Science.gov

Sample records for normaler verlauf und

  1. Technikwissenschaft - Erfinden und Entdecken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Gerhard

    Umrissen wird das allgemeine Ziel der Technikwissenschaft, konstruktiv zu verwerten und nicht-natürlich Entdeckbares zu erfinden. Wir befinden uns in einer Umwälzung der Technik im Verlauf der wissenschaftlich-technischen Revolution, auf dem Wege zu einem neuen Techniktyp. Dieser schafft und nutzt die künstliche Intelligenz. Dazu benötigt der in der Technik tätige Mensch spezielle Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen in kreativ-konstruktiver, -gestalterischer und erfinderischer Sicht mit dem Einsatz spezieller Strukturen und Sprachen. Vorschläge zur Arbeitsweise in der Technik werden gegeben.Translated AbstractTechnological Science-Invent and DiscoverThe general aim of engineering science is outlined to utilize results constructively and to invent something that cannot be discovered in nature. We are now in a period of transformation of technology in the course of scientific-technological revolution, on the way to a new type of technology. This new type creates and utilizes artificial intelligence. For this, man acitive in this field requires special knowledge and experiences in a creative, constructive, design-oriented and ultimately inventive way by deploying special structures and languages. There are also made some proposals concerning the method of working in the field of technology.

  2. Normalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Eduardo J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses cornerstone of Montessori theory, normalization, which asserts that if a child is placed in an optimum prepared environment where inner impulses match external opportunities, the undeviated self emerges, a being totally in harmony with its surroundings. Makes distinctions regarding normalization, normalized, and normality, indicating how…

  3. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen. PMID:27509439

  4. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  5. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  6. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  7. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  8. Geoinformation und Staat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zypries, Brigitte

    2002-09-01

    Geoinformationen besaßen als Grundlage militärischer Interventionen schon immer einen hohen Stellenwert für den Staat. Im Zeitalter der modernen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien wächst in demokratischen Staaten die Bedeutung von Geodaten weit über den Verteidigungsbereich hinaus. Brigitte Zypries, Staatssekretärin im Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) und Vorsitzende des Interministeriellen Ausschusses für Geoinformationswesen (IMAGI), sprach mit Dipl.-Geogr. Ute C. Bauerüber die Anwendung und Koordinierung von Geodaten in Politik und Staat.

  9. Integument und Anhangsorgane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, Harald

    Das Integument umhüllt den Wirbeltierkörper lückenlos. In der embryonalen Mundbucht (Stomodaeum) und der Afterbucht (Proctodaeum) grenzt es an die Auskleidung des Darmrohres. Über die generelle Bedeutung einer Haut als Abgrenzung zwischen Körperinnenraum und Außenmedium hinaus hat es bei Schädeltieren ein breites Spektrum von Funktionen. Die wichtigsten sind: Mechanischer Schutz durch Verhornungen und Verknöch erungen; Wundheilung; Schutz vor Wasserverlust; Schutz vor Infektionen durch bakterizide Drüsensekrete und immunkompetente Zellen; Schutz vor kurzwelliger Strahlung durch Pigmente; Schutz vor Überwärmung durch Schweißdrüsensekrete und Schutz vor Wärmeverlust durch Federn und Haare; Ausbildung lokomotorisch wichtiger Strukturen wie Federn, Flug- und Schwimmhäute, Krallen und Hufe; Redukt ion des Strömungswiderstandes durch Dämpfungshaut; Abgabe von Sekreten zur Ernährung (Milch); Ausbildung von Strukturen zu Nahrungserwerb und_-bearbeitung, z. B. Zähne, Barten;

  10. Milch, Milchprodukte, Analoge und Speiseeis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coors, Ursula

    Die Produktpalette Milch und Erzeugnisse aus Milch beinhaltet Konsummilch, die aus Milch oder Bestandteilen der Milch hergestellten Milcherzeugnisse wie Sauermilch-, Joghurt-, Kefir-, Buttermilch-, Sahne-, Kondensmilch-, Trockenmilch- und Molkenerzeugnisse, Milchmisch- und Molkenmischprodukte (Produkte mit beigegebenen Lebensmitteln), Milchzucker, Milcheiweißerzeugnisse, Milchfette und Käse.

  11. Teaching normal birth, normally.

    PubMed

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2009-01-01

    Teaching normal-birth Lamaze classes normally involves considering the qualities that make birth normal and structuring classes to embrace those qualities. In this column, teaching strategies are suggested for classes that unfold naturally, free from unnecessary interventions. PMID:19436595

  12. Neuausrichtung und Konsolidierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische und die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft und die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, und die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung und Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II und III des Bandes berichtet.

  13. [Struggling for normal in an instable situation - informal caregivers self-management in palliative home care. A meta-synthesis].

    PubMed

    Kreyer, Christiane; Pleschberger, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    Hintergrund: Die Betreuung und Pflege von Menschen mit Krebserkrankung am Lebensende zu Hause wird zu einem großen Teil in der Familie geleistet. Dabei sind vor allem pflegende Angehörige stark belastet. Studien die sich mit der Perspektive der Familien in dieser Situation beschäftigen, gehen häufig indirekt auf Selbstmanagementstrategien ein. Diese könnten ein wichtiger Ansatzpunkt für Unterstützungsangebote sein. Ziel: Ziel der Studie ist es, qualitative Forschungsergebnisse zum Selbstmanagement von Familien in der Palliative Care zu Hause zu synthetisieren. Es soll dargestellt werden, wie Familien die Situation erleben und welche Selbstmanagementstrategien sie nutzen. Methode: Eine Metasynthese, die der Methode nach Noblit und Hare (1988) folgte, wurde durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse von 13 qualitativen Studien aus sechs Ländern wurden einbezogen. Ergebnisse: Die Palliativversorgung eines Menschen mit Krebserkrankung zu Hause kann als instabiler Übergangsprozess verstanden werden, in dessen Verlauf die Familien «um Normalität ringen». Dieser Prozess wird entlang von vier Themen dargestellt. Zudem konnten sechs Selbstmanagementstrategien der Familien identifiziert werden, dies sind das Anerkennen der Situation, die Restrukturierung des Alltags, die Aufrechterhaltung der Balance in den familiären Beziehungen, die Übernahme von Verantwortung, das Nutzen sozialer Unterstützung und der Erwerb von Kompetenzen für Pflege und Betreuung. Schlussfolgerung: Aus den vielfältigen Selbstmanagementstrategien ergeben sich wertvolle Ansätze für die Unterstützung von Angehörigen im Rahmen palliativer Begleitung und Beratung.

  14. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  15. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  16. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  17. Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grömling, Michael; Scheinost, Ulrich

    Deutschland verfügt über ein gut ausgebautes System amtlicher und nicht amtlicher Unternehmens- und Marktstatistiken, das sich in einem fortwährenden Wandel befindet. Wird es sinnvoll genutzt, können für einzelne Marktteilnehmer wie für die gesamte Gesellschaft kostspielige Fehlentwicklungen vermieden werden. Dazu bedarf es eines sachkundigen Überblicks über die Vielfalt der Statistiken und der zwischen ihnen bestehenden Beziehungen sowie einer ständigen Anpassung an die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Als eine mögliche Orientierung kann der auf der Güter- und Faktorebene zu beobachtende Wandel dienen. Einer adäquaten Abbildung der ökonomischen Realität stehen in Deutschland mit seiner starken Verrechtlichung der Statistik jedoch mancherlei Schwierigkeiten im Wege. Teilweise tiefgreifende Reformbestrebungen sind vor allem auf europäischer Ebene im Gange. Als eine ergebnisorientierte Innovation für das Gesamtsystem der Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik wird ein modular aufgebautes System vorgestellt, das auch bei unterschiedlichen und sich wandelnden Rahmenbedingungen schrittweise realisiert werden kann.

  18. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  19. Mikrostrukturtechnik und Biomaterialien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, Andreas E.; Saile, Volker; Weibezahn, Karl-Friedrich

    In der Biomedizintechnik zeichnet sich derzeit ein Trend zu einer verstärkten Miniaturisierung des operativen Instrumentariums und der Peripheriegeräte ab, da zur sicheren Durchführung vieler minimal invasiv auszuführender chirurgischer Eingriffe sehr kleine Instrumente und Zusatzgeräte benötigt werden. Weiterhin werden für verschiedene Anwendungen im Life-Sciences-Bereich, wie z. B. innerhalb der klinischen Diagnostik und der pharmazeutischen Chemie, in zunehmendem Masse Komponenten mit eingearbeiteten Mikrostrukturen benötigt. Mit den inzwischen verfügbaren mikrotechnischen Herstellungsverfahren (siehe Kapitel 40.2) ist man in der Lage, unterschiedliche geometrische Formen von kleinen dreidimensionalen Bauteilen und Baugruppen im Mikrometerbereich zu fertigen. Für spezielle Anwendungen können aber auch Strukturen im Bereich von einigen 100 nm erzeugt werden. Mikrostrukturierte Komponenten und Baugruppen können entweder in Form von Implantaten in den menschlichen Körper gelangen oder in extrakorporal einsetzbaren Geräten zum Einsatz kommen (siehe Kapitel 40.3). Dabei ist zwischen Kurzzeit- und Langzeitimplantaten zu unterscheiden. Typische Kurzzeitimplantate sind beispielsweise Operationsinstrumente während eines operativen Eingriffes und für kurze Zeiträume gelegte Spezialkatheter zur gezielten Entnahme von Körpersäften oder zur temporären Medikamentenapplikation. Zur Kategorie der Langzeitimplantate gehören beispielsweise auf Dauer eingesetzte Gefässendoprothesen (Stents), Herzschrittmacher, Cochleaimplantate, miniaturisierte Medikamentendosiersysteme auf Basis mikrofluidischer Baugruppen (Mikropumpen, Mikrokanäle, etc.), implantierbare Arrays von Mikroelektroden, welche innerhalb der Neurobionik verstärkt Anwendung finden werden, sowie in der Zukunft auch künstliche Organe.

  20. Karamell und Schokolade optimal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Andreas

    In verschiedenen Situationen in Technik, Wirtschaft oder Politik ist man daran interessiert unter einer Anzahl von möglichen Entscheidungen die jeweils beste auszuwählen, also die optimale Entscheidung zu treffen, die den größtmöglichen Nutzen bringt. In den meisten Fällen sind Nutzen und Entscheidungsalternativen nicht exakt gegeben, Entscheidungen werden dann entweder sprachlichargumentativ ausgewählt und begründet oder gar aus dem Bauch heraus gefällt. In manchen Fällen ist es aber möglich, Entscheidungsalternativen und Nutzen in Zahlen und Formeln so auszudrücken, dass über diese Beschreibung im Prinzip die optimalen Entscheidungen und der maximale Nutzen festgelegt sind. Dabei ist zu beachten, dass bei mehreren (gleichzeitig oder hintereinander) zu treffenden Entscheidungen gewisse Abhängigkeiten zu berücksichtigen sind, bezüglich der möglichen Alternativen. Wenn beispielsweise die Umsetzung einer bestimmten (Teil-)Entscheidung mit bestimmten Kosten verbunden wäre, so stünde dieser Geldbetrag für andere Entscheidungen nicht mehr zur Verfügung.

  1. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  2. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  3. Kometen und Asteroiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Ulf; Staude, Jakob; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Jaumann, Ralf; Köhler, Ulrich; Kührt, Ekkehard; Schulz, Rita; Neukum, Gerhard; Arnold, Gabriele; Keller, Horst Uwe; Denk, Tilmann; Müller, Thomas; Wulff, André; Maruhn, Nicolaus; Fischer, Daniel; Trieloff, Mario; Althaus, Tilmann

    Contents: Die Kleinkörper des Sonnensystems. Kern, Koma und Schweife. Ziele der Planetenforschung. ROSETTA: Naherkundung von Kometen. Asteroiden: Trümmer aus planetarer Urzeit. Kleinkörper im Infrarotweltall. Selbs beobachten! Apocalypse - not now! Meteoriten - Boten aus der Urzeit des Sonnensystems.

  4. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  5. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  6. Bildanalyse in Medizin und Biologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athelogou, Maria; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Schmidt, Günther; Schäpe, Arno; Baatz, Martin; Binnig, Gerd

    Heutzutage sind bildgebende Verfahren aus medizinischen Untersuchungen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Diverse Methoden - basierend auf dem Einsatz von Ultraschallwellen, Röntgenstrahlung, Magnetfeldern oder Lichtstrahlen - werden dabei spezifisch eingesetzt und liefern umfangreiches Datenmaterial über den Körper und sein Inneres. Anhand von Mikroskopieaufnahmen aus Biopsien können darüber hinaus Daten über die morphologische Eigenschaften von Körpergeweben gewonnen werden. Aus der Analyse all dieser unterschiedlichen Arten von Informationen und unter Konsultation weiterer klinischer Untersuchungen aus diversen medizinischen Disziplinen kann unter Berücksichtigung von Anamnesedaten ein "Gesamtbild“ des Gesundheitszustands eines Patienten erstellt werden. Durch die Flut der erzeugten Bilddaten kommt der Bildverarbeitung im Allgemeinen und der Bildanalyse im Besonderen eine immer wichtigere Rolle zu. Gerade im Bereich der Diagnoseunterstützung, der Therapieplanung und der bildgeführten Chirurgie bilden sie Schlüsseltechnologien, die den Forschritt nicht nur auf diesen Gebieten maßgeblich vorantreiben.

  7. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  8. Faszination Weltall. Sehen und Verstehen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, C.

    This book is a German translation, by T. Bührke, of the English original "The amateur astronomer's pathfinder" published in 1992. Contents: 1. Die Erde im Universum. 2. Der Nachthimmel. 3. Die Erforschung von Raum und Zeit.

  9. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  10. Komet Halley: Bahnelemente und Perihelzeiten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1985-02-01

    Verbesserte Bahnelemente und Perihelzeiten -2316 bis 2284 für Komet Halley. Zusammenfassung der für ein breiteres Publikum relevantesten Ergebnisse von "On the Motion of Comet Halley". ESTEC EP/14.7/6184 Final Report

  11. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  12. Kernspaltung und Westintegration Beispiel österreich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Christian

    Während des Kalten Krieges erreichte in Europa sowohl die Verflechtung physikalischer Forschung mit Staat, Politik und Industrie als auch deren öffentliche Verhandlung und Bewertung eine qualitativ neuartige Dimension. Dieser Aspekt tritt am schärfsten in der Geschichte der Kernphysik und Kerntechnik hervor.

  13. [Evidenzbasierte Leitlinien, Anspruch und Wirklichkeit].

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Johannes; Reif, Marcus; Müller-Hübenthal, Boris; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Konzeption der «Evidenzbasierten Medizin» und den «Evidenzbasierten Leitlinien» soll mithilfe von Formalisierungsprozeduren die ärztliche Irrtumsanfälligkeit kalkulierbar gemacht werden. Quantifizierte objektive Aussagen über die therapeutische Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung sollen die individuelle ärztliche Beurteilung der therapeutischen Wirksamkeit überflüssig machen. Damit kommt der Befolgung von formalen Regeln die entscheidende Rolle bei der Beantwortung der Frage nach dem Wahrheitsgehalt und dem Wirklichkeitsbezug zu. Im Rahmen evidenzbasierter Leitlinien werden vorrangig die Ergebnisse randomisierter kontrollierter Studien (RCT) oder Meta-Analysen solcher Studien herangezogen. Am Beispiel der S3-Leitlinie «Malignes Melanom» wird hier eine evidenzbasierte Urteilsbildung zur Wirksamkeit einer unkonventionellen Therapie - hier mit einem Mistelpräparat - analytisch nachvollzogen. Die für die Beurteilung dieser unkonventionellen Therapie herangezogene randomisierte Studie wird genauer methodisch analysiert. Obwohl sie keine statistisch basierte Aussage zulässt, wurde eine Leitlinienempfehlung auf Basis dieser Studie abgeleitet. Es wird gezeigt, dass 1) allein die Existenz einer einzigen RCT mit hoher Evidenz gleichgesetzt wird, 2) die Ergebnisse trotz beträchtlicher Fehlinterpretationen in eine S3-Leitlinie einfließen und 3) Meinungen anstelle kritischer wissenschaftlicher Analysen verarbeitet werden. Unsere Untersuchung zeigt, dass noch so ausgefeilte epistemologische und methodologische Formalien den Arzt nicht von der Pflicht entbinden, auf Basis seiner ärztlichen Erfahrung und professionellen Kompetenz den Realitätswert der ihm zur Verfügung stehenden Information zu beurteilen. PMID:27161555

  14. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter.

  15. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter. PMID:27160086

  16. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  17. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  18. Kosmologie und Teilchenphysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appenzeller, I.

    This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft und Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).

  19. Multivariate normality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Falls, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    Sets of experimentally determined or routinely observed data provide information about the past, present and, hopefully, future sets of similarly produced data. An infinite set of statistical models exists which may be used to describe the data sets. The normal distribution is one model. If it serves at all, it serves well. If a data set, or a transformation of the set, representative of a larger population can be described by the normal distribution, then valid statistical inferences can be drawn. There are several tests which may be applied to a data set to determine whether the univariate normal model adequately describes the set. The chi-square test based on Pearson's work in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is often used. Like all tests, it has some weaknesses which are discussed in elementary texts. Extension of the chi-square test to the multivariate normal model is provided. Tables and graphs permit easier application of the test in the higher dimensions. Several examples, using recorded data, illustrate the procedures. Tests of maximum absolute differences, mean sum of squares of residuals, runs and changes of sign are included in these tests. Dimensions one through five with selected sample sizes 11 to 101 are used to illustrate the statistical tests developed.

  20. Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platts, Thomas

    Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen und Platten, im Folgenden auch als Verbundabdichtungen oder mit Kurzzeichen als AIV bezeichnet, haben sich in der Baupraxis insbesondere in Innenräumen wegen des vereinfachten konstruktiven Aufbaus gegenüber Bahnenabdichtungen nach DIN 18195-5 [14.1] in der Mehrzahl der Ausführungen durchgesetzt und bewährt. Sie können im Innen- und Außenbereich angeordnet werden und sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nutzschicht in Boden- und Wandbereichen im Dünnbettverfahren unmittelbar auf die Abdichtung aufgebracht wird. Aufwändige Zwischenschichten oder Einbauteile wie armierter Putz, Telleranker etc. entfallen (Bild 14.1) und es lassen sich geringere Aufbauhöhen realisieren.

  1. Normalizing Rejection.

    PubMed

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. PMID:26041785

  2. Geschlechtsbestimmung und Geschlechtsdifferenzierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Ulrich

    1981-04-01

    Sex determination in mammals proceeds like a cascade from the level of the sex chromosomes to the gonads, to the genital ducts, and finally to the expression of the male or female phenotype. At the level of the genital ducts male sex organs are induced by testosterone. Its action depends on an intact cytoplasmic androgen receptor protein. The testicular feminization mutation ( Tfm) leads to loss of hormone binding capacity. Individuals with testes but female external phenotype develop. In the mouse the interaction of androgen insensitive Tfm cells with normal cells can be studied in mosaic individuals composed of both cell types, and in organ culture by recombination of Tfm and normal tissues. The experiments show that under the action of testosterone the normal cells express male differentiated cellular functions, whereas the Tfm cells differentiate in female direction. In respect to proliferation and expression of male or female organ structures, however, both cell types communicate via local factors. Thus, instead of irregular malformations intersex organs develop.

  3. Normal development.

    PubMed

    Girard, Nadine; Koob, Meriam; Brunel, Herv

    2016-01-01

    Numerous events are involved in brain development, some of which are detected by neuroimaging. Major changes in brain morphology are depicted by brain imaging during the fetal period while changes in brain composition can be demonstrated in both pre- and postnatal periods. Although ultrasonography and computed tomography can show changes in brain morphology, these techniques are insensitive to myelination that is one of the most important events occurring during brain maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the method of choice to evaluate brain maturation. MRI also gives insight into the microstructure of brain tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Metabolic changes are also part of brain maturation and are assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Understanding and knowledge of the different steps in brain development are required to be able to detect morphologic and structural changes on neuroimaging. Consequently alterations in normal development can be depicted. PMID:27430460

  4. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  5. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  6. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  7. Simulation und virtuelle Realität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Estorff, Otto; Markiewicz, Marian; Özkan, Ali; Zaleski, Olgierd; Blumrich, Reinhard; Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, André

    Mit Hilfe akustischer Berechnungen ist es möglich, aufwendige Messungen an Fahrzeugprototypen deutlich zu reduzieren. Dieses Kapitel gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die wichtigsten derzeit verfügbaren Methoden. Dabei wird zunächst auf Elementverfahren, wie die Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) und die Boundary-Elemente-Methode (BEM), näher eingegangen. Während diese vor allem im tieffrequenten Bereich eingesetzt werden, kommen bei höheren Frequenzen vermehrt Verfahren zum Einsatz, die auf Energieformulierungen beruhen. Exemplarisch wird hier die Funktionsweise und der Einsatz der Statistischen-Energie-Analyse (SEA) erläutert. Anhand von repräsentativen Beispielen werden die Einsatzmöglichkeiten und Grenzen der verschiedenen Verfahren aufgezeigt, wobei vor allem auch auf Vergleiche zwischen Rechnung und Messung eingegangen wird.

  8. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  9. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  10. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  11. Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Entwicklungs-, Umsetzungs- und Fortschreibungsprozess der Bund-Länder-Strategie für Städte und Regionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, Mariam; Sinz, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Die Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung stellte im Mai 2010 fest, dass sich die „Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland“ (2006) bewährt haben und bei der Gestaltung der räumlichen Entwicklung umgesetzt werden. Um die Leitbilder den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und naturräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen anzupassen und die Erkenntnisse aus dem bisherigen Diskussions- und Umsetzungsprozess in Politik und Praxis einzubeziehen, sind sie zu ergänzen und weiterzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der Fortschreibung werden die Themen „Partnerschaften und Strategien für Stadtregionen und ländliche Räume“, „Mobilität und Logistik“ sowie „Klimaschutz und Energieversorgung“ stehen.

  12. Die neue Kosmologie. Von Dunkelmaterie, GUTs und Superhaufen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, J.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the American original "Bubbles, voids, and bumps in time: the new cosmology", published 1989 (see 49.003.045). Contents: 1. Die Entdeckung des Weltalls: Eine Einleitung (A. P. Lightman). 2. Die Vermessung des Weltalls: Rotverschiebungen und Standardkerzen (R. P. Kirshner). 3. Die Kartierung des Weltalls: Scheiben und Blasen (M. J. Geller). 4. Die Bestimmung der Masse im Weltall: Dunkelmaterie und fehlende Masse (V. C. Rubin). 5. Der Beginn des Weltalls: Urknall und kosmische Inflation (A. H. Guth). 6. Die Ausweitung des Weltalls: Das Weltraumteleskop und Perspektiven für die nächsten 20 Jahre (J. E. Gunn).

  13. Zwischen Web 2.0, virtuellen Welten und Game-based Learning - Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Hans

    Web 2.0, virtuelle Welten und Game-based Learning werden als Allheilmittel moderner Wissensvermittlung an Hochschulen genannt. Dieser Artikel beschreibt nach einer Einführung in die Thematik Einsatzszenarien und Prototypen im Hochschulumfeld anhand ausgewählter Web 2.0-Dienste, der virtuellen Welt Second Life, eines an der TUM entwickelten Frameworks für Gamebased Learning Applikationen und eines Lernspiels. Diese werden anhand von konkreten Lehr- und Lernszenarien vorgestellt und anhand der bisherigen Erfahrungen in diesem Bereich kritisch beleuchtet.

  14. Wilhelm Julius Foerster und die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und kosmischen Physik" (1891 bis 1914).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemann, K.-H.

    Am 19. Mai 1891 wurde ins Leben gerufen die "Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und der kosmischen Physik (nachfolg.: V.A.P.) - eine der beiden institutionellen Vorläufer der sich 1953 konstituierenden "Vereinigung der Sternfreunde".

  15. Gravitation und Kosmologie. Eine Einführung in die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexl, R. U.; Urbantke, H. K.

    Contents: 1. Physikalische Grundlagen. 2. Riemannsche Geometrie. 3. Gravitationstheorie. 4. Experimentelle Tests. 5. Kosmologie. 6. Gravitationswellen. 7. Neue differentialgeometrische Methoden. 8. Sternbau und Gravitationskollaps. 9. Felder im Riemannschen Raum. 10. Gravitation und Feldtheorie. 11. Gravitation und Eichtheorie.

  16. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Information Page Synonym(s): Hydrocephalus - Normal Pressure Table ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus? Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an abnormal ...

  17. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  18. Bemerkungen zur Relativitätstheorie und zu den Quanten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Peter G.

    Die theoretischen und experimentellen Grundlagen von Gravitations- und Quantenphysik, die Beziehung beider Theorien und die Bedeutung wesentlicher Begriffe, wie Observable, werden diskutiert.Translated AbstractRemarks on Relativity and on Quantum TheoryThe theoretical and experimental foundations of gravitation and quantum physics are discussed as well as the relation of these two theories and the role of basic notions like observables.

  19. Vom Urknall zum Zerfall. Die Welt zwischen Anfang und Ende.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, H.

    Contents: Der Tanz mit dem Ozean. Galaktische Landkarte. Das Maß der Dinge. Der würfelnde Gott der Quantenphysik. Geheimnisvolle Felder. Materie und Antimaterie. Quarks - Urstoff unserer Welt. Zerfallende Protonen und die Einheit der Physik. Der Zauberofen. Das überschaubare Universum. Das explodierende Universum. Nachhall der Schöpfung. Der achtfache Weg der kosmischen Entwicklung. Das Ende der Welt. Einheit in der Vielfalt. Das geistige Universum. Gott und das absurde Universum.

  20. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  1. Ökologische Grundlagen und limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Gert; Eichberg, Carsten

    In den dicht besiedelten und agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- und Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung und Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume und Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker und Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer und Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen und die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough und Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).

  2. Supraleitung und Interkontinentalraketen „On-line computing“ zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, Johannes; Joas, Christian

    Der zweite Weltkrieg und der Kalte Krieg veränderten nicht nur das Verhältnis zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft, sondern auch die wissenschaftliche Praxis von Physikern und anderen Wissenschaftlern. In den 1950er Jahren stellte die Entwicklung von Interkontinentalraketen die Auftragnehmer des Militärs in der Industrie vor komplexe Fragestellungen, zu deren Lösung sie auf die Expertise von Wissenschaftlern angewiesen waren. Industrieunternehmen gründeten eigene Forschungseinheiten zur Lösung technischer und wissenschaftlicher Probleme.

  3. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  4. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  5. Biochips und ihr Einsatz in der Lebensmittelanalytik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ingrid; Zeltz, Patric

    Mit der Verbreitung des Begriffes "Biochip“ in den biotechnologischen Medien wurde Ende der 1990er-Jahre zunächst der Eindruck erweckt, dass die Computerelektronik in die molekularbiologischen Anwendungen eingestiegen ist [18]. In nur wenigen Jahren hat sich die Biochiptechnologie zu einem Verfahren entwickelt, das aus der molekularbiologischen Grundlagenforschung nicht mehr wegzudenken ist und über eine Vielzahl von Einsatzbereichen verfügt. Die Biochiptechnologie ermöglicht die Miniaturisierung von DNA-, RNA- bzw. Proteinanalytik in hochparallelen Formaten. Dieser hohe Parallelisierungsgrad ist einer der wesentlichen Vorteile dieser Technik gegenüber klassischen molekularbiologischen Methoden. Sie wird heutzutage vor allem in der Genomforschung eingesetzt, für Genexpressionsstudien, zum Screening von single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in der pharmakogenetischen Forschung sowie in der Erforschung von Erbkrankheiten und in der Krebsforschung [1, 7, 19]. Neben vielen weiteren Bereichen finden Biochips auch spezielle Anwendungen in der Lebensmittelanalytik.

  6. Elektronische Citizen Cards in Deutschland und Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Bernd

    Meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren, der Bedarf an elektronischen Identitäten entsteht durch die wachsende Mobilität der Gesellschaft bei einem gleichzeitig steigenden Bedarf an Onlinepräsenz. Diese elektronischen Identitäten machen natürlich auch vor den staatlichen Ausweisen nicht halt, wie zum Beispiel dem Reisepass, aber auch dem Personalausweis und weiteren Ausweisdokumenten. Wobei es bei den staatlich herausgegebenen oder kontrollierten Ausweisen immer um zwei verschiedene Dinge geht: Einmal um die hoheitliche Funktion, wie zum Beispiel beim Reisepass. Hier geht es zum Beispiel darum, in einem Europa mit gefallenen Grenzen und bei freiem Reiseverkehr für alle Personen, die in diesem Raum wohnen, insbesondere auch im Schengener Raum, die Möglichkeit zu schaffen, auch künftig noch Personenkontrollen durchzuführen. Auch der Reiseverkehr über die europäischen Grenzen hinaus ist insofern ein Problem, da die Identitätenprüfung an den Grenzkontrollen immer schwieriger wird. Deswegen braucht man an dieser Stelle Möglichkeiten, um eine Personenüberprüfung durchzuführen, um feststellen zu können, dass diese Person auch zum Dokument gehört.

  7. Therapeutisches Management kutaner und genitaler Warzen.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    Mindestens 10 % der Bevölkerung erkranken während ihres Lebens an einer Infektion mit humanen Papillomaviren (HPV), welche sich klinisch anhand der Ausbildung kutaner oder genitaler Warzen manifestiert. Obwohl Warzen ubiquitär sind, existieren keine definierten Behandlungen. Warzen zeigen, insbesondere in den ersten sechs Monaten, eine erhöhte Selbstheilungsrate. Dieser Umstand erschwert die Interpretation von Studien, da häufig Patienten mit Neuinfektionen zusammen mit Patienten mit Altinfektionen behandelt werden. Lokalisationen, Größe und Dicke der Warzen sind ebenfalls in den meisten Fällen nicht berücksichtigt. Ziel dieses Übersichtsartikels ist eine Analyse des vorliegenden Studienmaterials, unter der für den klinischen Alltag so wichtigen Berücksichtigung von Subtypen und Lokalisationen. Insbesondere die Abgrenzung zwischen frischen und chronisch-therapieresistenten Verrucae vulgares spiegelt sich in einem Therapiealgorithmus wider. Bei genitalen Warzen wird der Therapiealgorithmus deutlicher durch das Ausmaß der infizierten Fläche als durch das Alter der Warzen bestimmt. Bei immunkompetenten Personen muss es mit den hier aufgezeigten therapeutischen Methoden immer das Ziel sein, eine komplette Abheilung zu erzielen. PMID:27607029

  8. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  9. Dorfentwicklung und Dorferneuerung . Die neuen Bundesländer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Oliver; Richter, Horst P.

    1997-03-01

    Das 1975 in Kraft getretene Bundesraumordnungsprogramm forderte, in allen Landesteilen angemessene und gleichwertige Lebensbedingungen herzustellen. Mit der Novellierung des Flurbereinigungsgesetzes 1976 bzw. dem Zukunftsinvestitionsprogramm 1977 bis 1980 startete die Dorfentwicklung/Dorferneuerung nicht zuletzt als Initiative zur Konjunkturbelebung im ländlichen Raum. Seit 1984 ist sie Bestandteil der von Bund und Ländern getragenen Gemeinschaftsaufgabe "Verbesserung der Agrarstruktur und des Küstenschutzes" (GAK) und liegt im Zuständigkeitsbereich der Landwirtschaftsministerien. Die Dorferneuerungsprogramme der Länder werden aus Mitteln der GAK, der EU und des Landes finanziert. Neben Ortssanierungen nach dem Städtebauförderungsgesetz bzw. Baugesetzbuch stellen sie das wichtigste Instrument zur Förderung von ländlichen Orten und Gemeinden dar. Nach der Vereinigung wurde das Dorferneuerungsrecht auf die neuen Bundesländer übertragen, indem man sich zunächst an den Regelungen der jeweiligen Partnerländer im Westen orientierte. Doch hatten sich die Dörfer in Ost- und Westdeutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg völlig unterschiedlich entwickelt, so dass sich im Osten ein erweiterter Handlungsbedarf zeigte. Für Fachleute aus Politik, Verwaltung, Wissenschaft und freien Planungsberufen, nicht zuletzt für angewandt arbeitende Geographen, stellten sich neue Herausforderungen.

  10. Der neue Kosmos. Einführung in die Astronomie und Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Der neue Kosmos bietet in überschaubarem Umfang eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik. Aus den Bereichen: Klassische Astronomie und Planetensystem, Instrumente und Beobachtungsverfahren, Sonne und Sterne, Milchstraße und Galaxien, Kosmologie, Entstehung des Planetensystems, Entwicklung der Erde und des Lebens werden die Beobachtungsmethoden und die Ergebnisse astronomischer Forschung sowie deren theoretische Grundlagen und wechselseitigen Zusammenhänge vermittelt. Die aktualisierte 7. Auflage berücksichtigt den raschen Fortschritt astronomischer Forschung der letzten drei Jahre von unserem Planetensystem und den Entdeckungen zahlreicher Planeten bei anderen Sternen, über die fernsten Galaxien und Quasare bis zur Entwicklung der modernen Kosmologie.

  11. Renaturierung von subalpinen und alpinen Ökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautzer, B.; Klug, Brigitte

    Die große Vielfalt an alpinen und subalpinen Ökosystemen auf waldfreien Standorten stellt besonders hohe Anforderungen an Planung und Durchführung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen. Zunehmende Meereshöhe, starke Hangneigungen und extreme klimatische Verhältnisse im Gebirge bedingen zudem seit jeher natürliche Erosionsprozesse. Die zahllosen menschlichen Aktivitäten der letzten Jahrzehnte, gepaart mit unzureichenden Begrünungsmaßnahmen, erhöhen dieses Risiko noch um ein Vielfaches: Geländekorrekturen im Zuge von Skipistenbauten, Almrevitalisierungen, Forst- und Almwegebauten, Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der touristischen Infrastruktur oder Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauungen. Nur durch Verwendung von hochwertigem, dem Standort angepasstem Pflanzen-oder Saatgutmaterial in Kombination mit der passenden Begrünungstechnik kann dieser Bedrohung dauerhaft entgegengewirkt werden. Dabei sind folgende limitierende Faktoren besonders zu beachten.

  12. Strahlen-und kinetische Waffen: Neue Waffentechniken und Rüstungskontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    Laserstrahlen, Mikrowellen oder elektromagnetische Beschleuniger lassen sich nicht nur für zivile, sondern für militärische Zwecke einsetzen. Die Aufgabe einer vorbeugenden Rüstungskontrolle wäre es, diese wie andere künftige Waffentechnologien auf ihren destabilisierenden Charakter hin zu untersuchen und ihre Stationierung zu beschränken oder zu verhindern.

  13. The Normalized Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

  14. Entwicklungsperspektiven von Social Software und dem Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Alexander

    Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit dem derzeitigen und zukünftigen Einsatz von Social Software in Unternehmen. Nach dem großen Erfolg von Social Software im Web beginnen viele Unternehmen eigene Social Software-Initiativen zu entwickeln. Der Artikel zeigt die derzeit wahrgenommenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Social Software im Unternehmen auf, erörtert Erfolgsfaktoren für die Einführung und präsentiert mögliche Wege für die Zukunft. Nach der Diskussion des Spezialfalles Social Software in Unternehmen werden anschließend die globalen Trends und Zukunftsperspektiven des Web 2.0 in ihren technischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Dimensionen dargestellt. Wie aus den besprochenen Haupttrends hervorgeht, wird die Masse an digital im Web verfügbaren Informationen stetig weiterwachsen. So stellt sich die Frage, wie es in Zukunft möglich sein wird, die Qualität der Informationssuche und der Wissensgenerierung zu verbessern. Mit dem Einsatz von semantischen Technologien im Web wird hier eine revolutionäre Möglichkeit geboten, Informationen zu filtern und intelligente, gewissermaßen verstehende" Anwendungen zu entwerfen. Auf dem Weg zu einem intelligenten Web werden sich das Semantic Web und Social Software annähern: Anwendungen wie Semantic Wikis, Semantic Weblogs, lightweight Semantic Web-Sprachen wie Microformats oder auch kommerzielle Angebote wie Freebase von Metaweb werden die ersten Vorzeichen einer dritten Generation des Webs sein.

  15. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  16. Das CARNOTsche Paradigma und seine erkenntnistheoretischen Implikationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpf, Hans-Georg

    Der vorliegende historisch-kritische Essay führt die Eigentümlichkeiten der klassischen phänomenologischen Thermodynamik auf das von CARNOT geschaffene Paradigma zurück und greift einige damit zusammenhängende Fragen auf.Translated AbstractCARNOT's Paradigm and its Epistemological ImplicationsThe present historic-critical essay traces the pecularities of classical phenomenological thermodynamics back to the paradigm, created by CARNOT, and takes up some questions to which this paradigm gives rise.

  17. [Leben im Eismeer - Tauchuntersuchungen zur Biologie arktischer Meerespflanzen und Meerestiere

    PubMed

    Lippert; Karsten; Wiencke

    2000-01-01

    Die Maske wird nochmals auf Dichtigkeit überprüft, der Knoten der Sicherungsleine mit zwei halben Schlägen fixiert, dann rutscht die Taucherin von der Eiskante in das kalte Wasser. Eine halbe Stunde vergeht, bevor ihr Kopf wieder aus dem Eisloch auftaucht und sie ein großes Sammelnetz nach oben reicht, gefüllt mit verschiedenen Arten von Makroalgen. Obwohl noch große Flächen des Kongsfjordes im arktischen Spitzbergen zugefroren sind und das Festland von einer dicken Schneedecke bedeckt ist, hat unter Wasser in den Algenwäldern bereits der Sommer und damit die Saison der Meeresbiologen begonnen.

  18. Diagnose und Therapie einer Depression im höheren Lebensalter – Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bönte, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Marceau, Lisa; Link, Carol; McKinlay, John

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Studienergebnissee aus dem englischsprachigen Raum zeigen, dass diagnostische und therapeutische Entscheidungen von Hausärzten bei der Versorgung von depressiven Patienten systematischen Einflüssen unterliegen, und dass sowohl Merkmale des Arztes als auch des Patienten unabhängig vom Krankheitsbild Einfluss auf diese Entscheidungen haben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Ergebnisse einer deutschen Studie präsentiert, in der die Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen auf diagnostische und therapeutische ärztliche Entscheidungen bei einer Depression untersucht wurden. Unter Anwendung eines faktoriellen Experimentaldesigns spielten professionelle Schauspieler in Videofilmen die Rolle von Patienten, die Symptome für eine depressive Erkrankung äußern. In den Videofilmen, die alle auf einem identischen Skript basieren, wurden systematisch die Patientenmerkmale Alter (55 vs. 75 Jahre), Geschlecht und sozialer Status (Hausmeister vs. Lehrer) variiert. Die randomisierte Ärztestichprobe wurde nach dem Arztgeschlecht und professioneller Erfahrung (< 5 vs. > 15 Jahre) geschichtet. Der Videofilm wurde insgesamt 128 niedergelassenen Ärzten für Allgemeinmedizin und hausärztlich tätigen Internisten in ihrer Praxis vorgespielt. Danach wurden die Ärzte zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten von Diagnose und Therapie befragt. Es wurde erhoben, ob der Arzt dem Patienten über das gezeigte Gespräch hinausgehende Fragen stellen würde, welche Diagnosen er für wahrscheinlich hält, wie sicher er sich mit seiner Diagnose ist, welche diagnostischen Tests er anordnen würde, ob er den Patienten überweisen würde oder ob er Medikamente verordnen oder ihm Empfehlungen zur Änderung seines Lebensstils geben würde. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass sowohl die Diagnose als auch die Therapie einer Depression durch niedergelassene Hausärzte in Deutschland nur geringfügig durch die untersuchten Merkmale der Patienten und der behandelnden Ärzte beeinflusst wird

  19. Normality in analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  20. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  1. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  2. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  3. Normal Variants in Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Bryg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Echocardiography is a powerful and convenient tool used routinely in the cardiac evaluation of many patients. Improved resolution and visualization of cardiac anatomy has led to the discovery of many normal variant structures that have no known pathologic consequence. Importantly, these findings may masquerade as pathology prompting unnecessary further evaluation at the expense of anxiety, cost, or potential harm. This review provides an updated and comprehensive collection of normal anatomic variants on both transthoracic and transesophageal imaging. PMID:27612473

  4. The Women of "Kabale und Liebe": A Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Naomi I.

    1976-01-01

    The three female characters in Schiller's "Kabale und Liebe" are analyzed. The article questions the value of using this play in a college curriculum because of the oppressive and unenlightened roles of the female characters. (TL)

  5. Konstruieren von Pkw-Karosserien: Grundlagen, Elemente und Baugruppen, Vorschriftenübersicht, Beispiele mit CATIA V4 und V5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Jörg; Nothhaft, Richard

    Die Faszination, die vom Auto ausgeht, ist und bleibt ungebrochen. Entsprechend interessant ist es, sich vor dem Hintergrund konventioneller Konstruktionstechniken über die virtuelle Produktentwicklung von Pkw-Karosserien an modernen CAD-Arbeitsplätzen informieren zu können. Die Autoren führen in die Grundlagen ein und zeigen anhand von Beispielen und zahlreichen Abbildungen, wie mit dem System CATIA der Rohbau sowie die Ausstattung innen und au=C3=9Fen konstruiert werden. Darüber hinaus wird das so genannte "Package" an Beispielen beschrieben, also das Management und die Harmonisierung der Anforderungen an die Bauräume (z.

  6. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  7. Force normalization in paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Serra-Añó, P; García-Massó, X; Pellicer, M; González, L-M; López-Pascual, J; Giner-Pascual, M; Toca-Herrera, J L

    2012-06-01

    The principal aim of our study was the determination of the effectiveness of a standardized ratio, allometric scaling model and a gamma function model in normalizing the isometric torque data of spinal cord patients and healthy subjects. For this purpose we studied a sample of 21 healthy males and 23 spinal cord injury males. The experiment consisted of the measurement of the force of the upper limb movement executed by all the subjects. We also determined anthropometric variables with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The experimental data were analyzed with 3 force normalization methods. Our results indicate that the most important confounding variable was the fat free mass of the dominant upper limb (r>0.36, p<0.05). With the standardization by body mass and allometric scaling model, the normalized torque was influenced by body size variables. However, the normalized torque by the gamma function model was independent of body size measures. Paraplegics were weaker (p<0.05) in extension movements when the data were normalized by the gamma function model. In summary, this study shows that the gamma function model with fat free mass of the dominant upper limb was more effective than the standardized ratio in removing the influence of body size variables. PMID:22377940

  8. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  9. Sticktechnologie für medizinische Textilien und Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamuk, Erdal; Mayer, Jörg; Wintermantel, Erich

    Textile Strukturen werden in grossem Ausmass als medizinische Implantate eingesetzt, um Weich- und Hartgewebe zu unterstützen oder zu ersetzen. Im Tissue Engineering gewinnen sie an Bedeutung als scaffolds, um biologische Gewebe in vitro zu züchten für anschliessende Implantation oder extrakorporale Anwendungen. Textilien sind gewöhnlich anisotrope zweidimensionale Strukturen mit hoher Steifigkeit in der Ebene und geringer Biegesteifigkeit. Durch eine Vielzahl textiler Prozesse und durch entsprechende Wahl des Fasermaterials ist es möglich, Oberfläche, Porosität und mechanische Anisotropie in hohem Masse zu variieren. Wegen ihrer einzigartigen strukturellen und mechanischen Eigenschaften können faserbasierte Materialien in weitem Masse biologischem Gewebe nachgeahmt werden [1]. Gesticke erweitern das Feld von technischen und besonders medizinischen Textilien, denn sie vereinen sehr hohe strukturelle Variabilität mit der Möglichkeit, mechanische Eigenschaften in einem grossen Bereich einzustellen, um so die mechanischen Anforderungen des Empfängergewebes zu erfüllen (Abb. 42.1).

  10. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  11. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  12. Normals to a Parabola

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Given a parabola in the standard form y[superscript 2] = 4ax, corresponding to three points on the parabola, such that the normals at these three points P, Q, R concur at a point M = (h, k), the equation of the circumscribing circle through the three points P, Q, and R provides a tremendous opportunity to illustrate "The Art of Algebraic…

  13. Normal Psychosexual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages. Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered.…

  14. Normal Birth Crossword Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    In this column, readers are introduced to Dawn Kersula and a crossword puzzle she designed to refresh and empower Lamaze childbirth education class participants with normal-birth information. The column's author goes on to demonstrate several ways crossword puzzles can be used in Lamaze classes. PMID:17322944

  15. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Band VI/1. Documenta Copernicana: Briefe (Texte und Übersetzungen).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, A.

    Im Auftrage der Kommission für die Copernicus-Gesamtausgabe, herausgegeben von H. M. Nobis und M. Folkerts. Band VI/1 wurde bearbeitet von A. Kühne unter Mitarbeit von F. Boockmann und S. Kirschner und Verwendung der Vorarbeiten von H. M. Nobis.

  16. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  17. Advancing Normal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this column, the associate editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education provides an overview of research on the benefits of promoting and protecting the normal, physiologic processes of childbirth and the risks of interfering with those processes without clear medical indication. The associate editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  18. Teaching Normal Birth Interactively

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    In this column, the author provides examples of teaching strategies that childbirth educators may utilize to illustrate each of the six care practices supported by Lamaze International to promote normal birth: labor begins on its own, freedom of movement throughout labor, continuous labor support, no routine interventions, non-supine (e.g., upright or side-lying) positions for birth, and no separation of mother and baby with unlimited opportunity for breastfeeding. PMID:17273389

  19. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  20. Informationsqualität - Definitionen, Dimensionen und Begriffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohweder, Jan Philipp; Kasten, Gerhard; Malzahn, Dirk; Piro, Andrea; Schmid, Joachim

    Die Verbesserung und Sicherstellung der Informationsqualität wird in immer mehr Unternehmen als eigenständige Managementaufgabe von großer Wichtigkeit begriffen. IQ-Management ist ein elementarer Baustein in Systemintegrationsprojekten. Aber auch in bestehenden Prozessen mit heterogenen Datenquellen und Informationsnutzern ist eine hohe Informationsqualität die Grundvoraussetzung für funktionierende betriebliche Abläufe. Voraussetzung für ein effektives IQ-Management ist die Bewertung der Informationsqualität [Lee et al. 2006, S. 13 und S. 27]. In vielen Unternehmen ist Informationsqualität nur ein gefühlter Wert. Die meisten Anwender bringen ein gewisses Misstrauen den Daten gegenüber zum Ausdruck, dies jedoch ohne genaue Angabe der Fehlerart und -häufigkeit. Nicht selten werden kostspielige Projekte angestoßen, um die Informationsqualität zu verbessern, ohne sich vor einer IQ-Maßnahme durch eine Analyse ein genaues Bild über die tatsächlichen Probleme zu verschaffen. Nur auf der Basis einer umfassenden Bewertung der Informationsqualität können die notwendigen Ressourcenentscheidungen herbeigeführt, Ziele gesetzt und der Erfolg des IQ-Management beurteilt werden.

  1. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  2. Messen, Kalibrieren, Eichen in der Radiologie: Prinzipien und Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Siegfried R.

    Nach einleitender Erläuterung der unterschiedlichen Meßbedingungen in der Strahlentherapie und im Strahlenschutz werden die metrologischen Probleme am Beispiel der Größenkategorie Äquivalentdosis diskutiert. Als spezielle Größen werden effektive Äquivalentdosis und Umgebungs-Äquivalentdosis eingeführt. Es wird gezeigt, wie richtiges Messen durch ein konsistentes System von Bauartanforderungen an Meßgeräte, durch Kalibrieren und durch Eichen gewährleistet werden kann. Die Bedeutung von Meßunsicherheiten und Fehlergrenzen wird erläutert und ihre Auswirkung auf die Interpretation von Meßergebnissen behandelt.Translated AbstractMeasurements, Calibration, Verification in Radiology: Principles and PracticeThe different measuring conditions in radiotherapy and in radiation protection are discussed in the introduction. Then, the metrological problems are discussed exemplarily with the dose equivalent as a category of quantity. Effective dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent are introduced as special quantities. It is demonstrated, how correct measurements can be secured by a consistent system of instrument pattern requirements, by calibration and verification. The importance of uncertainties of measurements and of error limits is illustrated and their influence on the interpretation of the results of measurements is treated.

  3. DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL SHAPE MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Nisha; Mesadi, Fitsum; Cetin, Mujdat; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    A novel implicit parametric shape model is proposed for segmentation and analysis of medical images. Functions representing the shape of an object can be approximated as a union of N polytopes. Each polytope is obtained by the intersection of M half-spaces. The shape function can be approximated as a disjunction of conjunctions, using the disjunctive normal form. The shape model is initialized using seed points defined by the user. We define a cost function based on the Chan-Vese energy functional. The model is differentiable, hence, gradient based optimization algorithms are used to find the model parameters. PMID:27403233

  4. [Normal and disordered sleep].

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I

    2007-07-01

    Normal sleep is a complex and reversible state of brain functioning, including reduced inputs and outputs, blunted reflexes, and metabolic and cognitive changes. Evidence supports a role for sleep in the consolidation of an array of learning and memory tasks. Sleep deprivation and fragmentation result in executive dysfunction, increased appetite/weight and cellular stress. Sleep is a vital, complex but plastic function that can be modulated depending on individual heritage and motivation. The major role of sleep in attention and memory raises about concern the reduction in sleep duration recently pointed in teenagers and young adults. Sleep disorders are numerous and various. Their mechanism is not always identified, but may result from a central dysfunction in sleep-wake (e.g. narcolepsy) or circadian (e.g. advanced sleep phase syndrome) systems, from the sleep-related loss of compensation of reflexes normally effective during wakefulness (breathing is the most vulnerable function during sleep), or from other diseases preventing sleep (e.g. psychiatric insomnia, restless legs syndrome). PMID:17652992

  5. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  6. Endoskopie, minimal invasive chirurgische und navigierte Verfahren in der Urologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Joachim; von Walter, Matthias; Jakse, Gerhard

    Betrachtet man die letzten 100 Jahre der Urologie in Deutschland seit Gründung ihrer Fachgesellschaft 1906 in Stuttgart, so sind sicherlich die letzten 25 Jahre von umfassenden Entwicklungen mit z. T. vollständigen Umwälzungen bisheriger Therapien und Methoden auf urologischen Fachgebiet gekennzeichnet. In erster Linie handelte es sich dabei um minimal invasive endoskopische Techniken wie perkutane Nierenchirurgie, Ureterorenoskopie, videoendoskopisch unterstütze transurethrale Elektroresektionen der Prostata und von Blasentumore sowie die Laparoskopie. Sie führten zu besseren operativen Ergebnissen und einer deutlichen Senkung der Morbidität der entsprechenden Behandlung urologischer Krankheitsbilder, mit der Konsequenz, dass einige bisher als Standard gültige offene Operationsverfahren abgelöst wurden.

  7. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  8. Pornography, normalization, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J; Kleiner, Sibyl; Irizarry, Yasmiyn

    2010-12-01

    Opponents and proponents of erotic representations (referred to hereafter as "pornography") have described the effects of pornography from their perspective. Little, however, has been done in the way of research to investigate these claims from the consumer's point of view. This especially has been so regarding the positive impact of such consumption on a person's sex life. Using a study group of 245 college students, we examined this question in a framework of scripting theory. We wanted to see whether viewing pornography appeared to expand sexual horizons through normalization and facilitate a willingness to explore new sexual behaviors and sexual relationships through empowerment. The data supported this viewpoint and further showed the effects to be mediated by gender and sexual preference identity. They suggested, however, that established scripts were extended rather than abandoned. We conclude with connections between our findings and the widespread viewing of pornography in contemporary society. PMID:20127507

  9. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a) Temperature elevation; b) Serum starvation; and c) Centrifugal force. The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments.

  10. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  11. Reflexionseigenschaften von Windenergieanlagen im Funkfeld von Funknavigations- und Radarsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, S.; Divanbeigi, S.; Garbe, H.

    2015-11-01

    Die hier behandelte Untersuchung befasst sich mit den Störungen des elektrischen Feldes einer Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Radio Range Navigationsanlage (DVOR) in der Gegenwart von Windenergieanlagen (WEA). Hierfür wird die Feldstärke auf 25 konzentrischen Kreisbahnen, sog. Orbit Flights verschiedener Höhen und mit verschiedenen Radien rund um die DVOR-Anlage numerisch simuliert. Insbesondere werden die Einflüsse diverser Parameter der WEA wie deren Anzahl, Position, Rotorwinkel, Turmhöhe und Rotordurchmesser auf die Feldverteilung herausgestellt, sowie die Anwendbarkeit der Simulationsmethode Physical Optics (PO) durch Vergleich der Simulationsergebnisse mit denen der Multi Level Fast Multipol Method (MLFMM) untersucht.

  12. Adolescence. What is normal?

    PubMed

    Offer, D; Ostrov, E; Howard, K I

    1989-06-01

    We present in some detail what constitutes normal behavior, or mental health, among teenagers. Our data are based on the results of a specially devised psychological questionnaire by one of us (D.O.). This questionnaire has been shown to reliably distinguish mentally healthy from psychiatrically disturbed populations. Results are presented across three decades (1960s, 1970s, and 1980s), across genders, and across the high school years. A conceptual framework is presented to help the clinician working with adolescents to understand the fluctuation in psychopathology among youth. Adolescent density in the total population is shown to be a significant factor in determining the rate of disturbance among teenagers. Our research findings demonstrate that the rate of behavioral disturbance among adolescents is the same as in other parts of the life cycle. The clinician working with adolescents tends to underestimate the severity of adolescent problems because of the near-universal belief that all adolescents undergo "adolescent turmoil." We have found that adolescents who are experiencing turmoil need professional help.

  13. Brain spatial normalization.

    PubMed

    Bug, William; Gustafson, Carl; Shahar, Allon; Gefen, Smadar; Fan, Yingli; Bertrand, Louise; Nissanov, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Neuroanatomical informatics, a subspecialty of neuroinformatics, focuses on technological solutions to neuroimage database access. Its current main goal is an image-based query system that is able to retrieve imagery based on anatomical location. Here, we describe a set of tools that collectively form such a solution for sectional material and that are available to investigators to use on their own data sets. The system accepts slide images as input and yields a matrix of transformation parameters that map each point on the input image to a standardized 3D brain atlas. In essence, this spatial normalization makes the atlas a spatial indexer from which queries can be issued simply by specifying a location on the reference atlas. Our objective here is to familiarize potential users of the system with the steps required of them as well as steps that take place behind the scene. We detail the capabilities and the limitations of the current implementation and briefly describe the enhancements planned for the near future.

  14. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  15. The normal antireflux mechanism.

    PubMed

    Paterson, W G

    2001-08-01

    The normal antireflux mechanism consists of several components, any one of which may malfunction and render an individual prone to the development of GERD. The LES is clearly the most important component because gastroesophageal reflux almost always occurs when the sphincter pressure equals that of the stomach. Usually, an LES pressure of just 2 to 3 mm Hg above intragastric pressure is sufficient to prevent reflux. Other factors certainly play significant ancillary roles in preventing reflux. In the absence of a hiatal hernia, the crural fibers of the diaphragm serve as an "extrinsic" sphincter. Furthermore, the unique anatomy of the proximal stomach (e.g., the angle of His, mucosal flap valve, posterolateral location of the fundus) serves to keep gastric contents away from the gastroesophageal junction, making it less likely for reflux to occur when the LES relaxes. When a hiatal hernia is present, these factors are lost, and the hernia sac provides a reservoir for gastric juices with ready access to the LES. Finally, some degree of reflux occurs in all individuals, but esophageal clearance and acid neutralization provide an important last line of defense.

  16. Institutionalizing Normal: Rethinking Composition's Precedence in Normal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinnell, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Composition historians have recently worked to recover histories of composition in normal schools. This essay argues, however, that historians have inadvertently misconstrued the role of normal schools in American education by inaccurately comparing rhetorical education in normal schools to rhetorical education in colleges and universities.…

  17. Elektronenröhrenforschung nach 1945 Telefunkenforscher in Ost und West und das Scheitern des Konzepts der „Gnom-Röhren“ in Erfurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörfel, Günter; Tobies, Renate

    Elektronenröhren standen wegen ihrer Rüstungsrelevanz nach Kriegsende unter dem Vorbehalt der Besatzungsmächte. Unter dem Druck eigener materieller Defizite erlaubte und initiierte die sowjetische Besatzungsmacht Entwicklungen dazu eher als die westlichen Alliierten. Daraus resultierten bemerkenswerte Innovationen und Vorsprünge im Gebiet von Miniaturröhren.

  18. Rückwärtsintegration - Zu den Verhältnissen Gymnasium, Hochschule und Arbeitswelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gerhard; Heppner, Winfried; Focht, Eva

    In seiner 2007 erschienen Sammlung von Vorträgen und Essays beschäftigt sich Wolfgang Frühwald, mit der Frage "Wieviel Wissen brauchen wir?“ [1] Die Kernproblematik moderner Wissenschaft und Forschung sieht der Autor, emeritierter Ordinarius für Neuere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft und von 1992 bis 1997 Präsident der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, einerseits in der zunehmenden Spezialisierung der Wissenschaftsbereiche, andererseits in der Gefahr der Abkoppelung der Naturwissenschaften von den Geisteswissenschaften. Wiederholt plädiert er dafür, über der rasanten Entwicklung beispielsweise in der Biologie und Physik, die historische, gesellschaftliche und besonders die ethische Dimension der Forschung nicht zu übersehen und fordert eine übergeordnete Theorie der Wissenschaft, die nur im Dialog zwischen den einzelnen Fachgebieten zu entwickeln sei.

  19. WMAP normalization of inflationary cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Mukherjee, Pia; Leach, Samuel M.

    2006-10-15

    We use the three-year WMAP observations to determine the normalization of the matter power spectrum in inflationary cosmologies. In this context, the quantity of interest is not the normalization marginalized over all parameters, but rather the normalization as a function of the inflationary parameters n{sub S} and r with marginalization over the remaining cosmological parameters. We compute this normalization and provide an accurate fitting function. The statistical uncertainty in the normalization is 3%, roughly half that achieved by COBE. We use the k-l relation for the standard cosmological model to identify the pivot scale for the WMAP normalization. We also quote the inflationary energy scale corresponding to the WMAP normalization.

  20. Mean flow generation mechanism by inertial waves and normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Andreas; Ghasemi, Abouzar

    2016-04-01

    , respectively. The former is used to find the analytical solution of the normal modes (Borcia 2012). Plugging two independent solutions into the latter we investigate the generation mechanism of INMMF. We found R1^1=overbar{partial_z(u_r1 u_z^1)}, R2^1=overbar{partial_r(u_r1 u_r^1)} as source terms responsible for the generation of INMMF. The helical structure of the inertial waves causes the nonlinear terms R1 and R2 to be nonzero, contributing to the generation of INMMF. We used u_ra and u_za obtained from the analytical solution (Borcia 2012) and computed the source terms R1a and R2a and found a structural correspondence with the corresponding field computed from the DNS solution for the three normal modes investigated. The sum of R11 and R21 exhibits a good structural correspondence with INMMF. Interestingly, INMMF magnitude depends on the inertial wave beams and normal modes. For instance we found that INMMF is generated more efficiently for the libration frequency ω=1.58, although the resonant frequency is predicted by the analytical solution to be at ω=1.576 (normal mode (2,1)). Separating the inertial wave beams from the flow field obtained by DNS, using the analytical normal mode solution, we explored the phase lag between inertial wave beams and normal mode. We inferred that the normal mode amplitude is high only if the phase lag between the inertial wave beam and the normal mode is predominantly positive. In this case a high amplitude INMMF amplitude can be found. This supports the hypothesis that the normal modes are generated by the inertial wave beam in analogy to resonant forcing in classical mechanics. Interestingly, the 'optimum' phase lag found is much smaller than π/2. {Acknowledgement:} This work is a part of the project "Mischung und Grundstromanregung durch propagierende Trgheitswellen: Theorie, Experiment und Simulation" supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG). We would like to thank M. Klein, U. Harlander, I. Borcia and E. Schaller for

  1. Normalizing Catastrophe: An Educational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Processes of normalizing assumptions and values have been the subjects of theoretical framing and critique for several decades now. Critique has often been tied to issues of environmental sustainability and social justice. Now, in an era of global warming, there is a rising concern that the results of normalizing of present values could be…

  2. Rational Normalization of Concentration Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonckaert, P.; Egghe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses normalization features of good concentration measures and extends the range of values of concentration measures that are population-size-independent. Rational normalization is described, and mathematical formulas for the coefficient of variation, Pratt's measure, the Gini index, Theil's measure, and Atkinson's indices are explained. (14…

  3. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences. PMID:8138472

  4. Entwicklung und methodische Verbesserung der Arbeitssicherheit in der Instandhaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinski, Marek

    Die Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann gehören zu den führenden Stahlherstellern in Europa. Die Instandhaltung ist einerseits den Anlagen vor Ort zugeordnet, andererseits gibt es für werksweite bzw. spezielle Themen eine zentrale Instandhaltung. Die im Folgenden beschriebenen Methoden wurden für das gesamte Unternehmen entwickelt, jedoch je nach Organisationseinheit unterschiedlich adaptiert und unterschiedlich intensiv verfolgt. Die zentrale Instandhaltung hat insbesondere in den letzten 12 Jahren der Arbeitssicherheit einen hohen Stellenwert beigemessen, und hervorragende Ergebnisse erzielt. So ist die Unfallhäufigkeit in der zentralen Instandhaltung von ca. 30 anzeigepflichtigen Unfällen pro eine Million verfahrener Stunden vor ca. 15 Jahren auf Null in 2007 gesunken! In 2008 konnte dieses hervorragende Ergebnis gehalten werden. Zwei Jahre unfallfrei! Wer hätte das vor 15 Jahren gedacht? Der Schwerpunkt des Beitrags liegt auf der Erläuterung der Ansatzpunkte mit denen dieses Ergebnis erreicht wurde und der Darstellung der Methoden incl. der Anpassung an die veränderten Ansatzpunkte in den betroffenen Bereichen. Die beschriebenen Methoden sind in der zentralen Instandhaltung so angewendet worden.

  5. Physik gestern und heute: Fragwürdiges beim Millikan-Versuch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Robert A. Millikan erhielt 1923 als erster amerikanischer Physiker den Nobelpreis für Physik. Geehrt wurde er für seine Präzisionsmessungen zum Photoeffekt und zur experimentellen Bestimmung der elektrischen Elementarladung. Millikans Experimente zur Elementarladung sind auch heute noch ein Standardthema im schulischen Physikunterricht, gleichzeitig werfen sie aber eine Reihe von wissenschaftstheoretischen und ethisch relevanten Fragen auf.

  6. Quantenphysik und Gravitation Äquivalenzprinzip gilt auch für Quantenobjekte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fray, Sebastian; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Weitz, Martin

    2005-03-01

    Gravitationstheorie und die Quantentheorie zu einer gemeinsamen Theorie vereinheitlichen, das ist eines der ungelösten Probleme der modernen Physik. Garchinger und Tübinger Wissenschaftler haben nun das Äquivalenzprinzip, einen Eckstein der Gravitationstheorie, mit der Methode der Atominterferometrie, die sich der quantenmechanischen Natur von Atomen bedient, überprüft.

  7. Blick in das kalte Weltall. Protosterne, Staubscheiben und schwarze Löcher.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezger, P. G.

    Contents: 1. Radioastronomie: Ein neues Fenster ins Weltall öffnet sich. Die Entwicklung der Radioastronomie. Vom Anfang der Welt: Der Urknall. Die Milchstraße und ihr infrarotes Bild. Sterne und interstellare Materie. Die Suche nach den Protosternen. Der Zentralbereich der Milchstraße. Im Zentrum der Milchstraße: Ein schwarzes Loch mit einer Akkretionsscheibe? 2. Der Wissenschaftsbetrieb.

  8. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. PMID:27606616

  9. Normal, nearsightedness, and farsightedness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... it. A person with normal vision can see objects clearly near and faraway. Nearsightedness results in blurred ... or contact lenses. A nearsighted person sees near objects clearly, while objects in the distance are blurred. ...

  10. Cell proliferation in normal epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, G.D.; McCullough, J.L.; Ross, P.

    1984-06-01

    A detailed examination of cell proliferation kinetics in normal human epidermis is presented. Using tritiated thymidine with autoradiographic techniques, proliferative and differentiated cell kinetics are defined and interrelated. The proliferative compartment of normal epidermis has a cell cycle duration (Tc) of 311 h derived from 3 components: the germinative labeling index (LI), the duration of DNA synthesis (ts), and the growth fraction (GF). The germinative LI is 2.7% +/- 1.2 and ts is 14 h, the latter obtained from a composite fraction of labeled mitoses curve obtained from 11 normal subjects. The GF obtained from the literature and from human skin xenografts to nude mice is estimated to be 60%. Normal-appearing epidermis from patients with psoriasis appears to have a higher proliferation rate. The mean LI is 4.2% +/- 0.9, approximately 50% greater than in normal epidermis. Absolute cell kinetic values for this tissue, however, cannot yet be calculated for lack of other information on ts and GF. A kinetic model for epidermal cell renewal in normal epidermis is described that interrelates the rate of birth/entry, transit, and/or loss of keratinocytes in the 3 epidermal compartments: proliferative, viable differentiated (stratum malpighii), and stratum corneum. Expected kinetic homeostasis in the epidermis is confirmed by the very similar ''turnover'' rates in each of the compartments that are, respectively, 1246, 1417, and 1490 cells/day/mm2 surface area. The mean epidermal turnover time of the entire tissue is 39 days. The Tc of 311 h in normal cells in 8-fold longer than the psoriatic Tc of 36 h and is necessary for understanding the hyperproliferative pathophysiologic process in psoriasis.

  11. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    PubMed

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  12. 3j Symbols: To Normalize or Not to Normalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The systematic use of alternative normalization constants for 3j symbols can lead to a more natural expression of quantities, such as vector products and spherical tensor operators. The redefined coupling constants directly equate tensor products to the inner and outer products without any additional square roots. The approach is extended to…

  13. Conductivity Modulation in a gated Normal-CDW-Normal configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Saumya; Lake, Roger

    There is considerable interest in switching by exploiting a voltage controlled phase transition, and one such phase is the charge density wave phase that occurs in a number of quasi one dimensional and two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Voltage controlled switching of the charge density wave transition in 1T-TaS2 has recently been demonstrated. We consider a transistor geometry with normal metal contacts and a channel of CDW material. The interaction is modeled with a negative U Hubbard term. Normal-CDW-temperature-U phase diagrams show the regime of the CDW in the ideal lattice. The wavelength of the CDW in the transistor channel is determined by both the conditions of Fermi surface nesting and also the condition of commensurability with the channel length between the two normal leads. Moving the Fermi level of the channel first results in phase boundaries within the CDW as the conditions of commensurability and Fermi surface nesting become incompatible. Moving the Fermi level from half filling by few tens of meV causes a collapsing of the CDW gap and an effective CDW-normal transition, leaving vestiges of the CDW in the channel. The transition is accompanied by one to two orders of magnitude increase in the conductivity. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. 1124733 and the Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) Nanoelectronic Research Initiative as a part of the Nanoelectronics for 2020 and Beyond (NEB-2020) program.

  14. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, M.B.; Efstratiadis, A.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3{prime} noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library. 4 figs.

  15. Normalized cDNA libraries

    DOEpatents

    Soares, Marcelo B.; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a method to normalize a directional cDNA library constructed in a vector that allows propagation in single-stranded circle form comprising: (a) propagating the directional cDNA library in single-stranded circles; (b) generating fragments complementary to the 3' noncoding sequence of the single-stranded circles in the library to produce partial duplexes; (c) purifying the partial duplexes; (d) melting and reassociating the purified partial duplexes to moderate Cot; and (e) purifying the unassociated single-stranded circles, thereby generating a normalized cDNA library.

  16. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  17. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  18. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  19. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  20. Normalizing Catastrophe: Sustainability and Scientism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making an adequate response to our deteriorating environmental situation is a matter of ever increasing urgency. It is argued that a central obstacle to achieving this is the way that scientism has become normalized in our thinking about environmental issues. This is taken to reflect on an underlying "metaphysics of mastery" that vitiates proper…

  1. Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility

    2011-02-17

    This program is used to compute the predicted normalized elution time (NET) for a list of peptide sequences. It includes the Kangas/Petritis neural network trained model, the Krokhin hydrophobicity model, and the Mant hydrophobicity model. In addition, it can compute the predicted strong cation exchange (SCX) fraction (on a 0 to 1 scale) in which a given peptide will appear.

  2. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background) perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to 'complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all 'cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of 'complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting 'trick' we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  3. Der Kalte Krieg in der Peripherie Griechische Physiker und Atomenergie nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, George N.

    Die vorliegende Arbeit analysiert Ansichten griechischer Physiker zur Atomenergie und deren mögliche Anwendung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, insbesondere während des Kalten Kriegs. Einerseits werden Ansichten von Physik- Professoren griechischer Universitäten präsentiert - beispielsweise von Dimitrios Hondros, der Student von Arnold Sommerfeld und Mitarbeiter von Peter Debye in München war, und andererseits wird die Politik der griechischen Regierung für die Etablierung eines Forschungsinstitutes diskutiert, das der Entwicklung der Atomenergie dienen sollte; ebenfalls wird eine öffentliche Meinungsumfrage zu diesen Thema, die in den Tageszeitungen der damaligen Zeit präsentiert wurde, diskutiert.

  4. Chaos für die Schule!: Nichtlinearität und Strukturbildung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmeier, Volkhard; Schlichting, Hans Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Modellsysteme können Schülern die Grundlagen der nichtlinearen Physik anschaulich vermitteln. Sie schlagen so einen Bogen von der Schulphysik zur aktuellen Forschung. Ein solches Modellsystem ist das chaotische Wasserrad, das Lehrer auf einfache Weise für den Schulunterricht nachbauen können. Im Wesentlichen steuert der Zufluss des Wassers das Verhalten des Wasserrads. Wächst er, so durchläuft das Rad von der geordneten, gleichförmigen Drehung bis zum Chaos verschiedene Phasen von Bewegungsfiguren. Das Experiment kann grundlegende Modelle und Begriffe der Chaostheorie demonstrieren: lokale und globale Bifurkationen und verschiedene Übergänge ins Chaos.

  5. Das Prinzip Bewegung - Herz und Gehirn als Metaphern des menschlichen Lebens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Laura

    In diesem Jahr, in dem wir Charles Darwins gedenken, möchte ich etwas riskieren und eine Frage erörtern, die für die Literatur ebenso wie für die Biologie zentral ist: Was ist das Leben? Die Antwort auf diese Frage finden wir nicht in der Bibliothek und nicht im Labor, zumindest nicht an diesen erkenntnisproduzierenden Stellen allein. Als Literaturwissenschaftlerin und ehemalige Naturwissenschaftlerin glaube ich, dass wir das Leben nur verstehen werden, wenn wir seinen Wirkungen überall nachforschen, inklusive in der Literatur.

  6. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  7. Suchmaschinen und Informationsqualität: Status quo, Problemfelder, Entwicklungstendenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Christian; Gräfe, Gernot

    Das Thema Informationsqualität wird in den vorangegangenen Beiträgen umfangreich betrachtet. Die dabei geführte Diskussion zielt vordergründig auf organisatorische Dimensionen der Datenqualität, die strukturierte Datenanalyse oder Datenmanagementprozesse im Unternehmen ab. Dabei liegt ein Großteil der zur Unterstützung von Entscheidungsprozessen herangezogenen Informationen in Datenbanksystemen bzw. in einem Data Warehouse vor. Auf Basis verschiedener Analysetools (z. B. Online-Analytical-Processing) lassen sich diese Informationen dann systematisch auswerten. Allerdings können Entscheidungen nicht allein aufgrund der unternehmensintern vorliegenden Informationen getroffen werden. Vielmehr gilt es auch die aus der Unternehmensumwelt relevanten Informationen zu verarbeiten, die zum Teil über das Internet zugänglich sind. Im Gegensatz zu unternehmensinternen Datenbanksystemen handelt es sich beim Internet um ein schwach strukturiertes und offenes Netzwerk, weshalb die im Unternehmenskontext eingesetzten Analysetools kaum weiterhelfen, um Informationen mit hoher Qualität herauszufiltern. In dieser Situation spielen Suchmaschinen eine wichtige Rolle, um Informationen zu identifizieren und anhand verschiedener Kriterien in Form einer Suchergebnisseite zu sortieren.

  8. Organization of the und R chromosome region in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Kermicle, J.

    1989-07-01

    Maize is highly polymorphic in pattern of anthocyanin pigmentation. That portion of the total variation which is attributable to one gene is revealed when alleles from various sources are incorporated into a standard line by backcrossing before comparison under uniform environments. The variation associated with such collections of {und R} alleles is discontinuous, suggesting the presence of discrete units of function. Alleles comprising more than one such element constitute an allelic complex or gene family. An objective of the early years of investigation under this grant was to work out the arrangement of genic elements in such allelic complexes. Elements in a complex are identified by independent mutation and separability by recombination, the latter serving also to order them in the chromosome. Alleles having from one to three elements each were represented among five accessions of the colored-seed, colored-plant class ({und R-r}). Nine different genic elements were identified. This line of inquiry has been de-emphasized in recent years in deference to investigating the organization of individual genic elements. We have focused on a set of readily distinguished elements that were identified or produced in the analysis of allelic complexes. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Normalization method for video images

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, G.W.; Hush, D.R.

    1992-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for automatically and adaptively normalizing analog signals representative of video images in object detection systems. Such normalization maximizes the average information content of the video images and, thereby, provides optimal digitized images for object detection and identification. The present invention manipulates two system control signals -- gain control signal and offset control signal -- to convert an analog image signal into a transformed analog image signal, such that the corresponding digitized image contains the maximum amount of information achievable with a conventional object detection system. In some embodiments of the present invention, information content is measured using parameters selected from image entropy, image mean, and image variance.

  10. Pressure test in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Izukura, H

    1994-01-01

    The application of pressure to the middle ear changes the normal inner ear pressure in animal experiments. In this study we tested the effect of exposure to under- or overpressure on hearing in a total of 78 normal ears (40 subjects) in a soundproof pressure chamber. [After exposure to underpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 3 ears and loss in 2 ears for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 38 ears. After exposure to overpressure, a 10 dB or more gain in 5 ears and loss in 1 ear for at least one of the test frequencies was observed in 40 ears.] The characteristics of transferred inner ear pressure during a series of exposures to underpressure seemed to be similar to those during exposures to overpressure.

  11. Heparinised saline or normal saline?

    PubMed

    Kannan, Anand

    2008-10-01

    Using heparinised saline as a flush to maintain the patency of arterial and central venous lines is a well-known practice. A literature search was undertaken but found no evidence to support the use of heparinised saline over normal saline. In addition, the use of heparinised saline may be associated with adverse effects. The literature search strategy utilised Ovid CINAHL and Medline databases, as well as hand-searching bibliographies of clinical and research articles from the University of Cambridge Medical Library. Keywords and phrases included 'heparin', 'normal saline', 'arterial', 'haemodynamic lines' and 'catheters'. All types of evidence from each of these resources were examined to identify major themes, areas of agreement and disagreement across clinical practice, changesin the concept over time and emerging trends. PMID:18983067

  12. Broadcast normalization in systolic design

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.C. ); Wu, I.C. )

    1988-11-01

    When a sequential algorithm is directly mapped into an array of processing elements, quite likely data broadcasts are required and their source places vary during the computation. The authors introduce a normalization method to fix the positions of the broadcast sources so that the derived design can be further transformed by retimings into a systolic array. The authors' method is fully illustrated in designing systolic arrays for enumeration sort, solving simultaneous linear equations, and computing transitive closure.

  13. Research summaries for normal birth.

    PubMed

    Romano, Amy M; Goer, Henci

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies that further support the benefits of normal birth. The topics of the studies include the association of cesarean birth with an increased risk of neonatal death; the use of acupuncture and self-hypnosis as effective pain-management strategies; factors associated with amniotic-fluid embolism; and the positive influence of continuous support by lay doulas on obstetric outcomes for low-income women. PMID:18408810

  14. Succeeding in the New Normal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    Being a college CIO these days must feel a bit like juggling chain saws with one hand while holding a donation cup in the other. It's unlikely to end well, yet it represents the new normal in IT. While campus clients--from administrators to faculty and students--expect the usual raft of tech services, the IT budget simply can't deliver. In this…

  15. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-07-14

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors.

  16. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, C; Carminati, E; Petricca, P; Riguzzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  17. Normal fault earthquakes or graviquakes

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; Carminati, E.; Petricca, P.; Riguzzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquakes are dissipation of energy throughout elastic waves. Canonically is the elastic energy accumulated during the interseismic period. However, in crustal extensional settings, gravity is the main energy source for hangingwall fault collapsing. Gravitational potential is about 100 times larger than the observed magnitude, far more than enough to explain the earthquake. Therefore, normal faults have a different mechanism of energy accumulation and dissipation (graviquakes) with respect to other tectonic settings (strike-slip and contractional), where elastic energy allows motion even against gravity. The bigger the involved volume, the larger is their magnitude. The steeper the normal fault, the larger is the vertical displacement and the larger is the seismic energy released. Normal faults activate preferentially at about 60° but they can be shallower in low friction rocks. In low static friction rocks, the fault may partly creep dissipating gravitational energy without releasing great amount of seismic energy. The maximum volume involved by graviquakes is smaller than the other tectonic settings, being the activated fault at most about three times the hypocentre depth, explaining their higher b-value and the lower magnitude of the largest recorded events. Having different phenomenology, graviquakes show peculiar precursors. PMID:26169163

  18. Normal jugular bulb oxygen saturation

    PubMed Central

    Chieregato, A; Calzolari, F; Trasforini, G; Targa, L; Latronico, N

    2003-01-01

    Background: Normal values of the jugular bulb oxygen saturation were obtained in 1942 and in 1963. Correct catheter positioning was not confirmed radiologically. Objectives: To replicate the measurements during angiographic catheterisation of the jugular bulb. Methods: Oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb (SjO2), inferior petrosal sinus (SipsO2), and internal jugular vein was bilaterally measured in 12 patients with Cushing's syndrome undergoing selective bilateral catheterisation of the inferior petrosal sinus. In addition, data from the two old series were reanalysed for comparison. Results: SjO2 values (44.7%) were significantly lower than in the two old series, particularly concerning the normal lower limit (54.6% and 55.0% respectively). Comparative analysis suggests that contamination with the extracerebral blood of the facial veins and inferior petrosal sinuses was responsible for falsely high SjO2 values in the two old series. Conclusions: The normal lower SjO2 limit is lower than previously recognised. This may have practical implications for treating severe head trauma patients. PMID:12754351

  19. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  20. Elektrische Phänomene des Körpers und ihre Detektion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolz, Armin; Kikillus, Nicole; Moor, Claudius

    Im menschlichen Körper verfügen sowohl Nerven- als auch Muskelzellen über die Eigenschaft, intra- und extrazelluläre Ionenkonzentrationen zu verschieben und damit die Potenzialverteilung in ihrer Umgebung zu beeinflussen. Über unterschiedliche Synchronisationsverfahren sind makroskopische Zellverbände zusätzlich in der Lage, koordiniert ihre Felder zu verändern und somit auch signifikante, an der Körperoberfläche messbare elektrische Signale zu erzeugen. Das vorliegende Kapitel beschreibt zunächst die elektrophysiologischen Grundlagen elektrischer Signale des menschlichen Körpers, die Synchronisationsmechanismen und die daraus entstehenden Felder, insbesondere das Elektrokardiogramm (EKG), das Elektroenzephalogramm (EEG) sowie das Elektromyogramm (EMG). Im Anschluss daran werden die wesentlichen Grundlagen der Messtechnik zur Erfassung bioelektrischer Phänomene erläutert. Einige Beispielapplikationen runden diesen Beitrag ab.

  1. Modulare LDAP-Server-, -Protokoll und - Funktionserweiterungen am Beispiel von OpenLDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, Daniel

    In diesem Artikel wird ein Standardisierungsvorschlag für eine LDAP-Protokollerweiterung und deren Referenzimplementierung in Form einer modularen Erweiterung für die LDAP-Software-Suite des OpenLDAPProjektes vorgestellt. Nach einer Einführung in und einem Überblick über die wichtigsten OpenLDAP-Komponenten stellen wir unseren Lösungsansatz vor und gehen auf seine technischen Details ein. Ziel dieses Overlays ist die Implementierung einer neuen Funktionalität, die vom LDAP-Protokoll bisher nicht vorgesehen ist: Der Umfang der Suchergebnismenge soll serverseitig, dezentral und in der Granularität ganzer Objekte in Abhängigkeit von der aktuellen Serverzeit (konfigurierbar) eingeschränkt werden.

  2. Kosteneffiziente Honbearbeitung durch intelligente und flexible Verknüpfung von autarken Honzentren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Günther

    Die Planungsabteilungen in der Automobilindustrie werden vor immer größere Herausforderungen gestsellt. Der zur Verfügung stehende Zeitraum zu einer seriensicheren Umsetzung der entwicklungs- und produktionstechnischen Forderungen wird von Projekt zu Projekt kürzer. Aufgrund des hohen Wettbewerbsdrucks und daraus resultierenden erforderlichen Kostenoptimierungen, die schnelleren Timeto-market-und Innovationszyklen und die vermeintlich zur Kundenbindung erforderlichen, kaum mehr überschaubaren Diversifizierungen in den Modellpaletten lassen den Planungshorizont immer kürzer werden. Die zu beschaffenden Fertigungsanlagen sollen aber in den nächsten 8-12 Jahren all die Varianten produzieren können, die heute nur teilweise oder noch gar nicht bekannt sind.

  3. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  4. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  5. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  6. Appearance Normalization of Histology Slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, Marc; Borland, David; Marron, J. S.; Woosley, John; Thomas, Nancy E.

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearances across slides, that is very effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols, and to slide fading. The approach is validated using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets.

  7. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  8. [Ultrasonography of normal vermiform appendix].

    PubMed

    Ferri, E; Bonvicini, U; Pisani, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection and visualisation of the normal vermiform appendix and its characteristics by ultrasonography in adults with no clinical suggestion of acute or chronic abdominal disease. A prospective study was performed in 200 subjects. The graded-compression ultrasonography technique was used to explore the lower right quadrant of the abdomen and the pelvis. The examination was performed using a 4 MHz sector array and 7.5 MHz linear array transducer. In a few cases, a 10 MHz linear array transducer was used. The appendix was visualized in 54% of patients. In all cases where the appendix was visualized it was found to be either on the ileo-psoas muscle or directly beneath the abdominal wall. The ileo-caecal valve was visualized in 78% of cases. The transverse diameter was found to be no greater than 6.5 mm except in three cases that had a diameters ranging from 7 to 9 mm. Diameter variability along the length of the same appendix was demonstrated in 5% of subjects. Wall thickness was no greater than 2.5 mm. Our experience suggests that graded-compression ultrasonography is a valuable procedure for detecting the vermiform appendix more frequently than has been previously reported. The patients physical constitution and the anatomical location of the vermiform appendix were found to be important factors affecting the ability to visualize the vermiform appendix. The ability to visualise the normal vermiform appendix ultrasonographically supports the clinical diagnosis and excludes acute appendicitis.

  9. Update on Normal Tension Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Jyotiranjan; Devi, Lily; Malik, Pradeep K; Mallick, Jogamaya

    2016-01-01

    Normal tension glaucoma (NTG) is labelled when typical glaucomatous disc changes, visual field defects and open anterior chamber angles are associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) constantly below 21 mmHg. Chronic low vascular perfusion, Raynaud's phenomenon, migraine, nocturnal systemic hypotension and over-treated systemic hypertension are the main causes of normal tension glaucoma. Goldmann applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography and visual field analysis are the main tools of investigation for the diagnosis of NTG. Management follows the same principles of treatment for other chronic glaucomas: To reduce IOP by a substantial amount, sufficient to prevent disabling visual loss. Treatment is generally aimed to lower IOP by 30% from pre-existing levels to 12-14 mmHg. Betaxolol, brimonidine, prostaglandin analogues, trabeculectomy (in refractory cases), systemic calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine) and 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure are considered in the management of NTG. The present review summarises risk factors, causes, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of NTG. PMID:27413503

  10. Writing errors by normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Rita; Torre, Paola; Antonello, Rodolfo M; Fabbro, Franco; Cazzato, Giuseppe; Bava, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    Writing is a complex process requiring visual memory, attention, phonological and semantic operations, and motor performance. For that reason, it can easily be disturbed by interfering with attention, memory, by interfering subvocalization, and so on. With 16 female third-year students (23.4 +/- 0.8 yr.) from the University of Trieste, we investigated the production of errors in three experimental conditions (control, articulatory suppression, and tapping). In the articulatory suppression condition, the participants produced significantly more linguistic impairments (such as agrammatism, unrelated substitutions, sentence omissions, and semantically deviant sentences), which are similar to linguistic impairments found in aphasia. On the tapping condition there were more perseverations, deletions, and substitutions of both letters and words. These data suggest that writing is not an automatic skill. Only after many years of experience and practice of processing information (through cortical to subcortical channels) can writing be considered an automatic skill. Limited experimental conditions can disrupt the writing system of normal subjects, probably interfering with the cortical to subcortical loops, and link normality to pathology. PMID:14604043

  11. The KRAKEN normal mode program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M. B.

    1992-05-01

    In the late 1970's, several normal-mode models existed which were widely used for predicting acoustic transmission-loss in the ocean; however, each had its own problems. Typical difficulties included numerical instabilities for certain types of sound-speed profiles and failures to compute a complete set of ocean modes. In short, there was a need for a model that was robust, accurate, and efficient. In order to resolve these problems, a new algorithm was developed forming the basis for the KRAKEN normal mode model. Over subsequent years, KRAKEN was greatly extended, with options for modeling ocean environments that are range-independent, range-dependent, or fully 3-dimensional. The current version offers the specialist a vast number of options for treating ocean-acoustics problems (or more generally acousto-elastic waveguides). On the other hand, it is easy for a less sophisticated user to learn the small subset of tools needed for the common problem of transmission-loss modeling in range-independent ocean environments. This report addresses the need for a more complete user's guide to supplement the on-line help files. The first chapters give a fairly technical description of the mathematical and numerical basis of the model. Additional chapters give a simpler description of its use and installation in a manner that is accessible to less scientifically-oriented readers.

  12. How do normal faults grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Tvedt, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Normal faulting accommodates stretching of the Earth's crust, and it is arguably the most fundamental tectonic process leading to continent rupture and oceanic crust emplacement. Furthermore, the incremental and finite geometries associated with normal faulting dictate landscape evolution, sediment dispersal and hydrocarbon systems development in rifts. Displacement-length scaling relationships compiled from global datasets suggest normal faults grow via a sympathetic increase in these two parameters (the 'isolated fault model'). This model has dominated the structural geology literature for >20 years and underpins the structural and tectono-stratigraphic models developed for active rifts. However, relatively recent analysis of high-quality 3D seismic reflection data suggests faults may grow by rapid establishment of their near-final length prior to significant displacement accumulation (the 'coherent fault model'). The isolated and coherent fault models make very different predictions regarding the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of rift basin, thus assessing their applicability is important. To-date, however, very few studies have explicitly set out to critically test the coherent fault model thus, it may be argued, it has yet to be widely accepted in the structural geology community. Displacement backstripping is a simple graphical technique typically used to determine how faults lengthen and accumulate displacement; this technique should therefore allow us to test the competing fault models. However, in this talk we use several subsurface case studies to show that the most commonly used backstripping methods (the 'original' and 'modified' methods) are, however, of limited value, because application of one over the other requires an a priori assumption of the model most applicable to any given fault; we argue this is illogical given that the style of growth is exactly what the analysis is attempting to determine. We then revisit our case studies and demonstrate

  13. Normalization: only cautious steps now

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, A.

    1985-01-01

    Despite efforts to come to grips with the American experience in Vietnam, our relationship with Indochina continues to have a low priority. It is important to reconcile with our former enemy, but we also have a national security interest in competing with the Soviets for influence over the area. The normalization, however, must be viewed as a long-term objective while we maintain good relations with the governments of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and uphold our goal of Vietnamese troop withdrawal from Cambodia. An active policy could encourage the ASEAN nations to negotiate a coherent approach and help to oppose a return of Pol Pot. The US could also remove restrictions on voluntary organizations seeking to assist the people in Vietnam and Cambodia.

  14. [Hepatitis C and normal transaminases].

    PubMed

    Malé Velázquez, René; Ayuzo del Valle, Cipatli

    2002-10-01

    Since the discovery of hepatitis C virus and its serologic markers, an identification of a subgroup of patients with persistent normal ALT (PNALT) was done. It has been estimated that this group accounts to 25% of patients with chronic hepatitis C. It is not recommended to biopsy or initiate treatment because of the natural history of the disease is benign with slow progression. However, recent studies have shown mild to moderate histologic abnormalities in nearly 80% of the patients. Interferon treatment as monotherapy has not shown significant results and there are not enough data to support combined therapy. It is recommended clinical follow up every 3 to 6 months combined with liver function tests. Biopsy and antiviral treatment should only be considered for patients included in clinical trials.

  15. Appearance normalization of histology slides.

    PubMed

    Vicory, Jared; Couture, Heather D; Thomas, Nancy E; Borland, David; Marron, J S; Woosley, John; Niethammer, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic color and intensity normalization of digitized histology slides stained with two different agents. In comparison to previous approaches, prior information on the stain vectors is used in the plane estimation process, resulting in improved stability of the estimates. Due to the prevalence of hematoxylin and eosin staining for histology slides, the proposed method has significant practical utility. In particular, it can be used as a first step to standardize appearance across slides and is effective at countering effects due to differing stain amounts and protocols and counteracting slide fading. The approach is validated against non-prior plane-fitting using synthetic experiments and 13 real datasets. Results of application of the method to adjustment of faded slides are given, and the effectiveness of the method in aiding statistical classification is shown.

  16. Familial idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Joel; Kastinen, Sami; Komulainen, Simo; Oinas, Minna; Avellan, Cecilia; Frantzen, Janek; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Kauppinen, Mikko; Lönnrot, Kimmo; Perola, Markus; Pyykkö, Okko T; Koivisto, Anne M; Remes, Anne M; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko; Helisalmi, Seppo; Kurki, Mitja; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Leinonen, Ville

    2016-09-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a late-onset surgically alleviated, progressive disease. We characterize a potential familial subgroup of iNPH in a nation-wide Finnish cohort of 375 shunt-operated iNPH-patients. The patients were questionnaired and phone-interviewed, whether they have relatives with either diagnosed iNPH or disease-related symptomatology. Then pedigrees of all families with more than one iNPH-case were drawn. Eighteen patients (4.8%) from 12 separate pedigrees had at least one shunt-operated relative whereas 42 patients (11%) had relatives with two or more triad symptoms. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, familial iNPH-patients had up to 3-fold risk of clinical dementia compared to sporadic iNPH patients. This risk was independent from diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and APOE ε4 genotype. This study describes a familial entity of iNPH offering a novel approach to discover the potential genetic characteristics of iNPH. Discovered pedigrees offer an intriguing opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies targeting potential preclinical signs of iNPH. PMID:27538594

  17. Mechanics of the normal heart.

    PubMed

    Tendulkar, Amod P; Harken, Alden H

    2006-01-01

    Even though studies on isolated papillary muscles and cardiomyocytes can be applied to the mechanics of a beating heart, it is not always easy for physicians to relate these findings to clinical medicine. Thus, it is important to extend the studies to intact heart either in simulations or in animal models and even better to validate the results with human subjects. Advances in engineering and computer technology have allowed us to bridge the gap between physiology and mechanics. Cardiomyocyte stress/strain relates to muscle energy expenditure, which dictates oxygen and substrate utilization. Appreciation of this sequential relationship by clinicians will facilitate the logical development and assessment of therapies. Theory of finite element analysis (FEA) can predict cardiac mechanics under normal and pathologic conditions. Imaging studies provide an avenue to relate these predictions indirectly to experimental studies. In this fashion, we can understand the mechanical basis for the micro- and macroanatomical twisting motion of the beating heart. The purposes of this manuscript are: (1) to examine the terms that are traditionally used to describe mechanical stresses and strain within the ventricle, (2) to explore the three-dimensional organization of cardiomyocytes that influences global ventricular function, (3) to apply mechanical measures to both single cardiomyofibrils and the intact ventricle (4) to evaluate mathematical and computer models used to characterize cardiac mechanics, and (5) to outline the clinical methods available to measure ventricular function and relate findings from FEA to pathologic conditions.

  18. Evolution und Kreationismus im Schulunterricht aus Sicht Großbritanniens. Ist Evolution eine Sache der Akzeptanz oder des Glaubens?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James D.

    Ist Kreationismus eine Weltanschauung oder eine falsche Vorstellung? Ausgehend vom Standpunkt der Naturwissenschaft ist der Unterschied wichtig. Falsche Vorstellungen können herausgefordert und durch gründliche wissenschaftliche Lehre korrigiert werden. Weltanschauungen sind Teil eines etablierten Glaubenssystems, und diese Überzeugungen sind von Natur aus schwer zu verändern (Cohen 1992).

  19. Zivilisationsdynamik: Treiber Technik, Folgen und Konsequenzen. Civilisation dynamics: driving force technology, results and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jischa, Michael F.

    2010-11-01

    Die Menschheitsgeschichte ist untrennbar mit der Nutzung von Materie, Energie und Information verbunden. Im Laufe der Geschichte sind Produktivität, Bevölkerung und Ressourcenverbrauch ständig angestiegen, seit dem vergangenen Jahrhundert mit zunehmender Beschleunigung. In den früh industrialisierten Ländern entwickelte sich vor wenigen Jahrzehnten eine Bewusstseinswende, die Segnungen der Technik wurden zunehmend kritisch beurteilt. Das führte zur Formulierung des Leitbildes Nachhaltigkeit und unterschiedlichen Ansätzen, dieses zu operationalisieren, aus Sicht der Ingenieure mit dem Konzept Technikbewertung. Nach den Natur- und den Ingenieurwissenschaften haben die Gesellschaftswissenschaften diese Themen aufgegriffen, was zu einer teilweisen Annäherung der Zwei Kulturen geführt hat. Weiter sind Überlegungen entstanden, Lehr- und Forschungsinhalte zu überdenken, um auf die Weltprobleme (in der Sprache des Club of Rome) angemessen reagieren zu können. In jüngerer Zeit wurden Energieszenarien vorgestellt, deren Kernaussage unmissverständlich lautet: Die Zukunft gehört den erneuerbaren Energien.

  20. Molekulare Methoden zum Nachweis, zur Quantifizierung und zum Monitoring der Mykotoxinbildung lebensmittelrelevanter Pilze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisen, Rolf

    Schimmelpilze kommen ubiquitär vor und spielen besonders bei pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln und Rohprodukten eine besondere Rolle als Verderbsorganismen. Es wird geschätzt, dass 20-25 % der jährlichen Produktion an pflanzlichen Produkten durch Schimmelpilze verdorben werden (Smith et al., 1994). Viele der lebensmittelrelevanten Schimmelpilze sind zudem in der Lage, Mykotoxine, toxische Sekundärmetabolite, zu bilden, was das Ausmaß des Problems deutlich macht. Die wichtigsten mykotoxinbildenden Spezies gehören zu den Fusarien (Trichothecene, Fumonisine, Zearalenon), Aspergillen (Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Cyclopiazonsäure) und Penicillien (Patulin, Ochratoxin). Für viele Mykotoxine, wie die Aflatoxine, Ochratoxin, Fumonisine und Trichothecene sind Grenzwerte erlassen worden, die die Verkehrsfähigkeit betroffener Produkte regeln. Die Einhaltung der Grenzwerte kann sehr genau durch offizielle chemisch-analytische Methoden, wie HPLC, GC-MS etc. kontrolliert werden. Diese analytischen Methoden sind aber für die Anwendung eines HACCP-Ansatzes zur Kontrolle der Mykotoxinbildung nur bedingt geeignet, da sie Endpunktkontrollen darstellen und nur das über eine längere Zeit gebildete Mykotoxin bestimmen. Sie sagen daher nichts über die biologischen Bedingungen zur Zeit der Bildung durch den Pilz aus.

  1. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess.

  2. Renaturierung von Feuchtgrünland, Auengrünland und mesophilem Grünland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Gert; Hölzel, Norbert

    Grünland stellt in Mitteleuropa fast ausschließlich eine Kulturformation dar, die in der Naturlandschaft abgesehen von extremen Trocken- und Nassstandorten sowie klimatisch ungünstigen Gebieten oberhalb der alpinen Waldgrenze nur kleinflächig vertreten war.Die natürlichen Standorte der heutigen Grünlandarten waren in Mitteleuropa bis in das Atlantikum hinein Wälder oder natürlicherweise waldfreie ökosysteme, wie z.B. Röhricht- und Ufervegetation sowie Biberwiesen in Flussauen, Niedermoore, Randlaggs von Regenmooren, Waldlichtungen oder Lawinenbahnen (Ellenberg 1952, 1996). Die Naturlandschaft der heutigen Grünlandstandorte war durch die natürliche Dynamik der vorherrschenden Waldökosysteme mit ihren Entwicklungsstadien und natürlichen Störungsereignissen (Stürme, überschwemmungen etc.) geprägt. Der Flächenanteil des Grünlandes vergrößerte sich erst durch Beweidung und Heumahd durch den Menschen und seine Haustiere.

  3. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  4. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess. PMID:27606463

  5. SUNY's Centralization: Normal Schools as Precedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, H. Warren; Corby, Betsey C.

    This report presents the historical background of New York State's normal school system, the system that predated the centralized organization of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. New York's first state normal school was established in Albany in 1844. Nineteen years later the state began to provide support for the normal school at…

  6. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  7. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  8. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  9. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  10. 18 CFR 154.305 - Tax normalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax normalization. 154... Changes § 154.305 Tax normalization. (a) Applicability. An interstate pipeline must compute the income tax component of its cost-of-service by using tax normalization for all transactions. (b) Definitions. (1)...

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Normal Eating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; Herman, C. Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores similarities between normal dieters and individuals with eating disorders. Compares regulation of intake among normal dieter and patient populations, using the boundary model of consumption. Concludes that in neither group is eating technically disordered, though it departs from appropriate physiological norms, and that many normal eaters…

  12. Die Cnidogenese der Octocorallia (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): II. Reifung, Wanderung und Zerfall von Cnidoblast und Nesselkapsel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Moraw, B.

    1982-03-01

    Migration of cnidoblasts has never been observed in Anthozoa. In contrast to hydrozoans, anthozoans are repeatedly reported to develop nematocysts locally without migration in the entoderm as well as in the ectoderm. The majority of the nematocysts studied in different Octocorallia species (Alcyonaria: Alcyonarium digitatum, Parerythropodium coralloides; Gorgonaria: Pseudopterogorgia aerosa; Pennatularia: Veretillum cynomorium) originate from the ectoderm of the scapus, where, however, no mature nematocysts occur. Cnidoblasts containing immature nematocysts accumulate in the distal scapus, from where they migrate singly like amoebae into the pinnulae of the tentacles. The nematocysts mature during migration, during which the capsular matrix becomes completely electron-translucent. Only in the oral disc, where few nematocysts occur, do they mature locally without migration. In the Octocorallia, nematocyst development and maturation takes places only in the ectoderm. Development of nematocysts has never been observed in the entoderm, nor in the pharynx; this demonstrates its entodermal origin. The entoderm contains only degenerated or phagocytized nematocysts. Contrary to hydrozoans, the mature anthozoan cnidocyte is rounded and has no processes to the mesogloea. Instead of a cnidocil it has a ciliary cone consisting of a normal flagellum, stereocilia and macrovilli. The cnidocyte is characterised by abundant electron-translucent cytoplasm and nematocyst-anchoring structures made up of cross-striated, collagen-like fibrillae and a fibrous basal ring. The position of the cross-striated fibrillae is distally similar to that of the supportive rods in hydrozoan cnidoblasts. The present study clearly demonstrates that structure and, possibly, function of an octocorallian cnidocyte is much simpler than that of a hydrozoan cnidocyte. On the other hand, cnidoblast migration, occurring in Hydrozoa as well in Octocorallia, turned out to be a much older phylogenetic character

  13. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  14. Antike Gläser und versteinertes Elfenbein: Röntgenanalyse in der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Ina; Radtke, Martin; Brouder, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Physikalische Methoden der Archäometrie liefern den Kunsthistorikern und Archäologen wichtige Informationen. Materialspezifische Größen geben Aufschluss über Alter, Authentizität, Herkunft und Herstellungstechniken sowie Alterserscheinungen von Gegenständen. Insbesondere die Röntgenanalyse hat in jüngster Zeit wertvolle Beiträge hierzu geliefert. Dabei spannt sich ein weiter Bogen von den Mysterien ägyptischer Augenschminke über die Herstellungstechnik römischer Gläser bis zur Authentizitätsuntersuchung mittelalterlicher Silberstiftzeichnungen.

  15. Biologie statt Philosophie? Evolutionäre Kulturerklärungen und ihre Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illies, Christian

    Vor über siebzig Jahren fand man in einer Höhle nahe Hohlenstein-Stadel, im heutigen Baden-Württemberg, eine Frau, die keiner bekannten Spezies und nicht einmal eindeutig den Hominiden zugeordnet werden konnte. Wegen ihres Aussehens wurde sie schon bald als "Löwenfrau“ bekannt (unterdessen wird sie als "Löwenmensch“ bezeichnet, da die in solchen Fragen Klarheit schaffenden Geschlechtsteile bei der Figur fehlen und in Zeiten von gender mainstreaming derartige Festlegungen gerne vermieden werden), denn sie hatte eine menschlich-aufrechte, unbehaarte Gestalt mit weiblichen Rundungen, aber zugleich eine Mähne, sowie Augen, Ohren und Schnauze eines Löwen. Eine sehr weitläufige Verwandte des Minotaurus, so schien es, und doch wesentlich älter als alle Bewohner des Olymps, denn vermutlich wurde die knapp 30 cm große Skulptur bereits in der Altsteinzeit vor etwa 32.000 Jahren aus Mammut-Elfenbein geschnitzt. Wir wissen nicht, ob sie kultischen Zwecken diente oder ein Kind mit ihr spielte, ob sie als Glücksbringer für die Jagd oder als Schamanin mit Löwenmaske verehrt und gefürchtet wurde. Aber die Löwenfrau legt nahe, dass der Mensch schon im Morgendämmern seiner Kultur über die eigene Nähe, aber auch Distanz zum Tier nachgedacht haben muss. Die Frage nach der menschlichen Selbstverortung begegnet uns in dieser Figur, und sie bestimmt viele Zeugnisse menschlichen Nachdenkens, welche uns die Altertumswissenschaften vorlegen. Mit dem Begriff "animal rationale“, wie er unter Bezug auf Aristoteles geprägt wurde, findet sie schließlich ihre klassische, für das Abendland lange Zeit maßgebliche Antwort: Der Mensch als Tier, dessen spezifisches Merkmal die Vernunftbegabtheit ist, die ihn zugleich von allen anderen Tieren abgrenzt und über sie stellt. Aber wo genau verläuft die Grenze? Und wie kann der Mensch beides zugleich sein? Die aristotelische Definition beantwortet diese Fragen nach der Doppelnatur nicht, sondern erhebt das offene R

  16. Dynamische Satzgenerierung und Sprachausgabe für einen mobilen Serviceroboter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlitz, Christopher; Amann, Bernd; Hägele, Martin

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung einer Sprachausgabe für ein mobiles Robotersystem. Dazu wurde zum einen ein auf die Anwendung zugeschittenes Text-To-Speech Verfahren und zum anderen eine Grammatik, die eine dynamische Satzgenerierung ermöglicht, implementiert. Die Verfahren arbeiten unabhängig voneinander und können daher auch gegen andere Komponenten ausgetauscht werden. Die Programme wurden als Client-Server Applikationen programmiert, um möglichst flexibel die Sprachausgabe einsetzen zu können.

  17. Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

    2014-07-17

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy.

  18. Normal gallbladder scintigraphy in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrt, H.J.; Posalaky, I.P.; Shafer, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Normal gallbladder scintigraphy occurs in 2 to 5% of reported patients with acute cholecystitis. Gallbladder visualization is found in patients with acalculous cholecystitis and in those with recent relief of cystic duct obstruction but persistence of inflammation. A patient is reported who had clinical and pathologic findings of acute cholecystitis but normal gallbladder visualization. This reemphasizes that the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis cannot be excluded by normal gallbladder scintigraphy.

  19. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack; Galal, Ken

    1992-01-01

    Methods are presented to normalize the attitude quaternion in two extended Kalman filters (EKF), namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). It is concluded that all the normalization methods work well and yield comparable results. In the AEKF, normalization is not essential, since the data chosen for the test do not have a rapidly varying attitude. In the MEKF, normalization is necessary to avoid divergence of the attitude estimate. All of the methods of the methods behave similarly when the spacecraft experiences low angular rates.

  20. Read the Book or Watch the Movie? "Der Richter und sein Henker" at the Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Elizabeth C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the debate over the text or media that best enable second-year learners of German to increase their active vocabulary. Suggests the novel "Der Richter und sein Henker" can be enriched by the film adaptation. Classroom tested activities incorporate care fully-sequenced visuals and culminate in analysis of both the book and the film. Sample…

  1. Matthias Falter und die frühe Halbleitertechnik in der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Frank

    Nach einer ganzen Reihe von Vorarbeiten weltweit1 konnten im Dezember 1947 die amerikanischen Physiker Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen und William Shockley in den Bell Laboratories den Transistoreffekt demonstrieren. Damit legten sie den Grundstein für die Mikroelektronik als Basistechnologie des Informationszeitalters.

  2. Einheit von Forschung und Lehre: Implications for State Funding of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline; Coate, Kelly; Mignot-Gerard, Stephanie; Knill, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The Humboldtian educational ideal is based on the idea of the unity of teaching and research in universities ("Einheit von Forschung und Lehre"). The role of the state, according to Humboldt, was to fund universities in such a way that their autonomy was maintained. Much has changed in the funding mechanisms of higher education systems since the…

  3. Symmetric extensions of normal discrete velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, A. V.; Vinerean, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we discuss a general problem related to spurious conservation laws for discrete velocity models (DVMs) of the classical (elastic) Boltzmann equation. Models with spurious conservation laws appeared already at the early stage of the development of discrete kinetic theory. The well-known theorem of uniqueness of collision invariants for the continuous velocity space very often does not hold for a set of discrete velocities. In our previous works we considered the general problem of the construction of normal DVMs, we found a general algorithm for the construction of all such models and presented a complete classification of normal DVMs with small number n of velocities (n<11). Even if we have a general method to classify all normal discrete kinetic models (and in particular DVMs), the existing method is relatively slow and the amount of possible cases to check increases rapidly with n. We remarked that many of our normal DVMs appear to be axially symmetric. In this paper we consider a connection between symmetric transformations and normal DVMs. We first develop a new inductive method that, starting with a given normal DVM, leads by symmetric extensions to a new normal DVM. This method can produce very fast many new normal DVMs with larger number of velocities, showing that the class of normal DVMs contains a large subclass of symmetric models. We finally apply the method to several normal DVMs and construct new models that are not only normal, but also symmetric relatively to more and more axes. We hope that such symmetric velocity sets can be used for DSMC methods of solving Boltzmann equation.

  4. Cultured normal mammalian tissue and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cell aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  5. Normalized Legal Drafting and the Query Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Layman E.; Engholm, C. Rudy

    1978-01-01

    Normalized legal drafting, a mode of expressing ideas in legal documents so that the syntax that relates the constituent propositions is simplified and standardized, and the query method, a question-asking activity that teaches normalized drafting and provides practice, are examined. Some examples are presented. (JMD)

  6. Correcting the Normalized Gain for Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; Stewart, Gay

    2010-01-01

    The normalized gain, "g", has been an important tool for the characterization of conceptual improvement in physics courses since its use in Hake's extensive study on conceptual learning in introductory physics. The normalized gain is calculated from the score on a pre-test administered before instruction and a post-test administered after…

  7. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications

    DOE PAGES

    Pollesch, N. L.; Dale, Virginia H.

    2016-08-08

    One approach to assessing progress towards sustainability makes use of diverse indicators spanning the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of the system being studied. Given the use of multiple indicators and the inherent complexity entailed in interpreting several metrics, aggregation of sustainability indicators is a common step after indicator measures are quantified. Diverse indicators have different units of measurement, and normalization is the procedure employed to transform differing indicator measures onto similar scales or to unit-free measures. It is often difficult for stakeholders to make clear connections between specific indicator measurements and resulting aggregate scores of sustainability. Normalization can alsomore » create implicit weightings of indicator measures that are independent of actual stakeholder preference or explicit weighting. This paper explores normalization methods utilized in sustainability assessment including ratio normalization, target normalization, Z-score normalization, and unit equivalence normalization. A mathematical analysis of the impact of changes in raw indicator data measurements on an aggregate sustainability score is developed. Theoretical results are clarified through a case study of data used in assessment of progress towards bioenergy sustainability. Advantages and drawbacks associated with different normalization schemes are discussed within the context of sustainability assessment.« less

  8. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  9. Normal peer models and autistic children's learning.

    PubMed Central

    Egel, A L; Richman, G S; Koegel, R L

    1981-01-01

    Present research and legislation regarding mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms have raised the importance of studying whether autistic children can benefit from observing normal peer models. The present investigation systematically assessed whether autistic children's learning of discrimination tasks could be improved if they observed normal children perform the tasks correctly. In the context of a multiple baseline design, four autistic children worked on five discrimination tasks that their teachers reported were posing difficulty. Throughout the baseline condition the children evidenced very low levels of correct responding on all five tasks. In the subsequent treatment condition, when normal peers modeled correct responses, the autistic children's correct responding increased dramatically. In each case, the peer modeling procedure produced rapid achievement of the acquisition which was maintained after the peer models were removed. These results are discussed in relation to issues concerning observational learning and in relation to the implications for mainstreaming autistic children into normal classrooms. PMID:7216930

  10. Automatische Lokalisation und hämodynamische Charakterisierung von Gefäßstrukturen bei arteriovenösen Malformationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Fiehler, Jens; Illies, Till; Handels, Heinz

    Im Beitrag werden Verfahren zur automatischen Detektion des Kerns der Arteriovenösen Malformation (AVM) sowie der zuleitenden (Feeder), ableitenden (Drainagevenen) und en passge" Blutgef äße präsentiert. Als Eingabe hierfür dienen hochaufgelöste 3D- sowie zeitlich-räumliche 4D-MRT-Bildsequenzen. Durch eine kombinierte Analyse der Intensität, der Geschwindigkeit und des relativen Einflusszeitpunktes des Blutes werden Gefäßstrukturen automatisch charakterisiert. Die vorgestellte Methode zur Detektion des Kerns wurde anhand von manuellen Segmentierungen validiert und ergab eine mittlere Volumen- übereinstimmung von ca. 88%. Drainagevenen und Feeder konnten mit einer Genauigkeit von 95% detektiert werden.

  11. A zoo of computable binary normal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, Steve; Singer, Burton H.

    2012-01-01

    Historically there has been a virtual absence of constructive methods to produce broad classes of “certifiably random” infinite sequences, despite considerable interest in this endeavor. Previously, we proved a theorem that yielded explicit algorithms to produce diverse sets of normal numbers, reasonable candidates for random sequences, given their limiting equidistribution of subblocks of all lengths. Herein, we develop this algorithmic approach much further, systematizing the normal number generation process in several ways. We construct delineated, distinct sets of normal numbers (classified by the extent to which initial segments deviate from maximal irregularity), with virtually any allowable specified rate of convergence to 0 of this deviation, encompassing arbitrarily fast and slow rates, and accommodating asymmetric behavior above or below a centered median. As a corollary, we provide an explicit construction of a normal number that satisfies the Law of the Iterated Logarithm. We also produce distinct families of “biased” normal numbers, with virtually any specified rate of convergence of the bias (to 0). This latter theory is in part motivated by the remarkable observation that the binary version of Champernowne’s number, which is also normal, is biased—any initial segment has more 1s than 0s. Finally, we construct an interesting normal sequence with arbitrarily fast convergence to equidistribution of singleton blocks, yet arbitrarily slow convergence of pairs, which has profound implications both for probability theory, and for metrics to evaluate the “near-randomness” of sequences. PMID:23125196

  12. A normality bias in legal decision making.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Robert A; Koehler, Jonathan J

    2003-03-01

    It is important to understand how legal fact finders determine causation and assign blame. However, this process is poorly understood. Among the psychological factors that affect decision makers are an omission bias (a tendency to blame actions more than inactions [omissions] for bad results), and a normality bias (a tendency to react more strongly to bad outcomes that spring from abnormal rather than normal circumstances). The omission and normality biases often reinforce one another when inaction preserves the normal state and when action creates an abnormal state. But what happens when these biases push in opposite directions as they would when inaction promotes an abnormal state or when action promotes a normal state? Which bias exerts the stronger influence on the judgments and behaviors of legal decision makers? The authors address this issue in two controlled experiments. One experiment involves medical malpractice and the other involves stockbroker negligence. They find that jurors pay much more attention to the normality of conditions than to whether those conditions arose through acts or omissions. Defendants who followed a nontraditional medical treatment regime or who chose a nontraditional stock portfolio received more blame and more punishment for bad outcomes than did defendants who obtained equally poor results after recommending a traditional medical regime or a traditional stock portfolio. Whether these recommendations entailed an action or an omission was essentially irrelevant. The Article concludes with a discussion of the implications of a robust normality bias for American jurisprudence.

  13. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  14. The concept of normal weight obesity.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Estefania; Somers, Virend K; Sochor, Ondrej; Goel, Kashish; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with normal body weight by body mass index (BMI) and high body fat percentage show a high degree of metabolic dysregulation. This phenomenon, defined as normal weight obesity, is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, cardiometabolic dysfunction and with higher mortality. Recently, we have also shown that coronary artery disease patients with normal BMI and central obesity have the highest mortality risk as compared to other adiposity patterns. Therefore, it is important to recognize these high-risk groups for better adiposity-based risk stratification. There is a need for an updated definition of obesity based on adiposity, not on body weight.

  15. Normal lid margin after eyelid reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cies, W A; Baylis, H I

    1977-04-01

    To prevent corneal damage, the central lid margin must have a normal skin-conjunctiva interface following the lid reconstruction. A two-step procedure may be employed: In the lower lid an initial Hughes reconstruction should be tried. If this is unacceptable, a subsequent block excision of the segment is performed. The important step in both phases is a thorough lateral cantholysis. In the upper lid, the central defect is immediately reconstructed by sliding the lateral lid remnant to the medial remnant. The resulting lateral defect is reconstructed with a Hughes procedure. In both cases, a physiologic lid margin is insured, because normal lid is sutured to normal lid.

  16. „Überholen ohne einzuholen“ Die Entwicklung von Technologien für übermorgen in Kernenergie und Mikroelektronik der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkleit, Gerhard

    Dem nuklearen Patt zwischen Ostblock und westlichem Staatenbündnis ist es nach weitgehend übereinstimmender Auffassung von Politik und Wissenschaft zu danken, dass der "Kalte Krieg" in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht zum weltumfassenden Flächenbrand eskalierte. An der raschen Herstellung dieses Patts waren zwei Dresdner Physiker maßgeblich beteiligt, deren einer im Manhattan-Projekt in den USA gearbeitet hatte und später in England der Spionage für die Sowjetunion und des Verrats des Know-how der Atombombe überführt wurde.

  17. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  18. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  19. The method of minimal normal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.R.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    Normal form methods for solving nonlinear differential equations are reviewed and the comparative merits of three methods are evaluated. The concept of the minimal normal form is explained and is shown to be superior to other choices. The method is then extended to apply to the evaluation of discrete maps of an accelerator or storage ring. Such an extension, as suggested in this paper, is more suited for accelerator-based applications than a formulation utilizing continuous differential equations. A computer code has been generated to systematically implement various normal form formulations for maps in two-dimensional phase space. Specific examples of quadratic and cubic nonlinear fields were used and solved by the method developed. The minimal normal form method shown here gives good results using relatively low order expansions.

  20. After the Fire! Returning to Normal

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Normal The first days of recovery The value of your home and personal belongings Talk with your insurance company about how to learn the value of your home and property. Replacing valuable documents ...

  1. How the Normal Distribution Got Its Hump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogborn, Jon

    1974-01-01

    The characteristic shape of the normal distribution, one hump and two tails, is discussed. The reasoning is based on variation, combinations, probability, and logarithms. The purpose is to be able to answer some of the "whys" students might ask. (LS)

  2. Valve, normally open, titanium: Pyronetics Model 1425

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avalos, E.

    1972-01-01

    An operating test series was applied to two explosive actuated, normally open, titanium valves. There were no failures. Tests included: proof pressure and external leakage test, gross leak test, post actuation leakage test, and burst pressure test.

  3. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  4. The pupillary light reflex in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, C J

    1981-01-01

    In 19 normal subjects the pupillary reflex to light was studied over a range of stimulus intensities by infrared electronic pupillography and analysed by a computer technique. Increasing stimulus intensity was associated with an increase in direct light reflex amplitude and maximum rate of constriction and redilatation. Latency from stimulus to onset of response-decreased with increasing stimulus intensity. The normal range for each of these parameters is given and the significance of these results in clinical pupillary assessment discussed. PMID:7326222

  5. Normal conus medullaris: CT criteria for recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, J.P.; Daniels, D.L.; Williams, I.L.; Rauschning, W.; Haughton, V.M.

    1984-06-01

    The normal CT configuration and dimension of the conus medullaris and adjacent spinal cord were determined in 30 patients who had no clinical evidence of conus compression. CT studies were also correlated with anatomic sections in cadavers. The normal conus on CT has a distinctive oval configuration, an arterior sulcus, and a posterior promontory. The anteroposterior diameter ranged from 5 to 8 mm; the transverse diameter from 8 to 11 mm. Intramedullary processes altered both the dimensions and configuration of the conus.

  6. Progeria, rapamycin and normal aging: recent breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2011-07-01

    A recent discovery that rapamycin suppresses a pro-senescent phenotype in progeric cells not only suggests a non-toxic therapy for progeria but also implies its similarity with normal aging. For one, rapamycin is also known to suppress aging of regular human cells. Here I discuss four potential scenarios, comparing progeria with both normal and accelerated aging. This reveals further indications of rapamycin both for accelerated aging in obese and for progeria.

  7. Einfluss von Lignin und Ferulasäure auf die Fermentation von Maiszellwänden (Influence of lignin and ferulic acid on the fermentation of maize cell walls)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ballaststoffe unterliegen im Dickdarm einer teilweisen oder vollständigen mikrobiellen Fermentation. Das Ausmaß der Fermentation beeinflusst eine Vielzahl physikochemischer und daraus resultierender physiologischer Eigenschaften der Ballaststoffe (z.B. Wasserbindungs- und Bulkvermögen, Transitzeit, ...

  8. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  9. Vorausschauend Planen, Gezielt Handeln — Über Die Regelung Und Steuerung Technischer Prozesse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüne, Lars; Sager, Sebastian; Allgöwer, Frank; Bock, Hans Georg; Diehl, Moritz

    Seit Beginn der industriellen Revolution nimmt die Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik eine Schlüsselstellung in vielen technischen Bereichen ein. James Watts Fliehkraftregler für Dampfmaschinen ist eines der frühen Beispiele eines extrem erfolgreichen Reglerkonzepts, von dem Ende der 1860er Jahre geschätzte 75000 Exemplare allein in England im Einsatz waren [2, S. 24]. Etwa um diese Zeit begannen Ingenieure, motiviert durch die immer höhere Komplexität der zu regelnden Maschinen, sich systematisch mit theoretischen Grundlagen der Regelung zu beschäftigen. Dies führte unausweichlich zu der Einsicht, dass das dynamische Verhalten der geregelten Systeme nur mit Hilfe der Mathematikverstanden und weiterentwickelt werden konnte, oder wie Werner von Siemens, ein weiterer technischer Pionier in diesem Bereich es formulierte: "Ohne Mathematik tappt man doch immer im Dunkeln.“

  10. Eine Beziehung seit 650 Jahren: Universität Wien und Kloster Melk - Katalog zur Sonderausstellung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmüller, Ernst; Niederkorn-Bruck, Meta; Beck, Paul G.; Deibl, Jakob; Deibl, Johannes; Denk, Ulrike; Ellegast, Burkard; Floßmann, Gerhard; Glaßner, Gottfried; Kalteis, Bernadette; Kowarik, Wilfried; Rotheneder, Martin

    2015-04-01

    University of Vienna was founded in 1365 and celebrates its 650 anniversary in 2015. Due to the university's anniversary, the Benedictine abbey of Melk, Austria presents an exhibition, depicting six and half centuries of university history and collaboration between the university as well as the abbey in all disciplines present at medieval universities. The publication describes the historic frame work as well as case-by-case descriptions of displayed manuscripts, prints and artifacts. Die Universität Wien wurde 1365 gegründet und feiert 2015 ihr 650jähriges Bestehen. Aus Anlass dieses Jubiläums präsentiert das Benediktiner Stift Melk eine Ausstellung, in der sechseinhalb Jahrhunderte Universistaetsgeschichte aufgearbeitet werden, sowie die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Universität und Abtei auf allen Themenbereichen, die an mittelalterlichen Universitäten angeboten wurden. Die Publikation bietet eine historische Zusammenfassung sowie eine Detailbeschreibung der ausgestellten Handschriften, Drucke sowie Gegenstände.

  11. Campus Single Sign-On und hochschulübergreifendes Identity Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang

    Das im Rahmen von IntegraTUM für die TUM geschaffene Identity & Access Management System setzt das Paradigma unified login um, d. h. ein Benutzer kann alle für ihn relevanten Dienste innerhalb der Hochschule mit derselben Loginname-/Passwortkombination nutzen. Dieser Artikel zeigt, wie auf Basis der Software Shibboleth und der deutschlandweiten Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI als weitere Mehrwerte das campusweite web single sign-on und die nahtlose Nutzung zahlreicher externer Web-Anwendungen erreicht werden. Als Beispiel für die Abläufe bei der Erschließung neuer Dienste für die hochschulübergreifende Nutzung wird die Anbindung von Learning Management Systemen auf Basis des DFN-AAI E-Learning-Profils diskutiert. Den umfassenden Vorteilen werden schließlich die aktuellen technischen Grenzen bei der Umsetzung des hochschulübergreifenden Identity Management gegenübergestellt.

  12. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    PubMed

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging. PMID:27005339

  13. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  14. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  15. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  16. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  17. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  18. Physik gestern und heute Die Messung elektrostatischer Kräfte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Im Jahre 1785 veröffentlichte der französische Militäringenieur Charles Augustin Coulomb das Kraft-Abstand-Gesetz für elektrische Ladungen. Bereits zuvor hatte Henry Cavendish auf andere Art und Weise diese Beziehung nachgewiesen, aber nicht publiziert. Entsprechende Experimente wurden auch noch in jüngerer Zeit ausgeführt, da sie eine obere Abschätzung für die Ruhemasse des Photons erlauben.

  19. Normal hyperbolicity and unbounded critical manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian

    2014-06-01

    This work is motivated by mathematical questions arising in differential equation models for autocatalytic reactions. We extend the local theory of singularities in fast-slow polynomial vector fields to classes of unbounded manifolds which lose normal hyperbolicity due to an alignment of the tangent and normal bundles. A projective transformation is used to localize the unbounded problem. Then the blow-up method is employed to characterize the loss of normal hyperbolicity for the transformed slow manifolds. Our analysis yields a rigorous scaling law for all unbounded manifolds which exhibit a power-law decay for the alignment with a fast subsystem domain. Furthermore, the proof also provides a technical extension of the blow-up method itself by augmenting the analysis with an optimality criterion for the blow-up exponents.

  20. Normal keratinized mucosa transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Reibel, J; Harder, F

    1981-01-01

    Two types of normal keratinized mucosa were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice of two different strains. 24 intact specimens of clinically normal human palatal mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu NC. The transplants were recovered after 42 d with a recovery rate of 96%. Moreover, 22 intact specimens of normal rat forestomach mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu BALB/c/BOM. These transplants were recovered after 21 d with a recovery rate of 63%. The histologic features of the transplants were essentially the same as those of the original tissues. However, epithelial outgrowths from the transplants differed with respect to the pattern of keratinization. The outgrowths of human palatal mucosa transplants were essentially unkeratinized, while the outgrowths of the rat forestomach transplants showed continued keratinization.

  1. Power to detect normal mixtures: Simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1992-07-22

    Twenty tests for normality were compared for the purpose of detecting mixtures of two normal components with unequal means but equal variance. The purpose of this study was to determine the power of tests specifically designed to detect mixtures, i.e., the likelihood ratio and Engelman-Hartigan tests, relative to other tests for normality. We considered the entire range of mixing proportions [pi], 0 < [pi] < 1. For mixtures that are nearly symmetric (0.35 < [pi] < 0.65) the Engelman-Hartigan test was the most powerful. When [pi] > 0.85 or [pi] < 0.15, [radical]b[sub 1] was among the best tests. For intermediate mixing proportions, the likelihood ratio test was best. For situations in which the preferred test had power 50% or more, the power of the likelihood ratio test was also above 50% and within 15 percentage points of the preferred test.

  2. Power to detect normal mixtures: Simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1992-07-22

    Twenty tests for normality were compared for the purpose of detecting mixtures of two normal components with unequal means but equal variance. The purpose of this study was to determine the power of tests specifically designed to detect mixtures, i.e., the likelihood ratio and Engelman-Hartigan tests, relative to other tests for normality. We considered the entire range of mixing proportions {pi}, 0 < {pi} < 1. For mixtures that are nearly symmetric (0.35 < {pi} < 0.65) the Engelman-Hartigan test was the most powerful. When {pi} > 0.85 or {pi} < 0.15, {radical}b{sub 1} was among the best tests. For intermediate mixing proportions, the likelihood ratio test was best. For situations in which the preferred test had power 50% or more, the power of the likelihood ratio test was also above 50% and within 15 percentage points of the preferred test.

  3. HOW DIFFERENT ARE NORMAL AND BARRED SPIRALS?

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, Sidney

    2011-06-15

    No significant color differences are found between normal and barred spirals over the range of Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc. Furthermore, no significant difference is seen between the luminosity distributions of normal and barred galaxies over the same range of Hubble stages. However, SBc galaxies are found to be systematically fainter than Sc galaxies at 99% confidence. The observation that normal and barred spirals with Hubble stages a-ab-b-bc have indistinguishable intrinsic colors hints at the possibility that the bars in such spiral galaxies might be ephemeral structures. Finally, it is pointed out that lenticular galaxies of types S0 and SB0 are systematically fainter than are other early-type galaxies, suggesting that such galaxies are situated on evolutionary tracks that differ systematically from those of galaxies that lie along the E-Sa-Sb-Sc and E-SBa-SBb-SBc sequences.

  4. Black hole normal modes - A semianalytic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. F.; Will, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A new semianalytic technique for determining the complex normal mode frequencies of black holes is presented. The method is based on the WKB approximation. It yields a simple analytic formula that gives the real and imaginary parts of the frequency in terms of the parameters of the black hole and of the field whose perturbation is under study, and in terms of the quantity (n + 1/2), where n = 0, 1, 2,... and labels the fundamental mode, first overtone mode, and so on. In the case of the fundamental gravitational normal modes of the Schwarzschild black hole, the WKB estimates agree with numerical results to better than 7 percent in the real part of the frequency and 0.7 percent in the imaginary part, with the relative agreement improving with increasing angular harmonic. Carried to higher order the method may provide an accurate and systematic means to study black hole normal modes.

  5. Neuroinflammation in the normal aging hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, R M; Kitt, M M; Watkins, L R; Maier, S F

    2015-11-19

    A consequence of normal aging is a greater susceptibility to memory impairments following an immune challenge such as infection, surgery, or traumatic brain injury. The neuroinflammatory response, produced by these challenges results in increased and prolonged production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the otherwise healthy aged brain. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which long-lasting elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus produce memory impairments. Sensitized microglia are a primary source of this exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and appear to be a hallmark of the normal aging brain. We review the current understanding of the causes and effects of normal aging-induced microglial sensitization, including dysregulations of the neuroendocrine system, potentiation of neuroinflammatory responses following an immune challenge, and the impairment of memories. We end with a discussion of therapeutic approaches to prevent these deleterious effects.

  6. Tanzendes Tier oder exzentrische Positionalität - Philosophische Anthropologie zwischen Darwinismus und Kulturalismus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Joachim

    Zunächst kurz vorweg zu den Formeln im Titel: "exzentrische Positionalität“ ist der Kategorienvorschlag der Philosophischen Anthropologie (genauer: von Helmuth Plessner) für den Menschen, für seine "Sonderstellung“ unter den Lebewesen - ich werde diesen Begriff erläutern. So viel kann man sagen: Der Terminus ist nicht schwieriger als "Transzendentalität“ oder das "Apriori“ oder "Autopoiesis“, also Begriffe, mit deren Orientierungswert in der intellektuellen Öffentlichkeit bereits gespielt wird, bietet aber möglicherweise mehr Erschließungskraft als die Kunstbegriffe z. B. von Kant, Maturana oder Luhmann. Und "tanzendes Tier“ ist ein glücklicher Anschauungsbegriff, eine Art Übersetzung für "exzentrische Positionalität“ - also ein "verrücktes“ Lebewesen, eine Verrückung im evolutionären Leben, die dieses Lebewesen von Natur aus zu einer bestimmten Art von Lebensführung, nämlich Kultur nötigt. Die Absicht des Beitrages ist es, die Philosophische Anthropologie als eine spezifische Theorietechnik zu präsentieren, um einen adäquaten Begriff des Menschen zu erreichen, und zwar eine Theoriestrategie angesichts des cartesianischen Dualismus - also des Dualismus zwischen Naturalismus und Kulturalismus.

  7. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  8. Vergleich von rekombinanten Vaccinia- und DNA-Vektoren zur Tumorimmuntherapie im C57BL/6-Mausmodell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnen, Heiko

    2002-10-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Tumorimpfstoffe auf der Basis des Plasmid-Vektors pCI, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) und MVA-infizierten dendritischen Zellen entwickelt und durch Sequenzierung, Western blotting und durchflußzytometrische Analyse überprüft. Die in vivo Wirksamkeit der Vakzinen wurde in verschiedenen Tumormodellen in C57BL/6 Mäusen verglichen. Die auf dem eukaryotischen Expressionsvektor pCI basierende DNA-Vakzinierung induzierte einen sehr wirksamen, antigenspezifischen und langfristigen Schutz vor Muzin, CEA oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Eine MVA-Vakzinierung bietet in den in dieser Arbeit durchgeführten Tumormodellen keinen signifikanten Schutz vor Muzin oder beta-Galactosidase exprimierenden Tumoren. Sowohl humane, als auch murine in vitro generierte dendritische Zellen lassen sich mit MVA – im Vergleich zu anderen viralen Vektoren – sehr gut infizieren. Die Expressionsrate der eingefügten Gene ist aber gering im Vergleich zur Expression in permissiven Wirtszellen des Virus (embryonale Hühnerfibroblasten). Es konnte gezeigt werden, daß eine MVA-Infektion dendritischer Zellen ähnliche Auswirkungen auf den Reifezustand humaner und muriner dendritischer Zellen hat, wie eine Infektion mit replikationskompetenten Vakzinia-Stämmen, und außerdem die Hochregulation von CD40 während der terminalen Reifung von murinen dendritischen Zellen inhibiert wird. Die während der langfristigen in vitro Kultur auf CEF-Zellen entstandenen Deletionen im MVA Genom führten zu einer starken Attenuierung und dem Verlust einiger Gene, die immunmodulatorische Proteine kodieren, jedoch nicht zu einer Verminderung des zytopathischen Effekts in dendritischen Zellen. Die geringe Expressionsrate und die beobachtete Inhibition der Expression kostimulatorischer Moleküle auf dendritischen Zellen kann für eine wenig effektive Induktion einer Immunantwort in MVA vakzinierten Tieren durch cross priming oder die direkte Infektion

  9. Viscoelastic properties of the normal human bladder.

    PubMed

    Andersson, S; Kronström, A; Bjerle, P

    1989-01-01

    Continuous and stepwise cystometry were performed through suprapubic catheters in 12 healthy young subjects in order to assess passive viscoelastic variables of the normal human bladder during the collection phase. Elastic contants increased non-linearly with bladder distension. Relative elastic modulus and relaxation time of the bladder wall increased or tended to increase with bladder distension and infusion rate. There was considerable interindividual variation in all variables suggesting that discrimination between normal and abnormal bladder wall viscoelasticity may be difficult in routine clinical practice.

  10. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show

  11. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  ‑180 to  ‑7 for adipose tissue (AT), ‑6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051–65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303–11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1–12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM

  12. The normalization of deviance in healthcare delivery

    PubMed Central

    Banja, John

    2009-01-01

    Many serious medical errors result from violations of recognized standards of practice. Over time, even egregious violations of standards of practice may become “normalized” in healthcare delivery systems. This article describes what leads to this normalization and explains why flagrant practice deviations can persist for years, despite the importance of the standards at issue. This article also provides recommendations to aid healthcare organizations in identifying and managing unsafe practice deviations before they become normalized and pose genuine risks to patient safety, quality care, and employee morale. PMID:20161685

  13. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  14. Does quasar nebulosity represent normal host galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1984-12-01

    An effort is made to interpret the extended nebulosity that has been detected around all nearby (z less than 0.5) quasi-stellar objects. In principle, certain basic data can yield correlations among the luminosity L, internal velocity dispersion sigma, and diameter D of this 'QSO fuzz'. These are compared against the corresponding relations for normal galaxies. Athough QSO-fuzz observations are too limited to warrant definite conclusions, the L proportional to sigma to the 4th, L proportional to R squared laws typical of normal gravitationally bound stellar systems seem not to hold for the galaxylike clouds around QSOs.

  15. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients' lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show independence

  16. Computing Instantaneous Frequency by normalizing Hilbert Transform

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Norden E.

    2005-05-31

    This invention presents Normalized Amplitude Hilbert Transform (NAHT) and Normalized Hilbert Transform(NHT), both of which are new methods for computing Instantaneous Frequency. This method is designed specifically to circumvent the limitation set by the Bedorsian and Nuttal Theorems, and to provide a sharp local measure of error when the quadrature and the Hilbert Transform do not agree. Motivation for this method is that straightforward application of the Hilbert Transform followed by taking the derivative of the phase-angle as the Instantaneous Frequency (IF) leads to a common mistake made up to this date. In order to make the Hilbert Transform method work, the data has to obey certain restrictions.

  17. Premature Ventricular Complexes in Apparently Normal Hearts.

    PubMed

    Luebbert, Jeffrey; Auberson, Denise; Marchlinski, Francis

    2016-09-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) are consistently associated with worse prognosis and higher morbidity and mortality. This article reviews PVCs and their presentation in patients with an apparently normal heart. Patients with PVCs may be completely asymptomatic, whereas others may note severely disabling symptoms. Cardiomyopathy may occur with frequent PVCs. Diagnostic work-up is directed at obtaining 12-lead ECG to characterize QRS morphology, Holter monitor to assess frequency, and echo and advanced imaging to assess for early cardiomyopathy and exclude structural heart disease. Options for management include watchful waiting, medical therapy, or catheter ablation. Malignant variants of PVCs may induce ventricular fibrillation even in a normal heart. PMID:27521085

  18. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  19. Normal-tension glaucoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Esporcatte, Bruno Leonardo Barranco; Tavares, Ivan Maynart

    2016-01-01

    Normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) is a progressive optic neuropathy with intraocular pressure (IOP) within the statistically normal range (≤21 mmHg). The prevalence of NTG varies widely among different population studies, being the most prevalent open-angle glaucoma subtype in some reports. The etiology of NTG possibly is multifactorial and still not well defined. Alternative treatments have been proposed based on pathogenesis details. However, in clinical practice, adequate reduction of IOP remains the keystone of managing patients with NTG. We review the pathogenesis of NTG and the available therapies for this optic neuropathy. PMID:27626157

  20. Ultraviolet Spectra of Normal Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The data related to this grant on the Ultraviolet Spectra of Normal Spiral Galaxies have been entirely reduced and analyzed. It is incorporated into templates of Spiral galaxies used in the calculation of K corrections towards the understanding of high redshift galaxies. The main paper was published in the Astrophysical Journal, August 1996, Volume 467, page 38. The data was also used in another publication, The Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Starburst and Active Galaxies, June 1997, preprint series No. 1158. Copies of both have been attached.

  1. IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Aufbau eines mandantenfähigen Groupware-Services und seine Integration in Identity Management und E-Mail Infrastruktur der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehn, Max

    Die E-Mail-Infrastruktur an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) ist historisch bedingt sehr heterogen und komplex. Viele Einrichtungen müssen wertvolle Arbeitskraft auf die Administration eigener Mailserver verwenden. Auf der anderen Seite wird bei einigen Einrichtungen der Ruf nach Groupware-Funktionalitäten wie z.B. gemeinsame Kalender immer lauter. Das Teilprojekt E-Mail stellt einen zentralen Mail- und Groupware-Service bereit, der den Einrichtungen ermöglichen soll, den Betrieb eigener Server und zugehöriger Systeme (etwa lokaler Benutzerverwaltungen) für diesen Zweck aufzugeben und diese Dienste an das Teilprojekt E-Mail zu migrieren, ohne ihre Verwaltungshoheit oder ihre Maildomains aufgeben zu müssen. Dieser Service versteht sich als eine Ergänzung zur bestehenden Grundversorgung der TUM mit den Maildiensten des myTUM-Mailers, ist mandantenfähig aufgebaut und kann daher künftig neben der TUM auch weiteren Organisationen im Münchner Wissenschaftsnetz zur Verfügung gestellt werden.

  2. Bender Gestalt Performance of Normal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacks, Patricia; Storandt, Martha

    1982-01-01

    Provides normative data on the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) with a sample of 334 normal older adults. Showed that these older adults do not perform on the BGT in a manner that can be called brain damaged. Use of the cut-off score developed with younger persons appears appropriate. (Author)

  3. Accounting for the Benefits of Database Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting J.; Du, Hui; Lehmann, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a teaching approach to reinforce accounting students' understanding of the concept of database normalization. Unlike a conceptual approach shown in most of the AIS textbooks, this approach involves with calculations and reconciliations with which accounting students are familiar because the methods are frequently used in…

  4. [Pattern of wight gain during normal pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Velazco Orellana, R; Alvarez Aguilar, C; Mejía Rodríguez, O

    1998-03-01

    The maternal weight gain during pregnancy has been established as a common acceptance criterion about 11 Kg., and its evaluation is of interest in Gynecology and Obstetrics; the objective of this study was to evaluate the Gestational Weight Gain Pattern (GWGP) during the normal pregnancy and its association with the maternal height, pregestional weight, Body Mass Index (BMI) schooling, the intergensic interval and the newborn weight. It was found through a longitudinal and prospective study in women of the urban area, under prenatal control in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), in Morelia, Mich. México, that the average overall GWGP was of 9.3 Kg, and a normality band within 6.6 to 12 Kg which is smaller than the established by obstetrics criteria. It was not found a correlation between the GWGP and the newborn weight, now that the 94.3% of them had normal weight. The mother's age, weight, body mass index and schooling didn't show any correlation with the maternal weight gain during the pregnancy. It was shown that the mother's height and parity influence notably the GWGP. It's convenient the adoption during the prenatal control to determine that the GWGP normality is in agreement with the bio-psycho-social characteristics of the Mexican woman.

  5. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?

    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.

    1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  6. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  7. Kernel MAD Algorithm for Relative Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Tang, Ping; Hu, Changmiao

    2016-06-01

    The multivariate alteration detection (MAD) algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA). The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1) data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  8. Role of the normal gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2015-01-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual’s life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  9. Spatial normalization of brain images and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mangin, J-F; Lebenberg, J; Lefranc, S; Labra, N; Auzias, G; Labit, M; Guevara, M; Mohlberg, H; Roca, P; Guevara, P; Dubois, J; Leroy, F; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Cachia, A; Dickscheid, T; Coulon, O; Poupon, C; Rivière, D; Amunts, K; Sun, Z Y

    2016-10-01

    The deformable atlas paradigm has been at the core of computational anatomy during the last two decades. Spatial normalization is the variant endowing the atlas with a coordinate system used for voxel-based aggregation of images across subjects and studies. This framework has largely contributed to the success of brain mapping. Brain spatial normalization, however, is still ill-posed because of the complexity of the human brain architecture and the lack of architectural landmarks in standard morphological MRI. Multi-atlas strategies have been developed during the last decade to overcome some difficulties in the context of segmentation. A new generation of registration algorithms embedding architectural features inferred for instance from diffusion or functional MRI is on the verge to improve the architectural value of spatial normalization. A better understanding of the architectural meaning of the cortical folding pattern will lead to use some sulci as complementary constraints. Improving the architectural compliance of spatial normalization may impose to relax the diffeomorphic constraint usually underlying atlas warping. A two-level strategy could be designed: in each region, a dictionary of templates of incompatible folding patterns would be collected and matched in a way or another using rare architectural information, while individual subjects would be aligned using diffeomorphisms to the closest template. Manifold learning could help to aggregate subjects according to their morphology. Connectivity-based strategies could emerge as an alternative to deformation-based alignment leading to match the connectomes of the subjects rather than images.

  10. Normal variants of the accessory hemiazygos vein

    PubMed Central

    Blackmon, J M; Franco, A

    2011-01-01

    This short communication describes two normal variants of the accessory hemiazygous vein in a 15-year-old female. The article demonstrates that knowledge of the aberrant venous anatomy and the collateral pathway is important for the practising radiologist. PMID:21697414

  11. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool. PMID:26269668

  12. Effects of pions on normal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Tokita, N.

    1981-01-01

    Verification of the uniform biological effectiveness of pion beams of various dimensions produced at LAMPF has been made using cultured mammalian cells and mouse jejunum. Normal tissue radiobiology studies at LAMPF are reviewed with regard to biological beam characterization for the therapy program and the current status of acute and late effect studies on rodents. (ACR)

  13. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process. Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…

  14. Sample normalization methods in quantitative metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2016-01-22

    To reveal metabolomic changes caused by a biological event in quantitative metabolomics, it is critical to use an analytical tool that can perform accurate and precise quantification to examine the true concentration differences of individual metabolites found in different samples. A number of steps are involved in metabolomic analysis including pre-analytical work (e.g., sample collection and storage), analytical work (e.g., sample analysis) and data analysis (e.g., feature extraction and quantification). Each one of them can influence the quantitative results significantly and thus should be performed with great care. Among them, the total sample amount or concentration of metabolites can be significantly different from one sample to another. Thus, it is critical to reduce or eliminate the effect of total sample amount variation on quantification of individual metabolites. In this review, we describe the importance of sample normalization in the analytical workflow with a focus on mass spectrometry (MS)-based platforms, discuss a number of methods recently reported in the literature and comment on their applicability in real world metabolomics applications. Sample normalization has been sometimes ignored in metabolomics, partially due to the lack of a convenient means of performing sample normalization. We show that several methods are now available and sample normalization should be performed in quantitative metabolomics where the analyzed samples have significant variations in total sample amounts.

  15. Role of the normal gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jandhyala, Sai Manasa; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Subramanyam, Chivkula; Vuyyuru, Harish; Sasikala, Mitnala; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2015-08-01

    Relation between the gut microbiota and human health is being increasingly recognised. It is now well established that a healthy gut flora is largely responsible for overall health of the host. The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Though the gut microbiota in an infant appears haphazard, it starts resembling the adult flora by the age of 3 years. Nevertheless, there exist temporal and spatial variations in the microbial distribution from esophagus to the rectum all along the individual's life span. Developments in genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have now enabled scientists to study these microorganisms and their function and microbe-host interactions in an elaborate manner both in health and disease. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation, and protection against pathogens. Several factors play a role in shaping the normal gut microbiota. They include (1) the mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean); (2) diet during infancy (breast milk or formula feeds) and adulthood (vegan based or meat based); and (3) use of antibiotics or antibiotic like molecules that are derived from the environment or the gut commensal community. A major concern of antibiotic use is the long-term alteration of the normal healthy gut microbiota and horizontal transfer of resistance genes that could result in reservoir of organisms with a multidrug resistant gene pool.

  16. Physical Development: What's Normal? What's Not?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Normal? What’s Not? Page Content Article Body ​Two boys or girls exactly the same age can start or end ... in Girls: What to Expect . Growth in both boys and girls slows considerably soon after puberty is complete. Having ...

  17. Spatial normalization of brain images and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mangin, J-F; Lebenberg, J; Lefranc, S; Labra, N; Auzias, G; Labit, M; Guevara, M; Mohlberg, H; Roca, P; Guevara, P; Dubois, J; Leroy, F; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Cachia, A; Dickscheid, T; Coulon, O; Poupon, C; Rivière, D; Amunts, K; Sun, Z Y

    2016-10-01

    The deformable atlas paradigm has been at the core of computational anatomy during the last two decades. Spatial normalization is the variant endowing the atlas with a coordinate system used for voxel-based aggregation of images across subjects and studies. This framework has largely contributed to the success of brain mapping. Brain spatial normalization, however, is still ill-posed because of the complexity of the human brain architecture and the lack of architectural landmarks in standard morphological MRI. Multi-atlas strategies have been developed during the last decade to overcome some difficulties in the context of segmentation. A new generation of registration algorithms embedding architectural features inferred for instance from diffusion or functional MRI is on the verge to improve the architectural value of spatial normalization. A better understanding of the architectural meaning of the cortical folding pattern will lead to use some sulci as complementary constraints. Improving the architectural compliance of spatial normalization may impose to relax the diffeomorphic constraint usually underlying atlas warping. A two-level strategy could be designed: in each region, a dictionary of templates of incompatible folding patterns would be collected and matched in a way or another using rare architectural information, while individual subjects would be aligned using diffeomorphisms to the closest template. Manifold learning could help to aggregate subjects according to their morphology. Connectivity-based strategies could emerge as an alternative to deformation-based alignment leading to match the connectomes of the subjects rather than images. PMID:27344104

  18. Normal butane/iso-butane separation

    SciTech Connect

    Volles, W.K.; Cusher, N.A.

    1986-08-26

    This patent describes an improved pressure swing adsorption process for the separation of iso-butane from normal butane in an adsorption system having at least three adsorbent beds, each bed of which undergoes, on a cyclic basis and a processing sequence comprising: introducing a feed gas mixture of iso-butane and normal butane at an upper adsorption pressure to the feed end of the bed capable of selectively adsorbing normal butane as the more selectivity adsorbable component of the gas mixture. The iso-butane as the less readily adsorbable component passes through the bed and is discharged from the discharge end. The feed gas introduction is continued as a normal butane adsorption front is formed in the bed and passes through the bed from the feed end and breaks through at the discharge end of the bed, a portion of the iso-butane effluent stream thus discharged being diverted for passage as purge gas to another bed in the system; and countercurrently depressurizing the bed with release of gas from the feed end.

  19. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1993-01-01

    Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the

  20. On almost regularity and π-normality of topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad Thabit, Sadeq Ali; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2012-05-01

    π-Normality is a weaker version of normality. It was introduced by Kalantan in 2008. π-Normality lies between normality and almost normality (resp. quasi-normality). The importance of this topological property is that it behaves slightly different from normality and almost normality (quasi-normality). π-Normality is neither a productive nor a hereditary property in general. In this paper, some properties of almost regular spaces are presented. In particular, a few results on almost regular spaces are improved. Some relationships between almost regularity and π-normality are presented. π-Generalized closed sets are used to obtain a characterization and preservation theorems of π-normal spaces. Also, we investigate that an almost regular Lindelöf space (resp. with σ-locally finite base) is not necessarily π-normal by giving two counterexamples. An almost normality of the Rational Sequence topology is proved.

  1. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  2. Roles of UndA and MtrC of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 in iron reduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The completion of genome sequencing in a number of Shewanella species, which are most renowned for their metal reduction capacity, offers a basis for comparative studies. Previous work in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has indicated that some genes within a cluster (mtrBAC-omcA-mtrFED) were involved in iron reduction. To explore new features of iron reduction pathways, we experimentally analyzed Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 since its gene cluster is considerably different from that of MR-1 in that the gene cluster encodes only four ORFs. Results Among the gene cluster, two genes (mtrC and undA) were shown to encode c-type cytochromes. The ΔmtrC deletion mutant revealed significant deficiencies in reducing metals of Fe2O3, α-FeO(OH), β-FeO(OH), ferric citrate, Mn(IV) and Co(III), but not organic compounds. In contrast, no deficiency of metal reduction was observed in the ΔundA deletion mutant. Nonetheless, undA deletion resulted in progressively slower iron reduction in the absence of mtrC and fitness loss under the iron-using condition, which was indicative of a functional role of UndA in iron reduction. Conclusions These results provide physiological and biochemical evidences that UndA and MtrC of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1 are involved in iron reduction. PMID:24274142

  3. Metabolic Cost, Mechanical Work, and Efficiency during Normal Walking in Obese and Normal-Weight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liang; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Zhang, Yanxin; Walt, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the influence of childhood obesity on energetic cost during normal walking and to determine if obese children choose a walking strategy optimizing their gait pattern. Method: Sixteen obese children with no functional abnormalities were matched by age and gender with 16 normal-weight children. All…

  4. Is Hong Kong experiencing normalization of adolescent drug use? Some reflections on the normalization thesis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Nicole W T; Cheung, Yuet W

    2006-01-01

    The upsurge of consumption of party drugs among adolescents in recent years in Hong Kong has been part of the global trend of adolescent recreational use of drugs at rave parties, discos and similar party settings. Scholars in Western societies have recently proposed the thesis of "normalization of adolescent drug use" to describe such a trend. The normalization thesis points at three major aspects of the normalization phenomenon, namely, a rapid increase of the prevalence of drug use in young people, the widespread popularity of recreational drug use that is closely linked with the recent arrival of dance club culture, and a receptive attitude towards drug use as a normal part of leisure. This article aims to examine whether the normalization thesis can be applied to analyze the situation of adolescent drug use in Hong Kong. Data are drawn from official statistics and a recent survey conducted in 2002-2004 of drug use of Hong Kong marginal youths (N = 504). The case of Hong Kong only partially supports the thesis. Our findings show that the normalization of drug use among young people has occurred in Hong Kong, but the extent of normalization is smaller than those in Western societies like the United Kingdom. They also suggest that a recognition of possible cultural differences may be complementary to the normalization thesis. Limitations of the study are also noted.

  5. 'I just want to be normal': An analysis of discourses of normality among recovering heroin users.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Neale, Joanne; Pickering, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    Research that has explored the lives of men and women recovering from heroin addiction has reported that users often claim that they 'just want to be normal'. Working within a Foucauldian tradition, we argue in this article that the notions of 'governmentality' and the 'norm' are especially apposite to understanding the ubiquity of this aspiration. Here we focus not on the formal institutions of governance that encourage individuals to adhere to social, cultural and political norms, but rather seek to explore recovering users' accounts of normality as they are envisaged and expressed. The reported empirical data were generated from interviews with 40 men and women in England at various stages of recovery from heroin use. The analytic focus is upon the accounts of normality articulated during the interviews in order to identify the ways in which being normal is presented by the participants. In keeping with the methodological tradition of discourse analysis we identify six discursive repertoires of 'normality talk' that transcend the accounts. It is concluded that the negotiation of normality is a precarious route for this social group. Articulations of a desire to be normal are replete with tensions; there are expressions of both resistance and resignation. Despite claims by some contemporary social theorists that diversity is the 'new normality', the accepted bounds of 'difference' are limited for those who have been addicted to heroin. PMID:22763795

  6. Inheritance of Properties of Normal and Non-Normal Distributions after Transformation of Scores to Ranks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how population parameters representing heterogeneity of variance, skewness, kurtosis, bimodality, and outlier-proneness, drawn from normal and eleven non-normal distributions, also characterized the ranks corresponding to independent samples of scores. When the parameters of population distributions from which samples were…

  7. There Is More Than One Univariate Normal Distribution: What Is the Normal Distribution, Really?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Team, Rachel M.

    Many univariate statistical methods, such as the analysis of variance, t-test, and regression, assume that the dependent variable data have a univariate normal distribution (Hinkle, Weirsma, and Jurs, 1998). Various other statistical methods assume that the error scores are normally distributed (Thompson, 1992). Violating this assumption can be…

  8. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    PubMed

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p < 0.001) difference was recorded between the two groups in mean TSH value. Positive T-Ab value was found in 5 patients (10.4%) and the remaining 43 patients (89.6%) had negative T-Ab. TSH was not significantly correlated with age, thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p < 0.01, r(2)=0.31). These results showed that normal thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US.

  9. Pre Normal Science and the Transition to Post-Normal Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Post-Normal Science as formulated by Funtowicz and Ravetz describes cases where "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high, and decisions urgent". However Post-Normal Science is better described as Pre-Normal Science, the stage at which something has been observed, but no one quite knows where it came from, what it means (science) or what to do about it (policy). The initial flailing about to reach a useful understanding is later used by those who oppose action to obfuscate by insisting that still nothing is known, what is known is wrong, or at best that more research is needed. Consider AIDS/HIV, stratospheric ozone, tobacco, acid rain, climate change, etc. As these issues gained attention, we entered the Pre-Normal Science stage. What was the cause? How could they be dealt with? Every idea could be proposed and was. Normal science sorted through them. Many proposers of the discarded theories still clutched them strongly, but mostly they are dismissed within the scientific community. Post-Normal Policy ensues when normal science has reached a consensus and it is clear that action is needed but it is economically or philosophically impossible for some to accept that. The response is to deny the utility of science and scientific judgment, thus the attacks on scientists and scientific panels that provide policy makers with their best scientific advice. Recognizing the division between Pre-Normal Science and Post-Normal Policy and the uses of the former to block action by the later is useful for understanding the course of controversies that require normal science to influence policy.

  10. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    Deformation associated with normal fault earthquakes and geologic structures provide insights into the seismic cycle as it unfolds over time scales from seconds to millions of years. Improved understanding of normal faulting will lead to more accurate seismic hazard assessments and prediction of associated structures. High-precision aftershock locations for the 1995 Kozani-Grevena earthquake (Mw 6.5), Greece image a segmented master fault and antithetic faults. This three-dimensional fault geometry is typical of normal fault systems mapped from outcrop or interpreted from reflection seismic data and illustrates the importance of incorporating three-dimensional fault geometry in mechanical models. Subsurface fault slip associated with the Kozani-Grevena and 1999 Hector Mine (Mw 7.1) earthquakes is modeled using a new method for slip inversion on three-dimensional fault surfaces. Incorporation of three-dimensional fault geometry improves the fit to the geodetic data while honoring aftershock distributions and surface ruptures. GPS Surveying of deformed bedding surfaces associated with normal faulting in the western Grand Canyon reveals patterns of deformation that are similar to those observed by interferometric satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) for the Kozani Grevena earthquake with a prominent down-warp in the hanging wall and a lesser up-warp in the footwall. However, deformation associated with the Kozani-Grevena earthquake extends ˜20 km from the fault surface trace, while the folds in the western Grand Canyon only extend 500 m into the footwall and 1500 m into the hanging wall. A comparison of mechanical and kinematic models illustrates advantages of mechanical models in exploring normal faulting processes including incorporation of both deformation and causative forces, and the opportunity to incorporate more complex fault geometry and constitutive properties. Elastic models with antithetic or synthetic faults or joints in association with a master

  11. Ear infections in autistic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Konstantareas, M M; Homatidis, S

    1987-12-01

    The frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness was examined through parental reports in autistic and yoke-matched, normal children. For the autistic group these difficulties were additionally examined as a function of the children's cognitive and communication abilities, verbal versus nonverbal status, sex, and degree of autistic symptomatology. Autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers. Lower-functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than their higher-functioning autistic peers. Ear infections coexisted with low-set ears, and with a higher autistic symptomatology score. The findings are discussed in terms of greater CNS vulnerability in the autistic children, which is likely present since embryogenesis. The possible adverse consequences of intermittent hearing loss on language, cognitive, and socioaffective development are considered.

  12. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region.

  13. Chromosome imbalance, normal phenotype, and imprinting.

    PubMed Central

    Bortotto, L; Piovan, E; Furlan, R; Rivera, H; Zuffardi, O

    1990-01-01

    A duplication of the sub-bands 1q42.11 and 1q42.12 was found in a boy and his mother. The proband has short stature (around the 10th centile) but a normal phenotype and psychomotor development. His mother is also asymptomatic. We found 30 published cases of normal subjects with an imbalance of autosomal euchromatic material. In these cases the imbalance involved either only one G positive band or a G positive and a G negative band. Thus the absence of a phenotypic effect cannot always be ascribed to the deficiency in the G positive bands of coding DNA. Moreover, in some cases, the method of transmission of the chromosome abnormality was such that an imprinting effect could be postulated. Images PMID:2231652

  14. NORMAL HUMAN VARIATION: REFOCUSSING THE ENHANCEMENT DEBATE

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  15. Effect of propranolol on normal human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fortier, N L; Snyder, L M; Palek, J; Weiss, E B; Mancini, C; Falcone, J

    1977-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to standardize the effect of propranolol on normal human red cells and thus establish certain parameters enabling us to evaluate propranolol's effect on pathological cells. Normal human erythrocytes lost 40 MEq. of potassium, decreased the intracellular pH by 0.06 units, and shifted the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve 6.0 mm. Hg to the right in the presence of propranolol. The series of events and magnitude of the response induced by propranolol was time dependent and sensitive to temperature, pH, drug concentration, and erythrocyte concentration. Calcium was an absolute requirement for maximal propranolol action with simultaneous incorporation of trace amounts of radioactive calcium into the cell. Chelation of calcium with EDTA or EGTA inhibited the response to propranolol.

  16. Normalizing the causality between time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. San

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a rigorous yet concise formula was derived to evaluate information flow, and hence the causality in a quantitative sense, between time series. To assess the importance of a resulting causality, it needs to be normalized. The normalization is achieved through distinguishing a Lyapunov exponent-like, one-dimensional phase-space stretching rate and a noise-to-signal ratio from the rate of information flow in the balance of the marginal entropy evolution of the flow recipient. It is verified with autoregressive models and applied to a real financial analysis problem. An unusually strong one-way causality is identified from IBM (International Business Machines Corporation) to GE (General Electric Company) in their early era, revealing to us an old story, which has almost faded into oblivion, about "Seven Dwarfs" competing with a giant for the mainframe computer market.

  17. Transthyretin and Normal Human Pregnancy: Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiushi; Liu, Chongdong; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Since transthyretin (TTR) was discovered, it has been regarded as a serum protein carrier of thyroid hormones and retinol. However, many other important functions of TTR have been found recently, and current evidence suggests that it plays a role in human receptivity and normal pregnancy. TTR is abundant in the uterine cavity, uterine secretion, placenta, and serum of pregnant females in the peri-implantation uterus and the first trimester of pregnancy. It may be involved in the delivery of maternal thyroid hormones to the fetus. In addition, it appears to play a key role in the preeclampsia mechanism and may be involved in spiral artery remodeling. This review will summarize what is currently known about TTR and normal pregnancy; it will focus on our findings regarding the role of TTR in the spiral artery remodeling process and the additional research required in the future. PMID:27650990

  18. Attention styles of hyperactive and normal girls.

    PubMed

    deHaas, P A; Young, R D

    1984-12-01

    Behavioral characteristics and cognitive skills of teacher-identified hyperactive (n = 24) and normally active (n = 24) first- and second-grade girls were investigated. Teachers rated subjects on the Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). Subjects were given several tasks measuring attentional styles and motor skills. Results suggested that hyperactive girls, like hyperactive boys, have short attention spans and poor concentration when compared with normals. Unlike hyperactive boys, hyperactive girls did not show an impulsive response style, and presented few conduct problems to their teachers. TRS profile patterns of the hyperactive girls were similar to those of hyperactive boys, but cutoff scores currently used for males may not be applicable to females. A direct comparison of hyperactive females and males is advocated.

  19. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2003-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  20. Accurate Thermal Stresses for Beams: Normal Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Pilkey, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Formulations for a general theory of thermoelasticity to generate accurate thermal stresses for structural members of aeronautical vehicles were developed in 1954 by Boley. The formulation also provides three normal stresses and a shear stress along the entire length of the beam. The Poisson effect of the lateral and transverse normal stresses on a thermally loaded beam is taken into account in this theory by employing an Airy stress function. The Airy stress function enables the reduction of the three-dimensional thermal stress problem to a two-dimensional one. Numerical results from the general theory of thermoelasticity are compared to those obtained from strength of materials. It is concluded that the theory of thermoelasticity for prismatic beams proposed in this paper can be used instead of strength of materials when precise stress results are desired.

  1. Evaluating calibrations of normal incident pyrheliometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignola, Frank; Lin, Fuding

    2010-08-01

    When an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer is calibrated against an Eppley Hickey Frieden Absolute Cavity Radiometer, the instrument systematically deviates from the absolute cavity readings. The reason for this deviation is not understood. Comparisons are made between one pyrheliometer and an absolute cavity radiometer on selected clear days over a period of 8 months in Eugene, Oregon. The ratios of the readings from the two instruments are correlated against wind speed, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, beam intensity, and zenith angle to determine if any of these parameters statistically influence the calibration process. Wind speed, pressure, beam intensity, and air mass are shown to be statistically significant factors in determining the responsivity of the normal incident pyrheliometer. The results of these tests are evaluated and discussed. Use of air mass instead of zenith angle is proposed for calibration reports.

  2. Birkhoff Normal Form for Some Nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambusi, Dario

    We consider the problem of extending to PDEs Birkhoff normal form theorem on Hamiltonian systems close to nonresonant elliptic equilibria. As a model problem we take the nonlinear wave equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on [0,π] g is an analytic skewsymmetric function which vanishes for u=0 and is periodic with period 2π in the x variable. We prove, under a nonresonance condition which is fulfilled for most g's, that for any integer M there exists a canonical transformation that puts the Hamiltonian in Birkhoff normal form up to a reminder of order M. The canonical transformation is well defined in a neighbourhood of the origin of a Sobolev type phase space of sufficiently high order. Some dynamical consequences are obtained. The technique of proof is applicable to quite general semilinear equations in one space dimension.

  3. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  4. The classification of normal screening mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Zoey Z. Y.; Rawashdeh, Mohammad A.; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: To understand how breast screen readers classify the difficulty of normal screening mammograms using common lexicon describing normal appearances. Cases were also assessed on their suitability for a single reader strategy. Materials and Methods: 15 breast readers were asked to interpret a test set of 29 normal screening mammogram cases and classify them by rating the difficulty of the case on a five-point Likert scale, identifying the salient features and assessing their suitability for single reading. Using the False Positive Fractions from a previous study, the 29 cases were classified into 10 "low", 10 "medium" and nine "high" difficulties. Data was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Spearman's correlation was used to test the strength of association between the difficulty of the cases and the readers' recommendation for single reading strategy. Results: The ratings from readers in this study corresponded to the known difficulty level of cases for the 'low' and 'high' difficulty cases. Uniform ductal pattern and density, symmetrical mammographic features and the absence of micro-calcifications were the main reasons associated with 'low' difficulty cases. The 'high' difficulty cases were described as having `dense breasts'. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the difficulty of the cases and readers' recommendation for single reading (r = -0.475, P = 0.009). Conclusion: The findings demonstrated potential relationships between certain mammographic features and the difficulty for readers to classify mammograms as 'normal'. The standard Australian practice of double reading was deemed more suitable for most cases. There was an inverse moderate association between the difficulty of the cases and the recommendations for single reading.

  5. How dementia differs from normal ageing.

    PubMed

    Ginesi, Laura; Jenkins, Catharine; Keenan, Bernie

    Dementia is a collective name for a set of symptoms that include memory loss, mood changes, confusion and increasing difficulty with everyday tasks. This four-part series provides an overview of dementia and its treatment, from its causes and pathophysiology to diagnosis and the nurse's role in its management. This first article reviews the main forms of dementia and how research is shedding new light on the differences between dementia and normal ageing.

  6. Normal Forms for Nonautonomous Differential Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    We extend Henry Poincarés normal form theory for autonomous differential equations x=f(x) to nonautonomous differential equations x=f(t, x). Poincarés nonresonance condition λj-∑ni=1 ℓiλi≠0 for eigenvalues is generalized to the new nonresonance condition λj∩∑ni=1 ℓiλi=∅ for spectral intervals.

  7. Normalization of oxygen and hydrogen isotope data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    To resolve confusion due to expression of isotopic data from different laboratories on non-corresponding scales, oxygen isotope analyses of all substances can be expressed relative to VSMOW or VPDB (Vienna Peedee belemnite) on scales normalized such that the ??18O of SLAP is -55.5% relative to VSMOW. H3+ contribution in hydrogen isotope ratio analysis can be easily determined using two gaseous reference samples that differ greatly in deuterium content. ?? 1988.

  8. Geomagnetic reversal in brunhes normal polarity epoch.

    PubMed

    Smith, J D; Foster, J H

    1969-02-01

    The magnetic stratigraphly of seven cores of deep-sea sediment established the existence of a short interval of reversed polarity in the upper part of the Brunches epoch of normal polarity. The reversed zone in the cores correlates well with paleontological boundaries and is named the Blake event. Its boundaries are estimated to be 108,000 and 114,000 years ago +/- 10 percent. PMID:17750890

  9. Control of normal chirality at hexagonal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Haraldsen, Jason T; Fishman, Randy Scott

    2010-01-01

    We study the net chirality created by the Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction (DMI) at the boundary between hexagonal layers of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. It is shown that another mechanism besides elastic torsion is required to understand the change in chirality observed in Dy/Y multilayers during field-cooling. The paper shows that due to the overlap between magnetic and non-magnetic atoms, interfacial steps may produce a DMI normal to the interface in magnetic heterostructures.

  10. Herausforderungen und Best Practices bei der Speicherung von multi-valued Attributen in LDAP-basierten Verzeichnisdiensten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang; Pluta, Daniel

    LDAP-basierte Verzeichnisdienste unterscheiden sich von relationalen Datenbankmanagementsystemen unter anderem stark bezüglich der Datenmodellierung. Dieser Artikel vertieft eingangs die Herausforderungen bei der LDAP-spezifischen Abbildung von Relationen zwischen mehreren multivalued Attributen. Die Diskussion erfolgt vor dem Hintergrund, dass einerseits Verzeichnisdienste generell nur bedingt zur Speicherung von Relationen geeignet sind und dass andererseits multi-valued Attribute ein mächtiges LDAP-Instrument sind, zu dem es in relationalen Datenbanksystemen keine direkte Entsprechung gibt. Anschließend werden Lösungskonzepte vorgestellt und mögliche Weiterentwicklungen des IntegraTUM-LDAP-Schemas zu deren Umsetzung skizziert, eine exemplarische Implementierung präsentiert und die Ergebnisse der bisherigen Entwicklung des IntegraTUM-Schemas gegenübergestellt.

  11. Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen und ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Annette

    Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. Ihre verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch ihre Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen und Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung und Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese und Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.

  12. Proteoglycans in Normal and Healing Skin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret Mary; Melrose, James

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Proteoglycans have a distinct spatial localization in normal skin and are essential for the correct structural development, organization, hydration, and functional properties of this tissue. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is no longer considered to be just an inert supportive material but is a source of directive, spatial and temporal, contextual information to the cells via components such as the proteoglycans. There is a pressing need to improve our understanding of how these important molecules functionally interact with other matrix structures, cells and cellular mediators in normal skin and during wound healing. Recent Advances: New antibodies to glycosaminoglycan side chain components of skin proteoglycans have facilitated the elucidation of detailed localization patterns within skin. Other studies have revealed important proliferative activities of proteinase-generated fragments of proteoglycans and other ECM components (matricryptins). Knockout mice have further established the functional importance of skin proteoglycans in the assembly and homeostasis of the normal skin ECM. Critical Issues: Our comprehension of the molecular and structural complexity of skin as a complex, dynamic, constantly renewing, layered connective tissue is incomplete. The impact of changes in proteoglycans on skin pathology and the wound healing process is recognized as an important area of pathobiology and is an area of intense investigation. Future Directions: Advanced technology is allowing the development of new artificial skins. Recent knowledge on skin proteoglycans can be used to incorporate these molecules into useful adjunct therapies for wound healing and for maintenance of optimal tissue homeostasis in aging skin. PMID:25785238

  13. Normal and Time-Compressed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, Ulrike; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Short-term and long-term learning effects were investigated for the German Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) using original and time-compressed fast speech in noise. Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired participants completed six lists of the OLSA in five sessions. Two groups of normal-hearing listeners (24 and 12 listeners) and two groups of hearing-impaired listeners (9 listeners each) performed the test with original or time-compressed speech. In general, original speech resulted in better speech recognition thresholds than time-compressed speech. Thresholds decreased with repetition for both speech materials. Confirming earlier results, the largest improvements were observed within the first measurements of the first session, indicating a rapid initial adaptation phase. The improvements were larger for time-compressed than for original speech. The novel results on long-term learning effects when using the OLSA indicate a longer phase of ongoing learning, especially for time-compressed speech, which seems to be limited by a floor effect. In addition, for normal-hearing participants, no complete transfer of learning benefits from time-compressed to original speech was observed. These effects should be borne in mind when inviting listeners repeatedly, for example, in research settings.

  14. Cephalometric comparison of cesarean and normal births

    PubMed Central

    Goymen, Merve; Topcuoglu, Tolga; Aktan, Ali Murat; Isman, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare cephalometric variables of subjects with normal and cesarean births. Materials and Methods: Ninety age- and gender-matched patients, who were treated in Gaziantep University, Faculty of Dentistry Orthodontics Department were equally divided into normal and cesarean groups according to the birth methods reported by their mothers. To eliminate the negative effects of being different in terms of age and gender among parameters, control, and patient groups were matched in the present study. Pretreatment cephalometrics radiographs were used. Six measurements representing sagittal and vertical relationships were evaluated from pretreatment cephalograms using Dolphin Imaging Orthodontics Software was used in this issue by an orthodontist. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Student's t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used for statistical comparisons. Results: A point-nasion-B point angle (ANB) and Wits values were higher in the normal group, while sella-nasion-A point angle, sella-nasion-B point angle, Frankfort horizontal-mandibular plane angle, and gonion-gnathion-SN plane angle values were higher in the cesarean group. However, the groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). ANB angle and Wits values showed high correlation. Conclusions: Within the study limitations, the results suggest that the birth method may not have a considerable effect on the development of the craniofacial skeletal system. PMID:27095896

  15. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  16. Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn als Biomarker in 1-Hydroxymethylpyren-exponierten Ratten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lan

    2002-01-01

    1-Methylpyren (MP) ist hepatokanzerogen in neugeborenen männlichen Mäusen. Durch Hydroxylierung an der benzylischen Stelle und anschließende Sulfonierung wird MP zu DNA-reaktivem 1-Sulfooxymethylpyren (SMP) aktiviert. In der Ratte führt die Exposition des benzylischen Alkohols, 1-Hydroxymethylpyren (HMP), zur DNA-Adduktbildung in verschiedenen Geweben. Eventuelle Konsequenz der Toxifizierung ist die Ausscheidung entsprechender Mercaptursäure und Nukleosidaddukt im Harn, welche aufgrund ihrer Herkunft als Biomarker eignen könnten. In dieser Arbeit wird die Ausscheidung der Mercaptursäure und des N2-Desoxyguanosinadduktes in HMP-exponierten Ratten untersucht. Nach der Applikation von HMP bzw. MP wurden weniger als 1 % der Dosis als MPMA über Urin und Faeces ausgeschieden (0 - 48 h). Die Ausscheidung erfolgt hauptsächlich in den ersten 24 h nach der Applikation. MPdG konnte weder in Urin noch in Faeces der HMP-behandelten Tieren identifiziert werden. Nach direkter SMP-Applikation wurde MPdG nur in sehr geringe Menge (weniger als 0,9 ppm in 12 h) im Urin gefunden. Aufgrund der geringen Menge eignet sich MPdG nicht als Biomarker. MPMA dagegen, lässt sich analytisch gut erfassen. Es sollte daher untersucht werden, ob MPMA die Toxifizierung des HMP wiederspiegelt. Die Voraussetzung dafür ist die Kenntnisse über das Metabolismusmuster von HMP. Es wurde daher umfassende Untersuchungen zum Metabolismus des HMP durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass mehr als 80 % der Metaboiten in ihrer oxidierten Form (PCS, deren Glucuronsäure-Konjugate sowie phenolische Sulfatester der PCS) ausgeschieden wurden. Demnach spielt die Oxidation des HMP zu PCS eine sehr wichtige Rolle bei der Detoxifizierung und Ausscheidung von HMP. Ferne konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Enzyme Alkohol- und Aldehyd-Dehydrogenase an der Oxidation von HMP beteiligt waren. Die Inhibitoren Disulfiram und Ethanol der o. g. Enzyme wurde daher zur Modulation der Detoxifizierung in vivo eingesetzt

  17. Male prolactinomas presenting with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Shimon, Ilan; Benbassat, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    In men harboring prolactinoma the most common symptoms are related to hypogonadism, including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and gynecomastia. These men characteristically present with elevated serum prolactin (PRL) levels, suppressed gonadotropins, and low testosterone levels. We studied a group of 11 unique men with prolactinomas presenting with testosterone levels within the normal range (≥2.6 ng/ml; cohort A), and compared them to 11 prolactinoma men with borderline baseline testosterone (2.1-2.5 ng/ml; cohort B) and to a cohort of 34 prolactinoma patients with low testosterone levels (≤2 ng/ml; cohort C). Mean testosterone levels at presentation were 3.91 ± 0.9 ng/ml in cohort A (range, 2.6-5.2 ng/ml), 2.44 ± 0.16 ng/ml in cohort B and 0.96 ± 0.6 in cohort C (p < 0.001). Mean baseline PRL levels were >20 times above normal in cohort A compared to >100 times above normal in cohorts B and C. Symptoms of hypogonadism were present in 55, 64 and 76% of men in groups A, B and C, respectively. There was a trend towards a larger tumor size in the low testosterone group (p = 0.06). Visual fields defects at presentation were more prevalent in this cohort (C). With cabergoline, testosterone level increased from 3.91 to 6.42 ng/ml (Δ = 2.51 ng/ml) in cohort A, from 2.44 to 5.63 ng/ml (Δ = 3.19 ng/ml) in cohort B, and from 0.96 to 3.30 ng/ml (Δ = 2.34 ng/ml) in cohort C (p < 0.05 for each group). Symptoms of hypogonadism improved following treatment in 83% of symptomatic men in cohort A. Normal testosterone does not exclude the likelihood of prolactinoma in men. When treated with cabergoline, testosterone levels in these men can increase higher within the normal range together with clinical improvement. PMID:23756784

  18. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality.

    PubMed

    Idriz, Sanjin; Patel, Jaymin H; Ameli Renani, Seyed; Allan, Rosemary; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice has been increasing rapidly, with the number of CT examinations performed in adults and children rising by 10% per year in England. Because the radiology community strives to reduce the radiation dose associated with pediatric examinations, external factors, including guidelines for pediatric head injury, are raising expectations for use of cranial CT in the pediatric population. Thus, radiologists are increasingly likely to encounter pediatric head CT examinations in daily practice. The variable appearance of cranial sutures at different ages can be confusing for inexperienced readers of radiologic images. The evolution of multidetector CT with thin-section acquisition increases the clarity of some of these sutures, which may be misinterpreted as fractures. Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the pediatric skull, how it changes with age, and normal variants can assist in translating the increased resolution of multidetector CT into more accurate detection of fractures and confident determination of normality, thereby reducing prolonged hospitalization of children with normal developmental structures that have been misinterpreted as fractures. More important, the potential morbidity and mortality related to false-negative interpretation of fractures as normal sutures may be avoided. The authors describe the normal anatomy of all standard pediatric sutures, common variants, and sutural mimics, thereby providing an accurate and safe framework for CT evaluation of skull trauma in pediatric patients.

  19. Selected autoantibodies and normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Jamrozy-Witkowska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Background Although intraocular pressure is an important risk factor in glaucoma, there is growing body evidence indicating an immunological component in the pathogenesis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). The aim of this study was to determine if NTG coexists with elevated levels of autoantibodies detected in rheumatic diseases. Material/Methods We enrolled 105 patients into the study: 35 with NTG, 34 with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and 36 controls. All patients underwent ophthalmic examination and blood tests. Blood was examined for the level of: antibodies against antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA), immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM), rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), and antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin antibodies, beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies, antiprothrombin antibodies). Results The level of ANA was increased among 6 patients in the NTG group (17.1%), 8 in the POAG group (23.5%), and 6 in the control group (16.5%). The difference was not statistically significant (p=0.97). None of the patients in the NTG, POAG, or control group had positive antibodies to ENA. The level of immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, and IgA in the 3 groups was similar and within normal values. The median level of rheumatoid factor and ACPA was the highest in the NTG group, but it was within normal laboratory values. There was a statistically significant difference between antiprothrombin antibodies IgG between the NTG and POAG group (p=0.01), but not between the NTG and control group (p=0.24). Conclusions The results of our study do not confirm the hypothesis that NTG coexists with elevated blood levels of antibodies, which are a characteristic feature of rheumatic diseases. PMID:25016491

  20. [Natural, normal, and friendly, childbirth: homonymous terms].

    PubMed

    Dutra, Ivete Lourdes; Meyer, Dagmar Estermann

    2007-06-01

    This qualitative investigation discusses homonymy of the terms natural, normal, and friendly childbirth and their effects on childbirth care. Under the perspective of the contemporary cultural theories and gender studies, the Program for Humanizing labor and delivery are analyzed, based on the contents of semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses of a training hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This article highlights and explores convergences, ambiguities, overlaps, and conflicts among these three delivery types, indicating polysemies, and blurring of boundaries among terms and inside each term, which influence care.

  1. Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-11-07

    This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.

  2. Proteoglycans in normal and neoplastic monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kolset, S.O.

    1987-02-01

    35S proteoglycans produced by normal and neoplastic (U-937) monocytes after a 20-h pulse with (35S)sulfate in vitro have been isolated and compared. Both cell types produce exclusively chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), which are released into the medium and are not contained within the cells. The neoplastic cell-derived molecules were much larger in molecular size, due to the substitution of galactosaminoglycan chains, with an approximate Mr of 60,000. The corresponding chains in monocyte CSPG had an Mr of approx. 20,000. The latter chains were also found to be more sulfated than their neoplastic counterparts.

  3. Analytical Treatment of Normal Condensation Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heybey

    1947-01-01

    The condensation of water vapor in an air consequences: acquisition of heat (liberated heat vaporization; loss of mass on the part of the flowing gas (water vapor is converted to liquid); change in the specific gas constants and of the ratio k of the specific heats (caused by change of gas composition). A discontinuous change of state is therefore connected with the condensation; schlieren photographs of supersonic flows in two-dimensional Laval nozzles show two intersecting oblique shock fronts that in the case of high humidities may merge near the point of intersection into one normal shock front.

  4. A spectral characterization of nonlinear normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, G. I.; Mauroy, A.; Renson, L.; Kerschen, G.; Sepulchre, R.

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the relationship that exists between nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) defined as invariant manifolds in phase space and the spectral expansion of the Koopman operator. Specifically, we demonstrate that NNMs correspond to zero level sets of specific eigenfunctions of the Koopman operator. Thanks to this direct connection, a new, global parametrization of the invariant manifolds is established. Unlike the classical parametrization using a pair of state-space variables, this parametrization remains valid whenever the invariant manifold undergoes folding, which extends the computation of NNMs to regimes of greater energy. The proposed ideas are illustrated using a two-degree-of-freedom system with cubic nonlinearity.

  5. Normal pressure hydrocephalus: did publications alter management?

    PubMed

    Vanneste, J; van Acker, R

    1990-07-01

    Forty six Dutch neurologists and neurosurgeons were interviewed to evaluate the clinical value of research articles on normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). From this survey it appears that most clinicians still limit investigations to psychometry, CSF-tap test(s), and cisternography. The main reasons for not using other techniques were: their invasiveness, technical complexity, poor availability, lack of time and doubt on their additional predictive value. There is an obvious discrepancy between the quantity of publications on NPH and their impact and their ability to assist clinicians in selecting potential NPH patients for a shunt.

  6. Normal coordinate analysis of the indole ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hideo; Harada, Issei

    Normal coordinate calculations have been performed for indole and 11 deuterated indoles. The set of valence force constants obtained is able to reproduce i.r. and Raman frequencies with an average error of about 6 cm -1. Extension of the force field to skatole has also been made and the calculated frequency shifts on isotopic substitutions are compared with the experimental ones of tryptophan. The general agreement between the calculation and experiment suggests that the vibrational modes obtained here are of practical use in the interpretation of Raman spectra of proteins containing tryptophan residues.

  7. Normalized Compression Distance of Multisets with Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew R.; Vitányi, Paul M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Pairwise normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free, feature-free, alignment-free, similarity metric based on compression. We propose an NCD of multisets that is also metric. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. For classification purposes it is superior to the pairwise NCD in accuracy and implementation complexity. We cover the entire trajectory from theoretical underpinning to feasible practice. It is applied to biological (stem cell, organelle transport) and OCR classification questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. With the new method we achieved significantly better results. The theoretic foundation is Kolmogorov complexity. PMID:26352998

  8. Transmission of light waves through normal shocks.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, S I; Johnson, D K

    1995-11-20

    We seek to characterize light waves transmitted through normal shock waves. The investigation is motivated by the need for a theory to support a shadowgraph experiment for flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In this experiment light beams are passed through the nozzle transverse to the direction of the flow in which a shock has formed in the vicinity of the throat. We present a formulation and an approximation that yield calculations of the intensity of transmitted waves. We also present experimental results to support the theory. The patterns predicted by the theory compare well with the patterns observed in experiments.

  9. Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer Film Thickness Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    The Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer (NIS) Measurement Tool is used to automatically measure the thickness of transparent films on silicon wafers. Under the control of an IBM. System 7 computer, both, wafer handling and the thickness measurement are performed. automatically. Wafers are transported through the tool on a covered airtrack, and after posi-tioning in a vacuum, chuck, are moved under the measurement head to pre-programmed measurement sites. Reflectivity data from the wafer surface, as a function of wavelength, is used by a software algorithm to calculate film, thickness. This tool is used on advanced manufacturing lines at IBM in both. East Fishkill, N.Y. and Burlington, Vt.

  10. World ocean tides synthesized from normal modes.

    PubMed

    Platzman, G W

    1983-05-01

    Sixty oceanic normal modes are used to synthesize the M(2) and K(1) (principal lunar semidiurnal and declinational diurnal) tides. The ten most energetic modes in the M(2) synthesis account for 87 percent of the energy; the corresponding figure for K(1) is 93 percent, two-thirds of which is contributed by a single mode whose natural period is about 29 hours. Model calculations indicate that the quality (Q) of the ocean response to tidal forcing resembles that of a frictionally controlled oscillator. In particular, for M(2) the global Q is about 10. PMID:17749537

  11. Public attitudes about normal and pathological grief.

    PubMed

    Penman, Emma L; Breen, Lauren J; Hewitt, Lauren Y; Prigerson, Holly G

    2014-01-01

    Determining public expectations of grief is an important contributor to the debate differentiating normal from pathological grief. An international sample of 348 participants was randomly allocated to 1 of 12 conditions comprising a bereavement vignette and self-report items measuring grief expectations and social distance. Participants expected grief to decrease steadily between 2 weeks and 6 months then stabilize; however, time did not affect social distance. Gender of the bereaved and circumstances of death did not influence expectations, but did interact to influence social distance. These factors must be accounted for in determining a deviation from the norm in diagnostic nosology. PMID:24738705

  12. The crystal structure of the extracellular 11-heme cytochrome UndA reveals a conserved 10-heme motif and defined binding site for soluble iron chelates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Marcus J; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K; Zachara, John M; Butt, Julea N; Richardson, David J; Clarke, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure has also been crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  13. The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular 11-heme Cytochrome UndA Reveals a Conserved 10-heme Motif and Defined Binding Site for Soluble Iron Chelates.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-07-03

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure is the first outer membrane cytochrome to be crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  14. Strömungs- und Tracer-Transportmodellierung am Natural Attenuation-Standort Zeitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gödeke, Stefan; Weiß, Holger; Geistlinger, Helmut; Fischer, Anko; Richnow, Hans Herrmann; Schirmer, Mario

    Kurzfassung Numerische Modelle spielen bei der Bewertung von Natural-Attenuation-Prozessen an Feldstandorten eine bedeutende Rolle. Daher ist es wichtig diese mit Felddaten zu überprüfen und gegebenenfalls erneut zu kalibrieren. Die Modellierung des Transports eines konservativen Tracers auf der Grundlage von Felddaten ergab eine zuverlässigere Abschätzung der Kf-Werte des numerischen Strömungsmodells für den Standort, als es mit anderen Methoden (z. B. Analyse der Siebwerte) möglich war. Die Kf-Werte berechnet aus Siebanalysen führten zu einer deutlichen Unterschätzung der Tracerausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit. Zwischen beobachteten und berechneten Durchbruchskurven wurde eine gute Übereinstimmung erzielt, sodass das Modell für die Planung weiterer Feldexperimente und als Grundlage für eine reaktive Transportmodellierung genutzt werden kann. Die hydraulischen Leitfähigkeiten im Untersuchungsgebiet ändern sich in vertikaler und horizontaler Richtung im Bereich weniger Dezimeter z. T. stark, was von dem numerischen Modell nur begrenzt wiedergegeben werden kann. Für die Modellierung der Tracerausbreitung ist die Kenntnis der Kf-Wert-Verteilung im Bereich des Infiltrationsbrunnens besonders wichtig, weil sie die Struktur der Tracerfahne im Abstrom wesentlich beeinflusst. Die Wahl des numerischen Verfahrens für die Lösung der Transportgleichung hatte bei der Kalibrierung des Strömungsmodells einen großen Einfluss. Während mit dem in MT3DMS vorhandenen TVD (〝Total Variation Diminishing``)-Algorithmus eine akzeptable Lösung gefunden wurde, zeigten sich bei der Verwendung des MOC (〝Method of Characteristics``)-Verfahrens signifikante Fehler in der Massenbilanz. Reliable numerical models are of primary importance for the evaluation of Natural-Attenuation processes at field sites. Modelling the flow and transport of a conservative tracer, a more realistic distribution of the hydraulic conductivity values for the numerical model was achieved and a good

  15. The Coral of Death. Kunst- und Wunderkammern between Temporality and Allegory.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to show the existence of a substantial discontinuity between the Kunst- und Wunderkammern phenomenon and the practice of both eclectic and specialised collecting in the 18th century. A more detailed examination of the cases of fossils and corals, particularly the way they wove in and out of the differing rationales of collecting in the 17th and 18th centuries, brings to light how elusive their relationship was with the history of the notion of temporality. Subsequently, Lamarck and Darwin were to provide a conclusion to the temporality debate when they completed the historisation of nature.

  16. Peter Andreas Hansen und die astronomische Gemeinschaft - eine erste Auswertung des Hansen-Nachlasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, O.; Strumpf, M.

    The literary assets of Peter Andreas Hansen are deposited in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, the Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek Gotha and the Thüringer Staatsarchiv Gotha. They were never systematically investigated. The authors present here some results of a first evaluation. It was possible to reconstruct the historical events with regard to the maintenance of the Astronomische Nachrichten and the Altona observatory in 1854. Hansen was a successful teacher for many young astronomers. His way of stimulating the evolution of astronomy followed Zach's tradition.

  17. Identification and Characterization of UndA-HRCR-6, an Outer Membrane Endecaheme c-Type Cytochrome of Shewanella sp. Strain HRCR-6

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-08-01

    The outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt) MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1(MR-1) play critical roles in extracellular reduction of iron [Fe(III)] oxides and uranium [ U(VI)]. To identify and characterize the outer membrane c-Cyts found in the metal-reducing Shewanella strains isolated from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 7 HRCR isolates were tested for the presence of mtrC, omcA and undA1 (a gene encoding a putative 11-heme c-Cyt) homologues in their genomes. All 7 tested strains possessed an mtrC homologue, while 3 strains had an omcA homologue and the remaining 4 strains contained an undA1 homologue. The coding region of an undA1 homologue from HRCR isolate 6 was cloned and sequenced. Because it was 93% identical to the UndA of S. baltica OS223, the protein product encoded by this sequenced gene was named as UndA-HRCR6. In MR-1, UndA-HRCR6 (i) restored an MR-1 mutant’s ability to reduce solid phase ferrihydrite at 40% of that for MR-1 wild type, (ii) increased extracellular formation of UO2 associated with the outer membrane and extracellular polymeric substances in a U(VI) reduction assay and (iii) was secreted to the extracellular environment by bacterial type II secretion system. UndA-HRCR6 was purified from the membrane fraction following its overexpression in MR-1 cells. Purified UndA-HRCR6 possessed 11 heme-Fe and reduced ferric complexes. Collectively, these results show that UndA-HRCR6 is an outer membrane endecaheme c-Cyt and can serve an extracellular metal reductase with functions similar to that of MR-1 MtrC and OmcA.

  18. Photodynamic therapy on normal rabbit mandible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kathleen F.; Hopper, Colin; Speight, Paul M.; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been proposed as an intra-operative adjunct to surgical resection of tumors invading bone. To assess this, we studied the effects of PDT in normal bone. Forty- four rabbits were sensitized with Photofrin 3 mg/kg, 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) 400 mg/kg, or meso-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) 0.3 mg/kg. A mandibular incisor was removed and the socket irradiated with a cylindrical diffusion fiber (630 nm Photofrin and ALA, 650 nm mTHPC, 100 J per treatment). Irradiation was given 1 or 48 hours after Photofrin, 72 hours after mTHPC, whilst 2 doses were given 2.5 and 4 hours after the first fractionated dose of ALA. The socket of the ipsilateral maxillary incisor was used as a nonirradiated control to assess healing without PDT. Other controls assessed healing after irradiation of unsensitized animals. Rabbits were killed 3, 10, and 21 days after treatment. Tooth socket healing appeared to be the same in all groups of animals with evidence of woven bone formation by 10 days. We conclude that PDT is unlikely to have any effect on healing in normal bone, which makes it suitable for treating tumors invading bone.

  19. Clock Drawing Performance in Cognitively Normal Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Emily J; Santini, Veronica; Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Volkers, Karin M; Barrup, Melissa S; Byerly, Laura; Chaisson, Christine; Jefferson, Angela L; Kaplan, Edith; Green, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a common neuropsychological measure sensitive to cognitive changes and functional skills (e.g., driving test performance) among older adults. However, normative data have not been adequately developed. We report the distribution of CDT scores using three common scoring systems (Mendez, Ala, and Underwood, 1992; Freund, Gravenstein, Ferris, Burke, & Shaheen, 2005; and Cahn, Salmon, Monsch, Butters, Wiederholt, & Corey-Bloom, 1996), among 207 cognitively normal elderly. The systems were well correlated, took little time to use, and had high inter-rater reliability. We found statistically significant differences in CDT scores based on age and WRAT-3 Reading score, a marker of education quality. We present means, standard deviations, and t- and z-scores based on these subgroups. We found that “normal” CDT performance includes a wider distribution of scores than previously reported. Our results may serve as useful comparisons for clinicians wishing to know whether their patients perform in the general range of cognitively normal elderly. PMID:18243644

  20. Pitch strength of normal and dysphonic voices

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.; Anand, Supraja

    2012-01-01

    Two sounds with the same pitch may vary from each other based on saliency of their pitch sensation. This perceptual attribute is called “pitch strength.” The study of voice pitch strength may be important in quantifying of normal and pathological qualities. The present study investigated how pitch strength varies across normal and dysphonic voices. A set of voices (vowel /a/) selected from the Kay Elemetrics Disordered Voice Database served as the stimuli. These stimuli demonstrated a wide range of voice quality. Ten listeners judged the pitch strength of these stimuli in an anchored magnitude estimation task. On a given trial, listeners heard three different stimuli. The first stimulus represented very low pitch strength (wide-band noise), the second stimulus consisted of the target voice and the third stimulus represented very high pitch strength (pure tone). Listeners estimated pitch strength of the target voice by positioning a continuous slider labeled with values between 0 and 1, reflecting the two anchor stimuli. Results revealed that listeners can judge pitch strength reliably in dysphonic voices. Moderate to high correlations with perceptual judgments of voice quality suggest that pitch strength may contribute to voice quality judgments. PMID:22423721

  1. Mach bands explained by response normalization

    PubMed Central

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mach bands are the illusory dark and bright bars seen at the foot and knee of a luminance trapezoid. First demonstrated by Ernst Mach in the latter part of the 19th century, Mach bands are a test bed not only for models of brightness illusions but of spatial vision in general. Up until 50 years ago the dominant explanation of Mach Bands was that they were caused by lateral inhibition among retinal neurons. More recently, the dominant idea has been that Mach bands are a consequence of a visual process that generates a sparse, binary description of the image in terms of “edges” and “bars”. Another recent explanation is that Mach bands result from learned expectations about the pattern of light typically found on sharply curved surfaces. In keeping with recent multi-scale filtering accounts of brightness illusions as well as current physiology, I show however that Mach bands are most simply explained by response normalization, whereby the gains of early visual channels are adjusted on a local basis to make their responses more equal. I show that a simple one-dimensional model of response normalization explains the range of conditions under which Mach bands occur, and as importantly, the conditions under which they do not occur. PMID:25408643

  2. Developmental hematopoiesis in normal human fetal blood.

    PubMed

    Forestier, F; Daffos, F; Catherine, N; Renard, M; Andreux, J P

    1991-06-01

    Using an easy and safe procedure for fetal blood sampling in utero, we studied 3,415 fetuses for prenatal diagnosis. Retrospectively, 2,860 normal blood samples, performed from the 18th week of gestation to the end of pregnancy, were selected. Differentials were evaluated in 732 cases. Burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) and erythropoietin (Epo) were measured in 27 and 163 cases, respectively. Total nucleated cell and platelet counts did not change from the 18th to the 30th week of gestation. The lymphocytes represented the main population and the decrease of normoblastic cells made up for the increase in neutrophils. The increase of red blood cells and hemoglobin was substantial during the studied period. At mid trimester threefold more BFU-E were obtained than at birth. Epo levels remained stable throughout the pregnancy and no correlation was found between Epo and gestational age. These normal values of fetal erythropoiesis will improve our knowledge of physiology and provide a better insight into developmental hematopoiesis.

  3. Metals combustion in normal gravity and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Benz, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the combustion characteristics of metallic materials has been an ongoing area of research at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This research has been in support of both government and industrial operations and deals not only with the combustion of specific metallic materials but also with the relative flammabilities of these materials under similar conditions. Since many of the metallic materials that are characterized at WSTF for aerospace applications are to be used in microgravity environments, it was apparent that the testing of these materials needed to proceed in a microgravity environment. It was believed that burning metallic materials in a microgravity environment would allow the evaluation of the validity of applying normal gravity combustion tests to characterize metallic materials to be used in microgravity environments. It was also anticipated that microgravity testing would provide insight into the general combustion process of metallic materials. The availability of the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LeRC) 2.2-second drop tower provided the necessary facility to accomplish the microgravity portion of the testing while the normal gravity testing was conducted at NASA WSTF. The tests, both at LeRC and WSTF, were conducted in the same instrumented system and utilized the standard metal flammability test of upward propagation burning of cylindrical rod samples.

  4. Sexual behavior in children: normal or not?

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the scope of the problem of sexual abuse and the amount of media attention it receives, it is not unusual for parents or caretakers who witness a child exhibiting sexual behavior to become alarmed. Primary care providers, including pediatric nurse practitioners, may be the first professional parents contact with concerns regarding a child's sexual behavior. It is imperative that primary care providers understand childhood sexuality and respond appropriately when confronted with child sexual behaviors in their practice. Although the literature includes little research on the subject of normal child sexual development, certain guidelines have been identified to describe normal child sexual behaviors and those of concern. Case studies illustrate the response of two primary care providers when they are confronted with sexual behaviors in their patients. Implications for practice are discussed, with examples and guidelines provided for primary care providers to use when evaluating sexual behavior in their pediatric patients. PMID:15007288

  5. The genetics of normal platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kunicki, Thomas J; Nugent, Diane J

    2010-10-14

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute to a substantial variation in platelet function seen among normal persons. Candidate gene association studies represent a valiant effort to define the genetic component in an era where genetic tools were limited, but the single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in those studies need to be validated by more objective, comprehensive approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of quantitative functional traits in much larger cohorts of more carefully selected normal subjects. During the past year, platelet count and mean platelet volume, which indirectly affect platelet function, were the subjects of GWAS. The majority of the GWAS signals were located to noncoding regions, a consistent outcome of all GWAS to date, suggesting a major role for mechanisms that alter phenotype at the level of transcription or posttranscriptional modifications. Of 15 quantitative trait loci associated with mean platelet volume and platelet count, one located at 12q24 is also a risk locus for coronary artery disease. In most cases, the effect sizes of individual quantitative trait loci are admittedly small, but the results of these studies have led to new insight into regulators of hematopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis that would otherwise be unapparent and difficult to define. PMID:20610812

  6. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    PubMed

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. PMID:24331903

  7. Normal myogenic cells from newborn mice restore normal histology to degenerating muscles of the mdx mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.E.; Hoffman, E.P.; Partridge, T.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Dystrophin deficiency in skeletal muscle of the x-linked dystrophic (mdx) mouse can be partially remedied by implantation of normal muscle precursor cells (mpc). However, it is difficult to determine whether this biochemical rescue results in any improvement in the structure or function of the treated muscle, because the vigorous regeneration of mdx muscle more than compensates for the degeneration. By using x-ray irradiation to prevent mpc proliferation, it is possible to study loss of mdx muscle fibers without the complicating effect of simultaneous fiber regeneration. Thus, improvements in fiber survival resulting from any potential therapy can be detected easily. Here, we have implanted normal mpc, obtained from newborn mice, into such preirradiated mdx muscles, finding that it is far more extensively permeated and replaced by implanted mpc than is nonirradiated mdx muscle; this is evident both from analysis of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase isoenzyme markers and from immunoblots and immunostaining of dystrophin in the treated muscles. Incorporation of normal mpc markedly reduces the loss of muscle fibers and the deterioration of muscle structure which otherwise occurs in irradiated mdx muscles. Surprisingly, the regenerated fibers are largely peripherally nucleated, whereas regenerated mouse skeletal muscle fibers are normally centrally nucleated. We attribute this regeneration of apparently normal muscle to the tendency of newborn mouse mpc to recapitulate their neonatal ontogeny, even when grafted into 3-wk-old degenerating muscle.

  8. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  9. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  10. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  11. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  12. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  13. Suppression of B lymphopoiesis during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Medina, K L; Smithson, G; Kincade, P W

    1993-11-01

    We describe a dramatic reduction in numbers and activity of committed B lymphocyte precursors in the bone marrow of normal pregnant mice. Changes in cells responsive to IL-7 were evident as early as 6.5 d of pregnancy and values were < 10% of normal at parturition. B lineage precursors, identified by display of CD45R and absence of surface IgM, were also substantially depressed, and subpopulations representing different stages in the B lineage were assessed by three-color flow cytometry. Early pro-B cells are medium to large in size and have been previously characterized by low expression of the heat-stable antigen (HSA). This category of cells was not reduced, and in fact may have been slightly elevated, during pregnancy. In contrast, all subsequent populations of B lineage precursors, defined by patterns of expression of heat-stable and CD43 antigens, were substantially depressed. The immediate precursors of B cells (small pre-B cells) were identified by small size, expression of CD45R, absence of CD43, and lack of surface IgM. These were the most reduced of any phenotypically defined population in bone marrow. Numbers of newly formed B cells, characterized by the presence of sIgM, but not sIgD, were also diminished. However, B cells with a mature phenotype (sIgM+, sIgD+) were present in normal to somewhat elevated numbers. Mitogen-responsive B cells clonable in a semisolid agar assay were not significantly affected. A bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling technique was used to evaluate mitotic activity, which revealed an increased proportion of long-lived lymphocytes in the bone marrow of pregnant mice. These observations indicate that B lymphopoiesis is markedly downregulated during pregnancy and that all precursor populations beyond the early pro-B cell stage are affected. The pregnancy-related changes in bone marrow were selective for B lineage precursors, as cells expressing myeloid and erythroid markers were not reduced. In spleen, evidence was obtained for

  14. "Der Richter und sein Henker": A Model for the Teaching of Literature and Methodology for Teacher Educators and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Kunczinam, Christele

    1993-01-01

    Describes an inservice teacher education project in which participant's created a newspaper that focused exclusively on Durenmatt's novel "Der Richter und Sein Henker." The project's aim was to involve participants in the work of literature while learning teaching techniques. (Contains six references.) (VWL)

  15. Methodik der Erfassung und Bewertung von Biodiversitätsschäden aus ökologischer Sicht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegleb, Gerhard; Krawczynski, René; Wagner, Hans-Georg

    Mit der Verabschiedung des Umweltschadensgesetzes (USchadG) hat der Schutz der Biodiversität in Deutschland ein neues Stadium erreicht. Zum ersten Male wird selbst die Vermeidung und Restitution der nichtintendierten Schädigung der Biodiversität in Gestalt bestimmter Arten und Lebensräume in ein umfassendes Naturschutzkonzept einbezogen. Das USchadG geht damit über die bisherigen Ansätze zum Schutz der belebten Natur hinaus, da es gleichzeitig neben der Erhaltung eines als günstig erkannten Ist-Zustandes der Biodiversität der Vermeidung vorhersehbarer Schäden sowie auch der Restitution nach einem eingetretenen Schaden verpflichtet ist. Naturschutzsystematisch gehört es wegen der Betonung der Vermeidung und Sanierung zum Bereich des reaktiven Naturschutzes (Gefahrenabwehr und Gefahrenbeseitigung), dem auch die Eingriffsregelung des Bundesnaturschutzgesetzes (BNatSchG), die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung nach Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfungsgesetz (UVPG) sowie die FFH-Verträglichkeitsprüfung nach Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie (FFH-RL) zuzurechnen sind. Stärker noch als in den genannten Regelungen tritt im USchadG das Verursacherprinzip gegenüber der allgemeinen Umweltvorsorge in den Vordergrund.

  16. 76 FR 27240 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 18, 2011 (76 FR 9513). That NPRM proposed to correct... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and ] (3) Will not have a significant... GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  17. Normal modes of confined cold ionic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, J.P.; Dubin, D.H.

    1995-08-01

    The normal modes of a cloud of confined ions forming a strongly-correlated plasma were investigated. The results of molecular-dynamics simulations were compared to predictions of a cold fluid mode. Mode frequencies are observed to shift slightly compared to the cold fluid predictions, and the modes are also observed to damp in time. Simulations also reveal a set of torsional oscillations which have no counterpart in cold fluid theory. The frequency shift, damping, and torsional effects are compared to a model that treats trapped plasmas as a visco-elastic spheroid. It may be possible to measure high-frequency bulk and shear moduli of a strongly-correlated plasma from mode excitation experiments on trapped non-neutral plasmas. An example of the results of the calculation is presented.

  18. Group-normalized wavelet packet signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhuoer; Bao, Zheng

    1997-04-01

    Since the traditional wavelet and wavelet packet coefficients do not exactly represent the strength of signal components at the very time(space)-frequency tilling, group- normalized wavelet packet transform (GNWPT), is presented for nonlinear signal filtering and extraction from the clutter or noise, together with the space(time)-frequency masking technique. The extended F-entropy improves the performance of GNWPT. For perception-based image, soft-logic masking is emphasized to remove the aliasing with edge preserved. Lawton's method for complex valued wavelets construction is extended to generate the complex valued compactly supported wavelet packets for radar signal extraction. This kind of wavelet packets are symmetry and unitary orthogonal. Well-defined wavelet packets are chosen by the analysis remarks on their time-frequency characteristics. For real valued signal processing, such as images and ECG signal, the compactly supported spline or bi- orthogonal wavelet packets are preferred for perfect de- noising and filtering qualities.

  19. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  20. Normal glow discharge in axial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, S.; Shang, J.

    2014-10-01

    Theory and results of mathematical modeling of a glow discharge in a parallel-plate configuration with axial magnetic field is presented. The model consists of continuity equations for electron and ion fluids, the Poisson equation for the self-consistent electric field. Numerical simulation results are presented for two-dimensional glow discharge at various initial conditions. The results are obtained for molecular nitrogen at pressure 1-5 Torr, emf of power supply 1-2 kV, and magnetic field induction B = 0-0.5 T. It is shown that in the presence of the axial magnetic field the glow discharge is rotated around its axis of symmetry. Nevertheless it is shown that in the investigated range of discharge parameters in an axial magnetic field the law of the normal current density is retained.

  1. Stereotypes concerning normal and handicapped children.

    PubMed

    Parish, T S; Dyck, N; Kappes, B M

    1979-05-01

    Individuals' attitudes were assessed toward various groups of children. In study 1 the respondents were 65 male and female teachers from across the state of Kansas. In study 2 the respondents were 89 men and women in attendance at the 1978 International Conference of the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities. In both studies the evaluations of the labels "gifted children," "normal children," and "physically handicapped children" were found to be significantly more positive than the evaluations of the labels "mentally retarded children," "learning disabled children," and "emotionally disturbed children." These results seem to indicate that definite negative stereotypes are held toward the latter three groups of children. In study 1 these findings were found to occur generally regardless of the respondents' sex, age, educational level attained, and amount of previous mainstreaming experience.

  2. Clustering Fiber Traces Using Normalized Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Anders; Knutsson, Hans; Park, Hae-Jeong; Shenton, Martha E.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for unsupervised segmentation of white matter fiber traces obtained from diffusion weighted MRI data. Fiber traces are compared pairwise to create a weighted undirected graph which is partitioned into coherent sets using the normalized cut (N cut) criterion. A simple and yet effective method for pairwise comparison of fiber traces is presented which in combination with the N cut criterion is shown to produce plausible segmentations of both synthetic and real fiber trace data. Segmentations are visualized as colored stream-tubes or transformed to a segmentation of voxel space, revealing structures in a way that looks promising for future explorative studies of diffusion weighted MRI data. PMID:20209048

  3. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; LROC Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) acquires near global coverage on a monthly basis. The WAC is a push frame sensor with a 90° field of view (FOV) in BW mode and 60° FOV in 7-color mode (320 nm to 689 nm). WAC images are acquired during each orbit in 10° latitude segments with cross track coverage of ~50 km. Before mosaicking, WAC images are radiometrically calibrated to remove instrumental artifacts and to convert at sensor radiance to I/F. Images are also photometrically normalized to common viewing and illumination angles (30° phase), a challenge due to the wide angle nature of the WAC where large differences in phase angle are observed in a single image line (±30°). During a single month the equatorial incidence angle drifts about 28° and over the course of ~1 year the lighting completes a 360° cycle. The light scattering properties of the lunar surface depend on incidence(i), emission(e), and phase(p) angles as well as soil properties such as single-scattering albedo and roughness that vary with terrain type and state of maturity [1]. We first tested a Lommel-Seeliger Correction (LSC) [cos(i)/(cos(i) + cos(e))] [2] with a phase function defined by an exponential decay plus 4th order polynomial term [3] which did not provide an adequate solution. Next we employed a LSC with an exponential 2nd order decay phase correction that was an improvement, but still exhibited unacceptable frame-to-frame residuals. In both cases we fitted the LSC I/F vs. phase angle to derive the phase corrections. To date, the best results are with a lunar-lambert function [4] with exponential 2nd order decay phase correction (LLEXP2) [(A1exp(B1p)+A2exp(B2p)+A3) * cos(i)/(cos(e) + cos(i)) + B3cos(i)]. We derived the parameters for the LLEXP2 from repeat imaging of a small region and then corrected that region with excellent results. When this correction was applied to the whole Moon the results were less than optimal - no surprise given the

  4. Aerosol Behavior Log-Normal Distribution Model.

    2001-10-22

    HAARM3, an acronym for Heterogeneous Aerosol Agglomeration Revised Model 3, is the third program in the HAARM series developed to predict the time-dependent behavior of radioactive aerosols under postulated LMFBR accident conditions. HAARM3 was developed to include mechanisms of aerosol growth and removal which had not been accounted for in the earlier models. In addition, experimental measurements obtained on sodium oxide aerosols have been incorporated in the code. As in HAARM2, containment gas temperature, pressure,more » and temperature gradients normal to interior surfaces are permitted to vary with time. The effects of reduced density on sodium oxide agglomerate behavior and of nonspherical shape of particles on aerosol behavior mechanisms are taken into account, and aerosol agglomeration due to turbulent air motion is considered. Also included is a capability to calculate aerosol concentration attenuation factors and to restart problems requiring long computing times.« less

  5. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-06-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence.

  6. Normalized-Difference Snow Index (NDSI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    The Normalized-Difference Snow Index (NDSI) has a long history. 'The use of ratioing visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) channels to separate snow and clouds was documented in the literature beginning in the mid-1970s. A considerable amount of work on this subject was conducted at, and published by, the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). The objective of the AFGL work was to discriminate snow cover from cloud cover using an automated algorithm to improve global cloud analyses. Later, automated methods that relied on the VIS/NIR ratio were refined substantially using satellite data In this section we provide a brief history of the use of the NDSI for mapping snow cover.

  7. Overview Report: Normal and Emergency Operation Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2011-05-01

    This is an overview report to document and illustrate methods used in a project entitled “Normal and Emergency Operations Visualization” for a utility company, conducted in 2009-2010 timeframe with funding from the utility company and the U.S. Department of Energy. The original final report (about 180 pages) for the project is not available for distribution because it alludes to findings that assessed the design of an operational system that contained proprietary information; this abridged version contains descriptions of methods and some findings to illustrate the approach used, while avoiding discussion of sensitive or proprietary information. The client has approved this abridged version of the report for unlimited distribution to give researchers and collaborators the benefit of reviewing the research concepts and methods that were applied in this study.

  8. Normal Incidence for Graded Index Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khankhoje, Uday K.; Van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A plane wave is incident normally from vacuum (eta(sub 0) = 1) onto a smooth surface. The substrate has three layers; the top most layer has thickness d(sub 1) and permittivity epsilon(sub 1). The corresponding numbers for the next layer are d(sub 2); epsilon(sub 2), while the third layer which is semi-in nite has index eta(sub 3). The Hallikainen model [1] is used to relate volumetric soil moisture to the permittivity. Here, we consider the relation for the real part of the permittivity for a typical loam soil: acute epsilon(mv) = 2.8571 + 3.9678 x mv + 118:85 x mv(sup 2).

  9. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  10. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths. PMID:24104828

  11. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed.

  12. Do no harm--normal tissue effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation therapy confers enormous benefits that must be balanced against the possibilities for harm including late toxicity in normal tissues and radiation-induced second malignancies. A small percentage of patients experience severe late complications. The question is, do these late sequelae occur randomly, or are they confined to individuals who are genetically predisposed to radiosensitivity. Experiments with knockout mice and with patients demonstrate that individuals heterozygous for a number of genes appear to be radiosensitive. If radiosensitive patients were identified prospectively by genetic analysis, they could be spared the trauma of late sequelae. Several large studies have shown a statistically significant excess of radiation-induced malignancies in radiotherapy patients. Most second cancers are carcinomas, developing in the lining cells of the body often remote from the treatment site. Radiation-induced sarcomas appear only in the heavily irradiated areas. These are small in number but appear with a very high relative risk.

  13. Novel phase behavior in normal alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Sirota, E.B.; King, H.E. Jr.; Hughes, G.J.; Wan, W.K. )

    1992-01-27

    X-ray scattering studies on aligned films of binary mixtures of the normal alkanes C{sub 23}H{sub 48} and C{sub 28}H{sub 58} reveal, for the first time in such materials, the existence of a new equilibrium phase having the symmetry of a smectic crystal, possibly a hexatic. This phase occurs between the hexagonally packed {ital R}{sub II} and the lower-temperature orthorhombic {ital R}{sub I}, plastic crystalline, layered, rotator phases. We argue that this loss of order is due to local distortion fluctuations in the hexagonal phase. Furthermore, we have identified an {ital ABC}-to-{ital ABAB} restacking transition within the ordered {ital R}{sub II} phase.

  14. Non-normal impact of earth penetrators

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Macek, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A brief literature review of the general subject of projectile penetration into soil media is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on projectiles impacting soil targets at other than normal incidence and/or at an angle of attack, for which lateral accelerations exist and can dominate the structural response. Comparisons of predicted lateral accelerations with recent earth penetrator experiments are then made using a 3 degree-of-freedom rigid-body approach developed elsewhere to determine the external penetrator loading. Agreement between experimental and calculated accelerations is favorable, but the need to include flexible-body response is indicated. Finally a scheme to incorporate a spherical-cavity-expansion analytical procedure into a detailed finite element model of the penetrator is developed to account for flexible-body response.

  15. Self-accelerating the normal DGP branch

    SciTech Connect

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam

    2009-11-01

    We propose a generalised induced gravity brane-world model where the brane action contains an arbitrary f(R) term, R being the scalar curvature of the brane. We show that the effect of the f(R) term on the dynamics of a homogeneous and isotropic brane is twofold: 1. an evolving induced gravity parameter and; 2. a shift on the energy density of the brane. This new shift term, which is absent on the Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (DGP) model, plays a crucial role to self-accelerate the generalised normal DGP branch of our model. We analyse as well the stability of de Sitter self-accelerating solutions under homogeneous perturbations and compare our results with the standard 4-dimensional one. Finally, we obtain power law solutions which either correspond to conventional acceleration or super-acceleration of the brane. In the latter case, no phantom matter is invoked on the brane nor in the bulk.

  16. Turner syndrome masquerading as normal early puberty

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yong Hee

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have complete loss of one X chromosome, whereas the rest of the patients with TS display mosaicism or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome. Most well-known common features are short stature and gonadal failure. Approximately one third of girls with TS may enter spontaneous puberty, but only half those completed with menarche. However, some atypical features of TS have been described. Many studies have been conducted to verify and delineate proposed loci for genes pertaining to the TS phenotype, and correlations between karyotype and phenotype. A few rare cases of precocious puberty with TS have been described. Here we describe a case of TS with the Xp22.1 deletion presenting with short final stature, early normal onset of spontaneous puberty, and Graves' disease, without short stature during puberty. PMID:25654070

  17. 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram deconvolution in normal subjects and in normal functioning kidney grafts.

    PubMed

    González, A; Puchal, R; Bajén, M T; Mairal, L; Prat, L; Martin-Comin, J

    1994-09-01

    This study provides values of transit times obtained by 99Tcm- mercaptoacetyl triglycine (99Tcm-MAG3) renogram deconvolution for both normal subjects and kidney graft recipients. The analysis included 50 healthy kidney units from 25 volunteers and 28 normal functioning kidney grafts. The parameters calculated for the whole kidney (WK) and for the renal parenchyma (P) were: mean transit time (MTT) and times at 20% (T20) and 80% (T80) of renal retention function initial height. For healthy kidneys the WK MTT was 174 +/- 27 s and P MTT 148 +/- 22 s. The WK T20 values were 230 +/- 33 s and P T20 231 +/- 34 s. The WK T80 was 108 +/- 19 s and P T80 106 +/- 12 s. Whole kidney and parenchymal values of transit times for normal functioning kidney grafts do not present significant differences with respect to healthy kidneys. PMID:7816379

  18. Cataplexy with Normal Sleep Studies and Normal CSF Hypocretin: An Explanation?

    PubMed Central

    Drakatos, Panagis; Leschziner, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Patients with narcolepsy usually develop excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) before or coincide with the occurrence of cataplexy, with the latter most commonly associated with low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels. Cataplexy preceding the development of other features of narcolepsy is a rare phenomenon. We describe a case of isolated cataplexy in the context of two non-diagnostic multiple sleep latency tests and normal CSF-hypocretin-1 levels (217 pg/mL) who gradually developed EDS and low CSF-hypocretin-1 (< 110 pg/mL). Citation: Drakatos P, Leschziner G. Cataplexy with normal sleep studies and normal csf hypocretin: an explanation? J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):449–450. PMID:26564387

  19. Gravity wave diagnosis using empirical normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charron, Martin

    We adapt the theory of Empirical Normal Modes (ENMs) to diagnose gravity waves generated by a relatively high resolution numerical model solving the primitive equations. The ENM approach is based on the Principal Component Analysis (which consists of finding the most efficient basis explaining the variance of a time series), except that it takes advantage of wave-activity conservation laws. In the present work, the small- amplitude version of the pseudoenergy is used to extract from data quasi-monochromatic three-dimensional empirical modes that describe atmospheric wave activity. The spatial distributions of these quasi-monochromatic modes are identical to the normal modes of the linearized primitive equations when the underlying dynamics can be described with a stochastic linear and forced model, thus establishing a bridge between statistics and dynamics. We use this diagnostic method to study inertia-gravity wave generation, propagation, transience, and breaking over the Rockies, the North Pacific, and Central America in the troposphere-stratosphere-mesosphere GFDL SKYHI general circulation model at a resolution of 1° of latitude by 1.2° of longitude. Besides the action of mountains in exciting orographic waves, inertia-gravity wave activity has been found to be generated at the jet stream level as a possible consequence of a sustained nonlinear and ageostrophic flow. In the Tropical region of the model, the ``obstacle effect'' has been found to be the major source of inertia-gravity waves. A significant proportion of these inertia-gravity waves was able to reach the model mesosphere without much dissipation and absorption.

  20. DEM simulation of growth normal fault slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Sheng-Shin; Lin, Ming-Lang; Nien, Wie-Tung; Chan, Pei-Chen

    2014-05-01

    Slip of the fault can cause deformation of shallower soil layers and lead to the destruction of infrastructures. Shanchiao fault on the west side of the Taipei basin is categorized. The activities of Shanchiao fault will cause the quaternary sediments underneath the Taipei basin to become deformed. This will cause damage to structures, traffic construction, and utility lines within the area. It is determined from data of geological drilling and dating, Shanchiao fault has growth fault. In experiment, a sand box model was built with non-cohesive sand soil to simulate the existence of growth fault in Shanchiao Fault and forecast the effect on scope of shear band development and ground differential deformation. The results of the experiment showed that when a normal fault containing growth fault, at the offset of base rock the shear band will develop upward along with the weak side of shear band of the original topped soil layer, and this shear band will develop to surface much faster than that of single top layer. The offset ratio (basement slip / lower top soil thickness) required is only about 1/3 of that of single cover soil layer. In this research, it is tried to conduct numerical simulation of sand box experiment with a Discrete Element Method program, PFC2D, to simulate the upper covering sand layer shear band development pace and scope of normal growth fault slip. Results of simulation indicated, it is very close to the outcome of sand box experiment. It can be extended to application in water pipeline project design around fault zone in the future. Keywords: Taipei Basin, Shanchiao fault, growth fault, PFC2D

  1. Pre-sleep behaviour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Ellis; Lemmens; Parkes

    1995-12-01

    Behaviour in the 2-h period before sleep onset was evaluated in 90 subjects with normal sleep/wake habits using an anonymous self-report questionnaire. This determined the timing of events from the initial preparation for sleep. The nature of the pre-sleep environment, the level of physical activity, and patterns of feeding behaviour were recorded together with self-ratings of tiredness, mood and security. Estimated sleep duration and sleep quality were determined. Ninety of 120 subjects responded. Sleep 'preparatory latency', from the time of initial sleep preparation to sleep onset, was 77 +/- 48 min; bed time to sleep onset time (sleep latency) was 41 +/- 42 min; lights out to sleep onset latency was 26 +/- 45 min. The estimated total sleep time was 7 +/- 1 h. In the pre-sleep period, mean noise and illumination levels were low and environmental temperature rating was at the median point on a very cold-very hot scale (mean scale scores: 23, 28 and 50, respectively). All subjects went to the bathroom before going to bed. Twenty-five percent of normal subjects had a snack or meal in the 2-h period before sleep onset. Sixty percentage recorded setting an alarm, 27% had a bath or shower, 23% checked door locks or windows and 49% read in bed. Nine percent of subjects slept with a cat on the bed. Humans, like other animal species, show a complex behavioural sequence in the 2-h period before falling asleep. A constant environment with limited metabolic activity may predispose to thermoregulatory changes prior to sleep onset. PMID:10607159

  2. Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass?

    PubMed

    New, Susan A

    2004-09-01

    Public health strategies targeting the prevention of poor bone health on a population-wide basis are urgently required, with particular emphasis being placed on modifiable factors such as nutrition. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of a vegetarian diet on indices of skeletal integrity to address specifically whether vegetarians have a normal bone mass. Analysis of existing literature, through a combination of observational, clinical and intervention studies were assessed in relation to bone health for the following: lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan diets versus omnivorous, predominantly meat diets, consumption of animal versus vegetable protein, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Mechanisms of action for a dietary "component" effect were examined and other potential dietary differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians were also explored. Key findings included: (i) no differences in bone health indices between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and omnivores; (ii) conflicting data for protein effects on bone with high protein consumption (particularly without supporting calcium/alkali intakes) and low protein intake (particularly with respect to vegan diets) being detrimental to the skeleton; (iii) growing support for a beneficial effect of fruit and vegetable intake on bone, with mechanisms of action currently remaining unclarified. The impact of a "vegetarian" diet on bone health is a hugely complex area since: 1) components of the diet (such as calcium, protein, alkali, vitamin K, phytoestrogens) may be varied; 2) key lifestyle factors which are important to bone (such as physical activity) may be different; 3) the tools available for assessing consumption of food are relatively weak. However, from data available and given the limitations stipulated above, "vegetarians" do certainly appear to have "normal" bone mass. What remains our challenge is to determine what components of a vegetarian diet are of particular benefit to bone, at what levels and under

  3. Fatty acid uptake in normal human myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Meyer, W.; Stremmel, W.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Minami, K.; Machulla, H.J.; Gleichmann, U.; Meyer, H.; Koerfer, R. )

    1991-09-01

    Fatty acid binding protein has been found in rat aortic endothelial cell membrane. It has been identified to be a 40-kDa protein that corresponds to a 40-kDa fatty acid binding protein with high affinity for a variety of long chain fatty acids isolated from rat heart myocytes. It is proposed that this endothelial membrane fatty acid binding protein might mediate the myocardial uptake of fatty acids. For evaluation of this hypothesis in vivo, influx kinetics of tracer-labeled fatty acids was examined in 15 normal subjects by scintigraphic techniques. Variation of the plasma fatty acid concentration and plasma perfusion rate has been achieved by modulation of nutrition state and exercise conditions. The clinical results suggest that the myocardial fatty acid influx rate is saturable by increasing fatty acid plasma concentration as well as by increasing plasma flow. For analysis of these data, functional relations describing fatty acid transport from plasma into myocardial tissue in the presence and absence of an unstirred layer were developed. The fitting of these relations to experimental data indicate that the free fatty acid influx into myocardial tissue reveals the criteria of a reaction on a capillary surface in the vicinity of flowing plasma but not of a reaction in extravascular space or in an unstirred layer and that the fatty acid influx into normal myocardium is a saturable process that is characterized by the quantity corresponding to the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, and the maximal velocity, Vmax, 0.24 {plus minus} 0.024 mumol/g and 0.37 {plus minus} 0.013 mumol/g(g.min), respectively. These data are compatible with a nondiffusional uptake process mediated by the initial interaction of fatty acids with the 40-kDa membrane fatty acid binding protein of cardiac endothelial cells.

  4. Resonant normal form and asymptotic normal form behaviour in magnetic bottle Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, C.; Harsoula, M.; Contopoulos, G.

    2015-04-01

    We consider normal forms in ‘magnetic bottle’ type Hamiltonians of the form H=\\frac{1}{2}(ρ^2_ρ+ω^2_1ρ^2) +\\frac{1}{2}p^2_z+hot (second frequency ω2 equal to zero in the lowest order). Our main results are: (i) a novel method to construct the normal form in cases of resonance, and (ii) a study of the asymptotic behaviour of both the non-resonant and the resonant series. We find that, if we truncate the normal form series at order r, the series remainder in both constructions decreases with increasing r down to a minimum, and then it increases with r. The computed minimum remainder turns to be exponentially small in \\frac{1}{Δ E} , where ΔE is the mirror oscillation energy, while the optimal order scales as an inverse power of ΔE. We estimate numerically the exponents associated with the optimal order and the remainder's exponential asymptotic behaviour. In the resonant case, our novel method allows to compute a ‘quasi-integral’ (i.e. truncated formal integral) valid both for each particular resonance as well as away from all resonances. We applied these results to a specific magnetic bottle Hamiltonian. The non-resonant normal form yields theoretical invariant curves on a surface of section which fit well the empirical curves away from resonances. On the other hand the resonant normal form fits very well both the invariant curves inside the islands of a particular resonance as well as the non-resonant invariant curves. Finally, we discuss how normal forms allow to compute a critical threshold for the onset of global chaos in the magnetic bottle.

  5. Das Universum der Sterne. Himmelsbeobachtungen und Streifzüge durch die moderne Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the English original published in 1990 (see 52.003.046). Contents: 1. Der Halleysche Komet. 2. Alpha Centauri - Der sonnennächste Stern. 3. Sirius und sein Begleiter, ein Weißer Zwerg. 4. Polaris - Der Polarstern. 5. Wega - Ein Planetensystem im Entstehen? 6. Mira - Der erste bekannte veränderliche Stern. 7. Der Ring-Nebel - "Todeskampf" eines sonnenähnlichen Sterns. 8. Der Orion-Nebel - Die Geburt neuer Sterne. 9. Delta Cephei - Die Meßlatte des Weltalls. 10. Algol - Der Teufelsstern. 11. Nova Aquilae - Der neue Stern von 1918. 12. Der Krebs-Nebel - Die Supernova des Jahres 1054. 13. Die Hyaden und Plejaden - Sternhaufen. 14. Die Milchstraße - Unsere Galaxis. 15. Die Magellanschen Wolken - Unsere Nachbarn im Weltall. 16. Der Andromeda-Nebel - Zwilling unserer Galaxis. 17. Messier 87 - Eine Radiogalaxie. 18. 3C 273 - Rätselhafter Quasar. 19. Messier 82 - Eine "Starburst"-Galaxie. 20. Der Virgo-Haufen - Ein reicher Galaxienhaufen. 21. Das Universum.

  6. Direkte beobachtung von polyäthylen-feinstrukturen und ihre veränderungen beim verstrecken und tempern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanig, G.

    1980-02-01

    A contrasting method developed a few years ago enables one to show the crystalline and amorphous phases of polyolefins under the electron microscope. This method permits within seconds to catch and fix fine structures directly at higher temperatures. Thus, structure changes of polyethylene fibers could be studied in detail during drawing and annealing. First, photographs of ultrathin microtome slices of cold deformed polyethylene melts (blown films and drawn fibers) are shown which permit the observation of preferred orientation of the crystal lamellae at right angles to the draw section. The change in fine structure on cold drawing of polyethylene fibers (9 and 25 X) confirms only partly the ideas of Peterlin about this process. Microfibrils consisting of blocks of crystals of the destroyed lamellae could not be found in the final stages of drawing. Rather, a strongly uniaxially drawn, irregular polymer network was found which was cross-linked through crystal blocks which served as polyfunctional branch points. Two processes govern the structure change on annealing of the cold drawn fibers: the molecular re-coiling and the recrystallization. The structure changes are different for free and restrained annealed fibers. The former show already after 2 s under shrinking the formation of large lamellae similar to the ones found in the starting fiber before drawing, while in the latter one can detect thinner and smaller lamellae which are better oriented normal to the fiber axis. In the first case, a coupled re-coiling of the chain molecules is suggested and in the second case, an uncoupled re-coiling. In later stages of the annealing of the free annealed fibers the second mechanism superimposes itself on the first. The behavior of the drawn fibers during annealing is compatible with the model of interpenetrating coils by Flory.

  7. Lithological Uncertainty Expressed by Normalized Compression Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatnieks, J.; Saks, T.; Delina, A.; Popovs, K.

    2012-04-01

    Lithological composition and structure of the Quaternary deposits is highly complex and heterogeneous in nature, especially as described in borehole log data. This work aims to develop a universal solution for quantifying uncertainty based on mutual information shared between the borehole logs. This approach presents tangible information directly useful in generalization of the geometry and lithology of the Quaternary sediments for use in regional groundwater flow models as a qualitative estimate of lithological uncertainty involving thousands of borehole logs would be humanly impossible due to the amount of raw data involved. Our aim is to improve parametrization of recharge in the Quaternary strata. This research however holds appeal for other areas of reservoir modelling, as demonstrated in the 2011 paper by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb. For our experiments we used extracts of the Quaternary strata from general-purpose geological borehole log database maintained by the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, spanning the territory of Latvia. Lithological codes were generalised into 2 aggregation levels consisting of 5 and 20 rock types respectively. Our calculation of borehole log similarity relies on the concept of information distance proposed by Bennet et al. in 1998. This was developed into a practical data mining application by Cilibrasi in the 2007 dissertation. The resulting implementation called CompLearn utilities provide a calculation of the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) metric. It relies on the universal data compression algorithms for estimating mutual information content in the data. This approach has proven to be universally successful for parameter free data mining in disciplines from molecular biology to network intrusion monitoring. To improve this approach for use in geology it is beneficial to apply several transformations as pre-processing steps to the borehole log data. Efficiency of text stream compressors, such as

  8. Not Quite Normal: Consequences of Violating the Assumption of Normality in Regression Mixture Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Smith, Jessalyn; Fagan, Abigail A.; Jaki, Thomas; Feaster, Daniel J.; Masyn, Katherine; Hawkins, J. David; Howe, George

    2012-01-01

    Regression mixture models, which have only recently begun to be used in applied research, are a new approach for finding differential effects. This approach comes at the cost of the assumption that error terms are normally distributed within classes. This study uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore the effects of relatively minor violations of…

  9. Normalizing a large number of quantitative traits using empirical normal quantile transformation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Yu, Robert K; DeHoff, Kevin L; Amos, Christopher I

    2007-01-01

    Variance-components and regression-based methods are frequently used to map quantitative trait loci. The normality of the trait values is usually assumed and violation of this assumption can have a detrimental effect on the power and type I error of such analyses. Various transformations can be used, but appropriate transformations usually require careful analysis of individual traits, which is not feasible for data sets with a large number of traits like those in Problem 1 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15). A semiparametric variance-components method can estimate the transformation along with the model parameters, but existing methods are computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose the use of empirical normal quantile transformation to normalize the scaled rank of trait values using an inverse normal transformation. Despite its simplicity and potential loss of information, this transformation is shown, by extensive simulations, to have good control of power and type I error, even when compared with the semiparametric method. To investigate the impact of such a transformation on real data sets, we apply variance-components and variance-regression methods to the expression data of GAW15 and compare the results before and after transformation. PMID:18466501

  10. Placental exosomes in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Murray D; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Kobayashi, Miharu; Koh, Yong Q; Duncombe, Gregory; Illanes, Sebastian E; Rice, Gregory E; Salomon, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    While there is considerable contemporary interest in elucidating the role of placenta-derived extracellular vesicles in normal and complicated pregnancies and their utility as biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, progress in the field is hindered by a lack of standardized extracellular vesicle taxonomy and isolation protocols. The term "extracellular vesicle" is nonspecific and refers to all membrane-bound vesicles from nanometer to micrometer diameters and of different biogenic origins. To meaningfully ascribe biological function and/or diagnostic and therapeutic utility to extracellular vesicles, and in particular exosomes, greater specificity and vesicle characterization is required. The current literature relating to exosome biology must be interpreted in this context. Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicle that are specifically defined by an endosomal biogenesis and particle size (40-120 nm) and density (1.13-1.19 g/mL(-1)). Exosomes are specifically package with signaling molecules (including protein, messenger RNA, microRNA, and noncoding RNA) and are released by exocytosis into biofluid compartments. Exosomes regulate the activity of both proximal and distal target cells, including translational activity, angiogenesis, proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. As such, exosomal signaling represents an integral pathway mediating intercellular communication. During pregnancy, the placenta releases exosomes into the maternal circulation from as early as 6 weeks of gestation. Release is regulated by factors that include both oxygen tension and glucose concentration and correlates with placental mass and perfusion. The concentration of placenta-derived exosomes in maternal plasma increases progressively during gestation. Exosomes isolated from maternal plasma are bioactive in vitro and are incorporated into target cells by endocytosis. While the functional significance of placental exosomes in pregnancy remains to be fully elucidated, available

  11. Chest Pain with Normal Thallium-201 Myocardial Perfusion Image – Is It Really Normal?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pang-Yen; Lin, Wen-Yu; Lin, Li-Fan; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Cheng, Shu-Meng; Yang, Shih-Ping; Liou, Jun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion image (MPI) is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease in patients with chest pain. Although a normal thallium-201 MPI result is generally considered to be a good prognosis and further coronary angiogram is not recommended, there are still a few patients who suffer from unexpected acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical prognosis in patients with normal thallium-201 MPI. Methods From January 2006 to August 2012, a total 22,003 patients undergoing thallium-201 MPI in one tertiary center were screened. Of these, 8092 patients had normal results and were investigated retrospectively. During follow-up, 54 patients underwent coronary angiogram because of refractory typical angina pectoris or unexpected acute coronary events. These 54 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 26 (48.1%) patients with angiography-proven significant coronary artery stenosis, and group II consisted of 28 (51.9%) patients without significant stenosis. Results Patients in group I had a higher prevalence of prior coronary stenting and electrocardiographic features of ST depression compared with patients in group II. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that both prior coronary stenting and ST depression were risk predictors of unexpected acute coronary events in the patients with normal thallium-201 MPI [odds ratio (OR), 5.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-34.06, p = 0.05 and OR, 7.10; 95% CI: 1.28-39.51, p = 0.03,respectively]. Conclusions Although there is a low incidence of unexpected acute coronary events in patients with chest pain and normal thallium-201 MPI, physicians should be aware of the potentials risk in certain patients in this specific population. PMID:27274174

  12. [Neuropsychological symptomatology in normal pressure hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    De Mol, J

    1986-01-01

    The neuropsychological observations of 63 patients undergoing surgery for "normal pressure hydrocephalus" (NPH) have been analyzed retrospectively. To make a semiological picture of mental disturbances in NPH, the level of consciousness, behaviour and cognitive functions were studied. A neuropsychological investigation of the main cognitive functions (language, gnosis, praxis, calculation, memory) enables us to specify the characteristics of dementia shown by these patients. A mental picture of the most frequent neuropsychological signs is described. The mental syndrome which characterized NPH reveals an alteration of alertness and concentration, a deficiency in memory, a disorganization of graphism (writing and drawing), a dyscalculia and behaviour problems (bradypsychy, apathy, indifference). Such a syndrome points out a bilateral frontal lesion. On the other hand, the less frequent signs are largely verbal and show different stages of aphasia. These signs can usually be found in patients who don't improve after ventricular drainage and are more suggestive of a degenerative disease of the Alzheimer type. The results are compared with the psychometric and neuropsychological data of the literature. More specific attention is accorded to differential diagnosis. PMID:2428104

  13. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  14. Normalized GNSS Interference Pattern Technique for Altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Kucwaj, Jean-Christophe; Botteron, Cyril; Reboul, Serge; Stienne, Georges; Leclère, Jérôme; Choquel, Jean-Bernard; Farine, Pierre-André; Benjelloun, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT). In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér–Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals. PMID:24922453

  15. Normalized GNSS interference pattern technique for altimetry.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Kucwaj, Jean-Christophe; Botteron, Cyril; Reboul, Serge; Stienne, Georges; Leclère, Jérôme; Choquel, Jean-Bernard; Farine, Pierre-André; Benjelloun, Mohammed

    2014-06-11

    It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT). In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér-Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals.

  16. Stereoselective disposition of flurbiprofen in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Knadler, M P; Brater, D C; Hall, S D

    1992-01-01

    1. The concentrations of the R- and S-enantiomers of flurbiprofen and its metabolites were measured in plasma and urine following the oral administration of 50 mg racemic flurbiprofen to six normal volunteers. 2. The AUC and half-life of the R-enantiomer were significantly lower than the corresponding S-enantiomer values reflecting the greater clearance of R-flurbiprofen (20.42 +/- 4.71 vs 16.12 +/- 3.60 ml min-1). 3. Ex vivo protein binding studies indicated that the percent unbound of R-flurbiprofen was (not significantly) greater than that of the S-enantiomer (0.055 +/- 0.008 vs 0.049 +/- 0.009) and the corresponding unbound clearances did not show enantioselectivity. 4. Both enantiomers were cleared primarily by metabolism to an acylglucuronide and 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen. There was significant enantioselectivity (R greater than S) in the formation clearances of these metabolites which remained when unbound metabolite formation clearances were considered. 5. In conclusion, the disposition of the enantiomers of flurbiprofen exhibits enantioselectivity at the level of protein binding and metabolite formation. PMID:1576065

  17. [Telomere Recombination in Normal Mammalian Cells].

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, N S; Rubtsov, N B

    2016-01-01

    Two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance are known to date. The first includes the use of a special enzymatic telomerase complex to solve the problems that arise during the replication of linear DNA in a normal diploid and part of tumor cells. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), which is based on the homologous recombination of telomere DNA, represents the second mechanism. Until recently, ALT was assumed to be expressed only in 15-20% of tumors lacking active telomerase and, together with telomerase reactivation represented one of two possibilities to overcome the replicative senescence observed in somatic mammalian cells due to aging or during cell culturing in vitro. Previously described sporadic cases of combinations of the two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in several cell lines in vitro were attributed to the experimental design rather than to a real biological phenomenon, since active cellular division without active telomerase was considered to be the "gold standard" of ALT. The present review describes the morphological and functional reorganizations of mammalian telomeres observed with ALT activation, as well as recently observed,and well-documented cases of combinations between ALT-like and telomerase-dependent mechanisms in mammalian cells. The possible role of telomere recombination in telomerase-dependent cells is discussed.

  18. Radionuclide cerebral perfusion imaging: Normal pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.J.; Stritzke, P.; Losonczy, M.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Holan, V.; DaCosta, M.; Muzinic, M.

    1991-12-31

    Regional cerebral perfusion imaging using a new class of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I labeled compounds which traverse the blood brain barrier and SPECT imaging technology provides an opportunity to assess this physiologic phenomenon during normal cerebral function and as a manifestation of disease in the central nervous system disease. These applications pose a challenge to the nuclear medicine physician for several reasons: (a) the complex and somewhat unfamiliar functional anatomy, (b) the marked regional differences in regional cerebral perfusion at rest, (c) the lack of understanding of the effect of variations in ambient conditions on regional cerebral perfusion. The difficulties in interpretation are augmented by the display itself. There is frequently no difficulty in differentiating between gray and white matter. However, the frequently used {open_quotes}hot body{close_quotes} color maps, introduce a good deal of contrast, producing displays with apparent interruption in regional cortical perfusion whereas black and white displays provide minimal contrast in the regional cortical activity. The authors sought to define how much variation in regional cerebral perfusion is {open_quotes}allowed{close_quotes} under controlled conditions, to establish a basis to interpret if changes in the environment, psychological interventions, or disease states are accompanied by a measurable change. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. [Neuroethics (I): moral pathways in normal brain].

    PubMed

    Álvaro-González, Luis C

    2014-03-01

    Introduccion. La moralidad es el conjunto de normas y valores que guian la conducta. Se mantienen en muy diferentes culturas. Permiten alcanzar logros sociales que solo se entienden bajo el desarrollo moral, con un sentido de justicia que penetra toda accion humana. Las funciones morales, fruto del desarrollo evolutivo, asientan en circuitos neuronales propios. Objetivo. Describir su aparicion, puesta en marcha y mecanismos operativos en el cerebro normal. Desarrollo. Las respuestas morales, en lo esencial homogeneas, estan muy vinculadas al desarrollo emocional, tanto basico e individual (miedo o ira) como social (compasion o justicia). Aparecen a partir de los binomios emocionales placer/dolor y recompensa/castigo, que conducen al binomio moral basico bueno/malo. En su puesta en marcha intervienen la corteza prefrontal (ventromedial y dorsolateral), la corteza cingular anterior y el sulco temporal superior, que serian evaluativos y elaborativos, utilitaristas; tambien la insula, la amigdala y el hipotalamo, ejecutivos de las respuestas morales mas emocionales puras y rapidas. Asimismo, es importante el sistema de neuronas espejo (frontoparietal), que permite el aprendizaje motor y las conductas empaticas, con las que se vincula con la teoria de la mente. Conclusiones. El desarrollo del sentido moral y sus respuestas nos han permitido alcanzar una complejidad y convivencia social que redundan en beneficio de la especie e individuos. El conocimiento del funcionamiento moral esta influyendo tambien en territorios diversos de la neurocultura.

  20. Normal shoulder ultrasound: anatomy and technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harun; Robinson, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Shoulder ultrasound (US) is one of the most common applications of musculoskeletal US due to the high incidence of rotator cuff disorders. It can be used effectively for the diagnosis of rotator cuff diseases, and several studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity for rotator cuff tears comparable with that of MRI. Shoulder US has several advantages over MRI such as lower cost, comparatively easier availability, short examination duration, dynamic capability, and ability to perform guided injection at the same appointment. However, it depends on the skill of the operator and therefore requires a standardized detailed protocol to avoid errors in diagnosis. A symptomatic area-only focused examination should not be performed because it is not uncommon to have symptoms away from the actual site of pathology. Detailed understanding of what anatomy can be evaluated is required, and this article discusses the relevant anatomy covering the rotator cuff, subacromial bursa, and acromioclavicular joint. The equipment requirements and technique of examination of different anatomical structures with transducer positions and normal sonographic appearances are described. Pitfalls and artifacts associated with shoulder US are covered; understanding them is crucial to avoid misinterpretation of findings.

  1. Normalized GNSS interference pattern technique for altimetry.

    PubMed

    Ribot, Miguel Angel; Kucwaj, Jean-Christophe; Botteron, Cyril; Reboul, Serge; Stienne, Georges; Leclère, Jérôme; Choquel, Jean-Bernard; Farine, Pierre-André; Benjelloun, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that reflected signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can be used for altimetry applications, such as monitoring of water levels and determining snow height. Due to the interference of these reflected signals and the motion of satellites in space, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measured at the receiver slowly oscillates. The oscillation rate is proportional to the change in the propagation path difference between the direct and reflected signals, which depends on the satellite elevation angle. Assuming a known receiver position, it is possible to compute the distance between the antenna and the surface of reflection from the measured oscillation rate. This technique is usually known as the interference pattern technique (IPT). In this paper, we propose to normalize the measurements in order to derive an alternative model of the SNR variations. From this model, we define a maximum likelihood estimate of the antenna height that reduces the estimation time to a fraction of one period of the SNR variation. We also derive the Cramér-Rao lower bound for the IPT and use it to assess the sensitivity of different parameters to the estimation of the antenna height. Finally, we propose an experimental framework, and we use it to assess our approach with real GPS L1 C/A signals. PMID:24922453

  2. Tonometry of normal eyes in raptors.

    PubMed

    Stiles, J; Buyukmihci, N C; Farver, T B

    1994-04-01

    An applanation tonometer was used to estimate intraocular pressure in normal eyes of several species of raptors. No bird had active injury or illness, though some were nonreleasable to the wild because of previous injury. Mean (+/- SD) intraocular pressure was 20.6 (+/- 3.4) mm of Hg in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis, n = 10), 20.8 (+/- 2.3) mm of Hg in Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni, n = 6), 21.5 (+/- 3.0) mm of Hg in golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos, n = 7), 20.6 (+/- 2.0) mm of Hg in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, n = 3), and 10.8 (+/- 3.6) mm of Hg in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus, n = 6). There was no significant difference in intraocular pressure between hawks and eagles. Mean pressure in great horned owls was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than pressure in hawks or eagles. Reliable intraocular pressure readings could not be obtained in barn owls (Tyto alba). PMID:8017692

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Bradley, William G

    2016-04-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by ventriculomegaly and deep white matter ischemia (DWMI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence. NPH has been estimated to account for up to 10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Patients with a known cause of chronic communicating hydrocephalus, that is, meningitis or hemorrhage, tend to respond better than patients with the so-called "idiopathic" form, most likely because of poor selection criteria in the past. Good response to shunting has been associated with hyperdynamic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the aqueduct. In the early days of MRI, patients with a large CSF flow void extending from the foramen of Monro through the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle had an excellent chance of responding to ventriculoperitoneal shunting (P < 0.003). Today, we use phase-contrast MRI to measure the volume of CSF flowing through the aqueduct in either direction over a cardiac cycle. When this aqueductal CSF stroke volume is sufficiently elevated, there is an excellent chance of shunt responsiveness (100% positive predictive value in 1 study). Idiopathic NPH appears to be a "two-hit" disease-benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) in infancy followed by DWMI in late adulthood. As BEH occurs when the sutures are still open, these infants present with large heads, a finding also noted in patients with NPH. Although BEH has been attributed to immature arachnoidal granulations with decreased CSF resorptive capacity, this now appears to be permanent and may lead to a parallel pathway for CSF resorption via the extracellular space of the brain. With DWMI, the myelin lipid is lost, exposing the polar water molecules to myelin protein, increasing resistance to CSF outflow and leading to backing up of CSF and hydrocephalus.

  4. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  5. Biomechanical modelling of normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Dutta-Roy, Tonmoy; Wittek, Adam; Miller, Karol

    2008-07-19

    This study investigates the mechanics of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) growth using a computational approach. We created a generic 3-D brain mesh of a healthy human brain and modelled the brain parenchyma as single phase and biphasic continuum. In our model, hyperelastic constitutive law and finite deformation theory described deformations within the brain parenchyma. We used a value of 155.77Pa for the shear modulus (mu) of the brain parenchyma. Additionally, in our model, contact boundary definitions constrained the brain outer surface inside the skull. We used transmantle pressure difference to load the model. Fully nonlinear, implicit finite element procedures in the time domain were used to obtain the deformations of the ventricles and the brain. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first 3-D, fully nonlinear model investigating NPH growth mechanics. Clinicians generally accept that at most 1mm of Hg transmantle pressure difference (133.416Pa) is associated with the condition of NPH. Our computations showed that transmantle pressure difference of 1mm of Hg (133.416Pa) did not produce NPH for either single phase or biphasic model of the brain parenchyma. A minimum transmantle pressure difference of 1.764mm of Hg (235.44Pa) was required to produce the clinical condition of NPH. This suggested that the hypothesis of a purely mechanical basis for NPH growth needs to be revised. We also showed that under equal transmantle pressure difference load, there were no significant differences between the computed ventricular volumes for biphasic and incompressible/nearly incompressible single phase model of the brain parenchyma. As a result, there was no major advantage gained by using a biphasic model for the brain parenchyma. We propose that for modelling NPH, nearly incompressible single phase model of the brain parenchyma was adequate. Single phase treatment of the brain parenchyma simplified the mathematical description of the NPH model and resulted in

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Bradley, William G

    2016-04-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by ventriculomegaly and deep white matter ischemia (DWMI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence. NPH has been estimated to account for up to 10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Patients with a known cause of chronic communicating hydrocephalus, that is, meningitis or hemorrhage, tend to respond better than patients with the so-called "idiopathic" form, most likely because of poor selection criteria in the past. Good response to shunting has been associated with hyperdynamic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the aqueduct. In the early days of MRI, patients with a large CSF flow void extending from the foramen of Monro through the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle had an excellent chance of responding to ventriculoperitoneal shunting (P < 0.003). Today, we use phase-contrast MRI to measure the volume of CSF flowing through the aqueduct in either direction over a cardiac cycle. When this aqueductal CSF stroke volume is sufficiently elevated, there is an excellent chance of shunt responsiveness (100% positive predictive value in 1 study). Idiopathic NPH appears to be a "two-hit" disease-benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) in infancy followed by DWMI in late adulthood. As BEH occurs when the sutures are still open, these infants present with large heads, a finding also noted in patients with NPH. Although BEH has been attributed to immature arachnoidal granulations with decreased CSF resorptive capacity, this now appears to be permanent and may lead to a parallel pathway for CSF resorption via the extracellular space of the brain. With DWMI, the myelin lipid is lost, exposing the polar water molecules to myelin protein, increasing resistance to CSF outflow and leading to backing up of CSF and hydrocephalus. PMID:27063662

  7. A tutorial on Bayesian Normal linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauenberg, Katy; Wübbeler, Gerd; Mickan, Bodo; Harris, Peter; Elster, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    Regression is a common task in metrology and often applied to calibrate instruments, evaluate inter-laboratory comparisons or determine fundamental constants, for example. Yet, a regression model cannot be uniquely formulated as a measurement function, and consequently the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) and its supplements are not applicable directly. Bayesian inference, however, is well suited to regression tasks, and has the advantage of accounting for additional a priori information, which typically robustifies analyses. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future revisions of the GUM shall also embrace the Bayesian view. Guidance on Bayesian inference for regression tasks is largely lacking in metrology. For linear regression models with Gaussian measurement errors this tutorial gives explicit guidance. Divided into three steps, the tutorial first illustrates how a priori knowledge, which is available from previous experiments, can be translated into prior distributions from a specific class. These prior distributions have the advantage of yielding analytical, closed form results, thus avoiding the need to apply numerical methods such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Secondly, formulas for the posterior results are given, explained and illustrated, and software implementations are provided. In the third step, Bayesian tools are used to assess the assumptions behind the suggested approach. These three steps (prior elicitation, posterior calculation, and robustness to prior uncertainty and model adequacy) are critical to Bayesian inference. The general guidance given here for Normal linear regression tasks is accompanied by a simple, but real-world, metrological example. The calibration of a flow device serves as a running example and illustrates the three steps. It is shown that prior knowledge from previous calibrations of the same sonic nozzle enables robust predictions even for extrapolations.

  8. The normal ischiofemoral distance and its variations.

    PubMed

    Hujazi, I; Jones, T; Johal, S; Bearcroft, P; Muniz-Terra, G; Khanduja, V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the ischiofemoral distance (IFD) in the normal hip with healthy surrounding soft tissues and describe its variations caused by gender, age and proximal femoral anatomy so that this could serve as a reference for future studies on this subject. This is a retrospective study in which we reviewed the CT scans of 149 patients (298 hips) who had a CT of their pelvis for non-orthopaedic (abdomino-pelvic) pathology. The images were reviewed by two independent observers and the IFD (the smallest distance between the lateral cortex of the ischial tuberosity and the posteromedial cortex of the lesser trochanter), offset (the perpendicular distance from the centre of the femoral head to a line running down the middle of the shaft of the femur) and the neck-shaft angle (the angle between the lines in the middle of the neck to the line forming the axis of the femoral shaft) were measured. The CT scans belonged to 71 males and 78 females (M: 48%, F: 52%), with an average age of 51  ± 19 years (range 18-92). The mean IFD was 18.6  ±  8 mm in the females and 23  ± 7 mm in the males and this difference was statistically significant (P <  0.001). The IFD increased by 1.06 mm for each 1 mm of offset and dropped by 0.09 mm with each year of age. However, the neck-shaft angle did not show any significant correlation with the IFD. PMID:27583158

  9. E-Learning an der TUM: Entwicklung - Status Quo - Perspektiven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stross, Manfred; Baume, Matthias; Schulze, Elvira

    E-Learning an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) hat sich ähnlich wie an den meisten anderen Hochschulen als ein wesentliches Element der Hochschullehre etabliert. Seit mehr als einem Jahrzehnt werden in diesem Themenfeld Erfahrungen gesammelt und Entwicklungen vorangetrieben. Der Artikel beschäftigt sich zunächst mit E-Learning aus einer allgemeinen Perspektive und greift unterschiedliche Entwicklungsphasen der vergangenen Jahre auf. Im Anschluss daran wird der Fokus auf die TUM gesetzt. Der Beitrag zeigt die spezifische Entwicklung von E-Learning im Verlauf der vergangenen Jahre auf, nennt Funktionen und Verfahren von E-Learning und beschreibt Zielsetzungen für E-Learning an der TUM. Im Anschluss daran wird die aktuelle Situation anhand verschiedener Perspektiven analysiert. Den Abschluss des Beitrags bilden die Darstellung der zukünftigen Herausforderungen von E-Learning an der TUM und ein Ausblick auf weitere Entwicklungen.

  10. Tunneling of quasiparticles in the normal-insulator-superconductor-insulator-normal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Mutsuo; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Sone, Jun'ichi

    1993-12-01

    The probability of quasiparticle transmission going through a normal-insulator- superconductor-insulator-normal (NISIN) geometry is theoretically calculated using Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to investigate the feasibility of electron devices utilizing this geometry. This new calculation is able to include a current carried by Cooper pairs by employing hole injections from the outlet which destroy Cooper pairs at the outlet super- conductor-insulator boundary. Resonant tunneling phenomena occur even if the electron kinetic energy is less than the superconducting energy gap and electron tunneling probabilities are greatly modified by the resonance. When the unevenness of the superconductor (S) width thickness is large compared with the electron wavelength in the S layer, the resonance is smeared out in averaged tunneling probabilities. Then the tunneling probabilities can be controlled by the electron kinetic energy. Applications of the NISIN geometry for superconducting transistors are also discussed.

  11. Parental Perceptions of the Outcome and Meaning of Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Knafl, Kathleen A.; Darney, Blair G.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Angst, Denise B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to identify the meaning of normalization for parents of a child with a chronic genetic condition. The sample was comprised of 28 families (48 parents), selected to reflect two groups: Normalization Present (NP) and Normalization Absent (NA). Constant comparison analysis was used to identify themes characterizing parents' perceptions of the meaning of normalization. The meanings parents attributed to normalization reflected their evaluation of condition management, parenting role, and condition impact, with parents in the NP and NA groups demonstrating distinct patterns of meaning. These meaning patterns are discussed as an outcome of normalization. Providers can play a pivotal role in helping families achieve normalization by providing guidance on how to balance condition management with normal family life. PMID:20108258

  12. 7 CFR 42.108 - Normal, tightened, or reduced inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 42.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD... Inspection § 42.108 Normal, tightened, or reduced inspection. (a) Normal inspection. Sampling plans...

  13. On two particular cases of solving the normal Hankel problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugunov, V. N.

    2009-06-01

    The normal Hankel problem is one of characterizing all the complex matrices that are normal and Hankel at the same time. The matrix classes that can contain normal Hankel matrices admit a parameterization by real 2 × 2 matrices with determinant one. Here, the normal Hankel problem is solved in the case where the characteristic matrix of a given class is an order two Jordan block for the eigenvalue 1 or -1.

  14. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal water fluctuations. (a) Normal water fluctuations in a natural aquatic system consist of daily, seasonal, and...

  15. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected farmer's normal marketings which, for the purposes of this subpart, shall be the sum of the quantities...

  16. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  17. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  18. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  19. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  20. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  1. Emotion Recognition in Disturbed and Normal Children: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    The identification of facial expressions of emotion was studied in normal and psychiatrically disturbed children. Schizophrenic children were significantly less accurate than other children in emotion identification. Anxious-depressed children made more errors than unsocialized-aggressive and normal children. Normal and unsocialized-aggressive…

  2. Problems with Multivariate Normality: Can the Multivariate Bootstrap Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    Multivariate normality is required for some statistical tests. This paper explores the implications of violating the assumption of multivariate normality and illustrates a graphical procedure for evaluating multivariate normality. The logic for using the multivariate bootstrap is presented. The multivariate bootstrap can be used when distribution…

  3. Normal and abnormal intestinal absorption by humans

    PubMed Central

    Heizer, William D.

    1979-01-01

    Adults eating a Western diet digest and absorb ingested food containing approximately 100 g fat, 350 g carbohydrate, and 75 g protein daily. Normal fat absorption requires adequate gastric, pancreatic, liver-biliary, mucosal, and lymphatic function. Carbohydrate and protein absorption is much less dependent on liver-biliary and lymphatic function. The intestine has a large reserve capacity for digestion and absorption of nutrients which is due to both excess function and to adaptive changes which increase function in one segment of the digestive-absorptive system when it is decreased or lost in another segment. The large reserve capacity explains why most of the prevalent intestinal diseases seldom cause clinically detectable changes in absorption. However, there are more than 30 less-common human diseases which cause malabsorption of one or more nutrients. Those that cause the malabsorption syndrome, i.e., steatorrhea and weight loss, can be conveniently categorized according to the major deficiency leading to the absorptive defect as follows: insufficient pancreatic enzyme activity, insufficient bile acid, disease of the small intestinal wall, multiple defects, mechanism unknown, and drug-induced malabsorption. A few diseases, most of which are congenital, cause malabsorption of only one or a few related nutrients such as lactose malabsorption in lactase deficiency. Most of the tests currently in use for detecting and diagnosing the cause of malabsorption are relatively insensitive and nonspecific. Chemical analysis of the fat in a three-day stool collection remains the single best test for diagnosing the malabsorption syndrome. However, a breath test using Triolein labeled with either the radioactive or stable isotope of carbon may be an important recent advance. Other breath tests are also currently being investigated for quantitating absorption or malabsorption of various substances including bile acids and various sugars. Studies of the function of the

  4. Photometric normalization of LROC WAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Boyd, A. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; Humm, D. C.; LROC Science Operations Team

    2011-12-01

    Monthly global Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) observations of the Moon, acquired with varying emission and incidence angles, enable the precise derivation of spatially resolved Hapke photometric parameters [1]. The WAC global mosaics are stacked in a time series to enable phase curve fitting using a tile-by-tile method, with a wide range of phase angle in each tile. Tile-by-tile calculations provide photometric parameters for each tile (currently 1° by 1° from 80° to -80° latitude), resulting in resolved near-global photometric parameter maps (w, xi, Bco, and hc)[2]. Incidence, emission, and phase angles are computed using a new WAC stereometric digital terrain model (100 m/pixel)[3]. In the tile-by-tile method, we obtain low phase observations only near the equator resulting in an inability to accurately estimate Bco at higher latitudes (Hapke parameter controls the y-intercept of phase curve). We interpolated Bco poleward of +/- 5° latitudes, using a negative correlation between w and Bco observed in the equator +/- 5° latitudes. This interpolation method can decrease one free parameter, resulting in short calculation time and much less failed tiles. The normalized image using this parameter map shows almost no tile boundary, which shows that the tile-by-tile method works well. After the tile-by-tile method was applied with twenty months of data over a full range of beta angle, we observed an I/F offset with time. This offset results in reflectance differences at month-to-month boundaries in a global mosaic constructed from sequences acquired over different months (constructed to minimize incidence angle differences as a function of latitude). After significant tests of any possible parameters controlling the residual I/F value, incidence angle was revealed to be a dominant factor, indicating that the photometry model may not completely accounting for incidence angle. The main function dealing with incidence angle is the Lommel

  5. Generalized approach for using unbiased symmetric metrics with negative values: normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unbiased symmetric metrics provide a useful measure to quickly compare two datasets, with similar interpretations for both under and overestimations. Two examples include the normalized mean bias factor and normalized mean absolute error factor. However, the original formulations...

  6. Sinn und Möglichkeiten der Theoretischen Physik. Zum 300. Jahrestag von Newtons Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, R.; Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.

    Die Newtonschen Prinzipien und die aus ihnen gewonnene Erkenntnis der Existenz von Elementarkonstanten nach Planck, Einstein und Bohr erweisen sich zunehmend als tragfähiges Fundament nicht nur der Physik und ihrer Anwendung in der Technik, sondern überhaupt aller exakten Wissenschaften in breitestem Sinne des Wortes.Die physikalisch inhaltliche Klärung der Begriffe erfolgt seit Newton in engem Verbund mit der Entwicklung mathematischer Methoden. Diese Kombination erweist sich weiterhin als produktiv und sichert den Fortschritt der Physik und der exakten Wissenschaften.Wohl alle Probleme, die im Bereich der Technik Bedeutung haben können, lassen sich bei entsprechendem Aufwand bereits mit dem vorhandenen Fundus an Erkenntnissen und Methoden erfolgreich angehen.Der in der Wirklichkeit verankerte Zusammenhang von Gesetz und Zufall erweist sich als eine Manifestation der Dialektik in der Natur. Es gibt keinen absoluten Zufall. Sie kommt in allen Zweigen der Physik, nicht nur in der Thermodynamik und Quantenphysik, zutage, und muß bereits auf dem Niveau der Newtonschen Prinzipien und der Elementarkonstanten behandelt werden.Die theoretische Physik, so wie sie von Newton initiiert worden ist, wurde so angelegt, daß sie alle Seiten der Wirklichkeit, so weit sie in die Kompetenz der Physik fallen, umfaßt. Es besteht darum kein Gegensatz zwischen der klassischen Physik und der Quantenphysik. Es handelt sich lediglich um eine Differenzierung nach den unterschiedlichen physikalischen Inhalten und den angemessenen mathematischen Methoden, die natürlich von der Wahl der Probleme abhängen.Die theoretische Physik stellt eine allgemein zugängliche Zusammenfassung des gesicherten Wissens der Physik dar, das zugleich das Fundament der exakten Wissenschaften ist.Die theoretische Physik ist damit das Mittel der Verständigung innerhalb der Kooperation, die notwendig ist zur Lösung der großen komplexen Aufgaben der Wissenschaft und Technik.

  7. Das Lektin aus der Erbse Pisum sativum : Bindungsstudien, Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht und Rückfaltung aus Fragmenten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küster, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Das Lektin aus Pisum sativum, der Gartenerbse, ist Teil der Familie der Leguminosenlektine. Diese Proteine haben untereinander eine hohe Sequenzhomologie, und die Struktur ihrer Monomere, ein all-ß-Motiv, ist hoch konserviert. Dagegen gibt es innerhalb der Familie eine große Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Quartärstrukturen, die Gegenstand kristallographischer und theoretischer Arbeiten waren. Das Erbsenlektin ist ein dimeres Leguminosenlektin mit einer Besonderheit in seiner Struktur: Nach der Faltung in der Zelle wird aus einem Loop eine kurze Aminosäuresequenz herausgeschnitten, so dass sich in jeder Untereinheit zwei unabhängige Polypeptidketten befinden. Beide Ketten sind aber stark miteinander verschränkt und bilden eine gemeinsame strukturelle Domäne. Wie alle Lektine bindet Erbsenlektin komplexe Oligosaccharide, doch sind seine physiologische Rolle und der natürliche Ligand unbekannt. In dieser Arbeit wurden Versuche zur Entwicklung eines Funktionstests für Erbsenlektin durchgeführt und seine Faltung, Stabilität und Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht charakterisiert. Um die spezifische Rolle der Prozessierung für Stabilität und Faltung zu untersuchen, wurde ein unprozessiertes Konstrukt in E. coli exprimiert und mit der prozessierten Form verglichen. Beide Proteine zeigen die gleiche kinetische Stabilität gegenüber chemischer Denaturierung. Sie denaturieren extrem langsam, weil nur die isolierten Untereinheiten entfalten können und das Monomer-Dimer-Gleichgewicht bei mittleren Konzentrationen an Denaturierungsmittel auf der Seite der Dimere liegt. Durch die extrem langsame Entfaltung zeigen beide Proteine eine apparente Hysterese im Gleichgewichtsübergang, und es ist nicht möglich, die thermodynamische Stabilität zu bestimmen. Die Stabilität und die Geschwindigkeit der Assoziation und Dissoziation in die prozessierten bzw. nichtprozessierten Untereinheiten sind für beide Proteine gleich. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass auch unter

  8. How Normal is Our Solar System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    To date, weve discovered nearly 2000 confirmed exoplanets, as well as thousands of additional candidates. Amidst this vast sea of solar systems, how special is our own? A new study explores the answer to this question.Analyzing DistributionsKnowing whether our solar system is unique among exoplanetary systems can help us to better understand future observations of exoplanets. Furthermore, if our solar system is typical, this allows us to be optimistic about the possibility of life existing elsewhere in the universe.In a recent study, Rebecca Martin (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) and Mario Livio (Space Telescope Science Institute) examine how normal our solar system is, by comparing the properties of our planets to the averages obtained from known exoplanets.Comparing PropertiesSo how do we measure up?Densities of planets as a function of their mass. Exoplanets (N=287) are shown in blue, planets in our solar system are shown in red. [MartinLivio 2015]Planet masses and densitiesThose of the gas giants in our solar system are pretty typical. The terrestrial planets are on the low side for mass, but thats probably a selection effect: its very difficult to detect low-mass planets.Age of the solar systemRoughly half the stars in the disk of our galaxy are younger than the Sun, and half are older. Were definitely not special in age.Orbital locations of the planetsThis is actually a little strange: our solar system is lacking close-in planets. All of our planets, in fact, orbit at a distance that is larger than the mean distance observed in exoplanetary systems. Again, however, this might be a selection effect at work: its easier to detect large planets orbiting very close to their stars.Eccentricities of the planets orbitsOur planets are on very circular orbits and that actually makes us somewhat special too, compared to typical exoplanet systems. There is a possible explanation though: eccentricity of orbits tends to decrease with more planets in the system. Because

  9. Effective electron microrefrigeration by superconductor insulator normal metal tunnel junctions with advanced geometry of electrodes and normal metal traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper Agulo, Ian; Kuzmin, Leonid; Fominsky, Michael; Tarasov, Michael

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate effective electron cooling of the normal metal strip by superconductor-insulator-normal metal (SIN) tunnel junctions. The improvement was achieved by two methods: first, by using an advanced geometry of the superconducting electrodes for more effective removal of the quasiparticles; and second, by adding a normal metal trap just near the cooling junctions. With simple cross geometry and without normal metal traps, the decrease in electron temperature is 56 mK. With the advanced geometry of the superconducting electrodes, the decrease in electron temperature is 129 mK. With the addition of the normal metal traps, the decrease in electron temperature is 197 mK.

  10. Nongravitational forces by Halley's comet. (German Title: Nichtgravitative Kräfte beim Halleyschen Kometen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1988-04-01

    The backward force of the gases escaping in the tail formation causes comets to have a self propelling motion. This was first calculated during the last comet appearance. Computer programs which allowed the estimation of comet, asteroid and moon trajectories, taking into account historical and current data, are described. Durch den Rückstoß der im Zusammenhang mit der Schweifbildung entweichenden Materie haben Kometen einen Eigenantrieb. Über den Verlauf dieser nichtgravitativen Kräfte gibt es bisher nur Annahmen und Modellrechnungen. Die gegenwärtige Erscheinung des Halleyschen Kometen bietet erstmals die Möglichkeit, aus der beobachteten Bewegung den Verlauf der Kräfte direkt zu berechnen. Im ersten Kapitel wird der historische und physikalische Hintergrund der nichtgravitativen Kräfte und der gegenwärtige Stand ihrer Erforschung beschrieben. Das zweite Kapitel befaßt sich mit den Grundlagen der Berechnung der nichtgravitativen Kräfte aus der beobachteten Bewegung der Kometen. Im dritten Kapitel folgen Betrachtungen über den Einfluß der nichtgravitativen Kräfte auf die Beobachtungen und über die zweckmäßige Verwendung derselben für die Berechnungen. Im vierten Kapitel schließlich wird auf die Erforschung und Ergebnisse über die nichtgravitativen Kräfte des Halleyschen Kometen eingegangen.

  11. Magnetic Susceptibility of Wet vs. Dry Sediment and Mass Normalized vs. Volume Normalized Magnetic Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Hruba, J.; Nabelek, L.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of magnetic susceptibility in sediments represents a fast and non-destructive technique that can be used to deduce the concentration of magnetic minerals [1, 2]. Magnetic minerals change their magnetic properties with temperature [3]. Heating (during a fire, laboratory, with the purpose of manufacturing a product, etc.) can modify a number of sediment properties [4, 5]. Heat-induced sediment mineralogical changes may cause irreversible changes in the sediment mineral structure and composition, and they occur at a wide range of temperature [6]. We provided measurements of magnetic susceptibility on samples from the Stara Jimka (SJ) paleo lacustrine site in the Bohemian Forest using magnetic susceptibility meter MS-30. Sediment samples of approximately 0.2 cm thickness were weighed and put into plastic containers. First, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were taken on wet samples. Then the containers were put into the oven and sediment was dried at temperature of 110°C. After drying and cooling to room temperature, measurements of magnetic susceptibility were repeated. Dry samples were also weighed. Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of dry versus wet samples showed higher values of magnetic susceptibility of dry samples. This enhancement was probably caused during oven-drying, when constituents of sediment (mainly clays) underwent heat-induced changes. We also compared volume normalized values of magnetic susceptibility with mass normalized values. Mass normalized magnetic susceptibility was burdened by greater noise. References: [1] QUIJANO, L. et al. 2001. Magnetic Susceptibilty in Topsoils and Bulk Cores of Cultivated Calcisols. [2] DEARING, J. A. 1994. Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility. [3] HANESCH, M. and SCHOLGER, R. 2005. The Influence of Soil Type on the Magnetic Susceptibility Measured throughout Soil Profiles. [4] FARWIG, V. J. et al. 2004. The Effects of Heating on Mineral Magnetic Enhancement of Soils. [5] KLETETSCHKA, G

  12. A method for normalization of X-ray absorption spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, T.-C.; Waldo, G.S.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.

    2010-07-20

    Accurate normalization of X-ray absorption data is essential for quantitative analysis of near-edge features. A method, implemented as the program MBACK, to normalize X-ray absorption data to tabulated mass absorption coefficients is described. Comparison of conventional normalization methods with MBACK demonstrates that the new normalization method is not sensitive to the shape of the background function, thus allowing accurate comparison of data collected in transmission mode with data collected using fluorescence ion chambers or solid-state fluorescence detectors. The new method is shown to have better reliability and consistency and smaller errors than conventional normalization methods. The sensitivity of the new normalization method is illustrated by analysis of data collected during an equilibrium titration.

  13. Twenty four hour blood pressure monitoring in normal tension glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J H; Brandi-Dohrn, J; Funk, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The few investigations that used continuous 24 hour blood pressure monitoring to investigate whether blood pressure in patients with normal tension glaucoma is lower than in normal subjects yielded conflicting results. Therefore, a prospective controlled trial was carried out. METHODS: Systemic blood pressure was recorded continuously over a 24 hour period in 20 patients with normal tension glaucoma (IOP < or = 21 mm Hg). Eight of them showed a localised loss of the neuroretinal rim area and, in addition, optic disc haemorrhages-that is, focal ischaemic signs. Twenty healthy patients without glaucoma, who were hospitalised for cataract or retinal surgery, served as controls. Blood pressure was automatically measured every 20 minutes during the day and every 40 minutes at night. RESULTS: Both groups showed a significant (physiological) blood pressure drop at night, which was significantly (p < 0.001, ANOVA) more pronounced in the group with normal tension glaucoma than in the control group. There was a weak trend towards lower blood pressure values in the normal tension glaucoma group. Minima, maxima, and mean values of the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures did not differ significantly between the group with normal tension glaucoma and the control group. The greatest differences occurred with nocturnal systolic and diurnal diastolic values. There were no significant differences between the subgroup with focal lesions and the other patients with normal tension glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with normal tension glaucoma tend to have lower blood pressure values (p > 0.05, ANOVA) than normals; this difference is probably much smaller than formerly assumed. Patients with normal tension glaucoma, however, have significantly greater nocturnal blood pressure drops (p < 0.001, ANOVA) than normal controls. Nocturnal blood pressure drops (relative day-night differences) may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of normal tension glaucoma

  14. An excitatory basis for divisive normalization in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tatsuo K; Haider, Bilal; Häusser, Michael; Carandini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in visual cortex are connected not only locally but also through networks of distal connectivity. These distal networks recruit both excitatory and inhibitory synapses, and result in divisive normalization. Normalization is traditionally thought to result from increases in synaptic inhibition. By combining optogenetic stimulation and intracellular recordings in mouse visual cortex here we show that, on the contrary, normalization is due to a decrease in synaptic excitation. PMID:26878671

  15. Normal values for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Kawel-Boehm, Nadine; Maceira, Alicia; Valsangiacomo-Buechel, Emanuela R; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Turkbey, Evrim B; Williams, Rupert; Plein, Sven; Tee, Michael; Eng, John; Bluemke, David A

    2015-04-18

    Morphological and functional parameters such as chamber size and function, aortic diameters and distensibility, flow and T1 and T2* relaxation time can be assessed and quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Knowledge of normal values for quantitative CMR is crucial to interpretation of results and to distinguish normal from disease. In this review, we present normal reference values for morphological and functional CMR parameters of the cardiovascular system based on the peer-reviewed literature and current CMR techniques and sequences.

  16. 40 CFR 190.10 - Standards for normal operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental Standards for the Uranium Fuel Cycle § 190.10 Standards for normal operations. Operations covered by...

  17. Establishing the Proteome of Normal Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Natelson, Benjamin H.; Angel, Thomas E.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Hixson, Kim K.; Lipton, Mary S.; Camp, David G.; Coyle, Patricia K.; Smith, Richard D.; Bergquist, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the entire protein content, the proteome, of normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would enable insights into neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Until now technologic hurdles and access to true normal samples hindered attaining this goal. Methods and Principal Findings We applied immunoaffinity separation and high sensitivity and resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to examine CSF from healthy normal individuals. 2630 proteins in CSF from normal subjects were identified, of which 56% were CSF-specific, not found in the much larger set of 3654 proteins we have identified in plasma. We also examined CSF from groups of subjects previously examined by others as surrogates for normals where neurologic symptoms warranted a lumbar puncture but where clinical laboratory were reported as normal. We found statistically significant differences between their CSF proteins and our non-neurological normals. We also examined CSF from 10 volunteer subjects who had lumbar punctures at least 4 weeks apart and found that there was little variability in CSF proteins in an individual as compared to subject to subject. Conclusions Our results represent the most comprehensive characterization of true normal CSF to date. This normal CSF proteome establishes a comparative standard and basis for investigations into a variety of diseases with neurological and psychiatric features. PMID:20552007

  18. [Practical assessment. Clinical evaluation of normal-tension glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Valtot, F

    2005-06-01

    Normal-tension glaucoma is a form of primary open-angle glaucoma where the intraocular pressure remains within the normal range. The progression of the disease is usually very slow. The main challenge is to establish the correct diagnosis, with a double risk: the patient might have undetected (and untreated) high intraocular pressure or, the patient might have a nonglaucomatous (possibly treatable) disease looking as a glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The clinical evaluation of the patient suspected of a normal-tension glaucoma must answer two questions: 1) is the intraocular pressure normal?, 2) is it a glaucomatous optic neuropathy or another type of optic neuropathy? PMID:16208237

  19. Die Amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren nach § 64 LFGB, § 35 Vorläufiges Tabakgesetz und § 28b Gentechnikgesetz - ein Instrument der amtlichen Lebensmittelüberwachung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, Silke; Stachel, Carolin

    Immer wieder werden Skandale in Zusammenhang mit Lebensmitteln bekannt. Schlagworte wie BSE, Gammelfleisch, Acrylamid, Cumarin oder auch Melamin, Dioxin sind den Verbrauchern geläufig und erschüttern das Vertrauen in ein gesundes und ernährungsphysiologisch wertvolles Lebensmittel. Das Bewusstsein des Verbrauchers hinsichtlich der Ernährung und der Auswahl beim Kauf der Lebensmittel hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren deutlich verändert. Bei der Auswahl seiner Lebensmittel liegt sein Augenmerk verstärkt auf gesunden, qualitativ hochwertigen und vor allem sicheren Lebensmitteln. Dies wurde insbesondere bei dem verhaltenen Kauf von Fleisch und Fleischerzeugnissen während der BSE-Krise oder auch dem kürzlich aufgetretenen Gammelfleischskandal deutlich.

  20. Improved Algorithm For Finite-Field Normal-Basis Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    Improved algorithm reduces complexity of calculations that must precede design of Massey-Omura finite-field normal-basis multipliers, used in error-correcting-code equipment and cryptographic devices. Algorithm represents an extension of development reported in "Algorithm To Design Finite-Field Normal-Basis Multipliers" (NPO-17109), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 12, No. 5, page 82.

  1. "Normalization," U.S. Foreign Policy and Domestic Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, James C.

    In this paper, the United States' foreign policy with regard to normalization of relations with mainland China and the implications of various normalization strategies is discussed. Failures in Kissinger's policy (fixation upon super-actors, but neglect of regional powers and the attitude that Taiwan was disposable) are identified. The effects of…

  2. Attentional Blink Differences between Adolescent Dyslexic and Normal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, G.L.; Constantinescu, I.; Cousineau, D.; de Almeida, R.G.; Segalowitz, N.; Grunau, M.v.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possibility that dyslexic individuals require more working memory resources than normal readers to shift attention from stimulus to stimulus. To test this hypothesis, normal and dyslexic adolescents participated in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation experiment (Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992).…

  3. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  4. What's Normal? Accurately and Efficiently Assessing Menstrual Function.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Darcie M; Beharry, Meera S

    2015-09-01

    Many young women are unsure of what constitutes normal menses. By asking focused questions, pediatric providers can quickly and accurately assess menstrual function and dispel anxiety and myths. In this article, we review signs and symptoms of normal versus pathologic menstrual functioning and provide suggestions to improve menstrual history taking.

  5. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  6. Evaluating Univariate, Bivariate, and Multivariate Normality Using Graphical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.

    This paper reviews graphical and nongraphical procedures for evaluating multivariate normality by guiding the reader through univariate and bivariate procedures that are necessary, but insufficient, indications of a multivariate normal distribution. A data set using three dependent variables for two groups provided by D. George and P. Mallery…

  7. Developing Visualization Support System for Teaching/Learning Database Normalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folorunso, Olusegun; Akinwale, AdioTaofeek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In tertiary institution, some students find it hard to learn database design theory, in particular, database normalization. The purpose of this paper is to develop a visualization tool to give students an interactive hands-on experience in database normalization process. Design/methodology/approach: The model-view-controller architecture…

  8. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected... whole milk which such farmer would have sold in the commercial market in each of the pay periods in...

  9. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected... whole milk which such farmer would have sold in the commercial market in each of the pay periods in...

  10. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected... whole milk which such farmer would have sold in the commercial market in each of the pay periods in...

  11. 7 CFR 760.4 - Normal marketings of milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Normal marketings of milk. 760.4 Section 760.4... Farmers for Milk § 760.4 Normal marketings of milk. (a) The county committee shall determine the affected... whole milk which such farmer would have sold in the commercial market in each of the pay periods in...

  12. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal...

  13. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal...

  14. 40 CFR 230.24 - Normal water fluctuations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Normal water fluctuations. 230.24... 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.24 Normal...

  15. Ways To Evaluate the Assumption of Multivariate Normality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Alyce S.

    This paper reviews graphical and nongraphical methods for estimating multivariate normality. Prior to exploring this methodology, a foundation is established by presenting ways to assess univariate and bivariate normality. A data set of three variables used by J. Stevens (1986) is analyzed using Q-Q plots, stem and leaf plots, histograms,…

  16. Learned Helplessness in Normally Achieving and Learning Disabled Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.

    1984-01-01

    A study involving 30 learning disabled and 30 normally achieving grade four girls suggested that helplessness effects may be stronger for learning disabled than for normally achieving children. Comparison to an earlier study with grade four boys suggested the possibility of sex differences regarding effectiveness of helplessness alleviation…

  17. Instrumental Dimensioning of Normal and Pathological Phonation Using Acoustic Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putzer, Manfred; Barry, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the dimensions of normal and pathological phonation. Separation of normal voices from pathological voices is tested under different aspects. Using a new parametrization of voice-quality properties in the acoustic signal, the vowel productions of 534 speakers (267 M, 267 F) without any reported voice pathology and the…

  18. Justifying Database Normalization: A Cost/Benefit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heeseok

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a cost/benefit model coupled with a decision tree for determining normal forms, which are used in information systems development processes to group data into well-refined structures. The three primary variables that impact the benefits and costs of normalization (reduced anomalies, storage requirements, and transaction response times)…

  19. Multivariate Models for Normal and Binary Responses in Intervention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pituch, Keenan A.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Chang, Wanchen

    2016-01-01

    Use of multivariate analysis (e.g., multivariate analysis of variance) is common when normally distributed outcomes are collected in intervention research. However, when mixed responses--a set of normal and binary outcomes--are collected, standard multivariate analyses are no longer suitable. While mixed responses are often obtained in…

  20. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.6 Actions normally requiring an EIS....

  1. 33 CFR 230.6 - Actions normally requiring an EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consider the use of an environmental assessment (EA) on these types of actions if early studies and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions normally requiring an EIS..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.6 Actions normally requiring an EIS....

  2. Speaker normalization for chinese vowel recognition in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-07-01

    Because of the limited spectra-temporal resolution associated with cochlear implants, implant patients often have greater difficulty with multitalker speech recognition. The present study investigated whether multitalker speech recognition can be improved by applying speaker normalization techniques to cochlear implant speech processing. Multitalker Chinese vowel recognition was tested with normal-hearing Chinese-speaking subjects listening to a 4-channel cochlear implant simulation, with and without speaker normalization. For each subject, speaker normalization was referenced to the speaker that produced the best recognition performance under conditions without speaker normalization. To match the remaining speakers to this "optimal" output pattern, the overall frequency range of the analysis filter bank was adjusted for each speaker according to the ratio of the mean third formant frequency values between the specific speaker and the reference speaker. Results showed that speaker normalization provided a small but significant improvement in subjects' overall recognition performance. After speaker normalization, subjects' patterns of recognition performance across speakers changed, demonstrating the potential for speaker-dependent effects with the proposed normalization technique. PMID:16042003

  3. GIANT PITUITARY ADENOMA WITH NORMAL VISION AND MISLEADING RADIOLOGICAL FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Muhammad; Raina, Umer Farooq; uz Zaman, Khaleeq; Tahir, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Giant pituitary adenomas are rare and present with visual loss. Giant pituitary adenoma has rarely been reported presenting with normal vision. We report Giant pituitary adenoma with Normal vision in a 35 years old patient presenting with adult onset epilepsy and headache. PMID:26721053

  4. Chevron nails: a normal variant in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Delano, Sofia; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-01-01

    A 7-month-old girl was evaluated for V-shaped ridging of the fingernails consistent with chevron nails. Chevron nails are a normal variant in the pediatric population that is frequently outgrown. This case nicely demonstrates this normal finding that has so rarely been reported in the literature.

  5. APOL1 Localization in Normal Kidney and Nondiabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Sethu M.; O'Toole, John F.; Konieczkowski, Martha; Ganesan, Santhi; Bruggeman, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    In patients of African ancestry, genetic variants in APOL1, which encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with the nondiabetic kidney diseases, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and hypertensive nephropathy. Understanding the renal localization of APOL1 may provide clues that will ultimately help elucidate the mechanisms by which APOL1 variants promote nephropathy. Here, we used immunohistology to examine APOL1 localization in normal human kidney sections and in biopsies demonstrating either FSGS (n = 8) or HIVAN (n = 2). Within normal glomeruli, APOL1 only localized to podocytes. Compared with normal glomeruli, fewer cells stained for APOL1 in FSGS and HIVAN glomeruli, even when expression of the podocyte markers GLEPP1 and synaptopodin appeared normal. APOL1 localized to proximal tubular epithelia in normal kidneys, FSGS, and HIVAN. We detected APOL1 in the arteriolar endothelium of normal and diseased kidney sections. Unexpectedly, in both FSGS and HIVAN but not normal kidneys, the media of medium artery and arterioles contained a subset of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells that stained for APOL1. Comparing the renal distribution of APOL1 in nondiabetic kidney disease to normal kidney suggests that a previously unrecognized arteriopathy may contribute to disease pathogenesis in patients of African ancestry. PMID:21997392

  6. Normalizations of High Taylor Reynolds Number Power Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puga, Alejandro; Koster, Timothy; Larue, John C.

    2014-11-01

    The velocity power spectrum provides insight in how the turbulent kinetic energy is transferred from larger to smaller scales. Wind tunnel experiments are conducted where high intensity turbulence is generated by means of an active turbulence grid modeled after Makita's 1991 design (Makita, 1991) as implemented by Mydlarski and Warhaft (M&W, 1998). The goal of this study is to document the evolution of the scaling region and assess the relative collapse of several proposed normalizations over a range of Rλ from 185 to 997. As predicted by Kolmogorov (1963), an asymptotic approach of the slope (n) of the inertial subrange to - 5 / 3 with increasing Rλ is observed. There are three velocity power spectrum normalizations as presented by Kolmogorov (1963), Von Karman and Howarth (1938) and George (1992). Results show that the Von Karman and Howarth normalization does not collapse the velocity power spectrum as well as the Kolmogorov and George normalizations. The Kolmogorov normalization does a good job of collapsing the velocity power spectrum in the normalized high wavenumber range of 0 . 0002 <= κλ <= 0 . 4 while the George normalization does a better job in the normalized mid-wavenumber range of 15 <= κλ <= 25 . University of California, Irvine Research Fund.

  7. The use of normal forms for analysing nonlinear mechanical vibrations

    PubMed Central

    Neild, Simon A.; Champneys, Alan R.; Wagg, David J.; Hill, Thomas L.; Cammarano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A historical introduction is given of the theory of normal forms for simplifying nonlinear dynamical systems close to resonances or bifurcation points. The specific focus is on mechanical vibration problems, described by finite degree-of-freedom second-order-in-time differential equations. A recent variant of the normal form method, that respects the specific structure of such models, is recalled. It is shown how this method can be placed within the context of the general theory of normal forms provided the damping and forcing terms are treated as unfolding parameters. The approach is contrasted to the alternative theory of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) which is argued to be problematic in the presence of damping. The efficacy of the normal form method is illustrated on a model of the vibration of a taut cable, which is geometrically nonlinear. It is shown how the method is able to accurately predict NNM shapes and their bifurcations. PMID:26303917

  8. Dorsal and ventral stream sensitivity in normal development and hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Alison; Cory, Elizabeth; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver; Wattam-Bell, John; Guzzetta, Andrea; Cioni, Giovanni

    2002-05-01

    Form and motion coherence thresholds can provide comparable measures of global visual processing in the ventral and dorsal streams respectively. Normal development of thresholds was tested in 360 normally developing children aged 4-11 and in normal adults. The two tasks showed similar developmental trends, with some greater variability and a slight delay in motion coherence compared to form coherence performance, in reaching adult levels. To examine the proposal of dorsal stream vulnerability related to specific developmental disorders, we compared 24 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy with the normally developing group. Hemiplegic children performed significantly worse than controls on the motion coherence task for their age, but not on the form coherence task; however, within this group no specific brain area was significantly associated with poor motion compared to form coherence performance. These results suggest that extrastriate mechanisms mediating these thresholds normally develop in parallel, but that the dorsal stream has a greater, general vulnerability to early neurological impairment. PMID:11997698

  9. Detection of Off-normal Images for NIF Automatic Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Awwal, A S; McClay, W A; Ferguson, S W; Burkhart, S C

    2005-07-11

    One of the major purposes of National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to accurately focus 192 high energy laser beams on a nanoscale (mm) fusion target at the precise location and time. The automatic alignment system developed for NIF is used to align the beams in order to achieve the required focusing effect. However, if a distorted image is inadvertently created by a faulty camera shutter or some other opto-mechanical malfunction, the resulting image termed ''off-normal'' must be detected and rejected before further alignment processing occurs. Thus the off-normal processor acts as a preprocessor to automatic alignment image processing. In this work, we discuss the development of an ''off-normal'' pre-processor capable of rapidly detecting the off-normal images and performing the rejection. Wide variety of off-normal images for each loop is used to develop the criterion for rejections accurately.

  10. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample.

  11. Laser-induced differential normalized fluorescence method for cancer diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Panjehpour, M.; Overholt, B.F.

    1996-12-03

    An apparatus and method for cancer diagnosis are disclosed. The diagnostic method includes the steps of irradiating a tissue sample with monochromatic excitation light, producing a laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from emission radiation generated by interaction of the excitation light with the tissue sample, and dividing the intensity at each wavelength of the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum by the integrated area under the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum to produce a normalized spectrum. A mathematical difference between the normalized spectrum and an average value of a reference set of normalized spectra which correspond to normal tissues is calculated, which provides for amplifying small changes in weak signals from malignant tissues for improved analysis. The calculated differential normalized spectrum is correlated to a specific condition of a tissue sample. 5 figs.

  12. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  13. Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen - Learning about soil diversity and soil functions with cartoon characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Anett

    2015-04-01

    "Bruno Braunerde und die Bodentypen" is a German-language learning material that fosters discovery of soil diversity and soil functions in kids, teens and adults who enjoy interactive learning activities. The learning material consists of (i) a large poster (dimensions 200 x 120 cm) showing an imaginative illustrated landscape that could be situated in Austria, Switzerland or southern Germany and (ii) a set of 15 magnetic cards that show different soil cartoon characters, e.g. Bruno Braunerde (Cambisol), Stauni Pseudogley (Stagnic Luvisol) or Heidi Podsol (Podzol) on the front and a fun profession and address (linked to the respective soil functions) on the back side. The task is to place the soil cartoon characters to their 'home' in the landscape. This learning material was developed as a contribution to the International Year of Soils 2015 and is supported by the German, Austrian and Swiss Soil Sciences Societies and the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. The soil cartoon characters are an adaptation of the original concept by the James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland (www.hutton.ac.uk/learning/dirt-doctor).

  14. Genomic Changes in Normal Breast Tissue in Women at Normal Risk or at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer develops through the accumulation of molecular abnormalities in normal breast tissue, resulting from exposure to estrogens and other carcinogens beginning at adolescence and continuing throughout life. These molecular changes may take a variety of forms, including numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic changes, and gene expression alterations. To characterize these abnormalities, a review of the literature has been conducted to define the molecular changes in each of the above major genomic categories in normal breast tissue considered to be either at normal risk or at high risk for sporadic breast cancer. This review indicates that normal risk breast tissues (such as reduction mammoplasty) contain evidence of early breast carcinogenesis including loss of heterozygosity, DNA methylation of tumor suppressor and other genes, and telomere shortening. In normal tissues at high risk for breast cancer (such as normal breast tissue adjacent to breast cancer or the contralateral breast), these changes persist, and are increased and accompanied by aneuploidy, increased genomic instability, a wide range of gene expression differences, development of large cancerized fields, and increased proliferation. These changes are consistent with early and long-standing exposure to carcinogens, especially estrogens. A model for the breast carcinogenic pathway in normal risk and high-risk breast tissues is proposed. These findings should clarify our understanding of breast carcinogenesis in normal breast tissue and promote development of improved methods for risk assessment and breast cancer prevention in women. PMID:27559297

  15. Genomic Changes in Normal Breast Tissue in Women at Normal Risk or at High Risk for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Danforth, David N

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic breast cancer develops through the accumulation of molecular abnormalities in normal breast tissue, resulting from exposure to estrogens and other carcinogens beginning at adolescence and continuing throughout life. These molecular changes may take a variety of forms, including numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic changes, and gene expression alterations. To characterize these abnormalities, a review of the literature has been conducted to define the molecular changes in each of the above major genomic categories in normal breast tissue considered to be either at normal risk or at high risk for sporadic breast cancer. This review indicates that normal risk breast tissues (such as reduction mammoplasty) contain evidence of early breast carcinogenesis including loss of heterozygosity, DNA methylation of tumor suppressor and other genes, and telomere shortening. In normal tissues at high risk for breast cancer (such as normal breast tissue adjacent to breast cancer or the contralateral breast), these changes persist, and are increased and accompanied by aneuploidy, increased genomic instability, a wide range of gene expression differences, development of large cancerized fields, and increased proliferation. These changes are consistent with early and long-standing exposure to carcinogens, especially estrogens. A model for the breast carcinogenic pathway in normal risk and high-risk breast tissues is proposed. These findings should clarify our understanding of breast carcinogenesis in normal breast tissue and promote development of improved methods for risk assessment and breast cancer prevention in women. PMID:27559297

  16. Restoration of Normal Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio With Fresh Frozen Plasma in Hypocoagulable Patients.

    PubMed

    Only, Arthur J; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Iqal, Omer; Fareed, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective reversal agent for hypocoagulable patients. Its proven efficacy continues to prompt its usage as both a prophylactic and a therapeutic therapy. Although published guidelines encouraging the appropriate administration of FFP exist, overutilization continues. The purpose of these ex vivo studies was to determine the effects of succeeding volumes of FFP supplementation on hypocoagulable plasma prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR). By analyzing the decline in PT/INR with varying volumes of FFP, a minimal required volume of FFP could be identified representing the optimal volume to administer while still providing therapeutic effect. A total of 497 plasma samples were screened for elevated PT/INR values and 50 samples were selected for inclusion in this experiment. The initial PTs/INRs ranged from 12.5 to 43.4 seconds/1.42 to 4.91. Subsequent declines in PT/INR values were analyzed following addition of 50, 100, and 150 µL of FFP to a fixed volume of 250 µL of plasma (26.4 ± 5.318 seconds/2.99 ± 0.603, 13.3 ± 1.077 seconds/1.51 ± 0.122, 11.2 ± 0.712 seconds/1.27 ± 0.081, and 10.3 ± 0.533 seconds/1.16 ± 0.06, respectively). A nonlinear relationship between decline in INR values and percentage of FFP supplementation was demonstrated. The greatest effect on INR was obtained after supplementation with 50 µL (49%). Doubling and tripling the volume of FFP lead to significantly lower declines in INR (16% and 8%, respectively). Analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance with subsequent volume supplementation of FFP, but marginal clinical benefits exist between the PTs/INRs obtainable with increased FFP volume administration.

  17. Defining Normal Liver Stiffness Range in a Normal Healthy Chinese Population without Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fung, James; Lee, Cheuk-kwong; Chan, Monica; Seto, Wai-kay; Wong, Danny Ka-ho; Lai, Ching-lung; Yuen, Man-fung

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. Aims To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. Results Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89). The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p<0.001). There was also a decline in median Lliver stiffness in the older age group, from 4.2 kPa in those <25 years to 3.4 kPa for those >55 years (p=0.001). Conclusions The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness. PMID:24386446

  18. Normalization of urinary drug concentrations with specific gravity and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Moser, Frank; Robert, Tim; Shelby, Melinda K; Black, David L

    2009-01-01

    Excessive fluid intake can substantially dilute urinary drug concentrations and result in false-negative reports for drug users. Methods for correction ("normalization") of drug/metabolite concentrations in urine have been utilized by anti-doping laboratories, pain monitoring programs, and in environmental monitoring programs to compensate for excessive hydration, but such procedures have not been used routinely in workplace, legal, and treatment settings. We evaluated two drug normalization procedures based on specific gravity and creatinine. These corrections were applied to urine specimens collected from three distinct groups (pain patients, heroin users, and marijuana/ cocaine users). Each group was unique in characteristics, study design, and dosing conditions. The results of the two normalization procedures were highly correlated (r=0.94; range, 0.78-0.99). Increases in percent positives by specific gravity and creatinine normalization were small (0.3% and -1.0%, respectively) for heroin users (normally hydrated subjects), modest (4.2-9.8%) for pain patients (unknown hydration state), and substantial (2- to 38-fold increases) for marijuana/cocaine users (excessively hydrated subjects). Despite some limitations, these normalization procedures provide alternative means of dealing with highly dilute, dilute, and concentrated urine specimens. Drug/metabolite concentration normalization by these procedures is recommended for urine testing programs, especially as a means of coping with dilute specimens.

  19. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  20. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Composites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a broad-band scanner with four to six bands, depending on the model. The AVHRR senses in the visible, near-, middle-, and thermal- infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This sensor is carried on a series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), beginning with the Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS-N) in 1978. Since 1989, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been mapping the vegetation condition of the United States and Alaska using satellite information from the AVHRR sensor. The vegetation condition composites, more commonly called greenness maps, are produced every week using the latest information on the growth and condition of the vegetation. One of the most important aspects of USGS greenness mapping is the historical archive of information dating back to 1989. This historical stretch of information has allowed the USGS to determine a 'normal' vegetation condition. As a result, it is possible to compare the current week's vegetation condition with normal vegetation conditions. An above normal condition could indicate wetter or warmer than normal conditions, while a below normal condition could indicate colder or dryer than normal conditions. The interpretation of departure from normal will depend on the season and geography of a region.

  1. Low-Normal Thyroid Function and Novel Cardiometabolic Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    van Tienhoven-Wind, Lynnda J.N.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2015-01-01

    The concept is emerging that low-normal thyroid function, i.e., either higher thyroid-stimulating hormone or lower free thyroxine levels within the euthyroid reference range, could contribute to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is possible that adverse effects of low-normal thyroid function on cardiovascular outcome may be particularly relevant for specific populations, such as younger people and subjects with high cardiovascular risk. Low-normal thyroid function probably relates to modest increases in plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance, but effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are inconsistent. Low-normal thyroid function may enhance plasma cholesteryl ester transfer, and contribute to an impaired ability of HDL to inhibit oxidative modification of LDL, reflecting pro-atherogenic alterations in lipoprotein metabolism and HDL function, respectively. Low-normal thyroid function also confers lower levels of bilirubin, a strong natural anti-oxidant. Remarkably, all these effects of low-normal thyroid functional status appear to be more outspoken in the context of chronic hyperglycemia and/or insulin resistance. Collectively, these data support the concept that low-normal thyroid function may adversely affect several processes which conceivably contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, beyond effects on conventional lipoprotein measures. PMID:25690422

  2. Cross Correlation versus Normalized Mutual Information on Image Registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to quantitatively assess and compare cross correlation and normalized mutual information methods used to register images in subpixel scale. The study shows that the normalized mutual information method is less sensitive to unaligned edges due to the spectral response differences than is cross correlation. This characteristic makes the normalized image resolution a better candidate for band to band registration. Improved band-to-band registration in the data from satellite-borne instruments will result in improved retrievals of key science measurements such as cloud properties, vegetation, snow and fire.

  3. [Repeated torsion of the normal adnexa in a premenarchal girl].

    PubMed

    Pankrac, Zofia; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Korzon, Michał

    2004-12-01

    Recurrent normal adnexal torsion is rare. The clinical presentation is poor and nonspecific. Authors present 11-years old girl with repeated torsion of the normal adnexa. At the first laparotomy salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Next two incidences were treated conservatively by ovary detorsion in laparoscopy. After second laparoscopy the girl was referred to the Adolescent Gynecology Outpatient Clinic. Preventive oophoroplexy was performed. After half of a year observation the girl reported no complaints and no abnormalities in physical examinations were found. Oophoroplexy in the cases of repeated normal adnexal torsion is a very useful method of prevention of recurrence.

  4. Normal and superfluid fractions of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium quantum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladilin, Vladimir N.; Wouters, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the normal and superfluid fractions of quantum fluids described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of an external potential. Both disordered and regular potentials are considered. The normal and superfluid fractions are defined by the response of the nonequilibrium quantum fluid to a vector potential, in analogy with the equilibrium case. We find that the physical meaning of these definitions breaks down out of equilibrium. The normal and superfluid fractions no longer add up to one and for some types of external potentials they can even become negative.

  5. Optimal subband Kalman filter for normal and oesophageal speech enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Rizwan; García Zapirain, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the single channel speech enhancement system using subband Kalman filtering by estimating optimal Autoregressive (AR) coefficients and variance for speech and noise, using Weighted Linear Prediction (WLP) and Noise Weighting Function (NWF). The system is applied for normal and Oesophageal speech signals. The method is evaluated by Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) score and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement for normal speech and Harmonic to Noise Ratio (HNR) for Oesophageal Speech (OES). Compared with previous systems, the normal speech indicates 30% increase in PESQ score, 4 dB SNR improvement and OES shows 3 dB HNR improvement. PMID:25227070

  6. Normal blood chemistry of the kori bustard (Ardeotis kori).

    PubMed

    D'aloia, M A; Samour, J H; Bailey, T A; Naldo, J; Howlett, J C

    1996-03-01

    Blood samples were obtained from clinically normal captive adult kori bustards (Ardeotis kori) in order to establish normal reference blood chemistry values for the species. Twenty-four different tests were conducted using a Kodak Ektachem DT II dry-chemistry system. A comparison of the values obtained was made with those of two sub-species of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii and Chlamydotis undulata undulata) and the great bustard (Otis tarda), and showed some similarities between the different species. The results obtained from this study provide the first set of published data for normal blood chemistry of the kori bustard.

  7. Dendrites of rod bipolar cells sprout in normal aging retina

    PubMed Central

    Liets, Lauren C.; Eliasieh, Kasra; van der List, Deborah A.; Chalupa, Leo M.

    2006-01-01

    The aging nervous system is known to manifest a variety of degenerative and regressive events. Here we report the unexpected growth of dendrites in the retinas of normal old mice. The dendrites of many rod bipolar cells in aging mice were observed to extend well beyond their normal strata within the outer plexiform layer to innervate the outer nuclear layer where they appeared to form contacts with the spherules of rod photoreceptors. Such dendritic sprouting increased with age and was evident at all retinal eccentricities. These results provide evidence of retinal plasticity associated with normal aging. PMID:16880381

  8. Optimal subband Kalman filter for normal and oesophageal speech enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Rizwan; García Zapirain, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the single channel speech enhancement system using subband Kalman filtering by estimating optimal Autoregressive (AR) coefficients and variance for speech and noise, using Weighted Linear Prediction (WLP) and Noise Weighting Function (NWF). The system is applied for normal and Oesophageal speech signals. The method is evaluated by Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) score and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement for normal speech and Harmonic to Noise Ratio (HNR) for Oesophageal Speech (OES). Compared with previous systems, the normal speech indicates 30% increase in PESQ score, 4 dB SNR improvement and OES shows 3 dB HNR improvement.

  9. Arzt und Hobby-Astronom in stürmischen Zeiten Der Büchernachlass des Doktor Johannes Häringshauser, Viertelsmedicus in Mistelbach (1630-1641) in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Giles; Glaßner, Gottfried

    2009-06-01

    Auf der Suche nach astronomischer Literatur stieß Giles Davison in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek auf den Namen "Doctor Johannes Häringshauser“ als Besitzer seltener und interessanter astronomischer Werke u.a. von Johannes Regiomontan, Georg von Peuerbach, Michael Mästlin, Johannes Kepler und Daniel Sennert. Weitere in den Jahren 2007-2009 durchgeführte Nachforschungen ergaben, dass es sich um den von 1630-1641 in Mistelbach, Niederösterreich, als Landschaftsarzt tätigen Vater des Melker Konventualen und Bibliothekars Sigismund Häringshauser (1631-1698) handelt. Er wurde 1603 als Sohn des aus Magdeburg stammenden Apothekers Johannes Häringshauser geboren und starb 1642 in Mistelbach. Johannes Häringshauser Sen. bekleidete von 1613-1640 eine Reihe wichtiger Ämter in der Wiener Stadtregierung und starb 1647. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. Johannes Häringshauser Jun. in Padua (1624-1626) dürfte das Interesse für Astronomie geweckt haben, das sich in seiner in die Bestände der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eingegangenen Privatbibliothek widerspiegelt. Der Großteil der 10 dem Fachbereich der Astronomie und Astrologie zuzuweisenden Titel wurde von ihm in den Jahren 1636 und 1637 erworben.

  10. Reversal and Rotation Errors by Normal and Retarded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, F. William

    1973-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the incidence of and relationships among word and letter reversals in writing and Bender-Gestalt rotation errors in matched samples of normal and retarded readers. No significant diffenences were found in the two groups. (TO)

  11. A generalized algorithm to design finite field normal basis multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Finite field arithmetic logic is central in the implementation of some error-correcting coders and some cryptographic devices. There is a need for good multiplication algorithms which can be easily realized. Massey and Omura recently developed a new multiplication algorithm for finite fields based on a normal basis representation. Using the normal basis representation, the design of the finite field multiplier is simple and regular. The fundamental design of the Massey-Omura multiplier is based on a design of a product function. In this article, a generalized algorithm to locate a normal basis in a field is first presented. Using this normal basis, an algorithm to construct the product function is then developed. This design does not depend on particular characteristics of the generator polynomial of the field.

  12. Optogenetic Activation of Normalization in Alert Macaque Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Avery, Michael C; Cetin, Ali H; Roe, Anna W; Reynolds, John H

    2015-06-17

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation that accounts for a variety of nonlinear neuronal response properties associated with sensory processing and higher cognitive functions. A key premise of normalization is that the excitability of a neuron is inversely proportional to the overall activity level of the network. We tested this by optogenetically activating excitatory neurons in alert macaque primary visual cortex and measuring changes in neuronal activity as a function of stimulation intensity, with or without variable-contrast visual stimulation. Optogenetic depolarization of excitatory neurons either facilitated or suppressed baseline activity, consistent with indirect recruitment of inhibitory networks. As predicted by the normalization model, neurons exhibited sub-additive responses to optogenetic and visual stimulation, which depended lawfully on stimulation intensity and luminance contrast. We conclude that the normalization computation persists even under the artificial conditions of optogenetic stimulation, underscoring the canonical nature of this form of neural computation.

  13. Feasibility on a piezoresistive tactile normal force sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Shichao; Moussa, Walied A.; Williston, L. Richard

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents a piezoresistive sensor array designed for use in touch panel applications. The sensor array is able to detect both amplitude and position of an applied force. A numerical method was used in designing both the normal force sensor and the sensor array. The normal force sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested with sensitivity of 0.5 mV/mN V. The sensor array has been modeled as feasible through the implementation of normal force sensor, and shows the sensitivity of 0.42 mV/mN V. The numerical results of the sensor array demonstrate linearity, which can be used for characterization of touch position and force amplitude. The intrinsic force-angle-related property of the normal force sensor can affect the characterization of the sensor array, and produce redundancy information for more precise data analysis.

  14. Fault stability under conditions of variable normal stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Linker, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of fault slip under conditions of varying normal stress is modelled as a spring and slider system with rate- and state-dependent friction. Coupling of normal stress to shear stress is achieved by inclining the spring at an angle, ??, to the sliding surface. Linear analysis yields two conditions for unstable slip. The first, of a type previously identified for constant normal stress systems, results in instability if stiffness is below a critical value. Critical stiffness depends on normal stress, constitutive parameters, characteristic sliding distance and the spring angle. Instability of the first type is possible only for velocity-weakening friction. The second condition yields instability if spring angle ?? <-cot-1??ss, where ??ss is steady-state sliding friction. The second condition can arise under conditions of velocity strengthening or weakening. Stability fields for finite perturbations are investigated by numerical simulation. -Authors

  15. Brief Return of Concussion Symptoms Normal Part of Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160281.html Brief Return of Concussion Symptoms Normal Part of Recovery: Study It's not ... common for children who've suffered a mild concussion to experience a return of symptoms when they ...

  16. Associative Learning in Premature Hydranencephalic and Normal Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuber, David S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of an experiment involving a hydranencephalic infant lacking cerebral hemispheres and a normal twin in testing for associative learning. Cardiac orienting responses to stimulus omission indicated that learning had taken place in both infants. (CS)

  17. Imaging for assessment of radiation-induced normal tissue effects

    PubMed Central

    Jeraj, Robert; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Hahn, Carol; Marks, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Imaging can provide quantitative assessment of radiation-induced normal tissue effects. Identifying an early sign of normal tissue damage with imaging would have the potential to predict organ dysfunction, thereby allowing re-optimization of treatment strategies based upon individual patients’ risks and benefits. Early detection with non-invasive imaging may enable interventions to mitigate therapy-associated injury prior to its clinical manifestation. Further, successive imaging may provide an objective assessment of the impact of such mitigation therapies. However, many problems make application of imaging to normal tissue assessment challenging, and further work is required to establish imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints of clinical outcome. The performance of clinical trials where normal tissue injury is a clearly defined endpoint would greatly aid in realization of these goals. PMID:20171509

  18. Holomorphic normal form of nonlinear perturbations of nilpotent vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolovitch, Laurent; Verstringe, Freek

    2016-07-01

    We consider germs of holomorphic vector fields at a fixed point having a nilpotent linear part at that point, in dimension n ≥ 3. Based on Belitskii's work, we know that such a vector field is formally conjugate to a (formal) normal form. We give a condition on that normal form which ensures that the normalizing transformation is holomorphic at the fixed point.We shall show that this sufficient condition is a nilpotent version of Bruno's condition (A). In dimension 2, no condition is required since, according to Stróżyna-Żołladek, each such germ is holomorphically conjugate to a Takens normal form. Our proof is based on Newton's method and sl2(C)-representations.

  19. Optogenetic Activation of Normalization in Alert Macaque Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Avery, Michael C; Cetin, Ali H; Roe, Anna W; Reynolds, John H

    2015-06-17

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation that accounts for a variety of nonlinear neuronal response properties associated with sensory processing and higher cognitive functions. A key premise of normalization is that the excitability of a neuron is inversely proportional to the overall activity level of the network. We tested this by optogenetically activating excitatory neurons in alert macaque primary visual cortex and measuring changes in neuronal activity as a function of stimulation intensity, with or without variable-contrast visual stimulation. Optogenetic depolarization of excitatory neurons either facilitated or suppressed baseline activity, consistent with indirect recruitment of inhibitory networks. As predicted by the normalization model, neurons exhibited sub-additive responses to optogenetic and visual stimulation, which depended lawfully on stimulation intensity and luminance contrast. We conclude that the normalization computation persists even under the artificial conditions of optogenetic stimulation, underscoring the canonical nature of this form of neural computation. PMID:26087167

  20. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)