that are dose dependent and (2) that the embryonic zebrafish kidney was more sensitive to SLBS than SJZT and LJZT. PMID:26441476

  8. pdzrn3 is required for pronephros morphogenesis in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Marracci, Silvia; Vangelisti, Alberto; Raffa, Vittoria; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Dente, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Pdzrn3, a multidomain protein with E3-ubiquitin ligase activity, has been reported to play a role in myoblast and osteoblast differentiation and, more recently, in neuronal and endothelial cell development. The expression of the pdzrn3 gene is developmentally regulated in various vertebrate tissues, including muscular, neural and vascular system. Little is known about its expression during kidney development, although genetic polymorphisms and alterations around the human pdzrn3 chromosomal region have been found to be associated with renal cell carcinomas and other kidney diseases. We investigated the pdzrn3 spatio-temporal expression pattern in Xenopus laevis embryos by in situ hybridization. We focused our study on the development of the pronephros, which is the embryonic amphibian kidney, functionally similar to the most primitive nephric structures of human kidney. To explore the role of pdzrn3 during renal morphogenesis, we performed loss-of-function experiments, through antisense morpholino injections and analysed the morphants using specific pronephric markers. Dynamic pdzrn3 expression was observed in embryonic tissues, such as somites, brain, eye, blood islands, heart, liver and pronephros. Loss of function experiments resulted in specific alterations of pronephros development. In particular, at early stages, pdzrn3 depletion was associated with a reduction of the pronephros anlagen and later, with perturbations of the tubulogenesis, including deformation of the proximal tubules. Rescue experiments, in which mRNA of the zebrafish pdzrn3 orthologue was injected together with the morpholino, allowed recovery of the kidney phenotypes. These results underline the importance of pdzrn3 expression for correct nephrogenesis.

  9. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  10. Sept6 is required for ciliogenesis in Kupffer's vesicle, the pronephros, and the neural tube during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Gang; Gu, Qilin; He, Jiangyan; Lou, Qiyong; Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; Bi, Erfei; Yin, Zhan

    2014-04-01

    Septins are conserved filament-forming GTP-binding proteins that act as cellular scaffolds or diffusion barriers in a number of cellular processes. However, the role of septins in vertebrate development remains relatively obscure. Here, we show that zebrafish septin 6 (sept6) is first expressed in the notochord and then in nearly all of the ciliary organs, including Kupffer's vesicle (KV), the pronephros, eye, olfactory bulb, and neural tube. Knockdown of sept6 in zebrafish embryos results in reduced numbers and length of cilia in KV. Consequently, cilium-related functions, such as the left-right patterning of internal organs and nodal/spaw signaling, are compromised. Knockdown of sept6 also results in aberrant cilium formation in the pronephros and neural tube, leading to cilium-related defects in pronephros development and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. We further demonstrate that SEPT6 associates with acetylated α-tubulin in vivo and localizes along the axoneme in the cilia of zebrafish pronephric duct cells as well as cultured ZF4 cells. Our study reveals a novel role of sept6 in ciliogenesis during early embryonic development in zebrafish.

  11. Sparc Protein Is Required for Normal Growth of Zebrafish Otoliths

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young-Jin; Stevenson, Amy K.; Yau, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths and the homologous otoconia in the inner ear are essential for balance. Their morphogenesis is less understood than that of other biominerals, such as bone, and only a small number of their constituent proteins have been characterized. As a novel approach to identify unknown otolith proteins, we employed shotgun proteomics to analyze crude extracts from trout and catfish otoliths. We found three proteins that had not been associated previously with otolith or otoconia formation: ‘Secreted acidic cysteine rich glycoprotein’ (Sparc), an important bone protein that binds collagen and Ca2+; precerebellin-like protein, which contains a C1q domain and may associate with the collagenous otolin-1 during its assembly into a framework; and neuroserpin, a serine protease inhibitor that may regulate local protease activity during framework assembly. We then used the zebrafish to investigate whether Sparc plays a role in otolith morphogenesis. Immunodetection demonstrated that Sparc is a true constituent of otoliths. Knockdown of Sparc expression in morphant zebrafish resulted in four principal types of defective otoliths: smaller, extra and ectopic, missing and fused, or completely absent. Smaller size was the predominant phenotype and independent of the severity of otic-vesicle defects. These results suggested that Sparc is directly required for normal otolith growth. PMID:18784957

  12. Technical brief: Constant intense light exposure to lesion and initiate regeneration in normally pigmented zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Kamya; Summerbell, Emily R.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish are capable of robust and spontaneous regeneration of injured retina. Constant intense light exposure to adult albino zebrafish specifically causes apoptosis of rod and cone photoreceptor cells and is an excellent model to study the molecular mechanisms underlying photoreceptor regeneration. However, this paradigm has only been applied to lesion zebrafish of the nonpigmented albino genetic background, which precludes the use of numerous transgenic reporter lines that are widely used to study regeneration. Here, we explored the effectiveness of constant intense light exposure in causing photoreceptor apoptosis and stimulating regeneration in normally pigmented zebrafish retinas. We show that constant intense light exposure causes widespread photoreceptor damage in the dorsal-central retinas of pigmented zebrafish. Photoreceptor loss triggers dedifferentiation and proliferation of Müller glia as well as progenitor cell proliferation. We also demonstrate that the timeline of regeneration response is comparable between the albino and the pigmented retinas. PMID:25324680

  13. Normal and Malignant Muscle Cell Transplantation into Immune Compromised Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Moore, John C.; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful tool for assessing development, regeneration, and cancer. More recently, allograft cell transplantation protocols have been developed that permit engraftment of normal and malignant cells into irradiated, syngeneic, and immune compromised adult zebrafish. These models when coupled with optimized cell transplantation protocols allow for the rapid assessment of stem cell function, regeneration following injury, and cancer. Here, we present a method for cell transplantation of zebrafish adult skeletal muscle and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS), a pediatric sarcoma that shares features with embryonic muscle, into immune compromised adult rag2E450fs homozygous mutant zebrafish. Importantly, these animals lack T cells and have reduced B cell function, facilitating engraftment of a wide range of tissues from unrelated donor animals. Our optimized protocols show that fluorescently labeled muscle cell preparations from α-actin-RFP transgenic zebrafish engraft robustly when implanted into the dorsal musculature of rag2 homozygous mutant fish. We also demonstrate engraftment of fluorescent-transgenic ERMS where fluorescence is confined to cells based on differentiation status. Specifically, ERMS were created in AB-strain myf5-GFP; mylpfa-mCherry double transgenic animals and tumors injected into the peritoneum of adult immune compromised fish. The utility of these protocols extends to engraftment of a wide range of normal and malignant donor cells that can be implanted into dorsal musculature or peritoneum of adult zebrafish. PMID:25591079

  14. Standardized echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function in normal adult zebrafish and heart disease models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Louis W; Huttner, Inken G; Santiago, Celine F; Kesteven, Scott H; Yu, Ze-Yan; Feneley, Michael P; Fatkin, Diane

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly popular model organism in cardiovascular research. Major insights into cardiac developmental processes have been gained by studies of embryonic zebrafish. However, the utility of zebrafish for modeling adult-onset heart disease has been limited by a lack of robust methods for in vivo evaluation of cardiac function. We established a physiological protocol for underwater zebrafish echocardiography using high frequency ultrasound, and evaluated its reliability in detecting altered cardiac function in two disease models. Serial assessment of cardiac function was performed in wild-type zebrafish aged 3 to 12 months and the effects of anesthetic agents, age, sex and background strain were evaluated. There was a varying extent of bradycardia and ventricular contractile impairment with different anesthetic drugs and doses, with tricaine 0.75 mmol l(-1) having a relatively more favorable profile. When compared with males, female fish were larger and had more measurement variability. Although age-related increments in ventricular chamber size were greater in females than males, there were no sex differences when data were normalized to body size. Systolic ventricular function was similar in both sexes at all time points, but differences in diastolic function were evident from 6 months onwards. Wild-type fish of both sexes showed a reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular diastolic filling. Echocardiographic evaluation of adult zebrafish with diphtheria toxin-induced myocarditis or anemia-induced volume overload accurately identified ventricular dilation and altered contraction, with suites of B-mode, ventricular strain, pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler indices showing concordant changes indicative of myocardial hypocontractility or hypercontractility, respectively. Repeatability, intra-observer and inter-observer correlations for echocardiographic measurements were high. We demonstrate that high frequency

  15. Standardized echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function in normal adult zebrafish and heart disease models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Louis W.; Huttner, Inken G.; Santiago, Celine F.; Kesteven, Scott H.; Yu, Ze-Yan; Feneley, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly popular model organism in cardiovascular research. Major insights into cardiac developmental processes have been gained by studies of embryonic zebrafish. However, the utility of zebrafish for modeling adult-onset heart disease has been limited by a lack of robust methods for in vivo evaluation of cardiac function. We established a physiological protocol for underwater zebrafish echocardiography using high frequency ultrasound, and evaluated its reliability in detecting altered cardiac function in two disease models. Serial assessment of cardiac function was performed in wild-type zebrafish aged 3 to 12 months and the effects of anesthetic agents, age, sex and background strain were evaluated. There was a varying extent of bradycardia and ventricular contractile impairment with different anesthetic drugs and doses, with tricaine 0.75 mmol l−1 having a relatively more favorable profile. When compared with males, female fish were larger and had more measurement variability. Although age-related increments in ventricular chamber size were greater in females than males, there were no sex differences when data were normalized to body size. Systolic ventricular function was similar in both sexes at all time points, but differences in diastolic function were evident from 6 months onwards. Wild-type fish of both sexes showed a reliance on atrial contraction for ventricular diastolic filling. Echocardiographic evaluation of adult zebrafish with diphtheria toxin-induced myocarditis or anemia-induced volume overload accurately identified ventricular dilation and altered contraction, with suites of B-mode, ventricular strain, pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler indices showing concordant changes indicative of myocardial hypocontractility or hypercontractility, respectively. Repeatability, intra-observer and inter-observer correlations for echocardiographic measurements were high. We demonstrate that high

  16. Expression of Wnt Signaling Components during Xenopus Pronephros Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Tran, Uyen; Wessely, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Background The formation of the vertebrate kidney is tightly regulated and relies on multiple evolutionarily conserved inductive events. These are present in the complex metanephric kidney of higher vertebrates, but also in the more primitive pronephric kidney functional in the larval stages of amphibians and fish. Wnts have long been viewed as central in this process. Canonical β-Catenin-dependent Wnt signaling establishes kidney progenitors and non-canonical β-Catenin-independent Wnt signaling participate in the morphogenetic processes that form the highly sophisticated nephron structure. While some individual Wnt signaling components have been studied extensively in the kidney, the overall pathway has not yet been analyzed in depth. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a detailed expression analysis of all Wnt ligands, receptors and several downstream Wnt effectors during pronephros development in Xenopus laevis using in situ hybridization. Out of 19 Wnt ligands, only three, Wnt4, Wnt9a and Wnt11, are specifically expressed in the pronephros. Others such as Wnt8a are present, but in a broader domain comprising adjacent tissues in addition to the kidney. The same paradigm is observed for the Wnt receptors and its downstream signaling components. Fzd1, Fzd4, Fzd6, Fzd7, Fzd8 as well as Celsr1 and Prickle1 show distinct expression domains in the pronephric kidney, whereas the non-traditional Wnt receptors, Ror2 and Ryk, as well as the majority of the effector molecules are rather ubiquitous. In addition to this spatial regulation, the timing of expression is also tightly regulated. In particular, non-canonical Wnt signaling seems to be restricted to later stages of pronephros development. Conclusion/Significance Together these data suggest a complex cross talk between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling is required to establish a functional pronephric kidney. PMID:22028899

  17. The Ciliopathy Gene ahi1 Is Required for Zebrafish Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lessieur, Emma M.; Fogerty, Joseph; Gaivin, Robert J.; Song, Ping; Perkins, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy with considerable phenotypic variability. In addition to central nervous system abnormalities, a subset of JBTS patients exhibit retinal dystrophy and/or kidney disease. Mutations in the AHI1 gene are causative for approximately 10% of all JBTS cases. The purpose of this study was to generate ahi1 mutant alleles in zebrafish and to characterize the retinal phenotypes. Methods Zebrafish ahi1 mutants were generated using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Expression analysis was performed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Anatomic and molecular characterization of photoreceptors was investigated by histology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. The optokinetic response (OKR) behavior assay was used to assess visual function. Kidney cilia were evaluated by whole-mount immunostaining. Results The ahi1lri46 mutation in zebrafish resulted in shorter cone outer segments but did not affect visual behavior at 5 days after fertilization (dpf). No defects in rod morphology or rhodopsin localization were observed at 5 dpf. By 5 months of age, cone degeneration and rhodopsin mislocalization in rod photoreceptors was observed. The connecting cilium formed normally and Cc2d2a and Cep290 localized properly. Distal pronephric duct cilia were absent in mutant fish; however, only 9% of ahi1 mutants had kidney cysts by 5 dpf, suggesting that the pronephros remained largely functional. Conclusions The results indicate that Ahi1 is required for photoreceptor disc morphogenesis and outer segment maintenance in zebrafish. PMID:28118669

  18. Single-cell transcriptional analysis of normal, aberrant, and malignant hematopoiesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elaine G.; Lobbardi, Riadh; Jain, Esha; Tang, Qin; Moore, John C.; Cortes, Mauricio; Molodtsov, Aleksey; Kasheta, Melissa; Luo, Christina C.; Garcia, Amaris J.; Mylvaganam, Ravi; Yoder, Jeffrey A.; Blackburn, Jessica S.; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Ceol, Craig J.; North, Trista E.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoiesis culminates in the production of functionally heterogeneous blood cell types. In zebrafish, the lack of cell surface antibodies has compelled researchers to use fluorescent transgenic reporter lines to label specific blood cell fractions. However, these approaches are limited by the availability of transgenic lines and fluorescent protein combinations that can be distinguished. Here, we have transcriptionally profiled single hematopoietic cells from zebrafish to define erythroid, myeloid, B, and T cell lineages. We also used our approach to identify hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and a novel NK-lysin 4+ cell type, representing a putative cytotoxic T/NK cell. Our platform also quantified hematopoietic defects in rag2E450fs mutant fish and showed that these fish have reduced T cells with a subsequent expansion of NK-lysin 4+ cells and myeloid cells. These data suggest compensatory regulation of the innate immune system in rag2E450fs mutant zebrafish. Finally, analysis of Myc-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia showed that cells are arrested at the CD4+/CD8+ cortical thymocyte stage and that a subset of leukemia cells inappropriately reexpress stem cell genes, including bmi1 and cmyb. In total, our experiments provide new tools and biological insights into single-cell heterogeneity found in zebrafish blood and leukemia. PMID:27139488

  19. Zebrafish pitx3 is necessary for normal lens and retinal development.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaohai; Bosenko, D V; Zinkevich, N S; Foley, S; Hyde, D R; Semina, E V; Vihtelic, Thomas S

    2005-04-01

    The human PITX3 gene encodes a bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factor associated with a variety of congenital ocular conditions, including anterior segment dysgenesis, Peter's anomaly, and cataracts. We identified a zebrafish pitx3 gene encoding a protein (Pitx3) that possesses 63% amino acid identity with human PITX3. The zebrafish pitx3 gene encompasses approximately 16.5kb on chromosome 13 and consists of four exons, which is similar to the genomic organization of other pitx genes. Expression of the zebrafish pitx3 gene was studied by in situ mRNA hybridization and RT-PCR. The pitx3 transcripts were detected throughout development with the greatest level of expression occurring in the developing lens and brain at 24hpf. In adults, the highest expression was detected in the eye. Morpholinos were used to knockdown expression of the Pitx3 protein and a control morpholino that contains five mismatched bases was used to confirm the specificity of the phenotypes. The morphants had small eyes, misshapen heads and reduced jaws and fins relative to controls. The morphants exhibited abnormalities in lens development and their retinas contained pyknotic nuclei accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells in different neuronal classes. This suggests the lens is required for retinal development or Pitx3 has an unexpected role in retinal cell differentiation or survival. These results demonstrate zebrafish pitx3 represents a true ortholog of the human PITX3 gene and the general function of the Pitx3 protein in lens development is conserved between mammals and the teleost fish.

  20. Zebrafish TARP Cacng2 is required for the expression and normal development of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses.

    PubMed

    Roy, Birbickram; Ahmed, Kazi T; Cunningham, Marcus E; Ferdous, Jannatul; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Zheng, Wang; Chen, Xing-Zhen; Ali, Declan W

    2016-05-01

    Fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS is mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, binding to and activating AMPA receptors (AMPARs). AMPARs are known to interact with auxiliary proteins that modulate their behavior. One such family of proteins is the transmembrane AMPA receptor-related proteins, known as TARPs. Little is known about the role of TARPs during development, or about their function in non-mammalian organisms. Here we report the presence of TARPs, specifically the prototypical TARP, stargazin, in developing zebrafish. We find that zebrafish express two forms of stargazin, Cacng2a and Cacng2b from as early as 12-h post fertilization (hpf). Knockdown of Cacng2a and Cacng2b via splice-blocking morpholinos resulted in embryos that exhibited deficits in C-start escape responses, showing reduced C-bend angles, smaller tail velocities and aberrant C-bend turning directions. Injection of the morphants with Cacng2a or 2b mRNA rescued the morphological phenotype and the synaptic deficits. To investigate the effect of reduced Cacng2a and 2b levels on synaptic physiology, we performed whole cell patch clamp recordings of AMPA mEPSCs from zebrafish Mauthner cells. Knockdown of Cacng2a results in reduced AMPA currents and lower mEPSC frequencies, whereas knockdown of Cacng2b displayed no significant change in mEPSC amplitude or frequency. Non-stationary fluctuation analysis confirmed a reduction in the number of active synaptic receptors in the Cacng2a but not in the Cacng2b morphants. Together, these results suggest that Cacng2a is required for normal trafficking and function of synaptic AMPARs, while Cacng2b is largely non-functional with respect to the development of AMPA synaptic transmission.

  1. Epithelial cell fate in the nephron tubule is mediated by the ETS transcription factors etv5a and etv4 during zebrafish kidney development.

    PubMed

    Marra, Amanda N; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2016-03-15

    Kidney development requires the differentiation and organization of discrete nephron epithelial lineages, yet the genetic and molecular pathways involved in these events remain poorly understood. The embryonic zebrafish kidney, or pronephros, provides a simple and useful model to study nephrogenesis. The pronephros is primarily comprised of two types of epithelial cells: transportive and multiciliated cells (MCCs). Transportive cells occupy distinct tubule segments and are characterized by the expression of various solute transporters, while MCCs function in fluid propulsion and are dispersed in a "salt-and-pepper" fashion within the tubule. Epithelial cell identity is reliant on interplay between the Notch signaling pathway and retinoic acid (RA) signaling, where RA promotes MCC fate by inhibiting Notch activity in renal progenitors, while Notch acts downstream to trigger transportive cell formation and block adoption of an MCC identity. Previous research has shown that the transcription factor ets variant 5a (etv5a), and its closely related ETS family members, are required for ciliogenesis in other zebrafish tissues. Here, we mapped etv5a expression to renal progenitors that occupy domains where MCCs later emerge. Thus, we hypothesized that etv5a is required for normal development of MCCs in the nephron. etv5a loss of function caused a decline of MCC number as indicated by the reduced frequency of cells that expressed the MCC-specific markers outer dense fiber of sperm tails 3b (odf3b) and centrin 4 (cetn4), where rescue experiments partially restored MCC incidence. Interestingly, deficiency of ets variant 4 (etv4), a related gene that is broadly expressed in the posterior mesoderm during somitogenesis stages, also led to reduced MCC numbers, which were further reduced by dual etv5a/4 deficiency, suggesting that both of these ETS factors are essential for MCC formation and that they also might have redundant activities. In epistatic studies, exogenous RA

  2. Epithelial cell fate in the nephron tubule is mediated by the ETS transcription factors etv5a and etv4 during zebrafish kidney development

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Amanda N.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Kidney development requires the differentiation and organization of discrete nephron epithelial lineages, yet the genetic and molecular pathways involved in these events remain poorly understood. The embryonic zebrafish kidney, or pronephros, provides a simple and useful model to study nephrogenesis. The pronephros is primarily comprised of two types of epithelial cells: transportive and multiciliated cells (MCCs). Transportive cells occupy distinct tubule segments and are characterized by the expression of various solute transporters, while MCCs function in fluid propulsion and are dispersed in a “salt-and-pepper” fashion within the tubule. Epithelial cell identity is reliant on interplay between the Notch signaling pathway and retinoic acid (RA) signaling, where RA promotes MCC fate by inhibiting Notch activity in renal progenitors, while Notch acts downstream to trigger transportive cell formation and block adoption of an MCC identity. Previous research has shown that the transcription factor ets variant 5a (etv5a), and its closely related ETS family members, are required for ciliogenesis in other zebrafish tissues. Here, we mapped etv5a expression to renal progenitors that occupy domains where MCCs later emerge. Thus, we hypothesized that etv5a is required for normal development of MCCs in the nephron. etv5a loss of function caused a decline of MCC number as indicated by the reduced frequency of cells that expressed the MCC-specific markers outer dense fiber of sperm tails 3b (odf3b) and centrin 4 (cetn4), where rescue experiments partially restored MCC incidence. Interestingly, deficiency of ets variant 4 (etv4), a related gene that is broadly expressed in the posterior mesoderm during somitogenesis stages, also led to reduced MCC numbers, which were further reduced by dual etv5a/4 deficiency, suggesting that both of these ETS factors are essential for MCC formation and that they also might have redundant activities. In epistatic studies, exogenous RA

  3. N-Ethylmaleimide–Sensitive Factor b (nsfb) Is Required for Normal Pigmentation of the Zebrafish Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hanovice, Nicholas J.; Daly, Christina M. S.; Gross, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the number of albinism-causing mutations identified in human patients and animal models, there remain a significant number of cases for which no mutation has been identified, suggesting that our understanding of melanogenesis is incomplete. Previously, we identified two oculocutaneous albinism mutations in zebrafish, au13 and au18. Here, we sought to identify the mutated loci and determine how the affected proteins contribute to normal pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Methods Complementation analyses revealed that au13 and au18 belonged to a single complementation group, suggesting that they affected the same locus. Whole-genome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed to identify putative mutations, which were confirmed by cDNA sequencing and mRNA rescue. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image quantification were used to identify the cellular basis of hypopigmentation. Results Whole-genome sequencing and SNP mapping identified a nonsense mutation in the N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor b (nsfb) gene in au18 mutants. Complementary DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of the mutation (C893T), which truncates the nsfb protein by roughly two-thirds (Y297X). No coding sequence mutations were identified in au13, but quantitative PCR revealed a significant decrease in nsfb expression, and nsfb mRNA injection rescued the hypopigmentation phenotype, suggesting a regulatory mutation. In situ hybridization revealed that nsfb is broadly expressed during embryonic development, including in the RPE. Transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated that average melanosome density and maturity were significantly decreased in nsfb mutants. Conclusions au18 and au13 contain mutations in nsfb, which encodes a protein that is required for the maturation of melanosomes in zebrafish RPE. PMID:26618645

  4. Heat Shock 70-kDa Protein 5 (Hspa5) Is Essential for Pronephros Formation by Mediating Retinoic Acid Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Weili; Xu, Gang; Wang, Chengdong; Sperber, Steven M.; Chen, Yonglong; Zhou, Qin; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock 70-kDa protein 5 (Hspa5), also known as binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip) or glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), belongs to the heat shock protein 70 kDa family. As a multifunctional protein, it participates in protein folding and calcium homeostasis and serves as an essential regulator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. It has also been implicated in signal transduction by acting as a receptor or co-receptor residing at the plasma membrane. Its function during embryonic development, however, remains largely elusive. In this study, we used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MOs) to knock down Hspa5 activity in Xenopus embryos. In Hspa5 morphants, pronephros formation was strongly inhibited with the reduction of pronephric marker genes Lim homeobox protein 1 (lhx1), pax2, and β1 subunit of Na/K-ATPase (atp1b1). Pronephros tissue was induced in vitro by treating animal caps with all-trans-retinoic acid and activin. Depletion of Hspa5 in animal caps, however, blocked the induction of pronephros as well as reduced the expression of retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes, suggesting that knockdown of Hspa5 attenuated RA signaling. Knockdown of Hspa5 in animal caps resulted in decreased expression of lhx1, a transcription factor directly regulated by RA signaling and essential for pronephros specification. Co-injection of Hspa5MO with lhx1 mRNA partially rescued the phenotype induced by Hspa5MO. These results suggest that the RA-Lhx1 signaling cascade is involved in Hspa5MO-induced pronephros malformation. This study shows that Hspa5, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response, plays an essential role in pronephros formation, which is mediated in part through RA signaling during early embryonic development. PMID:25398881

  5. The lineage-specific gene ponzr1 is essential for zebrafish pronephric and pharyngeal arch development.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Victoria M; Person, Anthony D; Larson, Jon D; McLoon, Anna; Balciunas, Darius; Clark, Karl J; Neff, Kevin I; Nelson, Katie E; Bill, Brent R; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Beiraghi, Soraya; Ekker, Stephen C

    2012-02-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) and Paired box (Pax) gene families are key determinants of animal body plans and organ structure. In particular, they function within regulatory networks that control organogenesis. How these conserved genes elicit differences in organ form and function in response to evolutionary pressures is incompletely understood. We molecularly and functionally characterized one member of an evolutionarily dynamic gene family, plac8 onzin related protein 1 (ponzr1), in the zebrafish. ponzr1 mRNA is expressed early in the developing kidney and pharyngeal arches. Using ponzr1-targeting morpholinos, we show that ponzr1 is required for formation of the glomerulus. Loss of ponzr1 results in a nonfunctional glomerulus but retention of a functional pronephros, an arrangement similar to the aglomerular kidneys found in a subset of marine fish. ponzr1 is integrated into the pax2a pathway, with ponzr1 expression requiring pax2a gene function, and proper pax2a expression requiring normal ponzr1 expression. In addition to pronephric function, ponzr1 is required for pharyngeal arch formation. We functionally demonstrate that ponzr1 can act as a transcription factor or co-factor, providing the first molecular mode of action for this newly described gene family. Together, this work provides experimental evidence of an additional mechanism that incorporates evolutionarily dynamic, lineage-specific gene families into conserved regulatory gene networks to create functional organ diversity.

  6. Cofilin-1 Inactivation Leads to Proteinuria – Studies in Zebrafish, Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kaufeld, Jessica; Miller, Emily; Tossidou, Irini; Englert, Christoph; Bollig, Frank; Staggs, Lynne; Roberts, Ian S. D.; Park, Joon-Keun; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Background Podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells on the visceral side of the glomerulus. Their interdigitating primary and secondary foot processes contain an actin based contractile apparatus that can adjust to changes in the glomerular perfusion pressure. Thus, the dynamic regulation of actin bundles in the foot processes is critical for maintenance of a well functioning glomerular filtration barrier. Since the actin binding protein, cofilin-1, plays a significant role in the regulation of actin dynamics, we examined its role in podocytes to determine the impact of cofilin-1 dysfunction on glomerular filtration. Methods and Findings We evaluated zebrafish pronephros function by dextran clearance and structure by TEM in cofilin-1 morphant and mutant zebrafish and we found that cofilin-1 deficiency led to foot process effacement and proteinuria. In vitro studies in murine and human podocytes revealed that PMA stimulation induced activation of cofilin-1, whereas treatment with TGF-β resulted in cofilin-1 inactivation. Silencing of cofilin-1 led to an accumulation of F-actin fibers and significantly decreased podocyte migration ability. When we analyzed normal and diseased murine and human glomerular tissues to determine cofilin-1 localization and activity in podocytes, we found that in normal kidney tissues unphosphorylated, active cofilin-1 was distributed throughout the cell. However, in glomerular diseases that affect podocytes, cofilin-1 was inactivated by phosphorylation and observed in the nucleus. Conclusions Based on these in vitro and in vivo studies we concluded cofilin-1 is an essential regulator for actin filament recycling that is required for the dynamic nature of podocyte foot processes. Therefore, we describe a novel pathomechanism of proteinuria development. PMID:20838616

  7. Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors from Zebrafish Embryo: A Novel Strategy to Modulate the Fate of Normal and Pathological Human (Stem) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Biava, Pier M.; Canaider, Silvia; Facchin, Federica; Bianconi, Eva; Ljungberg, Liza; Rotilio, Domenico; Burigana, Fabio; Ventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of evidence on the biology of the Zebrafish embryo and stem cells, including the use of Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors (SCDSFs) taken from Zebrafish embryo to impact cancer cell dynamics, comparatively little is known about the possibility to use these factors to modulate the homeostasis of normal human stem cells or to modulate the behavior of cells involved in different pathological conditions. In the present review we recall in a synthetic way the most important researches about the use of SCDSFs in reprogramming cancer cells and in modulating the high speed of multiplication of keratinocytes which is characteristic of some pathological diseases like psoriasis. Moreover we add here the results about the capability of SCDSFs in modulating the homeostasis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) isolated from a fat tissue obtained with a novel-non enzymatic method and device. In addition we report the data not yet published about a first protein analysis of the SCDSFs and about their role in a pathological condition like neurodegeneration. PMID:26201607

  8. Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors from Zebrafish Embryo: A Novel Strategy to Modulate the Fate of Normal and Pathological Human (Stem) Cells.

    PubMed

    Biava, Pier M; Canaider, Silvia; Facchin, Federica; Bianconi, Eva; Ljungberg, Liza; Rotilio, Domenico; Burigana, Fabio; Ventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of evidence on the biology of the Zebrafish embryo and stem cells, including the use of Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors (SCDSFs) taken from Zebrafish embryo to impact cancer cell dynamics, comparatively little is known about the possibility to use these factors to modulate the homeostasis of normal human stem cells or to modulate the behavior of cells involved in different pathological conditions. In the present review we recall in a synthetic way the most important researches about the use of SCDSFs in reprogramming cancer cells and in modulating the high speed of multiplication of keratinocytes which is characteristic of some pathological diseases like psoriasis. Moreover we add here the results about the capability of SCDSFs in modulating the homeostasis of human adiposederived stem cells (hASCs) isolated from a fat tissue obtained with a novel-non enzymatic method and device. In addition we report the data not yet published about a first protein analysis of the SCDSFs and about their role in a pathological condition like neurodegeneration.

  9. A genomic region encompassing a newly identified exon provides enhancing activity sufficient for normal myo7aa expression in zebrafish sensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frédéric M

    2015-09-01

    MYO7A is an unconventional myosin involved in the structural organization of hair bundles at the apex of sensory hair cells (SHCs) where it serves mechanotransduction in the process of hearing and balance. Mutations of MYO7A are responsible for abnormal shaping of hair bundles, resulting in human deafness and murine deafness/circling behavior. Myo7aa, expressed in SHCs of the inner ear and lateral line of zebrafish, causes circling behavior and abnormal hair cell function when deficient in mariner mutant. This work identifies a new hair cell-specific enhancer, highly conserved between species, located within Intron 2-3 of zebrafish myosin 7a (myo7aa) gene. This enhancer is contained within a 761-bp DNA fragment that encompasses a newly identified Exon of myo7aa and whose activity does not depend on orientation. Compensation of mariner mutation by expression of mCherry-Myo7aa fusion protein under the control of this 761-bp DNA fragment results in recovery of balance, normal hair bundle shape and restored hair cell function. Two smaller adjacent fragments (344-bp and 431-bp), extracted from the 761-bp fragment, both show hair cell-specific enhancing activity, with apparently reduced intensity and coverage. These data should help understand the role of Myo7aa in sensory hair cell differentiation and function. They provide tools to decipher how myo7aa gene is expressed and regulated in SHCs by allowing the identification of potential transcription factors involved in this process. The discovered enhancer could represent a new target for the identification of deafness-causing mutations affecting human MYO7A.

  10. Prostaglandin signaling regulates nephron segment patterning of renal progenitors during zebrafish kidney development

    PubMed Central

    Poureetezadi, Shahram Jevin; Cheng, Christina N; Chambers, Joseph M; Drummond, Bridgette E; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Kidney formation involves patterning events that induce renal progenitors to form nephrons with an intricate composition of multiple segments. Here, we performed a chemical genetic screen using zebrafish and discovered that prostaglandins, lipid mediators involved in many physiological functions, influenced pronephros segmentation. Modulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or PGB2 restricted distal segment formation and expanded a proximal segment lineage. Perturbation of prostaglandin synthesis by manipulating Cox1 or Cox2 activity altered distal segment formation and was rescued by exogenous PGE2. Disruption of the PGE2 receptors Ptger2a and Ptger4a similarly affected the distal segments. Further, changes in Cox activity or PGE2 levels affected expression of the transcription factors irx3b and sim1a that mitigate pronephros segment patterning. These findings show for the first time that PGE2 is a regulator of nephron formation in the zebrafish embryonic kidney, thus revealing that prostaglandin signaling may have implications for renal birth defects and other diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17551.001 PMID:27996936

  11. Zebrafish nephrogenesis is regulated by interactions between retinoic acid, mecom, and Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Cheng, Christina N; Verdun, Valerie A; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-02-01

    The zebrafish pronephros provides a conserved model to study kidney development, in particular to delineate the poorly understood processes of how nephron segment pattern and cell type choice are established. Zebrafish nephrons are divided into distinct epithelial regions that include a series of proximal and distal tubule segments, which are comprised of intercalated transporting epithelial cells and multiciliated cells (MCC). Previous studies have shown that retinoic acid (RA) regionalizes the renal progenitor field into proximal and distal domains and that Notch signaling later represses MCC differentiation, but further understanding of these pathways has remained unknown. The transcription factor mecom (mds1/evi1 complex) is broadly expressed in renal progenitors, and then subsequently marks the distal tubule. Here, we show that mecom is necessary to form the distal tubule and to restrict both proximal tubule formation and MCC fate choice. We found that mecom and RA have opposing roles in patterning discrete proximal and distal segments. Further, we discovered that RA is required for MCC formation, and that one mechanism by which RA promotes MCC fate choice is to inhibit mecom. Next, we determined the epistatic relationship between mecom and Notch signaling, which limits MCC fate choice by lateral inhibition. Abrogation of Notch signaling with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT revealed that Notch and mecom did not have additive effects in blocking MCC formation, suggesting that they function in the same pathway. Ectopic expression of the Notch signaling effector, Notch intracellular domain (NICD), rescued the expansion of MCCs in mecom morphants, indicating that mecom acts upstream to induce Notch signaling. These findings suggest a model in which mecom and RA arbitrate proximodistal segment domains, while MCC fate is modulated by a complex interplay in which RA inhibition of mecom, and mecom promotion of Notch, titrates MCC number. Taken together, our studies

  12. Zebrafish nephrogenesis is regulated by interactions between retinoic acid, mecom, and Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Cheng, Christina N.; Verdun, Valerie A.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish pronephros provides a conserved model to study kidney development, in particular to delineate the poorly understood processes of how nephron segment pattern and cell type choice are established. Zebrafish nephrons are divided into distinct epithelial regions that include a series of proximal and distal tubule segments, which are comprised of intercalated transporting epithelial cells and multiciliated cells (MCC). Previous studies have shown that retinoic acid (RA) regionalizes the renal progenitor field into proximal and distal domains and that Notch signaling later represses MCC differentiation, but further understanding of these pathways has remained unknown. The transcription factor mecom (mds1/evi1 complex) is broadly expressed in renal progenitors, and then subsequently marks the distal tubule. Here, we show that mecom is necessary to form the distal tubule and to restrict both proximal tubule formation and MCC fate choice. We found that mecom and RA have opposing roles in patterning discrete proximal and distal segments. Further, we discovered that RA is required for MCC formation, and that one mechanism by which RA promotes MCC fate choice is to inhibit mecom. Next, we determined the epistatic relationship between mecom and Notch signaling, which limits MCC fate choice by lateral inhibition. Abrogation of Notch signaling with the y-secretase inhibitor DAPT revealed that Notch and mecom did not have additive effects in blocking MCC formation, suggesting that they function in the same pathway. Ectopic expression of the Notch signaling effector, Notch intracellular domain (NICD), rescued the expansion of MCCs in mecom morphants, indicating that mecom acts upstream to induce Notch signaling. These findings suggest a model in which mecom and RA arbitrate proximodistal segment domains, while MCC fate is modulated by a complex interplay in which RA inhibition of mecom, and mecom promotion of Notch, titrates MCC number. Taken together, our studies

  13. Zebrafish nephrogenesis involves dynamic spatiotemporal expression changes in renal progenitors and essential signals from retinoic acid and irx3b

    PubMed Central

    Wingert, Rebecca A.; Davidson, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney nephrons are comprised of proximal and distal tubule segments that perform unique roles in excretion. The developmental pathways that establish nephron segment identities from renal progenitors are poorly understood. Here, we used the zebrafish pronephros to study nephron segmentation. We found that zebrafish nephron progenitors undergo elaborate spatiotemporal expression changes of many genes before adopting a segment fate. Initially, two domains of nephron progenitors are established, then are subdivided and demarcate individual nephron segments. Using genetic and chemical genetic models of retinoic acid (RA) deficiency, we discovered that RA modulates rostral progenitor formation. To delineate downstream pathways, we knocked down the irx3b transcription factor and found it regulates proximal tubule segment size and distal segment differentiation. Our results suggest a model whereby RA patterns the early field of nephron progenitors, with subsequent factors like irx3b acting to refine later progenitor subdomains and ensure activation of segment-specific gene programs. PMID:21761484

  14. Functional aging and gradual senescence in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Shuji

    2004-06-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been recognized as a powerful model for genetic studies in developmental biology. Recently, the zebrafish system also has given insights into several human diseases such as neurodegenerative, hematopoietic, and cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Because aging processes affect these and various other human disorders, it is important to compare zebrafish and mammalian senescence. However, the aging process of zebrafish remains largely unexplored, and little is known about functional aging and senescence in zebrafish. In our initial studies to assess aging phenotypes in zebrafish, we have identified several potential aging biomarkers in an ongoing search for suitable ones on zebrafish aging. In aging zebrafish, we detected senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity in skin and oxidized protein accumulation in muscle. On the other hand, we did not observe lipofuscin granules (aging pigments), which accumulate in postmitotic cells, in muscle of zebrafish with advancing age. Consistently, there were continuously proliferating myocytes that incorporated BrdU in muscle tissues of the aged fish. Moreover, we demonstrated that zebrafish have constitutively abundant telomerase activity in adult somatic tissues implicating unlimited replicative ability of cells throughout their lives. Although some stress-associated markers are upregulated and minor histological changes are observed during the aging process of zebrafish, our studies together with other evidence of remarkable reproductive and regenerative abilities suggest that zebrafish show very gradual senescence. By using those biological and biochemical aging markers already characterized in normal zebrafish, transgenic fish analyses and genetic mutant fish screens can be readily performed. These efforts will help to elucidate the role and molecular mechanisms of common or different pathways of aging among vertebrates from fish to humans and also will contribute to the discovery of

  15. In vitro effect of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on chemiluminescent response of pronephros cells isolated from Tilapia, oreochromis aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Low, K.W.; Sin, Y.M.

    1995-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a basic immunological function of mononuclear phagocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This process is a major defence mechanism in fish which involves recognition and killing of pathogenic microorganisms. It has been reported that phagocytic cells consume more oxygen and release several reactive oxygen species (ROS) during phagocytosis. This {open_quote}respiratory burst{close_quote} was first quantified by measuring the chemiluminescence (CL) emitted from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and later in fish phagocytes. The oxygen intermediates responsible for this CL reaction include O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, {center_dot}OH and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which are also the major bactericidal agents in phagocytes{prime} oxygen-dependent killing process. Therefore, CL response can be used as an indicator of phagocytosis. This study is designed to examine the individual effects of mercury and selenium and also their possible interaction on CL response of fish pronephros phagocytes, because a defect in phagocytosis may predispose fish to diseases. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Edwardsiellosis Caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri in Laboratory Populations of Zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, John P.; Kent, Michael; Rogge, Matt; Baumgartner, Wes; Wiles, Judy; Shelley, Johnny; Savolainen, L. Christine; Wagner, Robert; Murray, Katy; Peterson, Tracy S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first cases of Edwardsiella ictaluri causing epizootics in laboratory populations of Zebrafish Danio rerio. Edwardsiella ictaluri is primarily recognized as a disease of catfish species and is known to cause an economically important bacterial disease of farm-raised catfish in the USA and abroad; however, it has been isolated on occasion from 10 other genera of nonictalurid fishes. We isolated E. ictaluri from moribund Zebrafish held in quarantine at two different universities in two states and from a research facility in a third state between February 23 and December 6, 2011. Edwardsiellosis in Zebrafish can be described as a severe systemic disease characterized by tissue necrosis and the presence of large numbers of extracellular and intracellular bacteria, often within macrophages. The kidneys (pronephros and mesonephros), spleen, nares, and forebrain were the most commonly and severely affected tissues. In outbreaks, mortality was acute and numerous fish died over a 1–2 week period. Mortality continued until the majority of the population was lost, at which time the remaining fish were euthanized. In addition to these cases, four cultures of bacteria isolated from Zebrafish by another diagnostic laboratory were submitted to the Louisiana Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory for identification and were confirmed as E. ictaluri. In total, eight cultures of E. ictaluri from Zebrafish from Louisiana, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Florida were identified. The isolates were confirmed as E. ictaluri by biochemical phenotype, API 20E (bioMérieux), and amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from Zebrafish are believed to comprise a unique group and were differentiated from catfish isolates by exhibiting weaker motility, autoaggregation in broth, a different plasmid profile (two plasmids of 4.0 and 3.5 kb), a different API 20E code (4204000), and lack of lipopolysaccharide recognition with Mab Ed9

  17. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  18. Identification and expression of soul/p22HBP genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Antonio Emidio; Langellotto, Fernanda; Sordino, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The SOUL/p22HBP family is an evolutionarily ancient group of heme binding proteins with a main function as cytosolic buffer against tetrapyrrole accumulation. Structural and biochemical evidence suggest specialized roles in blood formation, necrotic cell death and chemotaxis. To date, nothing is known about the precise activity and expression patterns of this class of heme binding proteins during development. The zebrafish genome possesses five soul genes belonging to two subgroups, and no p22HBP orthologous gene. Here, spatial and temporal expression patterns are reported for zebrafish soul1, soul2 and soul4 genes. All three soul genes are maternally transcribed, and their zygotic expression takes place in unique (heart, pharynx, yolk syncytial layer, brain, eyes, lateral line) and overlapping (pronephros, pituitary gland, olfactory and otic vesicle) regions of the zebrafish embryo. Our study constitutes the first detailed analysis of soul gene expression in metazoan development, and provides the basis to understand the genetics of tetrapyrrole metabolism in a wide range of embryonic processes.

  19. Evidence of a role of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5E in cilia formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Luo, Na; Lu, Jingping; Sun, Yang

    2012-12-15

    Inositol phosphatases are important regulators of cell signaling and membrane trafficking. Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, INPP5E, have been identified in Joubert syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized by midbrain malformation, retinitis pigmentosa, renal cysts, and polydactyly. Previous studies have implicated primary cilia abnormalities in Joubert syndrome, yet the role of INPP5E in cilia formation is not well understood. In this study, we examined the function of INPP5E in cilia development in zebrafish. Using specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown Inpp5e expression, we observed phenotypes of microphthalmia, pronephros cysts, pericardial effusion, and left-right body axis asymmetry. The Inpp5e morphant zebrafish exhibited shortened and decreased cilia formation in the Kupffer's vesicle and pronephric ducts as compared to controls. Epinephrine-stimulated melanosome trafficking was delayed in the Inpp5e zebrafish morphants. Expression of human INPP5E expression rescued the phenotypic defects in the Inpp5e morphants. Taken together, we showed that INPP5E is critical for the cilia development in zebrafish.

  20. Mechanical Stretch and PI3K Signaling Link Cell Migration and Proliferation to Coordinate Epithelial Tubule Morphogenesis in the Zebrafish Pronephros

    PubMed Central

    Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Liu, Yan; Pathak, Narendra; Drummond, Iain A.

    2012-01-01

    Organ development leads to the emergence of organ function, which in turn can impact developmental processes. Here we show that fluid flow-induced collective epithelial migration during kidney nephron morphogenesis induces cell stretch that in turn signals epithelial proliferation. Increased cell proliferation was dependent on PI3K signaling. Inhibiting epithelial proliferation by blocking PI3K or CDK4/Cyclin D1 activity arrested cell migration prematurely and caused a marked overstretching of the distal nephron tubule. Computational modeling of the involved cell processes predicted major morphological and kinetic outcomes observed experimentally under a variety of conditions. Overall, our findings suggest that kidney development is a recursive process where emerging organ function “feeds back” to the developmental program to influence fundamental cellular events such as cell migration and proliferation, thus defining final organ morphology. PMID:22815719

  1. Visualization of stochastic Ca2+ signals in the formed somites during the early segmentation period in intact, normally developing zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Leung, Christina F; Miller, Andrew L; Korzh, Vladimir; Chong, Shang-Wei; Sleptsova-Freidrich, Inna; Webb, Sarah E

    2009-09-01

    Localized Ca(2+) signals were consistently visualized in the formed somites of intact zebrafish embryos during the early segmentation period. Unlike the regular process of somitogenesis, these signals were stochastic in nature with respect to time and location. They did, however, occur predominantly at the medial and lateral boundaries within the formed somites. Embryos were treated with modulators of [Ca(2+)](i) to explore the signal generation mechanism and possible developmental function of the stochastic transients. Blocking elements in the phosphoinositol pathway eliminated the stochastic signals but had no obvious effect, stochastic or otherwise, on the formed somites. Such treatments did, however, result in the subsequently formed somites being longer in the mediolateral dimension. Targeted uncaging of buffer (diazo-2) or Ca(2+) (NP-ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid [EGTA]) in the presomitic mesoderm, resulted in a regular mediolateral lengthening and shortening, respectively, of subsequently formed somites. These data suggest a requirement for IP(3) receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release during convergence cell movements in the presomitic mesoderm, which appears to have a distinct function from that of the IP(3) receptor-mediated stochastic Ca(2+) signaling in the formed somites.

  2. Renin expression in developing zebrafish is associated with angiogenesis and requires the Notch pathway and endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Linda J.; Verdon, Rachel F.; MacRae, Calum A.; Mullins, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Although renin is a critical regulatory enzyme of the cardiovascular system, its roles in organogenesis and the establishment of cardiovascular homeostasis remain unclear. Mammalian renin-expressing cells are widespread in embryonic kidneys but are highly restricted, specialized endocrine cells in adults. With a functional pronephros, embryonic zebrafish are ideal for delineating the developmental functions of renin-expressing cells and the mechanisms governing renin transcription. Larval zebrafish renin expression originates in the mural cells of the juxtaglomerular anterior mesenteric artery and subsequently at extrarenal sites. The role of renin was determined by assessing responses to renin-angiotensin system blockade, salinity variation, and renal perfusion ablation. Renin expression did not respond to renal flow ablation but was modulated by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme and altered salinity. Our data in larval fish are consistent with conservation of renin's physiological functions. Using transgenic renin reporter fish, with mindbomb and cloche mutants, we show that Notch signaling and the endothelium are essential for developmental renin expression. After inhibition of angiogenesis, renin-expressing cells precede angiogenic sprouts. Arising from separate lineages, but relying on mutual interplay with endothelial cells, renin-expressing cells are among the earliest mural cells observed in larval fish, performing both endocrine and paracrine functions. PMID:26202224

  3. Hearing Assessment in Zebrafish During the First Week Postfertilization

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; DeSmidt, Alexandra A.; Tekin, Mustafa; Liu, Xuezhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a valuable vertebrate model for human hearing disorders because of many advantages in genetics, embryology, and in vivo visualization. In this study, we investigated auditory function of zebrafish during the first week postfertilization using microphonic potential recording. Extracellular microphonic potentials were recorded from hair cells in the inner ear of wild-type AB and transgenic Et(krt4:GFP)sqet4 zebrafish at 3, 5, and 7 days postfertilization in response to 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400-Hz acoustic stimulation. We found that microphonic threshold significantly decreased with age in zebrafish. However, there was no significant difference of microphonic responses between wild-type and transgenic zebrafish, indicating that the transgenic zebrafish have normal hearing like wild-type zebrafish. In addition, we observed that microphonic threshold did not change with the recording electrode location. Furthermore, microphonic threshold increased significantly at all tested stimulus frequencies after displacement of the saccular otolith but only increased at low frequencies after displacement of the utricular otolith, showing that the saccule rather than the utricle plays the major role in larval zebrafish hearing. These results enhance our knowledge of early development of auditory function in zebrafish and the factors affecting hearing assessment with microphonic potential recording. PMID:26982161

  4. Modulatory effect of metal ions on the immune response of fish: in vivo and in vitro influence of MnCl sub 2 on NK activity of carp pronephros cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanmi, Z.; Rouabhia, M.; Alifuddin, M.; Troutaud, D.; Deschaux, P. )

    1990-12-01

    The in vivo and in vitro influence of MnCl{sub 2} on carp pronephros cells was investigated. Increased cytotoxicity against both YAC-1 and P 815 target cells was observed following an intraperitoneal injection of 40, 80, or 120 micrograms MnCl{sub 2}/g body wt administrated 24 hr prior to the in vitro {sup 51}Cr release assay. Similarly, in vitro treatment of carp pronephros cells, at a final concentration of 60 micrograms/culture, resulted in an increase of NK cell activity in both YAC-1 and P 815 target cell lines. However, a significant decrease in this activity was shown with lower doses of MnCl{sub 2} (40 and 20 micrograms/culture).

  5. Zebrafish Discoveries in Cancer Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Chernyavskaya, Yelena; Kent, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The cancer epigenome is fundamentally different than that of normal cells. How these differences arise in and contribute to carcinogenesis is not known, and studies using model organisms such as zebrafish provide an opportunity to address these important questions. Modifications of histones and DNA comprise the complex epigenome, and these influence chromatin structure, genome stability and gene expression, all of which are fundamental to the cellular changes that cause cancer. The cancer genome atlas covers the wide spectrum of genetic changes associated with nearly every cancer type, however, this catalog is currently unidimensional. As the pattern of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure in cancer cells is described and overlaid on the mutational landscape, the map of the cancer genome becomes multi-dimensional and highly complex. Two major questions remain in the field: (1) how the epigenome becomes repatterned in cancer and (2) which of these changes are cancer-causing. Zebrafish provide a tractable in vivo system to monitor the epigenome during transformation and to identify epigenetic drivers of cancer. In this chapter, we review principles of cancer epigenetics and discuss recent work using zebrafish whereby epigenetic modifiers were established as cancer driver genes, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in cancer. PMID:27165354

  6. Stressing Zebrafish for Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J.; Boczek, Nicole J.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The stress response is a normal reaction to a real or perceived threat. However, stress response systems that are overwhelmed or out of balance can increase both the incidence and severity of diseases including addiction and mood and anxiety disorders. Using an animal model with both genetic diversity and large family size can help discover the specific genetic and environmental contributions to these behavioral diseases. The stress response has been studied extensively in teleosts because of their importance in food production. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a major model organism with a strong record for use in developmental biology, genetic screening, and genomic studies. More recently, the stress response of larval and adult zebrafish has been documented. High-throughput automated tracking systems make possible behavioral readouts of the stress response in zebrafish. This non-invasive measure of the stress response can be combined with mutagenesis methods to dissect the genes involved in complex stress response behaviors in vertebrates. Understanding the genetic and epigenetic basis for the stress response in vertebrates will help to develop advanced screening and therapies for stress-aggravated diseases like addiction and mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:21615261

  7. Application of complementary luminescent and fluorescent imaging techniques to visualize nuclear and cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ signalling during the in vivo differentiation of slow muscle cells in zebrafish embryos under normal and dystrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah E; Cheung, Chris C Y; Chan, Ching Man; Love, Donald R; Miller, Andrew L

    2012-01-01

    1. Evidence is accumulating for a role for Ca²⁺ signalling in the differentiation and development of embryonic skeletal muscle. 2. Imaging of intact, normally developing transgenic zebrafish that express the protein component of the Ca²⁺-sensitive complex aequorin, specifically in skeletal muscle, show that two distinct periods of spontaneous synchronised Ca²⁺ transients occur in the trunk: one at approximately 17.5-19.5 h post-fertilization (h.p.f.; termed signalling period SP1) and the other after approximately 23 h.p.f. (termed SP2). These periods of intense Ca²⁺ signalling activity are separated by a quiet period. 3. Higher-resolution confocal imaging of embryos loaded with the fluorescent Ca²⁺ reporter calcium green-1 dextran shows that the Ca²⁺ signals are generated almost exclusively in the slow muscle cells, the first muscle cells to differentiate, with distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic components. 4. Here, we show that coincidental with the SP1 Ca²⁺ signals, dystrophin becomes localized to the vertical myoseptae of the myotome. Introduction of a dmd morpholino (dmd-MO) resulted in no dystrophin being expressed in the vertical myoseptae, as well as a disruption of myotome morphology and sarcomere organization. In addition, the Ca²⁺ signalling signatures of dmd-MO-injected embryos or homozygous sapje mutant embryos were abnormal such that the frequency, amplitude and timing of the Ca²⁺ signals were altered compared with controls. 5. Our new data suggest that, in addition to a structural role, dystrophin may function in the regulation of [Ca²⁺](i) during the early stages of slow muscle cell differentiation when the Ca²⁺ signals generated in these cells coincide with the first spontaneous contractions of the trunk.

  8. Molecular psychiatry of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Ullmann, Jeremy F.P.; Norton, William H.J.; Brennan, Caroline H.; Parker, Matthew O.; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their well-characterized neural development and high genetic homology to mammals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a powerful model organism in the field of biological psychiatry. Here, we discuss the molecular psychiatry of zebrafish, and its implications for translational neuroscience research and modeling CNS disorders. In particular, we outline recent genetic and technological developments allowing for in-vivo examinations, high-throughput screening and whole-brain analyses in larval and adult zebrafish. We also summarize the application of these molecular techniques to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease, outlining the potential of zebrafish for modeling complex brain disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), aggression, post-traumatic stress and substance abuse. Critically evaluating the advantages and limitations of larval and adult fish tests, we suggest that zebrafish models become a rapidly emerging new field in modern biological psychiatry research. PMID:25349164

  9. Electroporation of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Madhusudhana; Rambabu, K Murali; Rao, S Harinarayana

    2008-01-01

    We generated transient transgenic zebrafish by applying electrical pulses subsequent to injection of DNA into muscle tissue of 3-6-month old adult zebrafish. Electroporation parameters, such as number of pulses, voltage, and amount of plasmid DNA, were optimized and found that 6 pulses of 40 V/cm at 15 mug/fish increased the luciferase expression by 10-fold compared with those in controls. By measuring the expression of luciferase, in vivo by electroporation in adult zebrafish and in vitro using fish cell line (Xiphophorus xiphidium A2 cells), the strength of three promoters (CMV, human EF-1alpha, and Xenopus EF-1alpha) was compared. Subsequent to electroporation after injecting DNA in the mid region of zebrafish, expression of green fluorescent protein was found far away from the site of injection in the head and the tail sections. Thus, electroporation in adult zebrafish provides a rapid way of testing the behavior of gene sequences in the whole organism.

  10. Learning from small fry: the zebrafish as a genetic model organism for aquaculture fish species.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Ralf; Geisler, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish has become one of the most prominent vertebrate model organisms used to study the genetics underlying development, normal body function, and disease. The growing interest in zebrafish research was paralleled by an increase in tools and methods available to study zebrafish. While zebrafish research initially centered on mutagenesis screens (forward genetics), recent years saw the establishment of reverse genetic methods (morpholino knock-down, TILLING). In addition, increasingly sophisticated protocols for generating transgenic zebrafish have been developed and microarrays are now available to characterize gene expression on a near genome-wide scale. The identification of loci underlying specific traits is aided by genetic, physical, and radiation hybrid maps of the zebrafish genome and the zebrafish genome project. As genomic resources for aquacultural species are increasingly being generated, a meaningful interaction between zebrafish and aquacultural research now appears to be possible and beneficial for both sides. In particular, research on nutrition and growth, stress, and disease resistance in the zebrafish can be expected to produce results applicable to aquacultural fish, for example, by improving husbandry and formulated feeds. Forward and reverse genetics approaches in the zebrafish, together with the known conservation of synteny between the species, offer the potential to identify and verify candidate genes for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to be used in marker-assisted breeding. Moreover, some technologies from the zebrafish field such as TILLING may be directly transferable to aquacultural research and production.

  11. Acute podocyte injury is not a stimulus for podocytes to migrate along the glomerular basement membrane in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Siegerist, Florian; Blumenthal, Antje; Zhou, Weibin; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Podocytes have a unique 3D structure of major and interdigitating foot processes which is the prerequisite for renal blood filtration. Loss of podocytes leads to chronic kidney disease ending in end stage renal disease. Until now, the question if podocytes can be replaced by immigration of cells along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is under debate. We recently showed that in contrast to former theories, podocytes are stationary in the zebrafish pronephros and neither migrate nor change their branching pattern of major processes over 23 hours. However, it was still unclear whether podocytes are able to migrate during acute injury. To investigate this, we applied the nitroreductase/metronidazole zebrafish model of podocyte injury to in vivo two-photon microscopy. The application of metronidazole led to retractions of major processes associated with a reduced expression of podocyte-specific proteins and a formation of subpodocyte pseudocyst. Electron microscopy showed that broad areas of the capillaries became denuded. By 4D in vivo observation of single podocytes, we could show that the remaining podocytes did not walk along GBM during 24 h. This in vivo study reveals that podocytes are very stationary cells making regenerative processes by podocyte walking along the GBM very unlikely. PMID:28252672

  12. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

    2014-09-05

    Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they were unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.

  13. Characterization of zebrafish dysferlin by morpholino knockdown

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Genri; Serafini, Peter R.; Myers, Jennifer A.; Alexander, Matthew S.; Kunkel, Louis M.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb). {yields} The dysferlin expression was detected in skeletal muscle, heart and eye. {yields} Injection of antisense morpholinos to dysferlin caused marked muscle disorganization. {yields} Zebrafish dysferlin expression may be involved in stabilizing muscle structures. -- Abstract: Mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin cause two distinct muscular dystrophy phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD-2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Dysferlin is a large transmembrane protein involved in myoblast fusion and membrane resealing. Zebrafish represent an ideal animal model to use for studying muscle disease including abnormalities of dysferlin. cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb) and the predicted amino acid sequences, showed 68% similarity to predicted amino acid sequences of mammalian dysferlin. The expression of dysferlin was mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and eye, and the expression could be detected as early as 11 h post fertilization (hpf). Three different antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos were targeted to inhibit translation of this dysferlin mRNA and the morpholino-injected fish showed marked muscle disorganization which could be detected by birefringence assay. Western blot analysis using dysferlin antibodies showed that the expression of dysferlin was reduced in each of the three morphants. Dysferlin expression was shown to be reduced at the myosepta of zebrafish muscle using immunohistochemistry, although the expression of other muscle membrane components, dystrophin, laminin, {beta}-dystroglycan were detected normally. Our data suggest that zebrafish dysferlin expression is involved in stabilizing muscle structures and its downregulation causes muscle disorganization.

  14. Towards a comprehensive catalog of zebrafish behavior 1.0 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Gebhardt, Michael; Stewart, Adam Michael; Cachat, Jonathan M; Brimmer, Mallorie; Chawla, Jonathan S; Craddock, Cassandra; Kyzar, Evan J; Roth, Andrew; Landsman, Samuel; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Robinson, Kyle; Baatrup, Erik; Tierney, Keith; Shamchuk, Angela; Norton, William; Miller, Noam; Nicolson, Teresa; Braubach, Oliver; Gilman, Charles P; Pittman, Julian; Rosemberg, Denis B; Gerlai, Robert; Echevarria, David; Lamb, Elisabeth; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Weng, Wei; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Schneider, Henning

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly gaining popularity in translational neuroscience and behavioral research. Physiological similarity to mammals, ease of genetic manipulations, sensitivity to pharmacological and genetic factors, robust behavior, low cost, and potential for high-throughput screening contribute to the growing utility of zebrafish models in this field. Understanding zebrafish behavioral phenotypes provides important insights into neural pathways, physiological biomarkers, and genetic underpinnings of normal and pathological brain function. Novel zebrafish paradigms continue to appear with an encouraging pace, thus necessitating a consistent terminology and improved understanding of the behavioral repertoire. What can zebrafish 'do', and how does their altered brain function translate into behavioral actions? To help address these questions, we have developed a detailed catalog of zebrafish behaviors (Zebrafish Behavior Catalog, ZBC) that covers both larval and adult models. Representing a beginning of creating a more comprehensive ethogram of zebrafish behavior, this effort will improve interpretation of published findings, foster cross-species behavioral modeling, and encourage new groups to apply zebrafish neurobehavioral paradigms in their research. In addition, this glossary creates a framework for developing a zebrafish neurobehavioral ontology, ultimately to become part of a unified animal neurobehavioral ontology, which collectively will contribute to better integration of biological data within and across species.

  15. Towards a Comprehensive Catalog of Zebrafish Behavior 1.0 and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Michael; Stewart, Adam Michael; Cachat, Jonathan M.; Brimmer, Mallorie; Chawla, Jonathan S.; Craddock, Cassandra; Kyzar, Evan J.; Roth, Andrew; Landsman, Samuel; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Robinson, Kyle; Baatrup, Erik; Tierney, Keith; Shamchuk, Angela; Norton, William; Miller, Noam; Nicolson, Teresa; Braubach, Oliver; Gilman, Charles P.; Pittman, Julian; Rosemberg, Denis B.; Gerlai, Robert; Echevarria, David; Lamb, Elisabeth; Neuhauss, Stephan C.F.; Weng, Wei; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Schneider, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly gaining popularity in translational neuroscience and behavioral research. Physiological similarity to mammals, ease of genetic manipulations, sensitivity to pharmacological and genetic factors, robust behavior, low cost, and potential for high-throughput screening contribute to the growing utility of zebrafish models in this field. Understanding zebrafish behavioral phenotypes provides important insights into neural pathways, physiological biomarkers, and genetic underpinnings of normal and pathological brain function. Novel zebrafish paradigms continue to appear with an encouraging pace, thus necessitating a consistent terminology and improved understanding of the behavioral repertoire. What can zebrafish ‘do’, and how does their altered brain function translate into behavioral actions? To help address these questions, we have developed a detailed catalog of zebrafish behaviors (Zebrafish Behavior Catalog, ZBC) that covers both larval and adult models. Representing a beginning of creating a more comprehensive ethogram of zebrafish behavior, this effort will improve interpretation of published findings, foster cross-species behavioral modeling, and encourage new groups to apply zebrafish neurobehavioral paradigms in their research. In addition, this glossary creates a framework for developing a zebrafish neurobehavioral ontology, ultimately to become part of a unified animal neurobehavioral ontology, which collectively will contribute to better integration of biological data within and across species. PMID:23590400

  16. Study of Host–Microbe Interactions in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Milligan-Myhre, Kathryn; Charette, Jeremy R.; Phennicie, Ryan T.; Stephens, W. Zac; Rawls, John F.; Guillemin, Karen; Kim, Carol H.

    2015-01-01

    All animals are ecosystems, home to diverse microbial populations. Animal-associated microbes play important roles in the normal development and physiology of their hosts, but can also be agents of infectious disease. Traditionally, mice have been used to study pathogenic and beneficial associations between microbes and vertebrate animals. The zebrafish is emerging as a valuable new model system for host-microbe interaction studies, affording researchers with the opportunity to survey large populations of hosts and to visualize microbe-host associations at a cellular level in living animals. This chapter provides detailed protocols for the analysis of zebrafish-associated microbial communities, the derivation and husbandry of germ-free zebrafish, and the modeling of infectious disease in different stages of zebrafish development via different routes of inoculation. These protocols offer a starting point for researchers to address a multitude of questions about animals’ coexistence with microorganisms. PMID:21951527

  17. Protocadherin-17 Function in Zebrafish Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Londraville, Richard; Brickner, Sarah; El-Shaar, Lana; Fankhauser, Kelsee; Dearth, Cassandra; Fulton, Leah; Sochacka, Alicja; Bhattarai, Sunil; Marrs, James A.; Liu, Qin

    2012-01-01

    Cadherin cell adhesion molecules play crucial roles in vertebrate development including the development of the retina. Most studies have focused on examining functions of classic cadherins (e.g. N-cadherin) in retinal development. There is little information on the function of protocadherins in the development of the vertebrate visual system. We previously showed that protocadherin-17 mRNA was expressed in developing zebrafish retina during critical stages of the retinal development. To gain insight into protocadherin-17 function in the formation of the retina, we analyzed eye development and differentiation of retinal cells in zebrafish embryos injected with protocadherin-17 specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs). Protocadherin-17 knockdown embryos (pcdh17 morphants) had significantly reduced eyes due mainly to decreased cell proliferation. Differentiation of several retinal cell types (e.g. retinal ganglion cells) was also disrupted in the pcdh17 morphants. Phenotypic rescue was achieved by injection of protocadherin-17 mRNA. Injection of a vivo-protocadherin-17 MO into one eye of embryonic zebrafish resulted in similar eye defects. Our results suggest that protocadherin-17 plays an important role in the normal formation of the zebrafish retina. PMID:22927092

  18. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, Stephan; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of wwtr1, the gene encoding zebrafish Taz. The wwtr1 gene is expressed in the thyroid primordium and pharyngeal tissue of developing zebrafish. Compared to mammalian cells, in which Taz promotes expression of thyroid transcription factors and thyroid differentiation genes, wwtr1 MO injection in zebrafish had little or no effect on the expression of thyroid transcription factors, and differentially altered the expression of thyroid differentiation genes. Analysis of wwtr1 morphants at later stages of development revealed that the number and the lumen of thyroid follicles, and the number of thyroid follicle cells, were significantly smaller. In addition, Taz-depleted larvae displayed patterning defects in ventral cranial vessels that correlate with lateral displacement of thyroid follicles. These findings indicate that the zebrafish Taz protein is needed for the normal differentiation of the thyroid and are the first to suggest that Taz confers growth advantage to the endocrine gland.

  19. Microgavage of Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L.; Rawls, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism for studying intestinal development1-5, physiology6-11, disease12-16, and host-microbe interactions17-25. Experimental approaches for studying intestinal biology often require the in vivo introduction of selected materials into the lumen of the intestine. In the larval zebrafish model, this is typically accomplished by immersing fish in a solution of the selected material, or by injection through the abdominal wall. Using the immersion method, it is difficult to accurately monitor or control the route or timing of material delivery to the intestine. For this reason, immersion exposure can cause unintended toxicity and other effects on extraintestinal tissues, limiting the potential range of material amounts that can be delivered into the intestine. Also, the amount of material ingested during immersion exposure can vary significantly between individual larvae26. Although these problems are not encountered during direct injection through the abdominal wall, proper injection is difficult and causes tissue damage which could influence experimental results.We introduce a method for microgavage of zebrafish larvae. The goal of this method is to provide a safe, effective, and consistent way to deliver material directly to the lumen of the anterior intestine in larval zebrafish with controlled timing. Microgavage utilizes standard embryo microinjection and stereomicroscopy equipment common to most laboratories that perform zebrafish research. Once fish are properly positioned in methylcellulose, gavage can be performed quickly at a rate of approximately 7-10 fish/ min, and post-gavage survival approaches 100% depending on the gavaged material. We also show that microgavage can permit loading of the intestinal lumen with high concentrations of materials that are lethal to fish when exposed by immersion. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we present a fluorescent dextran microgavage assay that can be used to

  20. Dystrophic muscle improvement in zebrafish via increased heme oxygenase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Genri; Gasperini, Molly J.; Myers, Jennifer A.; Widrick, Jeffrey J.; Eran, Alal; Serafini, Peter R.; Alexander, Matthew S.; Pletcher, Mathew T.; Morris, Carl A.; Kunkel, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a lack of the dystrophin protein and has no effective treatment at present. Zebrafish provide a powerful in vivo tool for high-throughput therapeutic drug screening for the improvement of muscle phenotypes caused by dystrophin deficiency. Using the dystrophin-deficient zebrafish, sapje, we have screened a total of 2640 compounds with known modes of action from three drug libraries to identify modulators of the disease progression. Six compounds that target heme oxygenase signaling were found to rescue the abnormal muscle phenotype in sapje and sapje-like, while upregulating the inducible heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) at the protein level. Direct Hmox1 overexpression by injection of zebrafish Hmox1 mRNA into fertilized eggs was found to be sufficient for a dystrophin-independent restoration of normal muscle via an upregulation of cGMP levels. In addition, treatment of mdx5cv mice with the PDE5 inhibitor, sildenafil, which was one of the six drugs impacting the Hmox1 pathway in zebrafish, significantly increased the expression of Hmox1 protein, thus making Hmox1 a novel target for the improvement of dystrophic symptoms. These results demonstrate the translational relevance of our zebrafish model to mammalian models and support the use of zebrafish to screen for new drugs to treat human DMD. The discovery of a small molecule and a specific therapeutic pathway that might mitigate DMD disease progression could lead to significant clinical implications. PMID:24234649

  1. Feed and feeding regime affect growth rate and gonadosomatic index of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, John M; Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-12-01

    A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish.

  2. Mycobacteriosis in Zebrafish Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Whipps, Christopher M.; Lieggi, Christine; Wagner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial infection, has been associated with severe losses in some zebrafish facilities and low-level mortalities and unknown impacts in others. The occurrence of at least six different described species (Mycobacterium abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. haemophilum, M. marinum, M. peregrinum) from zebrafish complicates diagnosis and control because each species is unique. As a generalization, mycobacteria are often considered opportunists, but M. haemophilum and M. marinum appear to be more virulent. Background genetics of zebrafish and environmental conditions influence the susceptibility of fish and progression of disease, emphasizing the importance of regular monitoring and good husbandry practices. A combined approach to diagnostics is ultimately the most informative, with histology as a first-level screen, polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection and species identification, and culture for strain differentiation. Occurrence of identical strains of Mycobacterium in both fish and biofilms in zebrafish systems suggests transmission can occur when fish feed on infected tissues or tank detritus containing mycobacteria. Within a facility, good husbandry practices and sentinel programs are essential for minimizing the impacts of mycobacteria. In addition, quarantine and screening of animals coming into a facility is important for eliminating the introduction of the more severe pathogens. Elimination of mycobacteria from an aquatic system is likely not feasible because these species readily establish biofilms on surfaces even in extremely low nutrient conditions. Risks associated with each commonly encountered species need to be identified and informed management plans developed. Basic research on the growth characteristics, disinfection, and pathogenesis of zebrafish mycobacteria is critical moving forward. PMID:23382341

  3. Myomaker mediates fusion of fast myocytes in zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Landemaine, Aurélie; Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes during embryonic myogenesis. • Myomaker is essential for fast myocyte fusion in zebrafish. • The function of myomaker is conserved among Teleostomi. - Abstract: Myomaker (also called Tmem8c), a new membrane activator of myocyte fusion was recently discovered in mice. Using whole mount in situ hybridization on zebrafish embryos at different stages of embryonic development, we show that myomaker is transiently expressed in fast myocytes forming the bulk of zebrafish myotome. Zebrafish embryos injected with morpholino targeted against myomaker were alive after yolk resorption and appeared morphologically normal, but they were unable to swim, even under effect of a tactile stimulation. Confocal observations showed a marked phenotype characterized by the persistence of mononucleated muscle cells in the fast myotome at developmental stages where these cells normally fuse to form multinucleated myotubes. This indicates that myomaker is essential for myocyte fusion in zebrafish. Thus, there is an evolutionary conservation of myomaker expression and function among Teleostomi.

  4. A Retrospective Study of the Prevalence and Classification of Intestinal Neoplasia in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Colleen E.; Buchner, Cari; Tanguay, Robert L.; Guillemin, Karen; Mason, Timothy J.; Peterson, Tracy S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract For over a decade, spontaneous intestinal neoplasia has been observed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) submitted to the ZIRC (Zebrafish International Resource Center) diagnostic service. In addition, zebrafish displayed preneoplastic intestinal changes including hyperplasia, dysplasia, and enteritis. A total of 195 zebrafish, representing 2% of the total fish submitted to the service, were diagnosed with these lesions. Neoplastic changes were classified either as adenocarcinoma or small cell carcinoma, with a few exceptions (carcinoma not otherwise specified, tubular adenoma, and tubulovillous adenoma). Tumor prevalence appeared similarly distributed between sexes and generally occurred in zebrafish greater than 1 year of age, although neoplastic changes were observed in fish 6 months of age. Eleven lines displayed these preneoplastic and neoplastic changes, including wild-types and mutants. Affected zebrafish originated from 18 facilities, but the majority of fish were from a single zebrafish research facility (hereafter referred to as the primary facility) that has submitted numerous samples to the ZIRC diagnostic service. Zebrafish from the primary facility submitted as normal sentinel fish demonstrate that these lesions are most often subclinical. Fish fed the diet from the primary facility and held at another location did not develop intestinal lesions, indicating that diet is not the etiologic agent. PMID:23544991

  5. Stimulus-triggered enhancement of chilling tolerance in zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Katalin; Budai, Csilla; Losonczi, Eszter; Bernáth, Gergely; Csenki-Bakos, Zsolt; Urbányi, Béla; Pribenszky, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Cserepes, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Background Cryopreservation of zebrafish embryos is still an unsolved problem despite market demand and massive efforts to preserve genetic variation among numerous existing lines. Chilled storage of embryos might be a step towards developing successful cryopreservation, but no methods to date have worked. Methods In the present study, we applied a novel strategy to improve the chilling tolerance of zebrafish embryos by introducing a preconditioning hydrostatic pressure treatment to the embryos. In our experiments, 26-somites and Prim-5 stage zebrafish embryos were chilled at 0°C for 24 hours after preconditioning. Embryo survival rate, ability to reach maturation and fertilizing capacity were tested. Results Our results indicate that applied preconditioning technology made it possible for the chilled embryos to develop normally until maturity, and to produce healthy offspring as normal, thus passing on their genetic material successfully. Treated embryos had a significantly higher survival and better developmental rate, moreover the treated group had a higher ratio of normal morphology during continued development. While all controls from chilled embryos died by 30 day-post-fertilization, the treated group reached maturity (~90–120 days) and were able to reproduce, resulting in offspring in expected quantity and quality. Conclusions Based on our results, we conclude that the preconditioning technology represents a significant improvement in zebrafish embryo chilling tolerance, thus enabling a long-time survival. Furthermore, as embryonic development is arrested during chilled storage this technology also provides a solution to synchronize or delay the development. PMID:28166301

  6. Automatic zebrafish heartbeat detection and analysis for zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Sanchez, Daniela; Mikut, Ralf; Alshut, Rüdiger; Reischl, Markus; Hirth, Sofia; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Just, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    A fully automatic detection and analysis method of heartbeats in videos of nonfixed and nonanesthetized zebrafish embryos is presented. This method reduces the manual workload and time needed for preparation and imaging of the zebrafish embryos, as well as for evaluating heartbeat parameters such as frequency, beat-to-beat intervals, and arrhythmicity. The method is validated by a comparison of the results from automatic and manual detection of the heart rates of wild-type zebrafish embryos 36-120 h postfertilization and of embryonic hearts with bradycardia and pauses in the cardiac contraction.

  7. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the current study we examined whether the larvae can be reared on a processed diet alone, live food alone, or the combination while maintaining normal locomotor behavior, and acceptable survival, length and weight at 14 dpf in a static system. A 14 day feeding trial was conducted in glass crystallizing dishes containing 500 ml of 4 ppt Instant Ocean. On day 0 pdf 450 embryos were selected as potential study subjects and placed in a 26○C incubator on a 14:10 (light:dark) light cycle. At 4 dpf 120 normally developing embryos were selected per treatment and divided into 3 bowls of 40 embryos (for an n=3 per treatment; 9 bowls total). Treatment groups were: G (Gemma Micro 75 only), R (L-type marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) only) or B (Gemma and rotifers). Growth (length), survival, water quality and rotifer density were monitored on days 5-14. On day 14, weight of larva in each bowl was measured and 8 larva per bowl were selected for use in locomotor testing. This behavior paradigm tests individual larval zebrafish under both light and dark conditions in a 24-well plate.After 14 dpf, survival among the groups was not different (92-98%). By days 7 -14 R and B larvae were ~2X longer

  8. Nicotinic involvement in memory function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edward D; Chen, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Zebrafish are an emerging model for the study of the molecular mechanisms of brain function. To conduct studies of the neural bases of behavior in zebrafish, we must understand the behavioral function of zebrafish and how it is altered by perturbations of brain function. This study determined nicotine actions on memory function in zebrafish. With the methods that we have developed to assess memory in zebrafish using delayed spatial alternation (DSA), we determined the dose effect function of acute nicotine on memory function in zebrafish. As in rodents and primates, low nicotine doses improve memory in zebrafish, while high nicotine doses have diminished effect and can impair memory. This study shows that nicotine affects memory function in zebrafish much like in rats, mice, monkeys and humans. Now, zebrafish can be used to help understand the molecular mechanisms crucial to nicotine effects on memory.

  9. Zebrafish Assays of Ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Zaghloul, Norann A.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    In light of the growing list of human disorders associated with their dysfunction, primary cilia have recently come to attention as being important regulators of developmental signaling pathways and downstream processes. These organelles, present on nearly every vertebrate cell type, are highly conserved structures allowing for study across a range of species. Zebrafish, in particular, have emerged as useful organisms in which to explore the consequences of ciliary dysfunction and to model human ciliopathies. Here, we present a range of useful techniques that allow for investigation of various aspects of ciliary function. The described assays capitalize on the hallmark gastrulation defects associated with ciliary defects as well as relative ease of visualization of cilia in whole-mount embryos. Further, we describe our recently developed assay for querying functionality of human gene variants in live developing embryos. Finally, a current catalog of known zebrafish ciliary mutant lines is included. The techniques presented here provide a basic toolkit for in vivo investigation of both the biological and genetic mechanisms underlying a growing class of human diseases. PMID:21951534

  10. The Effect of Zeaxanthin on the Visual Acuity of Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Eric A; Davey, Pinakin Gunvant; Cameron, D Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Oral supplementation of carotenoids such as zeaxanthin or lutein which naturally occur in human retina have been shown to improve vision and prevent progression of damage to advanced AMD in some studies. The zebrafish eye shares many physiological similarities with the human eye and is increasingly being used as model for vision research. We hypothesized that injection of zeaxanthin into the zebrafish eye would improve the visual acuity of the zebrafish over time. Visual acuity, calculated in cycles per degree, was measured in adult zebrafish to establish a consistent baseline using the optokinetic response. Zeaxanthin dissolved into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS only was injected into the anterior chamber of the right and left eyes of the Zebrafish. Visual acuities were measured at 1 week and 3, 8 and 12 weeks post-injection to compare to baseline values. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare visual acuities between fish injected with PBS and zeaxanthin. A significant improvement in visual acuity, 14% better than before the injection (baseline levels), was observed one week after injection with zeaxanthin (p = 0.04). This improvement peaked at more than 30% for some fish a few weeks after the injection and improvement in vision persisted at 3 weeks after injection (p = 0.006). The enhanced visual function was not significantly better than baseline at 8 weeks (p = 0.19) and returned to baseline levels 12 weeks after the initial injection (p = 0.50). Zeaxanthin can improve visual acuity in zebrafish eyes. Further studies are required to develop a better understanding of the role zeaxanthin and other carotenoids play during normal visual function.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Histamine Signaling in Larval Zebrafish Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Grigorios

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pharmacological studies in mammals and zebrafish suggest that histamine plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, genetic studies using rodents with disrupted histamine synthesis or signaling have revealed only subtle or no sleep/wake phenotypes. Studies of histamine function in mammalian arousal are complicated by its production in cells of the immune system and its roles in humoral and cellular immunity, which can have profound effects on sleep/wake states. To avoid this potential confound, we used genetics to explore the role of histamine in regulating sleep in zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate in which histamine production is restricted to neurons in the brain. Similar to rodent genetic studies, we found that zebrafish that lack histamine due to mutation of histidine decarboxylase (hdc) exhibit largely normal sleep/wake behaviors. Zebrafish containing predicted null mutations in several histamine receptors also lack robust sleep/wake phenotypes, although we are unable to verify that these mutants are completely nonfunctional. Consistent with some rodent studies, we found that arousal induced by overexpression of the neuropeptide hypocretin (Hcrt) or by stimulation of hcrt-expressing neurons is not blocked in hdc or hrh1 mutants. We also found that the number of hcrt-expressing or histaminergic neurons is unaffected in animals that lack histamine or Hcrt signaling, respectively. Thus, while acute pharmacological manipulation of histamine signaling has been shown to have profound effects on zebrafish and mammalian sleep, our results suggest that chronic loss of histamine signaling due to genetic mutations has only subtle effects on sleep in zebrafish, similar to rodents. PMID:28275716

  12. Persistent behavioral impairment caused by embryonic methylphenidate exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Levin, Edward D; Sledge, Damiyon; Roach, Stephanie; Petro, Ann; Donerly, Susan; Linney, Elwood

    2011-01-01

    As more adults take the stimulant medication methylphenidate to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) residual type, the risk arises with regard to exposure during early development if people taking the medication become pregnant. We studied the neurobehavioral effects of methylphenidate in zebrafish. Zebrafish offer cellular reporter systems, continuous visual access and molecular interventions such as morpholinos to help determine critical mechanisms underlying neurobehavioral teratogenicity. Previously, we had seen that persisting neurobehavioral impairment in zebrafish with developmental chlorpyrifos exposure was associated with disturbed dopamine systems. Because methylphenidate is an indirect dopamine agonist, it was thought that it might also cause persistent behavioral impairment after developmental exposure. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to the ADHD stimulant medication methylphenidate 0-5 days post fertilization (12.5-50mg/l). They were tested for long-term behavioral effects as adults. Methylphenidate exposure (50mg/l) caused significant increases in dopamine, norepinepherine and serotonin on day 6 but not day 30 after fertilization. In the novel tank diving test of predatory avoidance developmental methylphenidate (50mg/l) caused a significant reduction in the normal diving response. In the three-chamber spatial learning task early developmental methylphenidate (50mg/l) caused a significant impairment in choice accuracy. These data show that early developmental exposure of zebrafish to methylphenidate causes a long-term impairment in neurobehavioral plasticity. The identification of these functional deficits in zebrafish enables further studies with this model to determine how molecular and cellular mechanisms are disturbed to arrive at this compromised state.

  13. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  14. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Complete Family of Zebrafish pkd Genes

    PubMed Central

    England, Samantha J.; Campbell, Paul C.; Banerjee, Santanu; Swanson, Annika J.; Lewis, Katharine E.

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) proteins are trans-membrane proteins that have crucial roles in many aspects of vertebrate development and physiology, including the development of many organs as well as left–right patterning and taste. They can be divided into structurally-distinct PKD1-like and PKD2-like proteins and usually one PKD1-like protein forms a heteromeric polycystin complex with a PKD2-like protein. For example, PKD1 forms a complex with PKD2 and mutations in either of these proteins cause Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), which is the most frequent potentially-lethal single-gene disorder in humans. Here, we identify the complete family of pkd genes in zebrafish and other teleosts. We describe the genomic locations and sequences of all seven genes: pkd1, pkd1b, pkd1l1, pkd1l2a, pkd1l2b, pkd2, and pkd2l1. pkd1l2a/pkd1l2b are likely to be ohnologs of pkd1l2, preserved from the whole genome duplication that occurred at the base of the teleosts. However, in contrast to mammals and cartilaginous and holostei fish, teleosts lack pkd2l2, and pkdrej genes, suggesting that these have been lost in the teleost lineage. In addition, teleost, and holostei fish have only a partial pkd1l3 sequence, suggesting that this gene may be in the process of being lost in the ray-finned fish lineage. We also provide the first comprehensive description of the expression of zebrafish pkd genes during development. In most structures we detect expression of one pkd1-like gene and one pkd2-like gene, consistent with these genes encoding a heteromeric protein complex. For example, we found that pkd2 and pkd1l1 are expressed in Kupffer's vesicle and pkd1 and pkd2 are expressed in the developing pronephros. In the spinal cord, we show that pkd1l2a and pkd2l1 are co-expressed in KA cells. We also identify potential co-expression of pkd1b and pkd2 in the floor-plate. Interestingly, and in contrast to mouse, we observe expression of all seven pkd genes in regions

  15. Knockdown of Zebrafish Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance Results in Incomplete Retinal Lamination

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruei-Feng; Liu, Chia-Yang; Hu, Fung Rong; Huang, Chang-Jen; Wang, I-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity during eye development determines the normal retinal lamination and differentiation of photoreceptor cells in the retina. In vertebrates, blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves) is known to play an important role in the formation and maintenance of the tight junctions essential for epithelial cell polarity. In the current study, we generated a transgenic zebrafish Bves (zbves) promoter-EGFP zebrafish line to investigate the expression pattern of Bves in the retina and to study the role of zbves in retinal lamination. Immunostaining with different specific antibodies from retinal cells and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the morphological defects in normal and Bves knockdown zebrafish. In normal zebrafish, Bves is located at the apical junctions of embryonic retinal neuroepithelia during retinogenesis; later, it is strongly expressed around inner plexiform layer (IPL) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In contrast, a loss of normal retinal lamination and cellular polarity was found with undifferentiated photoreceptor cells in Bves knockdown zebrafish. Herein, our results indicated that disruption of Bves will result in a loss of normal retinal lamination. PMID:24741362

  16. Dynamic glucoregulation and mammalian-like responses to metabolic and developmental disruption in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Jurczyk, Agata; Roy, Nicole; Bajwa, Rabia; Gut, Philipp; Lipson, Kathryn; Yang, Chaoxing; Covassin, Laurence; Racki, Waldemar J.; Rossini, Aldo A.; Phillips, Nancy; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Greiner, Dale L.; Brehm, Michael A.; Bortell, Rita; diIorio, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos are emerging as models of glucose metabolism. However, patterns of endogenous glucose levels, and the role of the islet in glucoregulation, are unknown. We measured absolute glucose levels in zebrafish and mouse embryos, and demonstrate similar, dynamic glucose fluctuations in both species. Further, we show that chemical and genetic perturbations elicit mammalian-like glycemic responses in zebrafish embryos. We show that glucose is undetectable in early zebrafish and mouse embryos, but increases in parallel with pancreatic islet formation in both species. In zebrafish, increasing glucose is associated with activation of gluconeogenic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase1 (pck1) transcription. Non-hepatic Pck1 protein is expressed in mouse embryos. We show, using RNA in situ hybridization, that zebrafish pck1 mRNA is similarly expressed in multiple cell types prior to hepatogenesis. Further, we demonstrate that the Pck1 inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinic acid suppresses normal glucose accumulation in early zebrafish embryos. This shows that pre- and extra-hepatic pck1 is functional, and provides glucose locally to rapidly developing tissues. To determine if the primary islet is glucoregulatory in early fish embryos, we injected pdx1-specific morpholinos into transgenic embryos expressing GFP in beta cells. Most morphant islets were hypomorphic, not agenetic, but embryos still exhibited persistent hyperglycemia. We conclude from these data that the early zebrafish islet is functional, and regulates endogenous glucose. In summary, we identify mechanisms of glucoregulation in zebrafish embryos that are conserved with embryonic and adult mammals. These observations justify use of this model in mechanistic studies of human metabolic disease. PMID:20965191

  17. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E.

    PubMed

    Chatla, Kamalakar; Gaunt, Patricia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Hohn, Claudia; Ford, Lorelei; Hanson, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these signs and mortality after sera from affected fish is administered to sentinel catfish. The diagnosis is confirmed if the toxicity is neutralized with BoNT/E antitoxin. Because small catfish are often unavailable, the utility of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) was evaluated in BoNT/E and VTC bioassays. Channel catfish and zebrafish susceptibilities were compared using trypsin-activated BoNT/E in a 96-hr trial by intracoelomically administering 0, 1.87, 3.7, 7.5, 15, or 30 pg of toxin per gram of body weight (g-bw) of fish. All of the zebrafish died at the 7.5 pg/g-bw and higher, while the catfish died at the 15 pg/g-bw dose and higher. To test the bioassay, sera from VTC-affected fish or control sera were intracoelomically injected at a dose of 10 µl per zebrafish and 20 µl/g-bw for channel catfish. At 96 hr post-injection, 78% of the zebrafish and 50% of the catfish receiving VTC sera died, while no control fish died. When the VTC sera were preincubated with BoNT/E antitoxin, they became nontoxic to zebrafish. Histology of zebrafish injected with either VTC serum or BoNT/E demonstrated renal necrosis. Normal catfish serum was toxic to larval zebrafish in immersion exposures, abrogating their utility in VTC bioassays. The results demonstrate bioassays using adult zebrafish for detecting BoNT/E and VTC are sensitive and practical.

  18. INDUCED AND SPONTANEOUS NEOPLASIA IN ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the potential of zebrafish as a cancer model, it is important to determine the susceptibility of zebrafish to tumors, and to compare zebrafish tumors with human tumors. To determine whether the commonly-used germ line mutagen, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) induces tumors, we ...

  19. Zebrafish as an experimental model: strategies for developmental and molecular neurobiology studies.

    PubMed

    Key, Brian; Devine, Christine A

    2003-01-01

    Zebrafish provide a rapid and effective means for assessing gene function in the vertebrate nervous system. By employing gain- and loss-of-function techniques it is possible to obtain insights into the roles of both wild-type and heterologously expressed genes. Such approaches enable rapid progression from gene discovery to gene expression and finally to gene function even when examining development of a tissue as complex as the nervous system. Exploiting the full potential of zebrafish as a bioassay for the nervous system will require, not only an understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of normal zebrafish development, but also an appreciation of comparative processes in other species. When applied to mutant animals, classic morphological approaches and contemporary molecular genetic techniques are providing a wealth of information on the development of the nervous system at the molecular, cell, system and behavioural levels. Zebrafish are now emerging as an important tool, supporting mouse genetical approaches for understanding neural function in vertebrates.

  20. Cloning, expression and functional study of translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Hong; Yao, Ji-Hua; Song, Huai-Dong; Wang, Lu; Xue, Jing-Lun

    2006-01-01

    We have identified translation elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in zebrafish (GenBank Accession No. AAQ91234). Analysis of the DNA sequence of zebrafish EF-2 shows that the 2826 bp cDNA spans an open reading frame between nucleotide 55 to 2631 and encodes a protein of 858 amino acids. Zebrafish EF-2 protein shares 92%, 93%, 93% and 92% identity with the corresponding amino acid sequence in human, mouse, Chinese hamster and Gallus EF-2, respectively. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that zebrafish EF-2 was a developmentally regulated gene and might play important roles during the early development of zebrafish embryos. Therefore, we further studied the function of EF-2 during early embryogenesis. Using morpholino antisense oligo knockdown assays, anti-MO injected embryos were found to display abnormal development. The yolk balls were larger than normal and the melanophores spreading on their bodies became fewer. Furthermore, their tails were incurvate and their lenses were much smaller than those of the normal embryos. However the EF-2 overexpression data showed that extra EF-2 protein had no obvious effect on zebrafish embryonic development.

  1. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions.—Seritrakul, P., Samarut, E., Lama, T. T. S., Gibert, Y., Laudet, V., Jackman, W. R. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish. PMID:22942074

  2. Zebrafish antipredatory responses: A future for translational research?

    PubMed Central

    Gerlai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Human neuropsychiatric conditions associated with abnormally exaggerated or misdirected fear (anxiety disorders and phobias) still represent a large unmet medical need because the biological mechanisms underlying these diseases are not well understood. Animal models have been proposed to facilitate this research. Here I review the literature with a focus on zebrafish, an upcoming laboratory organism in behavioral brain research. I argue that abnormal human fear responses are likely the result of the malfunction of neurobiological mechanisms (brain areas, circuits and/or molecular mechanisms) that originally evolved to support avoidance of predators or other harm in nature. I also argue that the understanding of the normal as well as pathological functioning of such mechanisms may be best achieved if one utilizes naturalistic experimental approaches. In case of laboratory model organisms, this may entail presenting stimuli associated with predators and measuring species-specific antipredatory responses. Although zebrafish is a relatively new subject of such inquiry, I review the recently rapidly increasing number of zebrafish studies in this area, and conclude that zebrafish is a promising research tool for the analysis of the neurobiology and genetics of vertebrate fear responses. PMID:19836422

  3. Early Retinoic acid deprivation in developing zebrafish results in microphthalmia

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hong-Gam T.; Dowling, John E.; Cameron, D. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision and blindness in millions of children around the world. Previous studies in zebrafish have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the acid form of vitamin A, plays a vital role in early eye development. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of early RA deficiency by treating zebrafish with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) that converts retinal to RA. Zebrafish embryos were treated for 2 hours beginning at 9 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Gross morphology and retinal development were examined at regular intervals for 5 days after treatment. The optokinetic reflex (OKR) test, visual background adaptation (VBA) test, and the electroretinogram (ERG) were performed to assess visual function and behavior. Early treatment of zebrafish embryos with 100 μM DEAB (9hr) resulted in reduced eye size and this microphthalmia persisted through larval development. Retinal histology revealed that DEAB eyes, had significant developmental abnormalities but had relatively normal retinal lamination by 5.5 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the fish showed neither, an OKR or VBA response. Further, the retina did not respond to light as measured by the ERG. We conclude that early deficiency of RA during eye development causes microphthalmia as well as other visual defects, and that timing of the RA deficiency is critical to the developmental outcome. PMID:23013828

  4. Structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans from zebrafish in different ages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fuming; Zhang, Zhenqing; Thistle, Robert; McKeen, Lindsey; Hosoyama, Saori; Toida, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular model organism for the study of developmental biology, disease mechanisms, and drug discovery. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), located on animal cell membranes and in the extracellular matrix, are important molecules in cellular communication during development, in normal physiology and pathophysiology. Vertebrates commonly contain a variety of GAGs including chondroitin/dermatan sulfates, heparin/heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and keratan sulfate. Zebrafish might represent an excellent experimental organism to study the biological roles of GAGs. A recent study showing the absence of heparan sulfate in adult zebrafish, suggested a more detailed evaluation of the GAGs present in this important model organism needed to be undertaken. This report aimed at examining the structural alterations of different GAGs at the molecular level at different developmental stages. GAGs were isolated and purified from zebrafish in different stages in development ranging from 0.5 days to adult. The content and disaccharide composition of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate were determined using chemical assays, liquid chromotography and mass spectrometry. The presence of HS in adult fish was also confirmed using 1H-NMR. PMID:18777207

  5. Cadherin-6 Function in Zebrafish Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qin; Londraville, Richard; Marrs, James A.; Wilson, Amy L.; Mbimba, Thomas; Murakami, Tohru; Kubota, Fumitaka; Zheng, Weiping; Fatkins, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Cadherin cell adhesion molecules play crucial roles in vertebrate development including the development of the visual system. Most studies have focused on examining functions of classical type I cadherins (e.g. cadherin-2) in visual system development. There is little information on the function of classical type II cadherins (e.g. cadherin-6) in the development of the vertebrate visual system. To gain insight into cadherin-6 role in the formation of the retina, we analyzed differentiation of retinal ganglion cells, amacrine cells and photoreceptors in zebrafish embryos injected with cadherin-6 specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides. Differentiation of the retinal neurons in cadherin-6 knockdown embryos (cdh6 morphants) was analyzed using multiple markers. We found that expression of transcription factors important for retinal development was greatly reduced, and expression of Notch-Delta genes and proneural gene ath5 was altered in the cdh6 morphant retina. The retinal lamination was present in the morphants, although the morphant eyes were significantly smaller than control embryos due mainly to decreased cell proliferation. Differentiation of the retinal ganglion cells, amacrine cells and photoreceptors was severely disrupted in the cdh6 morphants due to a significant delay in neuronal differentiation. Our results suggest that cadherin-6 plays an important role in the normal formation of the zebrafish retina. PMID:18506771

  6. Maintenance of Zebrafish Lines at the European Zebrafish Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Nadine; Ferg, Marco; Maier, Jana Viktoria; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have established a European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC) at the KIT. This center not only maintains and distributes a large number of existing mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines but also gives zebrafish researchers access to screening services and technologies such as imaging and high-throughput sequencing, provided by the Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG). The EZRC maintains and distributes the stock collection of the Nüsslein-Volhard laboratory, comprising over 2000 publicly released mutations, as frozen sperm samples. Within the framework of the ZF-HEALTH EU project, the EZRC distributes over 10,000 knockout mutations from the Sanger Institute (United Kingdom), as well as over 100 mutant and transgenic lines from other sources. In this article, we detail the measures we have taken to ensure the health of our fish, including hygiene, quarantine, and veterinary inspections. PMID:27351617

  7. Zebrafish Sensitivity to Botulinum Neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Chatla, Kamalakar; Gaunt, Patricia S.; Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Ford, Lorelei; Hanson, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent known toxins. The mouse LD50 assay is the gold standard for testing BoNT potency, but is not sensitive enough to detect the extremely low levels of neurotoxin that may be present in the serum of sensitive animal species that are showing the effects of BoNT toxicity, such as channel catfish affected by visceral toxicosis of catfish. Since zebrafish are an important animal model for diverse biomedical and basic research, they are readily available and have defined genetic lines that facilitate reproducibility. This makes them attractive for use as an alternative bioassay organism. The utility of zebrafish as a bioassay model organism for BoNT was investigated. The 96 h median immobilizing doses of BoNT/A, BoNT/C, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F for adult male Tübingen strain zebrafish (0.32 g mean weight) at 25 °C were 16.31, 124.6, 4.7, and 0.61 picograms (pg)/fish, respectively. These findings support the use of the zebrafish-based bioassays for evaluating the presence of BoNT/A, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F. Evaluating the basis of the relatively high resistance of zebrafish to BoNT/C and the extreme sensitivity to BoNT/F may reveal unique functional patterns to the action of these neurotoxins. PMID:27153088

  8. Effects of metal ions on cyprinid fish immune response: In vitro effects of Zn2/sup +/ and Mn/sup 2+/ on the mitogenic response of carp pronephros lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanmi, Z.; Rouabhia, M.; Othmane, O.; Deschaux, P.A.

    1989-04-01

    Lymphocytes from the pronephros of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) have been subjected to transformation by mitogens, concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with Zn or Mn at varying concentrations. Addition of Zn/sup 2+/ (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) to mitogen-stimulated T and B cells enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation. Addition of 10(-5) M Zn/sup 2+/ inhibited the response to Con A, PHA, and LPS. At this concentration, Zn was toxic. Addition of Mn2+ (10(-7) to 10(-3) M) to mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation. This effect was observed with Con A- and PHA-stimulated lymphocytes, but not with LPS-stimulated lymphocytes. In contrast, addition of 10(-1) M Mn/sup 2+/ to lymphocyte cultures exerted an inhibitor on the response to Con A or to PHA, while the response to LPS was unaffected. Addition of 10(-1) M Mn/sup 2+/ to Con A- or PHA-stimulated cultures at different times after initiation of stimulation indicated that Mn/sup 2+/ was inhibitory only when it was added before the first 16 hr of cultures. The inhibition induced by 10(-1) M Mn2+ could be reversed by adding 2 mM CaCl/sub 2/ to the culture.

  9. Neurochemical measurements in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lauren J.; McCutcheon, James E.; Young, Andrew M. J.; Norton, William H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal model organism for behavioral genetics and neuroscience. The high conservation of genes and neurotransmitter pathways between zebrafish and other vertebrates permits the translation of research between species. Zebrafish behavior can be studied at both larval and adult stages and recent research has begun to establish zebrafish models for human disease. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the detection of neurotransmitter release and reuptake. In this study we have used in vitro FSCV to measure the release of analytes in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. We compare different stimulation methods and present a characterization of neurochemical changes in the wild-type zebrafish brain. This study represents the first FSCV recordings in zebrafish, thus paving the way for neurochemical analysis of the fish brain. PMID:26441575

  10. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish.

  11. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour.

  12. Modular organization of axial microcircuits in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bagnall, Martha W.; McLean, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion requires precise control of spinal networks. In tetrapods and bipeds, dynamic regulation of locomotion is simplified by the modular organization of spinal limb circuits, but it is not known whether their predecessors, fish axial circuits, are similarly organized. Here, we demonstrate that the larval zebrafish spinal cord contains distinct, parallel microcircuits for independent control of dorsal and ventral musculature on each side of the body. During normal swimming, dorsal and ventral microcircuits are equally active; but during postural correction, fish differentially engage these microcircuits to generate torque for self-righting. These findings reveal greater complexity in the axial spinal networks responsible for swimming than previously recognized and suggest an early template of modular organization for more complex locomotor circuits in later vertebrates. PMID:24408436

  13. Carbon Quantum Dots for Zebrafish Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Li, Yu-Hao; Fang, Yang-Wu; Xu, Yang; Wei, Xiao-Mi; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2015-07-01

    Carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) are becoming a desirable alternative to metal-based QDs and dye probes owing to their high biocompatibility, low toxicity, ease of preparation, and unique photophysical properties. Herein, we describe fluorescence bioimaging of zebrafish using C-QDs as probe in terms of the preparation of C-QDs, zebrafish husbandry, embryo harvesting, and introduction of C-QDs into embryos and larvae by soaking and microinjection. The multicolor of C-QDs was validated with their imaging for zebrafish embryo. The distribution of C-QDs in zebrafish embryos and larvae were successfully observed from their fluorescence emission. the bio-toxicity of C-QDs was tested with zebrafish as model and C-QDs do not interfere to the development of zebrafish embryo. All of the results confirmed the high biocompatibility and low toxicity of C-QDs as imaging probe. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion route (ADME) of C-QDs in zebrafish was revealed by their distribution. Our work provides the useful information for the researchers interested in studying with zebrafish as a model and the applications of C-QDs. The operations related zebrafish are suitable for the study of the toxicity, adverse effects, transport, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials as well as for drug screening with zebrafish as model.

  14. Carbon Quantum Dots for Zebrafish Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Li, Yu-Hao; Fang, Yang-Wu; Xu, Yang; Wei, Xiao-Mi; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon quantum dots (C-QDs) are becoming a desirable alternative to metal-based QDs and dye probes owing to their high biocompatibility, low toxicity, ease of preparation, and unique photophysical properties. Herein, we describe fluorescence bioimaging of zebrafish using C-QDs as probe in terms of the preparation of C-QDs, zebrafish husbandry, embryo harvesting, and introduction of C-QDs into embryos and larvae by soaking and microinjection. The multicolor of C-QDs was validated with their imaging for zebrafish embryo. The distribution of C-QDs in zebrafish embryos and larvae were successfully observed from their fluorescence emission. the bio-toxicity of C-QDs was tested with zebrafish as model and C-QDs do not interfere to the development of zebrafish embryo. All of the results confirmed the high biocompatibility and low toxicity of C-QDs as imaging probe. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion route (ADME) of C-QDs in zebrafish was revealed by their distribution. Our work provides the useful information for the researchers interested in studying with zebrafish as a model and the applications of C-QDs. The operations related zebrafish are suitable for the study of the toxicity, adverse effects, transport, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials as well as for drug screening with zebrafish as model. PMID:26135470

  15. Zebrafish sex: a complicated affair

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of several loci. These loci are typically dispersed throughout the genome, but in some teleost species a few of them might be located on a preferential pair of (sex) chromosomes. The PSD system has a much higher level of variation of SD genotypes both at the level of gametes and the sexual genotype of individuals, than that of the chromosomal sex determination systems. The early sexual development of zebrafish males is a complicated process, as they first develop a ‘juvenile ovary’, that later undergoes a transformation to give way to a testis. To date, three major developmental pathways were shown to be involved with gonad differentiation through the modulation of programmed cell death. In our opinion, there are more pathways participating in the regulation of zebrafish gonad differentiation/transformation. Introduction of additional powerful large-scale genomic approaches into the analysis of zebrafish reproduction will result in further deepening of our knowledge as well as identification of additional pathways and genes associated with these processes in the near future. PMID:24148942

  16. Precise Editing of the Zebrafish Genome Made Simple and Efficient

    PubMed Central

    Hoshijima, Kazuyuki; Jurynec, Michael J.; Grunwald, David Jonah

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY We present simple and efficient methods for creating heritable modifications of the zebrafish genome. Precisely modified alleles are generated by homologous recombination between the host genome and dsDNA donor molecules, stimulated by the induction of chromosomally targeted DSBs. Several kilobase-long tracts of genome sequence can be replaced. Tagging donor sequences with reporter genes that can be subsequently excised improves recovery of edited alleles by an order of magnitude and facilitates recovery of recessive and phenotypically silent conditional mutations. We generate and demonstrate functionality of: i) alleles with a single codon change, ii) an allele encoding an epitope-tagged version of an endogenous protein, iii) alleles expressing reporter proteins, and iv) a conditional allele in which an exon is flanked by recombinogenic loxP sites. Our methods make recovery of a broad range of genome editing events very practicable, significantly advancing applicability of the zebrafish for studying normal biological processes and modeling diseases. PMID:27003937

  17. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Moiche, Visila; Boltaña, Sebastian; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (TR at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (TCH: 28-32 °C). Larval thermal preference was assessed under both conditions with or without an immersion challenge, in order to detect the onset of the behavioural fever response. Our results defined the onset of the dsRNA induced behavioural fever at 18-20 days post fertilization (dpf). Significant differences were observed in dsRNA challenged larvae, which prefer higher temperatures (1-4 °C increase) throughout the experimental period as compared to non-challenged larvae. In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: TR and TCh. Significant increases in the abundance of all measured transcripts were recorded under thermal choice conditions signifying that thermo-coupling and the resultant enhancement of the immune response to dsRNA challenge occurs from 18 dpf onwards in the zebrafish. The results are of importance as they identify a key developmental stage where the neuro-immune interface matures in the zebrafish likely providing increased resistance to viral infection.

  18. Development of social behavior in young zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dreosti, Elena; Lopes, Gonçalo; Kampff, Adam R.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish are robustly social animals whereas larva is not. We designed an assay to determine at what stage of development zebrafish begin to interact with and prefer other fish. One week old zebrafish do not show significant social preference whereas most 3 weeks old zebrafish strongly prefer to remain in a compartment where they can view conspecifics. However, for some individuals, the presence of conspecifics drives avoidance instead of attraction. Social preference is dependent on vision and requires viewing fish of a similar age/size. In addition, over the same 1–3 weeks period larval zebrafish increasingly tend to coordinate their movements, a simple form of social interaction. Finally, social preference and coupled interactions are differentially modified by an NMDAR antagonist and acute exposure to ethanol, both of which are known to alter social behavior in adult zebrafish. PMID:26347614

  19. Glial Cell Development and Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, David A.; Talbot, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is a premier vertebrate model system that offers many experimental advantages for in vivo imaging and genetic studies. This review provides an overview of glial cell types in the central and peripheral nervous system of zebrafish. We highlight some recent work that exploited the strengths of the zebrafish system to increase the understanding of the role of Gpr126 in Schwann cell myelination and illuminate the mechanisms controlling oligodendrocyte development and myelination. We also summarize similarities and differences between zebrafish radial glia and mammalian astrocytes and consider the possibility that their distinct characteristics may represent extremes in a continuum of cell identity. Finally, we focus on the emergence of zebrafish as a model for elucidating the development and function of microglia. These recent studies have highlighted the power of the zebrafish system for analyzing important aspects of glial development and function. PMID:25395296

  20. Protective Role of Comfrey Leave Extracts on UV-induced Zebrafish Fin Damage

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chien-Chung; Chou, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Yao-Chin; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In zebrafish, UV exposure leads to fin malformation phenotypes including fin reduction or absence. The present study evaluated UV-protective activities of comfrey leaves extracts in a zebrafish model by recording fin morphological changes. Chemopreventive effects of comfrey leave extracts were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. The results showed that (1) the mean times of return to normal fin in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 3.43 and 2.86 days and were quicker compared with that in the UV only group (4.21 days); (2) zebrafish fins in the UV+comfrey (50 and 100 ppm) groups were 2.05 and 3.25 times more likely to return to normal than those in the UV only group; and (3) comfrey leave extracts had UV-absorbance abilities and significantly reduced ROS production in UV-exposed zebrafish embryos, which may attenuate UV-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, comfrey leaves extracts may have the potential to be developed as UV-protective agents to protect zebrafish embryos from UV-induced damage. PMID:25352712

  1. Initiation of zebrafish hematopoiesis by the TATA-box-binding protein-related factor, Trf3

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Daniel O.; Raha, Tamal; Lawson, Nathan D.; Green, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    TATA-box-binding protein (TBP)-related factor 3, TRF3 (also called TBP2), is a vertebrate-specific member of the TBP family that has a conserved C-terminal region and DNA binding domain virtually identical to that of TBP1. TRF3 is highly expressed during embryonic development, and studies in zebrafish and Xenopus have shown that TRF3 is required for normal embryogenesis2,3. Here we show that Trf3-depleted zebrafish embryos exhibit multiple developmental defects and, in particular, fail to undergo hematopoiesis. Expression profiling for Trf3-dependent genes identified mespa, which encodes a transcription factor whose murine orthologue is required for mesoderm specification4, and chromatin immunoprecipitation verified that Trf3 binds to the mespa promoter. Depletion of Mespa resulted in developmental and hematopoietic defects strikingly similar to those induced by Trf3 depletion. Injection of mespa mRNA restored normal development to a Trf3-depleted embryo, indicating mespa is the single Trf3 target gene required for zebrafish embryogenesis. Zebrafish embryos depleted of Trf3 or Mespa also failed to express cdx4, a caudal-related gene required for hematopoiesis. Mespa binds to the cdx4 promoter, and epistasis analysis revealed an ordered trf3-mespa-cdx4 pathway. Thus, in zebrafish commitment of mesoderm to the hematopoietic lineage occurs through a transcription factor pathway initiated by a TBP-related factor. PMID:18046332

  2. Zebrafish Social Behavior in the Wild.

    PubMed

    Suriyampola, Piyumika S; Shelton, Delia S; Shukla, Rohitashva; Roy, Tamal; Bhat, Anuradha; Martins, Emília P

    2016-02-01

    Wild zebrafish exhibit a wide range of behavior. We found abundant wild zebrafish in flowing rivers and still water, in large, tightly-knit groups of hundreds of individuals, as well as in small, loose shoals. In two still-water populations, zebrafish were quite small in body size, common, and in tight groups of up to 22 fish. As in earlier laboratory studies, these zebrafish exhibited very low levels of aggression. In slowly flowing water in central India, zebrafish were relatively rare and gathered in small shoals (4-12 fish), often with other small fish, such as Rasbora daniconius. These stream zebrafish were larger in body size (27 mm TL) and much more aggressive than those in still water. In a second river population with much faster flowing water, zebrafish were abundant and again relatively large (21 mm TL). These zebrafish occurred in very large (up to 300 individuals) and tightly-knit (nearest-neighbor distances up to 21 mm) groups that exhibited collective rheotaxis and almost no aggression. This remarkable variation in social behavior of wild zebrafish offers an opportunity for future studies of behavioral genetics, development, and neuroscience.

  3. A critical period for functional vestibular development in zebrafish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, Stephen J.; Cordova, Rodolfo; Davies, Sarah A.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined a critical period for vestibular development in zebrafish by using a bioreactor designed by NASA to simulate microgravity for cells in culture. A critical period is defined as the briefest period of time during development when stimulus deprivation results in long lasting or permanent sensory deficits. Zebrafish eggs were collected within 3 hours of being laid and fertilized. In experiment 1, eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3, 24, 30, 36, 48, or 72 hours postfertilization (hPF) and maintained in the bioreactor until 96 hPF. In experiment 2, eggs were placed in the bioreactor immediately after they were collected and maintained in the bioreactor until 24, 36, 48, 60, 66, 72, or 96 hPF. Beginning at 96 hPF, all larvae had their vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) evaluated once each day for 5 days. Only larvae that hatched from eggs that were placed in the bioreactor before 30 hPF in experiment 1 or removed from the bioreactor later than 66 hPF in experiment 2 had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. These data suggest a critical period for vestibular development in the zebrafish that begins before 30 hPF and ends after 66 hPF. To confirm this, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 24 hPF and removed at 72 hPF. VORs were evaluated in these larvae once each day for 5 days beginning at 96 hPF. These larvae had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. In addition, larvae that had been maintained in the bioreactor from 24 to 66 hPF or from 30 to 72 hPF, had only temporary VOR deficits. In a final experiment, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3 hPF and removed at 96 hPF but the bioreactor was turned off from 24 hPF to 72 hPF. These larvae had normal VORs when they were removed from the bioreactor at 96 hPF. Taken as a whole, these data support the idea that there is a critical period for functional maturation of the zebrafish vestibular system. The developmental period identified includes the timeframe

  4. Identification and functional characterization of zebrafish solute carrier Slc16a2 (Mct8) as a thyroid hormone membrane transporter.

    PubMed

    Arjona, Francisco J; de Vrieze, Erik; Visser, Theo J; Flik, Gert; Klaren, Peter H M

    2011-12-01

    Most components of the thyroid system in bony fish have been described and characterized, with the notable exception of thyroid hormone membrane transporters. We have cloned, sequenced, and expressed the zebrafish solute carrier Slc16a2 (also named monocarboxylate transporter Mct8) cDNA and established its role as a thyroid hormone transport protein. The cloned cDNA shares 56-57% homology with its mammalian orthologs. The 526-amino-acid sequence contains 12 predicted transmembrane domains. An intracellular N-terminal PEST domain, thought to be involved in proteolytic processing of the protein, is present in the zebrafish sequence. Measured at initial rate and at the body/rearing temperature of zebrafish (26 C), T(3) uptake by zebrafish Slc16a2 is a saturable process with a calculated Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.8 μM T(3). The rate of T(3) uptake is temperature dependent and Na(+) independent. Interestingly, at 26 C, zebrafish Slc16a2 does not transport T(4). This implies that at a normal body temperature in zebrafish, Slc16a2 protein is predominantly involved in T(3) uptake. When measured at 37 C, zebrafish Slc16a2 transports T(4) in a Na(+)-independent manner. In adult zebrafish, the Slc16a2 gene is highly expressed in brain, gills, pancreas, liver, pituitary, heart, kidney, and gut. Beginning from the midblastula stage, Slc16a2 is also expressed during zebrafish early development, the highest expression levels occurring 48 h after fertilization. This is the first direct evidence for thyroid hormone membrane transporters in fish. We suggest that Slc16a2 plays a key role in the local availability of T(3) in adult tissues as well as during the completion of morphogenesis of primary organ systems.

  5. Deletion of Pr130 Interrupts Cardiac Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Li, Zuhua; Gan, Xuedong; Zhai, Gang; Gao, Jiajia; Xiong, Chenling; Qiu, Xueping; Wang, Xuebin; Yin, Zhan; Zheng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B, alpha (PPP2R3A), a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), is a major serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates crucial function in development and growth. Previous research has implied that PPP2R3A was involved in heart failure, and PR130, the largest transcription of PPP2R3A, functioning in the calcium release of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), plays an important role in the excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. To obtain a better understanding of PR130 functions in myocardium and cardiac development, two pr130-deletion zebrafish lines were generated using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) system. Pr130-knockout zebrafish exhibited cardiac looping defects and decreased cardiac function (decreased fractional area and fractional shortening). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining demonstrated reduced cardiomyocytes. Subsequent transmission electron microscopy revealed that the bright and dark bands were narrowed and blurred, the Z- and M-lines were fogged, and the gaps between longitudinal myocardial fibers were increased. Additionally, increased apoptosis was observed in cardiomyocyte in pr130-knockout zebrafish compared to wild-type (WT). Taken together, our results suggest that pr130 is required for normal myocardium formation and efficient cardiac contractile function. PMID:27845735

  6. A crystal-clear zebrafish for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent vertebrate model for in vivo imaging of biological phenomena at subcellular, cellular and systems levels. However, the optical accessibility of highly pigmented tissues, like the eyes, is limited even in this animal model. Typical strategies to improve the transparency of zebrafish larvae require the use of either highly toxic chemical compounds (e.g. 1-phenyl-2-thiourea, PTU) or pigmentation mutant strains (e.g. casper mutant). To date none of these strategies produce normally behaving larvae that are transparent in both the body and the eyes. Here we present crystal, an optically clear zebrafish mutant obtained by combining different viable mutations affecting skin pigmentation. Compared to the previously described combinatorial mutant casper, the crystal mutant lacks pigmentation also in the retinal pigment epithelium, therefore enabling optical access to the eyes. Unlike PTU-treated animals, crystal larvae are able to perform visually guided behaviours, such as the optomotor response, as efficiently as wild type larvae. To validate the in vivo application of crystal larvae, we performed whole-brain light-sheet imaging and two-photon calcium imaging of neural activity in the retina. In conclusion, this novel combinatorial pigmentation mutant represents an ideal vertebrate tool for completely unobstructed structural and functional in vivo investigations of biological processes, particularly when imaging tissues inside or between the eyes. PMID:27381182

  7. Zebrafish atoh8 mutants do not recapitulate morpholino phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Place, Elsie S.; Smith, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Atoh8 is a bHLH transcription factor expressed in pancreas, skeletal muscle, the nervous system, and cardiovascular tissues during embryological development. Although it has been implicated in the regulation of pancreatic and endothelial cell differentiation, the phenotypic consequences of Atoh8 loss are uncertain. Conclusions from knockout studies in the mouse differ widely depending on the targeting strategy used, while atoh8 knockdown by interfering morpholino oligonucleotides (morpholinos) in zebrafish has led to a range of developmental defects. This study characterised zebrafish embryos homozygous for atoh8sa1465, a loss-of-function allele of atoh8, in order to provide genetic evidence for the developmental role of Atoh8 in this species. Embryos homozygous for atoh8sa1465 present normal body morphology, swimbladder inflation, and heart looping, and survive to adulthood. These embryos do not develop pericardial oedema by 72 hpf and are not sensitised to the loss of Fog1 protein, suggesting that this previously described abnormality is not a specific phenotype. Vascular patterning and primitive haematopoiesis are unaffected in atoh8sa1465/sa1465 mutant embryos. Together, the data suggest that Atoh8 is dispensible for zebrafish development under standard laboratory conditions. PMID:28182631

  8. DNA repair capacity of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Raquel

    2007-08-14

    Damage to the genome is unavoidable in living creatures, because of sunlight exposure as well as environmental chemicals present in food and drinking water. There is a need to monitor and purify the drinking water; therefore, several methods of detection have been developed. A very promising model system for this purpose is the zebrafish (Danio rerio), which is endowed with special qualities for detecting external as well as internal abnormalities. Grossman and Wei's assay [Grossman L, Wei Q (1995) Clin Chem 12:1854-1863], which measures the expression level of a nonreplicating recombinant plasmid DNA containing a UV-damaged luciferase reporter gene, shows that zebrafish can repair chromosomal lesions to a much greater extent than the human population. This vertebrate model is still very promising after possible down-regulation of the DNA repair enzymes.

  9. Zebrafish Behavior: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Orger, Michael B; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2017-04-03

    A great challenge in neuroscience is understanding how activity in the brain gives rise to behavior. The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model to address this challenge, thanks to the capacity, at the larval stage, for precise behavioral measurements, genetic manipulations, and recording and manipulation of neural activity noninvasively and at single-neuron resolution throughout the whole brain. These techniques are being further developed for application in freely moving animals and juvenile stages to study more complex behaviors including learning, decision making, and social interactions. We review some of the approaches that have been used to study the behavior of zebrafish and point to opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 40 is July 8, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  10. Zebrafish genomics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haihan; Zsigmond, Aron

    2013-09-01

    The ZF-HEALTH/EuFishBiomed workshop on "Genomics and High-throughput Sequencing Technologies with the Zebrafish Model" took place in December 2012 in Cambridge, United Kingdom. The organisers, Fiona Wardle and Ferenc Müller, brought together developmental biologists, geneticists, and bioinformaticians from Europe and the rest of the world to share findings and insights about the latest genomic capabilities and applications in this popular model organism.

  11. Developmental effects of simulated microgravity on zebrafish, (Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyek, Matthew; Edsall, Sara; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara; Smith, Frank; Croll, Roger

    Zebrafish are widely used model vertebrates in research and recently this species has been used to study the effects of microgravity on fundamental biological processes. In this study we used a NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity (SMG) on zebrafish development up to 14 days post fertilization (dpf). At developmental stages beyond the 3-4 somite stage we found SMG-exposed embryos reached key developmental stag-ing points more rapidly than fish raised within a non-rotating vessel. By the 21 somite stage, both groups were again synchronized in their developmental staging. However, SMG-exposed embryos eventually exhibited a delay in hatching time compared to controls. Otolith and to-tal body size were observed to be greater in larvae raised in SMG. In addition, pigmentation patterns in SMG exposed fish differed, with larger and differentially aggregated melanocytes . Heart development was slowed in SMG exposed fish, but no change in nervous system de-velopment was detected. Ongoing research will focus on differences in heart and respiration rates. Finally, by developing a method to extend the duration of SMG exposure, we found the swimming behaviour of SMG-exposed animals was altered with time in the RWV. Initially SMG-exposed animals swam in the direction of RWV rotation (5-9dpf) but older (9+dpf) fish swam against rotation and demonstrated righting behaviour with each rotation. These results suggest that vestibular reflexes may develop normally and be maintained in animals exposed to SMG. Together, our data provide insights into how zebrafish may develop when flown in space, permitting better formulation of experiments to test mechanisms by which microgravity may affect ontogeny of this model organism. Keywords: microgravity, zebrafish, growth, development

  12. Molecular analysis and heavy metal detoxification of ABCC1/MRP1 in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Li, Qing; Cui, Zongbin

    2011-03-01

    ABCC1/MRP1 belongs to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and its elevated expression is closely associated with the multidrug resistance of various tumor cells. In normal tissues, ABCC1 confers resistance to a wide variety of xenobiotics and toxicants, demonstrating its important roles in tissue defense. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of abcc1 gene in zebrafish. This gene is localized on zebrafish chromosome 3 and contains a 4,557 bp open-reading frame. The deduced polypeptide is composed of 1,518 amino acids, which shares 70% identity with human ABCC1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ABCC1 proteins from thirteen vertebrate species are highly conserved during evolution. Transcriptional expression of zebrafish abcc1 gene in developing embryos was examined by whole-mount in situ hybridization and real-time PCR. Transcripts of zebrafish abcc1 gene were detectable in four-cell stage embryos, indicating that this gene is maternally expressed. ABCC1 mRNAs were ubiquitously distributed in embryos before 12 h post-fertilization (hpf) and mainly localized in eyes and brain from 24 to 72 hpf, and in gills from 96 to 120 hpf. In addition, zebrafish abcc1 gene was highly expressed in 1-hpf embryos and detected in all adult tissues examined, with highest expression in testis and lowest in heart and liver. Exposure of ZF4 cells and embryos to CdCl(2)·2.5H(2)O, HgCl(2), Pb(NO(3))(2), or Na(3)AsO(4)·12H(2)O significantly induced transcriptional expression of abcc1 gene. Furthermore, overexpression of abcc1 improved the survival rates of embryos exposed to Cd, Hg or As, while overexpression of a abcc1 mutant (ABCC1-G1420D) sensitized zebrafish embryos to toxic metals. These data indicate that zebrafish ABCC1 has crucial roles in heavy metals detoxification.

  13. Inflammatory diseases modelling in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Morales Fénero, Camila Idelí; Colombo Flores, Alicia Angelina; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    The ingest of diets with high content of fats and carbohydrates, low or no physical exercise and a stressful routine are part of the everyday lifestyle of most people in the western world. These conditions are triggers for different diseases with complex interactions between the host genetics, the metabolism, the immune system and the microbiota, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), obesity and diabetes. The incidence of these disorders is growing worldwide; therefore, new strategies for its study are needed. Nowadays, the majority of researches are in use of murine models for understand the genetics, physiopathology and interaction between cells and signaling pathways to find therapeutic solutions to these diseases. The zebrafish, a little tropical water fish, shares 70% of our genes and conserves anatomic and physiological characteristics, as well as metabolical pathways, with mammals, and is rising as a new complementary model for the study of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Its high fecundity, fast development, transparency, versatility and low cost of maintenance makes the zebrafish an interesting option for new researches. In this review, we offer a discussion of the existing genetic and induced zebrafish models of two important Western diseases that have a strong inflammatory component, the IBD and the obesity. PMID:26929916

  14. Disruption of LRRK2 Does Not Cause Specific Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Guiqi; Xin, Shengchang; Li, Song; Zhong, Hanbing; Lin, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 are genetically linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) but its normal biological function is largely unknown. Sheng et al. recently reported that deletion of the WD40 domain of LRRK2 in zebrafish specifically causes PD-like loss of neurons and behavior defect. However, our similar early study and recent confirming experiments using the same reagents reported by Sheng et al. failed to reproduce the phenotype of the loss of dopaminergic neurons, although the mRNA of LRRK2 was molecularly disrupted. Our study suggests that function of LRRK2 and its usefulness to generate zebrafish PD model needs further evaluation. PMID:21698186

  15. A Comparative Map of the Zebrafish Genome

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Ian G.; Kelly, Peter D.; Chu, Felicia; Ngo-Hazelett, Phuong; Yan, Yi-Lin; Huang, Hui; Postlethwait, John H.; Talbot, William S.

    2000-01-01

    Zebrafish mutations define the functions of hundreds of essential genes in the vertebrate genome. To accelerate the molecular analysis of zebrafish mutations and to facilitate comparisons among the genomes of zebrafish and other vertebrates, we used a homozygous diploid meiotic mapping panel to localize polymorphisms in 691 previously unmapped genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Together with earlier efforts, this work raises the total number of markers scored in the mapping panel to 2119, including 1503 genes and ESTs and 616 previously characterized simple-sequence length polymorphisms. Sequence analysis of zebrafish genes mapped in this study and in prior work identified putative human orthologs for 804 zebrafish genes and ESTs. Map comparisons revealed 139 new conserved syntenies, in which two or more genes are on the same chromosome in zebrafish and human. Although some conserved syntenies are quite large, there were changes in gene order within conserved groups, apparently reflecting the relatively frequent occurrence of inversions and other intrachromosomal rearrangements since the divergence of teleost and tetrapod ancestors. Comparative mapping also shows that there is not a one-to-one correspondence between zebrafish and human chromosomes. Mapping of duplicate gene pairs identified segments of 20 linkage groups that may have arisen during a genome duplication that occurred early in the evolution of teleosts after the divergence of teleost and mammalian ancestors. This comparative map will accelerate the molecular analysis of zebrafish mutations and enhance the understanding of the evolution of the vertebrate genome. PMID:11116086

  16. Zebrafish as a model for human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Mohseny, A B; Hogendoorn, P C W

    2014-01-01

    For various reasons involving biological comparativeness, expansive technological possibilities, accelerated experimental speed, and competitive costs, zebrafish has become a comprehensive model for cancer research. Hence, zebrafish embryos and full-grown fish have been instrumental for studies of leukemia, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, bone tumors, and other malignancies. Although because of its similarities to human osteogenesis zebrafish appears to be an appealing model to investigate osteosarcoma, only a few osteosarcoma specific studies have been accomplished yet. Here, we review interesting related and unrelated reports of which the findings might be extrapolated to osteosarcoma. More importantly, rational but yet unexplored applications of zebrafish are debated to expand the window of opportunities for future establishment of osteosarcoma models. Accordingly technological advances of zebrafish based cancer research, such as robotic high-throughput multicolor injection systems and advanced imaging methods are discussed. Furthermore, various use of zebrafish embryos for screening drug regimens by combinations of chemotherapy, novel drug deliverers, and immune system modulators are suggested. Concerning the etiology, the high degree of genetic similarity between zebrafish and human cancers indicates that affected regions are evolutionarily conserved. Therefore, zebrafish as a swift model system that allows for the investigation of multiple candidate gene-defects is presented.

  17. Featured organism: Danio rerio, the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wixon, J

    2000-09-30

    The zebrafish has long been a favourite model for the study of vertebrate development. Here we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge and resources for the study of this fish, with comments on the future direction of zebrafish genomics from Professor Mark Fishman and Dr Stephen Wilson.

  18. A Novel Method for Rearing Zebrafish by Using Freshwater Rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus).

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Yuta; Moriya, Natsumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Taniguchi, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Shingo

    2015-08-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a powerful model organism for studying developmental processes and genetic diseases. However, there remain several problems in previous rearing methods. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for rearing zebrafish larvae by using a new first food, freshwater rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus). Feeding experiments indicated that freshwater rotifers are suitable as the first food for newly hatched larval fish. In addition, we revisited and improved a feeding schedule from 5 to 40 days postfertilization. Our feeding method using freshwater rotifers accelerated larval growth. At 49 dpf, one pair out of 10 pairs successfully produced six fertilized eggs. At 56, 63, and 71 dpf, 6 out of the 10 pairs constantly produced normal embryos. Our method will improve the husbandry of the zebrafish.

  19. A Novel Method for Rearing Zebrafish by Using Freshwater Rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus)

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Yuta; Moriya, Natsumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Taniguchi, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a powerful model organism for studying developmental processes and genetic diseases. However, there remain several problems in previous rearing methods. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for rearing zebrafish larvae by using a new first food, freshwater rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus). Feeding experiments indicated that freshwater rotifers are suitable as the first food for newly hatched larval fish. In addition, we revisited and improved a feeding schedule from 5 to 40 days postfertilization. Our feeding method using freshwater rotifers accelerated larval growth. At 49 dpf, one pair out of 10 pairs successfully produced six fertilized eggs. At 56, 63, and 71 dpf, 6 out of the 10 pairs constantly produced normal embryos. Our method will improve the husbandry of the zebrafish. PMID:25938499

  20. Novel use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model to screen radiation protectors and sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    McAleer, Mary Frances . E-mail: adam.dicker@mail.tju.edu; Davidson, Christian; Davidson, William Robert; Yentzer, Brad; Farber, Steven A.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Dicker, Adam P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos provide a unique vertebrate model to screen therapeutic agents easily and rapidly because of their relatively close genetic relationship to humans, ready abundance and accessibility, short embryonal development, and optical clarity. To validate zebrafish embryos as a screen for radiation modifiers, we evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation in combination with a known radioprotector (free radical scavenger Amifostine) or radiosensitizing agent (tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478). Methods and materials: Viable zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0-10 Gy single-fraction 250 kVp X-rays with or without either Amifostine (0-4 mM) or AG1478 (0-10 {mu}M) at defined developmental stages from 1-24 h postfertilization (hpf). Embryos were examined for morphologic abnormalities and viability until 144 hpf. Results: Radiation alone produced a time- and dose-dependent perturbation of normal embryonic development and survival with maximal sensitivity at doses {>=}4 Gy delivered before 4 hpf. Amifostine markedly attenuated this effect, whereas AG1478 enhanced teratogenicity and lethality, particularly at therapeutically relevant (2-6 Gy) radiation doses. Conclusions: Collectively, these data validate the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model to assess the effect of radiation alone or with radiation response modulators. Zebrafish embryos may thus provide a rapid, facile system to screen novel agents ultimately intended for human use in the context of therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure.

  1. Mesoderm is required for coordinated cell movements within zebrafish neural plate in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Morphogenesis of the zebrafish neural tube requires the coordinated movement of many cells in both time and space. A good example of this is the movement of the cells in the zebrafish neural plate as they converge towards the dorsal midline before internalizing to form a neural keel. How these cells are regulated to ensure that they move together as a coherent tissue is unknown. Previous work in other systems has suggested that the underlying mesoderm may play a role in this process but this has not been shown directly in vivo. Results Here we analyze the roles of subjacent mesoderm in the coordination of neural cell movements during convergence of the zebrafish neural plate and neural keel formation. Live imaging demonstrates that the normal highly coordinated movements of neural plate cells are lost in the absence of underlying mesoderm and the movements of internalization and neural tube formation are severely disrupted. Despite this, neuroepithelial polarity develops in the abnormal neural primordium but the resulting tissue architecture is very disorganized. Conclusions We show that the movements of cells in the zebrafish neural plate are highly coordinated during the convergence and internalization movements of neurulation. Our results demonstrate that the underlying mesoderm is required for these coordinated cell movements in the zebrafish neural plate in vivo. PMID:24755297

  2. Upregulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) during the early stage of optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ogai, Kazuhiro; Kuwana, Ayaka; Hisano, Suguru; Nagashima, Mikiko; Koriyama, Yoshiki; Sugitani, Kayo; Mawatari, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Kato, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Fish retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can regenerate their axons after optic nerve injury, whereas mammalian RGCs normally fail to do so. Interleukin 6 (IL-6)-type cytokines are involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and axon regrowth; thus, they may play a role in the regeneration of zebrafish RGCs after injury. In this study, we assessed the expression of IL-6-type cytokines and found that one of them, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), is upregulated in zebrafish RGCs at 3 days post-injury (dpi). We then demonstrated the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a downstream target of LIF, at 3-5 dpi. To determine the function of LIF, we performed a LIF knockdown experiment using LIF-specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (LIF MOs). LIF MOs, which were introduced into zebrafish RGCs via a severed optic nerve, reduced the expression of LIF and abrogated the activation of STAT3 in RGCs after injury. These results suggest that upregulated LIF drives Janus kinase (Jak)/STAT3 signaling in zebrafish RGCs after nerve injury. In addition, the LIF knockdown impaired axon sprouting in retinal explant culture in vitro; reduced the expression of a regeneration-associated molecule, growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43); and delayed functional recovery after optic nerve injury in vivo. In this study, we comprehensively demonstrate the beneficial role of LIF in optic nerve regeneration and functional recovery in adult zebrafish.

  3. Lrrc10 is required for early heart development and function in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Yan, Long; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E.; Lee, Youngsook

    2007-01-01

    Leucine-rich Repeat Containing protein 10 (LRRC10) has recently been identified as a cardiac-specific factor in mice. However, the function of this factor remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the developmental roles of Lrrc10 using zebrafish as an animal model. Knockdown of Lrrc10 in zebrafish embryos (morphants) using morpholinos caused severe cardiac morphogenic defects including a cardiac looping failure accompanied by a large pericardial edema, and embryonic lethality between day 6 and 7 post fertilization. The Lrrc10 morphants exhibited cardiac functional defects as evidenced by a decrease in ejection fraction and cardiac output. Further investigations into the underlying mechanisms of the cardiac defects revealed that the number of cardiomyocyte was reduced in the morphants. Expression of two cardiac genes was deregulated in the morphants including an increase in atrial natriuretic factor, a hallmark for cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and a decrease in cardiac myosin light chain 2, an essential protein for cardiac contractility in zebrafish. Moreover, a reduced fluorescence intensity from NADH in the morphant heart was observed in live zebrafish embryos as compared to control. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that Lrrc10 is necessary for normal cardiac development and cardiac function in zebrafish embryos, which will enhance our understanding of congenital heart defects and heart disease. PMID:17601532

  4. Epilepsy, Behavioral Abnormalities, and Physiological Comorbidities in Syntaxin-Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1) Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Grone, Brian P.; Marchese, Maria; Hamling, Kyla R.; Kumar, Maneesh G.; Krasniak, Christopher S.; Sicca, Federico; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Patel, Manisha; Baraban, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic machinery gene syntaxin-binding protein 1, STXBP1 (also known as MUNC18-1), are linked to childhood epilepsies and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Zebrafish STXBP1 homologs (stxbp1a and stxbp1b) have highly conserved sequence and are prominently expressed in the larval zebrafish brain. To understand the functions of stxbp1a and stxbp1b, we generated loss-of-function mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and studied brain electrical activity, behavior, development, heart physiology, metabolism, and survival in larval zebrafish. Homozygous stxbp1a mutants exhibited a profound lack of movement, low electrical brain activity, low heart rate, decreased glucose and mitochondrial metabolism, and early fatality compared to controls. On the other hand, homozygous stxbp1b mutants had spontaneous electrographic seizures, and reduced locomotor activity response to a movement-inducing “dark-flash” visual stimulus, despite showing normal metabolism, heart rate, survival, and baseline locomotor activity. Our findings in these newly generated mutant lines of zebrafish suggest that zebrafish recapitulate clinical phenotypes associated with human syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutations. PMID:26963117

  5. Optimized cell transplantation using adult rag2 mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qin; Abdelfattah, Nouran S.; Blackburn, Jessica S.; Moore, John C.; Martinez, Sarah A.; Moore, Finola E.; Lobbardi, Riadh; Tenente, Inês M.; Ignatius, Myron S.; Berman, Jason N.; Liwski, Robert S.; Houvras, Yariv; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation into adult zebrafish has lagged behind mouse due to the lack of immune compromised models. Here, we have created homozygous rag2E450fs mutant zebrafish that have reduced numbers of functional T and B cells but are viable and fecund. Mutant fish engraft zebrafish muscle, blood stem cells, and cancers. rag2E450fs mutant zebrafish are the first immune compromised zebrafish model that permits robust, long-term engraftment of multiple tissues and cancer. PMID:25042784

  6. Mmp23b promotes liver development and hepatocyte proliferation through the TNF pathway in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fei; Song, Jianbo; Yang, Hanshuo; Gao, Wei; Liu, Ning-ai; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of proteins degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) components as well as processes cytokines and growth factors. MMPs are involved in regulating ECM homeostasis in both normal physiology and disease pathophysiology. Here, we report the critical roles of mmp23b in normal zebrafish liver development. Mmp23b was initially identified as a gene linked to the genomic locus of an enhancer trap transgenic zebrafish line in which GFP expression was restricted to the developing liver. Follow-up analysis of mmp23b mRNA expression confirmed its liver-specific expression pattern. Morpholino (MO) knockdown of mmp23b resulted in defective hepatocyte proliferation, causing a reduction in liver size while maintaining relatively normal pancreas and gut development. Genetically, we showed that mmp23b functions through the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway. Antisense knockdown of tnfa or tnfb in zebrafish caused similar reductions of liver size whereas overexpression of tnfa or tnfb rescued liver defects in mmp23b morphants but not vice versa. Biochemically, MMP23B, the human ortholog of Mmp23b, directly interacts with TNF and mediates its release from the cell membrane in a cell culture system. Since mmp23b/MMP23B is highly conserved, our findings in zebrafish warrant further investigation of its role in regulating liver development in mammals. PMID:21064033

  7. Zebrafish Endzone Regulates Neural Crest-Derived Chromatophore Differentiation and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Arduini, Brigitte L.; Gallagher, Glen R.; Henion, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The development of neural crest-derived pigment cells has been studied extensively as a model for cellular differentiation, disease and environmental adaptation. Neural crest-derived chromatophores in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) consist of three types: melanophores, xanthophores and iridiphores. We have identified the zebrafish mutant endzone (enz), that was isolated in a screen for mutants with neural crest development phenotypes, based on an abnormal melanophore pattern. We have found that although wild-type numbers of chromatophore precursors are generated in the first day of development and migrate normally in enz mutants, the numbers of all three chromatophore cell types that ultimately develop are reduced. Further, differentiated melanophores and xanthophores subsequently lose dendricity, and iridiphores are reduced in size. We demonstrate that enz function is required cell autonomously by melanophores and that the enz locus is located on chromosome 7. In addition, zebrafish enz appears to selectively regulate chromatophore development within the neural crest lineage since all other major derivatives develop normally. Our results suggest that enz is required relatively late in the development of all three embryonic chromatophore types and is normally necessary for terminal differentiation and the maintenance of cell size and morphology. Thus, although developmental regulation of different chromatophore sublineages in zebrafish is in part genetically distinct, enz provides an example of a common regulator of neural crest-derived chromatophore differentiation and morphology. PMID:18665240

  8. A GCSFR/CSF3R zebrafish mutant models the persistent basal neutrophil deficiency of severe congenital neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Pazhakh, Vahid; Clark, Sharon; Keightley, M. Cristina; Lieschke, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and its receptor (GCSFR), also known as CSF3 and CSF3R, are required to maintain normal neutrophil numbers during basal and emergency granulopoiesis in humans, mice and zebrafish. Previous studies identified two zebrafish CSF3 ligands and a single CSF3 receptor. Transient antisense morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of both these ligands and receptor reduces neutrophil numbers in zebrafish embryos, a technique widely used to evaluate neutrophil contributions to models of infection, inflammation and regeneration. We created an allelic series of zebrafish csf3r mutants by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis targeting csf3r exon 2. Biallelic csf3r mutant embryos are viable and have normal early survival, despite a substantial reduction of their neutrophil population size, and normal macrophage abundance. Heterozygotes have a haploinsufficiency phenotype with an intermediate reduction in neutrophil numbers. csf3r mutants are viable as adults, with a 50% reduction in tissue neutrophil density and a substantial reduction in the number of myeloid cells in the kidney marrow. These csf3r mutants are a new animal model of human CSF3R-dependent congenital neutropenia. Furthermore, they will be valuable for studying the impact of neutrophil loss in the context of other zebrafish disease models by providing a genetically stable, persistent, reproducible neutrophil deficiency state throughout life. PMID:28281657

  9. Streptococcus-Zebrafish Model of Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Melody N.; Pfeifer, John D.; Caparon, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Due to its small size, rapid generation time, powerful genetic systems, and genomic resources, the zebrafish has emerged as an important model of vertebrate development and human disease. Its well-developed adaptive and innate cellular immune systems make the zebrafish an ideal model for the study of infectious diseases. With a natural and important pathogen of fish, Streptococcus iniae, we have established a streptococcus- zebrafish model of bacterial pathogenesis. Following injection into the dorsal muscle, zebrafish developed a lethal infection, with a 50% lethal dose of 103 CFU, and died within 2 to 3 days. The pathogenesis of infection resembled that of S. iniae in farmed fish populations and that of several important human streptococcal diseases and was characterized by an initial focal necrotic lesion that rapidly progressed to invasion of the pathogen into all major organ systems, including the brain. Zebrafish were also susceptible to infection by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, disease was characterized by a marked absence of inflammation, large numbers of extracellular streptococci in the dorsal muscle, and extensive myonecrosis that occurred far in advance of any systemic invasion. The genetic systems available for streptococci, including a novel method of mutagenesis which targets genes whose products are exported, were used to identify several mutants attenuated for virulence in zebrafish. This combination of a genetically amenable pathogen with a well-defined vertebrate host makes the streptococcus-zebrafish model of bacterial pathogenesis a powerful model for analysis of infectious disease. PMID:12065534

  10. Zebrafish in hematology: sushi or science?

    PubMed Central

    Carradice, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    After a decade of the “modern era” of zebrafish hematology research, what have been their major contributions to hematology and what challenges does the model face? This review argues that, in hematology, zebrafish have demonstrated their suitability, are proving their utility, have supplied timely and novel discoveries, and are poised for further significant contributions. It presents an overview of the anatomy, physiology, and genetics of zebrafish hematopoiesis underpinning their use in hematology research. Whereas reverse genetic techniques enable functional studies of particular genes of interest, forward genetics remains zebrafish's particular strength. Mutants with diverse and interesting hematopoietic defects are emerging from multiple genetic screens. Some mutants model hereditary blood diseases, occasionally leading to disease genes first; others provide insights into developmental hematology. Models of malignant hematologic disorders provide tools for drug-target and pharmaceutics discovery. Numerous transgenic zebrafish with fluorescently marked blood cells enable live-cell imaging of inflammatory responses and host-pathogen interactions previously inaccessible to direct observation in vivo, revealing unexpected aspects of leukocyte behavior. Zebrafish disease models almost uniquely provide a basis for efficient whole animal chemical library screens for new therapeutics. Despite some limitations and challenges, their successes and discovery potential mean that zebrafish are here to stay in hematology research. PMID:18182572

  11. Biliary atresia: From Australia to the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This review is based upon an invited lecture for the 52nd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, July 2015. The aetiology of biliary atresia (BA) is at best obscure, but it is probable that a number of causes or pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved leading to the final common phenotype we recognise clinically. By way of illustration, similar conditions to human BA are described, including biliary agenesis, which is the normal state and peculiar final pattern of bile duct development in the jawless fish, the lamprey. Furthermore, there have been remarkable outbreaks in the Australian outback of BA in newborn lambs whose mothers were exposed to and grazed upon a particular plant species (Dysphania glomulifera) during gestation. More recent work using a zebrafish model has isolated a toxic isoflavonoid, now named Biliatresone, thought to be responsible for these outbreaks. Normal development of the bile ducts is reviewed and parallels drawn with two clinical variants thought to definitively have their origins in intrauterine life: Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) and Cystic Biliary Atresia (CBA). For both variants there is sufficient clinical evidence, including associated anomalies and antenatal detection, respectively, to warrant their aetiological attribution as developmental BA. CMV IgM +ve associated BA is a further variant that appears separate with distinct clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. In these it seems possible that this involves perinatal obliteration of a normally formed duct system. Although still circumstantial, this evidence appears convincing enough to perhaps warrant a different treatment strategy. This then still leaves the most common (more than 60% in Western series) variant, now termed Isolated BA, whereby origins can only be alluded to.

  12. Animal Models of Tuberculosis: Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Lisanne M.; van der Sar, Astrid M.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an attractive new vertebrate model organism for studying mycobacterial pathogenesis. The combination of medium-throughput screening and real-time in vivo visualization has allowed new ways to dissect host pathogenic interaction in a vertebrate host. Furthermore, genetic screens on the host and bacterial sides have elucidated new mechanisms involved in the initiation of granuloma formation and the importance of a balanced immune response for control of mycobacterial pathogens. This article will highlight the unique features of the zebrafish–Mycobacterium marinum infection model and its added value for tuberculosis research. PMID:25414379

  13. How mitochondrial dysfunction affects zebrafish development and cardiovascular function: an in vivo model for testing mitochondria-targeted drugs

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Brígida R; Santos, Miguel M; Fonseca-Silva, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Oliveira, Jorge M A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mitochondria are a drug target in mitochondrial dysfunction diseases and in antiparasitic chemotherapy. While zebrafish is increasingly used as a biomedical model, its potential for mitochondrial research remains relatively unexplored. Here, we perform the first systematic analysis of how mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors affect zebrafish development and cardiovascular function, and assess multiple quinones, including ubiquinone mimetics idebenone and decylubiquinone, and the antimalarial atovaquone. Experimental Approach Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were chronically and acutely exposed to mitochondrial inhibitors and quinone analogues. Concentration-response curves, developmental and cardiovascular phenotyping were performed together with sequence analysis of inhibitor-binding mitochondrial subunits in zebrafish versus mouse, human and parasites. Phenotype rescuing was assessed in co-exposure assays. Key Results Complex I and II inhibitors induced developmental abnormalities, but their submaximal toxicity was not additive, suggesting active alternative pathways for complex III feeding. Complex III inhibitors evoked a direct normal-to-dead transition. ATP synthase inhibition arrested gastrulation. Menadione induced hypochromic anaemia when transiently present following primitive erythropoiesis. Atovaquone was over 1000-fold less lethal in zebrafish than reported for Plasmodium falciparum, and its toxicity partly rescued by the ubiquinone precursor 4-hydroxybenzoate. Idebenone and decylubiquinone delayed rotenone- but not myxothiazol- or antimycin-evoked cardiac dysfunction. Conclusion and Implications This study characterizes pharmacologically induced mitochondrial dysfunction phenotypes in zebrafish, laying the foundation for comparison with future studies addressing mitochondrial dysfunction in this model organism. It has relevant implications for interpreting zebrafish disease models linked to complex I/II inhibition. Further

  14. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  15. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Adam C; Bill, Brent R; Glanzman, David L

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory.

  16. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Idalencio, Renan; Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; Abreu, Murilo Sander de; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish.

  17. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  18. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks

    PubMed Central

    XU, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-01-01

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable. PMID:28211462

  19. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-01

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  20. Waterborne Risperidone Decreases Stress Response in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kalichak, Fabiana; Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Oliveira, Tiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Gusso, Darlan; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Varrone; Barcellos, Heloísa Helena de Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    The presence of drugs and their metabolites in surface waters and municipal effluents has been reported in several studies, but its impacts on aquatic organisms are not yet well understood. This study investigated the effects of acute exposure to the antipsychotic risperidone on the stress and behavioral responses in zebrafish. It became clear that intermediate concentration of risperidone inhibited the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and displayed anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish. The data presented here suggest that the presence of this antipsychotic in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior profiles in zebrafish. PMID:26473477

  1. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models.

    PubMed

    Asharani, P V; Lian Wu, Yi; Gong, Zhiyuan; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2008-06-25

    This study was initiated to enhance our insight on the health and environmental impact of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np). Using starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as capping agents, silver nanoparticles were synthesized to study their deleterious effects and distribution pattern in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Toxicological endpoints like mortality, hatching, pericardial edema and heart rate were recorded. A concentration-dependent increase in mortality and hatching delay was observed in Ag-np treated embryos. Additionally, nanoparticle treatments resulted in concentration-dependent toxicity, typified by phenotypes that had abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, slow blood flow, pericardial edema and cardiac arrhythmia. Ag(+) ions and stabilizing agents showed no significant defects in developing embryos. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the embryos demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed in the brain, heart, yolk and blood of embryos as evident from the electron-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS). Furthermore, the acridine orange staining showed an increased apoptosis in Ag-np treated embryos. These results suggest that silver nanoparticles induce a dose-dependent toxicity in embryos, which hinders normal development.

  2. Optimizing synchrotron microCT for high-throughput phenotyping of zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rivière, Patrick J.; Clark, Darin; Rojek, Alexandra; Vargas, Phillip; Xiao, Xianghui; DeCarlo, Francesco; Kindlmann, Gordon; Cheng, Keith

    2010-09-01

    We are creating a state-of-the-art 2D and 3D imaging atlas of zebrafish development. The atlas employs both 2D histology slides and 3D benchtop and synchrotron micro CT results. Through this atlas, we expect to document normal and abnormal organogenesis, to reveal new levels of structural detail, and to advance image informatics as a form of systems biology. The zebrafish has become a widely used model organism in biological and biomedical research for studies of vertebrate development and gene function. In this work, we will report on efforts to optimize synchrotron microCT imaging parameters for zebrafish at crucial developmental stages. The aim of these studies is to establish protocols for high-throughput phenotyping of normal, mutant and diseased zebrafish. We have developed staining and embedding protocols using different heavy metal stains (osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate) and different embedding media (Embed 812 and glycol methacrylate). We have explored the use of edge subtraction and multi-energy techniques for contrast enhancement and we have examined the use of different sample-detector distances with unstained samples to explore and optimize phase-contrast enhancement effects. We will report principally on our efforts to optimize energy choice for single- and multi-energy studies as well as our efforts to optimize the degree of phase contrast enhancement.

  3. Chromatin modification in zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Cayuso Mas, Jordi; Noël, Emily S; Ober, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    The generation of complex organisms requires that an initial population of cells with identical gene expression profiles can adopt different cell fates during development by progressively diverging transcriptional programs. These programs depend on the binding of transcritional regulators to specific genomic sites, which in turn is controlled by modifications of the chromatin. Chromatin modifications may occur directly upon DNA by methylation of specific nucleotides, or may involve post-translational modification of histones. Local regulation of histone post-translational modifications regionalizes the genome into euchromatic regions, which are more accessible to DNA-binding factors, and condensed heterochromatic regions, inhibiting the binding of such factors. In addition, these modifications may be required in a genome-wide fashion for processes such as DNA replication or chromosome condensation. From an embryologist's point of view chromatin modifications are intensively studied in the context of imprinting and have more recently received increasing attention in understanding the basis of pluripotency and cellular differentiation. Here, we describe recently uncovered roles of chromatin modifications in zebrafish development and regeneration, as well as available resources and commonly used techniques. We provide a general introduction into chromatin modifications and their respective functions with a focus on gene transcription, as well as key aspects of their roles in the early zebrafish embryo, neural development, formation of the digestive system and tissue regeneration.

  4. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  5. Modeling Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grant, Meagan G; Patterson, Victoria L; Grimes, Daniel T; Burdine, Rebecca D

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac development is a dynamic process regulated by spatial and temporal cues that are integrated to effect molecular, cellular, and tissue-level events that form the adult heart. Disruption of these highly orchestrated events can be devastating for cardiac form and function. Aberrations in heart development result in congenital heart defects (CHDs), which affect 1 in 100 infants in the United States each year. Zebrafish have proven informative as a model organism to understand both heart development and the mechanisms associated with CHDs due to the similarities in heart morphogenesis among vertebrates, as well as their genetic tractability and amenability to live imaging. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of zebrafish heart development and the utility of zebrafish for understanding syndromic CHDs, those cardiac abnormalities that occur in the context of multisystem disorders. We conclude with avenues of zebrafish research that will potentially inform future therapeutic approaches for the treatment of CHDs.

  6. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J.; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick II, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B. Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  7. Polygenic Sex Determination System in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang; Bartfai, Richard; Lim, Zijie; Sreenivasan, Rajini; Siegfried, Kellee R.; Orban, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of zebrafish as a research model, its sex determination (SD) mechanism is still unknown. Most cytogenetic studies failed to find dimorphic sex chromosomes and no primary sex determining switch has been identified even though the assembly of zebrafish genome sequence is near to completion and a high resolution genetic map is available. Recent publications suggest that environmental factors within the natural range have minimal impact on sex ratios of zebrafish populations. The primary aim of this study is to find out more about how sex is determined in zebrafish. Methodology/Principal Findings Using classical breeding experiments, we found that sex ratios across families were wide ranging (4.8% to 97.3% males). On the other hand, repeated single pair crossings produced broods of very similar sex ratios, indicating that parental genotypes have a role in the sex ratio of the offspring. Variation among family sex ratios was reduced after selection for breeding pairs with predominantly male or female offspring, another indication that zebrafish sex is regulated genetically. Further examinations by a PCR-based “blind assay" and array comparative genomic hybridization both failed to find universal sex-linked differences between the male and female genomes. Together with the ability to increase the sex bias of lines by selective breeding, these data suggest that zebrafish is unlikely to utilize a chromosomal sex determination (CSD) system. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our study suggests that zebrafish sex is genetically determined with limited, secondary influences from the environment. As we have not found any sign for CSD in the species, we propose that the zebrafish has a polygenic sex determination system. PMID:22506019

  8. Age- and size-related changes in the inner ear and hearing ability of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Higgs, Dennis M; Souza, Marcy J; Wilkins, Heather R; Presson, Joelle C; Popper, Arthur N

    2002-06-01

    Fishes, unlike most other vertebrate groups, continue to add sensory hair cells to their ears for much of their lives. However, it is not clear whether the addition ever stops or how the addition of sensory cells impacts hearing ability. In this article, we tested both questions using the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Our results not only have important implications for understanding the consequences of adding sensory receptors, but these results for normal zebrafish also serve as valuable baseline information for future studies of select mutations on the ear and hearing of this species. Our results show that hair cell production continues in uncrowded zebrafish up to 10 months of age (about one-third of a normal life span), but despite this addition there is no change in hearing sensitivity or bandwidth. Therefore, hearing is not related to the number of sensory cells in the ear in juvenile and adult animals. We also show that despite no net addition of hair cells after about 10 months, hair cells are still being produced, but at a lower rate, presumably to replace cells that are dying. Moreover, crowding of zebrafish has a marked impact on the growth of the fish and on the addition of sensory cells to the ear. We also demonstrate that fish size, not age, is a better indicator of developmental state of zebrafish.

  9. Spinal cord transection in the larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Briona, Lisa K; Dorsky, Richard I

    2014-05-21

    Mammals fail in sensory and motor recovery following spinal cord injury due to lack of axonal regrowth below the level of injury as well as an inability to reinitiate spinal neurogenesis. However, some anamniotes including the zebrafish Danio rerio exhibit both sensory and functional recovery even after complete transection of the spinal cord. The adult zebrafish is an established model organism for studying regeneration following spinal cord injury, with sensory and motor recovery by 6 weeks post-injury. To take advantage of in vivo analysis of the regenerative process available in the transparent larval zebrafish as well as genetic tools not accessible in the adult, we use the larval zebrafish to study regeneration after spinal cord transection. Here we demonstrate a method for reproducibly and verifiably transecting the larval spinal cord. After transection, our data shows sensory recovery beginning at 2 days post-injury (dpi), with the C-bend movement detectable by 3 dpi and resumption of free swimming by 5 dpi. Thus we propose the larval zebrafish as a companion tool to the adult zebrafish for the study of recovery after spinal cord injury.

  10. Retinal Regeneration Following OCT-Guided Laser Injury in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    DiCicco, Rose M.; Bell, Brent A.; Kaul, Charles; Hollyfield, Joe G.; Anand-Apte, Bela; Perkins, Brian D.; Tao, Yuankai K.; Yuan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Establish a focal injury/regeneration model in zebrafish using laser photocoagulation guided by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. Adult zebrafish were imaged by OCT and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) in room air through a contact lens. Using a beam combiner, 532-nm laser photocoagulation was applied using the OCT C-scan image for targeting. Laser spots of 42 to 47 mW were delivered to the retina. At multiple intervals post injury, fish were imaged using both OCT and cSLO to follow the progression of each lesion. Histologic sections and TUNEL staining were performed to monitor the injury response. Results. Round lesions (26057 ± 621 μm2) localized to the outer retina were successfully applied. Laser application was visualized by real-time OCT and lesions were detectable by both OCT and cSLO in vivo. Lesion size increased 1 day post lesion then decreased in size. Histologic sections showed focal areas of damage localized primarily to the outer retina. By 3 weeks, the damaged areas had regenerated and a fully laminated structure was re-established. However, subtle changes can still be detected by OCT, cSLO imaging, and histology. Infrared darkfield imaging was more sensitive than OCT at revealing subtle changes in regenerated areas. Conclusions. Optical coherence tomography–guided laser photocoagulation is a useful tool for inducing localized lesions and studying retinal regeneration in zebrafish. This novel method will allow us to characterize the cellular and molecular changes that take place at the interface between normal and damaged tissue. Regeneration can be observed using high-resolution OCT and cSLO imaging in vivo. PMID:25205862

  11. Decellularized zebrafish cardiac extracellular matrix induces mammalian heart regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C. W.; Wang, Zhouguang; Missinato, Maria Azzurra; Park, Dae Woo; Long, Daniel Ward; Liu, Heng-Jui; Zeng, Xuemei; Yates, Nathan A.; Kim, Kang; Wang, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    Heart attack is a global health problem that leads to significant morbidity, mortality, and health care burden. Adult human hearts have very limited regenerative capability after injury. However, evolutionarily primitive species generally have higher regenerative capacity than mammals. The extracellular matrix (ECM) may contribute to this difference. Mammalian cardiac ECM may not be optimally inductive for cardiac regeneration because of the fibrotic, instead of regenerative, responses in injured adult mammalian hearts. Given the high regenerative capacity of adult zebrafish hearts, we hypothesize that decellularized zebrafish cardiac ECM (zECM) made from normal or healing hearts can induce mammalian heart regeneration. Using zebrafish and mice as representative species of lower vertebrates and mammals, we show that a single administration of zECM, particularly the healing variety, enables cardiac functional recovery and regeneration of adult mouse heart tissues after acute myocardial infarction. zECM-treated groups exhibit proliferation of the remaining cardiomyocytes and multiple cardiac precursor cell populations and reactivation of ErbB2 expression in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, zECM exhibits pro-proliferative and chemotactic effects on human cardiac precursor cell populations in vitro. These contribute to the structural preservation and correlate with significantly higher cardiac contractile function, notably less left ventricular dilatation, and substantially more elastic myocardium in zECM-treated hearts than control animals treated with saline or decellularized adult mouse cardiac ECM. Inhibition of ErbB2 activity abrogates beneficial effects of zECM administration, indicating the possible involvement of ErbB2 signaling in zECM-mediated regeneration. This study departs from conventional focuses on mammalian ECM and introduces a new approach for cardiac tissue regeneration. PMID:28138518

  12. Zebrafish heart as a model for human cardiac electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Vornanen, Matti; Hassinen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model for human cardiac diseases and pharmacology including cardiac arrhythmias and its electrophysiological basis. Notably, the phenotype of zebrafish cardiac action potential is similar to the human cardiac action potential in that both have a long plateau phase. Also the major inward and outward current systems are qualitatively similar in zebrafish and human hearts. However, there are also significant differences in ionic current composition between human and zebrafish hearts, and the molecular basis and pharmacological properties of human and zebrafish cardiac ionic currents differ in several ways. Cardiac ionic currents may be produced by non-orthologous genes in zebrafish and humans, and paralogous gene products of some ion channels are expressed in the zebrafish heart. More research on molecular basis of cardiac ion channels, and regulation and drug sensitivity of the cardiac ionic currents are needed to enable rational use of the zebrafish heart as an electrophysiological model for the human heart.

  13. Can Zebrafish be used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can Zebrafish be Used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. We are exploring behavioral methods using zebrafish by desig...

  14. Zebrafish models of cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Peterson, Randall T

    2014-04-01

    Perturbations in cerebral blood flow and abnormalities in blood vessel structure are the hallmarks of cerebrovascular disease. While there are many genetic and environmental factors that affect these entities through a heterogeneous group of disease processes, the ultimate final pathologic insult in humans is defined as a stroke, or damage to brain parenchyma. In the case of ischemic stroke, blood fails to reach its target destination whereas in hemorrhagic stroke, extravasation of blood occurs outside of the blood vessel lumen, resulting in direct damage to brain parenchyma. As these acute events can be neurologically devastating, if not fatal, development of novel therapeutics are urgently needed. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an attractive model for the study of cerebrovascular disease because of its morphological and physiological similarity to human cerebral vasculature, its ability to be genetically manipulated, and its fecundity allowing for large-scale, phenotype-based screens.

  15. Neuroblastoma and Its Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shizhen; Thomas Look, A

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, an important developmental tumor arising in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (PSNS), accounts for approximately 10 % of all cancer-related deaths in children. Recent genomic analyses have identified a spectrum of genetic alterations in this tumor. Amplification of the MYCN oncogene is found in 20 % of cases and is often accompanied by mutational activation of the ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) gene, suggesting their cooperation in tumor initiation and spread. Understanding how complex genetic changes function together in oncogenesis has been a continuing and daunting task in cancer research. This challenge was addressed in neuroblastoma by generating a transgenic zebrafish model that overexpresses human MYCN and activated ALK in the PSNS, leading to tumors that closely resemble human neuroblastoma and new opportunities to probe the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of this tumor. For example, coexpression of activated ALK with MYCN in this model triples the penetrance of neuroblastoma and markedly accelerates tumor onset, demonstrating the interaction of these modified genes in tumor development. Further, MYCN overexpression induces adrenal sympathetic neuroblast hyperplasia, blocks chromaffin cell differentiation, and ultimately triggers a developmentally-timed apoptotic response in the hyperplastic sympathoadrenal cells. In the context of MYCN overexpression, activated ALK provides prosurvival signals that block this apoptotic response, allowing continued expansion and oncogenic transformation of hyperplastic neuroblasts, thus promoting progression to neuroblastoma. This application of the zebrafish model illustrates its value in rational assessment of the multigenic changes that define neuroblastoma pathogenesis and points the way to future studies to identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Loss of the small heat shock protein αA-crystallin does not lead to detectable defects in early zebrafish lens development.

    PubMed

    Posner, Mason; Skiba, Jackie; Brown, Mary; Liang, Jennifer O; Nussbaum, Justin; Prior, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Alpha crystallins are small heat shock proteins essential to normal ocular lens function. They also help maintain homeostasis in many non-ocular vertebrate tissues and their expression levels change in multiple diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular system and during cancer. The specific roles that α-crystallins may play in eye development are unclear. Studies with knockout mice suggested that only one of the two mammalian α-crystallins is required for normal early lens development. However, studies in two fish species suggested that reduction of αA-crystallin alone could inhibit normal fiber cell differentiation, cause cataract and contribute to lens degeneration. In this study we used synthetic antisense morpholino oligomers to suppress the expression of zebrafish αA-crystallin to directly test the hypothesis that, unlike mammals, the zebrafish requires αA-crystallin for normal early lens development. Despite the reduction of zebrafish αA-crystallin protein to undetectable levels by western analysis through 4 days of development we found no changes in fiber cell differentiation, lens morphology or transparency. In contrast, suppression of AQP0a expression, previously shown to cause lens cataract, produced irregularly shaped lenses, delay in fiber cell differentiation and lens opacities detectable by confocal microscopy. The normal development observed in αA-crystallin deficient zebrafish embryos may reflect similarly non-essential roles for this protein in the early stages of both zebrafish and mammalian lens development. This finding has ramifications for a growing number of researchers taking advantage of the zebrafish's transparent external embryos to study vertebrate eye development. Our demonstration that lens cataracts can be visualized in three-dimensions by confocal microscopy in a living zebrafish provides a new tool for studying the causes, development and prevention of lens opacities.

  17. In Vivo Quantitative Study of Sized-Dependent Transport and Toxicity of Single Silver Nanoparticles Using Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kerry J.; Browning, Lauren M.; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Desai, Tanvi; Cherukui, Pavan K.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials possess distinctive physicochemical properties (e.g., small sizes, high surface area-to-volume ratios) and promise a wide variety of applications, ranging from design of high quality consumer products to effective disease diagnosis and therapy. These properties can lead to toxic effects, potentially hindering advance in nanotechnology. In this study, we have synthesized and characterized purified and stable (non-aggregation) silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 41.6±9.1 nm in average diameters), and utilized early-developing (cleavage-stage) zebrafish embryos (critical aquatic and eco- species) as in vivo model organisms to probe diffusion and toxicity of Ag NPs. We found that single Ag NPs (30–72 nm diameters) passively diffused into the embryos through chorionic pores via random Brownian motion and stayed inside the embryos throughout their entire development (120 hours-post-fertilization, hpf). Dose and size dependent toxic effects of the NPs on embryonic development were observed, showing the possibility of tuning biocompatibility and toxicity of the NPs. At lower concentrations of the NPs (≤ 0.02 nM), 75–91% of embryos developed to normal zebrafish. At the higher concentrations of NPs (≥ 0.20 nM), 100% of embryos became dead. At the concentrations in between (0.02–0.2 nM), embryos developed to various deformed zebrafish. Number and sizes of individual Ag NPs embedded in tissues of normal and deformed zebrafish at 120 hpf were quantitatively analyzed, showing deformed zebrafish with higher number of larger NPs than normal zebrafish, and size-dependent nanotoxicity. By comparing with our previous studies of smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm), the results further demonstrate striking size-dependent nanotoxicity that, at the same molar concentration, the larger Ag NPs (41.6±9.1 nm) are more toxic than the smaller Ag NPs (11.6±3.5 nm). PMID:22486336

  18. Viral diseases in zebrafish: what is known and unknown.

    PubMed

    Crim, Marcus J; Riley, Lela K

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model.

  19. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  20. Perturbation of cytosolic calcium by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and caffeine affects zebrafish myofibril alignment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Ju; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chen, Shen-Liang; Wei, Jen-Cheng; Wang, I-Jong; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chang, Chao-Yuan; Chen, Xing-Guang; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chen, Hui-Min; Horng, Juin-Lin; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of Ca(2+) levels on myofibril alignment during zebrafish embryogenesis. To investigate how altered cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels affect myofibril alignment, we exposed zebrafish embryos to 2-aminothoxyldiphenyl borate (2-APB; an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibitor that reduces cytosolic Ca(2+) levels) and caffeine (a ryanodine receptor activator that enhances cytosolic Ca(2+) levels). The results demonstrated that the most evident changes in zebrafish embryos treated with 2-APB were shorter body length, curved trunk and malformed somite boundary. In contrast, such malformed phenotypes were evident neither in untreated controls nor in caffeine-treated embryos. Subtle morphological changes, including changes in muscle fibers, F-actin and ultrastructures were easily observed by staining with specific monoclonal antibodies (F59 and α-laminin), fluorescent probes (phalloidin) and by transmission electron microscopy. Our data suggested that: (1) the exposure to 2-APB and/or caffeine led to myofibril misalignment; (2) 2-APB-treated embryos displayed split and short myofibril phenotypes, whereas muscle fibers from caffeine-treated embryos were twisted and wavy; and (3) zebrafish embryos co-exposed to 2-APB and caffeine resulted in normal myofibril alignment. In conclusion, we proposed that cytosolic Ca(2+) is important for myogenesis, particularly for myofibril alignment.

  1. Development of high-content assays for kidney progenitor cell expansion in transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sanker, Subramaniam; Cirio, Maria Cecilia; Vollmer, Laura L; Goldberg, Natasha D; McDermott, Lee A; Hukriede, Neil A; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of genes normally expressed during organogenesis is a characteristic of kidney regeneration. Enhancing this reactivation could potentially be a therapeutic target to augment kidney regeneration. The inductive events that drive kidney organogenesis in zebrafish are similar to the initial steps in mammalian kidney organogenesis. Therefore, quantifying embryonic signals that drive zebrafish kidney development is an attractive strategy for the discovery of potential novel therapeutic modalities that accelerate kidney regeneration. The Lim1 homeobox protein, Lhx1, is a marker of kidney development that is also expressed in the regenerating kidneys after injury. Using a fluorescent Lhx1a-EGFP transgene whose phenotype faithfully recapitulates that of the endogenous protein, we developed a high-content assay for Lhx1a-EGFP expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos employing an artificial intelligence-based image analysis method termed cognition network technology (CNT). Implementation of the CNT assay on high-content readers enabled automated real-time in vivo time-course, dose-response, and variability studies in the developing embryo. The Lhx1a assay was complemented with a kidney-specific secondary CNT assay that enables direct measurements of the embryonic renal tubule cell population. The integration of fluorescent transgenic zebrafish embryos with automated imaging and artificial intelligence-based image analysis provides an in vivo analysis system for structure-activity relationship studies and de novo discovery of novel agents that augment innate regenerative processes.

  2. Effects of ZnSO4-induced peripheral anosmia on zebrafish behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Ana C V V; Rodriguez, Rubens; Kalueff, Allan V; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2017-03-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in modulating behavioral and physiological responses of various animal species, including fishes. Olfactory deficits can be induced in fish experimentally, and utilized to examine the role of olfaction in their normal and pathological behaviors. Here, we examine whether experimental anosmia, evoked by ZnSO4 in adult zebrafish can be associated with behavioral and/or physiological responses. We show that experimental ZnSO4-induced anosmia caused acute, but not prolonged, anxiogenic-like effects on zebrafish behavior tested in the novel tank test. The procedure also elevated whole-body cortisol levels in zebrafish. Moreover, ZnSO4 treatment, but not sham, produced damage to olfactory epithelium, inducing overt basal cell vacuolization and intercellular edema. The loss of olfaction, assessed by the fish food preference behavior in the aquatic Y-maze, was present 1h, but not 24h, after the treatment. Collectively, this suggests that transient experimental anosmia by ZnSO4 modulates zebrafish behavior and olfaction, which can be used to evoke and assess their stress-related anxiety-like states.

  3. Comparison of proteomic profiles in the zebrafish retina during experimental degeneration and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eastlake, Karen; Heywood, Wendy E.; Tracey-White, Dhani; Aquino, Erika; Bliss, Emily; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Mills, Kevin; Khaw, Peng T.; Moosajee, Mariya; Limb, G. Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish spontaneously regenerate the retina after injury. Although the gene expression profile has been extensively studied in this species during regeneration, this does not reflect protein function. To further understand the regenerative process in the zebrafish, we compared the proteomic profile of the retina during injury and upon regeneration. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and label-free quantitative proteomics (quadrupole time of flight LC-MS/MS), we analysed the retina of adult longfin wildtype zebrafish at 0, 3 and 18 days after Ouabain injection. Gene ontology analysis indicates reduced metabolic processing, and increase in fibrin clot formation, with significant upregulation of fibrinogen gamma polypeptide, apolipoproteins A-Ib and A-II, galectin-1, and vitellogenin-6 during degeneration when compared to normal retina. In addition, cytoskeleton and membrane transport proteins were considerably altered during regeneration, with the highest fold upregulation observed for tubulin beta 2 A, histone H2B and brain type fatty acid binding protein. Key proteins identified in this study may play an important role in the regeneration of the zebrafish retina and investigations on the potential regulation of these proteins may lead to the design of protocols to promote endogenous regeneration of the mammalian retina following retinal degenerative disease. PMID:28300160

  4. Influences of textured substrates on the heart rate of developing zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Chen, Chia-Yuan

    2013-07-01

    Identification of the effects of different textured substrates on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos provides insights into the influence of external stimuli on normal cardiovascular functions in the developmental stages of the embryos. This knowledge can be used in numerous genetic studies using zebrafish as an animal model as well as in bioanalytical assays using digital microfluidics. In this study, zebrafish embryos were systematically positioned and in vivo imaged on four types of silicon substrates. These substrates exhibited surface textures and surface wettability that were well modulated by wet chemical etching. The heart rate of the developing embryos significantly increased by 9.1% upon exposure to textured Si substrates with nanostructured surfaces compared with bare Si substrates. Modulation of surface wettability in the tested substrates also responded to the increase in the heart rate of the embryo; however, the effect of surface wettability on heart rate was slight compared with the effect of texture. In-depth experimental and statistical investigations of heart rate under the effects of substrate textures imply a pathway through which the inner mass of the embryo reacts to external stimuli. These findings contribute to zebrafish-related studies and suggest other factors to consider in the design of nanostructure-based microfluidics and other biomedical devices.

  5. Single epicardial cell transcriptome sequencing identifies Caveolin 1 as an essential factor in zebrafish heart regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jingli; Navis, Adam; Cox, Ben D.; Dickson, Amy L.; Gemberling, Matthew; Karra, Ravi; Bagnat, Michel; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, adult zebrafish have a high capacity to regenerate damaged or lost myocardium through proliferation of cardiomyocytes spared from damage. The epicardial sheet covering the heart is activated by injury and aids muscle regeneration through paracrine effects and as a multipotent cell source, and has received recent attention as a target in cardiac repair strategies. Although it is recognized that epicardium is required for muscle regeneration and itself has high regenerative potential, the extent of cellular heterogeneity within epicardial tissue is largely unexplored. Here, we performed transcriptome analysis on dozens of epicardial lineage cells purified from zebrafish harboring a transgenic reporter for the pan-epicardial gene tcf21. Hierarchical clustering analysis suggested the presence of at least three epicardial cell subsets defined by expression signatures. We validated many new pan-epicardial and epicardial markers by alternative expression assays. Additionally, we explored the function of the scaffolding protein and main component of caveolae, caveolin 1 (cav1), which was present in each epicardial subset. In BAC transgenic zebrafish, cav1 regulatory sequences drove strong expression in ostensibly all epicardial cells and in coronary vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, cav1 mutant zebrafish generated by genome editing showed grossly normal heart development and adult cardiac anatomy, but displayed profound defects in injury-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration. Our study defines a new platform for the discovery of epicardial lineage markers, genetic tools, and mechanisms of heart regeneration. PMID:26657776

  6. Stat3/Cdc25a-dependent cell proliferation promotes embryonic axis extension during zebrafish gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Sepich, Diane S.

    2017-01-01

    Cell proliferation has generally been considered dispensable for anteroposterior extension of embryonic axis during vertebrate gastrulation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a conserved controller of cell proliferation, survival and regeneration, is associated with human scoliosis, cancer and Hyper IgE Syndrome. Zebrafish Stat3 was proposed to govern convergence and extension gastrulation movements in part by promoting Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling, a conserved regulator of mediolaterally polarized cell behaviors. Here, using zebrafish stat3 null mutants and pharmacological tools, we demonstrate that cell proliferation contributes to anteroposterior embryonic axis extension. Zebrafish embryos lacking maternal and zygotic Stat3 expression exhibit normal convergence movements and planar cell polarity signaling, but transient axis elongation defect due to insufficient number of cells resulting largely from reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of cell proliferation during gastrulation phenocopied axis elongation defects. Stat3 regulates cell proliferation and axis extension in part via upregulation of Cdc25a expression during oogenesis. Accordingly, restoring Cdc25a expression in stat3 mutants partially suppressed cell proliferation and gastrulation defects. During later development, stat3 mutant zebrafish exhibit stunted growth, scoliosis, excessive inflammation, and fail to thrive, affording a genetic tool to study Stat3 function in vertebrate development, regeneration, and disease. PMID:28222105

  7. Influences of textured substrates on the heart rate of developing zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Chen, Chia-Yuan

    2013-07-05

    Identification of the effects of different textured substrates on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos provides insights into the influence of external stimuli on normal cardiovascular functions in the developmental stages of the embryos. This knowledge can be used in numerous genetic studies using zebrafish as an animal model as well as in bioanalytical assays using digital microfluidics. In this study, zebrafish embryos were systematically positioned and in vivo imaged on four types of silicon substrates. These substrates exhibited surface textures and surface wettability that were well modulated by wet chemical etching. The heart rate of the developing embryos significantly increased by 9.1% upon exposure to textured Si substrates with nanostructured surfaces compared with bare Si substrates. Modulation of surface wettability in the tested substrates also responded to the increase in the heart rate of the embryo; however, the effect of surface wettability on heart rate was slight compared with the effect of texture. In-depth experimental and statistical investigations of heart rate under the effects of substrate textures imply a pathway through which the inner mass of the embryo reacts to external stimuli. These findings contribute to zebrafish-related studies and suggest other factors to consider in the design of nanostructure-based microfluidics and other biomedical devices.

  8. A Zebrafish Model of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Produced through tet2 Genomic Editing

    PubMed Central

    Gjini, Evisa; Mansour, Marc R.; Sander, Jeffry D.; Moritz, Nadine; Nguyen, Ashley T.; Kesarsing, Michiel; Gans, Emma; He, Shuning; Chen, Si; Ko, Myunggon; Kuang, You-Yi; Yang, Song; Zhou, Yi; Rodig, Scott; Zon, Leonard I.; Joung, J. Keith; Rao, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    The ten-eleven translocation 2 gene (TET2) encodes a member of the TET family of DNA methylcytosine oxidases that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to initiate the demethylation of DNA within genomic CpG islands. Somatic loss-of-function mutations of TET2 are frequently observed in human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a clonal malignancy characterized by dysplastic changes of developing blood cell progenitors, leading to ineffective hematopoiesis. We used genome-editing technology to disrupt the zebrafish Tet2 catalytic domain. tet2m/m (homozygous for the mutation) zebrafish exhibited normal embryonic and larval hematopoiesis but developed progressive clonal myelodysplasia as they aged, culminating in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) at 24 months of age, with dysplasia of myeloid progenitor cells and anemia with abnormal circulating erythrocytes. The resultant tet2m/m mutant zebrafish lines show decreased levels of 5hmC in hematopoietic cells of the kidney marrow but not in other cell types, most likely reflecting the ability of other Tet family members to provide this enzymatic activity in nonhematopoietic tissues but not in hematopoietic cells. tet2m/m zebrafish are viable and fertile, providing an ideal model to dissect altered pathways in hematopoietic cells and, for small-molecule screens in embryos, to identify compounds with specific activity against tet2 mutant cells. PMID:25512612

  9. An assay for permeability of the zebrafish embryonic neuroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jessica T; Sive, Hazel

    2012-10-24

    The brain ventricular system is conserved among vertebrates and is composed of a series of interconnected cavities called brain ventricles, which form during the earliest stages of brain development and are maintained throughout the animal's life. The brain ventricular system is found in vertebrates, and the ventricles develop after neural tube formation, when the central lumen fills with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (1,2). CSF is a protein rich fluid that is essential for normal brain development and function(3-6). In zebrafish, brain ventricle inflation begins at approximately 18 hr post fertilization (hpf), after the neural tube is closed. Multiple processes are associated with brain ventricle formation, including formation of a neuroepithelium, tight junction formation that regulates permeability and CSF production. We showed that the Na,K-ATPase is required for brain ventricle inflation, impacting all these processes (7,8), while claudin 5a is necessary for tight junction formation (9). Additionally, we showed that "relaxation" of the embryonic neuroepithelium, via inhibition of myosin, is associated with brain ventricle inflation. To investigate the regulation of permeability during zebrafish brain ventricle inflation, we developed a ventricular dye retention assay. This method uses brain ventricle injection in a living zebrafish embryo, a technique previously developed in our lab(10), to fluorescently label the cerebrospinal fluid. Embryos are then imaged over time as the fluorescent dye moves through the brain ventricles and neuroepithelium. The distance the dye front moves away from the basal (non-luminal) side of the neuroepithelium over time is quantified and is a measure of neuroepithelial permeability (Figure 1). We observe that dyes 70 kDa and smaller will move through the neuroepithelium and can be detected outside the embryonic zebrafish brain at 24 hpf (Figure 2). This dye retention assay can be used to analyze neuroepithelial permeability in a

  10. Selenoprotein N is required for ryanodine receptor calcium release channel activity in human and zebrafish muscle.

    PubMed

    Jurynec, Michael J; Xia, Ruohong; Mackrill, John J; Gunther, Derrick; Crawford, Thomas; Flanigan, Kevin M; Abramson, Jonathan J; Howard, Michael T; Grunwald, David Jonah

    2008-08-26

    Mutations affecting the seemingly unrelated gene products, SepN1, a selenoprotein of unknown function, and RyR1, the major component of the ryanodine receptor intracellular calcium release channel, result in an overlapping spectrum of congenital myopathies. To identify the immediate developmental and molecular roles of SepN and RyR in vivo, loss-of-function effects were analyzed in the zebrafish embryo. These studies demonstrate the two proteins are required for the same cellular differentiation events and are needed for normal calcium fluxes in the embryo. SepN is physically associated with RyRs and functions as a modifier of the RyR channel. In the absence of SepN, ryanodine receptors from zebrafish embryos or human diseased muscle have altered biochemical properties and have lost their normal sensitivity to redox conditions, which likely accounts for why mutations affecting either factor lead to similar diseases.

  11. Comparative phosphoproteomics of zebrafish Fyn/Yes morpholino knockdown embryos.

    PubMed

    Lemeer, Simone; Jopling, Chris; Gouw, Joost; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R; Slijper, Monique; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2008-11-01

    The coordinated movement of cells is indispensable for normal vertebrate gastrulation. Several important players and signaling pathways have been identified in convergence and extension (CE) cell movements during gastrulation, including non-canonical Wnt signaling. Fyn and Yes, members of the Src family of kinases, are key regulators of CE movements as well. Here we investigated signaling pathways in early development by comparison of the phosphoproteome of wild type zebrafish embryos with Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos that display specific CE cell movement defects. For quantitation we used differential stable isotope labeling by reductive amination of peptides. Equal amounts of labeled peptides from wild type and Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos were mixed and analyzed by on-line reversed phase TiO(2)-reversed phase LC-MS/MS. Phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides were quantified, and significant changes in protein expression and/or phosphorylation were detected. We identified 348 phosphoproteins of which 69 showed a decrease in phosphorylation in Fyn/Yes knockdown embryos and 72 showed an increase in phosphorylation. Among these phosphoproteins were known regulators of cell movements, including Adducin and PDLIM5. Our results indicate that quantitative phosphoproteomics combined with morpholino-mediated knockdowns can be used to identify novel signaling pathways that act in zebrafish development in vivo.

  12. Investigation of the Role of Stress in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Using Zebrafish as an Experimental Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    pathogenesis. For instance, while stress has for many years been implicated in symptom precipitation, the role of the normal gut flora (microbiome) has only...in adults. Gut 53 Suppl 5:V1-16. 3. Fiorino, G., Rovida, S., Correale, C., Malesci, A., Danese, S. (2010) Emerging biologics in the treatment of...induced enterocolitis in zebrafish depends on the composition of the intestinal microbiota . Gastroenterology 137:1757-67 e1. 8. Fleming, A., Jankowski

  13. Methods for generating and colonizing gnotobiotic zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Linh N.; Kanther, Michelle; Semova, Ivana; Rawls, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrates are colonized at birth by complex and dynamic communities of microorganisms that can contribute significantly to host health and disease. The ability to raise animals in the absence of microorganisms has been a powerful tool for elucidating the relationships between animal hosts and their microbial residents. The optical transparency of the developing zebrafish and relative ease of generating germ-free zebrafish makes it an attractive model organism for gnotobiotic research. Here we provide a protocol for: generating zebrafish embryos; deriving and rearing germ-free zebrafish; and colonizing zebrafish with microorganisms. Using these methods, we typically obtain 80–90% sterility rates in our germ-free derivations with 90% survival in germ-free animals and 50–90% survival in colonized animals through larval stages. Obtaining embryos for derivation requires approximately 1–2 hours with a 3–8 hour incubation period prior to derivation. Derivation of germ-free animals takes 1–1.5 hours, and daily maintenance requires 1–2 hours. PMID:19008873

  14. Defects of the Glycinergic Synapse in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Hirata, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Glycine mediates fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. Physiological importance of the glycinergic synapse is well established in the brainstem and the spinal cord. In humans, the loss of glycinergic function in the spinal cord and brainstem leads to hyperekplexia, which is characterized by an excess startle reflex to sudden acoustic or tactile stimulation. In addition, glycinergic synapses in this region are also involved in the regulation of respiration and locomotion, and in the nociceptive processing. The importance of the glycinergic synapse is conserved across vertebrate species. A teleost fish, the zebrafish, offers several advantages as a vertebrate model for research of glycinergic synapse. Mutagenesis screens in zebrafish have isolated two motor defective mutants that have pathogenic mutations in glycinergic synaptic transmission: bandoneon (beo) and shocked (sho). Beo mutants have a loss-of-function mutation of glycine receptor (GlyR) β-subunit b, alternatively, sho mutant is a glycinergic transporter 1 (GlyT1) defective mutant. These mutants are useful animal models for understanding of glycinergic synaptic transmission and for identification of novel therapeutic agents for human diseases arising from defect in glycinergic transmission, such as hyperekplexia or glycine encephalopathy. Recent advances in techniques for genome editing and for imaging and manipulating of a molecule or a physiological process make zebrafish more attractive model. In this review, we describe the glycinergic defective zebrafish mutants and the technical advances in both forward and reverse genetic approaches as well as in vivo visualization and manipulation approaches for the study of the glycinergic synapse in zebrafish.

  15. Production of Androgenetic Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Corley-Smith, G. E.; Lim, C. J.; Brandhorst, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    To help investigate the evolutionary origin of the imprinting (parent-of-origin mono-allelic expression) of paternal genes observed in mammals, we constructed haploid and diploid androgenetic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Haploid androgenotes were produced by fertilizing eggs that had been X-ray irradiated to eliminate the maternal genome. Subsequent inhibition of the first mitotic division of haploid androgenotes by heat shock produced diploid androgenotes. The lack of inheritance of maternal-specific DNA markers (RAPD and SSR) by putative diploid and haploid androgenotes confirmed the androgenetic origin of their genomes. Marker analysis was performed on 18 putative androgenotes (five diploids and 13 haploids) from six families. None of 157 maternal-specific RAPD markers analyzed, some of which were apparently homozygous, were passed on to any of these putative androgenotes. A mean of 7.7 maternal-specific markers were assessed per family. The survival of androgenetic zebrafish suggests that if paternal imprinting occurs in zebrafish, it does not result in essential genes being inactivated when their expression is required for development. Production of haploid androgenotes can be used to determine the meiotic recombination rate in male zebrafish. Androgenesis may also provide useful information about the mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish. PMID:8846903

  16. Latent learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2010-04-02

    The zebrafish may represent an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity for behavioral brain research. It may be particularly appropriate for large scale screening studies whose aim is to identify mutants with altered phenotypes or novel compounds with particular efficacy. For example, the zebrafish may have utility in the analysis of the biological mechanisms of learning and memory. Although learning and memory have been extensively studied and hundreds of underlying molecular mechanisms have been identified, this number may represent only the fraction of genes involved in these complex brain functions. Thus large scale mutagenesis screens may have utility. In order for such screens to succeed, appropriate screening paradigms must be developed. The first step in this research is the characterization of learning and memory capabilities of zebrafish and the development of automatable tasks. Here we show that zebrafish is capable of latent learning, i.e. can acquire memory of their environment after being allowed to explore it. For example, we found experimental zebrafish that experienced an open left tunnel or an open right tunnel of a maze during the unrewarded exploration phase of the test to show the appropriate side bias during a probe trial when they had to swim to a group of conspecifics (the reward). Given that exploration of the maze does not require the presence of the experimenter and the probe trial, during which the subjects are video-recorded and their memory is tested, is short, we argue that the paradigm has utility in high-throughput screening.

  17. Regeneration of the Pancreas in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer B.; Koustubhan, Punita; Greenman, Melanie; Parsons, Michael J.; Walter, Ingrid; Moss, Larry G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Regenerating organs in diverse biological systems have provided clues to processes that can be harnessed to repair damaged tissue. Adult mammalian β-cells have a limited capacity to regenerate, resulting in diabetes and lifelong reliance on insulin. Zebrafish have been used as a model for the regeneration of many organs. We demonstrate the regeneration of adult zebrafish pancreatic β-cells. This nonmammalian model can be used to define pathways for islet-cell regeneration in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adult transgenic zebrafish were injected with a single high dose of streptozotocin or metronidazole and anesthetized at 3, 7, or 14 days or pancreatectomized. Blood glucose measurements were determined and gut sections were analyzed using specific endocrine, exocrine, and duct cell markers as well as markers for dividing cells. RESULTS Zebrafish recovered rapidly without the need for insulin injections, and normoglycemia was attained within 2 weeks. Although few proliferating cells were present in vehicles, ablation caused islet destruction and a striking increase of proliferating cells, some of which were Pdx1 positive. Dividing cells were primarily associated with affected islets and ducts but, with the exception of surgical partial pancreatectomy, were not extensively β-cells. CONCLUSIONS The ability of the zebrafish to regenerate a functional pancreas using chemical, genetic, and surgical approaches enabled us to identify patterns of cell proliferation in islets and ducts. Further study of the origin and contribution of proliferating cells in reestablishing islet function could provide strategies for treating human diseases. PMID:19491207

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Zebrafish Embryogenesis Using Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Lee, Serene G. P; Mak, Alicia; Miller, Lance D; Murthy, Karuturi Radha Krishna; Govindarajan, Kunde R; Tong, Yan; Wu, Yi Lian; Lam, Siew Hong; Yang, Henry; Ruan, Yijun; Korzh, Vladimir; Gong, Zhiyuan; Liu, Edison T; Lufkin, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-recognized model for the study of vertebrate developmental genetics, yet at the same time little is known about the transcriptional events that underlie zebrafish embryogenesis. Here we have employed microarray analysis to study the temporal activity of developmentally regulated genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. Transcriptome analysis at 12 different embryonic time points covering five different developmental stages (maternal, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, and pharyngula) revealed a highly dynamic transcriptional profile. Hierarchical clustering, stage-specific clustering, and algorithms to detect onset and peak of gene expression revealed clearly demarcated transcript clusters with maximum gene activity at distinct developmental stages as well as co-regulated expression of gene groups involved in dedicated functions such as organogenesis. Our study also revealed a previously unidentified cohort of genes that are transcribed prior to the mid-blastula transition, a time point earlier than when the zygotic genome was traditionally thought to become active. Here we provide, for the first time to our knowledge, a comprehensive list of developmentally regulated zebrafish genes and their expression profiles during embryogenesis, including novel information on the temporal expression of several thousand previously uncharacterized genes. The expression data generated from this study are accessible to all interested scientists from our institute resource database (http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~govind/zebrafish/data_download.html). PMID:16132083

  19. Visualization of craniofacial development in the sox10: kaede transgenic zebrafish line using time-lapse confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gfrerer, Lisa; Dougherty, Max; Liao, Eric C

    2013-09-30

    Vertebrate palatogenesis is a highly choreographed and complex developmental process, which involves migration of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells, convergence and extension of facial prominences, and maturation of the craniofacial skeleton. To study the contribution of the cranial neural crest to specific regions of the zebrafish palate a sox10: kaede transgenic zebrafish line was generated. Sox10 provides lineage restriction of the kaede reporter protein to the neural crest, thereby making the cell labeling a more precise process than traditional dye or reporter mRNA injection. Kaede is a photo-convertible protein that turns from green to red after photo activation and makes it possible to follow cells precisely. The sox10: kaede transgenic line was used to perform lineage analysis to delineate CNC cell populations that give rise to maxillary versus mandibular elements and illustrate homology of facial prominences to amniotes. This protocol describes the steps to generate a live time-lapse video of a sox10: kaede zebrafish embryo. Development of the ethmoid plate will serve as a practical example. This protocol can be applied to making a time-lapse confocal recording of any kaede or similar photoconvertible reporter protein in transgenic zebrafish. Furthermore, it can be used to capture not only normal, but also abnormal development of craniofacial structures in the zebrafish mutants.

  20. Zebrafish as an emerging model for studying complex brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalueff, Allan V.; Stewart, Adam Michael; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly becoming a popular model organism in pharmacogenetics and neuropharmacology. Both larval and adult zebrafish are currently used to increase our understanding of brain function, dysfunction, and their genetic and pharmacological modulation. Here we review the developing utility of zebrafish in the analysis of complex brain disorders (including, for example, depression, autism, psychoses, drug abuse and cognitive disorders), also covering zebrafish applications towards the goal of modeling major human neuropsychiatric and drug-induced syndromes. We argue that zebrafish models of complex brain disorders and drug-induced conditions have become a rapidly emerging critical field in translational neuropharmacology research. PMID:24412421

  1. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 2. Uptake and molecular effects in eleuthero-embryos and adult liver with focus on endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Faltermann, Susanne; Grundler, Verena; Gademann, Karl; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Microcystin (MC) and nodularin are structurally similar cyanobacterial toxins that inhibit protein phosphatases. Additional modes of action are poorly known, in particular for nodularin. In our associated work, we showed that active cellular uptake is mediated by the organic anion transporting polypeptide drOatp1d1 in zebrafish (Faltermann et al., 2016). Here, we assessed the transcriptional expression of three genes encoding three uptake transporters during embryonic development from 24h post fertilization (hpf) to 168 hpf. Transcripts of drOatp1d1 and drOatp2b1 are present at 24 hpf. The abundance increased after hatching and remained about constant up to 168 hpf. Transcripts of drOatp2b1 were most abundant, while drOapt1f transcripts showed very low relative abundance compared to drOatp1d1 and drOatp2b1. We further demonstrated the uptake of fluorescent labeled MC-LR in eleuthero-embryos and its accumulation in the glomerulus of the pronephros. An important molecular effect of MC-LR in human liver cells is the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress. Here, we investigated, whether MC-LR and nodularin similarly lead to induction of ER-stress in zebrafish by analyzing changes of mRNA levels of genes indicative of ER-stress. In zebrafish liver organ cultures short- and long-term exposures to 0.15 and 0.3 μmol L(-1) MC-LR, and 0.5 and 1 μM L(-1) nodularin led to significant transcriptional induction of several ER-stress marker genes, including the chaperone glucose regulated protein 78 (bip), the spliced form of x-box binding protein (xbp-1s), the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (chop) and activating transcription factor 4 (atf4). Furthermore, strong transcriptional changes occurred for tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfa) and dual specificity phosphatase 5 (dusp5), associated with mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, no alterations in transcript levels of pro-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 like protein 4 (bax) and p53 occurred

  2. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Exposure Prevents Cardiac Valve Formation in Developing Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vatsal; Peterson, Richard E.; Heideman, Warren

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular malformations are one of the most common congenital birth defects observed in humans. Defects in cardiac valves disrupt normal blood flow. Zebrafish are an outstanding experimental model for studying the effects that environmental contaminants have on developmental processes. Previous research has shown that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes blood regurgitation in the heart and reduces peripheral blood flow in embryonic zebrafish, suggesting some form of valve failure. To test this we used video microscopy to examine valve function and structure in developing zebrafish exposed to TCDD. TCDD exposure produced blood regurgitation at both the atrioventricular (AV) and bulboventricular (BV) junctions. In marked contrast to control embryos exposed to the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide, embryos exposed to TCDD failed to form valve leaflets as the heart matured. In addition, whereas TCDD did not block initial formation of the bulbus arteriosus, we found that TCDD exposure prevented the normal growth and development of this portion of the outflow tract. TCDD altered the localization of endothelial cells at the AV and BV junctions and altered the localized expression of mRNAs bmp4 and notch1b normally associated with the nascent valves. Taken together, our results demonstrate that although TCDD does not prevent the initial specification of the presumptive valve locations, TCDD exposure produces severe alterations in valve development, leading to blood regurgitation and failing circulation in the developing zebrafish. PMID:18477685

  3. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure prevents cardiac valve formation in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vatsal; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2008-08-01

    Cardiovascular malformations are one of the most common congenital birth defects observed in humans. Defects in cardiac valves disrupt normal blood flow. Zebrafish are an outstanding experimental model for studying the effects that environmental contaminants have on developmental processes. Previous research has shown that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes blood regurgitation in the heart and reduces peripheral blood flow in embryonic zebrafish, suggesting some form of valve failure. To test this we used video microscopy to examine valve function and structure in developing zebrafish exposed to TCDD. TCDD exposure produced blood regurgitation at both the atrioventricular (AV) and bulboventricular (BV) junctions. In marked contrast to control embryos exposed to the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide, embryos exposed to TCDD failed to form valve leaflets as the heart matured. In addition, whereas TCDD did not block initial formation of the bulbus arteriosus, we found that TCDD exposure prevented the normal growth and development of this portion of the outflow tract. TCDD altered the localization of endothelial cells at the AV and BV junctions and altered the localized expression of mRNAs bmp4 and notch1b normally associated with the nascent valves. Taken together, our results demonstrate that although TCDD does not prevent the initial specification of the presumptive valve locations, TCDD exposure produces severe alterations in valve development, leading to blood regurgitation and failing circulation in the developing zebrafish.

  4. Isolation and Culture of Adult Zebrafish Brain-derived Neurospheres

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel A.; Calvo, Charles-Félix; Ristori, Emma; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Nicoli, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish is a highly relevant model organism for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neurogenesis and brain regeneration in vertebrates. However, an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying zebrafish adult neurogenesis has been limited due to the lack of a reliable protocol for isolating and culturing neural adult stem/progenitor cells. Here we provide a reproducible method to examine adult neurogenesis using a neurosphere assay derived from zebrafish whole brain or from the telencephalon, tectum and cerebellum regions of the adult zebrafish brain. The protocol involves, first the microdissection of zebrafish adult brain, then single cell dissociation and isolation of self-renewing multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells. The entire procedure takes eight days. Additionally, we describe how to manipulate gene expression in zebrafish neurospheres, which will be particularly useful to test the role of specific signaling pathways during adult neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in zebrafish. PMID:26967835

  5. Developing 'integrative' zebrafish models of behavioral and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michael; Yang, Ester; Neelkantan, Nikhil; Mikhaylova, Alina; Arnold, Raymond; Poudel, Manoj K; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the pathophysiological overlap between metabolic and mental disorders has received increased recognition. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism for translational biomedical research due to their genetic tractability, low cost, quick reproductive cycle, and ease of behavioral, pharmacological or genetic manipulation. High homology to mammalian physiology and the availability of well-developed assays also make the zebrafish an attractive organism for studying human disorders. Zebrafish neurobehavioral and endocrine phenotypes show promise for the use of zebrafish in studies of stress, obesity and related behavioral and metabolic disorders. Here, we discuss the parallels between zebrafish and other model species in stress and obesity physiology, as well as outline the available zebrafish models of weight gain, metabolic deficits, feeding, stress, anxiety and related behavioral disorders. Overall, zebrafish demonstrate a strong potential for modeling human behavioral and metabolic disorders, and their comorbidity.

  6. In vitro development of zebrafish vascular networks.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Richardson, Michael K

    2017-02-09

    A major limitation to culturing tissues and organs is the lack of a functional vascular network in vitro. The zebrafish possess many useful properties which makes it a promising model for such studies. Unfortunately, methods of culturing endothelial cells from this species are not well characterised. Here, we tried two methods (embryoid body culture and organ explants from transgenic zebrafish kdrl:GFP embryos) to develop in vitro vascular networks. In the kdrl:GFP line, endothelial cells expresses green fluorescent protein, which allows to track the vascular development in live cultures. We found that embryoid bodies showed significantly longer and wider branches of connected endothelial cells when grown in a microfluidic system than in static culture. Similarly, sprouting of kdrl:GFP(+) cells from the tissue explants was observed in a 3D hydrogel matrix. This study is a step towards the development of zebrafish vascular networks in vitro.

  7. Conditional gene-trap mutagenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Lisette A; Li, Mingyu; Chen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish has become a widely used model for analysis of gene function. Several methods have been used to create mutations in this organism and thousands of mutant lines are available. However, all the conventional zebrafish mutations affect the gene in all cells at all time, making it difficult to determine tissue-specific functions. We have adopted a FlEx Trap approach to generate conditional mutations in zebrafish by gene-trap mutagenesis. Combined with appropriate Cre or Flp lines, the insertional mutants not only allow spatial- and temporal-specific gene inactivation but also permit spatial- and temporal-specific rescue of the disrupted gene. We provide experimental details on how to generate and use such mutations.

  8. 15 years of zebrafish chemical screening

    PubMed Central

    Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the first chemical screen using living zebrafish in a multi-well plate was reported. Since then, more than 60 additional screens have been published describing whole-organism drug and pathway discovery projects in zebrafish. To investigate the scope of the work reported in the last 14 years and to identify trends in the field, we analyzed the discovery strategies of 64 primary research articles from the literature. We found that zebrafish screens have expanded beyond the use of developmental phenotypes to include behavioral, cardiac, metabolic, proliferative and regenerative endpoints. Additionally, many creative strategies have been used to uncover the mechanisms of action of new small molecules including chemical phenocopy, genetic phenocopy, mutant rescue, and spatial localization strategies. PMID:25461724

  9. Hedgehog signaling is required at multiple stages of zebrafish tooth development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The accessibility of the developing zebrafish pharyngeal dentition makes it an advantageous system in which to study many aspects of tooth development from early initiation to late morphogenesis. In mammals, hedgehog signaling is known to be essential for multiple stages of odontogenesis; however, potential roles for the pathway during initiation of tooth development or in later morphogenesis are incompletely understood. Results We have identified mRNA expression of the hedgehog ligands shha and the receptors ptc1 and ptc2 during zebrafish pharyngeal tooth development. We looked for, but did not detect, tooth germ expression of the other known zebrafish hedgehog ligands shhb, dhh, ihha, or ihhb, suggesting that as in mammals, only Shh participates in zebrafish tooth development. Supporting this idea, we found that morphological and gene expression evidence of tooth initiation is eliminated in shha mutant embryos, and that morpholino antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of shha, but not shhb, function prevents mature tooth formation. Hedgehog pathway inhibition with the antagonist compound cyclopamine affected tooth formation at each stage in which we applied it: arresting development at early stages and disrupting mature tooth morphology when applied later. These results suggest that hedgehog signaling is required continuously during odontogenesis. In contrast, over-expression of shha had no effect on the developing dentition, possibly because shha is normally extensively expressed in the zebrafish pharyngeal region. Conclusion We have identified previously unknown requirements for hedgehog signaling for early tooth initiation and later morphogenesis. The similarity of our results with data from mouse and other vertebrates suggests that despite gene duplication and changes in the location of where teeth form, the roles of hedgehog signaling in tooth development have been largely conserved during evolution. PMID:21118524

  10. 3D Finite Element Electrical Model of Larval Zebrafish ECG Signals.

    PubMed

    Crowcombe, James; Dhillon, Sundeep Singh; Hurst, Rhiannon Mary; Egginton, Stuart; Müller, Ferenc; Sík, Attila; Tarte, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of heart function in zebrafish larvae using electrocardiography (ECG) is a potentially useful tool in developing cardiac treatments and the assessment of drug therapies. In order to better understand how a measured ECG waveform is related to the structure of the heart, its position within the larva and the position of the electrodes, a 3D model of a 3 days post fertilisation (dpf) larval zebrafish was developed to simulate cardiac electrical activity and investigate the voltage distribution throughout the body. The geometry consisted of two main components; the zebrafish body was modelled as a homogeneous volume, while the heart was split into five distinct regions (sinoatrial region, atrial wall, atrioventricular band, ventricular wall and heart chambers). Similarly, the electrical model consisted of two parts with the body described by Laplace's equation and the heart using a bidomain ionic model based upon the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations. Each region of the heart was differentiated by action potential (AP) parameters and activation wave conduction velocities, which were fitted and scaled based on previously published experimental results. ECG measurements in vivo at different electrode recording positions were then compared to the model results. The model was able to simulate action potentials, wave propagation and all the major features (P wave, R wave, T wave) of the ECG, as well as polarity of the peaks observed at each position. This model was based upon our current understanding of the structure of the normal zebrafish larval heart. Further development would enable us to incorporate features associated with the diseased heart and hence assist in the interpretation of larval zebrafish ECGs in these conditions.

  11. Antisense inhibition of cyclin D1 expression is equivalent to flavopiridol for radiosensitization of zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    McAleer, Mary Frances; Duffy, Kevin T.; Davidson, William R.; Kari, Gabor; Dicker, Adam P.; Rodeck, Ulrich; Wickstrom, Eric . E-mail: eric@tesla.jci.tju.edu

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Flavopiridol, a small molecule pan-cyclin inhibitor, has been shown to enhance Radiation response of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. The clinical utility of flavopiridol, however, is limited by toxicity, previously attributed to pleiotropic inhibitory effects on several targets affecting multiple signal transduction pathways. Here we used zebrafish embryos to investigate radiosensitizing effects of flavopiridol in normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Zebrafish embryos at the 1- to 4-cell stage were treated with 500 nM flavopiridol or injected with 0.5 pmol antisense hydroxylprolyl-phosphono nucleic acid oligomers to reduce cyclin D1 expression, then subjected to ionizing radiation (IR) or no radiation. Results: Flavopiridol-treated embryos demonstrated a twofold increase in mortality after exposure to 40 Gy by 96 hpf and developed distinct radiation-induced defects in midline development (designated as the 'curly up' phenotype) at higher rates when compared with embryos receiving IR only. Cyclin D1-deficient embryos had virtually identical IR sensitivity profiles when compared with embryos treated with flavopiridol. This was particularly evident for the IR-induced curly up phenotype, which was greatly exacerbated by both flavopriridol and cyclin D1 downregulation. Conclusions: Treatment of zebrafish embryos with flavopiridol enhanced radiation sensitivity of zebrafish embryos to a degree that was very similar to that associated with downregulation of cyclin D1 expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of cyclin D1 is sufficient to account for the radiosensitizing action of flavopiridol in the zebrafish embryo vertebrate model.

  12. 3D Finite Element Electrical Model of Larval Zebrafish ECG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Crowcombe, James; Dhillon, Sundeep Singh; Hurst, Rhiannon Mary; Egginton, Stuart; Müller, Ferenc; Sík, Attila; Tarte, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of heart function in zebrafish larvae using electrocardiography (ECG) is a potentially useful tool in developing cardiac treatments and the assessment of drug therapies. In order to better understand how a measured ECG waveform is related to the structure of the heart, its position within the larva and the position of the electrodes, a 3D model of a 3 days post fertilisation (dpf) larval zebrafish was developed to simulate cardiac electrical activity and investigate the voltage distribution throughout the body. The geometry consisted of two main components; the zebrafish body was modelled as a homogeneous volume, while the heart was split into five distinct regions (sinoatrial region, atrial wall, atrioventricular band, ventricular wall and heart chambers). Similarly, the electrical model consisted of two parts with the body described by Laplace’s equation and the heart using a bidomain ionic model based upon the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations. Each region of the heart was differentiated by action potential (AP) parameters and activation wave conduction velocities, which were fitted and scaled based on previously published experimental results. ECG measurements in vivo at different electrode recording positions were then compared to the model results. The model was able to simulate action potentials, wave propagation and all the major features (P wave, R wave, T wave) of the ECG, as well as polarity of the peaks observed at each position. This model was based upon our current understanding of the structure of the normal zebrafish larval heart. Further development would enable us to incorporate features associated with the diseased heart and hence assist in the interpretation of larval zebrafish ECGs in these conditions. PMID:27824910

  13. [Construction and assessment of heart-specific green fluorescence zebrafish line].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi-Yang; Chen, Ting-Fang; Huang, Ting; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Xiu-Shan; Deng, Yun

    2013-04-01

    Using the promoter for cardiac myosin light chain 2 (cmlc2) gene, an expression vector pTol2-cmlc2-IRES- EGFP for making heart-specific expression of exogenous gene in transgenic zebrafish was generated previously. Here, we reported the construction of a transgenic zebrafish line which stably expresses EGFP using this vector, and the effects of EGFP on the heart development and cardiac function of this transgenic zebrafish line were preliminarily analyzed. The results showed that the green fluorescence signal of cmlc2:EGFP line under fluorescence microscopy specifically expressed in heart and faithfully recapitulated both the spatial and temporal expression patterns of endogenous cmlc2 gene revealed by in situ hybridization in the early developmental stages. The cardiac morphology and development of this transgenic zebrafish line remained to be normal. Furthermore, the heart morphology and physiological function of this transgenic line have been analyzed using M-mode analysis. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the cmlc2:EGFP and the wild type lines with respect to heart period, heart rate, diastolic surface area and systolic surface area, and fractional area change. No tachyarrhythmia was observed in the embryos from either line. Thus, the excessive expression of EGFP in this transgenic line seemed to exert no detrimental effects on the function and development of zebrafish hearts during early stages. Our study laid a foundation for the construction of exogenous gene transgenic line using pTol2-cmlc2-IRES-EGFP vector to study the function of genes that expressed in heart.

  14. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed vitamin E deficient diets produce embryos with increased morphologic abnormalities and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Galen W.; Labut, Edwin M.; Lebold, Katie M.; Floeter, Abby; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is required to prevent fetal resorption in rodents. To study α–tocopherol’s role in fetal development, a non-placental model is required. Therefore, the zebrafish, an established developmental model organism, was studied by feeding the fish a defined diet with or without added α–tocopherol. Zebrafish (age: 4–6 w) were fed the deficient (E-), sufficient (E+), or lab diet up to 1 y. All groups showed similar growth rates. The exponential rate of α–tocopherol depletion up to ~80 day in E- zebrafish was 0.029 ± 0.006 nmol/g, equivalent to a depletion half-life of 25 ± 5 days. From age ~80 d, the E- fish (5 ± 3 nmol/g) contained ~50 times less α–tocopherol than the E+ or lab diet fish (369 ± 131 or 362 ± 107, respectively, P<0.05). E-depleted adults demonstrated decreased startle response suggesting neurologic deficits. Expression of selected oxidative stress and apoptosis genes from livers isolated from the zebrafish fed the three diets were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and were not found to vary with vitamin E status. When E-depleted adults were spawned, they produced viable embryos with depleted α–tocopherol concentrations. The E- embryos exhibited a higher mortality (P<0.05) at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) and a higher combination of malformations and mortality (P<0.05) at 120 hpf than embryos from parents fed E+ or lab diets. This study documents for the first time that vitamin E is essential for normal zebrafish embryonic development. PMID:21684137

  15. Oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio) sperm.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Mary; McCarthy, Megan; Carter, Virginia L; Meyers, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    Laboratories around the world have produced tens of thousands of mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines. As with mice, maintaining all of these valuable zebrafish genotypes is expensive, risky, and beyond the capacity of even the largest stock centers. Because reducing oxidative stress has become an important aspect of reducing the variability in mouse sperm cryopreservation, we examined whether antioxidants might improve cryopreservation of zebrafish sperm. Four experiments were conducted in this study. First, we used the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The X-XO system was capable of producing a stress reaction in zebrafish sperm reducing its sperm motility in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). Second, we examined X-XO and the impact of antioxidants on sperm viability, ROS and motility. Catalase (CAT) mitigated stress and maintained viability and sperm motility (P>0.05), whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vitamin E did not (P<0.05). Third, we evaluated ROS in zebrafish spermatozoa during cryopreservation and its effect on viability and motility. Methanol (8%) reduced viability and sperm motility (P<0.05), but the addition of CAT mitigated these effects (P>0.05), producing a mean 2.0 to 2.9-fold increase in post-thaw motility. Fourth, we examined the effect of additional cryoprotectants and CAT on fresh sperm motility. Cryoprotectants, 8% methanol and 10% dimethylacetamide (DMA), reduced the motility over the control value (P<0.5), whereas 10% dimethylformamide (DMF) with or without CAT did not (P>0.05). Zebrafish sperm protocols should be modified to improve the reliability of the cryopreservation process, perhaps using a different cryoprotectant. Regardless, the simple addition of CAT to present-day procedures will significantly improve this process, assuring increased and less variable fertilization success and allowing resource managers to dependably plan how many straws are needed to safely

  16. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Carneiro, Bruno; Ochs, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup(®) are used extensively in agriculture as well as in urban and rural settings as a broad spectrum herbicide. Its mechanism of action was thought to be specific only to plants and thus considered safe and non-toxic. However, mounting evidence suggests that GBHs may not be as safe as once thought as initial studies in frogs suggest that GBHs may be teratogenic. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate exposure using technical grade glyphosate and the Roundup(®) Classic formulation. We find morphological abnormalities including cephalic and eye reductions and a loss of delineated brain ventricles. Concomitant with structural changes in the developing brain, using in situ hybridization analysis, we detect decreases in genes expressed in the eye, fore and midbrain regions of the brain including pax2, pax6, otx2 and ephA4. However, we do not detect changes in hindbrain expression domains of ephA4 nor exclusive hindbrain markers krox-20 and hoxb1a. Additionally, using a Retinoic Acid (RA) mediated reporter transgenic, we detect no alterations in the RA expression domains in the hindbrain and spinal cord, but do detect a loss of expression in the retina. We conclude that glyphosate and the Roundup(®) formulation is developmentally toxic to the forebrain and midbrain but does not affect the hindbrain after 24 h exposure.

  17. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes.

  18. Gene-specific differential response to anti-apoptotic therapies in zebrafish models of ocular coloboma

    PubMed Central

    Moosajee, Mariya; Shan, Xianghong; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated that molecular therapy using aminoglycosides can overcome the underlying genetic defect in two zebrafish models of ocular coloboma and showed abnormal cell death to be a key feature associated with the optic fissure closure defects. In further studies to identify molecular therapies for this common congenital malformation, we now examine the effects of anti-apoptotic compounds in zebrafish models of ocular coloboma in vivo. Methods Two ocular coloboma zebrafish lines (pax2.1/noitu29a and lamb1/gupm189) were exposed to diferuloylmethane (curcumin) or benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(Ome)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk; a pan-caspase inhibitor) for up to 8 days post-fertilization. The effects of these compounds were assessed by morphology, histology, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and western blot analysis. Results The size of the coloboma in gup zebrafish mutants treated with diferuloylmethane was greatly reduced. In treated mutants a reduction in TUNEL staining and a 67% decrease in activated caspase-3 protein were observed. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol was reduced fourfold by in vivo diferuloylmethane treatment, suggesting that the drug was acting to inhibit the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Inhibition of caspases directly with zVAD-fmk also resulted in a similar reduction in coloboma phenotype. Treatment with either diferuloylmethane or zVAD-fmk resulted in a statistically significant 1.4 fold increase in length of survival of these mutant zebrafish (p<0.001), which normally succumb to the lethal genetic mutation. In contrast, the coloboma phenotype in noi zebrafish mutants did not respond to either diferuloylmethane or zVAD-fmk exposure, even though inhibition of apoptotic cell death was observed by a reduction in TUNEL staining. Conclusions The differential sensitivity to anti-apoptotic agents in lamb1-deficient and pax2.1-deficient zebrafish models

  19. Dynamic focusing in the zebrafish beating heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Delgado, L.; Peralta, M.; Mercader, N.; Ripoll, J.

    2016-03-01

    Of the large amount of the animal models available for cardiac research, the zebrafish is extremely valuable due to its transparency during early stages of development. In this work a dual illumination laser sheet microscope with simultaneous dual camera imaging is used to image the beating heart at 200 fps, dynamically and selectively focusing inside the beating heart through the use of a tunable lens. This dual color dynamic focusing enables imaging with cellular resolution at unprecedented high frame rates, allowing 3D imaging of the whole beating heart of embryonic zebrafish.

  20. Characterization and toxicology evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles on the embryonic development of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Zhou, Jinru; Liu, Lin; Huang, Changjiang; Zhou, Deqing; Fu, Linglin

    2016-05-05

    In the present study, chitosan nanoparticles were prepared, characterized and used to evaluate the embryonic toxicology on zebrafish (Danio rerio). The average particle size of chitosan nanoparticles was 84.86nm. The increased mortality and decreased hatching rate was found in the zebrafish embryo exposure to normal chitosan particles and chitosan nanoparticles with the increased addition concentration. At 120h post-fertilization (hpf), the rate of mortality were 25.0 and 44.4% in the groups treated with chitosan nanoparticles and normal chitosan particles at 250mg/L, respectively. At 72hpf, the hatching rate in the groups treated with normal chitosan particles were lower (P<0.01) at 300 and 400mg/L than those of the corresponding control groups, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between the groups treated with chitosan nanoparticles and the control groups across all the addition concentrations. More abundant typical malformation of embryos was observed in the groups treated with normal chitosan particles compared with those treated with chitosan nanoparticles. The LC50 (medium lethal concentration) of chitosan nanoparticles was 280mg/L at 96hpf and 270mg/L at 120hpf. As for normal chitosan particles, the LC50 was 257mg/L at both 96hpf and 120hpf. The TC50 (medium teratogenic concentration) of the zebrafish treated with chitosan nanoparticles and normal chitosan particles were 257mg/L and 137mg/L, respectively. It indicated that the chitosan nanoparticles were relatively more secure compared with normal chitosan particles.

  1. Functional bone histology of zebrafish reveals two types of endochondral ossification, different types of osteoblast clusters and a new bone type.

    PubMed

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish is as an important vertebrate animal model system for studying developmental processes, gene functions and signalling pathways. It is also used as a model system for the understanding of human developmental diseases including those related to the skeleton. However, surprisingly little is known about normal zebrafish skeletogenesis and osteogenesis. As in most vertebrates, it is commonly known that the bones of adult zebrafish are cellular unlike that of some other teleosts. After careful histological analyses of each zebrafish adult bone, we identified several acellular bones, with no entrapped osteocytes in addition to several cellular bones. We show that both cellular and acellular bones can even occur within the same skeletal element and transitions between these two cell types can be found. Furthermore, we describe two types of osteoblast clusters during skeletogenesis and two different types of endochondral ossification. The epiphyseal plate, for example, lacks a zone of calcification and a degradation zone with osteoblasts. A new bone type that we term tubular bone was also identified. This bone is completely filled with adipose tissue, unlike spongy bones. This study provides important insight on how osteogenesis takes place in zebrafish, and especially on the transition from cellular to acellular bones. Overall, this study leads to a deeper understanding of the functional histological composition of adult zebrafish bones.

  2. A conserved bacterial protein induces pancreatic beta cell expansion during zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jennifer Hampton; Franzosa, Eric A; Huttenhower, Curtis; Guillemin, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Resident microbes play important roles in the development of the gastrointestinal tract, but their influence on other digestive organs is less well explored. Using the gnotobiotic zebrafish, we discovered that the normal expansion of the pancreatic β cell population during early larval development requires the intestinal microbiota and that specific bacterial members can restore normal β cell numbers. These bacteria share a gene that encodes a previously undescribed protein, named herein BefA (β Cell Expansion Factor A), which is sufficient to induce β cell proliferation in developing zebrafish larvae. Homologs of BefA are present in several human-associated bacterial species, and we show that they have conserved capacity to stimulate β cell proliferation in larval zebrafish. Our findings highlight a role for the microbiota in early pancreatic β cell development and suggest a possible basis for the association between low diversity childhood fecal microbiota and increased diabetes risk. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20145.001 PMID:27960075

  3. Nanomaterial Toxicity Screening in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess nanomaterial vertebrate toxicity, a high-content screening assay was created using developing zebrafish, Danio rerio. This included a diverse group of nanomaterials (n=42 total) ranging from metallic (Ag, Au) and metal oxide (CeO2, CuO, TiO2, ZnO) nanoparticles, to non...

  4. Zebrafish phenotypic screen identifies novel Notch antagonists.

    PubMed

    Velaithan, Vithya; Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Ng, Mei Fong; Samat, Norazwana; Leong, Sze Wei; Faudzi, Siti Munirah Mohd; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Cheong, Sok Ching; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2017-04-01

    Zebrafish represents a powerful in vivo model for phenotype-based drug discovery to identify clinically relevant small molecules. By utilizing this model, we evaluated natural product derived compounds that could potentially modulate Notch signaling that is important in both zebrafish embryogenesis and pathogenic in human cancers. A total of 234 compounds were screened using zebrafish embryos and 3 were identified to be conferring phenotypic alterations similar to embryos treated with known Notch inhibitors. Subsequent secondary screens using HEK293T cells overexpressing truncated Notch1 (HEK293TΔE) identified 2 compounds, EDD3 and 3H4MB, to be potential Notch antagonists. Both compounds reduced protein expression of NOTCH1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) in HEK293TΔE and downregulated Notch target genes. Importantly, EDD3 treatment of human oral cancer cell lines demonstrated reduction of Notch target proteins and genes. EDD3 also inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of ORL-150 cells through inducing p27(KIP1). Our data demonstrates the utility of the zebrafish phenotypic screen and identifying EDD3 as a promising Notch antagonist for further development as a novel therapeutic agent.

  5. Behavorial assessments of larval zebrafish neurotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes have long been a popular organism in ecotoxicology research, and are increasingly used in human health research as an alternative animal model for chemical screening. Our laboratory incorporates a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larval assay to screen chemicals for developm...

  6. Regeneration of Zebrafish CNS: Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sukla; Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration in the animal kingdom is one of the most fascinating problems that have allowed scientists to address many issues of fundamental importance in basic biology. However, we came to know that the regenerative capability may vary across different species. Among vertebrates, fish and amphibians are capable of regenerating a variety of complex organs through epimorphosis. Zebrafish is an excellent animal model, which can repair several organs like damaged retina, severed spinal cord, injured brain and heart, and amputated fins. The focus of the present paper is on spinal cord regeneration in adult zebrafish. We intend to discuss our current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) that allows formation of proliferating progenitors and controls neurogenesis, which involve changes in epigenetic and transcription programs. Unlike mammals, zebrafish retains radial glia, a nonneuronal cell type in their adult central nervous system. Injury induced proliferation involves radial glia which proliferate, transcribe embryonic genes, and can give rise to new neurons. Recent technological development of exquisite molecular tools in zebrafish, such as cell ablation, lineage analysis, and novel and substantial microarray, together with advancement in stem cell biology, allowed us to investigate how progenitor cells contribute to the generation of appropriate structures and various underlying mechanisms like reprogramming. PMID:27382491

  7. Teaching Stress Physiology Using Zebrafish ("Danio Rerio")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael; Dhawale, Shree; Mustafa, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    A straightforward and inexpensive laboratory experiment is presented that investigates the physiological stress response of zebrafish after a 5 degree C increase in water temperature. This experiment is designed for an undergraduate physiology lab and allows students to learn the scientific method and relevant laboratory techniques without causing…

  8. An outbreak of Plesimonus Shigelloides in Zebrafish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plesiomonas shigelloides is a flagellated, gram-negative rod that is an emergent pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. Recently, we experienced a disease outbreak in zebrafish that were obtained from a commercial source. Fourteen days after being held at 27°C in our flow-through quarantine...

  9. Detecting Developmental Neurotoxicants Using Zebrafish Embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA’s program on the screening and prioritization of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity, a rapid, cost-effective in vivo vertebrate screen is being developed using an alternative species approach. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish with external f...

  10. Molecular cloning and developmental expression of foxP2 in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Chien, Chi-Bin

    2005-11-01

    Forkhead domain transcription factors are a large gene family with multiple roles in development. FOXP2, a recently identified member of this family, has been shown to be critical for normal development of language in humans, but little is known of its broader function during nervous system development. We report here the cloning of foxP2, the zebrafish ortholog of FOXP2. Zebrafish FoxP2 is highly conserved in its zinc-finger and forkhead domains, but lacks the large glutamine repeat characteristic of its orthologs. In examining the spatial and temporal distribution of foxP2 during development, we find that it is specifically expressed in many domains of the nervous system, including the telencephalon, diencephalon, cerebellum, hindbrain, tectum, retinal ganglion cells, and spinal cord. Thus, in addition to specific roles in language development, foxP2 likely has a more general conserved role in nervous system development.

  11. A non-canonical function of telomerase RNA in the regulation of developmental myelopoiesis in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz-Pérez, Francisca; García-Castillo, Jesús; García-Moreno, Diana; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Anchelin, Monique; Angosto, Diego; Zon, Leonard I.; Mulero, Victoriano; Cayuela, María L.

    2014-02-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited disorder with mutations affecting telomerase or telomeric proteins. DC patients usually die of bone marrow failure. Here we show that genetic depletion of the telomerase RNA component (TR) in the zebrafish results in impaired myelopoiesis, despite normal development of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The neutropenia caused by TR depletion is independent of telomere length and telomerase activity. Genetic analysis shows that TR modulates the myeloid-erythroid fate decision by controlling the levels of the master myeloid and erythroid transcription factors spi1 and gata1, respectively. The alteration in spi1 and gata1 levels occurs through stimulation of gcsf and mcsf. Our model of TR deficiency in the zebrafish illuminates the non-canonical roles of TR, and could establish therapeutic targets for DC.

  12. Identification of Fusarium solani species complex from infected zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiaoli; Lu, Maixin; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-11-01

    Although Fusarium sp. infections have been reported in aquatic invertebrates, studies of Fusarium spp. as fish pathogens remain very limited. In our study, a fungus was isolated from diseased zebrafish (Danio rerio). DNA sequence analysis of the fungus, based on a partial region of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (EF-1α), the internal transcribed spacer region and domains D1 and D2 of the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene (ITS plus LSU), and the RNA polymerase II subunit gene (RPB2), showed 99.9-100% homology to Fusarium solani species complex sequences. Multilocus sequence typing analysis based on 3-locus haplotypes (EF-1α, ITS plus LSU, and RPB2) suggests that the isolated strain was type 3+4-P. Challenge experiments showed that this organism could be pathogenic to zebrafish, but usually does not infect healthy subjects under normal circumstances.

  13. Histone deacetylase 1 is required for the development of the zebrafish inner ear

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingzi; Tang, Dongmei; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) has been reported to be important for multiple aspects of normal embryonic development, but little is known about its function in the development of mechanosensory organs. Here, we first confirmed that HDAC1 is expressed in the developing otic vesicles of zebrafish by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown of HDAC1 using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides in zebrafish embryos induced smaller otic vesicles, abnormal otoliths, malformed or absent semicircular canals, and fewer sensory hair cells. HDAC1 loss of function also caused attenuated expression of a subset of key genes required for otic vesicle formation during development. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 resulted in decreased expression of members of the Fgf family in the otic vesicles, suggesting that HDAC1 is involved in the development of the inner ear through regulation of Fgf signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC1 plays an important role in otic vesicle formation. PMID:26832938

  14. Involvement of the α1-adrenoceptor in sleep-waking and sleep loss-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Subhashini, N; Sharma, S; Mallick, B N

    2013-08-15

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon in vertebrates, and its loss affects various behaviors. Independent studies have reported that sleep loss increases anxiety; however, the detailed mechanism is unknown. Because sleep deprivation increases noradrenalin (NA), which modulates many behaviors and induces patho-physiological changes, this study utilized zebrafish as a model to investigate whether sleep loss-induced increased anxiety is modulated by NA. Continuous behavioral quiescence for at least 6s was considered to represent sleep in zebrafish; although some authors termed it as a sleep-like state, in this study we have termed it as sleep. The activity of fish that signified sleep-waking was recorded in light-dark, during continuous dark and light; the latter induced sleep loss in fish. The latency, number of entries, time spent and distance travelled in the light chamber were assessed in a light-dark box test to estimate the anxiety behavior of normal, sleep-deprived and prazosin (PRZ)-treated fish. Zebrafish showed increased waking during light and complete loss of sleep upon continuous exposure to light for 24h. PRZ significantly increased sleep in normal fish. Sleep-deprived fish showed an increased preference for dark (expression of increased anxiety), and this effect was prevented by PRZ, which increased sleep as well. Our findings suggest that sleep loss-induced anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish is likely to be mediated by NA's action on the α1-adrenoceptor.

  15. Defects of the Glycinergic Synapse in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Kazutoyo; Hirata, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Glycine mediates fast inhibitory synaptic transmission. Physiological importance of the glycinergic synapse is well established in the brainstem and the spinal cord. In humans, the loss of glycinergic function in the spinal cord and brainstem leads to hyperekplexia, which is characterized by an excess startle reflex to sudden acoustic or tactile stimulation. In addition, glycinergic synapses in this region are also involved in the regulation of respiration and locomotion, and in the nociceptive processing. The importance of the glycinergic synapse is conserved across vertebrate species. A teleost fish, the zebrafish, offers several advantages as a vertebrate model for research of glycinergic synapse. Mutagenesis screens in zebrafish have isolated two motor defective mutants that have pathogenic mutations in glycinergic synaptic transmission: bandoneon (beo) and shocked (sho). Beo mutants have a loss-of-function mutation of glycine receptor (GlyR) β-subunit b, alternatively, sho mutant is a glycinergic transporter 1 (GlyT1) defective mutant. These mutants are useful animal models for understanding of glycinergic synaptic transmission and for identification of novel therapeutic agents for human diseases arising from defect in glycinergic transmission, such as hyperekplexia or glycine encephalopathy. Recent advances in techniques for genome editing and for imaging and manipulating of a molecule or a physiological process make zebrafish more attractive model. In this review, we describe the glycinergic defective zebrafish mutants and the technical advances in both forward and reverse genetic approaches as well as in vivo visualization and manipulation approaches for the study of the glycinergic synapse in zebrafish. PMID:27445686

  16. Zic1 and Zic4 regulate zebrafish roof plate specification and hindbrain ventricle morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Elsen, Gina E.; Choi, Louis; Millen, Kathleen; Grinblat, Yevgenya; Prince, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    During development, the lumen of the neural tube develops into a system of brain cavities or ventricles, which play important roles in normal CNS function. We have established that the formation of the hindbrain (4th) ventricle in zebrafish is dependent upon the pleiotropic functions of the genes implicated in human Dandy Walker Malformation, Zic1 and Zic4. Using morpholino knockdown we show that zebrafish Zic1 and Zic4 are required for normal morphogenesis of the 4th ventricle. In Zic1 and/or Zic4 morphants the ventricle does not open properly, but remains completely or partially fused from the level of rhombomere (r) 2 towards the posterior. In the absence of Zic function early hindbrain regionalization and neural crest development remain unaffected, but dorsal hindbrain progenitor cell proliferation is significantly reduced. Importantly, we find that Zic1 and Zic4 are required for development of the dorsal roof plate. In Zic morphants expression of roof plate markers, including lmx1b.1 and lmx1b.2, is disrupted. We further demonstrate that zebrafish Lmx1b function is required for both hindbrain roof plate development and 4th ventricle morphogenesis, confirming that roof plate formation is a critical component of ventricle development. Finally, we show that dorsal rhombomere boundary signaling centers depend on Zic1 and Zic4 function and on roof plate signals, and provide evidence that these boundary signals are also required for ventricle morphogenesis. In summary, we conclude that Zic1 and Zic4 control zebrafish 4th ventricle morphogenesis by regulating multiple mechanisms including cell proliferation and fate specification in the dorsal hindbrain. PMID:18191121

  17. Rapid, accurate, and non-invasive measurement of zebrafish axial length and other eye dimensions using SD-OCT allows longitudinal analysis of myopia and emmetropization.

    PubMed

    Collery, Ross F; Veth, Kerry N; Dubis, Adam M; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2=0.9548, R2=0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of -0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of -0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors.

  18. Expression and functions of ASIC1 in the zebrafish retina.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Wang, Mei-Xia; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Cheng, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Chen-Tao; Huang, Jian; Zhong, Zhao-Min; Hu, Wei-Dong; Wang, Fen; Hu, Li-Fang; Wang, Han; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2014-12-12

    It has been demonstrated that acid sensing ionic channels (ASICs) are present in the central and peripheral nervous system of mammals, including the retina. However, it remains unclear whether the zebrafish retina also expresses ASICs. In the present study, the expression and distribution of zasic1 were examined in the retina of zebrafish. Both zasic1 mRNA and protein expressions were detected in the adult zebrafish retina. A wide distribution of ASIC1 in zebrafish retina was confirmed using whole mount in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry study. Acidosis-induced currents in the isolated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were also recorded using whole cell patch clamping. Moreover, blockade of ASICs channel significantly reduced the locomotion of larval zebrafish in response to light exposure. In sum, our data demonstrate the presence of ASIC1 and its possible functional relevance in the retina of zebrafish.

  19. Conserved gene regulation during acute inflammation between zebrafish and mammals.

    PubMed

    Forn-Cuní, G; Varela, M; Pereiro, P; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2017-02-03

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio), largely used as a model for studying developmental processes, has also emerged as a valuable system for modelling human inflammatory diseases. However, in a context where even mice have been questioned as a valid model for these analysis, a systematic study evaluating the reproducibility of human and mammalian inflammatory diseases in zebrafish is still lacking. In this report, we characterize the transcriptomic regulation to lipopolysaccharide in adult zebrafish kidney, liver, and muscle tissues using microarrays and demonstrate how the zebrafish genomic responses can effectively reproduce the mammalian inflammatory process induced by acute endotoxin stress. We provide evidence that immune signaling pathways and single gene expression is well conserved throughout evolution and that the zebrafish and mammal acute genomic responses after lipopolysaccharide stimulation are highly correlated despite the differential susceptibility between species to that compound. Therefore, we formally confirm that zebrafish inflammatory models are suited to study the basic mechanisms of inflammation in human inflammatory diseases, with great translational impact potential.

  20. Behavioral analysis of zebrafish larvae swimming in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ruopei; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Behavioral biologists have a strong interest in studying the behavior of larval zebrafish because the limited number of locomotor neurons in larval zebrafish couples with the rich repertoire of movements as a vertebrate animal. Current research uses a priori-selected parameters to describe their movements. Most research also only considers the 2D movements of zebrafish, leaving out the vertical component of their locomotion. Our lab has developed a method to reduce the dimensionality of the locomotion of zebrafish and determine the behavioral space of 2D swimming. We are extending this work to capture 3D locomotion of zebrafish larvae. Here we present our preliminary analysis of the 3D locomotion of zebrafish.

  1. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  2. Amigo Adhesion Protein Regulates Development of Neural Circuits in Zebrafish Brain*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Sundvik, Maria; Chen, Yu-Chia; Aho, Vilma; Peltola, Marjaana A.; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti; Rauvala, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    The Amigo protein family consists of three transmembrane proteins characterized by six leucine-rich repeat domains and one immunoglobulin-like domain in their extracellular moieties. Previous in vitro studies have suggested a role as homophilic adhesion molecules in brain neurons, but the in vivo functions remain unknown. Here we have cloned all three zebrafish amigos and show that amigo1 is the predominant family member expressed during nervous system development in zebrafish. Knockdown of amigo1 expression using morpholino oligonucleotides impairs the formation of fasciculated tracts in early fiber scaffolds of brain. A similar defect in fiber tract development is caused by mRNA-mediated expression of the Amigo1 ectodomain that inhibits adhesion mediated by the full-length protein. Analysis of differentiated neural circuits reveals defects in the catecholaminergic system. At the behavioral level, the disturbed formation of neural circuitry is reflected in enhanced locomotor activity and in the inability of the larvae to perform normal escape responses. We suggest that Amigo1 is essential for the development of neural circuits of zebrafish, where its mechanism involves homophilic interactions within the developing fiber tracts and regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel to form functional neural circuitry that controls locomotion. PMID:24904058

  3. Loss of col8a1a Function during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Congenital Vertebral Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Ryan S.; Wilm, Thomas; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M.; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1,000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles (m531, vu41, vu105) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue. PMID:24333517

  4. Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Embryonic Zebrafish is Governed by Particle Dispersion and Ionic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wehmas, Leah; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is unclear due to the particles’ strong tendency to agglomerate. Preventing agglomeration could offer precise control of the physicochemical properties that drive biological response to AgNPs. In an attempt to control agglomeration, we exposed zebrafish embryos to AgNPs of 20 or 110 nm core size, and polypyrrolidone (PVP) or citrate surface coatings in media of varying ionic strength. AgNPs remained unagglomerated in 62.5 μM CaCl2 (CaCl2) and ultrapure water (UP), but not in standard zebrafish embryo medium (EM). Zebrafish embryos developed normally in the low ionic strength environments of CaCl2 and UP. Exposure of embryos to AgNPs suspended in UP and CaCl2 resulted in higher toxicity than suspensions in EM. 20 nm AgNPs were more toxic than 110 nm AgNPs, and the PVP coating was more toxic than the citrate coating at the same particle core size. The silver tissue burden correlated well with observed toxicity but only for those exposures where the AgNPs remained unagglomerated. Our results demonstrate that size- and surface coating-dependent toxicity is a result of AgNPs remaining unagglomerated, and thus a critical-design consideration for experiments to offer meaningful evaluations of AgNP toxicity. PMID:23449170

  5. Amigo adhesion protein regulates development of neural circuits in zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Sundvik, Maria; Chen, Yu-Chia; Aho, Vilma; Peltola, Marjaana A; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti; Rauvala, Heikki

    2014-07-18

    The Amigo protein family consists of three transmembrane proteins characterized by six leucine-rich repeat domains and one immunoglobulin-like domain in their extracellular moieties. Previous in vitro studies have suggested a role as homophilic adhesion molecules in brain neurons, but the in vivo functions remain unknown. Here we have cloned all three zebrafish amigos and show that amigo1 is the predominant family member expressed during nervous system development in zebrafish. Knockdown of amigo1 expression using morpholino oligonucleotides impairs the formation of fasciculated tracts in early fiber scaffolds of brain. A similar defect in fiber tract development is caused by mRNA-mediated expression of the Amigo1 ectodomain that inhibits adhesion mediated by the full-length protein. Analysis of differentiated neural circuits reveals defects in the catecholaminergic system. At the behavioral level, the disturbed formation of neural circuitry is reflected in enhanced locomotor activity and in the inability of the larvae to perform normal escape responses. We suggest that Amigo1 is essential for the development of neural circuits of zebrafish, where its mechanism involves homophilic interactions within the developing fiber tracts and regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel to form functional neural circuitry that controls locomotion.

  6. The microcephaly gene aspm is involved in brain development in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Taek; Lee, Mi-Sun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Jung, Ju-Yeon; Ahn, Dae-Gwon; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Choi, Dong-Kug; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} We identified a zebrafish aspm/mcph5 gene that is expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS during early development. {yields} Embryos injected with the aspm MO consistently showed a reduced head and eye size but were otherwise grossly normal, closely mimicking the known phenotypes of human microcephaly patients. {yields} Knock-down of aspm causes cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death during early development. -- Abstract: MCPH is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a global reduction in cerebral cortical volume. Homozygous mutation of the MCPH5 gene, also known as ASPM, is the most common cause of the MCPH phenotype. To elucidate the roles of ASPM during embryonic development, the zebrafish aspm was identified, which is specifically expressed in proliferating cells in the CNS. Morpholino-mediated knock-down of aspm resulted in a significant reduction in head size. Furthermore, aspm-deficient embryos exhibited a mitotic arrest during early development. These findings suggest that the reduction in brain size in MCPH might be caused by lack of aspm function in the mitotic cell cycle and demonstrate that the zebrafish can provide a model system for congenital diseases of the human nervous system.

  7. Neuroprotective Role of the PI3 Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Yunzhang; Rong, Xiaozhi; Li, Yun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Lu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal survival and growth in the embryo is controlled partly by trophic factors. For most trophic factors (such as Insulin-like growth factor-1), the ability to regulate cell survival has been attributed to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase cascade. This study presents data illustrating the role of PI3K/Akt in attainment of normal brain size during zebrafish embryogenesis. Blocking PI3K with inhibitor LY294002 caused a significant reduction in brain size (in addition to global growth retardation) during zebrafish embryogenesis. This PI3 Kinase inhibition-induced brain size decrease was recovered by the overexpression of myristoylated Akt (myr-Akt), a constitutive form of Akt. Further analysis reveals that expressing exogenous myr-Akt significantly augmented brain size. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of several marker genes showed that myr-Akt overexpression did not alter brain patterning. Furthermore, the expression of myr-Akt was found to protect neuronal cells from apoptosis induced by heat shock and UV light, suggesting that inhibition of neuronal cell death may be part of the underlying cause of the increased brain size. These data provide a foundation for addressing the role of PI3K/Akt in brain growth during zebrafish embryogenesis. PMID:28228749

  8. Clonal origins of cells in the pigmented retina of the zebrafish eye

    SciTech Connect

    Streisinger, G.; Coale, F.; Taggart, C.; Walker, C.; Grunwald, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Mosaic analysis has been used to study the clonal basis of the development of the pigmented retina of the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio. Zebrafish embryos heterozygous for a recessive mutation at the gol-1 locus were exposed to gamma-irradiation at various developmental stages to create mosaic individuals consisting of wild-type pigmented cells and a clone of pigmentless (golden) cells in the eye. The contribution of individual embryonic cells to the pigmented retina was measured and the total number of cells in the embryo that contributed descendants to this tissue was determined. Until the 32-cell stage, almost every blastomere has some descendants that participate in the formation of the pigmented retina of the zebrafish. During subsequent cell divisions, up to the several thousand-cell stage, the number of ancestral cells is constant: approximately 40 cells are present that will give rise to progeny in the pigmented retina. Analysis of the size of clones in the pigmented retina indicates that the cells of this tissue do not arise through a rigid series of cell divisions originating in the early embryo. The findings that each cleavage stage cell contributes to the pigmented retina and yet the contribution of such cells is highly variable are consistent with the interpretation that clonal descendants of different blastomeres normally intermix extensively prior to formation of the pigmented retina.

  9. Growth and Maturation in the Zebrafish, Danio Rerio: A Staging Tool for Teaching and Research

    PubMed Central

    Singleman, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish have been increasingly used as a teaching tool to enhance the learning of many biological concepts from genetics, development, and behavior to the understanding of the local watershed. Traditionally, in both research and teaching, zebrafish work has focused on embryonic stages; however, later stages, from larval through adulthood, are increasingly being examined. Defining developmental stages based on age is a problematic way to assess maturity, because many environmental factors, such as temperature, population density, and water quality, impact growth and maturation. Fish length and characterization of key external morphological traits are considered better markers for maturation state. While a number of staging series exist for zebrafish, here we present a simplified normalization table of post-embryonic maturation well suited to both educational and research use. Specifically, we utilize fish size and four easily identified external morphological traits (pigment pattern, tail fin, anal fin, and dorsal fin morphology) to describe three larval stages, a juvenile stage, and an adult stage. These simplified maturation standards will be a useful tool for both educational and research protocols. PMID:24979389

  10. Imaging Beta Cell Regeneration and Interactions with Islet Vasculature in Transparent Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Larry G.; Caplan, Tanner V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Blood vessel networks provide nutrients and gaseous exchange that are essential for functions. Pancreatic islet capillaries deliver oxygen to endocrine cells while transporting hormones to organs and peripheral locations throughout the body. We have developed a zebrafish diabetes model in which adult islets can be followed in vivo during beta cell regeneration while calibrating changes in beta cell mass and fasting blood glucose levels. After genetic ablation, beta cells are initially dysfunctional or dying, and blood glucose levels increase fourfold. During a 2-week period, hyperglycemia eventually normalizes as beta cell mass regenerates. We show that mCherry-fluorescent, insulin-positive beta cells re-emerge in close contact with the vascular endothelium. Alterations in the dense vascular network of zebrafish islets were visualized by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in endothelial cells derived from the Fli transcription factor promoter. The rapid destruction and regeneration of beta cell mass was evaluated in the same animal over time, providing a functional model for investigating the interactions of islet cell types with vascular cells as well as the consequences of hyperglycemia on other tissues. Regenerating adult zebrafish can be utilized as vertebrate, metabolically active models for generating new insights into treatments for type 2 diabetes. PMID:23682836

  11. Zebrafish ambra1a and ambra1b Knockdown Impairs Skeletal Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Skobo, Tatjana; Benato, Francesca; Grumati, Paolo; Meneghetti, Giacomo; Cianfanelli, Valentina; Castagnaro, Silvia; Chrisam, Martina; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Bonaldo, Paolo; Cecconi, Francesco; Valle, Luisa Dalla

    2014-01-01

    The essential role of autophagy in muscle homeostasis has been clearly demonstrated by phenotype analysis of mice with muscle-specific inactivation of genes encoding autophagy-related proteins. Ambra1 is a key component of the Beclin 1 complex and, in zebrafish, it is encoded by two paralogous genes, ambra1a and ambra1b, both required for normal embryogenesis and larval development. In this study we focused on the function of Ambra1, a positive regulator of the autophagic process, during skeletal muscle development by means of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown and compared the phenotype of zebrafish Ambra1-depleted embryos with that of Ambra1gt/gt mouse embryos. Morphological analysis of zebrafish morphant embryos revealed that silencing of ambra1 impairs locomotor activity and muscle development, as well as myoD1 expression. Skeletal muscles in ATG-morphant embryos displayed severe histopathological changes and contained only small areas of organized myofibrils that were widely dispersed throughout the cell. Double knockdown of ambra1a and ambra1b resulted in a more severe phenotype whereas defects were much less evident in splice-morphants. The morphants phenotypes were effectively rescued by co-injection with human AMBRA1 mRNA. Together, these results indicate that ambra1a and ambra1b are required for the correct development and morphogenesis of skeletal muscle. PMID:24922546

  12. The N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa10 is essential for zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Rasmus; Myklebust, Line M.; Thiel, Puja; Foyn, Håvard; Fladmark, Kari E.; Arnesen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    N-terminal acetylation, catalysed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), is among the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes and involves the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the α-amino group of the first amino acid. Functions of N-terminal acetylation include protein degradation and sub-cellular targeting. Recent findings in humans indicate that a dysfunctional Nα-acetyltransferase (Naa) 10, the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major NAT, is associated with lethality during infancy. In the present study, we identified the Danio rerio orthologue zebrafish Naa 10 (zNaa10). In vitro N-terminal acetylation assays revealed that zNaa10 has NAT activity with substrate specificity highly similar to that of human Naa10. Spatiotemporal expression pattern was determined by in situ hybridization, showing ubiquitous expression with especially strong staining in brain and eye. By morpholino-mediated knockdown, we demonstrated that naa10 morphants displayed increased lethality, growth retardation and developmental abnormalities like bent axis, abnormal eyes and bent tails. In conclusion, we identified the zebrafish Naa10 orthologue and revealed that it is essential for normal development and viability of zebrafish. PMID:26251455

  13. Attraction rules: germ cell migration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Raz, Erez; Reichman-Fried, Michal

    2006-08-01

    The migration of zebrafish primordial germ cell towards the region where the gonad develops is guided by the chemokine SDF-1a. Recent studies show that soon after their specification, the cells undergo a series of morphological alterations before they become motile and are able to respond to attractive cues. As migratory cells, primordial germ cells move towards their target while correcting their path upon exiting a cyclic phase in which morphological cell polarity is lost. In the following stages, the cells gather at specific locations and move as cell clusters towards their final target. In all of these stages, zebrafish germ cells respond as individual cells to alterations in the shape of the sdf-1a expression domain, by directed migration towards their target - the position where the gonad develops.

  14. Osteogenic programs during zebrafish fin regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Claire J; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic, screening and imaging technologies have provided new opportunities to examine the molecular and cellular landscape underlying human physiology and disease. In the context of skeletal research, technologies for systems genetics, high-throughput screening and high-content imaging can aid an unbiased approach when searching for new biological, pathological or therapeutic pathways. However, these approaches necessitate the use of specialized model systems that rapidly produce a phenotype, are easy to manipulate, and amenable to optical study, all while representing mammalian bone physiologies at the molecular and cellular levels. The emerging use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) for modeling human disease highlights its potential to accelerate therapeutic and pathway discovery in the mammalian skeleton. In this review, we consider the potential value of zebrafish fin ray regeneration (a rapid, genetically tractable and optically transparent model of intramembranous ossification) as a translational model for such studies. PMID:26421148

  15. Characterization of rag1 mutant zebrafish leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Petrie-Hanson, Lora; Hohn, Claudia; Hanson, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background Zebrafish may prove to be one of the best vertebrate models for innate immunology. These fish have sophisticated immune components, yet rely heavily on innate immune mechanisms. Thus, the development and characterization of mutant and/or knock out zebrafish are critical to help define immune cell and immune gene functions in the zebrafish model. The use of Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) and recombination activation gene 1 and 2 mutant mice has allowed the investigation of the specific contribution of innate defenses in many infectious diseases. Similar zebrafish mutants are now being used in biomedical and fish immunology related research. This report describes the leukocyte populations in a unique model, recombination activation gene 1-/- mutant zebrafish (rag1 mutants). Results Differential counts of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) showed that rag1 mutants had significantly decreased lymphocyte-like cell populations (34.7%) compared to wild-types (70.5%), and significantly increased granulocyte populations (52.7%) compared to wild-types (17.6%). Monocyte/macrophage populations were similar between mutants and wild-types, 12.6% and 11.3%, respectively. Differential leukocyte counts of rag1 mutant kidney hematopoietic tissue showed a significantly reduced lymphocyte-like cell population (8%), a significantly increased myelomonocyte population (57%), 34.8% precursor cells, and 0.2% thrombocytes, while wild-type hematopoietic kidney tissue showed 29.4% lymphocytes/lymphocyte-like cells, 36.4% myelomonocytes, 33.8% precursors and 0.5% thrombocytes. Flow cytometric analyses of kidney hematopoietic tissue revealed three leukocyte populations. Population A was monocytes and granulocytes and comprised 34.7% of the gated cells in rag1 mutants and 17.6% in wild-types. Population B consisted of hematopoietic precursors, and comprised 50% of the gated cells for rag1 mutants and 53% for wild-types. Population C consisted of lymphocytes and lymphocyte

  16. Understanding cardiac sarcomere assembly with zebrafish genetics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingchun; Shih, Yu-Huan; Xu, Xiaolei

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in sarcomere genes have been found in many inheritable human diseases, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of sarcomere assembly shall facilitate understanding of the pathogenesis of sarcomere-based cardiac disease. Recently, biochemical and genomic studies have identified many new genes encoding proteins that localize to the sarcomere. However, their precise functions in sarcomere assembly and sarcomere-based cardiac disease are unknown. Here, we review zebrafish as an emerging vertebrate model for these studies. We summarize the techniques offered by this animal model to manipulate genes of interest, annotate gene expression, and describe the resulting phenotypes. We survey the sarcomere genes that have been investigated in zebrafish and discuss the potential of applying this in vivo model for larger-scale genetic studies.

  17. What optimization principle explains the zebrafish vasculature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shyr-Shea; Baek, Kyung In; Hsiai, Tzung; Roper, Marcus

    2016-11-01

    Many multicellular organisms depend on biological transport networks; from the veins of leaves to the animal circulatory system, to redistribute nutrients internally. Since natural selection rewards efficiency, those networks are thought to minimize the cost of maintaining the flow inside. But optimizing these costs creates tradeoffs with other functions, e.g. mixing or uniform distribution of nutrients. We develop an extended Lagrange multiplier approach that allows the optimization of general network functionals. We also follow the real zebrafish vasculature and blood flows during organism development. Taken together, our work shows that the challenge of uniform oxygen perfusion, and not transport efficiency, explain zebrafish vascular organization. Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (T32-GM008185).

  18. Myristoylation profiling in human cells and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Broncel, Malgorzata; Serwa, Remigiusz A; Ciepla, Paulina; Krause, Eberhard; Dallman, Margaret J.; Magee, Anthony I.; Tate, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Human cells (HEK 293, HeLa, MCF-7) and zebrafish embryos were metabolically tagged with an alkynyl myristic acid probe, lysed with an SDS buffer and tagged proteomes ligated to multifunctional capture reagents via copper-catalyzed alkyne azide cycloaddition (CuAAC). This allowed for affinity enrichment and high-confidence identification, by delivering direct MS/MS evidence for the modification site, of 87 and 61 co-translationally myristoylated proteins in human cells and zebrafish, respectively. The data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2014 Nat. Biotechnol., 32, 223–6) (PXD001863 and PXD001876) and are described in detail in Multifunctional reagents for quantitative proteome-wide analysis of protein modification in human cells and dynamic protein lipidation during vertebrate development׳ by Broncel et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. PMID:26217820

  19. BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M.; Gallagher, Evan

    2011-01-01

    The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4 µM- 32 µM caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to

  20. The Morphogenesis of Cranial Sutures in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Topczewska, Jolanta M.; Shoela, Ramy A.; Tomaszewski, Joanna P.; Mirmira, Rupa B.; Gosain, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone. Parietal and frontal bones are formed by intramembranous ossification within a layer of mesenchyme positioned between the dermal mesenchyme and meninges surrounding the brain. The supraoccipital bone has an endochondral origin. Cranial bones are separated by connective tissue with a distinctive architecture of osteogenic cells and collagen fibrils. Here we show RNA in situ hybridization for col1a1a, col2a1a, col10a1, bglap/osteocalcin, fgfr1a, fgfr1b, fgfr2, fgfr3, foxq1, twist2, twist3, runx2a, runx2b, sp7/osterix, and spp1/ osteopontin, indicating that the expression of genes involved in suture development in mammals is preserved in zebrafish. We also present methods for examining the cranium and its sutures, which permit the study of the mechanisms involved in suture patency as well as their pathological obliteration. The model we develop has implications for the study of human disorders, including craniosynostosis, which affects 1 in 2,500 live births. PMID:27829009

  1. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle.

  2. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle. PMID:26898711

  3. Heat-induced masculinization in domesticated zebrafish is family-specific and yields a set of different gonadal transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Laia; Liew, Woei Chang; Díaz, Noèlia; Sreenivasan, Rajini; Orbán, László; Piferrer, Francesc

    2017-02-07

    Understanding environmental influences on sex ratios is important for the study of the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms and for evaluating the effects of global warming and chemical pollution. Fishes exhibit sexual plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms of environmental effects on their reproduction are unclear even in the well-established teleost research model, the zebrafish. Here we established the conditions to study the effects of elevated temperature on zebrafish sex. We showed that sex ratio response to elevated temperature is family-specific and typically leads to masculinization (female-to-male sex reversal), resulting in neomales. These results uncovered genotype-by-environment interactions that support a polygenic sex determination system in domesticated (laboratory) zebrafish. We found that some heat-treated fish had gene expression profiles similar to untreated controls of the same sex, indicating that they were resistant to thermal effects. Further, most neomales had gonadal transcriptomes similar to that of regular males. Strikingly, we discovered heat-treated females that displayed a normal ovarian phenotype but with a "male-like" gonadal transcriptome. Such major transcriptomic reprogramming with preserved organ structure has never been reported. Juveniles were also found to have a male-like transcriptome shortly after exposure to heat. These findings were validated by analyzing the expression of genes and signaling pathways associated with sex differentiation. Our results revealed a lasting thermal effect on zebrafish gonads, suggesting new avenues for detection of functional consequences of elevated temperature in natural fish populations in a global warming scenario.

  4. BDNF Expression in Larval and Adult Zebrafish Brain: Distribution and Cell Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cacialli, Pietro; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Coumailleau, Pascal; D’Angelo, Livia; Kah, Olivier; Lucini, Carla; Pellegrini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has emerged as an active mediator in many essential functions in the central nervous system of mammals. BDNF plays significant roles in neurogenesis, neuronal maturation and/or synaptic plasticity and is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Despite the vast literature present in mammals, studies devoted to BDNF in the brain of other animal models are scarse. Zebrafish is a teleost fish widely known for developmental genetic studies and is emerging as model for translational neuroscience research. In addition, its brain shows many sites of adult neurogenesis allowing higher regenerative properties after traumatic injuries. To add further knowledge on neurotrophic factors in vertebrate brain models, we decided to determine the distribution of bdnf mRNAs in the larval and adult zebrafish brain and to characterize the phenotype of cells expressing bdnf mRNAs by means of double staining studies. Our results showed that bdnf mRNAs were widely expressed in the brain of 7 days old larvae and throughout the whole brain of mature female and male zebrafish. In adults, bdnf mRNAs were mainly observed in the dorsal telencephalon, preoptic area, dorsal thalamus, posterior tuberculum, hypothalamus, synencephalon, optic tectum and medulla oblongata. By combining immunohistochemistry with in situ hybridization, we showed that bdnf mRNAs were never expressed by radial glial cells or proliferating cells. By contrast, bdnf transcripts were expressed in cells with neuronal phenotype in all brain regions investigated. Our results provide the first demonstration that the brain of zebrafish expresses bdnf mRNAs in neurons and open new fields of research on the role of the BDNF factor in brain mechanisms in normal and brain repairs situations. PMID:27336917

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-2 regulates early neural and cardiovascular system development in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Lori; Glynn, Catherine; Nolan, Catherine M; Grealy, Maura; Byrnes, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family is essential for normal embryonic growth and development and it is highly conserved through vertebrate evolution. However, the roles that the individual members of the IGF family play in embryonic development have not been fully elucidated. This study focuses on the role of IGF-2 in zebrafish embryonic development. Two igf-2 genes, igf-2a and igf-2b, are present in the zebrafish genome. Antisense morpholinos were designed to knock down both igf-2 genes. The neural and cardiovascular defects in IGF-2 morphant embryos were then examined further using wholemount in situ hybridisation, TUNEL analysis and O-dianisidine staining. Knockdown of igf-2a or igf-2b resulted in ventralised embryos with reduced growth, reduced eyes, disrupted brain structures and a disrupted cardiovascular system, with igf-2b playing a more significant role in development. During gastrulation, igf-2a and igf-2b are required for development of anterior neural structures and for regulation of genes critical to dorsal-ventral patterning. As development proceeds, igf-2a and igf-2b play anti-apoptotic roles. Gene expression analysis demonstrates that igf-2a and igf-2b play overlapping roles in angiogenesis and cardiac outflow tract development. Igf-2b is specifically required for cardiac valve development and cardiac looping. Injection of a dominant negative IGF-1 receptor led to similar defects in angiogenesis and cardiac valve development, indicating IGF-2 signals through this receptor to regulate cardiovascular development. This is the first study describing two functional igf-2 genes in zebrafish. This work demonstrates that igf-2a and igf-2b are critical to neural and cardiovascular development in zebrafish embryos. The finding that igf-2a and igf-2b do not act exclusively in a redundant manner may explain why both genes have been stably maintained in the genome.

  6. Effects of simulated-microgravity on zebrafish embryonic development and microRNA expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Xiaoming; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Li, Hui

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity is a constant physical factor astronauts must meet during space flight. Therefore, the mechanism of microgravity-induced biological effects is one of the most important issues in space biological studies. In this research, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at different development stages were exposed to simulated microgravity, respectively, using a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) designed by NASA. Biological effects of simulated microgravity on zebrafish embryos were investigated at the phenotypic and microRNA expression levels. Malformation rate and mortality rate were found increased after simulated microgravity exposure. Body length and heart rate were also increased during microgravity exposure and after a shot period of gravity recovery, but both returned to normal level after 10 days and 7 days of gravity recovery, respectively. Additionally, significant changes in microRNA expression profiles of zebrafish embryos were observed, depending on the development stages of embyos exposed to simulated microgravity and the exposure time. All together, nine miRNAs showed significant changes after three different microgravity exposures (8-72hpf, 24-72hpf and 24-48hpf). Four miRNAs, dre-miR-738, dre-miR-133a, dre-miR-133b and dre-miR-22a, were up-regulated. Two miRNAs, dre-miR-1 and dre-miR-16a, were down-regulated. The other three miRNAs, dre-miR-204, dre-miR-9* and dre-miR-429, were found up-regulated when microgravity exposures ended at 72hpf, but down-regulated when microgravity exposures ended at 48hpf. Above results demonstrated microRNA expression of zebrafish embryos could be induced by both embryonic development stage and simulated microgravity. Key Words: Danio rerio; Simulated-microgravity; embryonic devlopment; microRNA expression

  7. Phenylthiourea disrupts thyroid function in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Elsalini, Osama A; Rohr, Klaus B

    2003-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T4) can be detected in thyroid follicles in wild-type zebrafish larvae from 3 days of development, when the thyroid has differentiated. In contrast, embryos or larvae treated with goitrogens (substances such as methimazole, potassium percholorate, and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil) are devoid of thyroid hormone immunoreactivity. Phenythiourea (PTurea; also commonly known as PTU) is widely used in zebrafish research to suppress pigmentation in developing embryos/fry. PTurea contains a thiocarbamide group that is responsible for goitrogenic activity in methimazole and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil. In the present study, we show that commonly used doses of 0.003% PTurea abolish T4 immunoreactivity of the thyroid follicles of zebrafish larvae. As development of the thyroid gland is not affected, these data suggest that PTurea blocks thyroid hormone production. Like other goitrogens, PTurea causes delayed hatching, retardation and malformation of embryos or larvae with increasing doses. At doses of 0.003% PTurea, however, toxic side effects seem to be at a minimum, and the maternal contribution of the hormone might compensate for compromised thyroid function during the first days of development.

  8. Zebrafish Models for Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death. Elevated circulating concentrations of lipids are a central pathogenetic driver of atherosclerosis. While numerous effective therapies for this condition have been developed, there is substantial unmet need for this pandemic illness. Here, I will review nutritional, physiological, genetic, and pathological discoveries in the emerging zebrafish model for studying dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The technical and physiological advantages and the pharmacological potential of this organism for discovery and validation of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis targets are stressed through summary of recent findings. An emerging literature shows that zebrafish, through retention of a cetp ortholog gene and high sensitivity to ingestion of excess cholesterol, rapidly develops hypercholesterolemia, with a pattern of distribution of lipid species in lipoprotein particles similar to humans. Furthermore, recent studies leveraging the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae to monitor the fate of these ingested lipids have provided exciting insights to the development of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Future directions for investigation are considered, with particular attention to the potential for in vivo cell biological study of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:28018294

  9. Social dominance modulates eavesdropping in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Abril-de-Abreu, Rodrigo; Cruz, Ana S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    Group living animals may eavesdrop on signalling interactions between conspecifics and integrate it with their own past social experience in order to optimize the use of relevant information from others. However, little is known about this interplay between public (eavesdropped) and private social information. To investigate it, we first manipulated the dominance status of bystander zebrafish. Next, we either allowed or prevented bystanders from observing a fight. Finally, we assessed their behaviour towards the winners and losers of the interaction, using a custom-made video-tracking system and directional analysis. We found that only dominant bystanders who had seen the fight revealed a significant increase in directional focus (a measure of attention) towards the losers of the fights. Furthermore, our results indicate that information about the fighters' acquired status was collected from the signalling interaction itself and not from post-interaction status cues, which implies the existence of individual recognition in zebrafish. Thus, we show for the first time that zebrafish, a highly social model organism, eavesdrop on conspecific agonistic interactions and that this process is modulated by the eavesdroppers' dominance status. We suggest that this type of integration of public and private information may be ubiquitous in social learning processes. PMID:26361550

  10. The zebrafish infraorbital bones: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Carolyn; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara Anne

    2014-02-01

    The infraorbital (IO) bone series, a component of the circumorbital series, makes up five of the eight dermal bones found in the orbital region of the zebrafish skull. Ossifying in a set sequence, the IOs are closely associated with the cranial lateral line system as they house neuromast sensory receptors in bony canals. We conducted a detailed analysis of the condensation to mineralization phases of development of these bones. Our analyses involved both bone and osteoblast staining of zebrafish at 20 different time points. IO bone condensations are shaped as templates for the final bone shape, and they mineralize at one or more centers of ossification. Initially, mineralization is closely associated with the lateral line canals and/or foramen, and the onset of mineralization is temporally variable. Canal wall mineralization is a process that continues into adulthood and completely mineralized canal roofs were not found. Our comprehensive growth series detailing the ossification of each IO bone provides important insight into the growth and development of this series of neural crest-derived flat bones in the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton.

  11. Single stimulus learning in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    O’Neale, Ashley; Ellis, Joseph; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Learning about a moving visual stimulus was examined in zebrafish larvae using an automated imaging system and a t1-t2 design. In three experiments, zebrafish larvae were exposed to one of two inputs at t1 (either a gray bouncing disk or an identical but stationary disk) followed by a common test at t2 (the gray bouncing disk). Using 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) larvae and 12 stimulus exposures, Experiment 1 established that these different treatments produced differential responding to the moving disk during testing. Larvae familiar with the moving test stimulus were significantly less likely to be still in its presence than larvae that had been exposed to the identical but stationary stimulus. Experiment 2 confirmed this result in 7 dpf larvae and extended the finding to 5 and 6 dpf larvae. Experiment 3 found differential responding to the moving test stimulus with 4 or 8 stimulus exposures but not with just one exposure in 7 dpf larvae. These results provide evidence for learning in very young zebrafish larvae. The merits and challenges of the t1-t2 framework to study learning are discussed. PMID:24012906

  12. Repressor Dimerization in the Zebrafish Somitogenesis Clock

    PubMed Central

    Cinquin, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The oscillations of the somitogenesis clock are linked to the fundamental process of vertebrate embryo segmentation, yet little is known about their generation. In zebrafish, it has been proposed that Her proteins repress the transcription of their own mRNA. However, in its simplest form, this model is incompatible with the fact that morpholino knockdown of Her proteins can impair expression of their mRNA. Simple self-repression models also do not account for the spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression, with waves of gene expression shrinking as they propagate. Here we study computationally the networks generated by the wealth of dimerization possibilities amongst transcriptional repressors in the zebrafish somitogenesis clock. These networks can reproduce knockdown phenotypes, and strongly suggest the existence of a Her1–Her7 heterodimer, so far untested experimentally. The networks are the first reported to reproduce the spatiotemporal pattern of the zebrafish somitogenesis clock; they shed new light on the role of Her13.2, the only known link between the somitogenesis clock and positional information in the paraxial mesoderm. The networks can also account for perturbations of the clock by manipulation of FGF signaling. Achieving an understanding of the interplay between clock oscillations and positional information is a crucial first step in the investigation of the segmentation mechanism. PMID:17305423

  13. Standardized Welfare Terms for the Zebrafish Community

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A.; Blackledge, Samuel; Clark, Bradley; Keeble, Rosemary; Kovacs, Ceri; Murray, Katrina N.; Price, Michael; Thompson, Peter; Bussell, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Managing the welfare of laboratory animals is critical to animal health, vital in the understanding of phenotypes created by treatment or genetic alteration and ensures compliance of regulations. Part of an animal welfare assessment is the requirement to record observations, ensuring all those responsible for the animals are aware of their health status and can act accordingly. Although the use of zebrafish in research continues to increase, guidelines for conducting welfare assessments and the reporting of observations are considered unclear compared to mammalian species. To support the movement of zebrafish between facilities, significant improvement would be achieved through the use of standardized terms to ensure clarity and consistency between facilities. Improving the clarity of terminology around welfare not only addresses our ethical obligation but also supports the research goals and provides a searchable description of the phenotypes. A Collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Cambridge University (Department of Medicine-Laboratory of Molecular Biology) has led to the creation of the zebrafish welfare terms from which standardization of terminology can be achieved. PMID:27096380

  14. Characterization of the Enigma family in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ott, Elisabeth B; Sakalis, Philippe A; Marques, Ines J; Bagowski, Christoph P

    2007-11-01

    The three Enigma subfamily proteins, Enigma, Enigma homologue, and Cypher/ZASP belong to the PDZ and LIM encoding protein family, which is characterized by the presence of a PDZ- and one or more LIM domains. PDZ/LIM proteins play important biological roles, and all members have been shown to associate with the actin cytoskeleton. We describe here the splice form specific expression patterns for the three Enigma subfamily members during zebrafish embryogenesis. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed common and distinct expression patterns for the different PDZ or LIM domain encoding splice variants. We further studied the role of enigma in zebrafish development. Enigma knockdown appeared to be embryonic lethal shortly after the end of gastrulation and in few surviving embryos led to elongation defects and disorganized somites. In summary, we show here the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the three Enigma family members and their PDZ and LIM domain encoding splice forms during zebrafish embryogenesis. Our results suggest that enigma is important for the formation and organization of somites and might play an important role for actin cytoskeleton organization during development.

  15. Short Stories on Zebrafish Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shadabul; Kaushik, Kriti; Leonard, Vincent Elvin; Kapoor, Shruti; Sivadas, Ambily; Joshi, Adita

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent re-annotation of the transcriptome of human and other model organisms, using next-generation sequencing approaches, has unravelled a hitherto unknown repertoire of transcripts that do not have a potential to code for proteins. These transcripts have been largely classified into an amorphous class popularly known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). This discovery of lncRNAs in human and other model systems have added a new layer to the understanding of gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In recent years, three independent studies have discovered a number of lncRNAs expressed in different stages of zebrafish development and adult tissues using a high-throughput RNA sequencing approach, significantly adding to the repertoire of genes known in zebrafish. A subset of these transcripts also shows distinct and specific spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, pointing to a tight regulatory control and potential functional roles in development, organogenesis, and/ or homeostasis. This review provides an overview of the lncRNAs in zebrafish and discusses how their discovery could provide new insights into understanding biology, explaining mutant phenotypes, and helping in potentially modeling disease processes. PMID:25110965

  16. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  17. Direct visualization of replication dynamics in early zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Okochi, Nanami; Hattori, Kaede; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Tamaru, Yutaka; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed DNA replication in early zebrafish embryos. The replicating DNA of whole embryos was labeled with the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), and spatial regulation of replication sites was visualized in single embryo-derived cells. The results unveiled uncharacterized replication dynamics during zebrafish early embryogenesis.

  18. Identifying Structural Alerts Based on Zebrafish Developmental Morphological Toxicity (TDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zebrafish constitute a powerful alternative animal model for chemical hazard evaluation. To provide an in vivo complement to high-throughput screening data from the ToxCast program, zebrafish developmental toxicity screens were conducted on the ToxCast Phase I (Padilla et al., 20...

  19. Host-Pathogen Interactions Made Transparent with the Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Annemarie H; Spaink, Herman P

    2011-01-01

    The zebrafish holds much promise as a high-throughput drug screening model for immune-related diseases, including inflammatory and infectious diseases and cancer. This is due to the excellent possibilities for in vivo imaging in combination with advanced tools for genomic and large scale mutant analysis. The context of the embryo’s developing immune system makes it possible to study the contribution of different immune cell types to disease progression. Furthermore, due to the temporal separation of innate immunity from adaptive responses, zebrafish embryos and larvae are particularly useful for dissecting the innate host factors involved in pathology. Recent studies have underscored the remarkable similarity of the zebrafish and human immune systems, which is important for biomedical applications. This review is focused on the use of zebrafish as a model for infectious diseases, with emphasis on bacterial pathogens. Following a brief overview of the zebrafish immune system and the tools and methods used to study host-pathogen interactions in zebrafish, we discuss the current knowledge on receptors and downstream signaling components that are involved in the zebrafish embryo’s innate immune response. We summarize recent insights gained from the use of bacterial infection models, particularly the Mycobacterium marinum model, that illustrate the potential of the zebrafish model for high-throughput antimicrobial drug screening. PMID:21366518

  20. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse.

  1. DRUG EFFECTS ON THE LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae and the effects of prototype drugs. Zebrafish larvae (6-7 days post-fertilization) were indiv...

  2. Pleistophora hyphessobryconis (Microsporidia) infecting zebrafish (Danio rerio) in research facilities

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Justin L; Lawrence, Christian; Nichols, Donald K; Brubaker, Jeffrey F.; Peterson, Tracy S; Murray, Katrina N.; Kent, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are important models for biomedical research, and thus there is an increased concern about diseases afflicting them. Here we describe infections by Pleistophora hyphessobryconis (Microsporidia) in zebrafish from three laboratories. As reported in other aquarium fishes, affected zebrafish exhibited massive infections in the skeletal muscle, with no involvement of smooth or cardiac muscle. In addition, numerous spores within macrophages were observed in the visceral organs, including the ovaries. Transmission studies and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence comparisons confirmed that the parasite from zebrafish was P. hyphessobryconis as described from neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi. Ten 15-day-old zebrafish were exposed to P. hyphessobryconis collected from one infected neon tetra, and 7 of 10 fish became infected. Comparison of P. hyphessobryconis small subunit rRNA gene sequence from neon tetra with that obtained from zebrafish was nearly identical, with < 1% difference. Given the severity of infections, P. hyphessobryconis should be added to the list of pathogens that should be avoided in zebrafish research facilities, and it would be prudent to not mix zebrafish used in research with other aquarium fishes. PMID:20853741

  3. Zebrafish heart as a model for human cardiac electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Vornanen, Matti; Hassinen, Minna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a popular model for human cardiac diseases and pharmacology including cardiac arrhythmias and its electrophysiological basis. Notably, the phenotype of zebrafish cardiac action potential is similar to the human cardiac action potential in that both have a long plateau phase. Also the major inward and outward current systems are qualitatively similar in zebrafish and human hearts. However, there are also significant differences in ionic current composition between human and zebrafish hearts, and the molecular basis and pharmacological properties of human and zebrafish cardiac ionic currents differ in several ways. Cardiac ionic currents may be produced by non-orthologous genes in zebrafish and humans, and paralogous gene products of some ion channels are expressed in the zebrafish heart. More research on molecular basis of cardiac ion channels, and regulation and drug sensitivity of the cardiac ionic currents are needed to enable rational use of the zebrafish heart as an electrophysiological model for the human heart. PMID:26671745

  4. Analysis of myostatin gene structure, expression and function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Wu, Gang; Zohar, Yonathan; Du, Shao-Jun

    2003-11-01

    Myostatin is a member of the TGF-beta family that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth in mammals. Recently, Myostatin has also been identified in fish; however, its role in fish muscle development and growth remains unknown. We have reported here the isolation and characterization of myostatin genomic gene from zebrafish and analysis of its expression in zebrafish embryos, larvae and adult skeletal muscles. Our data showed that myostatin was weakly expressed in early stage zebrafish embryos, and strongly expressed in swimming larvae, juvenile and skeletal muscles of adult zebrafish. Transient expression analysis revealed that the 1.2 kb zebrafish myostatin 5' flanking sequence could direct green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression predominantly in muscle cells, suggesting that the myostatin 5' flanking sequence contained regulatory elements required for muscle expression. To determine the biological function of Myostatin in fish, we generated a transgenic line that overexpresses the Myostatin prodomain in zebrafish skeletal muscles using a muscle-specific promoter. The Myostatin prodomain could act as a dominant negative and inhibit Myostatin function in skeletal muscles. Transgenic zebrafish expressing the Myostatin prodomain exhibited no significant change in myogenic gene expression and differentiation of slow and fast muscle cells at their embryonic stage. The transgenic fish, however, exhibited an increased number of myofibers in skeletal muscles, but no significant difference in fiber size. Together, these data demonstrate that Myostatin plays an inhibitory role in hyperplastic muscle growth in zebrafish.

  5. Scale development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    SIRE, JEAN-YVES; ALLIZARD, FRANCOISE; BABIAR, OLIVIER; BOURGUIGNON, JACQUELINE; QUILHAC, ALEXANDRA

    1997-01-01

    In the course of an extensive comparative, structural and developmental study of the cranial and postcranial dermal skeleton (teeth and scales) in osteichthyan fishes, we have undertaken investigations on scale development in zebrafish (Danio (Brachydanio) rerio) using alizarin red staining, and light and transmission electron microscopy. The main goal was to know whether zebrafish scales can be used as a model for further research on the processes controlling the development of the dermal skeleton in general, especially epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. Growth series of laboratory bred specimens were used to study in detail: (1) the relationship of scale appearance with size and age; (2) the squamation pattern; and (3) the events taking place in the epidermis and in the dermis, before and during scale initiation and formation, with the aim of searching for morphological indications of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Scales form late in ontogeny, generally when zebrafish are more than 8.0 mm in standard length. Within a population of zebrafish of the same age scale appearance is related to standard length, but when comparing populations of different age the size of the fish at scale appearance is also related to age. Scales always appear first in the posterior region of the body and the squamation then extends anteriorly. Scales develop in the dermis but closely apposed to the epidermal–dermal boundary. Cellular modifications occurring in the basal layer of the epidermis and in the dermis before scale formation clearly indicate that the basal epidermal cells differentiate first, before any evidence of differentiation of the progenitors of the scale-forming cells in the dermis. This strongly suggests that scale differentiation could be initiated by the epidermal basal layer cells which probably produce a molecular signal towards the dermis below. Subsequently dermal cells accumulate close to the epidermis, and differentiate to form scale papillae. The

  6. Studying the immune response to human viral infections using zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Goody, Michelle F; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol H

    2014-09-01

    Humans and viruses have a long co-evolutionary history. Viral illnesses have and will continue to shape human history: from smallpox, to influenza, to HIV, and beyond. Animal models of human viral illnesses are needed in order to generate safe and effective antiviral medicines, adjuvant therapies, and vaccines. These animal models must support the replication of human viruses, recapitulate aspects of human viral illnesses, and respond with conserved immune signaling cascades. The zebrafish is perhaps the simplest, most commonly used laboratory model organism in which innate and/or adaptive immunity can be studied. Herein, we will discuss the current zebrafish models of human viral illnesses and the insights they have provided. We will highlight advantages of early life stage zebrafish and the importance of innate immunity in human viral illnesses. We will also discuss viral characteristics to consider before infecting zebrafish with human viruses as well as predict other human viruses that may be able to infect zebrafish.

  7. Host-microbe interactions in the developing zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kanther, Michelle; Rawls, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances The amenability of the zebrafish to in vivo imaging and genetic analysis has fueled expanded use of this vertebrate model to investigate the molecular and cellular foundations of host-microbe relationships. Study of microbial encounters in zebrafish hosts has concentrated on developing embryonic and larval stages, when the advantages of the zebrafish model are maximized. A comprehensive understanding of these host-microbe interactions requires appreciation of the developmental context into which a microbe is introduced, as well as the effects of that microbial challenge on host ontogeny. In this review, we discuss how in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish has advanced our knowledge of host-microbe interactions in the context of a developing vertebrate host. We focus on recent insights into immune cell ontogeny and function, commensal microbial relationships in the intestine, and microbial pathogenesis in zebrafish hosts. PMID:20153622

  8. Neutrophils in host defense: new insights from zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Harvie, Elizabeth A.; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are highly motile phagocytic cells that play a critical role in the immune response to infection. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used to study neutrophil function and host-pathogen interactions. The generation of transgenic zebrafish lines with fluorescently labeled leukocytes has made it possible to visualize the neutrophil response to infection in real time by use of optically transparent zebrafish larvae. In addition, the genetic tractability of zebrafish has allowed for the generation of models of inherited neutrophil disorders. In this review, we discuss several zebrafish models of infectious disease, both in the context of immunocompetent, as well as neutrophil-deficient hosts and how these models have shed light on neutrophil behavior during infection. PMID:25717145

  9. Zebrafish Models of Human Liver Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Pack, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs a large number of essential synthetic and regulatory functions that are acquired during fetal development and persist throughout life. Their disruption underlies a diverse group of heritable and acquired diseases that affect both pediatric and adult patients. Although experimental analyses used to study liver development and disease are typically performed in cell culture models or rodents, the zebrafish is increasingly used to complement discoveries made in these systems. Forward and reverse genetic analyses over the past two decades have shown that the molecular program for liver development is largely conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and that the zebrafish can be used to model heritable human liver disorders. Recent work has demonstrated that zebrafish can also be used to study the mechanistic basis of acquired liver diseases. Here, we provide a comprehensive summary of how the zebrafish has contributed to our understanding of human liver development and disease. PMID:23897685

  10. Detection of Autofluorescent Mycobacterium Chelonae in Living Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Whipps, Christopher M.; Moss, Larry G.; Sisk, Dana M.; Murray, Katrina N.; Tobin, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium chelonae is widespread in aquatic environments and can cause mycobacteriosis with low virulence in zebrafish. The risk of infection in zebrafish is exacerbated in closed-recirculating aquatic systems where rapidly growing mycobacteria can live on biofilms, as well as in zebrafish tissues. We have discovered a method of identifying and visualizing M. chelonae infections in living zebrafish using endogenous autofluorescence. Infected larvae are easily identified and can be excluded from experimental results. Because infection may reduce fertility in zebrafish, the visualization of active infection in contaminated eggs of transparent casper females simplifies screening. Transparent fish are also particularly useful as sentinels that can be examined periodically for the presence of autofluorescence, which can then be tested directly for M. chelonae. PMID:24451037

  11. Acute caffeine administration affects zebrafish response to a robotic stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Mwaffo, Violet; Li, Jasmine; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Zebrafish has been recently proposed as a valid animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms regulating emotional behavior and evaluate the modulatory effects exerted by psychoactive compounds. In this study, we propose a novel methodological framework based on robotics and information theory to investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish exposed to acute caffeine treatment. In a binary preference test, we studied the response of caffeine-treated zebrafish to a replica of a shoal of conspecifics moving in the tank. A purely data-driven information theoretic approach was used to infer the influence of the replica on zebrafish behavior as a function of caffeine concentration. Our results demonstrate that acute caffeine administration modulates both the average speed and the interaction with the replica. Specifically, zebrafish exposed to elevated doses of caffeine show reduced locomotion and increased sensitivity to the motion of the replica. The methodology developed in this study may complement traditional experimental paradigms developed in the field of behavioral pharmacology.

  12. Development of sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Zebrafish possess all of the classic sensory modalities: taste, tactile, smell, balance, vision, and hearing. For each sensory system, this article provides a brief overview of the system in the adult zebrafish followed by a more detailed overview of the development of the system. By far the majority of studies performed in each of the sensory systems of the zebrafish have involved some aspect of molecular biology or genetics. Although molecular biology and genetics are not major foci of the paper, brief discussions of some of the mutant strains of zebrafish that have developmental defects in each specific sensory system are included. The development of the sensory systems is only a small sampling of the work being done using zebrafish and provides a mere glimpse of the potential of this model for the study of vertebrate development, physiology, and human disease.

  13. [Potential of the zebrafish model to study congenital muscular dystrophies].

    PubMed

    Ryckebüsch, Lucile

    2015-10-01

    In order to better understand the complexity of congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) and develop new strategies to cure them, it is important to establish new disease models. Due to its numerous helpful attributes, the zebrafish has recently become a very powerful animal model for the study of CMD. For some CMD, this vertebrate model is phenotypically closer to human pathology than the murine model. Over the last few years, researchers have developed innovative techniques to screen rapidly and on a large scale for muscle defects in zebrafish. Furthermore, new genome editing techniques in zebrafish make possible the identification of new disease models. In this review, the major attributes of zebrafish for CMD studies are discussed and the principal models of CMD in zebrafish are highlighted.

  14. Stimulus dependence of the development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Moorman, S J; Burress, C; Cordova, R; Slater, J

    1999-02-05

    It has been suggested that stimulus dependence is a general feature of all developing sensory systems. We tested this idea for the developing zebrafish vestibular system using a bioreactor the National Aeronautic and Space Agency designed to simulate microgravity for cells in culture on earth. We replaced the culture medium with aquarium water and maintained zebrafish eggs/hatchlings in the bioreactor for either 72 or 96 h postfertilization. These experimental animals displayed a swimming behavior that was indistinguishable from the control animals when illuminated from above. However, when illuminated from below, experimental animals swam not only dorsal surface up, but also lying on their side; they corkscrewed, swam vertical loops, and occasionally even swam upside down. When incubated in the bioreactor for 96 h, the saccular otolith was significantly smaller than normal, suggesting that otolith development was either delayed or slower than normal. When incubated in the bioreactor for 72 h, some animals were missing one or more otoliths. In contrast, control animals all had two otoliths on each side. This supports the idea that otolith development was delayed. Immediately upon removal from the bioreactor at 96 h, experimental animals showed some signs of compensatory eye rotation, but with a much less clear relationship between the orientation of the eye and the direction of gravity than the age-matched control animals. This difference was still obvious 1 day later. These results support the idea that development of the vestibular system in zebrafish is dependent on the presence of the normal stimulus the system is designed to detect.

  15. A Dominant Negative Zebrafish Ahr2 Partially Protects Developing Zebrafish from Dioxin Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, Kevin A.; Prasch, Amy L.; Weina, Kasia M.; Peterson, Richard E.; Heideman, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity by 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is thought to be caused by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). However, our understanding of how AHR activation by TCDD leads to toxic effects is poor. Ideally we would like to manipulate AHR activity in specific tissues and at specific times. One route to this is expressing dominant negative AHRs (dnAHRs). This work describes the construction and characterization of dominant negative forms of the zebrafish Ahr2 in which the C-terminal transactivation domain was either removed, or replaced with the inhibitory domain from the Drosophila engrailed repressor protein. One of these dnAhr2s was selected for expression from the ubiquitously active e2fα promoter in transgenic zebrafish. We found that these transgenic zebrafish expressing dnAhr2 had reduced TCDD induction of the Ahr2 target gene cyp1a, as measured by 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Furthermore, the cardiotoxicity produced by TCDD, pericardial edema, heart malformation, and reduced blood flow, were all mitigated in the zebrafish expressing the dnAhr2. These results provide in vivo proof-of-principle results demonstrating the effectiveness of dnAHRs in manipulating AHR activity in vivo, and demonstrating that this approach can be a means for blocking TCDD toxicity. PMID:22194803

  16. Embryotoxicity and biotransformation responses in zebrafish exposed to water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Pauka, Luciana M; Maceno, Marcell; Rossi, Stefani C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil (API27, Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil) were evaluated during the early life stages of zebrafish, as well as its biotransformation in juvenile fish. Embryonic development was studied during 96 h. Reduced heartbeat rate, weak pigmentation, tail defects, and embryo mortality were observed for all of the tested concentrations of the WSF. Activities of the biotransformation enzymes were induced at the highest concentrations, showing that these enzymes played a role in its elimination. As shown in this study the crude oil WSF altered the normal embryonic development of fish.

  17. Multilayer mounting for long-term light sheet microscopy of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael; Mickoleit, Michaela; Huisken, Jan

    2014-02-27

    Light sheet microscopy is the ideal imaging technique to study zebrafish embryonic development. Due to minimal photo-toxicity and bleaching, it is particularly suited for long-term time-lapse imaging over many hours up to several days. However, an appropriate sample mounting strategy is needed that offers both confinement and normal development of the sample. Multilayer mounting, a new embedding technique using low-concentration agarose in optically clear tubes, now overcomes this limitation and unleashes the full potential of light sheet microscopy for real-time developmental biology.

  18. Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems.

    PubMed

    Avella, Matteo A; Place, Allen; Du, Shao-Jun; Williams, Ernest; Silvi, Stefania; Zohar, Yonathan; Carnevali, Oliana

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host's immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host's development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic species intended for human use. We monitored for the presence of L. rhamnosus during the entire treatment. Zebrafish at 6 days post fertilization (dpf) exhibited elevated gene expression levels for Insulin-like growth factors -I and -II, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors -α and -β, VDR-α and RAR-γ when compared to untreated-10 days old zebrafish. Using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 GFP transgenic zebrafish (GnRH3-GFP), higher GnRH3 expression was found at 6, 8 and 10 dpf upon L. rhamnosus treatment. The same larvae exhibited earlier backbone calcification and gonad maturation. Noteworthy in the gonad development was the presence of first testes differentiation at 3 weeks post fertilization in the treated zebrafish population -which normally occurs at 8 weeks- and a dramatic sex ratio modulation (93% females, 7% males in control vs. 55% females, 45% males in the treated group). We infer that administration of L. rhamnosus stimulated the IGF system, leading to a faster backbone calcification. Moreover we hypothesize a role for administration of L. rhamnosus on GnRH3 modulation during early larval development, which in turn affects gonadal development and sex differentiation. These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application.

  19. Early life stage toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Hornung, M.W.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    TCDD and related compounds cause toxicity in fish early life stages, characterized by edema, regional ischemia, craniofacial malformations, growth retardation and mortality. Determining the mechanism of these effects requires understanding normal early life stage development, which has been studied extensively in the zebrafish. Establishing zebrafish as a model for TCDD developmental toxicity requires demonstration that TCDD adversely affects zebrafish early life stages. Toxicity of TCDD to zebrafish early life stages was characterized by exposing newly fertilized eggs for 1 hr to water containing acetone or graded concentrations of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD and observed for signs of toxicity at 12 hr intervals for 240 hr post fertilization (hpf). TCDD did not increase embryo mortality during the egg stage (0--48 hpf) nor did it affect the time to hatching (48--96 hpf). At the highest TCDD egg doses (4.5--6.5 ng/g) the earliest sign of toxicity was pericardial edema (72 hpf) followed by the onset of yolk sac edema (96 hpf) onset of mortality (132 hpf). At lower egg doses the same effects were seen but after a longer delay period. Other signs of toxicity included craniofacial malformations, cranial edema and loss of swimming activity prior to death. To determine the dose-response relationship for pericardial and yolk sac edema and larval mortality the cumulative incidence of each effect was determined at 240 hpf. The ED{sub 50}s (95% fiducial limits) for pericardial edema and yolk sac edema were 2.1 6 (1.82--2.48) and 2.43 (2.12--2.72) ng TCDD/g egg, respectively. The LD{sub 50} was 2.45 (1.94--2.89) ng TCDD/g egg. In conclusion, the signs of TCDD early life stage toxicity in zebrafish are essentially identical to those in other fish species, however, larger egg doses of TCDD are required to elicit the effects.

  20. Lactobacillus rhamnosus Accelerates Zebrafish Backbone Calcification and Gonadal Differentiation through Effects on the GnRH and IGF Systems

    PubMed Central

    Avella, Matteo A.; Place, Allen; Du, Shao-Jun; Williams, Ernest; Silvi, Stefania; Zohar, Yonathan; Carnevali, Oliana

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host’s immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host’s development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic species intended for human use. We monitored for the presence of L. rhamnosus during the entire treatment. Zebrafish at 6 days post fertilization (dpf) exhibited elevated gene expression levels for Insulin-like growth factors -I and -II, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors -α and -β, VDR-α and RAR-γ when compared to untreated-10 days old zebrafish. Using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 GFP transgenic zebrafish (GnRH3-GFP), higher GnRH3 expression was found at 6, 8 and 10 dpf upon L. rhamnosus treatment. The same larvae exhibited earlier backbone calcification and gonad maturation. Noteworthy in the gonad development was the presence of first testes differentiation at 3 weeks post fertilization in the treated zebrafish population -which normally occurs at 8 weeks- and a dramatic sex ratio modulation (93% females, 7% males in control vs. 55% females, 45% males in the treated group). We infer that administration of L. rhamnosus stimulated the IGF system, leading to a faster backbone calcification. Moreover we hypothesize a role for administration of L. rhamnosus on GnRH3 modulation during early larval development, which in turn affects gonadal development and sex differentiation. These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application. PMID:23029107

  1. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed vitamin E-deficient diets produce embryos with increased morphologic abnormalities and mortality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Galen W; Labut, Edwin M; Lebold, Katie M; Floeter, Abby; Tanguay, Robert L; Traber, Maret G

    2012-05-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is required to prevent fetal resorption in rodents. To study α-tocopherol's role in fetal development, a nonplacental model is required. Therefore, the zebrafish, an established developmental model organism, was studied by feeding the fish a defined diet with or without added α-tocopherol. Zebrafish (age, 4-6 weeks) were fed the deficient (E-), sufficient (E+) or lab diet up to 1 years. All groups showed similar growth rates. The exponential rate of α-tocopherol depletion up to ~80 day in E- zebrafish was 0.029±0.006 nmol/g, equivalent to a depletion half-life of 25±5 days. From age ~80 days, the E- fish (5±3 nmol/g) contained ~50 times less α-tocopherol than the E+ or lab diet fish (369±131 or 362±107, respectively; P<.05). E-depleted adults demonstrated decreased startle response suggesting neurologic deficits. Expression of selected oxidative stress and apoptosis genes from livers isolated from the zebrafish fed the three diets were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and were not found to vary with vitamin E status. When E-depleted adults were spawned, they produced viable embryos with depleted α-tocopherol concentrations. The E- embryos exhibited a higher mortality (P<.05) at 24 h post-fertillization and a higher combination of malformations and mortality (P<.05) at 120 h post-fertillization than embryos from parents fed E+ or lab diets. This study documents for the first time that vitamin E is essential for normal zebrafish embryonic development.

  2. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (ogg1) maintains the function of cardiac progenitor cells during heart formation in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Lifeng; Zhou, Yong; Yu, Shanhe; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Wei; Gu, Aihua

    2013-11-15

    Genomic damage may devastate the potential of progenitor cells and consequently impair early organogenesis. We found that ogg1, a key enzyme initiating the base-excision repair, was enriched in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. So far, little is known about DNA repair in cardiogenesis. Here, we addressed the critical role of ogg1 in cardiogenesis for the first time. ogg1 mainly expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), the primary heart tube, and subsequently the embryonic myocardium by in situ hybridisation. Loss of ogg1 resulted in severe cardiac morphogenesis and functional abnormalities, including the short heart length, arrhythmia, decreased cardiomyocytes and nkx2.5{sup +} cardiac progenitor cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis and repressed proliferation of progenitor cells caused by ogg1 deficiency might contribute to the heart phenotype. The microarray analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in embryonic heart tube morphogenesis and heart structure were significantly changed due to the lack of ogg1. Among those, foxh1 is an important partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage. Our work demonstrates the requirement of ogg1 in cardiac progenitors and heart development in zebrafish. These findings may be helpful for understanding the aetiology of congenital cardiac deficits. - Highlights: • A key DNA repair enzyme ogg1 is expressed in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. • We found that ogg1 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish. • The production of embryonic cardiomyocytes requires appropriate ogg1 expression. • Ogg1 critically regulated proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells in zebrafish. • foxh1 is a partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage.

  3. Acute and long-term effects after single loading of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes into zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Jinping; Chan, C.M.; Veca, L. Monica; Poon, W.L.; Chan, P.K.; Qu Liangwei; Sun Yaping Cheng, S.H.

    2009-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely explored for biomedical applications, but there is very limited information regarding their in vivo biodistribution and biocompatibility. Here, we report the in vivo biodistribution and long-term effects of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in developing zebrafish. The fluorescent-labeled MWCNTs were introduced into zebrafish embryos at 1-cell stage and at 72 h post fertilization through microinjection. After single injection, both acute and long-term interactions between zebrafish and functionalized MWCNTs were studied. The injected FITC-BSA-MWCNTs (at 1-cell stage) were allocated to all blastoderm cells of the embryos through proliferation, and were distinctively excluded from the yolk cell. When introduced into the circulation system, FITC-BSA-MWCNTs moved easily in the compartments and finally were cleaned out by the body at 96 h after the loading. At early stages, the treated zebrafish embryos generated immune response by accumulating circulating white blood cells at the trunk region. Under transmission electron microscope, many lysosome-like vesicles were observed in the blastoderm cells of the treated embryos. The zebrafish loaded with MWCNTs had normal primordial germ cells at early stage and produced second generation later on. However, the larvae of the second generation had obviously lower survival rates as compared to the untreated groups, suggesting a negative effect on the reproduction potential. These results suggest that extensive purification and functionalization processes can help improve the biocompatibility of CNTs. This study also indicates that purified CNTs may have long-term toxicity effects when they were delivered into the body.

  4. The Hippo Pathway Controls a Switch between Retinal Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Photoreceptor Cell Differentiation in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Yoichi; Hata, Shoji; Namae, Misako; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The precise regulation of numbers and types of neurons through control of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation is an essential aspect of neurogenesis. The Hippo signaling pathway has recently been identified as playing a crucial role in promoting cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in multiple types of stem cells, including in retinal progenitor cells. When Hippo signaling is activated, the core Mst1/2 kinases activate the Lats1/2 kinases, which in turn phosphorylate and inhibit the transcriptional cofactor Yap. During mouse retinogenesis, overexpression of Yap prolongs progenitor cell proliferation, whereas inhibition of Yap decreases this proliferation and promotes retinal cell differentiation. However, to date, it remains unknown how the Hippo pathway affects the differentiation of distinct neuronal cell types such as photoreceptor cells. In this study, we investigated whether Hippo signaling regulates retinogenesis during early zebrafish development. Knockdown of zebrafish mst2 induced early embryonic defects, including altered retinal pigmentation and morphogenesis. Similar abnormal retinal phenotypes were observed in zebrafish embryos injected with a constitutively active form of yap [(yap (5SA)]. Loss of Yap’s TEAD-binding domain, two WW domains, or transcription activation domain attenuated the retinal abnormalities induced by yap (5SA), indicating that all of these domains contribute to normal retinal development. Remarkably, yap (5SA)-expressing zebrafish embryos displayed decreased expression of transcription factors such as otx5 and crx, which orchestrate photoreceptor cell differentiation by activating the expression of rhodopsin and other photoreceptor cell genes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Rx1 is a novel interacting partner of Yap that regulates photoreceptor cell differentiation. Our results suggest that Yap suppresses the differentiation of photoreceptor cells from retinal progenitor cells by repressing Rx1

  5. N-cadherin is essential for retinal lamination in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Bettina; Kirsch, Frank-P; Rathjen, Fritz G; Moré, Margret I

    2003-03-01

    N-cadherin is one of the major Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion proteins in the developing nervous system. Here, we analyze eye development in the zebrafish N-cadherin loss-of-function mutant parachute(paR2.10) (pac(paR2.10)). The zebrafish visual system is fully developed by the time pac(paR2.10) mutants show lethality at day 5. Already at 24 hr postfertilization (hpf), mutant retinal cells are more disorganized and more rounded than in wild-type. At later stages, mutant retinae display a severe lamination defect with rosette formation (mostly islands of plexiform layer tissue surrounded by inner nuclear layer or photoreceptor cells), even though all major classes of cell types appear to be present as determined by histology. Of interest, electron microscopy reveals that the islands of plexiform layer tissue contain a normal amount of synapses with normal morphology. Although mutant photoreceptor cells are sometimes deformed, all typical structural components are present, including the membranous discs for rhodopsin storage. The lens fibers of the pac(paR2.10) mutants develop completely normally, but in some cases, lens epithelial cells round up and become multilayered. We conclude that cell adhesion mediated by N-cadherin is of major importance for retinal lamination and involved in maintenance of the lens epithelial sheet, but is not essential for the formation of photoreceptor ultrastructure or for synaptogenesis.

  6. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  7. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  8. Proteomic analysis of zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sandeep; Singh, Sachin K; Lakshmi, Mula G Meena; Meghah, Vuppalapaty; Bhatti, Bhawna; Swamy, Cherukuvada V Brahmendra; Sundaram, Curam S; Idris, Mohammed M

    2012-06-01

    The epimorphic regeneration of zebrafish caudal fin is rapid and complete. We have analyzed the biomechanism of zebrafish caudal fin regeneration at various time points based on differential proteomics approaches. The spectrum of proteome changes caused by regeneration were analyzed among controls (0 h) and 1, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postamputation involving quantitative differential proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and differential in-gel electrophoresis Orbitrap analysis. A total of 96 proteins were found differentially regulated between the control nonregenerating and regenerating tissues of different time points for having at least 1.5-fold changes. 90 proteins were identified as differentially regulated for regeneration based on differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis between the control and regenerating tissues. 35 proteins were characterized for its expression in all of the five regenerating time points against the control samples. The proteins identified and associated with regeneration were found to be directly allied with various molecular, biological, and cellular functions. Based on network pathway analysis, the identified proteome data set for regeneration was majorly associated in maintaining cellular structure and architecture. Also the proteins were found associated for the cytoskeleton remodeling pathway and cellular immune defense mechanism. The major proteins that were found differentially regulated during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration includes keratin and its 10 isoforms, cofilin 2, annexin a1, skeletal α1 actin, and structural proteins. Annexin A1 was found to be exclusively undergoing phosphorylation during regeneration. The obtained differential proteome and the direct association of the various proteins might lead to a new understanding of the regeneration mechanism.

  9. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  10. montalcino, a Zebrafish Model for Variegate Porphyria

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Kimberly A.; Fraenkel, Paula G.; Langer, Nathaniel B.; Schmid, Bettina; Davidson, Alan J.; Weber, Gerhard; Chiang, Ken; Foott, Helen; Dwyer, Caitlin; Wingert, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Yi; Paw, Barry H.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Inherited or acquired mutations in the heme biosynthetic pathway lead to a debilitating class of diseases collectively known as porphyrias, with symptoms that can include anemia, cutaneous photosensitivity, and neurovisceral dysfunction. In a genetic screen for hematopoietic mutants, we isolated a zebrafish mutant, montalcino (mno), which displays hypochromic anemia and porphyria. The objective of this study was to identify the defective gene and characterize the phenotype of the zebrafish mutant. Methods Genetic linkage analysis was utilized to identify the region harboring the mno mutation. Candidate gene analysis together with RT-PCR was utilized to identify the genetic mutation, which was confirmed via allele specific oligo hybridizations. Whole mount in situ hybridizations and 0-dianisidine staining were used to characterize the phenotype of the mno mutant. mRNA and morpholino microinjections were performed to phenocopy and/or rescue the mutant phenotype. Results Homozygous mno mutant embryos have a defect in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (ppox) gene, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen. Homozygous mutant embryos are deficient in hemoglobin, and by 36 hpf are visibly anemic and porphyric. The hypochromic anemia of mno embryos was partially rescued by human ppox, providing evidence for the conservation of function between human and zebrafish ppox. Conclusion In humans, mutations in ppox result in variegate porphyria. At present, effective treatment for acute attacks requires the administration intravenous hemin and/or glucose. Thus, mno represents a powerful model for investigation, and a tool for future screens aimed at identifying chemical modifiers of variegate porphyria. PMID:18550261

  11. Novel biomarkers of perchlorate exposure in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Carr, J.A.; Anderson, T.A.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate inhibits iodide uptake by thyroid follicles and lowers thyroid hormone production. Although several effects of perchlorate on the thyroid system have been reported, the utility of these pathologies as markers of environmental perchlorate exposures has not been adequately assessed. The present study examined time-course and concentration-dependent effects of perchlorate on thyroid follicle hypertrophy, colloid depletion, and angiogenesis; alterations in whole-body thyroxine (T4) levels; and somatic growth and condition factor of subadult and adult zebrafish. Changes in the intensity of the colloidal T4 ring previously observed in zebrafish also were examined immunohistochemically. Three-month-old zebrafish were exposed to ammonium perchlorate at measured perchlorate concentrations of 0, 11, 90, 1,131, and 11,480 ppb for 12 weeks and allowed to recover in clean water for 12 weeks. At two weeks of exposure, the lowest-observed-effective concentrations (LOECs) of perchlorate that induced angiogenesis and depressed the intensity of colloidal T4 ring were 90 and 1,131 ppb, respectively; other parameters were not affected (whole-body T4 was not determined at this time). At 12 weeks of exposure, LOECs for colloid depletion, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and colloidal T4 ring were 11,480, 1,131, 90, and 11 ppb, respectively. All changes were reversible, but residual effects on angiogenesis and colloidal T4 ring intensity were still present after 12 weeks of recovery (LOEC, 11,480 ppb). Whole-body T 4 concentration, body growth (length and weight), and condition factor were not affected by perchlorate. The sensitivity and longevity of changes in colloidal T4 ring intensity and angiogenesis suggest their usefulness as novel markers of perchlorate exposure. The 12-week LOEC for colloidal T4 ring is the lowest reported for any perchlorate biomarker in aquatic vertebrates. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  12. Acclimation of zebrafish to transport stress.

    PubMed

    Dhanasiri, Anusha K S; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Kiron, Viswanath

    2013-03-01

    Welfare of fish is commonly neglected when they are transported. This study examines the effect of a 72-h mock transport on certain aspects of the stress physiology of two groups of zebrafish-the first transported in water enriched with a nitrifying bacterial consortium and the second in water without the enrichment. Zebrafish were examined at different time points-before packing (BP), immediately after packing them in transport bags (AP), at the end of transport (AT), and 72 h thereafter (PT)-to assess the primary (cortisol) and secondary (glucose) stress responses. In addition, the relevant genes in hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis (crf in brain, mc2r, star, cyp11c1, and hsd11b2 in kidney), including that of mineralocorticoid receptor (mr in kidney), were studied. Procedures during packing caused an increase in whole body cortisol levels of both fish groups. Only in the fish transported without the bacterial consortium, an increase in the levels of whole body cortisol as well as blood glucose was observed at the end of the transport. At the same time point and in the same fish group, the transcripts of mr and hsd11b2 were enhanced, probably to cope with the stress and to maintain homeostasis. The mRNA levels of the other genes in the HPI stress axis (crf, mc2r, star, and cyp11c1) were not significantly altered. Zebrafish transported in water enriched with the bacterial consortium exhibited a speedier stress acclimation. Nevertheless, only through in-depth studies the beneficial effect of the consortium can be confirmed.

  13. Three-Dimensional Neurophenotyping of Adult Zebrafish Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam; Utterback, Eli; Hart, Peter; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Wong, Keith; Kyzar, Evan; Wu, Nadine; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2011-01-01

    The use of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) in neurobehavioral research is rapidly expanding. The present large-scale study applied the newest video-tracking and data-mining technologies to further examine zebrafish anxiety-like phenotypes. Here, we generated temporal and spatial three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of zebrafish locomotion, globally assessed behavioral profiles evoked by several anxiogenic and anxiolytic manipulations, mapped individual endpoints to 3D reconstructions, and performed cluster analysis to reconfirm behavioral correlates of high- and low-anxiety states. The application of 3D swim path reconstructions consolidates behavioral data (while increasing data density) and provides a novel way to examine and represent zebrafish behavior. It also enables rapid optimization of video tracking settings to improve quantification of automated parameters, and suggests that spatiotemporal organization of zebrafish swimming activity can be affected by various experimental manipulations in a manner predicted by their anxiolytic or anxiogenic nature. Our approach markedly enhances the power of zebrafish behavioral analyses, providing innovative framework for high-throughput 3D phenotyping of adult zebrafish behavior. PMID:21408171

  14. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Jing Ying; Kumari, Yatinesh; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq; Hue, Seow Mun; Goh, Bey Hing

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  15. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Jing Ying; Kumari, Yatinesh; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq; Hue, Seow Mun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research. PMID:27556045

  16. Genetic determinants of hyaloid and retinal vasculature in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Yolanda; Cederlund, Maria L; Cottell, David C; Bill, Brent R; Ekker, Stephen C; Torres-Vazquez, Jesus; Weinstein, Brant M; Hyde, David R; Vihtelic, Thomas S; Kennedy, Breandan N

    2007-01-01

    Background The retinal vasculature is a capillary network of blood vessels that nourishes the inner retina of most mammals. Developmental abnormalities or microvascular complications in the retinal vasculature result in severe human eye diseases that lead to blindness. To exploit the advantages of zebrafish for genetic, developmental and pharmacological studies of retinal vasculature, we characterised the intraocular vasculature in zebrafish. Results We show a detailed morphological and developmental analysis of the retinal blood supply in zebrafish. Similar to the transient hyaloid vasculature in mammalian embryos, vessels are first found attached to the zebrafish lens at 2.5 days post fertilisation. These vessels progressively lose contact with the lens and by 30 days post fertilisation adhere to the inner limiting membrane of the juvenile retina. Ultrastructure analysis shows these vessels to exhibit distinctive hallmarks of mammalian retinal vasculature. For example, smooth muscle actin-expressing pericytes are ensheathed by the basal lamina of the blood vessel, and vesicle vacuolar organelles (VVO), subcellular mediators of vessel-retinal nourishment, are present. Finally, we identify 9 genes with cell membrane, extracellular matrix and unknown identity that are necessary for zebrafish hyaloid and retinal vasculature development. Conclusion Zebrafish have a retinal blood supply with a characteristic developmental and adult morphology. Abnormalities of these intraocular vessels are easily observed, enabling application of genetic and chemical approaches in zebrafish to identify molecular regulators of hyaloid and retinal vasculature in development and disease. PMID:17937808

  17. Functionally conserved effects of rapamycin exposure on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sucularli, Ceren; Shehwana, Huma; Kuscu, Cem; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Konu, Ozlen

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase important in cell proliferation, growth and protein translation. Rapamycin, a well‑known anti‑cancer agent and immunosuppressant drug, inhibits mTOR activity in different taxa including zebrafish. In the present study, the effect of rapamycin exposure on the transcriptome of a zebrafish fibroblast cell line, ZF4, was investigated. Microarray analysis demonstrated that rapamycin treatment modulated a large set of genes with varying functions including protein synthesis, assembly of mitochondrial and proteasomal machinery, cell cycle, metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation in ZF4 cells. A mild however, coordinated reduction in the expression of proteasomal and mitochondrial ribosomal subunits was detected, while the expression of numerous ribosomal subunits increased. Meta‑analysis of heterogeneous mouse rapamycin microarray datasets enabled the comparison of zebrafish and mouse pathways modulated by rapamycin, using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology pathway analysis. The analyses demonstrated a high degree of functional conservation between zebrafish and mice in response to rapamycin. In addition, rapamycin treatment resulted in a marked dose‑dependent reduction in body size and pigmentation in zebrafish embryos. The present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to evaluate the conservation of rapamycin‑modulated functional pathways between zebrafish and mice, in addition to the dose‑dependent growth curves of zebrafish embryos upon rapamycin exposure.

  18. Designing and Testing of Self-Cleaning Recirculating Zebrafish Tanks.

    PubMed

    Nema, Shubham; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of large number of zebrafish in captive conditions is a daunting task. This can be eased by the use of recirculating racks with self-cleaning zebrafish tanks. Commercially available systems are costly, and compatibility of intercompany products has never been investigated. Although various cost-effective designs and methods of construction of custom-made recirculating zebrafish racks are available in literature, the design of self-cleaning zebrafish tanks is still not available. In this study, we report the design and method of construction of the self-cleaning unit, which can be fitted in any zebrafish tank. We validated the design by investigating sediment cleaning process in rectangular and cylindrical tank geometries using time lapse imaging. Our results suggest that for both tank geometries, the tanks fitted with self-cleaning unit provided superior sediment cleaning than the tanks fitted with overflow-drain unit. Although the self-cleaning unit could clean the sediment completely from both geometries over prolonged period, the cleaning of sediments was faster in the cylindrical tank than the rectangular tank. In conclusion, cost and efforts of zebrafish maintenance could be significantly reduced through the installation of our self-cleaning unit in any custom-made zebrafish tank.

  19. The Control of Calcium Metabolism in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish is an emerging model for the research of body fluid ionic homeostasis. In this review, we focus on current progress on the regulation of Ca2+ uptake in the context of Ca2+ sensing and hormonal regulation in zebrafish. Na+-K+-ATPase-rich cells (NaRCs), the specialized ionocytes in the embryonic skin and adult gills, play a dominant role in Ca2+ uptake in zebrafish. Transepithelial Ca2+ transport in NaRC, through apical epithelial Ca2+ channels (ECaC), basolateral plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), is analogous to mammalian renal and intestinal Ca2+-absorption cells. Several hormones were demonstrated to differentially regulate Ca2+ uptake through modulating the expression of Ca2+ transporters and/or the proliferation/differentiation of NaRC in zebrafish. In addition, the counterbalance among these hormones is associated with the maintenance of body fluid Ca2+ homeostasis. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in several hormone-secreting tissues in zebrafish, and activated CaSR differentially controls calciotropic hormones. The major principles of Ca2+ transport and the hormonal control appear to be conserved from zebrafish to other vertebrates including mammals. The new knowledge gained from zebrafish studies provides new insights into the related issues in vertebrates. PMID:27792163

  20. Developmental biology. Rocks that roll zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Donna M

    2003-10-10

    The vestibular organs of the inner ear of higher vertebrates control balance, and their counterparts in fish control both balance and hearing. Essential to the operation of these sensory organs are the biomineralized structures--otoconia in higher vertebrates or otoliths in fish--that deflect the sensory hair bundles situated beneath them. In her Perspective, Fekete explores the fascinating world of otolith biomineralization in zebrafish; revealing the importance of a protein called Starmaker for coordinating the shape and type of crystal in fish otoliths ( Söllner et al.).

  1. Zebrafish Are Able to Detect Ethanol in Their Environment.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Chow, Hayden; Tsang, Benjamin; Facciol, Amanda; Gandhi, Prabhlene; Desai, Priyanka; Gerlai, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for studying the development of alcohol addiction. Several behavioral paradigms for studying alcohol addiction have been developed for zebrafish, including conditioned place preference, alcohol-induced tolerance, and withdrawal. However, alcohol choice preference tasks have not been established in zebrafish as of yet. The ability of zebrafish to detect alcohol in their environment is required in alcohol choice or preference tasks. To our knowledge, it is currently unknown whether zebrafish are able to detect alcohol in their environment immediately following bath immersion. In the current study, we analyzed the time course of alcohol-induced behavioral changes of zebrafish while being immersed in alcohol solution in a 1.5 L tank. We recorded each trial in high-definition and quantified behavioral responses using automated video tracking-based and manual observation-based methods to quantify temporal changes in alcohol-induced behaviors. As alcohol is known to require several minutes of bath immersion to reach the brain in zebrafish, we argued that behavioral responses before this time point would prove zebrafish's ability to detect this substance in the water. Our results show that a 60-min exposure to 1% alcohol alters behavioral responses in a time-dependent manner. Notably, alcohol exposure significantly increased absolute turn angle, decreased distance to bottom, and variance of distance to bottom within the first 3 min immediately following exposure, a response that occurred before alcohol could reach the brain of the subjects in measurable amounts. These results imply that zebrafish are able to detect alcohol in their environment immediately following immersion into the drug solution.

  2. Retinoic Acid Signaling Is Essential for Valvulogenesis by Affecting Endocardial Cushions Formation in Zebrafish Embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Junbo; Yue, Yunyun; Zhao, Qingshun

    2016-02-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles in many stages of heart morphogenesis. Zebrafish embryos treated with exogenous RA display defective atrio-ventricular canal (AVC) specification. However, whether endogenous RA signaling takes part in cardiac valve formation remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of RA signaling in cardiac valve development by knocking down aldh1a2, the gene encoding an enzyme that is mainly responsible for RA synthesis during early development, in zebrafish embryos. The results showed that partially knocking down aldh1a2 caused defective formation of primitive cardiac valve leaflets at 108 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Inhibiting endogenous RA signaling by 4-diethylaminobenzal-dehyde revealed that 16-26 hpf was a key time window when RA signaling affects the valvulogenesis. The aldh1a2 morphants had defective formation of endocardial cushion (EC) at 76 hpf though they had almost normal hemodynamics and cardiac chamber specification at early development. Examining the expression patterns of AVC marker genes including bmp4, bmp2b, nppa, notch1b, and has2, we found the morphants displayed abnormal development of endocardial AVC but almost normal development of myocardial AVC at 50 hpf. Being consistent with the reduced expression of notch1b in endocardial AVC, the VE-cadherin gene cdh5, the downstream gene of Notch signaling, was ectopically expressed in AVC of aldh1a2 morphants at 50 hpf, and overexpression of cdh5 greatly affected the formation of EC in the embryos at 76 hpf. Taken together, our results suggest that RA signaling plays essential roles in zebrafish cardiac valvulogenesis.

  3. Inducible Sterilization of Zebrafish by Disruption of Primordial Germ Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Collodi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    During zebrafish development, a gradient of stromal-derived factor 1a (Sdf1a) provides the directional cue that guides the migration of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) to the gonadal tissue. Here we describe a method to produce large numbers of infertile fish by inducing ubiquitous expression of Sdf1a in zebrafish embryos resulting in disruption of the normal PGC migration pattern. A transgenic line of zebrafish, Tg(hsp70:sdf1a-nanos3, EGFP), was generated that expresses Sdf1a under the control of the heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) promoter and nanos3 3?UTR. To better visualize the PGCs, the Tg(hsp70:sdf1a-nanos3, EGFP) fish were crossed with another transgenic line, Tg(kop:DsRed-nanos3), that expresses DsRed driven by the PGC-specific kop promoter. Heat treatment of the transgenic embryos caused an induction of Sdf1a expression throughout the embryo resulting in the disruption of their normal migration. Optimal embryo survival and disruption of PGC migration was achieved when transgenic embryos at the 4- to 8-cell stage were incubated at 34.5°C for 18 hours. Under these conditions, disruption of PGC migration was observed in 100% of the embryos. Sixty-four adult fish were developed from three separate batches of heat-treated embryos and all were found to be infertile males. When each male was paired with a wild-type female, only unfertilized eggs were produced and histological examination revealed that each of the adult male fish possessed severely under-developed gonads that lacked gametes. The results demonstrate that inducible Sdf1a expression is an efficient and reliable strategy to produce infertile fish. This approach makes it convenient to generate large numbers of infertile adult fish while also providing the capability to maintain a fertile brood stock. PMID:23826390

  4. Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.C.; Hui, Michelle N.Y.; Cheng, S.H. E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-07-15

    Carbaryl, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to be moderately toxic to adult zebrafish and has been reported to cause heart malformations and irregular heartbeat in medaka. We performed experiments to study the toxicity of carbaryl, specifically its effects on the heart, in early developing zebrafish embryos. LC50 and EC50 values for carbaryl at 28 h post-fertilization were 44.66 {mu}g/ml and 7.52 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and 10 {mu}g/ml carbaryl was used in subsequent experiments. After confirming acetylcholinesterase inhibition by carbaryl using an enzymatic method, we observed red blood cell accumulation, delayed hatching and pericardial edema, but not heart malformation as described in some previous reports. Our chronic exposure data also demonstrated carbaryl-induced bradycardia, which is a common effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors due to the accumulation of acetylcholine, in embryos from 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) to 5 dpf. The distance between the sinus venosus, the point where blood enters the atrium, and the bulbus arteriosus, the point where blood leaves the ventricle, indicated normal looping of the heart tube. Immunostaining of myosin heavy chains with the ventricle-specific antibody MF20 and the atrium-specific antibody S46 showed normal development of heart chambers. At the same time, acute exposure resulted in carbaryl-induced bradycardia. Heart rate dropped significantly after a 10-min exposure to 100 {mu}g/ml carbaryl but recovered when carbaryl was removed. The novel observation of carbaryl-induced bradycardia in 1- and 2-dpf embryos suggested that carbaryl affected cardiac function possibly through an alternative mechanism other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition such as inhibition of calcium ion channels, since acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish are not functional until 3 dpf. However, the exact nature of this mechanism is currently unknown, and thus further studies are required.

  5. A Zebrafish Model for Uremic Toxicity: Role of the Complement Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Josh; Reinecke, James; Raff, Amanda C.; Melamed, Michal L.; Reinecke, James; Quan, Zhe; Evans, Todd; Meyer, Timothy W.; Hostetter, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Many organic solutes accumulate in ESRD and some are poorly removed removed with urea based prescriptions for hemodialysis. However, their toxicities have been difficult to assess. We have employed an animal model, the zebrafish embryo, to test the toxicity of uremic serum compared to control. Serum was obtained from stable ESRD patients pre-dialysis or from normal subjects. Zebrafish embryos 24 hours post fertilization were exposed to experimental media at a ratio of 3:1 water:human serum. Those exposed to serum from uremic subjects had significantly reduced survival at 8 hours (19% +/− 18% vs. 94% +/− 6%; p < 0.05, uremic serum vs control, respectively). Embryos exposed to serum from ESRD subjects fractionated at 50kD showed significantly greater toxicity with the larger molecular weight fraction (83% +/− 11% vs 7% +/−17% survival, p < 0.05, <50kD vs >50 kD, respectively). Heating serum abrogated its toxicity. EDTA, a potent inhibitor of complement by virtue of calcium chelation, reduced the toxicity of uremic serum compared to untreated uremic serum (96%+/− 5% vs 28%+/− 20% survival, p < 0.016, chelated vs non chelated serum respectively). Anti- factor B, a specific inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, reduced the toxicity of uremic serum, compared to untreated uremic serum (98% +/− 6% vs. 3% +/− 9% survival, p < 0.016, anti- factor B treated vs non treated, respectively).Uremic serum is thus more toxic to zebrafish embryos than normal serum. Furthermore, this toxicity is associated with a fraction of large size, is inactivated by heat, and is reduced by both specific and non-specific inhibitors of complement activation. Together these data lend support to the hypothesis that at least some uremic toxicities may be mediated by complement. PMID:23689420

  6. A zebrafish model for uremic toxicity: role of the complement pathway.

    PubMed

    Berman, Nathaniel; Lectura, Melisa; Thurman, Joshua M; Reinecke, James; Raff, Amanda C; Melamed, Michal L; Quan, Zhe; Evans, Todd; Meyer, Timothy W; Hostetter, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Many organic solutes accumulate in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and some are poorly removed with urea-based prescriptions for hemodialysis. However, their toxicities have been difficult to assess. We have employed an animal model, the zebrafish embryo, to test the toxicity of uremic serum compared to control. Serum was obtained from stable ESRD patients predialysis or from normal subjects. Zebrafish embryos 24 h postfertilization were exposed to experimental media at a water:human serum ratio of 3:1. Those exposed to serum from uremic subjects had significantly reduced survival at 8 h (19 ± 18 vs. 94 ± 6%, p < 0.05, uremic serum vs. control, respectively). Embryos exposed to serum from ESRD subjects fractionated at 50 kDa showed significantly greater toxicity with the larger molecular weight fraction (83 ± 11 vs. 7 ± 17% survival, p < 0.05, <50 vs. >50 kDa, respectively). Heating serum abrogated its toxicity. EDTA, a potent inhibitor of complement by virtue of calcium chelation, reduced the toxicity of uremic serum compared to untreated uremic serum (96 ± 5 vs. 28 ± 20% survival, p < 0.016, chelated vs. nonchelated serum, respectively). Anti-factor B, a specific inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, reduced the toxicity of uremic serum, compared to untreated uremic serum (98 ± 6 vs. 3 ± 9% survival, p < 0.016, anti-factor B treated vs. nontreated, respectively). Uremic serum is thus more toxic to zebrafish embryos than normal serum. Furthermore, this toxicity is associated with a fraction of large size, is inactivated by heat, and is reduced by both specific and nonspecific inhibitors of complement activation. Together these data lend support to the hypothesis that at least some uremic toxicities may be mediated by complement.

  7. Using engineered endonucleases to create knockout and knockin zebrafish models.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Victoria M; Ekker, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the technology to create targeted knockout and knockin zebrafish animals has exploded. We have gained the ability to create targeted knockouts through the use of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated system (CRISPR/Cas). Furthermore, using the high-efficiency TALEN system, we were able to create knockin zebrafish using a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) protocol described here. Through the use of these technologies, the zebrafish has become a valuable vertebrate model and an excellent bridge between the invertebrate and mammalian model systems for the study of human disease.

  8. The mob as tumor suppressor (mats1) gene is required for growth control in developing zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Shuo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Zhang, Wenxia; Lai, Zhi-Chun

    2009-01-01

    The mob as tumor suppressor (mats) family genes are highly conserved in evolution. The Drosophila mats gene functions in the Hippo signaling pathway to control tissue growth by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, nothing is known about whether mats family genes are required for the normal development of vertebrates. Here we report that zebrafish has three mats family genes. Expression of mats1 is maternally activated and continues during embryogenesis. Through a morpholino-based knockdown approach, we found that mats1 is required for normal embryonic development. Reduction of mats1 function caused developmental delay, a phenotype similar to that of Drosophila mats homozygous mutants. Both cell proliferation and apoptosis were defective in mats1 morphant embryos. Moreover, mats1 morphant cells exhibited a growth advantage in chimeric embryos, similar to mats mutant cells in mosaic tissues in Drosophila. Therefore mats1 plays a critical role in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis during early development in zebrafish, and the role of mats family genes in growth regulation is conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates. This work shows that zebrafish can be a good model organism for further analysis of Hippo signaling pathway.

  9. Rest Mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Cara E.; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F.; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I.

    2015-01-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  10. Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2015-05-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest.

  11. A Methodology for Quantifying Heart Function in the Embryonic Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brennan; Garrity, Deborah; Dasi, Lakshmi

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have linked epigenetic factors such as blood flow dynamics and cardiac function to proper heart development. To better understand this process, it is essential to develop robust quantitative methods to investigate the blood dynamics and wall kinematics in vivo. Here, we develop a methodology that can be used throughout the early stages of development which requires no specialized equipment other than a bright field microscope and high-speed camera. We use the embryonic zebrafish as our model due to its superb optical access and widespread acceptance as a powerful model for human heart development. Using these methods, we quantify blood flow rates, stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction, and other important parameters related to heart function. We also investigate the pumping mechanics from heart tube to looped configuration. We show that although the mechanism changes fundamentally, it does so in a continuous fashion that can incorporate combined pumping mechanisms at intermediate stages. This work provides a basis for quantitatively comparing normal and abnormal heart development, and may help us gain a better understanding of congenital heart defects. Funded by NSF.

  12. Mechanisms of silver_nanoparticles induced hypopigmentation in embryonic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lian; Xu, Qin-Han; Zhou, Xin-Ying; Yin, Li-Yan; Guan, Peng-Peng; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Jing-Xia

    2017-03-01

    Silver_nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification of erythroid cells and to induce spinal cord deformities and cardiac arrhythmia in vertebrates, but have not been implicated in development of neural crest (NC) and pigment cells in an in vivo model yet. In current study, down-regulated expressions of NC genes pax7 and foxd3, melanophore genes mitfa and dct, and xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were revealed by microarray, qRT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). Then, the down-regulated expressions of melanophore genes mitfa and dct but not xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were found to be recovered by melanogenesis agonists palmitic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP). Finally, Ag(+) chelating and AgNPs coating compound l-cysteine was found to neutralize AgNPs-induced hypopigmentation in AgNPs-exposed embryos, and to recover the down-regulated expressions of both dct and gch2 to nearly normal level in embryos, suggesting that AgNPs-releasing Ag(+) might mediate their biological effects on zebrafish pigmentation mostly. This study was firstly to unveil that AgNPs might specifically act up-stream of mitfa and pax7 genes to suppress specification and differentiation of melanophore and xanthophore lineages respectively by their releasing Ag(+) during vertebrate embryogenesis.

  13. Full Transcriptome Analysis of Early Dorsoventral Patterning in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Balázs; Molnár, János; Nagy, István; Tóth, Gábor; Wilson, Stephen W.; Varga, Máté

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the molecular interactions that lead to the establishment of the major body axes during embryogenesis is one of the main goals of developmental biology. Although the past two decades have revolutionized our knowledge about the genetic basis of these patterning processes, the list of genes involved in axis formation is unlikely to be complete. In order to identify new genes involved in the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axis during early stages of zebrafish embryonic development, we employed next generation sequencing for full transcriptome analysis of normal embryos and embryos lacking overt DV pattern. A combination of different statistical approaches yielded 41 differentially expressed candidate genes and we confirmed by in situ hybridization the early dorsal expression of 32 genes that are transcribed shortly after the onset of zygotic transcription. Although promoter analysis of the validated genes suggests no general enrichment for the binding sites of early acting transcription factors, most of these genes carry “bivalent” epigenetic histone modifications at the time when zygotic transcription is initiated, suggesting a “poised” transcriptional status. Our results reveal some new candidates of the dorsal gene regulatory network and suggest that a plurality of the earliest upregulated genes on the dorsal side have a role in the modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway. PMID:23922899

  14. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments.

    PubMed

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-11-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation.

  15. Parametric analyses of anxiety in zebrafish scototaxis.

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Colmanetti, Rafael; Pontes, Alvaro Antonio Assis; de Castro, Henrique Meira; de Lacerda, Renata Inah Tavares; Morato, Silvio; Gouveia, Amauri

    2010-06-26

    Scototaxis, the preference for dark environments in detriment of bright ones, is an index of anxiety in zebrafish. In this work, we analyzed avoidance of the white compartment by analysis of the spatiotemporal pattern of exploratory behavior (time spent in the white compartment of the apparatus and shuttle frequency between compartments) and swimming ethogram (thigmotaxis, freezing and burst swimming in the white compartment) in four experiments. In Experiment 1, we demonstrate that spatiotemporal measures of white avoidance and locomotion do not habituate during a single 15-min session. In Experiments 2 and 3, we demonstrate that locomotor activity habituates to repeated exposures to the apparatus, regardless of whether inter-trial interval is 15-min or 24-h; however, no habituation of white avoidance was observed in either experiment. In Experiment 4, we confined animals for three 15-min sessions in the white compartment prior to recording spatiotemporal and ethogram measures in a standard preference test. After these forced exposures, white avoidance and locomotor activity showed no differences in relation to non-confined animals, but burst swimming, thigmotaxis and freezing in the white compartment were all decreased. These results suggest that neither avoidance of the white compartment nor approach to the black compartment account for the behavior of zebrafish in the scototaxis test.

  16. Identification of polarized macrophage subsets in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Chi, Mai; Laplace-Builhe, Béryl; Travnickova, Jana; Luz-Crawford, Patricia; Tejedor, Gautier; Phan, Quang Tien; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Kissa, Karima; Lutfalla, Georges; Jorgensen, Christian; Djouad, Farida

    2015-07-08

    While the mammalian macrophage phenotypes have been intensively studied in vitro, the dynamic of their phenotypic polarization has never been investigated in live vertebrates. We used the zebrafish as a live model to identify and trail macrophage subtypes. We generated a transgenic line whose macrophages expressing tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfa), a key feature of classically activated (M1) macrophages, express fluorescent proteins Tg(mpeg1:mCherryF/tnfa:eGFP-F). Using 4D-confocal microscopy, we showed that both aseptic wounding and Escherichia coli inoculation triggered macrophage recruitment, some of which started to express tnfa. RT-qPCR on Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-sorted tnfa(+) and tnfa(-) macrophages showed that they, respectively, expressed M1 and alternatively activated (M2) mammalian markers. Fate tracing of tnfa(+) macrophages during the time-course of inflammation demonstrated that pro-inflammatory macrophages converted into M2-like phenotype during the resolution step. Our results reveal the diversity and plasticity of zebrafish macrophage subsets and underline the similarities with mammalian macrophages proposing a new system to study macrophage functional dynamic.

  17. Multidimensional In Vivo Hazard Assessment Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    There are tens of thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment; the inherent safety of most of these chemicals is not known. Relevant biological platforms and new computational tools are needed to prioritize testing of chemicals with limited human health hazard information. We describe an experimental design for high-throughput characterization of multidimensional in vivo effects with the power to evaluate trends relating to commonly cited chemical predictors. We evaluated all 1060 unique U.S. EPA ToxCast phase 1 and 2 compounds using the embryonic zebrafish and found that 487 induced significant adverse biological responses. The utilization of 18 simultaneously measured endpoints means that the entire system serves as a robust biological sensor for chemical hazard. The experimental design enabled us to describe global patterns of variation across tested compounds, evaluate the concordance of the available in vitro and in vivo phase 1 data with this study, highlight specific mechanisms/value-added/novel biology related to notochord development, and demonstrate that the developmental zebrafish detects adverse responses that would be missed by less comprehensive testing strategies. PMID:24136191

  18. Identification of polarized macrophage subsets in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Chi, Mai; Laplace-Builhe, Béryl; Travnickova, Jana; Luz-Crawford, Patricia; Tejedor, Gautier; Phan, Quang Tien; Duroux-Richard, Isabelle; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Kissa, Karima; Lutfalla, Georges

    2015-01-01

    While the mammalian macrophage phenotypes have been intensively studied in vitro, the dynamic of their phenotypic polarization has never been investigated in live vertebrates. We used the zebrafish as a live model to identify and trail macrophage subtypes. We generated a transgenic line whose macrophages expressing tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfa), a key feature of classically activated (M1) macrophages, express fluorescent proteins Tg(mpeg1:mCherryF/tnfa:eGFP-F). Using 4D-confocal microscopy, we showed that both aseptic wounding and Escherichia coli inoculation triggered macrophage recruitment, some of which started to express tnfa. RT-qPCR on Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)-sorted tnfa+ and tnfa− macrophages showed that they, respectively, expressed M1 and alternatively activated (M2) mammalian markers. Fate tracing of tnfa+ macrophages during the time-course of inflammation demonstrated that pro-inflammatory macrophages converted into M2-like phenotype during the resolution step. Our results reveal the diversity and plasticity of zebrafish macrophage subsets and underline the similarities with mammalian macrophages proposing a new system to study macrophage functional dynamic. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07288.001 PMID:26154973

  19. Afferent Connectivity of the Zebrafish Habenulae

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katherine J.; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Yáñez, Julián; Anadón, Ramón; Wilson, Stephen W.; Folgueira, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates. Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish. We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis, posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe; we also see asymmetric afferents from olfactory bulb to the right habenula, and from the parapineal to the left habenula. In addition, we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus (vENT), confirming and extending observations of Amo et al. (2014). Fate map and marker studies suggest that vENT originates from the diencephalic prethalamic eminence and extends into the lateral telencephalon from 48 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). No afferents to the habenula were observed from the dorsal entopeduncular nucleus (dENT). Consequently, we confirm that the vENT (and not the dENT) should be considered as the entopeduncular nucleus “proper” in zebrafish. Furthermore, comparison with data in other vertebrates suggests that the vENT is a conserved basal ganglia nucleus, being homologous to the entopeduncular nucleus of mammals (internal segment of the globus pallidus of primates) by both embryonic origin and projections, as previously suggested by Amo et al. (2014). PMID:27199671

  20. Variability in mitochondria of zebrafish photoreceptor ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Tarboush, R; Novales Flamarique, I; Chapman, G B; Connaughton, V P

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoids in larval (4, 8, and 15 days postfertilization; dpf) and adult zebrafish identified morphologically different types of mitochondria. All photoreceptors had mitochondria of different sizes (large and small). At 4 dpf, rods had small, moderately stained electron-dense mitochondria (E-DM), and two cone types could be distinguished: (1) those with electron-lucent mitochondria (E-LM) and (2) those with mitochondria of moderate electron density. These distinctions were also apparent at later ages (8 and 15 dpf). Rods from adult fish had fewer mitochondria than their corresponding cones. The ellipsoids of some fully differentiated single and double cones contained large E-DM with few cristae; these were surrounded by small E-LM with typical internal morphology. The mitochondria within the ellipsoids of other single cones showed similar electron density. Microspectrophotometry of cone ellipsoids from adult fish indicated that the large E-DM had a small absorbance peak (∼0.03 OD units) and did not contain cytochrome-c, but crocetin, a carotenoid found in old world monkeys. Crocetin functions to prevent oxidative damage to photoreceptors, suggesting that the ellipsoid mitochondria in adult zebrafish cones protect against apoptosis and function metabolically, rather than as a light filter.

  1. Toxicity of chlorine to zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael L; Buchner, Cari; Barton, Carrie; Tanguay, Robert L

    2014-01-16

    Surface disinfection of fertilized fish eggs is widely used in aquaculture to reduce extraovum pathogens that may be released from brood fish during spawning, and this is routinely used in zebrafish Danio rerio research laboratories. Most laboratories use approximately 25 to 50 ppm unbuffered chlorine solution for 5 to 10 min. Treatment of embryos with chlorine has significant germicidal effects for many Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and trophozoite stages of protozoa, but is less effective against cyst or spore stages of protozoa and certain Mycobacterium spp. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of unbuffered and buffered chlorine solutions to embryos exposed at 6 or 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) to determine whether higher concentrations can be used for treating zebrafish embryos. Most of our experiments entailed using an outbred line (5D), with both mortality and malformations as endpoints. We found that 6 hpf embryos consistently were more resistant than 24 hpf embryos to the toxic effects of chlorine. Chlorine is more toxic and germicidal at lower pH, and chlorine causes elevated pH. Consistent with this, we found that unbuffered chlorine solutions (pH ca. 8-9) were less toxic at corresponding concentrations than solutions buffered to pH 7. Based on our findings here, we recommend treating 6 hpf embryos for 10 min and 24 hpf embryos for 5 min with unbuffered chlorine solution at 100 ppm.

  2. Elucidating Cannabinoid Biology in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Randall G.; Clark, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    The number of annual cannabinoid users exceeds 100,000,000 globally and an estimated 9 % of these individuals will suffer from dependency. Although exogenous cannabinoids, like those contained in marijuana, are known to exert their effects by disrupting the endocannabinoid system, a dearth of knowledge exists about the potential toxicological consequences on public health. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for a plethora of disorders because it functions to endogenously regulate a vast repertoire of physiological functions. Accordingly, the rapidly expanding field of cannabinoid biology has sought to leverage model organisms in order to provide both toxicological and therapeutic insights about altered endocannabinoid signaling. The primary goal of this manuscript is to review the existing field of cannabinoid research in the genetically tractable zebrafish model—focusing on the cannabinoid receptor genes, cnr1 and cnr2, and the genes that produce enzymes for synthesis and degradation of the cognate ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. Consideration is also given to research that has studied the effects of exposure to exogenous phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that are known to interact with cannabinoid receptors. These results are considered in the context of either endocannabinoid gene expression or endocannabinoid gene function, and are integrated with findings from rodent studies. This provides the framework for a discussion of how zebrafish may be leveraged in the future to provide novel toxicological and therapeutic insights in the field of cannabinoid biology, which has become increasingly significant given recent trends in cannabis legislation. PMID:26192460

  3. Radiographic analysis of zebrafish skeletal defects.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Shannon; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur; Halpern, Marnie E

    2003-12-01

    Systematic identification of skeletal dysplasias in model vertebrates provides insight into the pathogenesis of human skeletal disorders and can aid in the identification of orthologous human genes. We are undertaking a mutagenesis screen for skeletal dysplasias in adult zebrafish, using radiography to detect abnormalities in skeletal anatomy and bone morphology. We have isolated chihuahua, a dominant mutation causing a general defect in bone growth. Heterozygous chihuahua fish have phenotypic similarities to human osteogenesis imperfecta, a skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the type I collagen genes. Mapping and molecular characterization of the chihuahua mutation indicates that the defect resides in the gene encoding the collagen I(alpha1) chain. Thus, chihuahua accurately models osteogenesis imperfecta at the biologic and molecular levels, and will prove an important resource for studies on the disease pathophysiology. Radiography is a practical screening tool to detect subtle skeletal abnormalities in the adult zebrafish. The identification of chihuahua demonstrates that mutant phenotypes analogous to human skeletal dysplasias will be discovered.

  4. Zebrafish biosensor for toxicant induced muscle hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Maryam; Takamiya, Masanari; Stegmaier, Johannes; Middel, Volker; Gradl, Marion; Klüver, Nils; Mikut, Ralf; Dickmeis, Thomas; Scholz, Stefan; Rastegar, Sepand; Yang, Lixin; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Robust and sensitive detection systems are a crucial asset for risk management of chemicals, which are produced in increasing number and diversity. To establish an in vivo biosensor system with quantitative readout for potential toxicant effects on motor function, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line TgBAC(hspb11:GFP) which expresses a GFP reporter under the control of regulatory elements of the small heat shock protein hspb11. Spatiotemporal hspb11 transgene expression in the musculature and the notochord matched closely that of endogenous hspb11 expression. Exposure to substances that interfere with motor function induced a dose-dependent increase of GFP intensity beginning at sub-micromolar concentrations, while washout of the chemicals reduced the level of hspb11 transgene expression. Simultaneously, these toxicants induced muscle hyperactivity with increased calcium spike height and frequency. The hspb11 transgene up-regulation induced by either chemicals or heat shock was eliminated after co-application of the anaesthetic MS-222. TgBAC(hspb11:GFP) zebrafish embryos provide a quantitative measure of muscle hyperactivity and represent a robust whole organism system for detecting chemicals that affect motor function. PMID:27029555

  5. Zebrafish biosensor for toxicant induced muscle hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Maryam; Takamiya, Masanari; Stegmaier, Johannes; Middel, Volker; Gradl, Marion; Klüver, Nils; Mikut, Ralf; Dickmeis, Thomas; Scholz, Stefan; Rastegar, Sepand; Yang, Lixin; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-03-31

    Robust and sensitive detection systems are a crucial asset for risk management of chemicals, which are produced in increasing number and diversity. To establish an in vivo biosensor system with quantitative readout for potential toxicant effects on motor function, we generated a transgenic zebrafish line TgBAC(hspb11:GFP) which expresses a GFP reporter under the control of regulatory elements of the small heat shock protein hspb11. Spatiotemporal hspb11 transgene expression in the musculature and the notochord matched closely that of endogenous hspb11 expression. Exposure to substances that interfere with motor function induced a dose-dependent increase of GFP intensity beginning at sub-micromolar concentrations, while washout of the chemicals reduced the level of hspb11 transgene expression. Simultaneously, these toxicants induced muscle hyperactivity with increased calcium spike height and frequency. The hspb11 transgene up-regulation induced by either chemicals or heat shock was eliminated after co-application of the anaesthetic MS-222. TgBAC(hspb11:GFP) zebrafish embryos provide a quantitative measure of muscle hyperactivity and represent a robust whole organism system for detecting chemicals that affect motor function.

  6. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C.; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. PMID:25267843

  7. Effects of GABA, Neural Regulation, and Intrinsic Cardiac Factors on Heart Rate Variability in Zebrafish Larvae.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rafael Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) is a periodic activity that is variable over time due to intrinsic cardiac factors and extrinsic neural control, largely by the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is analyzed by measuring consecutive beat-to-beat intervals. This variability can contain information about the factors regulating cardiac activity under normal and pathological conditions, but the information obtained from such analyses is not yet fully understood. In this article, HRV in zebrafish larvae was evaluated under normal conditions and under the effect of substances that modify intrinsic cardiac activity and cardiac activity modulated by the nervous system. We found that the factors affecting intrinsic activity have negative chronotropic and arrhythmogenic effects at this stage of development, whereas neural modulatory factors have a lesser impact. The results suggest that cardiac activity largely depends on the intrinsic properties of the heart tissue in the early stages of development and, to a lesser extent, in the maturing nervous system. We also report, for the first time, the influence of the neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid on HRV. The results demonstrate the larval zebrafish model as a useful tool in the study of intrinsic cardiac activity and its role in heart diseases.

  8. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  9. Motor Behavior Mediated by Continuously Generated Dopaminergic Neurons in the Zebrafish Hypothalamus Recovers After Cell Ablation

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Adam D.; Barrios, Joshua P.; Luks-Morgan, Sasha J.; Manfredi, John P.; Bonkowsky, Joshua L.; Douglass, Adam D.; Dorsky, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Postembryonic neurogenesis has been observed in several regions of the vertebrate brain, including the dentate gyrus and rostral migratory stream in mammals, and is required for normal behavior [1–3]. Recently the hypothalamus has also been shown to undergo continuous neurogenesis as a way to mediate energy balance [4–10]. As the hypothalamus regulates multiple functional outputs, it is likely that additional behaviors may be affected by postembryonic neurogenesis in this brain structure. Here, we have identified a progenitor population in the zebrafish hypothalamus that continuously generates neurons that express tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (th2). We develop and use novel transgenic tools to characterize the lineage of th2+ cells and demonstrate that they are dopaminergic. Through genetic ablation and optogenetic activation we then show that th2+ neurons modulate the initiation of swimming behavior in zebrafish larvae. Finally we find that the generation of new th2+ neurons following ablation correlates with restoration of normal behavior. This work thus identifies for the first time a population of dopaminergic neurons that regulates motor behavior capable of functional recovery. PMID:26774784

  10. Beta-Catenin and Plakoglobin Expression during Zebrafish Tooth Development and Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Barbara; van Hengel, Jolanda; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the protein distribution of two cadherin-associated molecules, plakoglobin and β-catenin, during the different stages of tooth development and tooth replacement in zebrafish. Plakoglobin was detected at the plasma membrane already at the onset of tooth development in the epithelial cells of the tooth. This pattern remained unaltered during further tooth development. The mesenchymal cells only showed plakoglobin from cytodifferentiation onwards. Plakoglobin 1a morpholino-injected embryos showed normal tooth development with proper initiation and differentiation. Although plakoglobin is clearly present during normal odontogenesis, the loss of plakoglobin 1a does not influence tooth development. β-catenin was found at the cell borders of all cells of the successional lamina but also in the nuclei of surrounding mesenchymal cells. Only membranous, not nuclear, β-catenin, was found during morphogenesis stage. However, during cytodifferentiation stage, both nuclear and membrane-bound β-catenin was detected in the layers of the enamel organ as well as in the differentiating odontoblasts. Nuclear β-catenin is an indication of an activated Wnt pathway, therefore suggesting a possible role for Wnt signalling during zebrafish tooth development and replacement. PMID:26938059

  11. Evidence for a core gut microbiota in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Roeselers, Guus; Mittge, Erika K; Stephens, W Zac; Parichy, David M; Cavanaugh, Colleen M; Guillemin, Karen; Rawls, John F

    2011-01-01

    Experimental analysis of gut microbial communities and their interactions with vertebrate hosts is conducted predominantly in domesticated animals that have been maintained in laboratory facilities for many generations. These animal models are useful for studying coevolved relationships between host and microbiota only if the microbial communities that occur in animals in lab facilities are representative of those that occur in nature. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of gut bacterial communities in zebrafish collected recently from their natural habitat and those reared for generations in lab facilities in different geographic locations. Patterns of gut microbiota structure in domesticated zebrafish varied across different lab facilities in correlation with historical connections between those facilities. However, gut microbiota membership in domesticated and recently caught zebrafish was strikingly similar, with a shared core gut microbiota. The zebrafish intestinal habitat therefore selects for specific bacterial taxa despite radical differences in host provenance and domestication status. PMID:21472014

  12. Persistent impaired glucose metabolism in a zebrafish hyperglycemia model.

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Antonioli, Régis; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects over 10% of the world's population. Hyperglycemia is the main feature for the diagnosis of this disease. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model organism for the study of various metabolic diseases. In this paper, hyperglycemic zebrafish, when immersed in a 111 mM glucose solution for 14 days, developed increased glycation of proteins from the eyes, decreased mRNA levels of insulin receptors in the muscle, and a reversion of high blood glucose level after treatment with anti-diabetic drugs (glimepiride and metformin) even after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. Additionally, hyperglycemic zebrafish developed an impaired response to exogenous insulin, which was recovered after 7 days of glucose withdrawal. These data suggest that the exposure of adult zebrafish to high glucose concentration is able to induce persistent metabolic changes probably underlined by a hyperinsulinemic state and impaired peripheral glucose metabolism.

  13. Teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs in the zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hak; Kang, Jung Won; Lin, Tao; Lee, Jae Eun; Jin, Dong Il

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) to termination of hatching (72 hpf) which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI) of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data.

  14. Tracking zebrafish larvae in group – Status and perspectives☆

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Pierre R.; Mourrain, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Video processing is increasingly becoming a standard procedure in zebrafish behavior investigations as it enables higher research throughput and new or better measures. This trend, fostered by the ever increasing performance-to-price ratio of the required recording and processing equipment, should be expected to continue in the foreseeable future, with video-processing based methods permeating more and more experiments and, as a result, expanding the very role of behavioral studies in zebrafish research. To assess whether the routine video tracking of zebrafish larvae directly in the Petri dish is a capability that can be expected in the near future, the key processing concepts are discussed and illustrated on published zebrafish studies when available or other animals when not. PMID:23707495

  15. Developmental Toxicity of Louisiana Crude Oiled Sediment to Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum products cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil. Oiled sedi...

  16. The zebrafish as a model for complex tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gemberling, Matthew; Bailey, Travis J; Hyde, David R; Poss, Kenneth D

    2013-11-01

    For centuries, philosophers and scientists have been fascinated by the principles and implications of regeneration in lower vertebrate species. Two features have made zebrafish an informative model system for determining mechanisms of regenerative events. First, they are highly regenerative, able to regrow amputated fins, as well as a lesioned brain, retina, spinal cord, heart, and other tissues. Second, they are amenable to both forward and reverse genetic approaches, with a research toolset regularly updated by an expanding community of zebrafish researchers. Zebrafish studies have helped identify new mechanistic underpinnings of regeneration in multiple tissues and, in some cases, have served as a guide for contemplating regenerative strategies in mammals. Here, we review the recent history of zebrafish as a genetic model system for understanding how and why tissue regeneration occurs.

  17. REVIEW: Zebrafish: A Renewed Model System For Functional Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2008-01-01

    In the post genome era, a major goal in molecular biology is to determine the function of the many thousands of genes present in the vertebrate genome. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an almost ideal genetic model to identify the biological roles of these novel genes, in part because their embryos are transparent and develop rapidly. The zebrafish has many advantages over mouse for genome-wide mutagenesis studies, allowing for easier, cheaper and faster functional characterization of novel genes in the vertebrate genome. Many molecular research tools such as chemical mutagenesis, transgenesis, gene trapping, gene knockdown, TILLING, gene targeting, RNAi and chemical genetic screen are now available in zebrafish. Combining all the forward, reverse, and chemical genetic tools, it is expected that zebrafish will make invaluable contribution to vertebrate functional genomics in functional annotation of the genes, modeling human diseases and drug discoveries.

  18. Targeted Mutagenesis in Zebrafish Using Customized Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Jonathan E.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Pearlberg, Joseph; Joung, J. Keith; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish mutants have traditionally been obtained using random mutagenesis or retroviral insertions, methods that cannot be targeted to a specific gene and require laborious gene mapping and sequencing. Recently, we and others have shown that customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can introduce targeted frame-shift mutations with high efficiency, thereby enabling directed creation of zebrafish gene mutations. Here we describe a detailed protocol for constructing ZFN expression vectors, for generating and introducing ZFN-encoding RNAs into zebrafish embryos, and for identifying ZFN-generated mutations in targeted genomic sites. All of our vectors and methods are compatible with previously described Zinc Finger Consortium reagents for constructing engineered zinc finger arrays. Using these methods, zebrafish founders carrying targeted mutations can be identified within four months. PMID:20010934

  19. The genetics of ocular disorders: insights from the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ann C

    2011-09-01

    Proper formation of the vertebrate eye requires a precisely coordinated sequence of morphogenetic events that integrate the developmental contributions of the skin ectoderm, neuroectoderm, and head mesenchyme. Disruptions in this process result in ocular malformations or retinal degeneration and can cause significant visual impairment. The zebrafish is an excellent vertebrate model for the study of eye development and disease due to the transparency of the embryo, its ex utero development, and its amenability to forward genetic screens. This review will present an overview of the genetic methodologies utilized in the zebrafish, a description of several zebrafish models of congenital ocular diseases, and a discussion of the utility of the zebrafish for assessing the pathogenicity of candidate disease alleles.

  20. Evolution of complexity in the zebrafish synapse proteome.

    PubMed

    Bayés, Àlex; Collins, Mark O; Reig-Viader, Rita; Gou, Gemma; Goulding, David; Izquierdo, Abril; Choudhary, Jyoti S; Emes, Richard D; Grant, Seth G N

    2017-03-02

    The proteome of human brain synapses is highly complex and is mutated in over 130 diseases. This complexity arose from two whole-genome duplications early in the vertebrate lineage. Zebrafish are used in modelling human diseases; however, its synapse proteome is uncharacterized, and whether the teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD) influenced complexity is unknown. We report the characterization of the proteomes and ultrastructure of central synapses in zebrafish and analyse the importance of the TSGD. While the TSGD increases overall synapse proteome complexity, the postsynaptic density (PSD) proteome of zebrafish has lower complexity than mammals. A highly conserved set of ∼1,000 proteins is shared across vertebrates. PSD ultrastructural features are also conserved. Lineage-specific proteome differences indicate that vertebrate species evolved distinct synapse types and functions. The data sets are a resource for a wide range of studies and have important implications for the use of zebrafish in modelling human synaptic diseases.

  1. Social learning of an associative foraging task in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zala, Sarah M.; Määttänen, Ilmari

    2013-05-01

    The zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is increasingly becoming an important model species for studies on the genetic and neural mechanisms controlling behaviour and cognition. Here, we utilized a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to study social learning in zebrafish. We tested whether social interactions with conditioned demonstrators enhance the ability of focal naïve individuals to learn an associative foraging task. We found that the presence of conditioned demonstrators improved focal fish foraging behaviour through the process of social transmission, whereas the presence of inexperienced demonstrators interfered with the learning of the control focal fish. Our results indicate that zebrafish use social learning for finding food and that this CPP paradigm is an efficient assay to study social learning and memory in zebrafish.

  2. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Chen, James K.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levels in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.

  3. Social learning of an associative foraging task in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zala, Sarah M; Määttänen, Ilmari

    2013-05-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly becoming an important model species for studies on the genetic and neural mechanisms controlling behaviour and cognition. Here, we utilized a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to study social learning in zebrafish. We tested whether social interactions with conditioned demonstrators enhance the ability of focal naïve individuals to learn an associative foraging task. We found that the presence of conditioned demonstrators improved focal fish foraging behaviour through the process of social transmission, whereas the presence of inexperienced demonstrators interfered with the learning of the control focal fish. Our results indicate that zebrafish use social learning for finding food and that this CPP paradigm is an efficient assay to study social learning and memory in zebrafish.

  4. Evolution of complexity in the zebrafish synapse proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bayés, Àlex; Collins, Mark O.; Reig-Viader, Rita; Gou, Gemma; Goulding, David; Izquierdo, Abril; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Emes, Richard D.; Grant, Seth G. N.

    2017-01-01

    The proteome of human brain synapses is highly complex and is mutated in over 130 diseases. This complexity arose from two whole-genome duplications early in the vertebrate lineage. Zebrafish are used in modelling human diseases; however, its synapse proteome is uncharacterized, and whether the teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD) influenced complexity is unknown. We report the characterization of the proteomes and ultrastructure of central synapses in zebrafish and analyse the importance of the TSGD. While the TSGD increases overall synapse proteome complexity, the postsynaptic density (PSD) proteome of zebrafish has lower complexity than mammals. A highly conserved set of ∼1,000 proteins is shared across vertebrates. PSD ultrastructural features are also conserved. Lineage-specific proteome differences indicate that vertebrate species evolved distinct synapse types and functions. The data sets are a resource for a wide range of studies and have important implications for the use of zebrafish in modelling human synaptic diseases. PMID:28252024

  5. The zebrafish as a model for complex tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gemberling, Matthew; Bailey, Travis J.; Hyde, David R.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, philosophers and scientists have been fascinated by the principles and implications of regeneration in lower vertebrate species. Two features have made zebrafish an informative model system for determining mechanisms of regenerative events. First, they are highly regenerative, able to regrow amputated fins, as well as a lesioned brain, retina, spinal cord, heart, and other tissues. Second, they are amenable to both forward and reverse genetic approaches, with a research toolset regularly updated by an expanding community of zebrafish researchers. Zebrafish studies have helped identify new mechanistic underpinnings of regeneration in multiple tissues, and in some cases have served as a guide for contemplating regenerative strategies in mammals. Here, we review the recent history of zebrafish as a genetic model system for understanding how and why tissue regeneration occurs. PMID:23927865

  6. The Dorsal Pallium in Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Thomas; Dong, Zhiqiang; Berberoglu, Michael A.; Guo, Su

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish as a neurogenetic model system depends on the correct neuroanatomical understanding of its brain organization. Here, we address the unresolved question regarding a possible zebrafish homologue of the dorsal pallial division, the region that in mammals gives rise to the isocortex. Analyzing the distributions of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate diphorase (NADPHd) activity and parvalbumin in the anterior zebrafish telencephalon, we show that against previous assumptions the central (Dc) zone possesses its own germinative region in the dorsal proliferative zone. We define the central (Dc) zone as topologically corresponding to the dorsal pallial division of other vertebrates (mammalian isocortex). In addition, we confirm through BrdU-labeling experiments that the posterior (Dp) zone is formed by radial migration and homologous to the mammalian piriform cortex. Based on our results, we propose a new developmental and organizational model of the zebrafish pallium—one which is the result of a complex outward-inward folding. PMID:21219890

  7. Think Small: Zebrafish as a Model System of Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, J. R.; Jobin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Although human pathologies have mostly been modeled using higher mammal systems such as mice, the lower vertebrate zebrafish has gained tremendous attention as a model system. The advantages of zebrafish over classical vertebrate models are multifactorial and include high genetic and organ system homology to humans, high fecundity, external fertilization, ease of genetic manipulation, and transparency through early adulthood that enables powerful imaging modalities. This paper focuses on four areas of human pathology that were developed and/or advanced significantly in zebrafish in the last decade. These areas are (1) wound healing/restitution, (2) gastrointestinal diseases, (3) microbe-host interactions, and (4) genetic diseases and drug screens. Important biological processes and pathologies explored include wound-healing responses, pancreatic cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and mycobacterium infection. The utility of zebrafish in screening for novel genes important in various pathologies such as polycystic kidney disease is also discussed. PMID:22701308

  8. Phenotype classification of zebrafish embryos by supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Jeanray, Nathalie; Marée, Raphaël; Pruvot, Benoist; Stern, Olivier; Geurts, Pierre; Wehenkel, Louis; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish is increasingly used to assess biological properties of chemical substances and thus is becoming a specific tool for toxicological and pharmacological studies. The effects of chemical substances on embryo survival and development are generally evaluated manually through microscopic observation by an expert and documented by several typical photographs. Here, we present a methodology to automatically classify brightfield images of wildtype zebrafish embryos according to their defects by using an image analysis approach based on supervised machine learning. We show that, compared to manual classification, automatic classification results in 90 to 100% agreement with consensus voting of biological experts in nine out of eleven considered defects in 3 days old zebrafish larvae. Automation of the analysis and classification of zebrafish embryo pictures reduces the workload and time required for the biological expert and increases the reproducibility and objectivity of this classification.

  9. Targeted mutagenesis of zebrafish: use of zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Leong, Ivone Un San; Lai, Daniel; Lan, Chuan-Ching; Johnson, Ross; Love, Donald R; Johnson, Ross; Love, Donald R

    2011-09-01

    The modeling of human disease in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is moving away from chemical mutagensis and transient downregulation using morpholino oligomers to more targeted and stable transgenic methods. In this respect, zinc finger nucleases offer a means of introducing mutations at targeted sites at high efficiency. We describe here the development of zinc finger nucleases and their general use in model systems with a focus on the zebrafish.

  10. Unique and conserved aspects of gut development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Kenneth N; Pack, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Although the development of the digestive system of humans and vertebrate model organisms has been well characterized, relatively little is known about how the zebrafish digestive system forms. We define developmental milestones during organogenesis of the zebrafish digestive tract, liver, and pancreas and identify important differences in the way the digestive endoderm of zebrafish and amniotes is organized. Such differences account for the finding that the zebrafish digestive system is assembled from individual organ anlagen, whereas the digestive anlagen of amniotes arise from a primitive gut tube. Despite differences of organ morphogenesis, conserved molecular programs regulate pharynx, esophagus, liver, and pancreas development in teleosts and mammals. Specifically, we show that zebrafish faust/gata-5 is a functional ortholog of gata-4, a gene that is essential for the formation of the mammalian and avian foregut. Further, extraembryonic gata activity is required for this function in zebrafish as has been shown in other vertebrates. We also show that a loss-of-function mutation that perturbs sonic hedgehog causes defects in the development of the esophagus that parallel those associated with targeted disruption of this gene in mammals. Perturbation of sonic hedgehog also affects zebrafish liver and pancreas development, and these effects occur in a reciprocal fashion, as has been described during mammalian liver and ventral pancreas development. Together, these data define aspects of digestive system development necessary for the characterization of zebrafish mutants. Given the similarities of teleost and mammalian digestive physiology and anatomy, these findings have implications for developmental and evolutionary studies as well as research of human diseases, such as diabetes, liver cirrhosis, and cancer.

  11. Electroretinogram Analysis of the Visual Response in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Chrispell, Jared D.; Rebrik, Tatiana I.; Weiss, Ellen R.

    2015-01-01

    The electroretinogram (ERG) is a noninvasive electrophysiological method for determining retinal function. Through the placement of an electrode on the surface of the cornea, electrical activity generated in response to light can be measured and used to assess the activity of retinal cells in vivo. This manuscript describes the use of the ERG to measure visual function in zebrafish. Zebrafish have long been utilized as a model for vertebrate development due to the ease of gene suppression by morpholino oligonucleotides and pharmacological manipulation. At 5-10 dpf, only cones are functional in the larval retina. Therefore, the zebrafish, unlike other animals, is a powerful model system for the study of cone visual function in vivo. This protocol uses standard anesthesia, micromanipulation and stereomicroscopy protocols that are common in laboratories that perform zebrafish research. The outlined methods make use of standard electrophysiology equipment and a low light camera to guide the placement of the recording microelectrode onto the larval cornea. Finally, we demonstrate how a commercially available ERG stimulator/recorder originally designed for use with mice can easily be adapted for use with zebrafish. ERG of larval zebrafish provides an excellent method of assaying cone visual function in animals that have been modified by morpholino oligonucleotide injection as well as newer genome engineering techniques such as Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9, all of which have greatly increased the efficiency and efficacy of gene targeting in zebrafish. In addition, we take advantage of the ability of pharmacological agents to penetrate zebrafish larvae to evaluate the molecular components that contribute to the photoresponse. This protocol outlines a setup that can be modified and used by researchers with various experimental goals. PMID

  12. Electroretinogram analysis of the visual response in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Chrispell, Jared D; Rebrik, Tatiana I; Weiss, Ellen R

    2015-03-16

    The electroretinogram (ERG) is a noninvasive electrophysiological method for determining retinal function. Through the placement of an electrode on the surface of the cornea, electrical activity generated in response to light can be measured and used to assess the activity of retinal cells in vivo. This manuscript describes the use of the ERG to measure visual function in zebrafish. Zebrafish have long been utilized as a model for vertebrate development due to the ease of gene suppression by morpholino oligonucleotides and pharmacological manipulation. At 5-10 dpf, only cones are functional in the larval retina. Therefore, the zebrafish, unlike other animals, is a powerful model system for the study of cone visual function in vivo. This protocol uses standard anesthesia, micromanipulation and stereomicroscopy protocols that are common in laboratories that perform zebrafish research. The outlined methods make use of standard electrophysiology equipment and a low light camera to guide the placement of the recording microelectrode onto the larval cornea. Finally, we demonstrate how a commercially available ERG stimulator/recorder originally designed for use with mice can easily be adapted for use with zebrafish. ERG of larval zebrafish provides an excellent method of assaying cone visual function in animals that have been modified by morpholino oligonucleotide injection as well as newer genome engineering techniques such as Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9, all of which have greatly increased the efficiency and efficacy of gene targeting in zebrafish. In addition, we take advantage of the ability of pharmacological agents to penetrate zebrafish larvae to evaluate the molecular components that contribute to the photoresponse. This protocol outlines a setup that can be modified and used by researchers with various experimental goals.

  13. Conserved gene regulation during acute inflammation between zebrafish and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, G.; Varela, M.; Pereiro, P.; Novoa, B.; Figueras, A.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio), largely used as a model for studying developmental processes, has also emerged as a valuable system for modelling human inflammatory diseases. However, in a context where even mice have been questioned as a valid model for these analysis, a systematic study evaluating the reproducibility of human and mammalian inflammatory diseases in zebrafish is still lacking. In this report, we characterize the transcriptomic regulation to lipopolysaccharide in adult zebrafish kidney, liver, and muscle tissues using microarrays and demonstrate how the zebrafish genomic responses can effectively reproduce the mammalian inflammatory process induced by acute endotoxin stress. We provide evidence that immune signaling pathways and single gene expression is well conserved throughout evolution and that the zebrafish and mammal acute genomic responses after lipopolysaccharide stimulation are highly correlated despite the differential susceptibility between species to that compound. Therefore, we formally confirm that zebrafish inflammatory models are suited to study the basic mechanisms of inflammation in human inflammatory diseases, with great translational impact potential. PMID:28157230

  14. Toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on cardiac development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Xuejie; Zhu, Jingai; Zhu, Shasha; Hu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Chun; Guo, Xirong; Yu, Zhangbin; Han, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. Although the mixed PCB Aroclor 1254 is widespread in the environment, its potential toxic effect on heart development and the mechanism underlying its developmental toxicity have not been previously studied. Here, we used the zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to examine the effects of Aroclor 1254 on heart development. We found that PCB exposure during zebrafish development induced heart abnormalities including pericardial edema and cardiac looping defects. Further malformations of the zebrafish embryo were observed and death of the larvae occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our mechanistic studies revealed that abnormalities in the arylhydrocarbon receptor, Wnt and retinoic acid signaling pathways may underlie the effects of PCBs on zebrafish heart development. Interestingly, co-administration of Aroclor 1254 and diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, partially rescued the toxic effects of PCBs on zebrafish heart development. In conclusion, PCBs can induce developmental defects in the zebrafish heart, which may be mediated by abnormal RA signaling.

  15. An In Vivo Method to Quantify Lymphangiogenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Scott J.; Psaltis, Peter J.; Clark, Karl J.; Spoon, Daniel B.; Chue, Colin D.; Ekker, Stephen C.; Simari, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lymphangiogenesis is a highly regulated process involved in the pathogenesis of disease. Current in vivo models to assess lymphangiogenesis are largely unphysiologic. The zebrafish is a powerful model system for studying development, due to its rapid growth and transparency during early stages of life. Identification of a network of trunk lymphatic capillaries in zebrafish provides an opportunity to quantify lymphatic growth in vivo. Methods and Results Late-phase microangiography was used to detect trunk lymphatic capillaries in zebrafish 2- and 3-days post-fertilization. Using this approach, real-time changes in lymphatic capillary development were measured in response to modulators of lymphangiogenesis. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C added directly to the zebrafish aqueous environment as well as human endothelial and mouse melanoma cell transplantation resulted in increased lymphatic capillary growth, while morpholino-based knockdown of vegfc and chemical inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis added to the aqueous environment resulted in decreased lymphatic capillary growth. Conclusion Lymphatic capillaries in embryonic and larval zebrafish can be quantified using late-phase microangiography. Human activators and small molecule inhibitors of lymphangiogenesis, as well as transplanted human endothelial and mouse melanoma cells, alter lymphatic capillary development in zebrafish. The ability to rapidly quantify changes in lymphatic growth under physiologic conditions will allow for broad screening of lymphangiogenesis modulators, as well as help define cellular roles and elucidate pathways of lymphatic development. PMID:23028871

  16. Enhanced hyperplasia in muscles of transgenic zebrafish expressing Follistatin1.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Nie, Fen; Yin, Zhan; He, JiangYan

    2011-02-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) super-family and functions as a negative regulator of muscle growth. Binding of the specific receptor, Activin receptor IIB (Act RIIB), with myostatin or other related TGF-β members, could be inhibited by the activin-binding protein follistatin (Fst) in mammals. Overexpressing Fst in mouse skeletal muscle leads to muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia. To determine if Fst has similar roles in fish, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing high levels of zebrafish Fst1 using the promoter of the zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific gene, myosin, light polypeptide 2, skeletal muscle (Mylz2). Independent transgenic zebrafish lines exhibited elevated expression levels of myogenic regulatory genes MyoD and Pax7 in muscle cells. Adult Fst1 overexpressing transgenic zebrafish exhibited a slight body weight increase. The high level of Fst1 expression dramatically increased myofiber numbers in skeletal muscle, without significantly changing the fiber size. Our findings suggest that Fst1 overexpression can promote zebrafish muscle growth by enhancing myofiber hyperplasia.

  17. Microarray Noninvasive Neuronal Seizure Recordings from Intact Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michaela; Dhamne, Sameer C.; LaCoursiere, Christopher M.; Tambunan, Dimira; Poduri, Annapurna; Rotenberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish epilepsy models are emerging tools in experimental epilepsy. Zebrafish larvae, in particular, are advantageous because they can be easily genetically altered and used for developmental and drug studies since agents applied to the bath penetrate the organism easily. Methods for electrophysiological recordings in zebrafish are new and evolving. We present a novel multi-electrode array method to non-invasively record electrical activity from up to 61 locations of an intact larval zebrafish head. This method enables transcranial noninvasive recording of extracellular field potentials (which include multi-unit activity and EEG) to identify epileptic seizures. To record from the brains of zebrafish larvae, the dorsum of the head of an intact larva was secured onto a multi-electrode array. We recorded from individual electrodes for at least three hours and quantified neuronal firing frequency, spike patterns (continuous or bursting), and synchrony of neuronal firing. Following 15 mM potassium chloride- or pentylenetetrazole-infusion into the bath, spike and burst rate increased significantly. Additionally, synchrony of neuronal firing across channels, a hallmark of epileptic seizures, also increased. Notably, the fish survived the experiment. This non-invasive method complements present invasive zebrafish neurophysiological techniques: it affords the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution, a capacity to measure multiregional activity and neuronal synchrony in seizures, and fish survival for future experiments, such as studies of epileptogenesis and development. PMID:27281339

  18. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  19. Turning Rate Dynamics of Zebrafish Exposed to Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice in alcohol-related pharmacological studies. In these studies, zebrafish are often exposed to acute ethanol treatments and their activity scored during behavioral assays. Computational modeling of zebrafish behavior is expected to positively impact these efforts by offering a predictive toolbox to plan hypothesis-driven studies, reduce the number of subjects, perform pilot trials, and refine behavioral screening. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the recently proposed jump persistent turning walker to model the turning rate dynamics of zebrafish exposed to acute ethanol administration. This modeling framework is based on a stochastic mean reverting jump process to capture the sudden and large changes in orientation of swimming zebrafish. The model is calibrated on an available experimental dataset of 40 subjects, tested at different ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate that model parameters are modulated by ethanol administration, whereby both the relaxation rate and jump frequency of the turning rate dynamics are influenced by ethanol concentration. This effort offers a first evidence for the possibility of complementing zebrafish pharmacological research with computational modeling of animal behavior.

  20. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an “all-or-none” manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish. PMID:27063288

  1. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicholas R.; Laroche, Fabrice J.F.; Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients. PMID:27165361

  2. Fundamental Approaches to the Study of Zebrafish Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Stephen A.; Powell, Mickie; D’Abramo, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    The value of the zebrafish model has been well established. However, culture variability within and among laboratories remains a concern, particularly as it relates to nutrition. Investigators using rodent models addressed this concern several decades ago and have developed strict nutritional regimes to which their models adhere. These investigators decreased the variability associated with nutrition in most studies by developing standardized reference and open formulation diets. Zebrafish investigators have not embraced this approach. In this article, we address the problems associated with the lack of nutritional information and standardization in the zebrafish research community. Based on the knowledge gained from studies of other animals, including traditional research models, other fish species, domesticated and companion animals, and humans, we have proposed an approach that seeks to standardize nutrition research in zebrafish. We have identified a number of factors for consideration in zebrafish nutrition studies and have suggested a number of proposed outcomes. The long term-goal of nutrition research will be to identify the daily nutritional requirements of the zebrafish and to develop appropriate standardized reference and open formulation diets. PMID:23382346

  3. A proteome map of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lens reveals similarities between zebrafish and mammalian crystallin expression

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Molly; LaCava, Carrie; Prince, Courtney J.; Bellanco, Nicholas R.; Corbin, Rebecca W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the crystallin content of the zebrafish lens using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). These data will facilitate future investigations of vertebrate lens development, function, and disease. Methods Adult zebrafish lens proteins were separated by 2-DE, and the resulting spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The relative proportion of each crystallin was quantified by image analysis, and phosphospecific staining was used to identify phosphorylated α-crystallins. The proportion of each crystallin in the soluble and insoluble fraction of the lens was also determined by resolving these lens fractions separately by 2-DE. Results α-, β-, and γ-crystallins comprised 7.8, 36.0, and 47.2% of the zebrafish lens, respectively. While the α-crystallin content of the zebrafish lens is less than the amounts found in the human lens, the ratio of αA:αB crystallin is very similar. The phosphorylation pattern of zebrafish αA-crystallins was also similar to that of humans. The most abundant γ-crystallins were the diverse γMs, comprising 30.5% of the lens. Intact zebrafish crystallins were generally more common in the soluble fraction with truncated versions more common in the insoluble fraction. Conclusions While the total α- and γ-crystallin content of the zebrafish lens differs from that of humans, similarities in α-crystallin ratios and modifications and a link between crystallin truncation and insolubility suggest that the zebrafish is a suitable model for the vertebrate lens. The proteome map provided here will be of value to future studies of lens development, function, and disease. PMID:18449354

  4. Leptin signaling regulates glucose homeostasis, but not adipostasis, in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Michel, Maximilian; Page-McCaw, Patrick S; Chen, Wenbiao; Cone, Roger D

    2016-03-15

    Leptin is the primary adipostatic factor in mammals. Produced largely by adipocytes in proportion to total adipose mass, the hormone informs the brain regarding total energy stored as triglycerides in fat cells. The hormone acts on multiple circuits in the brain to regulate food intake, autonomic outflow, and endocrine function to maintain energy balance. In addition to regulating adipose mass, mammalian leptin also plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and as a gating factor in reproductive competence. Leptin-deficient mice and people exhibit early onset profound hyperphagia and obesity, diabetes, and infertility. Although leptin and the leptin receptor are found in fish, the hormone is not expressed in adipose tissue, but is found in liver and other tissues. Here, we show that adult zebrafish lacking a functional leptin receptor do not exhibit hyperphagia or increased adiposity, and exhibit normal fertility. However, leptin receptor-deficient larvae have increased numbers of β-cells and increased levels of insulin mRNA. Furthermore, larval zebrafish have been shown to exhibit β-cell hyperplasia in response to high fat feeding or peripheral insulin resistance, and we show here that leptin receptor is required for this response. Adult zebrafish also have increased levels of insulin mRNA and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Thus, a role for leptin in the regulation of β-cell mass and glucose homeostasis appears to be conserved across vertebrates, whereas its role as an adipostatic factor is likely to be a secondary role acquired during the evolution of mammals.

  5. Movement and function of the pectoral fins of the larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) during slow swimming.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew H; Ho, Robert K; Hale, Melina E

    2011-09-15

    Pectoral fins are known to play important roles in swimming for many adult fish; however, their functions in fish larvae are unclear. We examined routine pectoral fin movement during rhythmic forward swimming and used genetic ablation to test hypotheses of fin function in larval zebrafish. Fins were active throughout bouts of slow swimming. Initiation was characterized by asymmetric fin abduction that transitioned to alternating rhythmic movement with first fin adduction. During subsequent swimming, fin beat amplitude decreased while tail beat amplitude increased over swimming speeds ranging from 1.47 to 4.56 body lengths per second. There was no change in fin or tail beat frequency with speed (means ± s.d.: 28.2±3.5 and 29.6±1.9 Hz, respectively). To examine potential roles of the pectoral fins in swimming, we compared the kinematics of finless larvae generated with a morpholino knockdown of the gene fgf24 to those of normal fish. Pectoral fins were not required for initiation nor did they significantly impact forward rhythmic swimming. We investigated an alternative hypothesis that the fins function in respiration. Dye visualization demonstrated that pectoral fin beats bring distant fluid toward the body and move it caudally behind the fins, disrupting the boundary layer along the body's surface, a major site of oxygen absorption in larvae. Larval zebrafish also demonstrated more fin beating in low oxygen conditions. Our data reject the hypothesis that the pectoral fins of larval zebrafish have a locomotor function during slow, forward locomotion, but are consistent with the hypothesis that the fins have a respiratory function.

  6. Spred-2 expression is associated with neural repair of injured adult zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fei Tieng; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-11-01

    Sprouty-related protein-2 (Spred-2) is a negative regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, which is important for cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, plasticity and survival. Nevertheless, its general molecular characteristics such as gene expression patterns and potential role in neural repair in the brain remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to characterise the expression of spred-2 in the zebrafish brain. Digoxigenin-in situ hybridization showed spred-2 mRNA-expressing cells were mainly seen in the proliferative zones such as the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and the dorsal and ventral hypothalamus, and most of which were neuronal cells. To evaluate the potential role of spred-2 in neuro-regeneration, spred-2 gene expression was examined in the dorsal telencephalon followed by mechanical-lesion. Real-time PCR showed a significant reduction of spred-2 mRNA levels in the telencephalon on 1-day till 2-days post-lesion and gradually increased to normal levels as compared with intact. Furthermore, to confirm involvement of Spred-2 signalling in the cell proliferation after brain injury, double-labelling of spred-2 in-situ hybridization with immunofluorescence of BrdU and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a downstream of Spred-2 was performed. Increase of BrdU and p-ERK1/2 immunoreactive cells suggest that a decrease in spred-2 after injury might associated with activation of the ERK pathway to stimulate cell proliferation in the adult zebrafish brain. The present study demonstrates the possible role of Spred-2 signalling in cell proliferative phase during the neural repair in the injured zebrafish brain.

  7. Activity Suppression Behavior Phenotype in SULT4A1 Frameshift Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Frank; Thomas, Holly R.; Parant, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Since its identification in 2000, sulfotransferase (SULT) 4A1 has presented an enigma to the field of cytosolic SULT biology. SULT4A1 is exclusively expressed in neural tissue, is highly conserved, and has been identified in every vertebrate studied to date. Despite this singular level of conservation, no substrate or function for SULT4A1 has been identified. Previous studies demonstrated that SULT4A1 does not bind the obligate sulfate donor, 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate, yet SULT4A1 is classified as a SULT superfamily member based on sequence and structural similarities to the other SULTs. In this study, transcription activator-like effector nucleases were used to generate heritable mutations in the SULT4A1 gene of zebrafish. The mutation (SULT4A1Δ8) consists of an 8-nucleotide deletion within the second exon of the gene, resulting in a frameshift mutation and premature stop codon after 132 AA. During early adulthood, casual observations were made that mutant zebrafish were exhibiting excessively sedentary behavior during the day. These observations were inconsistent with published reports on activity in zebrafish that are largely diurnal organisms and are highly active during the day. Thus, a decrease in activity during the day represents an abnormal behavior and warranted further systematic analysis. EthoVision video tracking software was used to monitor activity levels in wild-type (WT) and SULT4A1Δ8/Δ8 fish over 48 hours of a normal light/dark cycle. SULT4A1Δ8/Δ8 fish were shown to exhibit increased inactivity bout length and frequency as well as a general decrease in daytime activity levels when compared with their WT counterparts. PMID:25934576

  8. A zebrafish model of manganism reveals reversible and treatable symptoms that are independent of neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bakthavatsalam, Subha; Das Sharma, Shreya; Sonawane, Mahendra; Thirumalai, Vatsala; Datta, Ankona

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (manganese ion; referred to as Mn) is essential for neuronal function, yet it is toxic at high concentrations. Environmental and occupational exposure to high concentrations of Mn causes manganism, a well-defined movement disorder in humans, with symptoms resembling Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, manganism is distinct from PD and the neural basis of its pathology is poorly understood. To address this issue, we generated a zebrafish model of manganism by incubating larvae in rearing medium containing Mn. We find that Mn-treated zebrafish larvae exhibit specific postural and locomotor defects. Larvae begin to float on their sides, show a curved spine and swim in circles. We discovered that treatment with Mn causes postural defects by interfering with mechanotransduction at the neuromasts. Furthermore, we find that the circling locomotion could be caused by long-duration bursting in the motor neurons, which can lead to long-duration tail bends in the Mn-treated larvae. Mn-treated larvae also exhibited fewer startle movements. Additionally, we show that the intensity of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity is reversibly reduced after Mn-treatment. This led us to propose that reduced dopamine neuromodulation drives the changes in startle movements. To test this, when we supplied an external source of dopamine to Mn-treated larvae, the larvae exhibited a normal number of startle swims. Taken together, these results indicate that Mn interferes with neuronal function at the sensory, motor and modulatory levels, and open avenues for therapeutically targeted studies on the zebrafish model of manganism. PMID:25261567

  9. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on hepatic and serum lipid profiles in zebrafish exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Hermes, Djuli Milene; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Guizzo, Ranieli; Fracasso, Laísa Beduschi; de-Paris, Fernanda; Meurer, Fábio; Barth, Afonso Luis; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2014-08-01

    Zebrafish is a powerful tool in pharmacological research and useful to identify new therapies. Probiotics can offer therapeutic options in alcoholic liver disease. This study was done in two independent experiments: first, we confirmed the intestinal colonization of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) after ethanol exposure. Second, four groups were performed: control (C), probiotic (P), ethanol (E), and probiotic+ethanol (P+E). Liver histology, hepatocytes morphometry, hepatic and serum lipid quantifications were conducted in second experiment. During 4 weeks, P and P+E groups were fed with LGG supplemented feed; E and C unsupplemented. E and P+E groups received 0.5% of ethanol added into tank water. Zebrafish exposed to ethanol (E group) presented intense liver steatosis after 28 days in contrast to the almost normalized liver histology of P+E group at the same period. Liver morphometry showed a significant enlargement of hepatocytes of E group after 4 weeks (p<0.0001). Serum triglycerides decreased in P+E group compared with C, P (p<0.001), and E (p=0.004), after 14 and 28 days similarly. Serum cholesterol was also decreased by LGG; P group decreased compared with C and E after 14 days (p=0.002 and p=0.007, respectively) and P+E group decreased significantly compared with E and C groups (p<0.0001) after 28 days. Hepatic triglycerides were reduced in P+E group after 28 days compared to E (p=0.006). The persistence of LGG in zebrafish intestines was demonstrated. LGG decreased serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and improved hepatic steatosis.

  10. Long-lasting effects of dexamethasone on immune cells and wound healing in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Faiza; Steenbergen, Peter J; Metz, Juriaan R; Champagne, Danielle L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the lasting impact of dexamethasone (DEX) exposure during early development on tissue repair capacity at later life stages (5, 14, and 24 days post fertilization [dpf]) in zebrafish larvae. Using the caudal fin amputation model, we show that prior exposure to DEX significantly delays but does not prevent wound healing at all life stages studied. DEX-induced impairments on wound healing were fully restored to normal levels with longer post amputation recovery time. Further analyses revealed that DEX mainly exerted its detrimental effects in the early phase (0-5 hours) of wound-healing process. Specifically, we observed the following events: (1) massive amount of cell death both by necrosis and apoptosis; (2) significant reduction in the number as well as misplacement of macrophages at the wound site; (3) aberrant migration and misplacement of neutrophils and macrophages at the wound site. These events were accompanied by significant (likely compensatory) changes in the expression of genes involved in tissue patterning, including up-regulation of FKBP5 6 hours post DEX exposure and that of Wnt3a and RARγ at 24 hours post amputation. Taken together, this study provides evidence that DEX exposure during early sensitive periods of development appears to cause permanent alterations in the cellular/molecular immune processes that are involved in the early phase of wound healing in zebrafish. These findings are consistent with previous studies showing that antenatal course of DEX is associated with immediate and lasting alterations of the immune system in rodent models and humans. Therefore, the current findings support the use of the larval zebrafish model to study the impact of stress and stress hormone exposure in immature organisms on health risks in later life.

  11. Correct anteroposterior patterning of the zebrafish neurectoderm in the absence of the early dorsal organizer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The embryonic organizer (i.e., Spemann organizer) has a pivotal role in the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axis through the coordination of BMP signaling. However, as impaired organizer function also results in anterior and posterior truncations, it is of interest to determine if proper anteroposterior (AP) pattern can be obtained even in the absence of early organizer signaling. Results Using the ventralized, maternal effect ichabod (ich) mutant, and by inhibiting BMP signaling in ich embryos, we provide conclusive evidence that AP patterning is independent of the organizer in zebrafish, and is governed by TGFβ, FGF, and Wnt signals emanating from the germ-ring. The expression patterns of neurectodermal markers in embryos with impaired BMP signaling show that the directionality of such signals is oriented along the animal-vegetal axis, which is essentially concordant with the AP axis. In addition, we find that in embryos inhibited in both Wnt and BMP signaling, the AP pattern of such markers is unchanged from that of the normal untreated embryo. These embryos develop radially organized trunk and head tissues, with an outer neurectodermal layer containing diffusely positioned neuronal precursors. Such organization is reflective of the presumed eumetazoan ancestor and might provide clues for the evolution of centralization in the nervous system. Conclusions Using a zebrafish mutant deficient in the induction of the embryonic organizer, we demonstrate that the AP patterning of the neuroectoderm during gastrulation is independent of DV patterning. Our results provide further support for Nieuwkoop's "two step model" of embryonic induction. We also show that the zebrafish embryo can form a radial diffuse neural sheath in the absence of both BMP signaling and the early organizer. PMID:21575247

  12. Time Course Analysis of Gene Expression Patterns in Zebrafish Eye During Optic Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    McCurley, Amy T.

    2010-01-01

    It is well-established that neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) are terminally differentiated and, if injured, will be unable to regenerate their connections. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish and other teleosts display a robust neuroregenerative response. Following optic nerve crush (ONX), retinal ganglion cells (RGC) regrow their axons to synapse with topographically correct targets in the optic tectum, such that vision is restored in ∼21 days. What accounts for these differences between teleostean and mammalian responses to neural injury is not fully understood. A time course analysis of global gene expression patterns in the zebrafish eye after ONX can help to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to a successful neuroregeneration. To define different phases of regeneration after ONX, alpha tubulin 1 (tuba1) and growth-associated protein 43 (gap43), markers previously shown to correspond to morphophological events, were measured by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Microarray analysis was then performed at defined intervals (6 hours, 1, 4, 12, and 21 days) post-ONX and compared to SHAM. Results show that optic nerve damage induces multiple, phase-related transcriptional programs, with the maximum number of genes changed and highest fold-change occurring at 4 days. Several functional groups affected by optic nerve regeneration, including cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell cycle, energy metabolism, ion channel activity, and calcium signaling, were identified. Utilizing the whole eye allowed us to identify signaling contributions from the vitreous, immune and glial cells as well as the neural cells of the retina. Comparisons between our dataset and transcriptional profiles from other models of regeneration in zebrafish retina, heart and fin revealed a subset of commonly regulated transcripts, indicating shared mechanisms in different regenerating tissues. Knowledge of gene expression patterns in all components of the

  13. Leptin signaling regulates glucose homeostasis, but not adipostasis, in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Maximilian; Page-McCaw, Patrick S.; Chen, Wenbiao; Cone, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is the primary adipostatic factor in mammals. Produced largely by adipocytes in proportion to total adipose mass, the hormone informs the brain regarding total energy stored as triglycerides in fat cells. The hormone acts on multiple circuits in the brain to regulate food intake, autonomic outflow, and endocrine function to maintain energy balance. In addition to regulating adipose mass, mammalian leptin also plays a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and as a gating factor in reproductive competence. Leptin-deficient mice and people exhibit early onset profound hyperphagia and obesity, diabetes, and infertility. Although leptin and the leptin receptor are found in fish, the hormone is not expressed in adipose tissue, but is found in liver and other tissues. Here, we show that adult zebrafish lacking a functional leptin receptor do not exhibit hyperphagia or increased adiposity, and exhibit normal fertility. However, leptin receptor-deficient larvae have increased numbers of β-cells and increased levels of insulin mRNA. Furthermore, larval zebrafish have been shown to exhibit β-cell hyperplasia in response to high fat feeding or peripheral insulin resistance, and we show here that leptin receptor is required for this response. Adult zebrafish also have increased levels of insulin mRNA and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Thus, a role for leptin in the regulation of β-cell mass and glucose homeostasis appears to be conserved across vertebrates, whereas its role as an adipostatic factor is likely to be a secondary role acquired during the evolution of mammals. PMID:26903647

  14. Zebrafish Development: High-throughput Test Systems to Assess Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Because of its developmental concordance, ease of handling and rapid development, the small teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), is frequently promoted as a vertebrate model for medium-throughput developmental screens. This present chapter discusses zebrafish as an altern...

  15. Small zebrafish in a big chemical pond.

    PubMed

    Helenius, I Taneli; Yeh, J-R Joanna

    2012-07-01

    The number of possible small organic molecules of different structure is virtually limitless. One of the main goals of chemical biologists is to identify, from this "chemical space", entities that affect biological processes or systems in a specific manner. This can lead to a better understanding of the regulation and components of various biological machineries, as well as provide insights into efficacious therapeutic targets and drug candidates. However, the challenges confronting chemical biologists are multiple. How do we efficiently identify compounds that possess desirable activities without unwanted off-target effects? Once a candidate compound has been found, how do we determine its mode of action? In this Prospects piece, we call attention to recent studies using embryonic and larval zebrafish to illustrate the breadth and depth of questions in chemical biology that may be addressed using this model, and hope that they can serve as catalysts for future investigational ideas.

  16. Zebrafish learn to forage in the dark.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Andres; McHenry, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    A large diversity of fishes struggle early in life to forage on zooplankton while under the threat of predation. Some species, such as zebrafish (Danio rerio), acquire an ability to forage in the dark during growth as larvae, but it is unclear how this is achieved. We investigated the functional basis of this foraging by video-recording larval and juvenile zebrafish as they preyed on zooplankton (Artemia sp.) under infrared illumination. We found that foraging improved with age, to the extent that 1-month-old juveniles exhibited a capture rate that was an order of magnitude greater than that of hatchlings. At all ages, the ability to forage in the dark was diminished when we used a chemical treatment to compromise the cranial superficial neuromasts, which facilitate flow sensing. However, a morphological analysis showed no developmental changes in these receptors that could enhance sensitivity. We tested whether the improvement in foraging with age could instead be a consequence of learning by raising fish that were naïve to the flow of prey. After 1 month of growth, both groups foraged with a capture rate that was significantly less than that of fish that had the opportunity to learn and indistinguishable from that of fish with no ability to sense flow. This suggests that larval fish learn to use water flow to forage in the dark. This ability could enhance resource acquisition under reduced competition and predation. Furthermore, our findings offer an example of learning in a model system that offers promise for understanding its neurophysiological basis.

  17. Vitrification of zebrafish embryo blastomeres in microvolumes.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Costa, J; García-Ximénez, F

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation of fish embryos may play an important role in biodiversity preservation and in aquaculture, but it is very difficult. In addition, the cryopreservation of fish embryo blastomeres makes conservation strategies feasible when they are used in germ-line chimaerism, including interspecific chimaerism. Fish embryo blastomere cryopreservation has been achieved by equilibrium procedures, but to our knowledge, no data on vitrification procedures are available. In the present work, zebrafish embryo blastomeres were successfully vitrified in microvolumes: a number of 0.25 microl drops, sufficient to contain all the blastomeres of an embryo at blastula stage (from 1000-cell stage to oblong stage), were placed over a 2.5 cm loop of nylon filament. In this procedure, where intracellular cryoprotectant permeation is not required, blastomeres were exposed to cryoprotectants for a maximum of 25 sec prior vitrification. The assayed cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dimethyl sulphoxide, glycerol and methanol) are all frequently used in fish embryo and blastomere cryopreservation. Methanol was finally rejected because of the excessive concentration required for the vitrification (15M). All other cryoprotectants were prepared (individually) at 5 M in Hanks' buffered salt solution (sigma) plus 20% FBS (vitrification solutions: vs). After direct thawing in Hanks' buffered salt solution plus 20% FBS, acceptable survival rates were obtained with ethylene glycol: 82.8%, propylene glycol: 87.7%, dimethyl sulphoxide: 93.4%, and glycerol: 73.9% (p < 0.05). Dimethyl sulphoxide showed the highest blastomere survival rate and allowed the rescue of as much as 20% of the total blastomeres from each zebrafish blastula embryo.

  18. Developmental toxicity of cartap on zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengli; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Li, Shaonan; Guo, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Guonian

    2009-12-13

    Cartap is a widely used insecticide which belongs to a member of nereistoxin derivatives and acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor site. Its effects on aquatic species are of grave concern. To explore the potential developmental toxicity of cartap, zebrafish embryos were continually exposed, from 0.5 to 144h post-fertilization, to a range of concentrations of 25-1000microg/l. Results of the experiment indicated that cartap concentrations of 100microg/l and above negatively affected embryo survival and hatching success. Morphological analysis uncovered a large suite of abnormalities such as less melanin pigmentation, wavy notochord, crooked trunk, fuzzy somites, neurogenesis defects and vasculature defects. The most sensitive organ was proved to be the notochord which displayed defects at concentrations as low as 25microg/l. Both sensitivity towards exposure and localization of the defect were stage specific. To elucidate mechanisms concerning notochord, pigmentation, and hatching defects, enzyme assay, RT Q-PCR, and different exposure strategies were performed. For embryos with hatching failure, chorion was verified not to be digested, while removing cartap from exposure at early pre-hatching stage could significantly increase the hatching success. However, cartap was proved, via vitro assay, to have no effect on proteolytic activity of hatching enzyme. These findings implied that the secretion of hatching enzyme might be blocked. We also revealed that cartap inhibited the activity of melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase and matrix enzyme lysyl oxidase and induced expression of their genes. These suggested that cartap could impaired melanin pigmentation of zebrafish embryos through inhibiting tyrosinase activity, while inhibition of lysyl oxidase activity was responsible for notochord undulation, which subsequently caused somite defect, and at least partially responsible for defects in vasculature and neurogenesis.

  19. Bmp15 Is an Oocyte-Produced Signal Required for Maintenance of the Adult Female Sexual Phenotype in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kevin; Lawry, S. Terese; Sanchez, Angelica; Amatruda, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state. How oocytes control sex differentiation and maintenance of the sexual phenotype is unknown. We therefore generated targeted mutations in genes for two oocyte produced signaling molecules, Bmp15 and Gdf9 and here report a novel role for Bmp15 in maintaining adult female sex differentiation in zebrafish. Females deficient in Bmp15 begin development normally but switch sex during the mid- to late- juvenile stage, and become fertile males. Additionally, by generating mutations in the aromatase cyp19a1a, we show that estrogen production is necessary for female development and that the function of Bmp15 in female sex maintenance is likely linked to the regulation of estrogen biosynthesis via promoting the development of estrogen-producing granulosa cells in the oocyte follicle. PMID:27642754

  20. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Zampedri, Cecilia; Tinoco-Cuellar, Maryana; Carrillo-Rosas, Samantha; Diaz-Tellez, Abigail; Ramos-Balderas, Jose Luis; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b) during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment. PMID:27489304

  1. Effects of chronic perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at low concentration on morphometrics, gene expression, and fecundity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Toor, Fatima; Annunziato, Kate A; Cooper, Keith R

    2017-01-29

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent, toxic, anthropogenic chemical recalcitrant to biodegradation. Based on previous studies in lower and higher vertebrates, it was hypothesized that chronic, sub-lethal, embryonic exposure to PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) would adversely impact fish development, survival, and fecundity. Zebrafish embryo/sac-fry were water exposed to 2.0 or 0nM PFOA from 3 to 120hpf, and juvenile to adult cohorts were fed spiked food (8 pM) until 6 months. After chronic exposure, PFOA exposed fish were significantly smaller in total weight and length. Gene expression analysis found a significant decrease of transporters slco2b1, slco4a1, slco3a1 and tgfb1a, and a significant increase of slco1d1 expression. PFOA exposed fish produced significantly fewer eggs with reduced viability and developmental stage delay in F1. Chronic, low-dose exposure of zebrafish to PFOA significantly altered normal development, survival and fecundity and would likely impact wild fish population fitness in watersheds chronically exposed to PFOA.

  2. Effects of Dechlorane Plus exposure on axonal growth, musculature and motor behavior in embryo-larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Chen, Yuanhong; Zhang, Zhenxuan; Huang, Changjiang; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2017-03-10

    Developmental neurobehavioral toxicity of Dechlorane Plus (DP) was investigated using the embryo-larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Normal fertilized embryos were waterborne exposed to DP at 15, 30, 60 μg/L beginning from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf). Larval teratology, motor activity, motoneuron axonal growth and muscle morphology were assessed at different developmental stages. Results showed that DP exposure significantly altered embryonic spontaneous movement, reduced touch-induced movement and free-swimming speed and decreased swimming speed of larvae in response to dark stimulation. These changes occurred at DP doses that resulted no significant teratogenesis in zebrafish. Interestingly, in accord with these behavioral anomalies, DP exposure significantly inhibited axonal growth of primary motoneuron and induced apoptotic cell death and lesions in the muscle fibers of zebrafish. Furthermore, DP exposure at 30 μg/L and 60 μg/L significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, as well as the mRNA transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes bax and caspase-3. Together, our data indicate that DP induced neurobehavioral deficits may result from combined effects of altered neuronal connectivity and muscle injuries.

  3. Variations in dysfunction of sister chromatid cohesion in esco2 mutant zebrafish reflect the phenotypic diversity of Roberts syndrome.

    PubMed

    Percival, Stefanie M; Thomas, Holly R; Amsterdam, Adam; Carroll, Andrew J; Lees, Jacqueline A; Yost, H Joseph; Parant, John M

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in ESCO2, one of two establishment of cohesion factors necessary for proper sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), cause a spectrum of developmental defects in the autosomal-recessive disorder Roberts syndrome (RBS), warranting in vivo analysis of the consequence of cohesion dysfunction. Through a genetic screen in zebrafish targeting embryonic-lethal mutants that have increased genomic instability, we have identified an esco2 mutant zebrafish. Utilizing the natural transparency of zebrafish embryos, we have developed a novel technique to observe chromosome dynamics within a single cell during mitosis in a live vertebrate embryo. Within esco2 mutant embryos, we observed premature chromatid separation, a unique chromosome scattering, prolonged mitotic delay, and genomic instability in the form of anaphase bridges and micronuclei formation. Cytogenetic studies indicated complete chromatid separation and high levels of aneuploidy within mutant embryos. Amongst aneuploid spreads, we predominantly observed decreases in chromosome number, suggesting that either cells with micronuclei or micronuclei themselves are eliminated. We also demonstrated that the genomic instability leads to p53-dependent neural tube apoptosis. Surprisingly, although many cells required Esco2 to establish cohesion, 10-20% of cells had only weakened cohesion in the absence of Esco2, suggesting that compensatory cohesion mechanisms exist in these cells that undergo a normal mitotic division. These studies provide a unique in vivo vertebrate view of the mitotic defects and consequences of cohesion establishment loss, and they provide a compensation-based model to explain the RBS phenotypes.

  4. Variations in dysfunction of sister chromatid cohesion in esco2 mutant zebrafish reflect the phenotypic diversity of Roberts syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Stefanie M.; Thomas, Holly R.; Amsterdam, Adam; Carroll, Andrew J.; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Yost, H. Joseph; Parant, John M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in ESCO2, one of two establishment of cohesion factors necessary for proper sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), cause a spectrum of developmental defects in the autosomal-recessive disorder Roberts syndrome (RBS), warranting in vivo analysis of the consequence of cohesion dysfunction. Through a genetic screen in zebrafish targeting embryonic-lethal mutants that have increased genomic instability, we have identified an esco2 mutant zebrafish. Utilizing the natural transparency of zebrafish embryos, we have developed a novel technique to observe chromosome dynamics within a single cell during mitosis in a live vertebrate embryo. Within esco2 mutant embryos, we observed premature chromatid separation, a unique chromosome scattering, prolonged mitotic delay, and genomic instability in the form of anaphase bridges and micronuclei formation. Cytogenetic studies indicated complete chromatid separation and high levels of aneuploidy within mutant embryos. Amongst aneuploid spreads, we predominantly observed decreases in chromosome number, suggesting that either cells with micronuclei or micronuclei themselves are eliminated. We also demonstrated that the genomic instability leads to p53-dependent neural tube apoptosis. Surprisingly, although many cells required Esco2 to establish cohesion, 10-20% of cells had only weakened cohesion in the absence of Esco2, suggesting that compensatory cohesion mechanisms exist in these cells that undergo a normal mitotic division. These studies provide a unique in vivo vertebrate view of the mitotic defects and consequences of cohesion establishment loss, and they provide a compensation-based model to explain the RBS phenotypes. PMID:26044958

  5. The social zebrafish: Behavioral responses to conspecific, heterospecific, and computer animated fish

    PubMed Central

    Saverino, Cristina; Gerlai, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Zebrafish has been in the forefront of developmental biology and genetics, but only recently has interest in their behavior increased. Zebrafish are small and prolific, which lends this species to high throughput screening applications. A typical feature of zebrafish is its propensity to aggregate in groups, a behavior known as shoaling. Thus zebrafish has been proposed as a possible model organism appropriate for the analysis of the genetics of vertebrate social behavior. However, shoaling behavior is not well characterized in zebrafish. Here, using a recently developed software application, we first investigate how zebrafish respond to conspecific and heterospecific fish species that differ in coloration and/or shoaling tendencies. We found that zebrafish shoaled with their own species but not with two heterospecific species, one of which was a shoaling the other a non-shoaling species. In addition, we have started the analysis of visual stimuli that zebrafish may utilize to determine whether to shoal with a fish or not. We systematically modified the color, the location, the pattern, and the body shape of computer animated zebrafish images and presented them to experimental zebrafish. The subjects responded differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for yellow and avoidance of elongated zebrafish images. Our results suggest that computerized stimulus presentation and automated behavioral quantification of zebrafish responses are feasible, which in turn implies that high throughput forward genetic mutation or drug screening will be possible in the analysis of social behavior with this model organism. PMID:18423643

  6. Absence of rapid eye movements during sleep in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Árnason, B B; Þorsteinsson, H; Karlsson, K Æ

    2015-09-15

    Sleep is not a uniform phenomenon, but is organized in alternating, fundamentally different states, rapid eye movement sleep and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have recently emerged as an excellent model for sleep research. Zebrafish are well characterized in terms of development, neurobiology and genetics. Moreover, there are many experimental tools not easily applied in mammalian models that can be readily applied to zebrafish, making them a valuable additional animal model for sleep research. Sleep in zebrafish is defined behaviorally and exhibits the hallmarks of mammalian sleep (e.g. sleep homeostasis and pressure). To our knowledge no attempts have been made to discern if sleep in zebrafish entails alternations of REM-NREM sleep cycles which are critical for further development of the model. In the current experiment we quantify two key REM sleep components, rapid eye movements and respiratory rates, across sleep-wake cycles. We find no sleep-related rapid eye movements. During sleep respiratory rates, however, are reduced and become less regular, further establishing that the behavioral definition used truly captures a change in the fish's physiology. We thus fail to find evidence for REM-NREM sleep cycles in zebrafish but demonstrate a physiological change that occurs concomitantly with the previously defined behavioral state of sleep. We do not rule out that other phasic REM components (e.g. atonia, cardiac arrhythmias, myoclonic twitches or desynchronized EEG) are coherently expressed during sleep but we conclude that adult zebrafish do not have REM-sleep-related rapid eye movements.

  7. Multi-organ abnormalities and mTORC1 activation in zebrafish model of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Scott, Sarah A; Bennett, Michael J; Carson, Robert P; Fessel, Joshua; Brown, H Alex; Ess, Kevin C

    2013-06-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxa(vu463) ) that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxa(vu463) recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxa(vu463) zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxa(vu463) zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity.

  8. Zebrafish locomotor capacity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity is altered by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De Lu; Hu, Chun Xiang; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding

    2013-08-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (A. flos-aquae) is a source of neurotoxins known as aphantoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) that present a major threat to the environment and to human health. Generally, altered neurological function is reflected in behavior. Although the molecular mechanism of action of PSPs is well known, its neurobehavioral effects on adult zebrafish and its relationship with altered neurological functions are poorly understood. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by HPLC. The major analogs found in the toxins were the gonyautoxins 1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5; 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and the neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were intraperitoneally injected with 5.3 and 7.61 μg STXeq/kg (low and high dose, respectively) of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. The swimming activity was investigated by observation combined with video at 6 timepoints from 1 to 24 h post-exposure. Both aphantoxin doses were associated with delayed touch responses, reduced head-tail locomotory abilities, inflexible turning of head, and a tailward-shifted center of gravity. The normal S-pattern (or undulating) locomotor trajectory was replaced by a mechanical motor pattern of swinging the head after wagging the tail. Finally, these fish principally distributed at the top and/or bottom water of the aquarium, and showed a clear polarized distribution pattern at 12 h post-exposure. Further analysis of neurological function demonstrated that both aphantoxin doses inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. All these changes were dose- and time-dependent. These results demonstrate that aphantoxins can alter locomotor capacity, touch responses and distribution patterns by damaging the cholinergic system of zebrafish, and suggest that zebrafish locomotor behavior and acetylcholinesterase can be used as indicators for investigating aphantoxins and blooms in nature.

  9. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB in the lateral line system of zebrafish during development.

    PubMed

    Germanà, A; Laurà, R; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Amato, V; Zichichi, R; Campo, S; Ciriaco, E; Vega, J A

    2010-07-01

    The neuromasts of the lateral line system are regarded as a model to study the mechanisms of hearing, deafness, and ototoxicity. The neurotrophins (NTs), especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its signaling receptor TrkB are involved in the development and maintenance of neuromasts. To know the period in which the BDNF/TrkB complex has more effects in the neuromast biology, the age-related changes were studied. Normal zebrafish from 10 to 180 days post-fertilization (dpf), as well as transgenic ET4 zebrafish 10 and 20 dpf, was analyzed using qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. BDNF and TrkB mRNAs followed a parallel course, peaking at 20 dpf, and thereafter progressively decreased. Specific immunoreactivity for BDNF and TrkB was found co-localized in all hairy cells of neuromasts in 20 and 30 dpf; then, the number of immunoreactive cells decreased, and by 180 dpf BDNF remains restricted to a subpopulation of hairy cells, and TrkB to a few number of sensory and non-sensory cells. At all ages examined, TrkB immunoreactivity was detected in sensory ganglia innervating the neuromasts. The present results demonstrate that there is a parallel time-related decline in the expression of BDNF and TrkB in zebrafish. Also, the patterns of cell expression suggest that autocrine/paracrine mechanisms for this NT system might occur within the neuromasts. Because TrkB in lateral line ganglia did not vary with age, their neurons are potentially capable to respond to BDNF during the entire lifespan of zebrafish.

  10. Targeted Mutagenesis of the Hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reveals No Effects on Reproductive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Olivia Smith; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zmora, Nilli; Zohar, Yonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gnrh is the major neuropeptide regulator of vertebrate reproduction, triggering a cascade of events in the pituitary-gonadal axis that result in reproductive competence. Previous research in mice and humans has demonstrated that Gnrh/GNRH null mutations result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. The goal of this study was to eliminate gnrh3 (the hypophysiotropic Gnrh form) function in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to determine how ontogeny and reproductive performance are affected, as well as factors downstream of Gnrh3 along the reproductive axis. Using the TALEN technology, we developed a gnrh3-/- zebrafish line that harbors a 62 bp deletion in the gnrh3 gene. Our gnrh3-/- zebrafish line represents the first targeted and heritable mutation of a Gnrh isoform in any organism. Using immunohistochemistry, we verified that gnrh3-/- fish do not possess Gnrh3 peptide in any regions of the brain. However, other than changes in mRNA levels of pituitary gonadotropin genes (fshb, lhb, and cga) during early development, which are corrected by adulthood, there were no changes in ontogeny and reproduction in gnrh3-/- fish. The gnrh3-/- zebrafish are fertile, displaying normal gametogenesis and reproductive performance in males and females. Together with our previous results that Gnrh3 cell ablation causes infertility, these results indicate that a compensatory mechanism is being activated, which is probably primed early on upon Gnrh3 neuron differentiation and possibly confined to Gnrh3 neurons. Potential compensation factors and sensitive windows of time for compensation during development and puberty should be explored. PMID:27355207

  11. The Zebrafish G12 Gene is required for Nuclear Positioning and Cell Migrations during Early Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinsch, S. S.; Conway, G. C.

    2003-01-01

    After fertilization Zebrafish embryos undergo synchronous cleavage to form a blastula of cells sitting upon a single multinucleate yolk cell. At the beginning of gastrulation these cells undergo extensive cell migrations to form the major body axes. We have discovered a gene, G12, which is required for cell migrations and positioning of nuclei in the large syncytial yolk cell. Overexpression of a G12-GFP fusion protein is not toxic and shows that the protein localizes inside the yolk cell to the yolk nuclei, microtubules, and to the margin between the blastomeres and the large yolk cell. Morpholino (MO) injection into the 1-cell embryo or into just the yolk syncytium conipletely inhibits cell migrations, doming of the yolk cell, and positioning of nuclei around the margin. This effect can be partially rescued by injection of G12-GFP encoding RNA. Given the known role of microtubules in nuclear positioning of yolk nuclei in Zebrafish, we investigated the microtubules in morpholiiio injected and rescued embryos. We find that microtubules are sparse and disorganized in MO-injected embryos and are restored to normal organization upon G12-GFP rescue. G12 plays a pivotal role in organization of inicrotubules during early development. G12 is highly conserved in vertebrates and two homologues exist in the human genome. One of the human hoinologues is amplified in aggressive breast tumors.

  12. Effects of NDRG1 family proteins on photoreceptor outer segment morphology in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Takita, Shimpei; Wada, Yasutaka; Kawamura, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Rods and cones are functionally and morphologically distinct. We previously identified N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1b (ndrg1b) in carp as a cone-specific gene. Here, we show that NDRG1b and its paralog, NDRG1a-1, contribute to photoreceptor outer segment (OS) formation in zebrafish. In adult zebrafish photoreceptors, NDRG1a-1 was localized in the entire cone plasma membranes, and also in rod plasma membranes except its OS. NDRG1b was expressed specifically in cones in the entire plasma membranes. In a developing retina, NDRG1a-1 was expressed in the photoreceptor layer, and NDRG1b in the photoreceptor layer plus inner nuclear layer. Based on our primary knockdown study suggesting that both proteins are involved in normal rod and cone OS development, NDRG1a-1 was overexpressed or NDRG1b was ectopically expressed in rods. These forced-expression studies in the transgenic fish confirmed the effect of these proteins on the OS morphology: rod OS morphology changed from cylindrical to tapered shape. These taper-shaped rod OSs were not stained with N,N’-didansyl cystine that effectively labels infolded membrane structure of cone OS. The result shows that rod OS membrane structure is preserved in these taper-shaped OSs and therefore, suggests that tapered OS morphology is not related to the infolded membrane structure in cone OS. PMID:27811999

  13. Simplet controls cell proliferation and gene transcription during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Caghan; Otto, Georg W; Geisler, Robert; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Antos, Christopher L

    2009-01-15

    Two hallmarks of vertebrate epimorphic regeneration are a significant increase in the proliferation of normally quiescent cells and a re-activation of genes that are active during embryonic development. It is unclear what the molecular determinants are that regulate these events and how they are coordinated. Zebrafish have the ability to regenerate several compound structures by regulating cell proliferation and gene transcription. We report that fam53b/simplet (smp) regulates both cell proliferation and the transcription of specific genes. In situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR experiments showed that amputation of zebrafish hearts and fins resulted in strong up-regulation of the smp gene. In regenerating adult fin, smp expression remained strong in the distal mesenchyme which later expanded to the basal layers of the distal epidermis and distal tip epithelium. Morpholino knockdown of smp reduced regenerative outgrowth by decreasing cell proliferation as measured by BrdU incorporation and histone H3 phosphorylation. In addition, smp knockdown increased the expression of msxb, msxc, and shh, as well as the later formation of ectopic bone. Taken together, these data indicate a requirement for smp in fin regeneration through control of cell proliferation, the regulation of specific genes and proper bone patterning.

  14. Toxicogenomics to Evaluate Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Environmental Chemicals Using the Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2016-12-01

    The extent of our knowledge on the number of chemical compounds related to anthropogenic activities that can cause damage to the environment and to organisms is increasing. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are one group of potentially hazardous substances that include natural and synthetic chemicals and have the ability to mimic endogenous hormones, interfering with their biosynthesis, metabolism, and normal functions. Adverse effects associated with EDC exposure have been documented in aquatic biota and there is widespread interest in the characterization and understanding of their modes of action. Fish are considered one of the primary risk organisms for EDCs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used as an animal model to study the effects of endocrine disruptors, due to their advantages compared to other model organisms. One approach to assess the toxicity of a compound is to identify those patterns of gene expression found in a tissue or organ exposed to particular classes of chemicals, through new technologies in genomics (toxicogenomics), such as microarrays or whole-genome sequencing. Application of these technologies permit the quantitative analysis of thousands of gene expression changes simultaneously in a single experiment and offer the opportunity to use transcript profiling as a tool to predict toxic outcomes of exposure to particular compounds. The application of toxicogenomic tools for identification of chemicals with endocrine disrupting capacity using the zebrafish model system is reviewed.

  15. p53 and TAp63 promote keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in breeding tubercles of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Boris; Metzger, Manuel; Richardson, Rebecca; Knyphausen, Philipp; Ramezani, Thomas; Franzen, Rainer; Schmelzer, Elmon; Bloch, Wilhelm; Carney, Thomas J; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    p63 is a multi-isoform member of the p53 family of transcription factors. There is compelling genetic evidence that ΔNp63 isoforms are needed for keratinocyte proliferation and stemness in the developing vertebrate epidermis. However, the role of TAp63 isoforms is not fully understood, and TAp63 knockout mice display normal epidermal development. Here, we show that zebrafish mutants specifically lacking TAp63 isoforms, or p53, display compromised development of breeding tubercles, epidermal appendages which according to our analyses display more advanced stratification and keratinization than regular epidermis, including continuous desquamation and renewal of superficial cells by derivatives of basal keratinocytes. Defects are further enhanced in TAp63/p53 double mutants, pointing to partially redundant roles of the two related factors. Molecular analyses, treatments with chemical inhibitors and epistasis studies further reveal the existence of a linear TAp63/p53->Notch->caspase 3 pathway required both for enhanced proliferation of keratinocytes at the base of the tubercles and their subsequent differentiation in upper layers. Together, these studies identify the zebrafish breeding tubercles as specific epidermal structures sharing crucial features with the cornified mammalian epidermis. In addition, they unravel essential roles of TAp63 and p53 to promote both keratinocyte proliferation and their terminal differentiation by promoting Notch signalling and caspase 3 activity, ensuring formation and proper homeostasis of this self-renewing stratified epithelium.

  16. Zebrafish as a Model System for Environmental Health Studies in the Grade 9–12 Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Hesselbach, Renee; Carvan, Michael John; Goldberg, Barbara; Berg, Craig A.; Petering, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developing zebrafish embryos were used as a model system for high school students to conduct scientific investigations that reveal features of normal development and to test how different environmental toxicants impact the developmental process. The primary goal of the module was to engage students from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, with particular focus on underserved inner-city high schools, in inquiry-based learning and hands-on experimentation. In addition, the module served as a platform for both teachers and students to design additional inquiry-based experiments. In this module, students spawned adult zebrafish to generate developing embryos, exposed the embryos to various toxicants, then gathered, and analyzed data obtained from control and experimental embryos. The module provided a flexible, experimental framework for students to test the effects of numerous environmental toxicants, such as ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine, on the development of a model vertebrate organism. Students also observed the effects of dose on experimental outcomes. From observations of the effects of the chemical agents on vertebrate embryos, students drew conclusions on how these chemicals could impact human development and health. Results of pre-tests and post-tests completed by participating students indicate statistically significant changes in awareness of the impact of environmental agents on fish and human beings In addition, the program's evaluator concluded that participation in the module resulted in significant changes in the attitude of students and teachers toward science in general and environmental health in particular. PMID:24941301

  17. An affective disorder in zebrafish with mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Ziv, L; Muto, A; Schoonheim, P J; Meijsing, S H; Strasser, D; Ingraham, H A; Schaaf, M J M; Yamamoto, K R; Baier, H

    2013-06-01

    Upon binding of cortisol, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates the transcription of specific target genes, including those that encode the stress hormones corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Dysregulation of the stress axis is a hallmark of major depression in human patients. However, it is still unclear how glucocorticoid signaling is linked to affective disorders. We identified an adult-viable zebrafish mutant in which the negative feedback on the stress response is disrupted, due to abolition of all transcriptional activity of GR. As a consequence, cortisol is elevated, but unable to signal through GR. When placed into an unfamiliar aquarium ('novel tank'), mutant fish become immobile ('freeze'), show reduced exploratory behavior and do not habituate to this stressor upon repeated exposure. Addition of the antidepressant fluoxetine to the holding water and social interactions restore normal behavior, followed by a delayed correction of cortisol levels. Fluoxetine does not affect the overall transcription of CRH, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), the serotonin transporter (Serta) or GR itself. Fluoxetine, however, suppresses the stress-induced upregulation of MR and Serta in both wild-type fish and mutants. Our studies show a conserved, protective function of glucocorticoid signaling in the regulation of emotional behavior and reveal novel molecular aspects of how chronic stress impacts vertebrate brain physiology and behavior. Importantly, the zebrafish model opens up the possibility of high-throughput drug screens in search of new classes of antidepressants.

  18. Developmental toxicity of Louisiana crude oil-spiked sediment to zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Jackson, Crystal R; Krzykwa, Julie; Hemmer, Becky L; Awkerman, Jill A; Barron, Mace G

    2014-10-01

    Embryonic exposures to the components of petroleum, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects and cardiotoxicity in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to reference sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil and to sediment collected from an oiled site in Barataria Bay, Louisiana in December 2010. Laboratory oiled sediment exposures caused a reproducible set of developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos including yolk sac and pericardial edema, craniofacial and spinal defects, and tissue degeneration. Dose-response studies with spiked sediment showed that total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAH) concentrations of 27mg tPAH/kg (dry weight normalized to 1 percent organic carbon [1 percent OC]) caused a significant increase in defects, and concentrations above 78mg tPAH/kg 1 percent OC caused nearly complete embryo mortality. No toxicity was observed in Barataria sediment with 2mg tPAH/kg 1 percent OC. Laboratory aging of spiked sediment at 4°C resulted in a nearly 10-fold decrease in sensitivity over a 40-day period. This study demonstrates oiled sediment as an exposure pathway to fish with dose-dependent effects on embryogenesis that are consistent with PAH mechanisms of developmental toxicity. The results have implications for effects on estuarine fish from oiled coastal areas during the Deepwater Horizon spill.

  19. Progestins alter photo-transduction cascade and circadian rhythm network in eyes of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanbin; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Environmental progestins are implicated in endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Additional targets that may be affected in organisms are poorly known. Here we report that progesterone (P4) and drospirenone (DRS) interfere with the photo-transduction cascade and circadian rhythm network in the eyes of zebrafish. Breeding pairs of adult zebrafish were exposed to P4 and DRS for 21 days with different measured concentrations of 7–742 ng/L and 99-13´650 ng/L, respectively. Of totally 10 key photo-transduction cascade genes analyzed, transcriptional levels of most were significantly up-regulated, or normal down-regulation was attenuated. Similarly, for some circadian rhythm genes, dose-dependent transcriptional alterations were also observed in the totally 33 genes analyzed. Significant alterations occurred even at environmental relevant levels of 7 ng/L P4. Different patterns were observed for these transcriptional alterations, of which, the nfil3 family displayed most significant changes. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of sampling time for the determination and interpretation of gene expression data, and put forward recommendations for sampling strategies to avoid false interpretations. Our results suggest that photo-transduction signals and circadian rhythm are potential targets for progestins. Further studies are required to assess alterations on the protein level, on physiology and behavior, as well as on implications in mammals.

  20. Knockdown of poc1b causes abnormal photoreceptor sensory cilium and vision impairment in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Conghui; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Fang; Liu, Qin

    2015-10-02

    Proteomic analysis of the mouse photoreceptor sensory cilium identified a set of cilia proteins, including Poc1 centriolar protein b (Poc1b). Previous functional studies in human cells and zebrafish embryos implicated that Poc1b plays important roles in centriole duplication and length control, as well as ciliogenesis. To study the function of Poc1b in photoreceptor sensory cilia and other primary cilia, we expressed a tagged recombinant Poc1b protein in cultured renal epithelial cells and rat retina. Poc1b was localized to the centrioles and spindle bundles during cell cycle progression, and to the basal body of photoreceptor sensory cilia. A morpholino knockdown and complementation assay of poc1b in zebrafish showed that loss of poc1b led to a range of morphological anomalies of cilia commonly associated with human ciliopathies. In the retina, the development of retinal laminae was significantly delayed and the length of photoreceptor outer segments was shortened. Visual behavior studies revealed impaired visual function in the poc1b morphants. In addition, ciliopathy-associated developmental defects, such as small eyes, curved body axis, heart defects, and shortened cilia in Kupffer's vesicle, were observed as well. These data suggest that poc1b is required for normal development and ciliogenesis of retinal photoreceptor sensory cilia and other cilia. Furthermore, this conclusion is supported by recent findings that mutations in POC1B gene have been identified in patients with inherited retinal dystrophy and syndromic retinal ciliopathy.

  1. Zebrafish as a model system for environmental health studies in the grade 9-12 classroom.

    PubMed

    Tomasiewicz, Henry G; Hesselbach, Renee; Carvan, Michael John; Goldberg, Barbara; Berg, Craig A; Petering, David H

    2014-08-01

    Developing zebrafish embryos were used as a model system for high school students to conduct scientific investigations that reveal features of normal development and to test how different environmental toxicants impact the developmental process. The primary goal of the module was to engage students from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, with particular focus on underserved inner-city high schools, in inquiry-based learning and hands-on experimentation. In addition, the module served as a platform for both teachers and students to design additional inquiry-based experiments. In this module, students spawned adult zebrafish to generate developing embryos, exposed the embryos to various toxicants, then gathered, and analyzed data obtained from control and experimental embryos. The module provided a flexible, experimental framework for students to test the effects of numerous environmental toxicants, such as ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine, on the development of a model vertebrate organism. Students also observed the effects of dose on experimental outcomes. From observations of the effects of the chemical agents on vertebrate embryos, students drew conclusions on how these chemicals could impact human development and health. Results of pre-tests and post-tests completed by participating students indicate statistically significant changes in awareness of the impact of environmental agents on fish and human beings In addition, the program's evaluator concluded that participation in the module resulted in significant changes in the attitude of students and teachers toward science in general and environmental health in particular.

  2. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2015-03-15

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease.

  3. Loss of Lrp2 in zebrafish disrupts pronephric tubular clearance but not forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Kur, Esther; Christa, Anna; Veth, Kerry N.; Gajera, Chandresh R.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Zhang, Jingjing; Willer, Jason R.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Bachmann, Sebastian; Link, Brian A.; Hammes, Annette; Willnow, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2) is a multifunctional cell surface receptor conserved from nematodes to humans. In mammals, it acts as regulator of sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein pathways in patterning of the embryonic forebrain and as a clearance receptor in the adult kidney. Little is known about activities of this LRP in other phyla. Here, we extend the functional elucidation of LRP2 to zebrafish as model organism of receptor (dys)function. We demonstrate that expression of Lrp2 in embryonic and larval fish recapitulates the patterns seen in mammalian brain and kidney. Furthermore, we studied the consequence of receptor deficiencies in lrp2 and in lrp2b, a homologue unique to fish, using ENU mutagenesis or morpholino knockdown. While receptor-deficient zebrafish suffer from overt renal resorption deficiency, their brain development proceeds normally, suggesting evolutionary conservation of receptor functions in pronephric duct clearance but not in patterning of the teleost forebrain. PMID:21455927

  4. Touch responsiveness in zebrafish requires voltage-gated calcium channel 2.1b.

    PubMed

    Low, Sean E; Woods, Ian G; Lachance, Mathieu; Ryan, Joel; Schier, Alexander F; Saint-Amant, Louis

    2012-07-01

    The molecular and physiological basis of the touch-unresponsive zebrafish mutant fakir has remained elusive. Here we report that the fakir phenotype is caused by a missense mutation in the gene encoding voltage-gated calcium channel 2.1b (CACNA1Ab). Injection of RNA encoding wild-type CaV2.1 restores touch responsiveness in fakir mutants, whereas knockdown of CACNA1Ab via morpholino oligonucleotides recapitulates the fakir mutant phenotype. Fakir mutants display normal current-evoked synaptic communication at the neuromuscular junction but have attenuated touch-evoked activation of motor neurons. NMDA-evoked fictive swimming is not affected by the loss of CaV2.1b, suggesting that this channel is not required for motor pattern generation. These results, coupled with the expression of CACNA1Ab by sensory neurons, suggest that CaV2.1b channel activity is necessary for touch-evoked activation of the locomotor network in zebrafish.

  5. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease. PMID:25592226

  6. Inhibition of no tail (ntl) gene expression in zebrafish by external guide sequence (EGS) technique.

    PubMed

    Pei, De-Sheng; Sun, Yong-Hua; Long, Yong; Zhu, Zuo-Yan

    2008-06-01

    External guide sequence (EGS) technique, a branch of ribozyme strategy, can be enticed to cleave the target mRNA by forming a tRNA-like structure. In the present study, no tail gene (ntl), a key gene participating in the formation of normal tail, was used as a target for ribonuclease (RNase) P-mediated gene disruption in zebrafish in vivo. Transient expression of pH1-m3/4 ntl-EGS or pH1-3/4 ntl-EGS produced the full no tail phenotype at long-pec stage in proportion as 24 or 35%, respectively. As is expected that the full-length ntl mRNA of embryos at 50% epiboly stage decreased relative to control when injected the embryos with 3/4 EGS or m3/4 EGS RNA. Interestingly, ntl RNA transcripts, including the cleaved by EGS and the untouched, increased. Taken together, these results indicate that EGS strategy can work in zebrafish in vivo and becomes a potential tool for degradation of targeted mRNAs.

  7. Silver Exposure in Developing Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Persistent Effects on Larval Behavior and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M.; Yen, Jerry; Linney, Elwood A.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    The increased use of silver nanoparticles in consumer and medical products has led to elevated human and environmental exposures. Silver nanoparticles act as antibacterial/antifungal agents by releasing Ag+ and recent studies show that Ag+ impairs neural cell replication and differentiation in culture, suggesting that in vivo exposures could compromise neurodevelopment. To determine whether Ag+ impairs development in vivo, we examined the effects of exposure on survival, morphological, and behavioral parameters in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Methods We exposed zebrafish from 0–5 days post-fertilization to concentrations of Ag+ ranging from 10 nM to 100 µM in order to assess effects on survival and early embryonic development. We then tested whether concentrations below the threshold for dysmorphology altered larval behavior and subsequent survival. Ag+ concentrations ≥3 µM significantly reduced embryonic survival, whereas 1 µM delayed hatching with no effect on survival. Reducing the concentration to as low as 0.1 µM delayed the inflation of the swim bladder without causing gross dysmorphology or affecting hatching. At this concentration, swimming activity was impaired, an effect that persisted past the point where swim bladder inflation became normal; in contrast, general motor function was unaffected. The early behavioral impairment was then predictive of subsequent decreases in survival. Ag+ is a developmental toxicant within concentrations only slightly above allowable levels. At low concentrations, Ag+ acts as a neurobehavioral toxicant even in the absence of dysmorphology. PMID:20116428

  8. The INT6 Cancer Gene and MEK Signaling Pathways Converge during Zebrafish Development

    PubMed Central

    Grzmil, Michal; Whiting, Danny; Maule, John; Anastasaki, Corina; Amatruda, James F.; Kelsh, Robert N.; Norbury, Chris J.; Patton, E. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Int-6 (integration site 6) was identified as an oncogene in a screen of tumorigenic mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) insertions. INT6 expression is altered in human cancers, but the precise role of disrupted INT6 in tumorigenesis remains unclear, and an animal model to study Int-6 physiological function has been lacking. Principal Findings Here, we create an in vivo model of Int6 function in zebrafish, and through genetic and chemical-genetic approaches implicate Int6 as a tissue-specific modulator of MEK-ERK signaling. We find that Int6 is required for normal expression of MEK1 protein in human cells, and for Erk signaling in zebrafish embryos. Loss of either Int6 or Mek signaling causes defects in craniofacial development, and Int6 and Erk-signaling have overlapping domains of tissue expression. Significance Our results provide new insight into the physiological role of vertebrate Int6, and have implications for the treatment of human tumors displaying altered INT6 expression. PMID:17895999

  9. Structural Analysis of Alterations in Zebrafish Muscle Differentiation Induced by Simvastatin and Their Recovery with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M.; Rios, Eduardo A.; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luís

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies show that cholesterol is essential to myogenesis. We have been using zebrafish to overcome the limitations of the in vitro approach and to study the sub-cellular structures and processes involved during myogenesis. We use simvastatin—a drug widely used to prevent high levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease—during zebrafish skeletal muscle formation. Simvastatin is an efficient inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis that has various myotoxic consequences. Here, we employed simvastatin concentrations that cause either mild or severe morphological disturbances to observe changes in the cytoskeleton (intermediate filaments and microfilaments), extracellular matrix and adhesion markers by confocal microscopy. With low-dose simvastatin treatment, laminin was almost normal, and alpha-actinin was reduced in the myofibrils. With high simvastatin doses, laminin and vinculin were reduced and appeared discontinuous along the septa, with almost no myofibrils, and small amounts of desmin accumulating close to the septa. We also analyzed sub-cellular alterations in the embryos by electron microscopy, and demonstrate changes in embryo and somite size, septa shape, and in myofibril structure. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin in muscle cells in particular, and in the study of myogenesis in general. PMID:25786435

  10. Progestins alter photo-transduction cascade and circadian rhythm network in eyes of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanbin; Fent, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Environmental progestins are implicated in endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Additional targets that may be affected in organisms are poorly known. Here we report that progesterone (P4) and drospirenone (DRS) interfere with the photo-transduction cascade and circadian rhythm network in the eyes of zebrafish. Breeding pairs of adult zebrafish were exposed to P4 and DRS for 21 days with different measured concentrations of 7–742 ng/L and 99-13´650 ng/L, respectively. Of totally 10 key photo-transduction cascade genes analyzed, transcriptional levels of most were significantly up-regulated, or normal down-regulation was attenuated. Similarly, for some circadian rhythm genes, dose-dependent transcriptional alterations were also observed in the totally 33 genes analyzed. Significant alterations occurred even at environmental relevant levels of 7 ng/L P4. Different patterns were observed for these transcriptional alterations, of which, the nfil3 family displayed most significant changes. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of sampling time for the determination and interpretation of gene expression data, and put forward recommendations for sampling strategies to avoid false interpretations. Our results suggest that photo-transduction signals and circadian rhythm are potential targets for progestins. Further studies are required to assess alterations on the protein level, on physiology and behavior, as well as on implications in mammals. PMID:26899944

  11. Manipulation of BK channel expression is sufficient to alter auditory hair cell thresholds in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Tripp, Joel A.; Genova, Rachel M.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Non-mammalian vertebrates rely on electrical resonance for frequency tuning in auditory hair cells. A key component of the resonance exhibited by these cells is an outward calcium-activated potassium current that flows through large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels. Previous work in midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) has shown that BK expression correlates with seasonal changes in hearing sensitivity and that pharmacologically blocking these channels replicates the natural decreases in sensitivity during the winter non-reproductive season. To test the hypothesis that reducing BK channel function is sufficient to change auditory thresholds in fish, morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) were used in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to alter expression of slo1a and slo1b, duplicate genes coding for the pore-forming α-subunits of BK channels. Following MO injection, microphonic potentials were recorded from the inner ear of larvae. Quantitative real-time PCR was then used to determine the MO effect on slo1a and slo1b expression in these same fish. Knockdown of either slo1a or slo1b resulted in disrupted gene expression and increased auditory thresholds across the same range of frequencies of natural auditory plasticity observed in midshipman. We conclude that interference with the normal expression of individual slo1 genes is sufficient to increase auditory thresholds in zebrafish larvae and that changes in BK channel expression are a direct mechanism for regulation of peripheral hearing sensitivity among fishes. PMID:24803460

  12. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  13. Analysing regenerative potential in zebrafish models of congenital muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wood, A J; Currie, P D

    2014-11-01

    The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. Clinically hypotonia is present from birth, with progressive muscle weakness and wasting through development. For the most part, CMDs can mechanistically be attributed to failure of basement membrane protein laminin-α2 sufficiently binding with correctly glycosylated α-dystroglycan. The majority of CMDs therefore arise as the result of either a deficiency of laminin-α2 (MDC1A) or hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (dystroglycanopathy). Here we consider whether by filling a regenerative medicine niche, the zebrafish model can address the present challenge of delivering novel therapeutic solutions for CMD. In the first instance the readiness and appropriateness of the zebrafish as a model organism for pioneering regenerative medicine therapies in CMD is analysed, in particular for MDC1A and the dystroglycanopathies. Despite the recent rapid progress made in gene editing technology, these approaches have yet to yield any novel zebrafish models of CMD. Currently the most genetically relevant zebrafish models to the field of CMD, have all been created by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis. Once genetically relevant models have been established the zebrafish has several important facets for investigating the mechanistic cause of CMD, including rapid ex vivo development, optical transparency up to the larval stages of development and relative ease in creating transgenic reporter lines. Together, these tools are well suited for use in live-imaging studies such as in vivo modelling of muscle fibre detachment. Secondly, the zebrafish's contribution to progress in effective treatment of CMD was analysed. Two approaches were identified in which zebrafish could potentially contribute to effective therapies. The first hinges on the augmentation of functional redundancy within the system, such as upregulating alternative laminin chains in the candyfloss

  14. Comparative studies of Toll-like receptor signalling using zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kanwal, Zakia; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Veneman, Wouter J; Meijer, Annemarie H; Spaink, Herman P

    2014-09-01

    Zebrafish model systems for infectious disease are increasingly used for the functional analysis of molecular pattern recognition processes. These studies benefit from the high conservation level of all innate immune factors in vertebrates. Zebrafish studies are strategically well positioned for this because of the ease of comparisons with studies in other fish species of which the immune system also has been intensively studied, but that are currently still less amendable to detailed genetic or microscopic studies. In this paper we focus on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling factors, which currently are the best characterized in mammalian systems. We review the knowledge on TLR signalling in the context of recent advances in zebrafish studies and discuss possibilities for future approaches that can complement studies in cell cultures and rodent models. A focus in these comparisons is the role of negative control mechanisms in immune responses that appear very important in a whole organism to keep adverse systemic responses in check. We also pay much attention to comparisons with studies in common carp that is highly related to zebrafish and that because of its large body mass can complement immune studies in zebrafish.

  15. Zebrafish as a Model to Investigate Dynamin 2-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bragato, Cinzia; Gaudenzi, Germano; Blasevich, Flavia; Pavesi, Giulio; Maggi, Lorenzo; Giunta, Michele; Cotelli, Franco; Mora, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the dynamin-2 gene (DNM2) cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy type B (CMTDIB). As the relation between these DNM2-related diseases is poorly understood, we used zebrafish to investigate the effects of two different DNM2 mutations. First we identified a new alternatively spliced zebrafish dynamin-2a mRNA (dnm2a-v2) with greater similarity to human DNM2 than the deposited sequence. Then we knocked-down the zebrafish dnm2a, producing defects in muscle morphology. Finally, we expressed two mutated DNM2 mRNA by injecting zebrafish embryos with human mRNAs carrying the R522H mutation, causing CNM, or the G537C mutation, causing CMT. Defects arose especially in secondary motor neuron formation, with incorrect branching in embryos injected with CNM-mutated mRNA, and total absence of branching in those injected with CMT-mutated mRNA. Muscle morphology in embryos injected with CMT-mutated mRNA appeared less regularly organized than in those injected with CNM-mutated mRNA. Our results showing, a continuum between CNM and CMTDIB phenotypes in zebrafish, similarly to the human conditions, confirm this animal model to be a powerful tool to investigate mutations of DNM2 in vivo. PMID:26842864

  16. Genetic evidence for shared mechanisms of epimorphic regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Barthel, Linda K; Raymond, Pamela A

    2009-06-09

    In a microarray-based gene profiling analysis of Müller glia-derived retinal stem cells in light-damaged retinas from adult zebrafish, we found that 2 genes required for regeneration of fin and heart tissues in zebrafish, hspd1 (heat shock 60-kDa protein 1) and mps1 (monopolar spindle 1), were up-regulated. Expression of both genes in the neurogenic Müller glia and progenitors was independently verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and in situ hybridization. Functional analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants of hspd1 and mps1 revealed that both are necessary for Müller glia-based cone photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish retina. In the amputated fin, hspd1 is required for the induction of mesenchymal stem cells and blastema formation, whereas mps1 is required at a later step for rapid cell proliferation and outgrowth. This temporal sequence of hspd1 and mps1 function is conserved in the regenerating retina. Comparison of gene expression profiles from regenerating zebrafish retina, caudal fin, and heart muscle revealed additional candidate genes potentially implicated in injury-induced epimorphic regeneration in diverse zebrafish tissues.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Single Cells from Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Samsa, Leigh Ann; Fleming, Nicole; Magness, Scott; Qian, Li; Liu, Jiandong

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a powerful model organism to study vertebrate development. Though many aspects of zebrafish embryonic development have been described at the morphological level, little is known about the molecular basis of cellular changes that occur as the organism develops. With recent advancements in microfluidics and multiplexing technologies, it is now possible to characterize gene expression in single cells. This allows for investigation of heterogeneity between individual cells of specific cell populations to identify and classify cell subtypes, characterize intermediate states that occur during cell differentiation, and explore differential cellular responses to stimuli. This study describes a protocol to isolate viable, single cells from zebrafish embryos for high throughput multiplexing assays. This method may be rapidly applied to any zebrafish embryonic cell type with fluorescent markers. An extension of this method may also be used in combination with high throughput sequencing technologies to fully characterize the transcriptome of single cells. As proof of principle, the relative abundance of cardiac differentiation markers was assessed in isolated, single cells derived from nkx2.5 positive cardiac progenitors. By evaluation of gene expression at the single cell level and at a single time point, the data support a model in which cardiac progenitors coexist with differentiating progeny. The method and work flow described here is broadly applicable to the zebrafish research community, requiring only a labeled transgenic fish line and access to microfluidics technologies. PMID:27022828

  18. Death-associated odors induce stress in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; da Motta, Adriana Costa; Piato, Angelo Luis; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Volpato, Gilson Luiz; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2014-04-01

    Living animals exploit information released from dead animals to conduct adaptive biological responses. For instance, a recently published study has shown that avoidance behavior is triggered by death-associated odors in zebrafish. Stress can clearly act as an adaptive response that allows an organism to deal with an imminent threat. However, it has not been demonstrated whether these chemical cues are stressful for fish. Here, we confirmed that dead zebrafish scents induce defensive behavior in live conspecifics. Additionally, we show for the first time in fish that these scents increase cortisol in conspecifics. To reach this conclusion, firstly, we exposed zebrafish to multi-sensorial cues (e.g., visual, tactile, chemical cues) from dead conspecifics that displayed defensive behaviors and increased cortisol. Also, when we limited zebrafish to chemical cues from dead conspecifics, similar responses arose. These responses coincide with the decaying destruction of epidermal cells, indicating that defensive and stress responses could take place as an effect of substances emanating from decaying flesh, as well as alarm substance released due to rupture of epidermal cells. Taken together, these results illustrate that living zebrafish utilize cues from dead conspecific to avoid or to cope with danger and ensure survival.

  19. Modeling Pancreatic Endocrine Cell Adaptation and Diabetes in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Lisette A.; Chen, Wenbiao

    2017-01-01

    Glucose homeostasis is an important element of energy balance and is conserved in organisms from fruit fly to mammals. Central to the control of circulating glucose levels in vertebrates are the endocrine cells of the pancreas, particularly the insulin-producing β-cells and the glucagon producing α-cells. A feature of α- and β-cells is their plasticity, an ability to adapt, in function and number as a response to physiological and pathophysiological conditions of increased hormone demand. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptive responses that maintain glucose homeostasis are incompletely defined. The zebrafish is an attractive model due to the low cost, high fecundity, and amenability to genetic and compound screens, and mechanisms governing the development of the pancreatic endocrine cells are conserved between zebrafish and mammals. Post development, both β- and α-cells of zebrafish display plasticity as in mammals. Here, we summarize the studies of pancreatic endocrine cell adaptation in zebrafish. We further explore the utility of the zebrafish as a model for diabetes, a relevant topic considering the increase in diabetes in the human population. PMID:28184214

  20. Atlas of Cellular Dynamics during Zebrafish Adult Kidney Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    McCampbell, Kristen K.; Springer, Kristin N.; Wingert, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is a useful animal model to study the signaling pathways that orchestrate kidney regeneration, as its renal nephrons are simple, yet they maintain the biological complexity inherent to that of higher vertebrate organisms including mammals. Recent studies have suggested that administration of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin in zebrafish mimics human acute kidney injury (AKI) through the induction of nephron damage, but the timing and details of critical phenotypic events associated with the regeneration process, particularly in existing nephrons, have not been characterized. Here, we mapped the temporal progression of cellular and molecular changes that occur during renal epithelial regeneration of the proximal tubule in the adult zebrafish using a platform of histological and expression analysis techniques. This work establishes the timing of renal cell death after gentamicin injury, identifies proliferative compartments within the kidney, and documents gene expression changes associated with the regenerative response of proliferating cells. These data provide an important descriptive atlas that documents the series of events that ensue after damage in the zebrafish kidney, thus availing a valuable resource for the scientific community that can facilitate the implementation of zebrafish research to delineate the mechanisms that control renal regeneration. PMID:26089919

  1. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model for testing proteratogens.

    PubMed

    Weigt, Stefan; Huebler, Nicole; Strecker, Ruben; Braunbeck, Thomas; Broschard, Thomas H

    2011-03-15

    Zebrafish embryos have been shown to be a useful model for the detection of direct acting teratogens. This communication presents a protocol for a 3-day in vitro zebrafish embryo teratogenicity assay and describes results obtained for 10 proteratogens: 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B(1), carbamazepine, phenytoin, trimethadione, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, tegafur and thio-TEPA. The selection of the test substances accounts for differences in structure, origin, metabolism and water solubility. Apart from 2-acetylaminofluorene, which mainly produces lethal effects, all proteratogens tested were teratogenic in zebrafish embryos exposed for 3 days. The test substances and/or the substance class produced characteristic patterns of fingerprint endpoints. Several substances produced effects that could be identified already at 1 dpf (days post fertilization), whereas the effects of others could only be identified unambiguously after hatching at ≥ 3 dpf. The LC₅₀ and EC₅₀ values were used to calculate the teratogenicity index (TI) for the different substances, and the EC₂₀ values were related to human plasma concentrations. Results lead to the conclusion that zebrafish embryos are able to activate proteratogenic substances without addition of an exogenous metabolic activation system. Moreover, the teratogenic effects were observed at concentrations relevant to human exposure data. Along with other findings, our results indicate that zebrafish embryos are a useful alternative method for traditional teratogenicity testing with mammalian species.

  2. A jump persistent turning walker to model zebrafish locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Mwaffo, Violet; Anderson, Ross P.; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the investigation of several functional and dysfunctional biological processes. Mathematical models of zebrafish behaviour are expected to considerably aid in the design of hypothesis-driven studies by enabling preliminary in silico tests that can be used to infer possible experimental outcomes without the use of zebrafish. This study is motivated by observations of sudden, drastic changes in zebrafish locomotion in the form of large deviations in turn rate. We demonstrate that such deviations can be captured through a stochastic mean reverting jump diffusion model, a process that is commonly used in financial engineering to describe large changes in the price of an asset. The jump process-based model is validated on trajectory data of adult subjects swimming in a shallow circular tank obtained from an overhead camera. Through statistical comparison of the empirical distribution of the turn rate against theoretical predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of describing zebrafish as a jump persistent turning walker. The critical role of the jump term is assessed through comparison with a simplified mean reversion diffusion model, which does not allow for describing the heavy-tailed distributions observed in the fish turn rate. PMID:25392396

  3. Finding clues to the riddle of sex determination in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Nagabhushana, A; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2016-03-01

    How sex is determined has been one of the most intriguing puzzles in biology since antiquity. Although a fundamental process in most metazoans, there seems to be myriad of ways in which sex can be determined - from genetic to environmental sex determination. This variation is limited mainly to upstream triggers with the core of sex determination pathway being conserved. Zebrafish has gained prominence as a vertebrate model system to study development and disease. However, very little is known about its primary sex determination mechanism. Here we review our current understanding of the sex determination in zebrafish. Zebrafish lack identifiable heteromorphic sex chromosomes and sex is determined by multiple genes, with some influence from the environment. Recently, chromosome 4 has been identified as sex chromosome along with few sex-linked loci on chromosomes 5 and 16. The identities of candidate sex-linked genes, however, have remained elusive. Sex in zebrafish is also influenced by the number of meiotic oocytes in the juvenile ovary, which appear to instruct retention of the ovarian fate. The mechanism and identity of this instructive signal remain unknown. We hypothesize that sex in zebrafish is a culmination of combinatorial effects of the genome, germ cells and the environment with inputs from epigenetic factors translating the biological meaning of this interaction.

  4. Cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for dioxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun-Hee; Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Suhyun; Williams, Darren R; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Jung, Young Do; Teraoka, Hiroki; Park, Hae-Chul; Choy, Hyon E; Shin, Boo Ahn; Choi, Seok-Yong

    2013-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, is classified as human carcinogen and could disrupt reproductive, developmental and endocrine systems. Induction of cyp1a1 is used as an indicator of TCDD exposure. We sought to determine tissues that are vulnerable to TCDD toxicity using a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We inserted a nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) into the start codon of a zebrafish cyp1a gene in a fosmid clone using DNA recombineering. The resulting recombineered fosmid was then used to generate cyp1a reporter zebrafish, embryos of which were exposed to TCDD. Expression pattern of EGFP in the reporter zebrafish mirrored that of endogenous cyp1a mRNA. In addition, exposure of the embryos to TCDD at as low as 10 pM for 72 h, which does not elicit morphological abnormalities of embryos, markedly increased GFP expression. Furthermore, the reporter embryos responded to other AhR ligands as well. Exposure of the embryos to TCDD revealed previously reported (the cardiovascular system, liver, pancreas, kidney, swim bladder and skin) and unreported target tissues (retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, cloaca and pectoral fin bud) for TCDD. Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish we have developed can further understanding of ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks by TCDD. In addition, they could be used to identify agonists of AhR and antidotes to TCDD toxicity.

  5. Pharmacological analyses of learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish have set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which span pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology.

  6. Pharmacological Analyses of Learning and Memory in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish has set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which spans pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology. PMID:25792292

  7. Zebrafish: An Important Tool for Liver Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Goessling, Wolfram; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2016-01-01

    As the incidence of hepatobiliary diseases increases, we must improve our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and physiological factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of liver disease. Animal models help us identify disease mechanisms that might be targeted therapeutically. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have traditionally been used to study embryonic development but are also important to the study of liver disease. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly; all of their digestive organs are mature in larvae by 5 days of age. At this stage, they can develop hepatobiliary diseases caused by developmental defects or toxin- or ethanol-induced injury and manifest premalignant changes within weeks. Zebrafish are similar to humans in hepatic cellular composition, function, signaling, and response to injury as well as the cellular processes that mediate liver diseases. Genes are highly conserved between humans and zebrafish, making them a useful system to study the basic mechanisms of liver disease. We can perform genetic screens to identify novel genes involved in specific disease processes and chemical screens to identify pathways and compounds that act on specific processes. We review how studies of zebrafish have advanced our understanding of inherited and acquired liver diseases as well as liver cancer and regeneration. PMID:26319012

  8. Ozone promotes regeneration by regulating the inflammatory response in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hao, Kenan; Li, Yanhao; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Yiyue; Ma, Ning; Zeng, Qingle; Pang, Huajin; Wang, Chunyan; Xiao, Lijun; He, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Ozone is thought to advance wound healing by inhibiting inflammation, but the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been determined. Although the zebrafish is often used in regeneration experiments, there has been no report of zebrafish treated with ozonated water. We successfully established a zebrafish model of ozonated water treatment and demonstrate that ozonated water stimulates the regeneration of the zebrafish caudal fin, its mechanism, and time dependence. The growth rate of the caudal fin and the number of neutrophils migrating to the caudal fin wound after resection were higher in the experimental (ozonated) group than in the control group, preliminarily confirming that ozone-promoted regeneration is related to the stimulation of an early inflammatory response by ozone. Ozone modulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in two ways by regulating interleukin 10 (IL-10) expression. Therefore, ozone promotes tissue regeneration by regulating the inflammatory pathways. This effect of ozone in an experimental zebrafish model is demonstrated for the first time, confirming its promotion of wound healing and the mechanism of its effect in tissue regeneration. These results will open up new directions for ozone and regeneration research.

  9. Evaluation of MWNT toxic effects on daphnia and zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olasagasti, Maider; Alvarez, Noelia; Vera, Carolina; Rainieri, Sandra

    2009-05-01

    Organisms of daphnia (Daphnia magna) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to a range of different concentrations of COOH-functionalized MWCNT suspended in an aqueous solution of Tween 20. Immobilization of daphnia and growth retardation, inhibition and malformation of zebrafish embryos were the endpoints tested after 24 and 48 hours. Immobilization of daphnia could be observed from 3 to 16 ppm and an increasing mortality of zebrafish embryo was detected at all the concentration tested. To identify more subtle toxic effects, we took advantage of the extensive information available on the zebrafish genome and monitored by RT-PCR the expression patterns of different zebrafish genes that could act as toxicity bio-markers. At some of the concentrations tested, changes in the expression profiles of the genes examined were detected. Our results suggest that MWCNT could potentially represent a risk to human health and environment, therefore a wider range of concentrations and further testing of this molecules should be carried out to define possible limitations in their use.

  10. A jump persistent turning walker to model zebrafish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Anderson, Ross P; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-06

    Zebrafish are gaining momentum as a laboratory animal species for the investigation of several functional and dysfunctional biological processes. Mathematical models of zebrafish behaviour are expected to considerably aid in the design of hypothesis-driven studies by enabling preliminary in silico tests that can be used to infer possible experimental outcomes without the use of zebrafish. This study is motivated by observations of sudden, drastic changes in zebrafish locomotion in the form of large deviations in turn rate. We demonstrate that such deviations can be captured through a stochastic mean reverting jump diffusion model, a process that is commonly used in financial engineering to describe large changes in the price of an asset. The jump process-based model is validated on trajectory data of adult subjects swimming in a shallow circular tank obtained from an overhead camera. Through statistical comparison of the empirical distribution of the turn rate against theoretical predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of describing zebrafish as a jump persistent turning walker. The critical role of the jump term is assessed through comparison with a simplified mean reversion diffusion model, which does not allow for describing the heavy-tailed distributions observed in the fish turn rate.

  11. Regulation of hypocretin (orexin) expression in embryonic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Faraco, Juliette H; Appelbaum, Lior; Marin, Wilfredo; Gaus, Stephanie E; Mourrain, Philippe; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2006-10-06

    Hypocretins/orexins are neuropeptides involved in the regulation of sleep and energy balance in mammals. Conservation of gene sequence, hypothalamic localization of cell bodies, and projection patterns in adult zebrafish suggest that the architecture and function of the hypocretin system are conserved in fish. We report on the complete genomic structure of the zebrafish and Tetraodon hypocretin genes and the complete predicted hypocretin protein sequences from five teleosts. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we have traced the development of hypocretin cells in zebrafish from onset of expression at 22 h post-fertilization through the first week of development. Promoter elements of similar size from zebrafish and Tetraodon were capable of driving efficient and specific expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing zebrafish embryos, thus defining a minimal promoter region able to accurately mimic the native hypocretin pattern. This enhanced green fluorescent protein expression also revealed a complex pattern of projections within the hypothalamus, to the midbrain, and to the spinal cord. To further analyze the promoter, a series of deletion and substitution constructs were injected into embryos, and resulting promoter activity was monitored in the first week of development. A critical region of 250 base pairs was identified containing a core 13-base pair element essential for hypocretin expression.

  12. Toxicity Evaluation of New Engineered Nanomaterials in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Brundo, Maria V; Pecoraro, Roberta; Marino, Fabio; Salvaggio, Antonio; Tibullo, Daniele; Saccone, Salvatore; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Buccheri, Maria A; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Scuderi, Viviana; Zimbone, Massimo; Privitera, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the nanoparticles on the marine organisms, depends on their size, chemical composition, surface structure, solubility and shape. In order to take advantage from their activity, preserving the surrounding environment from a possible pollution, we are trying to trap the nanoparticles into new nanomaterials. The nanomaterials tested were synthesized proposing a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2 nano-system to avoid the release of nanoparticles. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles with a thin layer of TiO2. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on zebrafish larvae. Danio rerio o zebrafish was considered an excellent model for the environmental biomonitoring of aquatic environments and the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test (ZFET) is considered an alternative method of animal test. For this reason zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of nanoparticles of TiO2 and Au and new nanomaterials. As biomarkers of exposure, we evaluated the expression of metallothioneins by immunohistochemistry analysis and western blotting analysis also. The results obtained by toxicity test showed that neither mortality as well as sublethal effects were induced by the different nanomaterials and nanoparticles tested. Only zebrafish larvae exposed to free Au nanoparticles showed a different response to anti-MT antibody. In fact, the immunolocalization analysis highlighted an increase of the metallothioneins synthesis.

  13. Toxicity Evaluation of New Engineered Nanomaterials in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Brundo, Maria V.; Pecoraro, Roberta; Marino, Fabio; Salvaggio, Antonio; Tibullo, Daniele; Saccone, Salvatore; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Buccheri, Maria A.; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Scuderi, Viviana; Zimbone, Massimo; Privitera, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the nanoparticles on the marine organisms, depends on their size, chemical composition, surface structure, solubility and shape. In order to take advantage from their activity, preserving the surrounding environment from a possible pollution, we are trying to trap the nanoparticles into new nanomaterials. The nanomaterials tested were synthesized proposing a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2 nano-system to avoid the release of nanoparticles. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles with a thin layer of TiO2. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on zebrafish larvae. Danio rerio o zebrafish was considered an excellent model for the environmental biomonitoring of aquatic environments and the Zebrafish Embryo Toxicity Test (ZFET) is considered an alternative method of animal test. For this reason zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of nanoparticles of TiO2 and Au and new nanomaterials. As biomarkers of exposure, we evaluated the expression of metallothioneins by immunohistochemistry analysis and western blotting analysis also. The results obtained by toxicity test showed that neither mortality as well as sublethal effects were induced by the different nanomaterials and nanoparticles tested. Only zebrafish larvae exposed to free Au nanoparticles showed a different response to anti-MT antibody. In fact, the immunolocalization analysis highlighted an increase of the metallothioneins synthesis. PMID:27148069

  14. Structured illumination fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for velocimetry in Zebrafish embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Rossetti, Leone; Sironi, Laura; Freddi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Laura; Caccia, Michele; Bouzin, Margaux; Collini, Maddalena; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    The vascular system of Zebrafish embryos is studied by means of Fluorescence Correlation and Image Correlation Spectroscopy. The long term project addresses biologically relevant issues concerning vasculogenesis and cardiogenesis and in particular mechanical interaction between blood flow and endothelial cells. To this purpose we use Zebrafish as a model system since the transparency of its embryos facilitates morphological observation of internal organs in-vivo. The correlation analysis provides quantitative characterization of fluxes in blood vessels in vivo. We have pursued and compared two complementary routes. In a first one we developed a two-spots two-photon setup in which the spots are spaced at adjustable micron-size distances (1-40 μm) along a vessel and the endogenous (autofluorescence) or exogenous (dsRed transgenic erythrocytes) signal is captured with an EM-CCD and cross-correlated. In this way we are able to follow the morphology of the Zebrafish embryo, simultaneously measure the heart pulsation, the velocity of red cells and of small plasma proteins. These data are compared to those obtained by image correlations on Zebrafish vessels. The two methods allows to characterize the motion of plasma fluids and erythrocytes in healthy Zebrafish embryos to be compared in the future to pathogenic ones.

  15. Zebrafish: an important tool for liver disease research.

    PubMed

    Goessling, Wolfram; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2015-11-01

    As the incidence of hepatobiliary diseases increases, we must improve our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and physiological factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of liver disease. Animal models help us identify disease mechanisms that might be targeted therapeutically. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have traditionally been used to study embryonic development but are also important to the study of liver disease. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly; all of their digestive organs are mature in larvae by 5 days of age. At this stage, they can develop hepatobiliary diseases caused by developmental defects or toxin- or ethanol-induced injury and manifest premalignant changes within weeks. Zebrafish are similar to humans in hepatic cellular composition, function, signaling, and response to injury as well as the cellular processes that mediate liver diseases. Genes are highly conserved between humans and zebrafish, making them a useful system to study the basic mechanisms of liver disease. We can perform genetic screens to identify novel genes involved in specific disease processes and chemical screens to identify pathways and compounds that act on specific processes. We review how studies of zebrafish have advanced our understanding of inherited and acquired liver diseases as well as liver cancer and regeneration.

  16. Direct Visualization of DNA Replication Dynamics in Zebrafish Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2015-12-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the S-phase nucleus has been extensively studied in mammalian cells because it is tightly coupled with the regulation of other nuclear processes such as transcription. However, little is known about the replication dynamics in nonmammalian cells. Here, we analyzed the DNA replication processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells through the direct visualization of replicating DNA in the nucleus and on DNA fiber molecules isolated from the nucleus. We found that zebrafish chromosomal DNA at the nuclear interior was replicated first, followed by replication of DNA at the nuclear periphery, which is reminiscent of the spatiotemporal regulation of mammalian DNA replication. However, the relative duration of interior DNA replication in zebrafish cells was longer compared to mammalian cells, possibly reflecting zebrafish-specific genomic organization. The rate of replication fork progression and ori-to-ori distance measured by the DNA combing technique were ∼ 1.4 kb/min and 100 kb, respectively, which are comparable to those in mammalian cells. To our knowledge, this is a first report that measures replication dynamics in zebrafish cells.

  17. Retinoid regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Tian, Miao; Bao, Jie; Xing, Guangdong; Gu, Xingxing; Gao, Xiang; Linney, Elwood; Zhao, Qingshun

    2008-12-01

    Cyp26A1 is a major enzyme that controls retinoic acid (RA) homeostasis by metabolizing RA into bio-inactive metabolites. Previous research revealed that the mouse Cyp26A1 promoter has two canonical RA response elements (RAREs) that underlie the regulation of the gene by RA. Analyzing the 2,533-base pairs (2.5 k) genomic sequence upstream of zebrafish cyp26a1 start codon, we report that the two RAREs are conserved in zebrafish cyp26a1 promoter. Mutagenesis demonstrated that the two RAREs work synergistically in RA inducibility of cyp26a1. Fusing the 2.5 k (kilobase pairs) fragment to the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) reporter gene, we have generated two transgenic lines of zebrafish [Tg(cyp26a1:eYFP)]. The transgenic zebrafish display expression patterns similar to that of cyp26a1 gene in vivo. Consistent with the in vitro results, the reporter activity is RA inducible in embryos. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the 2.5 k fragment underlies the regulation of the zebrafish cyp26a1 gene by RA.

  18. LPS response and tolerance in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Novoa, B; Bowman, T V; Zon, L; Figueras, A

    2009-02-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used in the present work to study the fish response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and LPS tolerance. These mechanisms are not completely understood in mammals and, presently, are totally unknown in fish. Zebrafish larval survival was assessed following treatment with various types of LPS at a variety of concentrations to determine the sensitivity of zebrafish to LPS-induced immune activation. In addition, fish pretreated with a sublethal concentration of LPS did not die after exposure to a lethal concentration of LPS demonstrating, for the first time that LPS tolerance also happens in fish. The time interval between pretreatment and secondary exposure as well as the type of pretreatment dictated the strength of protection. Since zebrafish are in intimate contact with microorganisms, the high resistance of fish to LPS suggests that there must be a tight control of the LPS receptor cluster in order to avoid an excess of inflammation. One of these components is CXCR4, which has previously been shown to regulate the signal transduced by TLR4. Treating fish with AMD3100, a specific inhibitor of CXCR4, increased LPS treatment associated mortality. Blocking CXCR4 via chemical or genetic inhibition resulted in a reversion of LPS tolerance, thus further supporting the negative regulatory role of CXCR4 in this inflammatory response. In support of an inhibitory role for CXCR4 in the inflammatory cascade, IL-1 transcript levels were elevated in both unstimulated and LPS stimulated zebrafish Odysseus (CXCR4 deficient mutant) larvae.

  19. The Zebrafish Breathes New Life into the Study of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Myllymäki, Henna; Bäuerlein, Carina A.; Rämet, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health emergency. Up to one-third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the pathogen continues to kill 1.5 million people annually. Currently, the means for preventing, diagnosing, and treating TB are unsatisfactory. One of the main reasons for the poor progress in TB research has been a lack of good animal models to study the latency, dormancy, and reactivation of the disease. Although sophisticated in vitro and in silico methods suitable for TB research are constantly being developed, they cannot reproduce the complete vertebrate immune system and its interplay with pathogens and vaccines. However, the zebrafish has recently emerged as a useful alternative to more traditional models, such as mice, rabbits, guinea pigs, and non-human primates, for studying the complex pathophysiology of a mycobacterial infection. The model is based on the similarity between Mycobacterium marinum – a natural fish pathogen – and M. tuberculosis. In both zebrafish larvae and adult fish, an infection with M. marinum leads to the formation of macrophage aggregates and granulomas, which resemble the M. tuberculosis infections in humans. In this review, we will summarize the current status of the zebrafish model in TB research and highlight the advantages of using zebrafish to dissect mycobacterial virulence strategies as well as the host immune responses elicited against them. In addition, we will discuss the possibilities of using the adult zebrafish model for studying latency, dormancy, and reactivation in a mycobacterial infection. PMID:27242801

  20. Zebrafish Craniofacial Development: A Window into Early Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Lindsey; Crump, Gage

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the face and skull involves a complex series of developmental events mediated by cells derived from the neural crest, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although vertebrates boast an enormous diversity of adult facial morphologies, the fundamental signaling pathways and cellular events that sculpt the nascent craniofacial skeleton in the embryo have proven to be highly conserved from fish to man. The zebrafish Danio rerio, a small freshwater cyprinid fish from eastern India, has served as a popular model of craniofacial development since the 1990s. Unique strengths of the zebrafish model include a simplified skeleton during larval stages, access to rapidly developing embryos for live imaging, and amenability to transgenesis and complex genetics. In this chapter, we describe the anatomy of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton; its applications as models for the mammalian jaw, middle ear, palate, and cranial sutures; the superior imaging technology available in fish that has provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of facial morphogenesis; the use of the zebrafish to decipher the genetic underpinnings of craniofacial biology; and finally a glimpse into the most promising future applications of zebrafish craniofacial research. PMID:26589928

  1. Chiral bioaccumulation behavior of tebuconazole in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-04-01

    Tebuconazole is an effective chiral fungicide, and previous studies have demonstrated that tebuconazole enantiomers exhibit enantioselective toxicity to non-target aquatic organisms. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the chiral bioaccumulation behavior of tebuconazole in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Two exposure concentrations (0.107 and 1.07 mg/L) of tebuconazole were used. The uptake experiments lasted for 8 days, and subsequently, the zebrafish were transferred to another clean tank containing water without tebuconazole for depuration experiments (up to 14 days). A significant trend in enantioselective bioaccumulation was observed in these zebrafish with the preferential accumulation of (-)-R-tebuconazole at two dose levels. The results of the depuration experiments indicated that the degradation of (-)-R-tebuconazole in zebrafish was slower than that of (+)-S-tebuconazole. The BCFk values for (+)-S-tebuconazole and (-)-R-tebuconazole in a low dose of this chemical were 11.22 and 16.25, respectively, while at a high dose, these values were 9.79 and 10.31, respectively. The enantiomer fraction of tebuconazole in zebrafish and water ranged from 0.31-0.49. Hence, future research should focus on the fate of tebuconazole in the aquatic environment at the enantiomer levels.

  2. Peripheral Axons of the Adult Zebrafish Maxillary Barbel Extensively Remyelinate During Sensory Appendage Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alex C.; Mark, Tiffany E.; Hogan, Ann K.; Topczewski, Jacek; LeClair, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Myelination is a cellular adaptation allowing rapid conduction along axons. We have investigated peripheral axons of the zebrafish maxillary barbel (ZMB), an optically clear sensory appendage. Each barbel carries taste buds, solitary chemosensory cells, and epithelial nerve endings, all of which regenerate after amputation (LeClair and Topczewski [2010] PLoS One 5:e8737). The ZMB contains axons from the facial nerve; however, myelination within the barbel itself has not been established. Transcripts of myelin basic protein (mbp) are expressed in normal and regenerating adult barbels, indicating activity in both maintenance and repair. Myelin was confirmed in situ by using toluidine blue, an anti-MBP antibody, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adult ZMB contains ~180 small-diameter axons (<2 μm), approximately 60% of which are myelinated. Developmental myelination was observed via whole-mount immunohistochemistry 4-6 weeks postfertilization, showing myelin sheaths lagging behind growing axons. Early-regenerating axons (10 days postsurgery), having no or few myelin layers, were disorganized within a fibroblast-rich collagenous scar. Twenty-eight days postsurgery, barbel axons had grown out several millimeters and were organized with compact myelin sheaths. Fiber types and axon areas were similar between normal and regenerated tissue; within 4 weeks, regenerating axons restored ~85% of normal myelin thickness. Regenerating barbels express multiple promyelinating transcription factors (sox10, oct6 = pou3f1; krox20a/b = egr2a/b) typical of Schwann cells. These observations extend our understanding of the zebrafish peripheral nervous system within a little-studied sensory appendage. The accessible ZMB provides a novel context for studying axon regeneration, Schwann cell migration, and remyelination in a model vertebrate. PMID:22592645

  3. Melatonin rescues zebrafish embryos from the parkinsonian phenotype restoring the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 network.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Casado, María E; Lima, Elena; García, José A; Doerrier, Carolina; Aranda, Paula; Sayed, Ramy Ka; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-08-01

    Multiple studies reporting mitochondrial impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) involve knockout or knockdown models to inhibit the expression of mitochondrial-related genes, including parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 ones. Melatonin has significant neuroprotective properties, which have been related to its ability to boost mitochondrial bioenergetics. The meaning and molecular targets of melatonin in PD are yet unclear. Zebrafish are an outstanding model of PD because they are vertebrates, their dopaminergic system is comparable to the nigrostriatal system of humans, and their brains express the same genes as mammals. The exposure of 24 hpf zebrafish embryos to MPTP leads to a significant inhibition of the mitochondrial complex I and the induction of sncga gene, responsible for enhancing γ-synuclein accumulation, which is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, MPTP inhibited the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1 expression, impeding the normal function of the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 network to remove the damaged mitochondria. This situation remains over time, and removing MPTP from the treatment did not stop the neurodegenerative process. On the contrary, mitochondria become worse during the next 2 days without MPTP, and the embryos developed a severe motor impairment that cannot be rescued because the mitochondrial-related gene expression remained inhibited. Melatonin, added together with MPTP or added once MPTP was removed, prevented and recovered, respectively, the parkinsonian phenotype once it was established, restoring gene expression and normal function of the parkin/PINK1/DJ-1/MUL1 loop and also the normal motor activity of the embryos. The results show, for the first time, that melatonin restores brain function in zebrafish suffering with Parkinson-like disease.

  4. Strategies to Mitigate a Mycobacterium marinum Outbreak in a Zebrafish Research Facility.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy; Snell, Kathy; Mittge, Erika; Melancon, Ellie; Montgomery, Rebecca; McFadden, Marcie; Camoriano, Javier; Kent, Michael L; Whipps, Christopher M; Peirce, Judy

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, the zebrafish research facility at the University of Oregon experienced an outbreak of Mycobacterium marinum that affected both research fish and facility staff. A thorough review of risks to personnel, the zebrafish veterinary care program, and zebrafish husbandry procedures at the research facility followed. In the years since 2011, changes have been implemented throughout the research facility to protect the personnel, the fish colony, and ultimately the continued success of the zebrafish model research program. In this study, we present the history of the outbreak, the changes we implemented, and recommendations to mitigate pathogen outbreaks in zebrafish research facilities.

  5. Strategies to Mitigate a Mycobacterium marinum Outbreak in a Zebrafish Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Kathy; Mittge, Erika; Melancon, Ellie; Montgomery, Rebecca; McFadden, Marcie; Camoriano, Javier; Kent, Michael L.; Whipps, Christopher M.; Peirce, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, the zebrafish research facility at the University of Oregon experienced an outbreak of Mycobacterium marinum that affected both research fish and facility staff. A thorough review of risks to personnel, the zebrafish veterinary care program, and zebrafish husbandry procedures at the research facility followed. In the years since 2011, changes have been implemented throughout the research facility to protect the personnel, the fish colony, and ultimately the continued success of the zebrafish model research program. In this study, we present the history of the outbreak, the changes we implemented, and recommendations to mitigate pathogen outbreaks in zebrafish research facilities. PMID:27351618

  6. Zebrafish Database: Customizable, Free, and Open-Source Solution for Facility Management.

    PubMed

    Yakulov, Toma Antonov; Walz, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Zebrafish Database is a web-based customizable database solution, which can be easily adapted to serve both single laboratories and facilities housing thousands of zebrafish lines. The database allows the users to keep track of details regarding the various genomic features, zebrafish lines, zebrafish batches, and their respective locations. Advanced search and reporting options are available. Unique features are the ability to upload files and images that are associated with the respective records and an integrated calendar component that supports multiple calendars and categories. Built on the basis of the Joomla content management system, the Zebrafish Database is easily extendable without the need for advanced programming skills.

  7. Patterning of angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Childs, Sarah; Chen, Jau-Nian; Garrity, Deborah M; Fishman, Mark C

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about how vascular patterns are generated in the embryo. The vasculature of the zebrafish trunk has an extremely regular pattern. One intersegmental vessel (ISV) sprouts from the aorta, runs between each pair of somites, and connects to the dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessel (DLAV). We now define the cellular origins, migratory paths and cell fates that generate these metameric vessels of the trunk. Additionally, by a genetic screen we define one gene, out of bounds (obd), that constrains this angiogenic growth to a specific path. We have performed lineage analysis, using laser activation of a caged dye and mosaic construction to determine the origin of cells that constitute the ISV. Individual angioblasts destined for the ISVs arise from the lateral posterior mesoderm (LPM), and migrate to the dorsal aorta, from where they migrate between somites to their final position in the ISVs and dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessel (DLAV). Cells of each ISV leave the aorta only between the ventral regions of two adjacent somites, and migrate dorsally to assume one of three ISV cell fates. Most dorsal is a T-shaped cell, based in the DLAV and branching ventrally; the second constitutes a connecting cell; and the third an inverted T-shaped cell, based in the aorta and branching dorsally. The ISV remains between somites during its ventral course, but changes to run mid-somite dorsally. This suggests that the pattern of ISV growth ventrally and dorsally is guided by different cues. We have also performed an ENU mutagenesis screen of 750 mutagenized genomes and identified one mutation, obd that disrupts this pattern. In obd mutant embryos, ISVs sprout precociously at abnormal sites and migrate anomalously in the vicinity of ventral somite. The dorsal extent of the ISV is less perturbed. Precocious sprouting can be inhibited in a VEGF morphant, but the anomalous site of origin of obd ISVs remains. In mosaic embryos, obd somite causes adjacent wild

  8. Definition of the zebrafish genome using flow cytometry and cytogenetic mapping

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jennifer L; Adeniyi, Adeola; Banerjee, Ruby; Dallaire, Stephanie; Maguire, Sean F; Chi, Jianxiang; Ng, Bee Ling; Zepeda, Cinthya; Scott, Carol E; Humphray, Sean; Rogers, Jane; Zhou, Yi; Zon, Leonard I; Carter, Nigel P; Yang, Fengtang; Lee, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Background The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism system for biomedical research. The syntenic conservation between the zebrafish and human genome allows one to investigate the function of human genes using the zebrafish model. To facilitate analysis of the zebrafish genome, genetic maps have been constructed and sequence annotation of a reference zebrafish genome is ongoing. However, the duplicative nature of teleost genomes, including the zebrafish, complicates accurate assembly and annotation of a representative genome sequence. Cytogenetic approaches provide "anchors" that can be integrated with accumulating genomic data. Results Here, we cytogenetically define the zebrafish genome by first estimating the size of each linkage group (LG) chromosome using flow cytometry, followed by the cytogenetic mapping of 575 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones onto metaphase chromosomes. Of the 575 BAC clones, 544 clones localized to apparently unique chromosomal locations. 93.8% of these clones were assigned to a specific LG chromosome location using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and compared to the LG chromosome assignment reported in the zebrafish genome databases. Thirty-one BAC clones localized to multiple chromosomal locations in several different hybridization patterns. From these data, a refined second generation probe panel for each LG chromosome was also constructed. Conclusion The chromosomal mapping of the 575 large-insert DNA clones allows for these clones to be integrated into existing zebrafish mapping data. An accurately annotated zebrafish reference genome serves as a valuable resource for investigating the molecular basis of human diseases using zebrafish mutant models. PMID:17597531

  9. The search for evolutionary developmental origins of aging in zebrafish: a novel intersection of developmental and senescence biology in the zebrafish model system.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    Senescence may be considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena during the process of aging. We investigated whether any relationship exists between the regulatory mechanisms that function in early development and in senescence using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish and a useful model animal for genetic studies. We conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing an apparent senescence phenotype during embryogenesis (embryonic senescence). Some of the genes we thereby identified had already been associated with cellular senescence and chronological aging in other organisms, but many had not yet been linked to these processes. Complete loss-of-function of developmentally essential genes induce embryonic (or larval) lethality, whereas it seems like their partial loss-of-function (i.e., decrease-of-function by heterozygote or hypomorphic mutations) still remains sufficient to go through the early developmental process because of its adaptive plasticity or rather heterozygote advantage. However, in some cases, such partial loss-of-function of genes compromise normal homeostasis due to haploinsufficiency later in adult life having many environmental stress challenges. By contrast, any heterozygote-advantageous genes might gain a certain benefit(s) (much more fitness) by such partial loss-of-function later in life. Physiological senescence may evolutionarily arise from both genetic and epigenetic drifts as well as from losing adaptive developmental plasticity in face of stress signals from the external environment that interacts with functions of multiple genes rather than effects of only a single gene mutation or defect. Previously uncharacterized developmental genes may thus mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. Moreover, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and

  10. Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes regeneration after adult zebrafish spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Strand, Nicholas S; Hoi, Kimberly K; Phan, Tien M T; Ray, Catherine A; Berndt, Jason D; Moon, Randall T

    2016-09-02

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate their injured spinal cord and regain control of caudal tissues. It was recently shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for spinal cord regeneration in the larval zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanisms of regeneration may or may not be conserved between larval and adult zebrafish. To test this, we assessed the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. We show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is increased after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish. Moreover, overexpression of Dkk1b inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the regenerating spinal cord of adult zebrafish. Dkk1b overexpression also inhibited locomotor recovery, axon regeneration, and glial bridge formation in the injured spinal cord. Thus, our data illustrate a conserved role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult and larval zebrafish spinal cord regeneration.

  11. Genome editing using artificial site-specific nucleases in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Yu; Ota, Satoshi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish is a model vertebrate suitable for genetic analysis. Forward genetic analysis via chemical mutagenesis screening has established a variety of zebrafish mutants that are defective in various types of organogenesis, and the genes responsible for the individual mutants have been identified from genome mapping. On the other hand, reverse genetic analysis via targeted gene disruption using embryonic stem (ES) cells (e.g., knockout mouse) can uncover gene functions by investigating the phenotypic effects. However, this approach is mostly limited to mice among the vertebrate models because of the difficulty in establishing ES cells. Recently, new gene targeting technologies, such as the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 systems, have been developed: that can directly introduce genome modifications at the targeted genomic locus. Here, we summarize these new and powerful genome editing techniques for the study of zebrafish.

  12. Zebrafish: A Model for the Study of Addiction Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Eric W; Schneider, Henning; Clark, Karl; Cousin, Margot; Ebbert, Jon; Hooten, Michael; Karpyak, Victor; Warner, David; Ekker, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse and dependence are multifaceted disorders with complex genetic underpinnings. Identifying specific genetic correlates is challenging and may be more readily accomplished by defining endophenotypes specific for addictive disorders. Symptoms and syndromes, including acute drug response, consumption, preference, and withdrawal, are potential endophenotypes characterizing addiction that have been investigated using model organisms. We present a review of major genes involved in serotonergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, and adrenoreceptor signaling that are considered to be directly involved in nicotine, opioid, cannabinoid, and ethanol use and dependence. The zebrafish genome encodes likely homologs of the vast majority of these loci. We also review the known expression patterns of these genes in zebrafish. The information presented in this review provides support for the use of zebrafish as a viable model for studying genetic factors related to drug addiction. Expansion of investigations into drug response using model organisms holds the potential to advance our understanding of drug response and addiction in humans. PMID:22207143

  13. Hyaluronic acid synthesis is required for zebrafish tail fin regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Xiaohu; Panetta, Nicholas J.; Talbott, Maya D.; Payumo, Alexander Y.; Halluin, Caroline; Longaker, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling and whole-mount expression analyses of zebrafish larvae, we have identified hyaluronan synthase 3 (has3) as an upregulated gene during caudal fin regeneration. has3 expression is induced in the wound epithelium within hours after tail amputation, and its onset and maintenance requires fibroblast growth factor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and transforming growth factor-ß signaling. Inhibition of hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis by the small molecule 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) impairs tail regeneration in zebrafish larvae by preventing injury-induced cell proliferation. In addition, 4-MU reduces the expression of genes associated with wound epithelium and blastema function. Treatment with glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors rescues 4-MU-induced defects in cell proliferation and tail regeneration, while restoring a subset of wound epithelium and blastema markers. Our findings demonstrate a role for HA biosynthesis in zebrafish tail regeneration and delineate its epistatic relationships with other regenerative processes. PMID:28207787

  14. Alcohol impairs predation risk response and communication in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Ferreira, Daiane; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Vendrametto; Oliveira, Ricardo Pimentel; Fagundes, Michele; Piato, Angelo Luis; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.

  15. Cell adhesion in zebrafish embryos is modulated by March 8.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ha; Rebbert, Martha L; Ro, Hyunju; Won, Minho; Dawid, Igor B

    2014-01-01

    March 8 is a member of a family of transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases that have been studied mostly for their role in the immune system. We find that March 8 is expressed in the zebrafish egg and early embryo, suggesting a role in development. Both knock-down and overexpression of March 8 leads to abnormal development. The phenotype of zebrafish embryos and Xenopus animal explants overexpressing March 8 implicates impairment of cell adhesion as a cause of the effect. In zebrafish embryos and in cultured cells, overexpression of March 8 leads to a reduction in the surface levels of E-cadherin, a major cell-cell adhesion molecule. Experiments in cell culture further show that E-cadherin can be ubiquitinated by March 8. On the basis of these observations we suggest that March 8 functions in the embryo to modulate the strength of cell adhesion by regulating the localization of E-cadherin.

  16. A modular, low-cost robot for zebrafish handling.

    PubMed

    Pfriem, Alexander; Pylatiuk, Christian; Alshut, Rüdiger; Ziegener, Bertram; Schulz, Stefan; Bretthauer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish (danio rerio) is one of the most important model organisms in modern drug discovery and disease modeling. Handling and analyzing large numbers of zebrafish larvae require an immense manpower and involve time-consuming manual processes. A novel modular, robotic platform for high-throughput screening is being developed at BioRobotLab (KIT). In this article the fish sorter, which is a robotic device for the automation of a manual process in bio analysis, is presented. The fish sorter detects randomly spread zebrafish eggs and larvae up to an age of 120 hours post fertilization (hpf) in Petri dishes and transfers them to standard 96- or 384- well plates. The robot is controlled by an advanced algorithm with sensor-based process control. Fast and precise hardware components lead to a high working speed and success rate >= 95%.

  17. Exploring Hallucinogen Pharmacology and Psychedelic Medicine with Zebrafish Models.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Kalueff, Allan V

    2016-10-01

    After decades of sociopolitical obstacles, the field of psychiatry is experiencing a revived interest in the use of hallucinogenic agents to treat brain disorders. Along with the use of ketamine for depression, recent pilot studies have highlighted the efficacy of classic serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin, in treating addiction, post-traumatic stress disorder, and anxiety. However, many basic pharmacological and toxicological questions remain unanswered with regard to these c