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Sample records for north africa region

  1. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  2. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  3. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  4. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  5. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. PMID:23648267

  6. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  7. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  8. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  9. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  10. [Population trends in the Mediterranean region: socioeconomic problems associated with the situation in the countries of North Africa].

    PubMed

    Baldi, S

    1990-01-01

    The impact of current rates of population growth on the economies of the countries of North Africa is assessed. The author notes that the countries of the region had agreed in January 1990 to implement as soon as possible a policy of free circulation of migrants among Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania, and Libya in order to reduce levels of emigration from the region and to help resolve labor-supply problems within the region.

  11. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  12. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  13. Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jumaan, Aisha O; Ghanem, Soha; Taher, Jalaa; Braikat, Mhammed; Al Awaidy, Salah; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2013-12-30

    The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  14. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  15. Burden of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Vaccarella, Salvatore; Bruni, Laia; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    In this chapter, we present the available information on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (cancers of the cervix, anogenital cancers, and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx), as well as available data on the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in women with and without cervical cancer, for the countries of the Extended Middle East and North Africa region (EMENA). The EMENA region is characterized by societies that share similar cultures and religions and that are considered to have a more conservative sexual behaviour compared to Western societies. The incidence of cervical cancer is estimated to be relatively low, although it is difficult to assess precisely because systematic and national cancer registries are lacking in many countries of the EMENA region. In these countries, nationwide programs of cervical cancer screening do not exist or are based on a limited opportunistic cytology-based screening, which often lacks quality assurance. The incidence of anogenital cancers other than cervix is very low. The incidence of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx is relatively high in some countries, particularly in Pakistan. Relatively low levels of HPV prevalence have been observed in the several surveys conducted in the EMENA region, although only few young women were included in these studies. Possible changes in lifestyle and sexual behaviour in younger generations might, however, change this scenario. Thus, improving the information on the burden of HPV-related cancers and on the HPV prevalence in the general population is essential to develop a comprehensive intervention policy for future management of cervical cancer in this area. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled

  16. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  17. A GCM Investigation of Dust Aerosol Impact on the Regional Climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between dust and other physical processes have been found to play an important role in the dust-induced climate change. However, there are large uncertainties regarding whether, where, and how the dust enhances or suppresses precipitation. The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will induce a subsidence to its south and

  18. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  19. The transatlantic dust transport from North Africa to the Americas—Its characteristics and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, Gregor; Wernli, Heini; Kerkweg, Astrid; Teubler, Franziska

    2015-11-01

    Transport of Saharan dust over the Atlantic to the Americas is a relevant process since dust is a nutrient for marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It is therefore important to better quantify the frequency and amount of transatlantic dust transport, its preferred altitude and duration, and the regions of dust origin. This study uses a novel combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, applied to a previously validated 5 year simulation of the fifth generation European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast-Hamburg-model (ECHAM5)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry model, to quantify these dust transport characteristics and their seasonal variations. Results confirm the previously found preferred transatlantic dust pathways: in boreal winter and spring, African dust is mainly transported below 800 hPa toward South America, whereas in summer and autumn the preferred pathway is to the Caribbean and occurs in a layer up to 500 hPa. The averaged transport duration from dust emission to deposition is 10 days in winter for deposition in the Amazon region and almost 12 days in summer for deposition in the Caribbean. These estimates were obtained by combining correlation analyses of Eulerian dust fluxes and trajectory calculations. The latter were also essential to identify the main source regions of transatlantic dust transport, which were found in all seasons in northwestern Africa (Algeria, Mali, and Mauritania) but not farther east, e.g., in the Bodélé Depression. A specific Lagrangian analysis for this dust emission hot spot suggests that wet deposition associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone in winter and the African monsoon in summer inhibits Bodélé dust to leave the African continent.

  20. Eliciting policymakers' and stakeholders' opinions to help shape health system research priorities in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Makhoul, Jihad; Jamal, Diana; Ranson, Michael Kent; Kronfol, Nabil M; Tchaghchagian, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-informed decisions can strengthen health systems. Literature suggests that engaging policymakers and other stakeholders in research priority-setting exercises increases the likelihood of the utilization of research evidence by policymakers. To our knowledge, there has been no previous priority-setting exercise in health policy and systems research in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper presents the results of a recent research priority-setting exercise that identified regional policy concerns and research priorities related to health financing, human resources and the non-state sector, based on stakeholders in nine low and middle income countries (LMICs) of the MENA region. The countries included in this study were Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. This multi-phased study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The overall approach was guided by the listening priority-setting approach, adapted slightly to accommodate the context of the nine countries. The study was conducted in four key phases: preparatory work, country-specific work, data analysis and synthesis, and validation and ranking. The study identified the top five policy-relevant health systems research priorities for each of the three thematic areas for the next 3-5 years. Study findings can help inform and direct future plans to generate, disseminate and use research evidence for LMICs in the MENA region. Our study process and results could help reduce the great chasm between the policy and research worlds in the MENA region. It is hoped that funding agencies and countries will support and align financial and human resources towards addressing the research priorities that have been identified.

  1. Toward a Sustainable Society in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) Region: Roadmap and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassiouny, Noha

    2012-01-01

    The Business and Society Research Cluster (BSRC) at the German University in Cairo, the El-Khazindar Business Research and Case Center at the American University in Cairo and Misr El-Kheir (MEK) Foundation, Egypt, hosted the region's first sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) case studies conference, entitled "Toward a…

  2. Psychometric evaluation of the COPD assessment test: data from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul W; Shahrour, Naem; Nejjari, Chakib; Lahlou, Aicha; Doble, Adam; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity and performance of the Arabic and Turkish versions of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) for evaluating the severity and impact of COPD symptoms. The data were obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region, a large general population survey of COPD conducted in ten countries of the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom a random sample of 5,681 subjects were administered the CAT by telephone. 5,639 evaluable questionnaires were recovered, representing a completion rate of 99%. In addition, the CAT was administered to an additional 833 subjects fulfilling the epidemiological diagnostic criteria for COPD. Mean scores in the general population were 6.99 ± 6.91 for the Arabic version and 9.88 ± 9.04 for the Turkish version. In patients with COPD, mean scores were 16.2 ± 9.1 and 20.9 ± 10.2 respectively. Scores were consistently higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In the general population, the proportion of respondents fulfilling criteria for COPD rose with higher CAT scores, and particularly above the 80th percentile, where 63% of COPD cases were to be found. This suggests that the CAT may be useful as a case-finding tool in the general population. In the COPD population, healthcare resource consumption rose linearly with CAT score above a threshold score of twenty, arguing in favour of the good criterion validity of the CAT. The internal consistency of the CAT was high (Cronbach's α 0.85 for the Arabic and 0.86 for the Turkish versions) and the factorial structure was unidimensional. In conclusion, this study performed in Arabic and Turkish speaking populations confirms the utility and validity of the CAT as a simple tool to collect data on the severity and impact of COPD symptoms, and suggests that it may potentially be

  3. Analysis of two Saharan dust events of North Africa in the Mediterranean region by Using SKIRON/Eta model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaouda, D.; Kallos, G.; Azzi, A.; Louka, P.; Benlefki, A.

    2009-04-01

    aerosol is involved in many important processes in Earth's climate system, with important implications for air quality, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and the biosphere, and different impacts on human health. The relative importance of mineral dust in particulate matter depends on location, season and particle size, mainly concentrated in the coarse fraction. Its impacts on climate and environment have increased years after years and needs to be more understood. In the present work, the relationships between the meteorological conditions and dust transport phenomena from the Saharan regions of north Africa and their transport, deposition in both modes, dry and wet deposition in the Mediterranean region, and the Atlantic Ocean, during two dust events namely: case I (01/03/04 - 06/03/04), case II (29/05/05 - 03/06/05), that have been analysed and their major characteristics have been discussed. This analysis has been performed with the aid of the SKIRON modelling system of the University of Athens. The dust module of SKIRON/Eta model incorporates the state of the art parameterization of all the major phases of the desert dust cycle such as production, diffusion, advection and removal. Model results have been compared with TOMS-AI (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer Aerosol Index) data for a qualitative comparison of the model. The work has been conducted at the framework of TEMPUS project MADEPODIM.

  4. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes.

  5. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    PubMed

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. PMID:25107991

  6. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  7. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  8. Enteric fever in Mediterranean north Africa.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Franka, Ezzedin; Tawil, Khaled; Wasfy, Momtaz O; Ahmed, Salwa F; Rubino, Salvatore; Klena, John D

    2009-01-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in the Mediterranean North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) with an estimated incidence of 10-100 cases per 100,000 persons. Outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B is more commonly involved in nosocomial cases of enteric fever in North Africa than expected and leads to high mortality rates among infants with congenital anomalies. Prevalence among travellers returning from this region is low, with an estimate of less than one per 100,000. Although multidrug resistant strains of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi are prevalent in this region, the re-emergence of chloramphenicol- and ampicillin-susceptible strains has been observed. In order to better understand the epidemiology of enteric fever in the Mediterranean North African region, population-based studies are needed. These will assist the health authorities in the region in preventing and controlling this important disease.

  9. Comorbidities associated with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: association with severity and exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub, Bassam; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Iqbal, Mohammed Nizam; Salhi, Hocine; Lahlou, Aïcha; Tariq, Luqman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of comorbidities in subjects with COPD and their association with respiratory symptom severity and COPD exacerbations. Materials and methods This was an analysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of eleven countries in the Middle East and North Africa, including Pakistan. The study population consisted of a sample of subjects with COPD for whom the presence of comorbidities was documented. Three questionnaires were used. The screening questionnaire identified subjects who fulfilled an epidemiological case definition of COPD and documented any potential comorbidities; the detailed COPD questionnaire collected data on respiratory symptoms, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidities associated with COPD; the COPD Assessment Test collected data on the impact of respiratory symptoms on well-being and daily life. Results A total of 2,187 subjects were positively screened for COPD, of whom 1,392 completed the detailed COPD questionnaire. COPD subjects were more likely to report comorbidities (55.2%) than subjects without COPD (39.1%, P<0.0001), most frequently cardiovascular diseases. In subjects who screened positively for COPD, the presence of comorbidities was significantly (P=0.03) associated with a COPD Assessment Test score ≥10 and with antecedents of COPD exacerbations in the previous 6 months (P=0.03). Conclusion Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and associated with more severe respiratory symptoms. This highlights the importance of identification and appropriate management of comorbidities in all subjects with a diagnosis of COPD. PMID:26917957

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the adult population within the Middle East and North Africa region: rationale and design of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader; Rashid, Nauman; Lahlou, Aicha; Salhi, Hocine; Doble, Adam; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the BREATHE study was to estimate the regional prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms within the general population in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region and to document risk factors, disease characteristics and management using a standardised methodology. This was an observational population-based survey performed in ten countries in the Middle East and North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan. A general population sample of 10,000 subjects ≥ 40 years of age in each country or zone was generated from random telephone numbers. Structured interviews were proposed by telephone. A screening questionnaire was administered to each subject collecting information on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. Subjects with chronic bronchitis or breathlessness and smoking ≥ 10 pack · years fulfilled the epidemiological definition of COPD ("COPD" population). This population then completed a full disease questionnaire, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and a cost-of-disease questionnaire. A randomly selected sample was also assessed by spirometry. In all, 457,258 telephone numbers were generated and contact was established with 210,121 subjects, of whom 65,154 were eligible and 62,086 accepted to participate. The overall response rate was 74.2%. 2,187 (3.5%) subjects fulfilled the criteria for the "COPD" population. Evaluable spirometry data were obtained from 1,847 (14.2%) subjects to whom it was proposed. The BREATHE study has collected a large amount of information on COPD variables from a representative sample of the general population of countries in the MENA region, which can be compared with other regional COPD initiatives.

  11. The Impact of Human Activities in Africa, the North and South Pole Regions on Global Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    a way that goals could be achieved without necessarily causing problems to the world climate. 4. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) should check and control the Ocean Pollutions caused as a result of the degreasing activities of the "QUAY APRONS" currently going on at the various African Sea Ports in order to protect the Ocean pollution with chemicals that can make the World's ice to be melting. 5. The International Meteorological Organization should open its offices within each region of the six continents in order to have a closer monitoring of human activities that can influence the world's climate. Organizing seminars, Conferences and Workshops on a regular basis by the United Nations and other related organizations can help in the areas of public enlightenment and the education of the rural populace who are also great contributors to the situation. The UN should use its capacity to discourage the importation of fairly used refrigerators, Air-conditioners and propellants to Africa and at the same time assist in the subsidy of the newer ones coming to Africa, so that the average African can afford buying them I believe that if the above listed suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will help in reducing these challenges threatening the entire world. Thanks for listening.

  12. The impact of human activities in africa,the north and south pole regions on global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    a way that goals could be achieved without necessarily causing problems to the world climate. 4. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) should check and control the Ocean Pollutions caused as a result of the degreasing activities of the "QUAY APRONS" currently going on at the various African Sea Ports in order to protect the Ocean pollution with chemicals that can make the World's ice to be melting. 5. The International Meteorological Organization should open its offices within each region of the six continents in order to have a closer monitoring of human activities that can influence the world's climate. 6. Organizing seminars, Conferences and Workshops on a regular basis by the United Nations and other related organizations can help in the areas of public enlightenment and the education of the rural populace who are also great contributors to the situation. 7. The UN should use its capacity to discourage the importation of fairly used refrigerators, Air-conditioners and propellants to Africa and at the same time assist in the subsidy of the newer ones coming to Africa, so that the average African can afford buying them I believe that if the above listed suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will help in reducing these challenges threatening the entire world. Thanks for listening.

  13. A sensitivity study on the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in the summer climate of North Africa using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaroug, Modathir A. H.; Sylla, M. B.; Giorgi, F.; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Aggarwal, Pradeep K.

    2013-07-01

    We used the regional climate model RegCM3 to investigate the role of the swamps of southern Sudan in affecting the climate of the surrounding region. Towards this end, we first assessed the performance of a high resolution version of the model over northern Africa. RegCM3 shows a good skill in simulating the climatology of rainfall and temperature patterns as well as the related circulation features during the summer season, outperforming previous coarser resolution applications of the model over this region. Sensitivity experiments reveal that, relative to bare soil conditions, the swamps act to locally modify the surface energy budget primarily through an increase of surface latent heat flux. Existence of the swamps leads to lower ground temperature (up to 2 °C), a larger north-south temperature gradient, and increased local rainfall (up to 40 %). Of particular importance is the impact on rainfall in the surrounding regions. The swamps have almost no impact on the rainfall over the source region of the Nile in Ethiopia or in the Sahel region; however, they favor wetter conditions over central Sudan (up to 15 %) in comparison to the bare desert soil conditions.

  14. The case for developing publicly-accessible datasets for health services research in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2009-01-01

    Background The existence of publicly-accessible datasets comprised a significant opportunity for health services research to evolve into a science that supports health policy making and evaluation, proper inter- and intra-organizational decisions and optimal clinical interventions. This paper investigated the role of publicly-accessible datasets in the enhancement of health care systems in the developed world and highlighted the importance of their wide existence and use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Discussion A search was conducted to explore the availability of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region. Although datasets were found in most countries in the region, those were limited in terms of their relevance, quality and public-accessibility. With rare exceptions, publicly-accessible datasets - as present in the developed world - were absent. Based on this, we proposed a gradual approach and a set of recommendations to promote the development and use of publicly-accessible datasets in the region. These recommendations target potential actions by governments, researchers, policy makers and international organizations. Summary We argue that the limited number of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region represents a lost opportunity for the evidence-based advancement of health systems in the region. The availability and use of publicly-accessible datasets would encourage policy makers in this region to base their decisions on solid representative data and not on estimates or small-scale studies; researchers would be able to exercise their expertise in a meaningful manner to both, policy makers and the public. The population of the MENA countries would exercise the right to benefit from locally- or regionally-based studies, versus imported and in 'best cases' customized ones. Furthermore, on a macro scale, the availability of regionally comparable publicly-accessible datasets would allow for the exploration of regional variations

  15. Mitochondrial control region diversity of the houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata complex and genetic structure along the Atlantic seaboard of North Africa.

    PubMed

    Idaghdour, Youssef; Broderick, Damien; Korrida, Amal; Chbel, Faiza

    2004-01-01

    The houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata, is a declining cryptic desert bird whose range extends from North Africa to Central Asia. Three subspecies are currently recognized by geographical distribution and morphology: C.u.fuertaventurae, C.u.undulata and C.u.macqueenii. We have sequenced 854 bp of mitochondrial control region from 73 birds to describe their population genetic structure with a particular sampling focus on the connectivity between C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata along the Atlantic seaboard of North Africa. Nucleotide and haplotypic diversity varied among the subspecies being highest in C.u.undulata, lowest in C.u.fuertaventurae and intermediate in C.u.macqueenii. C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata are paraphyletic and an average nucleotide divergence of 2.08% splits the later from C.u.macqueenii. We estimate that C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata split from C.u.macqueenii approximately 430 000 years ago. C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata are weakly differentiated (FST = 0.27, Nm = 1.3), indicative of a recent shared history. Archaeological evidence indicates that houbara bustards have been present on the Canary Islands for 130-170 000 years. However, our genetic data point to a more recent separation of C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata at around 20-25 000 years. Concordant archaeological, climatic opportunities for colonization and genetic data point to a scenario of: (i) initial colonization of the Canary Islands about 130 000 years ago; (ii) a period of secondary contact 19-30 000 years ago homogenizing any pre-existing genetic structure followed by; (iii) a period of relative isolation that persists today. PMID:14653787

  16. Mitochondrial control region diversity of the houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata complex and genetic structure along the Atlantic seaboard of North Africa.

    PubMed

    Idaghdour, Youssef; Broderick, Damien; Korrida, Amal; Chbel, Faiza

    2004-01-01

    The houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata, is a declining cryptic desert bird whose range extends from North Africa to Central Asia. Three subspecies are currently recognized by geographical distribution and morphology: C.u.fuertaventurae, C.u.undulata and C.u.macqueenii. We have sequenced 854 bp of mitochondrial control region from 73 birds to describe their population genetic structure with a particular sampling focus on the connectivity between C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata along the Atlantic seaboard of North Africa. Nucleotide and haplotypic diversity varied among the subspecies being highest in C.u.undulata, lowest in C.u.fuertaventurae and intermediate in C.u.macqueenii. C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata are paraphyletic and an average nucleotide divergence of 2.08% splits the later from C.u.macqueenii. We estimate that C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata split from C.u.macqueenii approximately 430 000 years ago. C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata are weakly differentiated (FST = 0.27, Nm = 1.3), indicative of a recent shared history. Archaeological evidence indicates that houbara bustards have been present on the Canary Islands for 130-170 000 years. However, our genetic data point to a more recent separation of C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata at around 20-25 000 years. Concordant archaeological, climatic opportunities for colonization and genetic data point to a scenario of: (i) initial colonization of the Canary Islands about 130 000 years ago; (ii) a period of secondary contact 19-30 000 years ago homogenizing any pre-existing genetic structure followed by; (iii) a period of relative isolation that persists today.

  17. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  18. Genetic diversity and admixture of indigenous cattle from North Ethiopia: implications of historical introgressions in the gateway region to Africa.

    PubMed

    Zerabruk, M; Li, M-H; Kantanen, J; Olsaker, I; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G; Vangen, O

    2012-06-01

    Microsatellite variation was surveyed to determine the genetic diversity, population structure and admixture of seven North Ethiopian cattle breeds by combining multiple microsatellite data sets of Indian and West African zebu, and European, African and Near-Eastern taurine in genetic analyses. Based on allelic distribution, we identified four diagnostic alleles (HEL1-123 bp, CSSM66-201 bp, BM2113-150 bp and ILSTS6-285 bp) specific to the Near-Eastern taurine. Results of genetic relationship and population structure analyses confirmed the previously established marked genetic distinction between taurine and zebu, and indicated further divergence among the bio-geographical groupings of breeds such as North Ethiopian, Indian and West African zebu, and African, European and Near-Eastern taurine. Using the diagnostic alleles for bio-geographical groupings and a Bayesian method for population structure inference, we estimated the genetic influences of major historical introgressions in North Ethiopian cattle. The breeds have been heavily (>90%) influenced by zebu, followed by African, European and the Near-Eastern taurine. Overall, North Ethiopian cattle show a high level of within-population genetic variation (e.g. observed heterozygosity = 0.659-0.687), which is in the upper range of that reported for domestic cattle and indicates their potential for future breeding applications, even in a global context. Rather low but significant population differentiation (F(ST) = 1.1%, P < 0.05) was recorded as a result of multiple introgression events and strong genetic exchanges among the North Ethiopian breeds. PMID:22486496

  19. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ennafaa, Hajer; Cabrera, Vicente M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M; Amor, Mohamed B; Bouhaha, Rym; Dzimiri, Nduna; Elgaaïed, Amel B; Larruga, José M

    2009-01-01

    Background The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would help clarify the relative affinities among these regions. Results Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42%) and H3 (13%). The similarity between these regions is stronger in the North-West edge affecting mainly Moroccan Arabs, West Saharans and Mauritanians, and decreases eastwards probably due to gene flow from Near East as attested for the higher frequencies of H4, H5, H7, H8 and H11 subgroups. Moroccan Berbers show stronger affinities with Tunisian and Tunisian Berbers than with Moroccan Arabs. Coalescence ages for H1 (11 ± 2 ky) and H3 (11 ± 4 ky) in North Africa point to the possibility of a late Palaeolithic settlement for these lineages similar to those found for other mtDNA haplogroups. Total and partial mtDNA genomic sequencing unveiled stronger mtDNA differentiation among regions than previously found using HVSI mtDNA based analysis. Conclusion The subdivision of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa has confirmed that the genetic differentiation found among Western and Eastern populations is mainly due to geographical rather than cultural barriers. It also shows that the historical Arabian role on the region had more a cultural than a demic effect. Whole mtDNA sequencing of identical H haplotypes based on HVSI and RFLP information has unveiled additional mtDNA differences between North African and Iberian Peninsula lineages, pointing to an older mtDNA genetic flow between regions than previously thought. Based on this

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis among high-risk groups: Understanding the knowledge gap in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nada M; Rahhal, Nour; Charide, Rana; Kreidieh, Khalil; El-Khatib, Rolla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify gaps in the existing knowledge on single, dual and triple infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region among men who have sex with men (MSMs), female sex workers (FSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and prisoners. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature search on articles published on the topic in the 25 countries of the MENA region. PubMed database was used as the main search engine. Case reports, case series, qualitative studies, editorials, commentaries, authors’ replies and animal studies were excluded. Original articles and reviews dealing with the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infection were included. Data on population type, sample size, age and markers of infections were extracted from the relevant studies. RESULTS: HIV, HBV and HCV are blood-borne viruses with similar modes of transmission. The categories of people at high risk of acquiring HIV-1, HBV and HCV commonly include: MSMs, FSW and IDUs. It is well established that HIV-positive individuals co-infected with HBV or HCV suffer from liver pathology associated with morbidity and mortality. Moreover, HIV-infected individuals do not respond well to treatment for HBV or HCV and hence are at increased risk of hepatic toxicity. Consequently, co-infection of HIV-positive individuals with HBV and/or HCV is a global health problem of significant magnitude. Our review reveals the paucity of epidemiological data for key populations in many countries of the region. Limited number of studies exists in the MENA region on the status of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infections among prisoners, MSMs and FSWs. Evidence support the continued increase of the HIV epidemic among MSMs. In addition to the lack of studies on MSMs and FSWs in the MENA region, our review highlights the lack of data on the practices, characteristics, or the status of HIV infection and viral hepatitis

  2. Distribution of body mass index among subjects with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: data from the BREATHE study

    PubMed Central

    Koniski, Marie-Louise; Salhi, Hocine; Lahlou, Aïcha; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2015-01-01

    Background Data describing the potential relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and body mass index (BMI) are limited within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Objective To evaluate the distribution of BMI among subjects with COPD in the general population of the MENA region. Methods This study was a subanalysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of ten countries in the MENA region and Pakistan. The study population consisted of subjects screened for COPD who documented their weight and height. A COPD questionnaire was administered to subjects who screened positively for COPD in order to collect data on patient characteristics, symptom severity, management and burden of disease, comorbidities, and health care resource utilization and data allowing calculation of the BMI. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) was administered to those screened positively for COPD to collect data on the impact of respiratory symptoms. Results Nine hundred and ninety-six subjects with COPD, who completed the detailed COPD questionnaire and documented their weight and height, were included in this analysis. The mean BMI was 27.7±5.7 kg/m2. The proportion of COPD patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is significantly higher than the proportion with a BMI <25 kg/m2 (64.6% [n=643] vs 35.4% [n=353], respectively; P<0.0001). There were no significant differences between the distribution of BMI, ages, sex, COPD symptoms, exacerbations, CAT scores, COPD-associated health care resource consumption, and GOLD severity groups. However, the occurrence of comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases seemed to be significantly associated with obese or morbidly obese status (P=0.02). Conclusion In the MENA region, the majority of COPD subjects were overweight or obese, and comorbidities such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases are likely to be associated with COPD when BMI is in the obese or morbidly

  3. QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P; McIntyre, C Lynne; Mathews, Ky L; Jalal Kamali, M R; Mossad, Moussa; Feltaous, Yousef; Tahir, Izzat S A; Chatrath, Ravish; Ogbonnaya, Francis; Baum, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection. PMID:23269228

  4. Association between dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults in the Middle East and North Africa region: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Aljefree, Najlaa; Ahmed, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews the evidence related to the association of dietary pattern with coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, and the associated risk factors among adults in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Methods A systematic review of published articles between January 1990 and March 2015 was conducted using Pro-Quest Public Health, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar. The term ‘dietary pattern’ refers to data derived from dietary pattern analyses and individual food component analyses. Results The search identified 15 studies. The available data in the MENA region showed that Western dietary pattern has been predominant among adults with fewer adherences to the traditional diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. The Western dietary pattern was found to be associated with an increased risk of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), body mass index (BMI), and hypertension. The Mediterranean diet, labelled in two studies as ‘the traditional Lebanese diet’, was negatively associated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the risk of diabetes, while one study found no association between the Mediterranean diet and MetS. Two randomised controlled trials conducted in Iran demonstrated the effect of the dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH) in reducing metabolic risk among patients with diabetes and MetS. Likewise, the consumption of dairy products was associated with decreased blood pressure and WC, while the intake of whole grains was associated with reduced WC. In addition, the high consumption of black tea was found to be associated with decreased serum lipids. The intake of fish, vegetable oils, and tea had a protective effect on CHD, whereas the intake of full-fat yoghurt and hydrogenated fats was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Conclusion There appears to be a significant association of Western dietary pattern with the increased risk of CHD, strokes, and associated risk factors among adults in the MENA region

  5. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat.

    PubMed

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Ahmed, Mohamed O; Dau, Aghnyia A; Agnan, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional "epidemiological homogeneity" concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:27610403

  6. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnyia A.; Agnan, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional “epidemiological homogeneity” concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:27610403

  7. Hepatitis C Virus in North Africa: An Emerging Threat

    PubMed Central

    El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnyia A.; Agnan, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major public health threat associated with serious clinical consequences worldwide. North Africa is a unique region composed of seven countries that vary considerably in the predisposing factors to microbial diseases both historically and at the present time. The dynamics of HCV in the region are not well documented. The data are both limited and controversial in most of the countries in the region. In North Africa, the epidemiology of HCV is disparate and understanding it has been hampered by regional “epidemiological homogeneity” concepts. As the dynamics of HCV vary from country to country, context-specific research is needed. In this review, we assess studies performed in each country in the general populations as well as among blood donors and groups exposed to the HCV infection. The reported prevalence of HCV ranges from 0.6% to 8.4% in the Maghreb countries and is predominated by genotype 1. In the Nile valley region, it ranges from 2.2% to 18.9% and is dominated by genotype 4. In North African countries, HCV seems to be a serious problem that is driven by different vectors even in different geographical locations within the same country. Efforts should be combined at both the national and regional levels to implement efficient preventive and treatment strategies.

  8. Hemoglobinopathies in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Haj Khelil, Amel; Denden, Sabri; Leban, Nadia; Daimi, Houria; Lakhdhar, Ramzi; Lefranc, Gérard; Ben Chibani, Jemni; Perrin, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Hemolytic anemias are very common diseases. Among these diseases, hemoglobinopathies are widely spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin, including North Africa (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco). Their severity and disabling nature make them a major public health problem. This study includes our data on the Tunisian hemoglobinopathies together with all the reports concerning epidemiological, clinical and molecular aspects in Algerian and Moroccan populations. Investigation methods begin with the application of several techniques for hemoglobin (Hb) analyses [electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing (IEF), micro-chromatography assay] of anemic patients in various hospital departments. Molecular investigation by DNA analyses completes the hematological and biochemical studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by enzymatic digestion and/or denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing. These methods offer screening for a large number of families affected by sickle cell disease and thalassemia. In Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, more than 45 mutations have been identified on the beta-globin gene. The most common in Tunisia and in Algeria are codon 39 (C>T) and IVS-I-110 (G>A), which together account for more than 50% of all mutations. In Morocco, the predominant mutations are codon 39 and frameshift codon (FSC) 8 (-AA). The identification of molecular defects in the betagene contributes to the development of diagnostic tests (prenatal diagnosis), and gives us the opportunity to help many couples. Our studies of the haplotypes of the beta(S), codon 39 and IVS-I-110 origins allowed the hypothesis of a Benin origin for beta(S), a local North African origin for codon 39 and an Eastern Mediterranean origin for IVS-I-110. The analysis of polymorphisms associated with a moderate phenotype of beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) and sickle cell disease in North Africa has shown, in several cases, a strong

  9. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  10. Multiple co-circulating HIV-1 subtypes in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Morgane; Modjarrad, Kayvon

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 incidence has been increasing more rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa than in any other global region. Despite this trend, HIV epidemiology in the region remains poorly defined. We conducted an analysis of 3284 publicly available HIV-1 sequences from 15 countries in the Middle East and North Africa to better characterize the regional epidemic. A phylogenetic tree based on the reverse transcriptase gene revealed a complex mosaic of diverse HIV subtypes and circulating recombinant forms across the region. PMID:26091303

  11. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  12. New oil and gas plays, Morocco and Tunisia, North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Pratsch, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    Modern integrated exploration concepts have defined two new oil and gas plays in onshore North Africa: The Prerif Basin in Morocco and the Central Basin in Tunisia. The Moroccan Prerif Basin is somewhat similar to Rocky Mountain basins, the Tunisian Central Basin to West Texas. In Morocco, two major gravity-indicated depocenters lie along the contact between the northern Tertiary Rif Fold- and Thrust Belt and southern Prerif Foreland Basin. No deep drilling or seismic data have been reported over these depocenters. They probably contain thick Jurassic oil source beds known from the southern basin flank; regional hydrocarbon migration was mainly north to south. Reservoirs will include sandstones and carbonates of Triassic, Jurassic, and Miocene ages. Some small oil production from Jurassic and Tertiary reservoirs at the southern edge of the basin is now shut-in. In Tunisia, a large (over 60,000 sqkm) regional structurally low area is indicated by gravity and regional geological data. Geochemistry shows a huge gas an oil potential from Paleozoic source beds. Main hydrocarbon migration most likely was from west to east. Reservoirs will include Paleozoic and Triassic sandstones, similar to those in the many producing fields in the North African Sahara Region. This play has not yet been initiated. Attractive legislation and market possibilities exist in both areas.

  13. The Carnian Pluvial Event in Western Europe: New data from Iberia and correlation with the Western Neotethys and Eastern North America-NW Africa regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arche, Alfredo; López-Gómez, José

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of the Late Triassic, a period of increased precipitation occurred over large tracts of Central Pangea, the "Carnian Pluvial Event". It was a short-lived event (> 1 Ma), coeval with a marked sea-level fall and active rifting. New and classical sections of Carnian age in the Iberian Peninsula have been studied and a new correlation scheme is proposed for the Iberian domain, integrating field data and subsurface electric log data. This is the first time that the Portuguese and Spanish Late Triassic (Carnian) sediments are correlated. The "Carnian Pluvial Event" is identified in the Iberian Peninsula as a continental clastic wedge (Manuel Fm. and coeval sediments) in between marine evaporite formations during a marked sea-level drop event; its age is considered to be Julian (early Carnian) by palynological and paleogeographic considerations. A new correlation of the Late Triassic sediments of the Iberian Peninsula with coeval sediments of Western Europe, NW Africa and Eastern North America is proposed and a new paleogeographical map of Central Eastern Pangea for this period is presented in order to demonstrate that the geographical extent of the siliciclastic sediments related to the "Carnian Pluvial Event" was much larger than accepted before.

  14. Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Zalloua, Pierre; Benammar Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2013-01-01

    The geostrategic location of North Africa as a crossroad between three continents and as a stepping-stone outside Africa has evoked anthropological and genetic interest in this region. Numerous studies have described the genetic landscape of the human population in North Africa employing paternal, maternal, and biparental molecular markers. However, information from these markers which have different inheritance patterns has been mostly assessed independently, resulting in an incomplete description of the region. In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ∼15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara. Although most North Africans share a common admixture history, the Tunisian Berbers show long periods of genetic isolation and appear to have diverged from surrounding populations without subsequent mixture. On the other hand, continuous gene flow from the Middle East made Egyptians genetically closer to Eurasians than to other North Africans. We show that genetic diversity of today's North Africans mostly captures patterns from migrations post Last Glacial Maximum and therefore may be insufficient to inform on the initial population of the region during the Middle Paleolithic period. PMID:24312208

  15. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  16. Evaluating the Old World Drought Atlas in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchan, Ramzi; Kherchouche, Dalila; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Slimani, Said; Krcmaric, Jordan A.; Meko, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Drought is a focal point in the assessment of hydroclimatic variability in the Mediterranean Basin. The Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) by Cook et al. (2015) was the starting point for understanding several centuries of drought occurrence, duration, and severity over all of Europe including the Mediterranean Basin. Here, we investigate the extension of the OWDA to North Africa (NA), specifically Algeria, since droughts there can have drastic social and economic impacts. Pearson correlations were used to gauge strength of the relationship of gridded reconstructed series from OWDA (-0.25° W-34°.25N, 34°.75N, 35°.25N, and 35°.75N) with 27 tree-ring chronologies from various species from Algeria. Correlations range from 0.35 (p < 0.0001) to 0.025 (p >0.627), and suggest the OWDA does not fully reflect the regional drought patterns in parts of Algeria and nearby NA. Lower correlations between local tree-ring chronologies and OWDA grids are related to the lack of tree-ring chronologies from Algeria within the OWDA. Work is ongoing to blend existing chronologies from the Mediterranean region with newly developed chronologies from currently under-sampled parts of NA and generate a Mediterranean Basin Drought Atlas (MBDA) that chronicles spatiotemporal drought variability over the past few centuries to millennium. The MBDA will complement the OWDA, the existing 'North American Drought Atlas' (NADA), and the 'Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas' (MADA) in charting drought history of the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Regional paleogeographic evolution of west Africa: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Hempton, M.R.; Rosen, M.A.; Coughlin, R.M.; Scardina, A.D.; Hagen, E.S.; Nordstrom, P.J. )

    1991-03-01

    New paleogeographic reconstructions of west African continental margins provide a regional framework to contrast differences in hydrocarbon habitat and tectonostratigraphic style. Five regional provinces are delineated: (1) Northwest Africa margin from mauritania to Sierra Leone, (2) Transform margin from Liberia to Benin, (3) Niger delta of Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea, (4) South Atlantic Salt basin margin from Cameroon to Angola, and (5) Southwest Africa margin of Namibia and South Africa. Computer-constrained paleogeographic reconstructions based on exploration data depict the separation of west Africa from South and North America during the Late Triassic to the present along three rift systems. In northwest Africa rifting began in the Late Triassic associated with the opening of the Central Atlantic. In southwest Africa rifting began between the southern tips of Africa and South America in the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and propagated northward to the Benue Trough, a broad zone of left-lateral shear and extensional basins that began to open in the Aptian. Between these two rift systems, the Transform margin rift system initiated in the Early Cretaceous (Barremain) as a wrench-fault dominated eastward extension of the Proto-Caribbean ocean that propagated to the Benue Trough by the middle Albian. The most important variables affecting the tectonostratigraphic and hydrocarbon evolution of the west African margins include (1) the geometry, kinematics, and duration of rifting; (2) distribution of rift basins relative to paleoclimate zones (which affects the deposition of lacustrine source rocks and evaporites while influencing the type and quantity of sediment derived from land); (3) sea-level fluctuations; and (4) distribution of deltaic and turbiditic depocenters.

  18. Differences in Reliability of Reproductive History Recall among Women in North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliman, Amr; Allen, Katharine; Lo, An-Chi; Banerjee, Mousumi; Hablas, Ahmed; Benider, Abdellatif; Benchekroun, Nadya; Samir, Salwa; Omar, Hoda G.; Merajver, Sofia; Mullan, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in North Africa. Women in this region have unique reproductive profiles. It is essential to obtain reliable information on reproductive histories to help better understand the relationship between reductive health and breast cancer. We tested the reliability of a reproductive history-based…

  19. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A images in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This image shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The image clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite image was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization images. The C-band image was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization image is shown in green, and the ratio of these two images (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the image indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their

  20. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A images in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This image shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The image clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite image was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization images. The C-band image was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization image is shown in green, and the ratio of these two images (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the image indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their

  1. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  2. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  3. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  4. Perceptions and Images of North Africa: What American Schools Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Examined descriptions of North Africa (particularly Tunisia) found in U.S. high school social studies textbooks, noting the resulting perceptions and images these descriptions created in the minds of teachers and students. Data from examination of textbooks and interviews with teachers indicated that few high school students were exposed to images…

  5. A project of a two meter telescope in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-03-01

    Site testing undertaken during the last 20 years by Moroccan researchers through international studies have shown that the Atlas mountains in Morocco has potentialities similar to those sites which host the largest telescopes in world. Given the quality of the sites and opportunities to conduct modern research, we believe that the installation of a 2m diameter telescope will open new horizons for Astronomy in Morocco and north Africa allowing our region to enter definitively into the very exclusive club of countries possessing an instrument of that size. A state of the art astrophysical observatory on any good astronomical observation site should be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope and some smaller telescopes. Our plan should be to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m class telescopes worldwide in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. Beside all categories of astronomical research fields, students will have the possibility to be educated intensively on the design, manufacturing and operating of modern state of the art computer controlled instruments. In the frame of such education and observation studies several PhD and dissertational work packages are possible. Many of the observations will be published in articles worldwide and a number of guest observers from other countries will have the possibility to take part in collaborations. This could be a starting point of an international reputation of our region in the field of modern astronomy.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Maca-Meyer, Nicole; González, Ana M; Pestano, José; Flores, Carlos; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2003-01-01

    Background World-wide phylogeographic distribution of human complete mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested a West Asian origin for the autochthonous North African lineage U6. We report here a more detailed analysis of this lineage, unraveling successive expansions that affected not only Africa but neighboring regions such as the Near East, the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. Results Divergence times, geographic origin and expansions of the U6 mitochondrial DNA clade, have been deduced from the analysis of 14 complete U6 sequences, and 56 different haplotypes, characterized by hypervariable segment sequences and RFLPs. Conclusions The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion. U6b and U6c clades, restricted to West Africa, had more localized expansions. U6b probably reached the Iberian Peninsula during the Capsian diffusion in North Africa. Two autochthonous derivatives of these clades (U6b1 and U6c1) indicate the arrival of North African settlers to the Canarian Archipelago in prehistoric times, most probably due to the Saharan desiccation. The absence of these Canarian lineages nowadays in Africa suggests important demographic movements in the western area of this Continent. PMID:14563219

  7. Charophytes as lacustrine biomarkers during the quaternary in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulié-Märsche, I.

    The use of charophytes as biomarkers is discussed with emphasis on the differences in study methods for cosmopolitan and ecotype species. A first extensive inventory of Quaternary deposits of charophytes in Africa north of the equator comprising 18 sites from Senegal to the Sudan is drawn up with data on spatial and temporal distribution. The existence of relatively deep cold lakes in the Holocene is shown by the frequent presence of specimens of cold flora no longer present in Africa today. All the original data show the complementary nature of the study of fossil Charophyta for the multidisciplinary reconstitution of palaeoenvironments.

  8. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Darina; Rahme, Maya; Hoteit, Maha; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   Aim: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. Methods: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000–2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. Results: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30–90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease. PMID:24194968

  9. Oil shales of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East

    SciTech Connect

    Troger, U.

    1984-04-01

    Oil shale deposits are known from almost all countries in Europe and range in age from Paleozoic to Eocene. The geology of Europe is well known, and the discovery of new and significant oil shale deposits is not anticipated. A considerably different situation exists in North Africa and the Near East, where sparsely tested areas in the Sahara and desert fringe might contain important oil shale deposits. Most of the oil shale deposits in these areas (1) are of Cretaceous age, (2) occur with phosphate deposits, and (3) owe their origin to sedimentary processes associated with upwelling. Oil shales can be found from Turkey to Morocco along a paleocoastline, and better definition of this feature could result in new discoveries. In contrast to the US, oil shale deposits in Europe are being used as energy sources and will probably serve the same purpose in North Africa and the Near East.

  10. Oil and gas developments in north Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, B.M.

    1988-10-01

    The recovery of international petroleum activity in 1987 was reflected slightly in the 6 North Africa countries covered in this report (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia). Licensed area increased marginally to about 2,594,000 km/sup 2/ (up 0.5% from 1986), whereas surface exploration and drilling decreased significantly (about 30% and 20%, respectively, from 1986 levels). The two OPEC-member countries adhered to imposed quotas, recording somewhat lower production levels in 1987 than in 1986; however, total production of the North Africa countries increased to 3,025,000 BOPD (up 2% from 1986) as Egypt recorded all-time highs for both liquids and natural gas production. 7 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  12. Performance of the lake model FLake in the Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 5 simulations over two CORDEX domains - North America and Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, A.; Sushama, L.; Laprise, R.; Winger, K.; Dugas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Regional Climate Model, version 5 (CRCM5), has been used for simulating the climate over two CORDEX domains for the 1989-2008 period, using the ERA-Interim reanalysis boundary forcing. The interactively-coupled lake model FLake was used for simulating the thermal regime of lakes in these experiments. Both simulations were performed with identical lake model settings and initialization conditions. The performance of the coupled FLake model for different climatic regions, going from arctic to equatorial conditions, was assessed by comparing with observations, where available. It was shown that for a wide range of lakes and climate zones the FLake model is capable of reproducing satisfactorily the water surface conditions. Limitations of the model and possible application of the coupled FLake model to inland seas in different climate zones will also be discussed.

  13. Late Holocene climate change in the North Atlantic and equatorial Africa: Millennial-scale ITCZ migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M.; Johnson, Thomas C.

    2005-09-01

    Climate proxy data and numerical models suggest that latitudinal displacements of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) occur during millennial-scale cold events in the North Atlantic region, but the potential effects of these ITCZ movements on the climate of equatorial regions are unclear. Here we present a 5400-year geochemical record of rainfall and drought from Lake Edward in equatorial Africa. We observe a non-linear correlation in which drought in equatorial Africa occurs during both cold and warm extremes in the North Atlantic's 1500-year quasi-cycle. We propose that this relationship occurs due to northward/southward displacement of the ITCZ from its equatorial mean position during warm/cold events. Our results show that millennial-scale high-latitude climate events are linked to changes in equatorial terrestrial climate even during the late Holocene and suggest important constraints on the mechanisms linking tropical and extratropical climate variability.

  14. Molecular evidence of Culex pipiens form molestus and hybrids pipiens/molestus in Morocco, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culex pipiens L. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions including North Africa. Cx. pipiens has two recognized forms or biotypes; pipiens and molestus are morphologically indistinguishable with distinct behavior and physiology that may influence their vectorial status. In our study, we prospected for the different forms of Cx. pipiens in Morocco. Methods Cx. pipiens larvae were collected in 9 sites throughout Morocco during summer 2010 and reared until imago stage. Cx. pipiens was identified using diagnostic primers designed for the flanking region of microsatellite CQ11. Results We established the presence of both forms of Cx. pipiens and their hybrids in Morocco. Conclusions Molecular identification provides the first evidence of the presence of Cx. pipiens form molestus in Morocco and hybrids between pipiens and molestus forms in North Africa. The epidemiological implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:22541050

  15. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  17. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  18. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30-40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures. PMID:24626301

  19. How important are cyclones for emitting mineral dust aerosol in North Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, S.; Schepanski, K.; Knippertz, P.; Heinold, B.; Tegen, I.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents the first quantitative estimate of the mineral dust emission associated to atmospheric depressions and migrating, long-lived cyclones in North Africa. Results from a tracking algorithm are combined with dust emission flux calculations based on ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for 1989-2008. The results highlight that depressions are abundant and associated with 55% of the dust emission amount annually and spatially averaged over North African dust sources. Even larger contributions to dust emission from depressions are found south of the Atlas Mountains during spring with regionally up to 90%. It is spring when the largest monthly totals of 250-380 g m-2 of dust emission occur in North Africa. The remaining months have a total dust emission smaller than 80 g m-2. In summer, depressions, particularly Saharan heat lows, coincide with up to 90% of the seasonal total dust emission over wide areas of North Africa. In contrast to depressions, migrating cyclones that live for more than two days are rare and are associated to 4% of the annual and spatial dust emission average. Migrating cyclones over North Africa occur primarily in spring north of 20° N with eastwards trajectories and typical life times of three to seven days. Regionally larger seasonal totals of dust emission are associated to cyclones with up to 25% over Libya. In summer, near-surface signatures of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) emit regionally up to 15% of the total emission. The diurnal cycle of dust emission underlines that emission associated to cyclones at mid-day is substantially larger than at night by a factor of three to five. Soil moisture weakens dust emission during cyclone passage by 10%. Despite the overall small contribution of migrating cyclones to dust emission, cyclones coincide with particularly intense dust emission events exceeding the climatological mean flux by a factor of four to eight. This implies, that both

  20. The role of carbonaceous aerosols on short-term variations of precipitation over North Africa: Carbonaceous aerosols on rainfall change over North Africa

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Vinoj, V.; Ganguly, Dilip

    2016-06-16

    Northern Africa has been subject to extensive droughts in the late 20th century, which are frequently linked to changes in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, climate models forced by observed Sea Surface Temperatures have been unable to reproduce the magnitude of rainfall reduction over the last several decades. In this study, we propose that aerosol indirect effects (AIE) may be an important feedback mechanism to contribute this recent reduction. The climate model used here has a fully predictive aerosol life cycle. Results are presented for a set of sensitivity experiments designed tomore » distinguish the role of aerosol direct/semi-­direct and indirect effects on regional precipitation. Changes in cloud lifetime due to the presence of carbonaceous aerosols are proposed as a key mechanism to explain the reduced rainfall over the tropical and North Africa.« less

  1. The Regionalization of Africa in Undergraduate Geography of Africa Textbooks, 1953 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Roy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the regionalization of Africa through analysis of forty-two English-language geography of Africa texts written for undergraduates between 1953 and 2004. Authors identify regions with reference to one or more variables. Some authors provided no explanation for their regionalization; others labored mightily to justify their…

  2. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; Messouli, Mohammed; Makhlouf, Baghdad; EI Laamrani, Abderahmane; Boumezzough, Ali

    2013-08-20

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence.

  3. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

  4. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  5. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the…

  6. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  7. The Quality of Secondary Education in the Middle East and North Africa: What Can We Learn from TIMSS' Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhlila, Donia Smaali

    2011-01-01

    Research on educational quality has been scarce in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, whereas the debates over educational quality date from 1966 in the USA with the Coleman Report. Fortunately TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) starts to fill this gap by providing data on students' achievement and for many…

  8. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-station phase velocity determination for structure in North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Hazler, S; Pasyanos, M; Sheehan, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-28

    The seismic structure of North Africa is poorly understood due to the relative paucity of stations and seismicity when compared to other continental regions of the world. A better understanding of the velocity structure in this area will allow improved models of travel times and regional phase amplitudes. Such models will improve location and identification capability in this region leading to more effective monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Using regional-to-teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about the region's seismic structure by examining phase velocity as a function of period. We utilize earthquakes from the tectonically active regions bounding North Africa (Mediterranean, Red Sea, East African Rift, and Mid-Atlantic Ridge) recorded at broadband seismic stations distributed throughout the region. A two-station method is utilized to determine phase velocity information along the interstation segment of the ray path. The two-station method provides particular advantage in this region as it dramatically increases the number of events available to provide pure North African sampling. Bandpass filters are applied to the seismograms so that peaks and troughs may be correlated. The phase is unwrapped and a difference curve computed. The difference curve is then converted to a phase velocity dispersion curve. Phase velocity curves are constructed in the range of 10 to 120 seconds. Rayleigh and Love waves in this period range are most sensitive to the shear velocity structure of the lithosphere and can be used in combination with additional independent seismic observations (e.g. Pn tomography, surface wave group velocity tomography, receiver functions, etc.) to construct reliable velocity models. We compare velocities computed in this study to those generated from well known models for similar tectonic regions throughout the world in order to better define the tectonic setting of North Africa

  10. Potential source regions of dust accumulated in northern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasowska, S.; Woronko, B.

    2012-04-01

    Iguidi and Chech-Adrar, although the most probable source area is Erg Occidental. Tunisian dusts come from vast expanses of Erg Oriental and Chott-el-Jerid. The potential source of the dusts accumulated in Alexandria could be Libyan Desert. This does not preclude also much more distant sources of sediment, as for instance ergs from North Sudan. From the other hand the presence of shell parts of diatoms of the Actinoptychus genus may indicate the dispelling of the Nile alluvium. Key words: source region, aeolian accumulation, north Africa, textural features of grains, aeolian dust, meteorological situation, Sahara, SEM analysis

  11. Pre-Islamic Religious Monuments in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, César

    I review data on the orientations of pre-Islamic religious monuments in North Africa dating from the 5th century BC to the 7th century AD and covering most of the present-day Maghreb, from Western Libya to Morocco. A sample of more than 100 Roman temples shows a rather random orientation pattern except for those dedicated to Saturn, which follow a clear relation to the rising sun or moon. This group of temples were built over previous sanctuaries dedicated to the Punic god Baal Hammon. In fact, a sample of genuine Punic sanctuaries presents a similar orientation pattern. I also discuss evidence of remarkable astronomical markers found in several of the temples. Christian churches of this area, among the earliest ones erected in the Mediterranean, also show a clear lunisolar orientation pattern.

  12. The role of carbonaceous aerosols on short-term variations of precipitation over North Africa

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Jin -Ho; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong; Vinoj, V.; Ganguly, Dilip

    2016-06-16

    Northern Africa has been subject to extensive droughts in the late 20th century, which are frequently linked to changes in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, climate models forced by observed Sea Surface Temperatures have been unable to reproduce the magnitude of rainfall reduction over the last several decades. In this study, we propose that aerosol indirect effects (AIE) may be an important feedback mechanism to contribute this recent reduction. The climate model used here has a fully predictive aerosol life cycle. Results are presented for a set of sensitivity experiments designed tomore » distinguish the role of aerosol direct/semi-­direct and indirect effects on regional precipitation. Changes in cloud lifetime due to the presence of carbonaceous aerosols are proposed as a key mechanism to explain the reduced rainfall over the tropical and North Africa.« less

  13. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; Messouli, Mohammed; Makhlouf, Baghdad; Laamrani, Abderrahmane El.; Boumezzough, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence. We find the correlation between the rainy season precipitation and the same year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to be strong for both regions while the number of cases of ZCL incidence lags the precipitation and NDVI by 2 years. The zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis seasonal dynamic appears to be controlled by minimum temperatures and presents a 2-month lag between the reported infection date and the presumed date when the infection actually occurred. The decadal increase in the number of ZCL occurrence in the region suggests that changes in climate increased minimum temperatures sufficiently and created conditions suitable for endemicity that did not previously exist. We also find that temperatures above a critical range suppress ZCL incidence by limiting the vector's reproductive activity.

  14. Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Kahime, Kholoud; Houti, Leila; Blakey, Tara; Ebi, Kristie L.; Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Dudek, Claire; Sahabi, Salah A.; Messouli, Mohammed; Makhlouf, Baghdad; Laamrani, Abderahmane El.; Boumezzough, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in surface climate may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the pre-Saharan zones of North Africa. Caused by Leishmania major, this form multiplies in the body of rodents serving as reservoirs of the disease. The parasite is then transmitted to human hosts by the bite of a Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) that was previously fed by biting an infected reservoir. We examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the incidence of this ZCL as a function of surface climate indicators in two regions covering a large area of the semi-arid Pre-Saharan North Africa. Results suggest that in this area, changes in climate may have initiated a trophic cascade that resulted in an increase in ZCL incidence. We find the correlation between the rainy season precipitation and the same year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to be strong for both regions while the number of cases of ZCL incidence lags the precipitation and NDVI by 2 years. The zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis seasonal dynamic appears to be controlled by minimum temperatures and presents a 2-month lag between the reported infection date and the presumed date when the infection actually occurred. The decadal increase in the number of ZCL occurrence in the region suggests that changes in climate increased minimum temperatures sufficiently and created conditions suitable for endemicity that did not previously exist. We also find that temperatures above a critical range suppress ZCL incidence by limiting the vector’s reproductive activity. PMID:23912199

  15. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James

    2014-03-01

    Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp.

  16. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James

    2014-03-01

    Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp. PMID:24563141

  17. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.Ch.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984, an increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North Africa ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was up 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries.

  18. Africa Section. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on the role and services of African libraries and the education of African librarians, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The Information Sector in the Economic Development of Africa: The Potential Role for Libraries," in which Benzies Y. Boadi (Nigeria)…

  19. The food of Near East, North West and Western African regions.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Among the countries that can be classified as Near East Africa, North West Africa, and Western Africa, there is a great diversity of foods and dietary patterns. Prevalence of undernourishment as defined by FAO using dietary energy supply data, varies dramatically among these countries, with Tunisia in the lowest prevalence category (<2.5%), and Sierra Leone in the highest prevalence category (>35%). Throughout the 1960's, the dietary energy supply of North West African and Western African countries was similar. However, since the 1970s a great and consistent improvement has been seen in North and North West African countries. Both the proportion and number of undernourished in North Africa is now very similar to that of North America. Oil use, energy from fat, and protein from plant versus animal sources account for a large part of the food pattern differences between countries in these regions. Using Tunisia and Sierra Leone as examples again, dietary diversity as measured by the percentage of energy from foods other than starchy staples, is about 50% in the former, while in the latter, it is only 36%. Fatty fruits such as olives, cocoa and palm fruit have a special role in both the diet and the economies of the region. PMID:14505995

  20. The food of Near East, North West and Western African regions.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Among the countries that can be classified as Near East Africa, North West Africa, and Western Africa, there is a great diversity of foods and dietary patterns. Prevalence of undernourishment as defined by FAO using dietary energy supply data, varies dramatically among these countries, with Tunisia in the lowest prevalence category (<2.5%), and Sierra Leone in the highest prevalence category (>35%). Throughout the 1960's, the dietary energy supply of North West African and Western African countries was similar. However, since the 1970s a great and consistent improvement has been seen in North and North West African countries. Both the proportion and number of undernourished in North Africa is now very similar to that of North America. Oil use, energy from fat, and protein from plant versus animal sources account for a large part of the food pattern differences between countries in these regions. Using Tunisia and Sierra Leone as examples again, dietary diversity as measured by the percentage of energy from foods other than starchy staples, is about 50% in the former, while in the latter, it is only 36%. Fatty fruits such as olives, cocoa and palm fruit have a special role in both the diet and the economies of the region.

  1. Family patterns, women's status and fertility in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Allman, J

    1978-01-01

    Currently, countries in the Middle East and North Africa are in the process of changing from high to low mortality and fertility, and the present paper reviews and assesses the current state of the social science research on family patterns and women's status in these regions. In particular, it reviews literature on: 1) marriage patterns; 2) the extended family and relations internal to the family; 3) larger kinship structures; 4) the role and status of women in the larger society; and 5) divorce, widowhood, and remarriage. The author, however, believes that much of the research on family patterns lacks concern with the impact of basic structural changes in the economic and social organization of countries in the region. He concludes by offering a few suggestions about areas where research linking population dynamics with family patterns and the status of women could be usefully undertaken.

  2. Prevalence of human cosaviruses in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Dorra; Ben Farhat, Essia; Touzi, Henda; Meddeb, Zina; Ben Salah, Afif; Triki, Henda

    2015-06-01

    A new picornavirus, named human Cosavirus (HCoSV) was isolated recently from stools of children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and healthy children in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Since then, it was also isolated from patients from other countries. Five species are presently identified forming a new genus in the Picornaviridae family. This study reports the detection of HCoSV in stool specimens collected as part of the National Poliovirus surveillance Program in Tunisia, between 2011 and 2012, from patients with AFP and healthy individuals among their contacts. One hundred and ninety four stool samples were investigated by RT-PCR in the 5' non-coding region of the genome. A total of 64 specimens (33%) tested positive for HCoSV. HCoSV positive specimens were found in 36 cases with neurological syndromes and 28 of their healthy contacts. The highest rate of HCoSV infection (62.5%) occurred in children younger than 6 years of age. The sampling date of stool specimens suggested that HCoSV infection occurred regularly over time. Also, the sampling origin of stool specimen showed that HCoSV infection was detected in almost all the governorates of Tunisia from the North to the South of the country. This study is the first report of HCoSV prevalence in the North African region. It contributes to a better knowledge on the geographic distribution and the epidemiology of these viruses.

  3. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1983-10-01

    Within the 2,044,851 km/sup 2/ area described in this paper, petroleum rights in force at the end of 1982 in the 6 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia) remained at about the same level (up 1%) as at the end of 1981. A large award in Sudan made up for a decrease in leased areas in other countries. Both onshore and offshore seismic activity decreased during 1982 in all countries described, except in Sudan, where a significant effort is continuing. Exploration drilling activity also decreased with 166 wells and 330,500 m drilled, compared with 169 wells and 473,000 m drilled in 1981. The success rate was about 36%, compared with 40% in 1981. No new petroleum provinces were discovered. Offshore exploratory drilling was less successful in 1982 (15 discoveries) than in 1981 (24 discoveries). In Sudan, Chevron continued to find oil with 6 discoveries, the most significant being the Heglig field. In Morocco, the Societe Cherifienne des Petroles resumed exploration after a long period of inactivity. Development drilling activity remained the same in most countries, except in Tunisia, where 13 development wells were drilled in 1982 compared with 3 in 1981. Oil production in North Africa decreased 1.4% during 1982, with an average of 2,610,500 BOPD compared with 2,648,500 in 1981. A new offshore field (Shell's Tazerka) was put on stream in Tunisia. This field is the deepest producing field in the Mediterranean (250 m (820 ft) water depth). Utilized natural gas production is estimated to about 2,000 MMCFGD.

  4. The spectrum of presumed tubercular uveitis in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Khochtali, Sana; Gargouri, Salma; Abroug, Nesrine; Ksiaa, Imen; Attia, Sonia; Sellami, Dorra; Feki, Jamel; Khairallah, Moncef

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the spectrum of presumed tubercular uveitis in Tunisia, North Africa. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 38 patients (65 eyes) diagnosed with presumed tubercular uveitis at two referral centers in Tunisia, between January 2009 and December 2011. Mean age at presentation was 42.7 years. Twenty-four patients were women (63.2%) and 14 (36.8%) were men. Twenty-three eyes (35.4%) had posterior uveitis, 21 eyes (32.3%) had intermediate uveitis, 13 eyes (20%) had panuveitis, and 8 eyes (12.3%) had anterior uveitis. Ocular findings included vitritis in 67.7% of eyes, posterior synechiae in 47.7%, multifocal non-serpiginoid choroiditis in 23.1%, multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis in 21.5%, periphlebitis in 21.5%, and mutton-fat keratic precipitates in 20%. Anti-tubercular treatment was prescribed in 33 patients (86.8%) and was associated with systemic corticosteroids in 20 patients (52.6%) and periocular injections of corticosteroids in four patients (10.5%). After a mean follow-up of 14.2 months (range, 10-58), inflammation was controlled, with a significant improvement in visual acuity (VA) (p = 0.028). However, recurrences developed in two patients (5.3%). Final VA was better than 20/40 in 27 eyes (41.5%) and less than 20/200 in five eyes (7.7%). In Tunisia, all anatomic types are possible in tuberculosis-associated uveitis, but posterior and intermediate uveitis are more frequent. Vitritis, posterior synechiae, multifocal serpiginoid or non-serpiginoid choroiditis, and periphlebitis are the most common manifestations.

  5. Teaching about Women and Islam in North Africa: Integrating Postcolonial Feminist Theory in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayzafoon, Lamia Ben Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Using postcolonial feminist theory, the researcher attempts in this article to redefine the interpretive framework through which courses on Islam and North African women are being taught in American undergraduate classes. Several conceptual limitations have been identified: inadequate knowledge of the geography and history of North Africa; the…

  6. Expansion of student activities in Africa: from south to north

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherif, Rim; Ben Salem, Amine; Gueddana, Amor; Zghal, Mourad; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew; Heidt, Alexander M.; Rohwer, Erich G.

    2014-07-01

    Optics and photonics research in Africa has gradually grown in the past ten years with a very active optical community involved in state-of-the-art research. Despite relatively low resources, optics research in the continent is competitive with many international benchmarks and has had a significant impact within the African continent. In the past five years, a group of dynamic students have developed the student chapter network from Tunisia to South Africa. The first student chapters of the optical society of America (OSA) and the international society for optics and photonics (SPIE) were established in South Africa (in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and in the University of Stellenbosch), followed by a chapter in Tunisia (Engineering school of communications of Tunis, Sup'Com). In this paper, we will present the major activities of the student chapters of Tunisia and South Africa, and how they are promoting optics and photonics in Africa.

  7. A model for the three-dimensional evolution of continental rift basins, north-east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, William

    1994-12-01

    Large areas of north-east Africa were dominated by regional extension in the Late Phanerozoic. Widespread rifting occurred in the Late Jurassic, with regional extension culminating in the Cretaceous and resulting in the greatest areal extent and degree of interconnection of the west, central and north African rift systems. Basin reactivation continued in the Paleocene and Eocene and new rifts probably formed in the Red Sea and western Kenya. In the Oligocene and Early Miocene, rifts in Kenya, Ethiopia and the Red Sea linked and expanded to form the new east African rift system. This complex history of rifting resulted in failed rift basins with low to high strain geometries, a range of associated volcanism and varying degrees of interaction with older structures. One system, the Red Sea rift, has partially attained active seafloor spreading. From a comparison of these basins, a general model of three-dimensional rift evolution is proposed. Asymmetrical crustal geometries dominated the early phases of these basins, accompanied by low angle normal faulting that has been observed at least locally in outcrop. As rifting progressed, the original fault and basin forms were modified to produce larger, more through-going structures. Some basins were abandoned, others experienced reversals in regional dip and, in general, extension and subsidence became focused along narrower zones near the rift axes. The final transition to oceanic spreading was accomplished in the Red Sea by a change to high angle, planar normal faulting and diffuse dike injection, followed by the organization of an axial magma chamber.

  8. Observational evidence of planetary wave influences on ozone enhancements over upper troposphere North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Ture, Kassahun; Sivakumar, V.

    2013-07-01

    MOZAIC instrument measured enhanced ozone on two occasions in February, 1996 and 1997 at cruise altitude over North Africa. The cause and source of ozone enhancements over the region are investigated using additional reanalysis data from ERA-Interim. The ERA-Interim reprocessed GOME ozone indicated existence of enhancement as well. Both observational data revealed that the increase in ozone has wider latitudinal coverage extending from North Europe upto North Africa. The geopotential heights and zonal wind from ERA-Interim have indicated existence of planetary-scale flow that allowed meridional airmass exchanges between subtropics and higher latitudes. The presence of troughs-ridge pattern are attributable to large amplitude waves of zonal wavenumber 1-5 propagating eastward in the winter hemisphere westerly current as determined from Hayashi spectra as well as local fractional variance spectra determined from Multitaper Method-Singular Value Decomposition (MTM-SVD) spectral method. MTM-SVD is also used to understand the role of these waves on ozone enhancement and variability during the observation period in a mechanistic approach. A joint analysis of driving field, such as wind and potential vorticity (PV) for which only signals of the dominant zonal wavenumbers of prevailing planetary waves are retained, has revealed strong linkage between wave activity and ozone enhancement over the region at a temporal cycle of 5.8 days. One of these features is the displacement of the polar vortex southward during the enhancements, allowing strong airmass, energy and momentum exchanges. Evidence of cutoff laws that are formed within the deep trough, characteristics of Rossby wave breaking, is also seen in the ozone horizontal distribution at different pressure levels during the events. The reconstruction of signals with the cycle of 5.8 days has shown that the time and strength of enhancement depend on the circulation patterns dictated by planetary-scale flow relative to the

  9. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  10. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  11. Dust forecast over North Africa: verification with satellite and ground based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aditi; Kumar, Sumit; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Arid regions of North Africa are considered as one of the major dust source. Present study focuses on the forecast of aerosol optical depth (AOD) of dust over different regions of North Africa. NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM) produces dust AOD forecasts at different wavelengths with lead time upto 240 hr, based on 00UTC initial conditions. Model forecast of dust AOD at 550 nm up to 72 hr forecast, based on different initial conditions are verified against satellite and ground based observations of total AOD during May-June 2014 with the assumption that except dust, presence of all other aerosols type are negligible. Location specific and geographical distribution of dust AOD forecast is verified against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) station observations of total and coarse mode AOD. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dark target and deep blue merged level 3 total aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) retrieved dust AOD at 532 nm are also used for verification. CALIOP dust AOD was obtained by vertical integration of aerosol extinction coefficient at 532 nm from the aerosol profile level 2 products. It is found that at all the selected AERONET stations, the trend in dust AODs is well predicted by NCUM up to three days advance. Good correlation, with consistently low bias (~ +/-0.06) and RMSE (~ 0.2) values, is found between model forecasts and point measurements of AERONET, except over one location Cinzana (Mali). Model forecast consistently overestimated the dust AOD compared to CALIOP dust AOD, with a bias of 0.25 and RMSE of 0.40.

  12. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  13. The Challenges and Relevance of Exploring the Genetics of North Africa's "Barbary Lion" and the Conservation of Putative Descendants in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Black, Simon A

    2016-01-01

    The lions of North Africa were unique in ecological terms as well as from a human cultural perspective and were the definitive lions of Roman and Medieval Europe. Labelled "Barbary" lions, they were once numerous in North Africa but were exterminated by the mid-20th century. Despite subsequent degeneration of the Atlas Mountain ecosystem through human pressures, the feasibility of lion reintroduction has been debated since the 1970s. Research on the long-established captive lion collection traditionally kept by the sultans and kings of Morocco has enabled selective breeding coordinated across Moroccan and European zoos involving a significant number of animals. Molecular genetic research has recently provided insights into lion phylogeny which, despite previous suggestions that all lions share recent common ancestry, now indicates clear distinctions between lions in North, West, and Central Africa, the Middle East, and India versus those in Southern and Eastern Africa. A review of the evolutionary relevance of North African lions highlights the important challenges and opportunities in understanding relationships between Moroccan lions, extinct North African lions, and extant lion populations in India and West and Central Africa and the potential role for lions in ecosystem recovery in those regions.

  14. The Challenges and Relevance of Exploring the Genetics of North Africa's “Barbary Lion” and the Conservation of Putative Descendants in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The lions of North Africa were unique in ecological terms as well as from a human cultural perspective and were the definitive lions of Roman and Medieval Europe. Labelled “Barbary” lions, they were once numerous in North Africa but were exterminated by the mid-20th century. Despite subsequent degeneration of the Atlas Mountain ecosystem through human pressures, the feasibility of lion reintroduction has been debated since the 1970s. Research on the long-established captive lion collection traditionally kept by the sultans and kings of Morocco has enabled selective breeding coordinated across Moroccan and European zoos involving a significant number of animals. Molecular genetic research has recently provided insights into lion phylogeny which, despite previous suggestions that all lions share recent common ancestry, now indicates clear distinctions between lions in North, West, and Central Africa, the Middle East, and India versus those in Southern and Eastern Africa. A review of the evolutionary relevance of North African lions highlights the important challenges and opportunities in understanding relationships between Moroccan lions, extinct North African lions, and extant lion populations in India and West and Central Africa and the potential role for lions in ecosystem recovery in those regions. PMID:27656310

  15. The Challenges and Relevance of Exploring the Genetics of North Africa's "Barbary Lion" and the Conservation of Putative Descendants in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Black, Simon A

    2016-01-01

    The lions of North Africa were unique in ecological terms as well as from a human cultural perspective and were the definitive lions of Roman and Medieval Europe. Labelled "Barbary" lions, they were once numerous in North Africa but were exterminated by the mid-20th century. Despite subsequent degeneration of the Atlas Mountain ecosystem through human pressures, the feasibility of lion reintroduction has been debated since the 1970s. Research on the long-established captive lion collection traditionally kept by the sultans and kings of Morocco has enabled selective breeding coordinated across Moroccan and European zoos involving a significant number of animals. Molecular genetic research has recently provided insights into lion phylogeny which, despite previous suggestions that all lions share recent common ancestry, now indicates clear distinctions between lions in North, West, and Central Africa, the Middle East, and India versus those in Southern and Eastern Africa. A review of the evolutionary relevance of North African lions highlights the important challenges and opportunities in understanding relationships between Moroccan lions, extinct North African lions, and extant lion populations in India and West and Central Africa and the potential role for lions in ecosystem recovery in those regions. PMID:27656310

  16. The Challenges and Relevance of Exploring the Genetics of North Africa's “Barbary Lion” and the Conservation of Putative Descendants in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The lions of North Africa were unique in ecological terms as well as from a human cultural perspective and were the definitive lions of Roman and Medieval Europe. Labelled “Barbary” lions, they were once numerous in North Africa but were exterminated by the mid-20th century. Despite subsequent degeneration of the Atlas Mountain ecosystem through human pressures, the feasibility of lion reintroduction has been debated since the 1970s. Research on the long-established captive lion collection traditionally kept by the sultans and kings of Morocco has enabled selective breeding coordinated across Moroccan and European zoos involving a significant number of animals. Molecular genetic research has recently provided insights into lion phylogeny which, despite previous suggestions that all lions share recent common ancestry, now indicates clear distinctions between lions in North, West, and Central Africa, the Middle East, and India versus those in Southern and Eastern Africa. A review of the evolutionary relevance of North African lions highlights the important challenges and opportunities in understanding relationships between Moroccan lions, extinct North African lions, and extant lion populations in India and West and Central Africa and the potential role for lions in ecosystem recovery in those regions.

  17. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  18. Faunistic and bibliographical inventory of the Psychodinae moth-flies of North Africa (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Afzan, Hanan; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All published records for the 49 species of moth flies known from North Africa are reviewed and discussed: Morocco (27 species), Algeria (33 species), Tunisia (18 species) and Egypt (five species). In addition, records of seven species of Psychodinae new to the fauna of Morocco are added, of which three are new mentions for North Africa (Table 1) and one is a new record for Egypt. Telmatoscopus squamifer Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the genus Iranotelmatoscopus Ježek, 1987, comb. n. Satchelliella reghayana Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1987 is transferred to the genus Pneumia Enderlein, 1935, comb. n. Pneumia aberrans Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the subgenus Logima. PMID:27006599

  19. Faunistic and bibliographical inventory of the Psychodinae moth-flies of North Africa (Diptera, Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Afzan, Hanan; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-01-01

    All published records for the 49 species of moth flies known from North Africa are reviewed and discussed: Morocco (27 species), Algeria (33 species), Tunisia (18 species) and Egypt (five species). In addition, records of seven species of Psychodinae new to the fauna of Morocco are added, of which three are new mentions for North Africa (Table 1) and one is a new record for Egypt. Telmatoscopus squamifer Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the genus Iranotelmatoscopus Ježek, 1987, comb. n. Satchelliella reghayana Boumezzough & Vaillant, 1987 is transferred to the genus Pneumia Enderlein, 1935, comb. n. Pneumia aberrans Tonnoir, 1922 is transferred to the subgenus Logima. PMID:27006599

  20. Diabetes in the Middle-East and North Africa: an update.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Azeem; El-Sayed, Adel A; Khoja, Tawfik; Alshamsan, Riyadh; Millett, Christopher; Rawaf, Salman

    2014-02-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically in many countries of the International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. This increase has been driven by a range of factors that include rapid economic development and urbanisation; changes in lifestyle that have led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased intake of refined carbohydrates, and a rise in obesity. These changes have resulted in the countries of MENA Region now having among the highest rates of diabetes prevalence in the world. The current prevalence of diabetes in adults in the Region is estimated to be around 9.2%. Of the 34 million people affected by diabetes, nearly 17 million were undiagnosed and therefore at considerable risk of diabetes complications and poor health outcomes. Enhanced research on the epidemiology of diabetes in the MENA Region needs to be combined with more effective primary prevention of diabetes; and early detection and improved management of patients with established diabetes, including an increased focus on self-management and management in primary care and community settings. PMID:24300017

  1. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over north Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from external and core fields. Quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibesti and Darfur were modeled as magnetic induction anomalies. MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting external and core fields to isolate scalar and vertical component crustal signals. Of the three volcanic areas, only the Ahaggar region had an associated anomaly of magnitude above error limits of the data. Hotspot hypothesis was tested for Ahaggar by seeing if predicted magnetic signal matched MAGSAT anomaly. Predicted model magnetic signal arising from surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isothermal surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. Curie isotherm surface was calculated using a method for temperature distribution in a moving plate above a fixed hotspot. Magnetic signal was calculated for a fixed plate as well as a number of plate velocities and directions.

  2. Cryptic biodiversity in the cytogenome of bird-biting blackflies in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Adler, P H; Cherairia, M; Arigue, S F; Samraoui, B; Belqat, B

    2015-09-01

    Bird-biting blackflies in the Simulium (Eusimulium) aureum group (Diptera: Simuliidae) are widespread vectors of Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma parasites. The polytene chromosomes of 619 larvae of the three nominal members of the S. aureum group in North Africa were evaluated cytogenetically for cryptic biodiversity. Seven chromosomal segregates were discovered among 29 populations in Algeria and Morocco. This diversity was based primarily on two chromosomal inversions, which have assumed unique roles in different lineages, including sex linkage, fixation, loss and autosomal polymorphism. Reproductive isolation was demonstrated for six of the seven segregates, doubling the number of species known in the area. Four species were linked with existing names: (a) Simulium mellah Giudicelli & Bouzidi, which is known only from North African high-salinity habitats; (b) Simulium petricolum (Rivosecchi), which is tentatively conspecific with continental European populations; (c) Simulium rubzovianum (Sherban) and its synonym Simulium latinum (Rubtsov), which is widely distributed from North Africa across Europe into Western Asia, and (d) Simulium velutinum (Santos Abreu) and its new synonym Simulium tenerificum Crosskey, which is restricted to North Africa and the Canary Islands. Of the remaining entities, two are new species precinctive to North Africa and one, known only from Morocco, is of undetermined taxonomic status.

  3. Extensive nitrogen loss from permeable sediments off North-West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoll, Sarah; Lavik, Gaute; Sommer, Stefan; Goldhammer, Tobias; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Holtappels, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    The upwelling area off North-West Africa is characterized by high export production, high nitrate and low oxygen concentration in bottom waters. The underlying sediment consists of sands that cover most of the continental shelf. Due to their permeability sands allow for fast advective pore water transport and can exhibit high rates of nitrogen (N) loss via denitrification as reported for anthropogenically eutrophied regions. However, N loss from sands underlying naturally eutrophied waters is not well studied, and in particular, N loss from the North-West African shelf is poorly constrained. During two research cruises in April/May 2010/2011, sediment was sampled along the North-West African shelf and volumetric denitrification rates were measured in sediment layers down to 8 cm depth using slurry incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate. Areal N loss was calculated by integrating volumetric rates down to the nitrate penetration depth derived from pore water profiles. Areal N loss was neither correlated with water depth nor with bottom water concentrations of nitrate and oxygen but was strongly dependent on sediment grain size and permeability. The derived empirical relation between benthic N loss and grains size suggests that pore water advection is an important regulating parameter for benthic denitrification in sands and further allowed extrapolating rates to an area of 53,000 km2 using detailed sediment maps. Denitrification from this region amounts to 995 kt yr-1 (average 3.6 mmol m-2 d-1) which is 4 times higher than previous estimates based on diffusive pore water transport. Sandy sediments cover 50-60% of the continental shelf and thus may contribute significantly to the global benthic N loss.

  4. Climate Regionalization through Hierarchical Clustering: Options and Recommendations for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badr, H. S.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Dezfuli, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Climate regionalization is an important but often under-emphasized step in studies of climate variability and predictions. While most investigations of regional climate or statistical/dynamical predictions do make at least an implicit attempt to focus on a study region or sub-regions that are climatically coherent in some respect, rigorous climate regionalization--in which the study area is divided on the basis of the most relevant climate metrics and at a resolution most appropriate to the data and the scientific question--has the potential to enhance the precision and explanatory power of climate studies in many cases. This is particularly true for climatically complex regions such as the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and Equatorial West Africa. Here we present an improved clustering method and a flexible, open-source software tool (R package "HiClimR") designed specifically for climate regionalization. As a demonstration, we apply HiClimR to regionalize the GHA on the basis of interannual precipitation variability in each calendar month and for three-month running seasons. Different clustering methods are tested to show the behavior of each method and provide recommendations for specific problems. This would underscore the applicability of our work to a wide range of climate issues, and enable researchers to easily and quickly learn how to apply our tools to their own problems. Both the proposed methodology and the R package can be easily used for a broad range of climate applications.

  5. The African Geospatial Sciences Institute (agsi): a New Approach to Geospatial Training in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeldenberger, S.; Khaled, K. B.

    2012-07-01

    The African Geospatial Sciences Institute (AGSI) is currently being established in Tunisia as a non-profit, non-governmental organization (NGO). Its objective is to accelerate the geospatial capacity development in North-Africa, providing the facilities for geospatial project and management training to regional government employees, university graduates, private individuals and companies. With typical course durations between one and six months, including part-time programs and long-term mentoring, its focus is on practical training, providing actual project execution experience. The AGSI will complement formal university education and will work closely with geospatial certification organizations and the geospatial industry. In the context of closer cooperation between neighboring North Africa and the European Community, the AGSI will be embedded in a network of several participating European and African universities, e. g. the ITC, and international organizations, such as the ISPRS, the ICA and the OGC. Through a close cooperation with African organizations, such as the AARSE, the RCMRD and RECTAS, the network and exchange of ideas, experiences, technology and capabilities will be extended to Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa. A board of trustees will be steering the AGSI operations and will ensure that practical training concepts and contents are certifiable and can be applied within a credit system to graduate and post-graduate education at European and African universities. The geospatial training activities of the AGSI are centered on a facility with approximately 30 part- and full-time general staff and lecturers in Tunis during the first year. The AGSI will operate a small aircraft with a medium-format aerial camera and compact LIDAR instrument for local, community-scale data capture. Surveying training, the photogrammetric processing of aerial images, GIS data capture and remote sensing training will be the main components of the practical training courses

  6. Seasonal drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Greg; Funk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    In East Africa, agriculture is mostly rainfed and hence sensitive to interannual rainfall variability, and the increasing food and water demands of a growing population place further stresses on the water resources of this region. Skillful seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform timely water and agricultural management decisions, support the proper allocation of the region's water resources, and help mitigate socio-economic losses. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal drought forecast system that is being used for providing seasonal outlooks of agricultural drought in East Africa. We present a test case of the evaluation and applicability of this system for March-April-May growing season over equatorial East Africa (latitude 20 south to 80 North and 360 E to 460E) that encompasses one of the most food insecure and climatically and socio-economically vulnerable regions in East Africa. This region experienced famine as recently as in 2011. The system described here combines advanced satellite and re-analysis as well as station-based long term and real-time observations (e.g. NASA's TRMM, Infra-red remote sensing, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system (NCEP's Climate Forecast System Verison-2) and large scale land surface models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity, NASA's Land Information System) to provide forecasts of seasonal rainfall, soil moisture and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) throughout the season - with an emphasis on times when water is the most critical: start of season/planting and the mid-season/crop reproductive phase. Based on the hindcast assessment of this system, we demonstrate the value of this approach to the US Agency for International Development (USAID)'s efforts to mitigate future losses of lives and economic losses by allowing a proactive approach of drought management that includes early warning and timely action.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of North Africa, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional oil and 370 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas resources in 8 geologic provinces of North Africa.

  8. A General Survey of Religious Concepts and Art of North, East, South, and West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Rohn

    This paper, a summary of a multi-carousel slide presentation, reviews literature on the cultures, religions, and art of African people. Before focusing on West Africa, highlights of the lifestyles, religions, and icons of non-maskmaking cultures of North, West and South African people are presented. Clarification of West African religious concepts…

  9. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography (Part II: North, South, West). Training & Methods Series, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Land Tenure Center.

    Compiled in December 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 940 books, journals, periodicals, and unpublished mimeographs dealing with rural development in north, west, and southern Africa. All materials are dated between 1953 and 1971. Entries are listed by country under the following headings: agriculture, economic affairs, social affairs,…

  10. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (< 0.5 Myr) and affected intracratonic basins of Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The organisation of the glacial sedimentary record is considered to be controlled at the basin-scale by the location of fast-flowing ice streams active during glacial maxima, and by the processes of meltwater release during glacial recession. In these latter

  11. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.

  12. Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Diaa; Abd El Aal, Wafaa; Saleh, Azza; Sleem, Hany; Khyatti, Meriem; Mazini, Loubna; Hemminki, Kari; Anwar, Wagida A

    2014-08-01

    Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students.

  13. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  14. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  15. HIV/AIDS among pastoralists and refugees in north-east Africa: a neglected problem.

    PubMed

    Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kassa, Afework; Alwan, Fathia; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since the late 1980s, the IGAD Regional HIV & AIDS Partnership Program was (IRAPP) established in 2007 to mitigate the challenges of HIV among neglected pastoral and refugee communities. This article assesses vulnerability of pastoralists and refugee communities to HIV and interventions targeting these groups in the IGAD countries. Outcomes from this study may serve as a baseline for further research and to improve interventions. Published articles were accessed through web searches using PubMed and Google Scholar engines and unpublished documents were collected manually. The search terms were HIV risk behaviour, vulnerability, HIV prevalence and interventions, under the headings pastoralists, refugees, IGAD and north-east Africa for the period 2001-2014. Of the 214 documents reviewed, 78 met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most HIV/AIDS related studies focusing of pastoral communities in IGAD countries were found to be limited in scope and coverage but reveal precarious situations. Sero-prevalence among various pastoral populations ranged from 1% to 21% in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda and from 1% to 5% among refugees in Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. Socioeconomic, cultural, logistic, infrastructure and programmatic factors were found to contribute to continuing vulnerability to HIV. Interventions need to be further contextualised to the needs of those impoverished populations and integrated into national HIV/AIDS programmes. HIV/AIDS remains a major public health concern among the pastoral and refugee communities of IGAD countries. This calls for IGAD to collaborate with national and international partners in

  16. Genetic analysis of type O viruses responsible for epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in North Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, A. R.; Knowles, N. J.; Mackay, D. K.

    1999-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the 3' end of the capsid-coding region were determined for 30 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses isolated between 1987 and 1994 from outbreaks in North Africa and the Middle East. These sequences were compared with the previously published sequences of 9 field virus isolates from the Middle East and 5 vaccine virus strains, 3 of which originated from the Middle East (O1/Turkey/Manisa/69, O1/Sharquia/Egypt/72 and O1/Israel/2/85) and 2 from Europe (O1/Lausanne/Switzerland/65 and O2/Brescia/Italy/47). Cluster analysis of these sequences using the unweighted pair group mean average (UPGMA) method showed: (i) that the FMD viruses isolated from North Africa and the Middle East were very different from the classical European vaccine strains; (ii) that all the viruses isolated during the 1989-92 North African epidemic formed a cluster differing by no more than 6% from each other; (iii) a virus isolated in Libya in 1988 was unrelated to the aforementioned epidemic; and (iv) viruses from a second, less extensive epidemic, occurring in 1994, fell into yet another cluster. PMID:10459658

  17. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  18. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  19. Extracting Uplift Rate Histories From Longitudinal River Profiles: Examples From North America and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Gareth G.; White, Nicky; Paul, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    ~ 0.06 mm/yr. A final and smaller phase of uplift commenced ~ 5 Ma. These distinct phases of uplift are corroborated by spot estimates of palaeoaltimetry, timed growth of relief, thermochronometric data and by stratigraphic evidence of pulsed clastic efflux delivered to the Gulf of Mexico. An episodic uplift history is consistent with punctuated dynamic support of a large region, which is currently centred on Yellowstone. Inversion of the Congo, Nile, Niger, Ogooue, Orange, Zambezi rivers and their major tributaries indicates that domal swells in Africa have experienced a staged uplift history. The West African margin has experienced at least two phases of uplift during the last 30 Ma. Uplift in Afar began ~ 35 Ma. The Hoggar and Tibesti swells, in central North Africa, have an older history of uplift. These results are consistent with a staged magmatic history, delivery of sediment to the continental margins and stratigraphic observations, which suggest that the African landscape is responding to convection in the mantle.

  20. The spatial distribution of mineral dust and its shortwave radiative forcing over North Africa. Modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Johnson, Ben; McFarlane, Sally A.; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.

    2010-09-20

    A fully coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model (WRF-Chem) with the implementation of two dust emission schemes (GOCART and DUSTRAN) into two aerosol models (MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC) is applied over North Africa to investigate the modeling sensitivities to dust emissions and aerosol size treatments in simulating mineral dust and its shortwave (SW) radiative forcing. Model results of the spatial distribution of mineral dust and its radiative forcing are evaluated using measurements from the AMMA SOP0 campaign in January and February of 2006 over North Africa. Our study suggests that the size distribution of emitted dust can result in significant differences (up to 100%) in simulating mineral dust and its SW radiative forcing. With the same dust emission and dry deposition processes, two aerosol models, MADE/SORGAM and MOSAIC, can yield large difference in size distributions of dust particles due to their different aerosol size treatments using modal and sectional approaches respectively. However, the difference between the two aerosol models in simulating the mass concentrations and the SW radiative forcing of mineral dust is small (< 10%). The model simulations show that mineral dust increases AOD by a factor of 2, heats the lower atmosphere (1-3 km) with a maximum rate of 0.7±0.5 K day-1 below 1 km, and reduces the downwelling SW radiation by up to 25 W m-2 on 24-hour average at surface, highlighting the importance of including dust radiative impact in understanding the regional climate of North Africa. When compared to the available measurements, WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of mineral dust and its radiative properties over North Africa, suggesting that the model can be used to perform more extensive simulations of regional climate over North Africa.

  1. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A

    2015-07-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions.

  2. Challenges of diagnosis and management of axial spondyloarthritis in North Africa and the Middle East: An expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Abdulaziz, Sultana; Alosaimi, Hanan; Al-Rayes, Hanan; Aldeen Sarakbi, Hussam; Baamer, Matouqa; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Dahou Makhloufi, Chafia; Janoudi, Nahid; Shirazy, Khalid; Sieper, Joachim; Sukhbir, Uppal

    2016-04-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a spectrum of inflammatory disease with stages characterized by both nonradiographic and radiographic sacroiliitis. Nonradiographic axial SpA is associated with health-related quality-of-life impairment and may progress to ankylosing spondylitis. Axial SpA has a low prevalence in some countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and pooling of data and resources is needed to increase understanding of the regional picture. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to reduce disease burden and prevent progression. Anti-TNF therapy is recommended for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional treatment, and has been shown to be effective in patients without radiographic damage. Diagnostic delays can be an obstacle to early treatment and appropriate referral strategies are needed. In some countries, restricted access to magnetic resonance imaging and anti-TNF agents presents a challenge. In this article, a group of experts from North Africa and the Middle East evaluated the diagnosis and management of axial SpA with particular reference to this region. PMID:26811411

  3. Consanguinity and genetic diseases in North Africa and immigrants to Europe.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    Endemic diseases are caused by environmental and genetic factors. While in this special issue several chapters deal with environmental factors, including infections, the present focus is on genetic causes of disease clustering due to inbreeding and recessive disease mechanisms. Consanguinity is implying sharing of genetic heritage because of marriage between close relatives originating from a common ancestor. With limited natural selection, recessive genes may become more frequent in an inbred compared with an outbred population. Consanguinity is common in North Africa (NA), and the estimates range from 40 to 49% of all marriages in Tunisia and 29-33% in Morocco. As a consequence, recessive disorders are common in the NA region, and we give some examples. Thalassaemia and sickle cell disease/anaemia constitute the most common inherited recessive disorders globally and they are common in NA, but with immigration they have spread to Europe and to other parts of the world. Another example is familial Mediterranean fever, which is common in the Eastern Mediterranean area. With immigrantion from that area to Sweden, it has become the most common hereditary autoinflammatory disease in that country, and there is no evidence that any native Swede would have been diagnosed with this disease. The examples discussed in this chapter show that the historic movement of populations and current immigration are influencing the concept of 'endemic' disease. PMID:25107999

  4. Consanguinity and genetic diseases in North Africa and immigrants to Europe.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    Endemic diseases are caused by environmental and genetic factors. While in this special issue several chapters deal with environmental factors, including infections, the present focus is on genetic causes of disease clustering due to inbreeding and recessive disease mechanisms. Consanguinity is implying sharing of genetic heritage because of marriage between close relatives originating from a common ancestor. With limited natural selection, recessive genes may become more frequent in an inbred compared with an outbred population. Consanguinity is common in North Africa (NA), and the estimates range from 40 to 49% of all marriages in Tunisia and 29-33% in Morocco. As a consequence, recessive disorders are common in the NA region, and we give some examples. Thalassaemia and sickle cell disease/anaemia constitute the most common inherited recessive disorders globally and they are common in NA, but with immigration they have spread to Europe and to other parts of the world. Another example is familial Mediterranean fever, which is common in the Eastern Mediterranean area. With immigrantion from that area to Sweden, it has become the most common hereditary autoinflammatory disease in that country, and there is no evidence that any native Swede would have been diagnosed with this disease. The examples discussed in this chapter show that the historic movement of populations and current immigration are influencing the concept of 'endemic' disease.

  5. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379

  6. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  7. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath north central Africa from shear wave splitting analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, Awad A.; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.; Reed, Cory A.; Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Yu, Youqiang; Elmelade, Abdala A.

    2015-04-01

    This study represents the first multistation investigation of azimuthal anisotropy beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions, using shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis. Data used in the study include recently available broadband seismic data obtained from 15 stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from five other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. This conclusion is enhanced by nonperiodic azimuthal variation of the splitting parameters observed at one of the stations located near the boundary of areas with different anisotropic properties. We interpret the observed anisotropy to be the consequence of northward movement of the African plate relative to the asthenosphere toward the Hellenic and Calabrian subduction zones. Local variance in fast orientations may be attributable to flow deflection by the northern edge of the African continental root. The observations provide critical and previously lacking constraints on mantle dynamic models in the vicinity of the convergent boundary between the African and Eurasian plates.

  8. Azimuthal anisotropy beneath north central Africa from shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, Awad Abdussalam Henish

    This study represents the first multi-station investigation of azimuthal anisotropy beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions, using shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis. Data used in the study include recently available broadband seismic data obtained from 15 stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from five other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. This conclusion is enhanced by non-periodic azimuthal variation of the splitting parameters observed at one of the stations located near the boundary of areas with different anisotropic properties. This research interprets the observed anisotropy to be the consequence of northward movement of the African plate relative to the asthenosphere toward the Hellenic and Calabrian subduction zones. Local variance in fast orientations may be attributable to flow deflection by the northern edge of the African continental root. The observations provide critical and previously lacking constraints on mantle dynamic models in the vicinity of the convergent boundary between the African and Eurasian plates.

  9. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984. An increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North America ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries. 9 figures, 27 tables.

  10. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sandham, Luke A. Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-05-15

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa.

  11. Characterising the progress in HIV/AIDS research in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Hanan F; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is perceived to have limited HIV data. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterise the progress in HIV research in this region since the discovery of the epidemic. Methods Four indices were defined and implemented to measure the progress of HIV research using the PubMed, Embase, MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project and US Census Bureau HIV/AIDS Surveillance databases. The four indices provide complementary measures to characterise different aspects of the progress of HIV research. Results A total of 2118, 2352, 683 and 4889 records were identified through the PubMed, the Embase, the Synthesis Project and the HIV Prevalence indices, respectively. The proportion of the total global HIV records that relate to MENA is 1.2%. Overall, the indices show steady progress in the number of new records every year, with an accelerated pace in the last few years. The rate of progress in MENA was also higher than the rate of progress in HIV records globally. There is no evidence so far of stabilisation or a peak in the number of new records year by year. About half of the records were produced after the year 2005. The number of records shows large heterogeneity across countries. Conclusions MENA has witnessed a rapid growth in HIV research over the last decade. However, there are still large gaps in HIV scientific evidence in the region, and the progress is far from being uniform across countries. Ongoing and future research needs to be geared towards academic standard and production of scientific publications. PMID:23596206

  12. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sardashti, Sara; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; Firouzeh, Mona Mohammadi; Mirshahvalad, Seyed Ali; Pahlaviani, Fatemeh Golsoorat; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2015-01-01

    New World Health Organization guidelines recommend the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of ≤ 500 cells/mm3. Substantial reduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is addressed as a major public health outcome of this new approach. Middle East and North Africa (MENA), known as the area of controversies in terms of availability of comprehensive data, has shown concentrated epidemics among most of it’s at risk population groups. Serious challenges impede the applicability of new guidelines in the MENA Region. Insufficient resources restrict ART coverage to less than 14%, while only one fourth of the countries had reportable data on patients’ CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Clinical guidelines need to be significantly modified to reach practical utility, and surveillance systems have not yet been developed in many countries of MENA. Based on available evidence in several countries people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are increasingly vulnerable to HIV and viral hepatitis, while their sexual partners - either female sex workers or women in monogamous relationships with high-risk men - are potential bridging populations that are not appropriately addressed by regional programs. Research to monitor the response to ART among the mentioned groups are seriously lacking, while drug resistant HIV strains and limited information on adherence patterns to treatment regimens require urgent recognition by health policymakers. Commitment to defined goals in the fight against HIV, development of innovative methods to improve registration and reporting systems, monitoring and evaluation of current programs followed by cost-effective modifications are proposed as effective steps to be acknowledged by National AIDS Programs of the countries of MENA Region. PMID:25964878

  13. A Preliminary Look at the Crust and Upper Mantle of North Africa Using Libyan Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M

    2005-08-05

    In recent years, LLNL has been developing methods to jointly invert both surface wave dispersion data and teleseismic receiver functions. The technique holds great promise in accurately estimating seismic structure, including important tectonic parameters such as basin thickness, crustal thickness, upper mantle velocity, etc. We proposed applying this method to some recently available data from several Libyan stations, as we believe the technique has not been applied to any stations in Libya. The technique holds the promise of improving our understanding of the crust and upper mantle in Libya and North Africa. We recently requested seismic data from stations GHAR (Gharyan) and MARJ (Al Marj) in Libya for about 20 events. The events were large events at regional distances suitable for making dispersion measurements. An example of waveforms recorded at the two stations from an earthquake in Italy is shown in Figure 1. The paths traverse the Ionian Sea. Notice the slow short period group velocities of the surface waves across the Mediterranean, particularly to the easternmost station MARJ. However, because of data availability, signal-to-noise ratio, etc. we were unable to make measurements for every one of these events at both stations. Figure 2 shows a map of paths for 20 sec Rayleigh waves in the eastern Mediterranean region. Paths measured at the two Libyan stations are shown in green. Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements at 20 sec period are sensitive to velocities in the upper 20 km or so, and reveal sediment thickness, crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. Tomographic inversions reveal the sharp group velocity contrast between regions with deep sedimentary basins and those without. Figure 3, the result of an inversion made before adding the new dispersion measurements, shows slow group velocities in the Black Sea, Adriatic Sea, and Eastern Mediterranean. In general, these features correspond well with the sediment thickness model from Laske, shown in Figure

  14. Smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Adel; Javaid, Arshad; Iraqi, Ghali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Ben Kheder, Ali; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Shahrour, Naem; Taright, Samya; Idrees, Magdy; Polatli, Mehmet; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Few recent comparative data exist on smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate smoking patterns in a large general population sample of individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A random sample of 457,258 telephone numbers was generated and called. This identified 65,154 eligible subjects, of whom 62,086 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire was administered to each participant, which included six questions relating to cigarette consumption and waterpipe use. The age- and gender-adjusted proportion of respondents reporting current or past smoking of cigarettes or waterpipes was 31.2% [95% CI: 30.9-31.6%]. This proportion was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in men (48.0%) than in women (13.8%), but no relevant differences were observed between age groups. Smoking rates were in general lowest in the Maghreb countries and Pakistan and highest in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, ranging from 15.3% in Morocco to 53.9% in Lebanon. Consumption rates were 28.8% [28.4-29.2%] for cigarette smoking and 3.5% [3.4-3.6%] for waterpipe use. Use of waterpipes was most frequent in Saudi Arabia (8.5% of respondents) but remained low in the Maghreb countries (< 1.5%). Cumulative cigarette exposure was high, with a mean number of pack · years smoked of 18.5 ± 20.5 for women and 29.1 ± 26.2 for men. In conclusion, smoking is a major health issue in the MENA region.

  15. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Cau, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian "Kem Kem Compound Assemblage" (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico "Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro" in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the "middle Cretaceous," and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called "Stromer's riddle" (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the "middle Cretaceous" record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct resource competition

  16. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Cau, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian "Kem Kem Compound Assemblage" (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico "Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro" in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the "middle Cretaceous," and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called "Stromer's riddle" (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the "middle Cretaceous" record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct resource competition

  17. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian “Kem Kem Compound Assemblage” (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico “Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro” in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the “middle Cretaceous,” and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called “Stromer’s riddle” (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the “middle Cretaceous” record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct

  18. Revisiting a hoary chestnut: the nature of early cattle domestication in North-East Africa.

    PubMed

    Brass, Michael

    2013-07-01

    It has been almost three decades since the Wendorf & Schild-Andrew Smith debate over the timing and location of domesticated cattle in North Africa reached its climax. The time is now appropriate for a review of the old models in light of subsequent anatomical and genetic data which have come to light. This article summarises the main issues and models, and attempts to provide suggestions for future investigations.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Sud Province, north-central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, M.E.; Klett, T.R.; Schenk, C.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Cook, T.A.; Pollastro, R.M.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sud Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 7.31 billion barrels of oil, 13.42 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 353 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  1. How important are atmospheric depressions and mobile cyclones for emitting mineral dust aerosol in North Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, S.; Schepanski, K.; Knippertz, P.; Heinold, B.; Tegen, I.

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the first quantitative estimate of the mineral dust emission associated with atmospheric depressions and mobile cyclones in North Africa. Atmospheric depressions are automatically tracked at 925 hPa based on ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for 1989-2008. A set of filter criteria is applied to identify mobile cyclones, i.e. migrating and long-lived cyclones. The shorter term cyclone is used as a synonym for mobile cyclones. Dust emission is calculated with a dust emission model driven by 10 m winds and soil moisture from ERA-Interim. Emission peaks during winter and spring with spatial averages of 250-380 g m-2 per month. Comparison of the dust source activation frequency from the model against SEVIRI satellite observation shows a good agreement in the Bodélé Depression but differences in the north and west of North Africa. Depressions are abundant, particularly in summer when the Saharan heat low is situated over West Africa and during spring in the lee of the Atlas Mountains. Up to 90% (55% annually and spatially averaged) of dust emission occurs within 10 degrees of these depressions, with embedded mechanisms such as nocturnal low-level jets playing a role. Cyclones are rarer and occur primarily north of 20° N in spring in agreement with previous studies and over summertime West Africa consistent with near-surface signatures of African Easterly Waves. Dust emission within 10 degrees of cyclones peaks over Libya with up to 25% in spring. Despite the overall small contribution of 4% annually and spatially averaged, cyclones coincide with particularly intense dust emission events exceeding the climatological mean by a factor of four to eight. Soil moisture weakens dust emission during cyclone passage by about 10%.

  2. What is the impact of Harmattan surges on desert dust emission in North Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Stephanie; Kaplan, Michael L.; Knippertz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Desert dust aerosols have important implications in the Earth system, but their emission amount has a large model uncertainty. Improving the most important meteorological processes for dust-emitting winds helps to reduce this uncertainty. However, the dominant meteorological mechanisms for the large dust emission during spring remain unclear. This time of year is characterized by mobile, long-lived cyclones and Harmattan surges which are capable to uplift dust aerosol for long-range atmospheric transport. Emission near to the centre of mobile, long-lived cyclones are associated with a small mass of dust emission over the northern Sahara in spring, despite their most frequent occurrence in this season. Harmattan surges are proposed to be more efficient in emitting dust aerosol in spring. These events manifest themselves as a postfrontal strengthening of near-surface winds with a continental impact on dust emission. The present study shows the first long-term climatology of dust emission associated with Harmattan surges over North Africa. Using a newly-developed automated identification, Harmattan surges are statistically analysed in 32 years of ERA-Interim re-analysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The results show 34 events per year in the annual mean. Spring is herein the most active season with the largest mean number and duration of Harmattan surges, in contrast to summer with virtually no activity. The offline dust emission model by Tegen et al (2002) is used to calculate emissions with ERA-Interim data. Combining these results with the Harmattan surges allows a first quantitative estimate of the associated emission mass. The results highlight that a fraction of 32 % of the total emission is associated with these events, annually and spatially averaged across North Africa. This amount exceeds the annual mean contribution of nocturnal low-level jets to dust emission, which is known as one of the most important drivers for North

  3. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  4. Seismological Investigations of Crustal and Mantle Structure and Dynamics beneath North-central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemnifi, A. A.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.; Reed, C. A.; Yu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Here we report results of mantle azimuthal anisotropy from shear-wave splitting (SWS) analysis, crustal structure obtained using H-k stacking, and mantle transition zone discontinuity depths beneath the interior of north central Africa, including Libya and adjacent regions using recently available broadband seismic data obtained from stations managed by the Libyan Center for Remote Sensing and Space Science, and those from several other stations at which data are publicly accessible. A total of 583 pairs of high-quality SWS measurements utilizing the PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases demonstrate primarily N-S fast orientations with an average splitting delay time of approximately 1.2 s. An absence of periodic azimuthal variation of the observed splitting parameters indicates the presence of simple anisotropy, and lack of correlation between surficial features and the splitting parameters suggests that the origin of the observed anisotropy is primarily asthenospheric. Receiver function H-k stacking reveals crustal thicknesses ranging from 25 to 36 km, and Vp/Vs measurements ranging from 1.73 to 1.93, suggesting a spatially heterogeneous crustal structure and composition. The apparent depths of the seismic discontinuities (d410 and d660) bordering the mantle transition zone (MTZ) increase beneath Cenozoic volcanoes in central Libya, suggesting lower-than-normal upper mantle velocities. One of the most significant features in the resulting MTZ thickness map is a region in eastern Libya which has a MTZ thickness of about 270 km, indicating a colder than normal MTZ probably associated with subducted slabs.

  5. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    In the 6 countries covered by this paper, valid petroleum rights at the end of 1981 amounted to 2,024,414 km/sup 2/ or 7% more than at the end of 1980. As far as the rightholding situation is concerned, the main event was the abandonment by Esso of all its rights in Libya. Information on exploration activity remains scarce, but it is estimated that seismic activity increased by 35%. Large air-magnetometry surveys were carried out in Sudan and Egypt. Exploration drilling activity continued to increase, with 169 wells completed versus 115 in 1980. This effort led to 67 oil and gas discoveries, a success rate of about 40% compared with 35% in 1980. All these discoveries were made in established producing provinces. Highly successful results were obtained in the Gulf of Suez with 1 gas and 19 oil discoveries compared with 4 discoveries in 1980. Good success was also obtained by ONAREP, the new Moroccan state company, with 5 gas discoveries out of 11 wells spudded during the year. Chevron continued to find oil in the interior basins of Sudan, and expects commercial production in 1984 from the Unity field, which has reserves estimated at 400 million bbl of oil. Oil production markedly decreased by about 23%, with an average of 2,820,000 BOPD in 1981. Oil output decreased in all the North African countries except Egypt, where it increased 8%. Utilized natural gas production can be estimated at about 2300 MMCFGD. Sonatrach published official figures for gross gas production in 1981 which amounted to 4420 MMCFGD, of which about 2000 MMCFGD were collected and utilized.

  6. Regional variation in travel-related illness acquired in Africa, March 1997-May 2011.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Marc; Han, Pauline V; Vincent, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Cramer, Jakob P; Loutan, Louis; Kain, Kevin C; Parola, Philippe; Hagmann, Stefan; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Sotir, Mark; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    To understand geographic variation in travel-related illness acquired in distinct African regions, we used the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database to analyze records for 16,893 ill travelers returning from Africa over a 14-year period. Travelers to northern Africa most commonly reported gastrointestinal illnesses and dog bites. Febrile illnesses were more common in travelers returning from sub-Saharan countries. Eleven travelers died, 9 of malaria; these deaths occurred mainly among male business travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. The profile of illness varied substantially by region: malaria predominated in travelers returning from Central and Western Africa; schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and dengue from Eastern and Western Africa; and loaisis from Central Africa. There were few reports of vaccine-preventable infections, HIV infection, and tuberculosis. Geographic profiling of illness acquired during travel to Africa guides targeted pretravel advice, expedites diagnosis in ill returning travelers, and may influence destination choices in tourism.

  7. Regional Variation in Travel-related Illness acquired in Africa, March 1997–May 2011

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pauline V.; Vincent, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Cramer, Jakob P.; Loutan, Louis; Kain, Kevin C.; Parola, Philippe; Hagmann, Stefan; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Sotir, Mark; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To understand geographic variation in travel-related illness acquired in distinct African regions, we used the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database to analyze records for 16,893 ill travelers returning from Africa over a 14-year period. Travelers to northern Africa most commonly reported gastrointestinal illnesses and dog bites. Febrile illnesses were more common in travelers returning from sub-Saharan countries. Eleven travelers died, 9 of malaria; these deaths occurred mainly among male business travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. The profile of illness varied substantially by region: malaria predominated in travelers returning from Central and Western Africa; schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and dengue from Eastern and Western Africa; and loaisis from Central Africa. There were few reports of vaccine-preventable infections, HIV infection, and tuberculosis. Geographic profiling of illness acquired during travel to Africa guides targeted pretravel advice, expedites diagnosis in ill returning travelers, and may influence destination choices in tourism. PMID:24655358

  8. Regional variation in travel-related illness acquired in Africa, March 1997-May 2011.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Marc; Han, Pauline V; Vincent, Peter; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Cramer, Jakob P; Loutan, Louis; Kain, Kevin C; Parola, Philippe; Hagmann, Stefan; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Sotir, Mark; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    To understand geographic variation in travel-related illness acquired in distinct African regions, we used the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network database to analyze records for 16,893 ill travelers returning from Africa over a 14-year period. Travelers to northern Africa most commonly reported gastrointestinal illnesses and dog bites. Febrile illnesses were more common in travelers returning from sub-Saharan countries. Eleven travelers died, 9 of malaria; these deaths occurred mainly among male business travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. The profile of illness varied substantially by region: malaria predominated in travelers returning from Central and Western Africa; schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and dengue from Eastern and Western Africa; and loaisis from Central Africa. There were few reports of vaccine-preventable infections, HIV infection, and tuberculosis. Geographic profiling of illness acquired during travel to Africa guides targeted pretravel advice, expedites diagnosis in ill returning travelers, and may influence destination choices in tourism. PMID:24655358

  9. Regional Model Nesting Within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 Global Forecast System (GFS) global forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times daily. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger

  10. A Regional Model Study of Synoptic Features Over West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Saloum, Mahaman; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Synoptic weather features over West Africa were studied in simulations by the regional simulation model (RM) at the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies. These pioneering simulations represent the beginning of an effort to adapt regional models for weather and climate prediction over West Africa. The RM uses a cartesian grid with 50 km horizontal resolution and fifteen vertical levels. An ensemble of four simulations was forced with lateral boundary conditions from ECMWF global analyses for the period 8-22 August 1988. The simulated mid-tropospheric circulation includes the skillful development and movement of several African wave disturbances. Wavelet analysis of mid-tropospheric winds detected a dominant periodicity of about 4 days and a secondary periodicity of 5-8 days. Spatial distributions of RM precipitation and precipitation time series were validated against daily rain gauge measurements and ISCCP satellite infrared cloud imagery. The time-space distribution of simulated precipitation was made more realistic by combining the ECMWR initial conditions with a 24-hr spin-up of the moisture field and also by damping high frequency gravity waves by dynamic initialization. Model precipitation "forecasts" over the Central Sahel were correlated with observations for about three days, but reinitializing with observed data on day 5 resulted in a dramatic improvement in the precipitation validation over the remaining 9 days. Results imply that information via the lateral boundary conditions is not always sufficient to minimize departures between simulated and actual precipitation patterns for more than several days. In addition, there was some evidence that the new initialization may increase the simulations' sensitivity to the quality of lateral boundary conditions.

  11. A regional approach to water shortage problems in the Sahel region of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Isiorho, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Sahel region of Africa has repeatedly experienced drought periods, such as those highlighted during the early to mid-eighties. Water, an essential of life, is a scarce commodity in the region. Lake Chad is the major source of water for approximately ten million people across four nations. For proper management of water resources in this persistently drought prone region, the regional hydrology must be understood. Remote sensing, geophysical, and geochemical techniques are currently being used in an attempt to understand the hydrology of the region. Preliminary results indicate that lineament trace analysis from remote sensing can be correlated with faults/fractures of the region, with important implications for its hydrology. Field data indicate groundwater recharge from the lake to the southwest of the Chad Basin. Because of the low annual rainfall (less than 30 cm), a high rate of evaporation (230 cm/yr) and clay-rich surface materials (topsoil) of the region, Lake Chad appears to be its main source of water, either as surface or groundwater, as indicated by preliminary isotopic data. Understanding the hydrology of the region is imperative for the proper management of water resources in this drought-prone part of Africa. The governments of the Sahel need to approach the water shortage problem from a regional point of view.

  12. The Epidemiology and Geographic Distribution of Relapsing Fever Borreliosis in West and North Africa, with a Review of the Ornithodoros erraticus Complex (Acari: Ixodida)

    PubMed Central

    Trape, Jean-François; Diatta, Georges; Arnathau, Céline; Bitam, Idir; Sarih, M’hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Bouattour, Ali; Elguero, Eric; Vial, Laurence; Mané, Youssouph; Baldé, Cellou; Pugnolle, Franck; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mahé, Gil; Granjon, Laurent; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Relapsing fever is the most frequent bacterial disease in Africa. Four main vector / pathogen complexes are classically recognized, with the louse Pediculus humanus acting as vector for B. recurrentis and the soft ticks Ornithodoros sonrai, O. erraticus and O. moubata acting as vectors for Borrelia crocidurae, B. hispanica and B. duttonii, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of the disease in West, North and Central Africa. Methods And Findings From 2002 to 2012, we conducted field surveys in 17 African countries and in Spain. We investigated the occurrence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 282 study sites. We collected 1,629 small mammals that may act as reservoir for Borrelia infections. Using molecular methods we studied genetic diversity among Ornithodoros ticks and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals. Of 9,870 burrows investigated, 1,196 (12.1%) were inhabited by Ornithodoros ticks. In West Africa, the southern and eastern limits of the vectors and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals were 13°N and 01°E, respectively. Molecular studies revealed the occurrence of nine different Ornithodoros species, including five species new for science, with six of them harboring Borrelia infections. Only B. crocidurae was found in West Africa and three Borrelia species were identified in North Africa: B. crocidurae, B. hispanica, and B. merionesi. Conclusions Borrelia Spirochetes responsible for relapsing fever in humans are highly prevalent both in Ornithodoros ticks and small mammals in North and West Africa but Ornithodoros ticks seem absent south of 13°N and small mammals are not infected in these regions. The number of Ornithodoros species acting as vector of relapsing fever is much higher than previously known. PMID:24223812

  13. Differences in Reliability of Reproductive History Recall Among Women in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amr; Allen, Katharine; Lo, An-Chi; Banerjee, Mousumi; Hablas, Ahmed; Benider, Abdellatif; Benchekroun, Nadya; Samir, Salwa; Omar, Hoda G.; Merajver, Sofia; Mullan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in North Africa. Women in this region have unique reproductive profiles. It is essential to obtain reliable information on reproductive histories to help better understand the relationship between reductive health and breast cancer. We tested the reliability of a reproductive history-based questionnaire. We interviewed 25 breast cancer patients and 25 non-cancer controls from hospitals in Morocco and Egypt about their reproductive history in colloquial Arabic. The questions included pregnancy history, breastfeeding practices, menstruation, contraceptive use and knowledge of breast screening and re-interviewed the same women after 2 weeks. Two-way paired t-test was used to compare observed mean changes in response, and the Fishers Exact test was used for small-cell data. Pearson's correlation test was used to estimate the correlation of subjects’ responses to continuous questions between the first and second interview. For categorical questions, percentage of agreement was calculated along with Cohen’s Kappa Coefficient values. Moroccan subjects showed good to excellent agreement for responses to all demographic and reproductive questions (r = 0.87 to 0.99). Egyptian subjects had excellent agreement for these questions(r = 0.87 to 0.99), except for those regarding duration of oral contraceptive pill use and reported age at menarche (r = 0.72 and 0.59, respectively). We showed highly correlated responses to most reproductive questions. Duration of contraception use and age at first pregnancy elicited slightly less than reliable responses. In Egypt, responses relating to self-reported age at menarche were less reliable than those given by Moroccan subjects. Future epidemiological studies should take these differences into account when constructing reproductive history questionnaires. PMID:25620888

  14. A crust and upper mantle model of Eurasia and North Africa for Pn travel time calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S; Begnaud, M; Ballard, S; Pasyanos, M; Phillips, W S; Ramirez, A; Antolik, M; Hutchenson, K; Dwyer, J; Rowe, C; Wagner, G

    2009-03-19

    We develop a Regional Seismic Travel Time (RSTT) model and methods to account for the first-order effect of the three-dimensional crust and upper mantle on travel times. The model parameterization is a global tessellation of nodes with a velocity profile at each node. Interpolation of the velocity profiles generates a 3-dimensional crust and laterally variable upper mantle velocity. The upper mantle velocity profile at each node is represented as a linear velocity gradient, which enables travel time computation in approximately 1 millisecond. This computational speed allows the model to be used in routine analyses in operational monitoring systems. We refine the model using a tomographic formulation that adjusts the average crustal velocity, mantle velocity at the Moho, and the mantle velocity gradient at each node. While the RSTT model is inherently global and our ultimate goal is to produce a model that provides accurate travel time predictions over the globe, our first RSTT tomography effort covers Eurasia and North Africa, where we have compiled a data set of approximately 600,000 Pn arrivals that provide path coverage over this vast area. Ten percent of the tomography data are randomly selected and set aside for testing purposes. Travel time residual variance for the validation data is reduced by 32%. Based on a geographically distributed set of validation events with epicenter accuracy of 5 km or better, epicenter error using 16 Pn arrivals is reduced by 46% from 17.3 km (ak135 model) to 9.3 km after tomography. Relative to the ak135 model, the median uncertainty ellipse area is reduced by 68% from 3070 km{sup 2} to 994 km{sup 2}, and the number of ellipses with area less than 1000 km{sup 2}, which is the area allowed for onsite inspection under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, is increased from 0% to 51%.

  15. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  16. Evolution around the Red Sea: Systematics and biogeography of the agamid genus Pseudotrapelus (Squamata: Agamidae) from North Africa and Arabia.

    PubMed

    Tamar, Karin; Scholz, Sebastian; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Meiri, Shai; Schmitz, Andreas; Wilms, Thomas; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Since the Oligocene, regions adjacent to the Red Sea have experienced major environmental changes, from tectonic movements and continuous geological activity to shifting climatic conditions. The effect of these events on the distribution and diversity of the regional biota is still poorly understood. Agamid members of the genus Pseudotrapelus are diurnal, arid-adapted lizards distributed around the Red Sea from north-eastern Africa, across the mountains and rocky plateaus of the Sinai and Arabian Peninsulas northwards to Syria. Despite recent taxonomic work and the interest in the group as a model for studying biogeographic and diversity patterns of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia, its taxonomy is poorly understood and a comprehensive phylogeny is still lacking. In this study, we analyzed 92 Pseudotrapelus specimens from across the entire distribution range of the genus. We included all known species and subspecies, and sequenced them for mitochondrial (16S, ND4 and tRNAs) and nuclear (MC1R, c-mos) markers. This enabled us to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus, using gene trees, species trees and coalescent-based methods for species delimitation. Our results revealed Pseudotrapelus as a monophyletic genus comprised of two major clades and six independently evolving lineages. These lineages correspond to the five currently recognized species and a sixth lineage relating to the synonymized P. neumanni. The subspecific validity of P. sinaitus werneri needs further assessment as it does not form a distinct cluster relative to P. s. sinaitus. The onset of Pseudotrapelus diversification is estimated to have occurred in Arabia during the late Miocene. Radiation has likely resulted from vicariance and dispersal events due to the continued geological instability, sea level fluctuations and climatic changes within the region. PMID:26772670

  17. Evolution around the Red Sea: Systematics and biogeography of the agamid genus Pseudotrapelus (Squamata: Agamidae) from North Africa and Arabia.

    PubMed

    Tamar, Karin; Scholz, Sebastian; Crochet, Pierre-André; Geniez, Philippe; Meiri, Shai; Schmitz, Andreas; Wilms, Thomas; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Since the Oligocene, regions adjacent to the Red Sea have experienced major environmental changes, from tectonic movements and continuous geological activity to shifting climatic conditions. The effect of these events on the distribution and diversity of the regional biota is still poorly understood. Agamid members of the genus Pseudotrapelus are diurnal, arid-adapted lizards distributed around the Red Sea from north-eastern Africa, across the mountains and rocky plateaus of the Sinai and Arabian Peninsulas northwards to Syria. Despite recent taxonomic work and the interest in the group as a model for studying biogeographic and diversity patterns of the arid areas of North Africa and Arabia, its taxonomy is poorly understood and a comprehensive phylogeny is still lacking. In this study, we analyzed 92 Pseudotrapelus specimens from across the entire distribution range of the genus. We included all known species and subspecies, and sequenced them for mitochondrial (16S, ND4 and tRNAs) and nuclear (MC1R, c-mos) markers. This enabled us to obtain the first time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of the genus, using gene trees, species trees and coalescent-based methods for species delimitation. Our results revealed Pseudotrapelus as a monophyletic genus comprised of two major clades and six independently evolving lineages. These lineages correspond to the five currently recognized species and a sixth lineage relating to the synonymized P. neumanni. The subspecific validity of P. sinaitus werneri needs further assessment as it does not form a distinct cluster relative to P. s. sinaitus. The onset of Pseudotrapelus diversification is estimated to have occurred in Arabia during the late Miocene. Radiation has likely resulted from vicariance and dispersal events due to the continued geological instability, sea level fluctuations and climatic changes within the region.

  18. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  19. Late Quaternary hydrology in North Africa and the Near East (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasse, Françoise

    2010-05-01

    The present-day arid-semiarid belt from North Africa to West Asia has experienced huge hydrological changes together with a long history of human civilisations. This belt straddles the boundary between a temperate domain (winter rains linked to the mid-latitude Westerlies), and a subtropical one (rare monsoonal summer precipitation). What are the timing and direction of major hydrological changes in these two domains ? How does the transitional zone migrate through time, and why ? How did human societies respond to changes in water availability ? These questions are addressed using records illustrating both long and short-term environmental changes. At the glacial-interglacial time scale, hydrological changes broadly follow the orbitally-induced Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, but with different regional expressions. In the winter rain domain, the best-dated records come from southern Levant : stable isotope records from speleothems in Israel (120-230 ka) show a remarkable consistency with those from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea(1,2), but the prominant role of rainfall amount or of moisture source isotopic composition on inland records is still debated (1-4); lake-level reconstructions in the Lisan-Dead Sea basin during the past 70 ka demonstrate higher winter rains during the last glacial period than during the Holocene (4,5). However, a new multi-proxy lacustrine record (230 ka) from northern Levant (Yammoûneh, Lebanon) shows relatively wet environments during interglacial periods(6,7), suggesting temporal changes in the NS climatic gradients over the Levantine region. Extratropical rainfalls apparently remained predominant over northern Sahara, with a major period of aquifer recharge during the Late Pleistocene(8). Conversely, south of about 25-22° N, the subtropical deserts experienced pluvial periods during interglacials, including the remarkable early-Mid Holocene wetting of the Saharan heart(8). Older pluvial periods, precisely dated in speleothems

  20. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  1. Depositional sequence evolution, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic of the central Saharan platform, North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, A.R.G. )

    1991-08-01

    Over 30 depositional sequences have been identified in the Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic of the Ghadames basin of eastern Algeria, southern Tunisia, and western Libya. Well logs and lithologic information from more than 500 wells were used to correlate the 30 sequences throughout the basin (total area more than 1 million km{sup 2}). Based on systematic change in the log response of strata in successively younger sequences, five groups of sequences with distinctive characteristics have been identified: Cambro-Ordivician, Upper Silurian-Middle Devonian, Upper Devonian, Carboniferous, and Middle Triassic-Middle Jurassic. Each sequence group is terminated by a major, tectonically enhanced sequence boundary that is immediately overlain (except for the Carboniferous) by a shale-prone interval deposited in response to basin-wide flooding. The four Paleozoic sequence groups were deposited on the Saharan platform, a north facing, clastic-dominated shelf that covered most of North Africa during the Paleozoic. The sequence boundary at the top of the Carboniferous sequence group is one of several Permian-Carboniferous angular unconformities in North Africa related to the Hercynian orogeny. The youngest sequence group (Middle Triassic to Middle Jurassic) is a clastic-evaporite package that onlaps southward onto the top of Paleozoic sequence boundary. The progressive changes from the Cambrian to the Jurassic, in the nature of the Ghadames basin sequences is a reflection of the interplay between basin morphology and tectonics, vegetation, eustasy, climate, and sediment supply.

  2. Extreme rainfall in West Africa: A regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthou, G.; Vischel, T.; Lebel, T.; Blanchet, J.; Quantin, G.; Ali, A.

    2012-08-01

    In a world of increasing exposure of populations to natural hazards, the mapping of extreme rainfall remains a key subject of study. Such maps are required for both flood risk management and civil engineering structure design, the challenge being to take into account the local information provided by point rainfall series as well as the necessity of some regional coherency. Two approaches based on the extreme value theory are compared here, with an application to extreme rainfall mapping in West Africa. The first approach is a local fit and interpolation (LFI) consisting of a spatial interpolation of the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution parameters estimated independently at each station. The second approach is a spatial maximum likelihood estimation (SMLE); it directly estimates the GEV distribution over the entire region by a single maximum likelihood fit using jointly all measurements combined with spatial covariates. Five LFI and three SMLE methods are considered, using the information provided by 126 daily rainfall series covering the period 1950-1990. The methods are first evaluated in calibration. Then the predictive skills and the robustness are assessed through a cross validation and an independent network validation process. The SMLE approach, especially when using the mean annual rainfall as covariate, appears to perform better for most of the scores computed. Using the Niamey 104 year time series, it is also shown that the SMLE approach has the capacity to deal more efficiently with the effect of local outliers by using the spatial information provided by nearby stations.

  3. Surgical morbidity in the North Coast Health Region.

    PubMed

    Brand, N; Clarke, Q; Eather, L; Garbutt, M; Leedow, M; Perry, J; Spencer, O; Spillane, P

    1994-06-01

    A comparison of morbidity following 20 selected surgical procedures was conducted in the North Coast Health Region of NSW in 1988. Morbidity rates between procedures, hospitals and hospital levels were compared and the effects of age, gender and the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating on morbidity were examined. The respective perceptions of doctors and patients regarding complications were also compared. The study gives conditional support to the continuation of a surgical programme in Level 3 hospitals in the North Coast Health Region.

  4. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  5. The development of the continental margin of eastern North America-conjugate continental margin to West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Schlee, J.S.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1988-01-01

    The continental margin of eastern North America was initiated when West Africa and North America were rifted apart in Triassic-Early Jurassic time. Cooling of the crust and its thinning by rifting and extension caused subsidence. Variation in amounts of subsidence led to formation of five basins. These are listed from south to north. (1) The Blake Plateau Basin, the southernmost, is the widest basin and the one in which the rift-stage basement took longest to form. Carbonate platform deposition was active and persisted until the end of Early Cretaceous. In Late Cretaceous, deposition slowed while subsidence persisted, so a deep water platform was formed. Since the Paleocene the region has undergone erosion. (2) The Carolina Trough is narrow and has relatively thin basement, on the basis of gravity modeling. The two basins with thin basement, the Carolina Trough and Scotian Basin, also show many salt diapirs indicating considerable deposition of salt during their early evolution. In the Carolina Trough, subsidence of a large block of strata above the flowing salt has resulted in a major, active normal fault on the landward side of the basin. (3) The Baltimore Canyon Trough has an extremely thick sedimentary section; synrift and postrift sediments exceed 18 km in thickness. A Jurassic reef is well developed on the basin's seaward side, but post-Jurassic deposition was mainly non-carbonate. In general the conversion from carbonate to terrigenous deposition, characteristics of North American Basins, occurred progressively earlier toward the north. (4) The Georges Bank Basin has a complicated deep structure of sub-basins filled with thick synrift deposits. This may have resulted from some shearing that occurred at this offset of the continental margin. Postrift sediments apparently are thin compared to other basins-only about 8 km. (5) The Scotian Basin, off Canada, contains Jurassic carbonate rocks, sandstone, shale and coal covered by deltaic deposits and Upper

  6. Fluoride in groundwater in selected villages in Eritrea (North East Africa).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Viswanatham, K S; Kahsai, Fikremariam; Fisahatsion, Abraham; Asmellash, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above the safety level for consumption. Geological basis for the high concentration of high fluoride has been established; it is presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by a granitic batholith. Extensive dental fluorosis has been observed in the population exposed to drinking water of high fluoride content.

  7. Fluoride in groundwater in selected villages in Eritrea (North East Africa).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Viswanatham, K S; Kahsai, Fikremariam; Fisahatsion, Abraham; Asmellash, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above the safety level for consumption. Geological basis for the high concentration of high fluoride has been established; it is presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by a granitic batholith. Extensive dental fluorosis has been observed in the population exposed to drinking water of high fluoride content. PMID:12002285

  8. A Climatology of Dust-Emission Events over North Africa Based on 27 Years of Surface Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, S.; Knippertz, P.; Schepanski, K.

    2012-04-01

    The huge quantity of mineral dust emitted annually from North Africa makes this area crucial to the global dust cycle. Once in the atmosphere, dust aerosols have a significant impact on the global radiation budget, clouds, the carbon cycle and can even act as a fertilizer to rain forests in South America. Current model estimates of dust production from North Africa are uncertain. At the heart of this problem is insufficient understanding of key dust emitting processes such as haboobs (cold pools generated through evaporation of convective precipitation), low-level jets (LLJs), and dry convection (dust devils and dust plumes). Scarce observations in this region, in particular in the Sahara, make model evaluation difficult. This work uses long-term surface observations from the MIDAS data set (~120 stations in the arid part of North Africa) to explore the diurnal, seasonal, decadal and geographical variations in dust emission events and their associated wind thresholds. The threshold values are determined from probability density functions of observed 10-minute anemomenter wind speeds. Emission events are defined using the present weather codes (WW) of SYNOP reports. These codes represent events of smaller intensity such as "Dust or sand raised by wind" to severe dust storms. During the 27-year study period (1984-2011) stations are required to have a minimum of 1000 dust observations to be included in the analysis. Dust emission frequency (DEF) is calculated for different time intervals (e.g. monthly, 3-hourly) taking into account the different number of measurements available at each station. North of 25°N a maximum during March-May is evident and relatively consistent over the whole North African region. Wind-speed thresholds for dust emission north of 25°N are higher than south of 25°N in the Sahel, where station-to-station variability is larger, and enhanced DEF activity during February-March is observed. The variability in this region is closely linked to the

  9. Grid search modeling of receiver functions: Implications for crustal structure in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sandvol, E.; Seber, D.; Calvert, A.; Barazangi, M.

    1998-11-01

    A grid search is used to estimate average crustal thickness and shear wave velocity structure beneath 12 three-component broadband seismic stations in the Middle East, North Africa, and nearby regions. The crustal thickness in these regions is found to vary from a minimum of 8.0{plus_minus}1.5&hthinsp;km in East Africa (Afar) region to possibly a maximum of 64{plus_minus}4.8&hthinsp;km in the lesser Caucasus. Stations located within the stable African platform indicate a crustal thickness of about 40 km. Teleseismic three-component waveform data produced by 165 earthquakes are used to create receiver function stacks for each station. Using a grid search, we have solved for the optimal and most simple shear velocity models beneath all 12 stations. Unlike other techniques (linearized least squares or forward modeling), the grid search methodology guarantees that we solve for the global minimum within our defined model parameter space. Using the grid search, we also qualitatively estimate the least number of layers required to model the observed receiver functions{close_quote} major seismic phases (e.g., PS{sub Moho}). A jackknife error estimation method is used to test the stability of our receiver function inversions for all 12 stations in the region that had recorded a sufficient number of high-quality broadband teleseismic waveforms. Five of the 12 estimates of crustal thicknesses are consistent with what is known of crustal structure from prior geophysical work. Furthermore, the remaining seven estimates of crustal structure are in regions for which previously there were few or no data about crustal thickness. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  10. Analysis of Genomic Regions Associated With Coronary Artery Disease Reveals Continent-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in North African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Daniela; Via, Marc; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Esteban, Esther; Chaabani, Hassen; Anaibar, Fatima; Harich, Nourdin; Habbal, Rachida; Ghalim, Noreddine; Moral, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, several genomic regions have been robustly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in different genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted mainly in people of European descent. These kinds of data are lacking in African populations, even though heart diseases are a major cause of premature death and disability. Methods Here, 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the top four CAD risk regions (1p13, 1q41, 9p21, and 10q11) were genotyped in 274 case-control samples from Morocco and Tunisia, with the aim of analyzing for the first time if the associations found in European populations were transferable to North Africans. Results The results indicate that, as in Europe, these four genetic regions are also important for CAD risk in North Africa. However, the individual SNPs associated with CAD in Africa are different from those identified in Europe in most cases (1p13, 1q41, and 9p21). Moreover, the seven risk variants identified in North Africans are efficient in discriminating between cases and controls in North African populations, but not in European populations. Conclusions This study indicates a disparity in markers associated to CAD susceptibility between North Africans and Europeans that may be related to population differences in the chromosomal architecture of these risk regions. PMID:26780859

  11. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  12. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa.

  13. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Gosling, Anna L.; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  14. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

    2008-03-31

    Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

  15. Community Support for Basic Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Patrick

    Currently, Africa stands out as the world's poorest and most educationally deprived region. Where communities are empowered to identify their own needs and priorities, participate in decisions about resource allocation, and hold education providers accountable for ensuring that children receive a minimum acceptable standard of education, schooling…

  16. Preliminary report on osteochondrosis in cattle in the north-western parts of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Prozesky, Leon; Neser, Johan; Meissner, Heinz; Botha, Kenneth; Jacobs, Lubbe; Shepstone, Craig; Viljoen, Hannes; Köster, Hinner; De Brouwer, Chris; Van Zyl, Jan; Van der Veen, Gerjan

    2016-01-01

    The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882-1912). This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance-related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate) rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis) manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife. Osteochondrosis was also identified in the south-western parts of Namibia as well as southern Botswana and other areas in South Africa. Osteochondrosis has a multifactorial aetiology and this study focused on the role of minerals, particularly phosphorus, in the development of the disease. A significant improvement in the clinical signs in experimental animals and a reduction of osteochondrosis occurred on farms where animals received bioavailable trace minerals and phosphorus as part of a balanced lick. An increase in the occurrence of the disease on farms during severe drought conditions in 2012-2013 prompted researchers to investigate the possible role of chronic metabolic acidosis in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27543146

  17. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. PMID:25107992

  18. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012.

  19. Cannabis, tobacco and domestic fumes intake are associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Feng, B-J; Khyatti, M; Ben-Ayoub, W; Dahmoul, S; Ayad, M; Maachi, F; Bedadra, W; Abdoun, M; Mesli, S; Bakkali, H; Jalbout, M; Hamdi-Cherif, M; Boualga, K; Bouaouina, N; Chouchane, L; Benider, A; Ben-Ayed, F; Goldgar, D E; Corbex, M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The lifestyle risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in North Africa are not known. Methods: From 2002 to 2005, we interviewed 636 patients and 615 controls from Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, frequency-matched by centre, age, sex, and childhood household type (urban/rural). Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of lifestyles with NPC risk, controlling for socioeconomic status and dietary risk factors. Results: Cigarette smoking and snuff (tobacco powder with additives) intake were significantly associated with differentiated NPC but not with undifferentiated carcinoma (UCNT), which is the major histological type of NPC in these populations. As demonstrated by a stratified permutation test and by conditional logistic regression, marijuana smoking significantly elevated NPC risk independently of cigarette smoking, suggesting dissimilar carcinogenic mechanisms between cannabis and tobacco. Domestic cooking fumes intake by using kanoun (compact charcoal oven) during childhood increased NPC risk, whereas exposure during adulthood had less effect. Neither alcohol nor shisha (water pipe) was associated with risk. Conclusion: Tobacco, cannabis and domestic cooking fumes intake are risk factors for NPC in western North Africa. PMID:19724280

  20. A late Pleistocene refugium in Mediterranean North Africa? Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from stable isotope analyses of land snail shells (Haua Fteah, Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, A. L.; Stevens, R. E.; O'Connell, T. C.; Hill, E. A.; Hunt, C. O.; Barker, G. W.

    2016-05-01

    The late Pleistocene to Holocene archaeological record of North Africa is key to understanding the emergence of anatomically modern humans into West Asia and Europe, and the broadening of subsistence strategies in the shift from hunter-gatherer to pastoral-agricultural lifeways. Some contend that these developments were modulated by major shifts in climate and environment. Evaluation of this hypothesis requires the pairing of local and regional climate records with well-dated archaeological sequences. The Haua Fteah archaeological site in the Gebel Akhdar region of Libya provides a key site to test this hypothesis as the cave contains one of the longest and most complete sequences of human occupation in North Africa as well as abundant material for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. This study uses stable isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C) of the terrestrial mollusc Helix melanostoma to construct a palaeoenvironmental framework for interpreting North African human-environment interactions from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Neolithic (∼30,000 to 5000 years ago). The land snail stable isotope records from Haua Fteah suggests that cool arid conditions in the cave peaked during marine isotope stage (MIS) 2. This stage was, however, only marginally drier than previous and subsequent stages and coincided with an increase in occupation density in the cave. This suggests that the Gebel Akhdar may have served as an environmental refugium from the more extreme aridity in the surrounding Sahara and arid coastal plains for Late Stone Age (LSA) populations in North Africa. Conditions became progressively wetter towards the Holocene. However, generally wetter conditions were interrupted by two arid episodes at c. 8.0 ka and 7.3 ka that appear to coincide with regional changes reflected elsewhere in the Mediterranean basin.

  1. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  2. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal), spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values < 0.03), and an overall test for isolation by distance was not significant. Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region. PMID:22759447

  3. Youth in crisis in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic literature review and focused landscape analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehling, M; Jarrah, Z M; Tiernan, M E; Albezreh, S; VanRooyen, M J; Alhokair, A; Nelson, B D

    2016-12-01

    Recent political and demographic factors have exposed the vulnerability of the youth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This study aimed to elucidate the current needs, activities, stakeholders and solutions related to at-risk youth and young adults in the MENA region. A systematic literature review was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature. This was complemented by an in-region landscape analysis involving key-informant interviews and focus group discussions. After extensive screening of 1160 unique articles, 275 articles were considered relevant to this study. Of these 275, 145 (52.7%) were related to health (64.8% of these related to mental health), 101 (36.7%) to livelihood, 87 (31.6%) to violence prevention and 68 (24.7%) to education. Important themes and challenges identified in the literature and discussions included the MENA region's growing youth bulge; youth unemployment; critical gender gaps; and the impact of conflict on livelihoods, education and health, especially mental health. PMID:26996365

  4. Youth in crisis in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic literature review and focused landscape analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehling, M; Jarrah, Z M; Tiernan, M E; Albezreh, S; VanRooyen, M J; Alhokair, A; Nelson, B D

    2016-03-15

    Recent political and demographic factors have exposed the vulnerability of the youth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This study aimed to elucidate the current needs, activities, stakeholders and solutions related to at-risk youth and young adults in the MENA region. A systematic literature review was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature. This was complemented by an in-region landscape analysis involving key-informant interviews and focus group discussions. After extensive screening of 1160 unique articles, 275 articles were considered relevant to this study. Of these 275, 145 (52.7%) were related to health (64.8% of these related to mental health), 101 (36.7%) to livelihood, 87 (31.6%) to violence prevention and 68 (24.7%) to education. Important themes and challenges identified in the literature and discussions included the MENA region's growing youth bulge; youth unemployment; critical gender gaps; and the impact of conflict on livelihoods, education and health, especially mental health.

  5. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  6. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue; Loeb, Joyce

    Although the activities in this unit are designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, the document's text, illustrations, and bibliographic references are suitable for anyone interested in learning about Africa. Following a brief introduction and map work, the document is arranged into six sections. Section 1 traces Africa's history…

  7. Satellite-based Dust Source Identification over North Africa: Diurnal Cycle, Meteorological Controls, and Interannual Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, Kerstin; Tegen, Ina; Macke, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Mineral dust aerosol emitted from arid and semi-arid areas impacts on the weather and climate system by affecting e.g. radiation fluxes and nutrient cycles. To estimate the effect of dust aerosol, detailed knowledge on the spatio-temporal distribution of active dust sources is necessary. For a better representation of dust-related processes in numerical models and climate change projections the knowledge on the natural variability of dust source activity has to be improved. As dust sources are mostly located over remote areas satellite observations are suitable for identifying active dust sources. The accuracy of dust source identification using such an indirect method is limited by the temporal resolution and the ambiguities of the retrieval. Here, a data set on the spatial (1°x1°) and temporal (3-hourly) distribution of dust source activations (DSA) over North Africa is compiled by analyzing 15-minute Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) infra-red (IR) dust index images since March 2006. The index is designed using radiances measured by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI) on-board MSG at 8.7 µm, 10.8 µm and 12.0 µm which are converted to brightness temperatures (BTs). To strengthen the dust signal, differences of BTs are used to compute RGB-composite images. This newly data set providing information on the diurnal cycle of dust emission has been used (1) to identify most active dust source areas, and (2) to investigate on the temporal distribution of DSAs. Over the Sahara Desert 65% of dust sources become active during 06-09 UTC pointing towards an important role of the break-down of the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) for dust mobilization besides other meteorological features like density currents, haboobs, and cyclones. Furthermore the role of the nocturnal LLJs for dust mobilization over the Sahara is investigated by weather observations and a regional modeling study. Four years of DSA observations indicate an interannual variability in

  8. Similarities in the Paleozoic successions of north Africa and Arabia and implications for petroleum exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Lowes, D.D. )

    1988-08-01

    From field studies in southwest Libya and northwest Saudi Arabia, the facies of the Paleozoic succession of the north African/Arabian stable cratonic margin of Gondwanaland are interpreted as fluvial, estuarine, deltaic, shallow marine, and glacial deposits. The facies of the Saq and Tabuk Formations of Saudi Arabia bear witness to a sedimentary history that is very similar to that of north Africa, the Saq Formation (Cambrian-Arenig) being equivalent to the Hassaouna Formation of Libya and the Tabuk Formation being subdivided and correlated using well-dated shale members to the following formations: Haouaz (Llanvirn-Llandeilo), Melez-Chograne (Caradoc), Memouniat (Ashgill), Tanezzuft/Acacus (Llandovery-Ludlow), and Tadrart (Gedinnian -Emsian). The Cambrian-Ordovician succession comprises Nubian-type fluvial and estuarine sandstones which pass up to regressive deltaic/shallow marine sequences overlain by Upper Ordovician glacial deposits that lie in deeply incised paleovalleys recorded from Saudi Arabia and north Africa. The Silurian succession comprises the deposits of a postglacial marine transgression of vast lateral extent and a subsequent regression, the sandstones of which are markedly diachronous. The Lower Devonian succession comprises fining-upward retrogradational deltaic (transgressive) sequences of Nubian-type sandstones (fluvial to shallow marine) which form widespread blanket sandstone bodies. The prospectivity of these strata is well known from Algeria in the west to Jordan in the east, the Llandoverian oil-prone source rocks providing the key to Cambrian-Ordovician and Lower Devonian plays. The significance of underlying paleovalley-fill fluvioglacial sandstones as linear reservoir targets has yet to be fully appreciated.

  9. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  10. Seismotectonic Analysis for the KZN region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, devastating earthquakes and tsunamis have shocked the modern world (Japan [April 7 2011, Mw 9.0, loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, 15,457 deaths 5,389 injured, US300billion loss (Japanese National Police Agency 2011)], New Zealand [21 February 2011, Mw 6.3, 148 killed], Haiti [12 January 2010, Mw 7.0, estimated 316 000 killed and 300 000 injured]. These earthquakes have caused large scale damage to the built environment not to mention the high number of fatalities. The KZN coastal region is also fast developing especially towards the north of Durban CBD (Cornubia [New development near Umhlanga, 25 Billion Rands investment], Gateway/Umhlanga Business District, Moses Mabida Stadium (cost of R3.4 billion ), King Shaka International Airport at a cost of R6.8 billion, Dube Tradeport to be developed next to the airport at a cost of R5 billion, as well as the development of the Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone . The KZN is home to 10 million inhabitants with a relatively denser population distribution around the Durban and Pietermaritzburg CBDs. With the increasing amount of investment towards the north coast of Durban, the population distribution will migrate to these areas. These areas now become 'vulnerable' to rare, infrequent and potentially devastating natural disasters like earthquakes. One of the first steps to understand and plan for an earthquake occurrence is through a seismic hazard and risk assessment. The seismic hazard and risk method has well been established since 1968 (see Cornell (1968); Veneziano et al., (1984); Bender and Perkins (1993); McGuire (1993); McGuire and Toro (2008); Kijko and Graham (1998); Kijko and Sellevoll, (1989, 1992)). The components of a seismic risk assessment (SRA) include several building blocks namely: the development of the earthquake catalogue, seismotectonic model, attenuation models, seismic hazard assessment (SHA), vulnerability assessment and seismic risk computations. The seismotectonic

  11. Variability and trends of local/regional scale surface climate in northern Africa during the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djomou, Zéphirin Yepdo; Monkam, David; Woafo, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Four regions are detected in northern Africa (20° W-40° E, 0-30° N) by applying the cluster analysis method on the annual rainfall anomalies of the period 1901-2000. The first region (R1), an arid land, covers essentially the north of 17.75° N from west to east of the study zone. The second region (R2), a semiarid land with a Sahelian climate, less warm than the dry climate of R1, is centred on Chad, with almost regular extension to the west towards Mauritania, and to the east, including the north of the Central African Republic and the Sudan. The region 3 (R3), a wet land, is centred on the Ivory Coast and covers totally Liberia, the south part of Ghana, Togo, Benin and the southwest of Nigeria. The fourth region (R4), corresponding to the wet equatorial forest, covers a part of Senegal, the Central Africa, the south of Sudan and a part of Ethiopia. An analysis of observed temperature and precipitation variability and trends throughout the twentieth century over these regions is presented. Summer, winter and annual data are examined using a range of variability measures. Statistically, significant warming trends are found over the majority of regions. The trends have a magnitude of up to 1.5 K per century. Only a few precipitation trends are statistically significant. Regional temperature and precipitation show pronounced variability at scales from interannual to multi-decadal. The interannual variability shows significant variations and trends throughout the century, the latter being mostly negative for precipitation and both positive and negative for temperature. Temperature and precipitation anomalies show a chaotic-type behaviour in which the regional conditions oscillate around the long-term mean trend and occasionally fall into long-lasting (up to 10 years or more) anomaly regimes. A generally modest temporal correlation is found between anomalies of different regions and between temperature and precipitation anomalies for the same region. This

  12. North polar region of Mars: imaging results from viking 2.

    PubMed

    Cutts, J A; Blasius, K R; Briggs, G A; Carr, M H; Greeley, R; Masursky, H

    1976-12-11

    During October 1976, the Viking 2 orbiter acquired approximately 700 high-resolution images of the north polar region of Mars. These images confirm the existence at the north pole of extensive layered deposits largely covered over with deposits of perennial ice. An unconformity within the layered deposits suggests a complex history of climate change during their time of deposition. A pole-girdling accumulation of dunes composed of very dark materials is revealed for the first time by the Viking cameras. The entire region is devoid of fresh impact craters. Rapid rates of erosion or deposition are implied. A scenario for polar geological evolution, involving two types of climate change, is proposed.

  13. Regional initiatives in support of surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience.

    PubMed

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E G; Gandham, Ramana N V; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki

    2013-01-01

    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities. PMID:23362409

  14. Alien phytogeographic regions of southern Africa: numerical classification, possible drivers, and regional threats.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J; Van Wyk, Abraham E; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management. PMID:22574145

  15. Alien phytogeographic regions of southern Africa: numerical classification, possible drivers, and regional threats.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J; Van Wyk, Abraham E; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management.

  16. Alien Phytogeographic Regions of Southern Africa: Numerical Classification, Possible Drivers, and Regional Threats

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Sanet; Van Rensburg, Berndt J.; Van Wyk, Abraham E.; Steenkamp, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    The distributions of naturalised alien plant species that have invaded natural or semi-natural habitat are often geographically restricted by the environmental conditions in their new range, implying that alien species with similar environmental requirements and tolerances may form assemblages and characterise particular areas. The aim of this study was to use objective numerical techniques to reveal any possible alien phytogeographic regions (i.e. geographic areas with characteristic alien plant assemblages) in southern Africa. Quarter degree resolution presence records of naturalised alien plant species of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia and Botswana were analysed through a divisive hierarchical classification technique, and the output was plotted on maps for further interpretation. The analyses revealed two main alien phytogeographic regions that could be subdivided into eight lower level phytogeographic regions. Along with knowledge of the environmental requirements of the characteristic species and supported by further statistical analyses, we hypothesised on the main drivers of alien phytogeographic regions, and suggest that environmental features such as climate and associated biomes were most important, followed by human activities that modify climatic and vegetation features, such as irrigation and agriculture. Most of the characteristic species are not currently well-known as invasive plant species, but many may have potential to become troublesome in the future. Considering the possibility of biotic homogenization, these findings have implications for predicting the characteristics of the plant assemblages of the future. However, the relatively low quality of the dataset necessitates further more in-depth studies with improved data before the findings could be directly beneficial for management. PMID:22574145

  17. Aerosol single-scattering albedo retrieval over North Africa using critical reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Kelley C.

    The sign and magnitude of the aerosol radiative forcing over bright surfaces is highly dependent on the absorbing properties of the aerosol. Thus, the determination of aerosol forcing over desert regions requires accurate information about the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). However, the brightness of desert surfaces complicates the retrieval of aerosol optical properties using passive space-based measurements. The aerosol critical reflectance is one parameter that can be used to relate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance changes over land to the aerosol absorption properties, without knowledge of the underlying surface properties or aerosol loading. Physically, the parameter represents the TOA reflectance at which increased aerosol scattering due to increased aerosol loading is balanced by increased absorption of the surface contribution to the TOA reflectance. It can be derived by comparing two satellite images with different aerosol loading, assuming that the surface reflectance and background aerosol are similar between the two days. In this work, we explore the utility of the critical reflectance method for routine monitoring of spectral aerosol absorption from space over North Africa, a region that is predominantly impacted by absorbing dust and biomass burning aerosol. We derive the critical reflectance from Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 1B reflectances in the vicinity of two Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations: Tamanrasset, a site in the Algerian Sahara, and Banizoumbou, a Sahelian site in Niger. We examine the sensitivity of the critical reflectance parameter to aerosol physical and optical properties, as well as solar and viewing geometry, using the Santa Barbara DISORT Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model, and apply our findings to retrieve SSA from the MODIS critical reflectance values. We compare our results to AERONET-retrieved estimates, as well as to measurements of the TOA albedo and surface fluxes from the

  18. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent…

  19. Orientalism(s), World Geography Textbooks, and Temporal Paradox: Questioning Representations of Southwest Asia and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Lisa; Richey, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this critical discourse analysis of six high-school world geography textbooks, we explore how constructions and representations of North Africa and Southwest Asia have served to reinforce Orientalist discourse in formal curriculum. Visual and written representations in these textbooks were overwhelmingly confounded by a traditional/modern…

  20. Carbon Erosion in the Great Karoo Region of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenz, Juliane; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Foster, Ian; Boardman, John; Meadows, Mike; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    Work undertaken in the seasonally arid upland areas of the Great Karoo region of South Africa has established a link between land degradation and overgrazing which began in the second half of the 18th century when European farmers first settled the area. Ongoing land use change and shifting rainfall patterns resulted in the development of badlands on foot slopes of upland areas, and gully systems on valley bottoms. As a consequence of agricultural intensification and overgrazing, accompanied by a higher water demand, many small reservoirs were constructed, most of which are now in-filled with sediment. The deposited material serves as an environmental archive by which land use change over the last 100 years can be analysed, but with a particular focus on erosion and deposition of soil-associated carbon (C). It is assumed that erosion caused an initial flush of carbon rich soil which was subsequently buried and stored off-site. Despite this assumption, however the net-effect of erosion on carbon dioxide emissions is still unknown. In this project, preliminary results are presented from an investigation to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in a shift from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Firstly, a high resolution digital elevation model was generated and erosion modelling was then employed to create an erosion risk map showing areas most prone to erosion. Information from the model output then served as the basis for ground-truthing and on-site erosion mapping. Secondly, sediment deposits from silted reservoirs were analysed for varying physicochemical parameters, in order to reconstruct spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. Analysis of total carbon (TC) content revealed a sharp decrease with decreasing depth. This provisionally suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils. This presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of

  1. Atmospheric transportation of marihuana pollen from North Africa to the Southwest of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; Sánchez-Laulhé, JoséMaŕia; Trigo, María Del Mar; Toro, Francisco Javier; Polvorinos, Fausto

    As a result of aerobiological samples taken on the Costa del Sol (S. Spain), Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) pollen was detected from May to September 1991-1996, always sporadically and usually during the afternoons. Sampling was by two volumetric spore traps set up in Malaga and Estepona, two coastal towns approximately 90 km apart. A study of the days when this pollen was recorded points to the movement of air masses from North Africa to southern Spain. Furthermore, the isentropic air trajectories calculated for these days reinforce the possibility of the pollen originating in marihuana plantations in northern Morocco (Rif). This study demonstrates the application of aerobiology to the control of the source, quantity and phenology of the crop.

  2. Modeling energy consumption in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment in north Africa.

    PubMed

    Skouterisl, George; Arnot, Tom C; Jraou, Mouna; Feki, Firas; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-03-01

    Two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors were operated alongside a full-sized activated sludge plant in Tunisia in order to compare specific energy demand and treated water quality. Energy consumption rates were measured for the complete membrane bioreactor systems and for their different components. Specific energy demand was measured for the systems and compared with the activated sludge plant, which operated at around 3 kWh m(-3). A model was developed for each membrane bioreactor based on both dynamic and steady-state mass balances, microbial kinetics and stoichiometry, and energy balance. Energy consumption was evaluated as a function of mixed-liquor suspended solids concentration, net permeate fluxes, and the resultant treated water quality. This work demonstrates the potential for using membrane bioreactors in decentralised domestic water treatment in North Africa, at energy consumption levels similar or lower than conventional activated sludge systems, with the added benefit of producing treated water suitable for unrestricted crop irrigation.

  3. Socioeconomic, health and management aspects of working donkeys in Moretele 1, North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wells, D; Krecek, R C

    2001-03-01

    Structured interviews using a questionnaire were conducted to gather information on socioeconomic aspects, health, nutrition, breeding and management of working equids in 3 study areas of Moretele 1 near Hammanskraal, North West Province, South Africa. The questionnaire addressed questions about the role of animals with a focus on donkeys used for work in these areas. Extension and animal health officers and donkey owners participated. The analysis highlights the use of donkeys for transport of water, wood and people; that ticks, wounds and harness sores are the conditions reported most frequently by owners; and that the range for the body condition score index of 2.7-4.0 suggests that an overall adequate level of nutrition and management is maintained in the donkeys in these villages.

  4. North Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details North Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array…

  5. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  6. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. A human economy: A ``third way'' for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-06-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

  8. The influence of source landforms, antecedent precipitation, and winds on dust events in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantine, John-Andrew Chapin

    This dissertation identifies conditions associated with dust storms in North Africa. The introductory chapter frames a conceptual model of how atmospheric dustiness is governed by static landforms, dynamic characteristics of the surface (represented by cumulative antecedent precipitation or CAP), and surface wind fields. Visibility at 225 meteorological stations across Africa, north of 10° north latitude, is used as a proxy for atmospheric dust. A map of landforms is created from a multiple endmember mixture analysis of MODIS satellite imagery to represent landforms. The ten landforms identified are alluvial surfaces, dunes, dry lakebeds, water, basaltic surfaces, mountains, regs, bedrock surfaces, sandsheets, and vegetated surfaces. Climatological and event-based statistics are used to determine relationships between parameters related to visibility, landforms, CAP, and wind speed. CAP represents dynamic changes in the erodibility of the surface including the sheltering effect of vegetation and delivery of erodible sediments. Surface wind velocities represent the winds that mobilize fine sediments to become dust. Alluvial surfaces, dunes, dry lakebeds, regs, bedrock, and sandsheets are more often associated with low visibility (<5 km) events than high. Negative correlations between median wind speed and the monthly frequency of visibility less than five kilometers (DEF-5) identify 33 stations where factors other than dust strongly influence the visibility record and these stations are removed. Results regarding the relationship between CAP and dustiness find that at Sahelian and southern Saharan locations, vulnerability to dust emissions is related to drought reducing vegetation cover. At central, northern, and eastern Saharan locations, vulnerability to dust emissions is related to wet conditions, probably as a result of fresh sediment being deposited at erodible locations in the landscape. Wind speed results find that for any dust source, there is an

  9. Migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa, Asia, and North America during the Oligocene and Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Wappler, Torsten; Engel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Today honey bees, principally the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, represent a multi-billion dollar agricultural industry. Through the efforts of humans they have become established well outside of their modern native ranges, having been introduced multiple times into the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, and many areas of Oceania. The native, i.e., non-human influenced, distribution and migration of honey bee species and populations has been a matter of serious and continued debate. Apicultural dogma informs us that the center of origin of honey bees (genus Apis) resides in Asia, with subsequent migration and diversification into Europe and Asia. Recent population genetic studies of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, slightly modified this received wisdom by suggesting that this species originated in Africa and subsequently reinvaded Eurasia. Research into the historical biogeography of honey bees has ignored entirely the abundant fossil evidence distributed through a variety of Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Early Neogene (Miocene) deposits, a diversity which is predominantly European in origin, particularly among the most basal species of the genus. We have examined the morphological disparity and affinities of the full living and fossil diversity of honey bees ranging from their earliest origins to the present day. This analysis indicates that honey bees exhibited a greater morphological disparity during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, a time when the principal lineages were established, and that Apis apparently originated in Europe, spreading from there into Asia, Africa, and North America, with subsequent diversification in the former two regions and extinction in the latter. During the human migrations and colonization honey bees were once again introduced multiple times into the Americas, as well as into Australia and Asia.

  10. On the orientation of pre-islamic temples of north Africa: a re-appraisal (new data in Africa proconsularis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, J. A.; Gaspar, A. T.; Betancort, A. P.; Marrero, R.

    Since the late 1990s, our research group has embarked on a systematic archaeoastronomical study of archaeological sites in the Maghreb. Earlier campaigns were devoted to Tunisia, Morocco and Libya (see e.g. Belmonte et. Al.1998, 1999 and 2002). In this short report we will present part of the data obtained in a field campaign carried out in winter 2002, analyzing the results yielded on early 50 ancient sacred structures (temples, churches, earlier mosques and mausoleums) of an extended area in Northern Tunisia (ancient Africa Proconsularis). These data were not discussed in previous reports on similar structures (e.g. Esteban at.al.2001) , although in a previous paper (Belmonte et.al.2003) we reported our results on the contemporary measured megalithic monuments. This paper will present the data of more than 30 temples and mausoleums of Roman era, 10 pre-Islamic Christian churches and a few earlier mosques. These new data will be discussed together with those obtained in previous campaigns in an attempt to shed some light on the possibility of astronomical alignments within this extended set of monuments (more than a hundred). Our results show that some astronomical patterns could be interpreted as solar ones. Interestingly, this solar tendency was continued by Christian churches until the arrival of Islam. This is a common feature to the other regions of early Christianity (see e.g. Romano 1992). Other curious patterns, including the planning of important cities could presumably be associated to the brightest stars of the sky, Sirius and Canopus. Finally, we will analyse how this astronomical tendencies managed to survive within the first Islamic orienting traditions.

  11. Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crofts, Marylee

    1986-01-01

    Reviews myths, misconceptions, and unintentional biases about Africa in United States K-12 social studies textbooks. Summarizes common topics and recommends additions. Provides the names, addresses and phone numbers of 10 university-based African Studies centers. Concludes that improvements to textbooks must continue. (JDH)

  12. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination. PMID:22389729

  13. Neglected Tropical Diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control

    PubMed Central

    Hotez, Peter J.; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination. PMID:22389729

  14. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  15. The role of cryptotephra in refining the chronology of Late Pleistocene human evolution and cultural change in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, R. N. E.; Lane, C. S.; Albert, P. G.; White, D.; Collcutt, S. N.; Bouzouggar, A.; Ditchfield, P.; Farr, L.; Oh, A.; Ottolini, L.; Smith, V. C.; Van Peer, P.; Kindermann, K.

    2015-06-01

    Sites in North Africa hold key information for dating the presence of Homo sapiens and the distribution of Middle Stone Age (MSA), Middle Palaeolithic (MP) and Later Stone Age (LSA) cultural activity in the Late Pleistocene. Here we present new and review recently published tephrochronological evidence for five cave sites in North Africa with long MSA/MP and LSA cultural sequences. Four tephra horizons have been identified at the Haua Fteah (Cyrenaica, Libya). They include cryptotephra evidence for the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption dating to ˜39 ka that allows correlation with other Palaeolithic sequences in the eastern Mediterranean and as far north as Russia. Cryptotephra have also been recorded from the Moroccan sites of Taforalt, Rhafas and Dar es-Soltane 1. At Taforalt the geochemical composition suggests a provenance in the Azores, while examples from Sodmein (Egypt) appear to derive from central Anatolia and another unknown source. In these latter examples chemical compositional data from relevant proximal volcanic centres is currently lacking so the identification of tephra in layers of known age and cultural association provides the first reliable age determinations for distal volcanic events and their geographical extent. The future potential for tephrochronological research in North Africa is also discussed.

  16. Learning about War and Peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Lyndsay

    2007-01-01

    Two-thirds of the world's conflicts are in Africa. In particular, the Great Lakes region (Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania) continues to see conflicts that are complex, extreme and seemingly intractable. By exploring the narrative experiences of those most affected by the conflicts in the region--specifically…

  17. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  18. A Regional Climate Change Assessment Program for North America

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Gutowski, William; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; McGinnis, Seth; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun

    2009-09-08

    There are two main uncertainties in determining future climate: the trajectories of future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the response of the global climate system to any given set of future emissions [Meehl et al., 2007]. These uncertainties normally are elucidated via application of global climate models, which provide information at relatively coarse spatial resolutions. Greater interest in, and concern about, the details of climate change at regional scales has provided the motivation for the application of regional climate models, which introduces additional uncertainty [Christensen et al., 2007a]. These uncertainties in fi ne- scale regional climate responses, in contrast to uncertainties of coarser spatial resolution global models in which regional models are nested, now have been documented in numerous contexts [Christensen et al., 2007a] and have been found to extend to uncertainties in climate impacts [Wood et al., 2004; Oleson et al., 2007]. While European research in future climate projections has moved forward systematically to examine combined uncertainties from global and regional models [Christensen et al., 2007b], North American climate programs have lagged behind. To fi ll this research gap, scientists developed the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (-NARCCAP). The fundamental scientifi c motivation of this international program is to explore separate and combined uncertainties in regional projections of future climate change resulting from the use of multiple atmosphere- ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) to drive multiple regional climate models (RCMs). An equally important, and related, motivation for this program is to provide the climate impacts and adaptation community with high- resolution regional climate change scenarios that can be used for studies of the societal impacts of climate change and possible adaptation strategies.

  19. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Susan G.; Eilek, Jean A.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  20. Geologic map of the north polar region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2012-01-01

    The north polar region of Mars occurs within the central and lowest part of the vast northern plains of Mars and is dominated by the roughly circular north polar plateau, Planum Boreum. The northern plains formed very early in Martian time and have collected volcanic flows and sedimentary materials shed from highland sources. Planum Boreum has resulted from the accumulation of water ice and dust particles. Extensive, uncratered dune fields adjacent to Planum Boreum attest to the active and recent transport and accumulation of sand. Our geologic map of Planum Boreum is the first to record its entire observable stratigraphic record using the various post-Viking image and topography datasets released before 2009. We also provide much more detail in the map than previously published, including some substantial revisions based on new data and observations. The available data have increased and improved immensely in quantity, resolution, coverage, positional accuracy, and spectral range, enabling us to resolve previously unrecognized geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and compositional information. We also employ more carefully prescribed and effective mapping methodologies and digital techniques, as well as formatting guidelines. The foremost aspect to our mapping approach is how geologic units are discriminated based primarily on their temporal relations with other units as expressed in unit contacts by unconformities or by gradational relations. Whereas timing constraints of such activity in the north polar region are now better defined stratigraphically, they remain poorly constrained chronologically. The end result is a new reconstruction of the sedimentary, erosional, and structural histories of the north polar region and how they may have been driven by climate conditions, available geologic materials, and eolian, periglacial, impact, magmatic, hydrologic, and tectonic activity.

  1. Iwo Eleru's place among Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene populations of North and East Africa.

    PubMed

    Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2014-10-01

    The Iwo Eleru site in Nigeria preserves the only terminal Pleistocene fossil from tropical West Africa. The peoples of this region contributed to significant population movements throughout the continent during the Holocene. As such, characterizing the phenotype of Late Pleistocene West African populations is critical for disentangling the evolutionary signatures of a highly complex African population history and structure. Previous research approached the calvaria's morphology from a paleoanthropological perspective, noting its mosaic of archaic and modern neurocranial features and distinctiveness from Pleistocene fossil taxa and contemporary modern human samples. In this paper, I compare Iwo Eleru with contemporary Late Pleistocene Africans and also consider the specimen's affinities with Holocene populations of the central and western Sahara, Nile Valley, and East Africa. Craniometric data were recorded for 22 neurocranial dimensions and subjected to principal components analysis and Mahalanobis distance estimation. Multidimensional scaling of distances indicated that Iwo Eleru fell outside the observed range of variation of other terminal Pleistocene supra-equatorial African populations, confirming previous results that documented its divergence from Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Europeans, and modern Africans. The calvaria was also distinct from Holocene Saharan, Nile Valley, and East African populations, which suggests limited West African input into the Sahara during the African Humid Period. Results presented here bolster previous research that suggested Iwo Eleru's anatomy reflected either admixture with archaic humans or the long-term survival of populations with more archaic neurocranial anatomy until the end of the Pleistocene.

  2. 82,000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Barton, Nick; Vanhaeren, Marian; d'Errico, Francesco; Collcutt, Simon; Higham, Tom; Hodge, Edward; Parfitt, Simon; Rhodes, Edward; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Stringer, Chris; Turner, Elaine; Ward, Steven; Moutmir, Abdelkrim; Stambouli, Abdelhamid

    2007-01-01

    The first appearance of explicitly symbolic objects in the archaeological record marks a fundamental stage in the emergence of modern social behavior in Homo. Ornaments such as shell beads represent some of the earliest objects of this kind. We report on examples of perforated Nassarius gibbosulus shell beads from Grotte des Pigeons (Taforalt, Morocco), North Africa. These marine shells come from archaeological levels dated by luminescence and uranium-series techniques to ≈82,000 years ago. They confirm evidence of similar ornaments from other less well dated sites in North Africa and adjacent areas of southwest Asia. The shells are of the same genus as shell beads from slightly younger levels at Blombos Cave in South Africa. Wear patterns on the shells imply that some of them were suspended, and, as at Blombos, they were covered in red ochre. These findings imply an early distribution of bead-making in Africa and southwest Asia at least 40 millennia before the appearance of similar cultural manifestations in Europe. PMID:17548808

  3. Silene patula (Siphonomorpha, Caryophyllaceae) in North Africa: a test of colonisation routes using chloroplast markers.

    PubMed

    Naciri, Yamama; Cavat, Fanny; Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Based on morphological characters, the North African Silene patula has been divided into two subspecies, ssp. patula found North of Kabylies and Atlas Mountains, and ssp. amurensis found south of these regions. In order to test the hypothesis that S. patula could have derived from S. italica through the Sicilian Channel during the Messinian, we sequenced three chloroplast loci, trnH-psbA, trnS-trnG and rpl12-rps20. Fifteen haplotypes were found on 211 herbarium specimens, associated with a huge differentiation within species. The hypothesis that S. patula had independently evolved as two different subspecies North and South of the mountains is refuted and a morphological adaptation to different pollinators is suggested to explain the differences between the two taxa. The Kabylies-Numidie-Kroumirie gathers a large proportion of haplotypes, which points to this region as a probable refugium or place of origin from which spatial expansions have subsequently occurred towards Morocco and the Aurès Mountains.

  4. Assessment of simulated rainfall and temperature from the regional climate model REMO and future changes over Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Tchawoua, Clément; Haensler, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates spatial and temporal changes in rainfall and temperature over Central Africa, using historical and representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the regional climate model REMO forced by two general climate models: the Europe-wide Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) and the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We found that in the present period (1980-2005), the spatial distribution of rainfall is simulated with an annual spatial pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 for REMO driven by EC-Earth and 0.74 for REMO driven by MPI-ESM respectively when compared to CRU data. In terms of temperature, the annual PCC is 0.93 for the two REMO outputs. According to the climatology of Central Africa, we subdivided the study area into five sub-regions, we also noticed that the annual and seasonal PCC depend on the considered sub-region. For the future period (2070-2095), temperature is projected to increase following all the three scenarios. The rainfall amount is projected to decrease by up to 5 mm/day towards the end of the twenty first century under RCP8.5 scenario, and by 1-2 mm/day under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios over Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, north-western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Lake Victoria. Significant decrease is predicted to occur mostly in the northern part of the domain under RCP8.5 scenario. However, future rainfall over High Lands of Cameroon, Adamawa Plateau, north-eastern DRC and Atlantic Ocean is projected to increase.

  5. Relief and geology of the north polar region of the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Burba, G. A.; Shashkina, V. P.; Bogomolov, A. F.; Zherikhin, N. V.; Skrypnik, G. I.; Kudrin, L. V.; Bergman, M. Y.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Description of topographic features is given for the North polar region of the planet Venus. Principal geomorphic types of terrain are characterized as well as their geologic relations. Relative ages of geologic units in Venus North polar region are discussed.

  6. Improving water use in agriculture. Experiences in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Tuijl, W.V.

    1993-08-01

    As water becomes more scarce, many countries are under pressure to conserve water, especially in the agricultural sector. This paper examines strategies that save water in river basins, irrigation projects, and on farms throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Countries elsewhere can use these suggestions in their own water conservation strategies. Improved surface irrigation techniques and micro-irrigation systems are evaluated. These systems use sprinkler, drip/trickle, or micro-spray methods. The author reviews the preliminary work that is needed to install modern irrigation technologies. He describes the role that governments must play to improve the infrastructure and institutions that affect water use. He also provides detailed case studies of efficient irrigation practices in Cyprus, Israel, and Jordan. These case studies describe the conditions that made better irrigation technology a necessity. They look at ways to plan for development, management, and utilization of water in the face of growing demand. Key topics include how to oversee water rights, adopt essential land reforms, and install a graduated system of water pricing and allocation. The study also recommends projects in water conservation and research.

  7. Degeneration of aflatoxin gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bishwo N; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Cotty, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aspergillus flavus is the most common causal agent of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. However, aflatoxin-producing potential varies widely among A. flavus genotypes with many producing no aflatoxins. Some non-aflatoxigenic genotypes are used as biocontrol agents to prevent contamination. Aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are tightly clustered in a highly conserved order. Gene deletions and presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aflatoxin biosynthesis genes are often associated with A. flavus inability to produce aflatoxins. In order to identify mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in non-aflatoxigenic genotypes of value in aflatoxin biocontrol, complete cluster sequences of 35 A. flavus genotypes from Africa and North America were analyzed. Inability of some genotypes to produce aflatoxin resulted from deletion of biosynthesis genes. In other genotypes, non-aflatoxigenicity originated from SNP formation. The process of degeneration differed across the gene cluster; genes involved in early biosynthesis stages were more likely to be deleted while genes involved in later stages displayed high frequencies of SNPs. Comparative analyses of aflatoxin gene clusters provides insight into the diversity of mechanisms of non-aflatoxigenicity in A. flavus genotypes used as biological control agents. The sequences provide resources for both diagnosis of non-aflatoxigenicity and monitoring of biocontrol genotypes during biopesticide manufacture and in the environment. PMID:27576895

  8. Dust Optical Properties Over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula Derived from the AERONET Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, D.; Chin, M.; Yu, H.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-01-01

    Dust optical properties over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula are extracted from the quality assured multi-year datasets obtained at 14 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We select the data with (a) large aerosol optical depth (AOD >= 0.4 at 440 nm) and (b) small Angstrom exponent (A(sub ext)<= 0.2) for retaining high accuracy and reducing interference of non-dust aerosols. The result indicates that the major fraction of high aerosol optical depth days are dominated by dust over these sites even though it varies depending on location and time. We have found that the annual mean and standard deviation of single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, real refractive index, and imaginary refractive index for Saharan and Arabian desert dust is 0.944 +/- 0.005, 0.752 +/- 0.014, 1.498 +/- 0.032, and 0.0024 +/- 0.0034 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively. Dust aerosol selected by this method is less absorbing than the previously reported values over these sites. The weaker absorption of dust from this study is consistent with the studies using remote sensing techniques from satellite. These results can help to constrain uncertainties in estimating global dust shortwave radiative forcing.

  9. Sustainable wastewater management for small communities in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Bakir, H A

    2001-04-01

    Accelerated expansion of wastewater services to small communities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is essential in order to address serious concerns over water scarcity and pollution in addition to meeting the demand for convenience and protecting public health. Centralized and conventional wastewater systems are currently the preferred choice of planners and decision-makers in MENA. Water and funding are not available to provide these centralized conventional services to small communities. This paper presents an integrated approach to sustainable wastewater management for small communities in MENA under the severe water resources crisis. The approach calls for a paradigm shift from centralized conventional wastewater systems to decentralized wastewater systems. Management of wastewater in MENA should start at home. Wastewater generation should be reduced through a combination of domestic water conservation measures. On-site systems must be improved and monitored to control pollution and to recover water for non-potable water uses. Should the circumstances not allow the use of on-site systems, wastewater should be transported and managed through a community system applying the principles of decentralized wastewater management and using the settled sewers for wastewater transportation where appropriate. This approach will facilitate the accelerated and sustainable extension of environmentally responsible wastewater services to MENA's small communities. It offers great potential for cost reduction, accommodates the necessary domestic water conservation efforts, reduces freshwater inputs in wastewater transportation thus eliminating unnecessary demand on freshwater, reduces associated environmental risks and increases wastewater reuse opportunities.

  10. Regional Model Simulations of Cyclones Over The North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keup-Thiel, E.; Klepp, C.; Raschke, E.; Rockel, B.

    Regional model simulations have been carried out for selected cyclones to study wa- ter cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The simulations have been per- formed with the regional model REMO which is based in the dynamical part on the regional weather forecast model system EM/DM of the German Weather Service and on the physical parameterizations of the climate model ECHAM4. Case studies have been done for special cyclones in January/February 1997. For these investigations the regional model REMO has been used with a horizontal resolution of 1/6 degrees, a vertical resolution on 20 levels and a timestep of 60 seconds. As input at the bound- aries and for initialization ECMWF-Analysis fields in T213 resolution were available. Water cycle components such as cloud liquid water content and precipitation are very important for climate simulations and weather forecasts. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a com- parison of satellite data with simulations of cyclones over the North Atlantic with the regional model REMO. The validation of model simulations with satellite data from the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) clearly show the deficiencies of water cycle components. In this context several case studies will be presented and discussed. The vertically integrated water vapor of the regional model is in good agreement with the satellite data. In contrast to that the high precipitation rate in the cold air outbreak on the backside of the cold front derived from satellite data is generally underesti- mated by the regional model. Although the cold front precipitation itself and a small subsidence zone afterwards is well simulated. In line with this, the liquid water content is to low in the cold air outbreak but reasonable at the cold front itself.

  11. Regional Shoreline Change Along the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Erikson, L.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change impacts to the north coast of Alaska threaten sensitive ecosystems, critical energy-related infrastructure, native Alaskan housing and traditional lifestyles, trust species and their habitats, and large tracts of Federally-managed land. Although there are several site-specific and limited regional studies documenting coastal change along the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coasts, no comprehensive study has documented coastal change or evaluated its causes on a regional scale. As part of a National Assessment of Shoreline Change study along open-ocean sandy shores of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating shoreline changes along the north slope coast of Alaska between Peard Bay and the Canadian border. Rates of change will be calculated for both the mainland and barrier island coasts using shorelines derived from circa 1947 and 1987 NOS T-sheets and from orthorectified photography and/or satellite imagery collected between 2000 and 2007. Here we present results from the first phase of the study, Colville River to Pt. Thomson, for three time periods (1947, 1987, 2004-7). In contrast to previous independent studies, which have documented localized erosion rates of up to 16 m/yr along portions of Alaska's north slope, results from this study show that on a regional scale, shoreline erosion rates along the mainland coast are typically less than 2 m/yr. The offshore barrier islands, however, are highly dynamic and show high rates of localized shoreline retreat along with a regionally consistent decrease in overall land area and associated rotation and migration to the southwest since the 1940s. As part of this study, continued data collection, analysis, and numerical and analytical modeling of the coast and nearshore environments will provide much needed data sets from which to evaluate future changes along this stretch of coast in response to sea-level rise, variability in the Arctic summer sea-ice extent, increased storminess, and other

  12. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  13. First Evaluation of the CCAM Aerosol Simulation over Africa: Implications for Regional Climate Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, H.; Garland, R. M.; Thatcher, M. J.; Naidoo, M.; van der Merwe, J.; Landman, W.; Engelbrecht, F.

    2015-12-01

    An accurate representation of African aerosols in climate models is needed to understand the regional and global radiative forcing and climate impacts of aerosols, at present and under future climate change. However, aerosol simulations in regional climate models for Africa have not been well-tested. Africa contains the largest single source of biomass-burning smoke aerosols and dust globally. Although aerosols are short-lived relative to greenhouse gases, black carbon in particular is estimated to be second only to carbon dioxide in contributing to warming on a global scale. Moreover, Saharan dust is exported great distances over the Atlantic Ocean, affecting nutrient transport to regions like the Amazon rainforest, which can further impact climate. Biomass burning aerosols are also exported from Africa, westward from Angola over the Atlantic Ocean and off the southeastern coast of South Africa to the Indian Ocean. Here, we perform the first extensive quantitative evaluation of the Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) aerosol simulation against monitored data, focusing on aerosol optical depth (AOD) observations over Africa. We analyze historical regional simulations for 1999 - 2012 from CCAM consistent with the experimental design of CORDEX at 50 km global horizontal resolution, through the dynamical downscaling of ERA-Interim data reanalysis data, with the CMIP5 emissions inventory (RCP8.5 scenario). CCAM has a prognostic aerosol scheme for organic carbon, black carbon, sulfate, and dust, and non-prognostic sea salt. The CCAM AOD at 550nm was compared to AOD (observed at 440nm, adjusted to 550nm with the Ångström exponent) from long-term AERONET stations across Africa. Sites strongly impacted by dust and biomass burning and with long continuous records were prioritized. In general, the model captures the monthly trends of the AERONET data. This presentation provides a basis for understanding how well aerosol particles are represented over Africa in

  14. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  16. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  17. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  20. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  1. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  2. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  3. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  5. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  6. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  8. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  9. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East and North Africa: the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Polatli, Mehmet; Ben Kheder, Ali; Wali, Siraj; Javed, Arshad; Khattab, Adel; Mahboub, Bassam; Iraqi, Ghali; Nejjari, Chakib; Taright, Samya; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Data on COPD-related healthcare resources use are rarely documented in developing countries. This article presents data on COPD-related healthcare resource consumption in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan and addresses the association of this variable with illness severity. A large survey of COPD was conducted in eleven countries of the region, namely Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates, using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened. This identified 2,187 subjects fulfilling the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. A detailed questionnaire was administered to document data on COPD-related healthcare consumption. Symptom severity was assessed using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT). 1,392 subjects were analysable. Physician consultations were the most frequently used healthcare resource, ranging from 43,118 [95% CI: 755-85,548] consultations in UAE to 4,276,800 [95% CI: 2,320,164-6,230,763] in Pakistan, followed by emergency room visits, ranging from 15,917 [95% CI: 0-34,807] visits in UAE to 683,697 [95% CI: 496,993-869,737] in Turkey and hospitalisations, ranging from 15,563 [95% CI: 7,911-23,215] in UAE to 476,674 [95% CI: 301,258-652,090] in Turkey. The use of each resource increased proportionally with the GOLD 2011 severity groups and was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in subjects with more symptoms compared to those with lower symptoms and in subjects with exacerbations to those without exacerbations. The occurrence of exacerbations and the CAT score were independently associated with use of each healthcare resource. In conclusion, the BREATHE study revealed that physician consultation is the most frequently COPD-related healthcare resource used in the region. It showed that the deterioration of COPD symptoms and the frequency of exacerbations raised healthcare resource consumption.

  11. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Majdy; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Taright, Samya; Shahrour, Naeem; Polatli, Mehmet; Ben Kheder, Ali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Iraqi, Ghali; Khattab, Adel; Javed, Arshad; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a potentially severe chronic progressive respiratory condition requiring long-term treatment and frequently involving episodic hospitalisations to manage exacerbations. The objective of this analysis was to document diagnosis, evaluation, treatment and management of COPD-related respiratory symptoms in 1,392 subjects fulfilling an epidemiological definition of COPD identified in a general population sample of 62,086 individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the Middle East and North Africa region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan. 442 subjects (31.8%) claimed to have received a diagnosis of COPD from a physician and 287 (20.6%) had undergone spirometry in the previous year. Use of specific treatments for respiratory symptoms was reported by 218 subjects (15.7%). Use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators together with corticosteroids (53 subjects; 3.8%) and use of oxygen therapy (31 subjects; 2.3%) was very low. 852 subjects (61.2%) had consulted a physician about their respiratory condition at least once in the previous year, with a mean number of consultations of 3.4 ± 3.6. Moreover, 284 subjects (20.4%) had been hospitalised overnight for their COPD, with a mean of 2.3 ± 3.7 hospitalisations per year. Use of all healthcare resources was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in subjects with CAT scores ≥ 10 than in those with scores < 10, and greater in those with exacerbations than in those without. In conclusion, COPD in the region is under-diagnosed, inadequately evaluated and inadequately treated. Nonetheless, COPD symptoms are responsible for considerable healthcare consumption, with high levels of physician consultation and hospitalisation.

  12. Switching the poles in sexual and reproductive health research: implementing a research capacity-strengthening network in West and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Dossou, Jean-Paul; Assarag, Bouchra; Delamou, Alexandre; Van der Veken, Karen; Belaid, Loubna; Ouédraogo, Moctar; Khalfallah, Sonia; Aouras, Hayet; Diadhiou, Mohamed; Fassassi, Raïmi; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Health research capacities have been improved in Africa but still remain weak as compared to other regions of the World. To strengthen these research capacities, international collaboration and networking for knowledge and capacity transfer are needed. In this commentary, we present the Network for Scientific Support in the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health in West and North Africa, its priority research topics and discuss its implementation process. Established in January 2014, the Network aims at generating human rights and gender-based research fully carried out and driven by South based institutions. It is composed of 12 institutions including the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp (Belgium) and 11 institutions from eight Francophone West and North African countries. The key areas of interest of this network are health policies analysis and health system research in family planning, HIV prevention among vulnerable groups, quality of care and breast cancers. Since it started, seventeen research proposals based on locally relevant research questions have been developed. Among the seventeen proposals, eleven have been implemented. Several research institutions enhanced linkages with local representations of international partners such as UNFPA. The network is committed to strengthening methodological research capacities and soft skills such as fundraising, advocacy and leadership. Such competencies are strongly needed for developing an effective South-based leadership in Sexual and Reproductive Health research, and for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27502593

  13. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  14. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  15. Combined statistical and dynamical assessment of simulated vegetation–rainfall in North Africa during the mid-Holocene*

    SciTech Connect

    Notaro, Michael; Wang, Yi; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel

    2008-01-05

    A negative feedback of vegetation cover on subsequent annual precipitation is simulated for the mid-Holocene over North Africa using a fully coupled general circulation model with dynamic vegetation, FOAM-LPJ (Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model-Lund Potsdam Jena Model). By computing a vegetation feedback parameter based on lagged autocovariances, the simulated impact of North African vegetation on precipitation is statistically quantified. The feedback is also dynamically assessed through initial value ensemble experiments, in which North African grass cover is initially reduced and the climatic response analyzed. The statistical and dynamical assessments of the negative vegetation feedback agree in sign and relative magnitude for FOAM-LPJ. The negative feedback on annual precipitation largely results from a competition between bare soil evaporation and plant transpiration, with increases in the former outweighing reductions in the latter given reduced grass cover. This negative feedback weakens and eventually reverses sign over time during a transient simulation from the mid-Holocene to present. A similar, but weaker, negative feedback is identified in Community Climate System Model Version 2 (CCSM2) over North Africa for the mid-Holocene.

  16. Sources of material for 'loess' deposits at 15°N in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, Sue; Smalley, Ian; O'Hara-Dhand, Ken

    2014-05-01

    Africa is not a loess-rich continent. Lacking are the large expanses of glacial terrain and the high cold mountain regions, which would have provided the material and processes for loess deposits. African geomorphology and climatic history did not favour the formation of major loess deposits. However, within the African setting there are situations which could lead to particle formation and loess deposition. Loess deposits are made from 'large' dust (i.e. particles around 30µm). Small dust (around 3µm) is generated in large amounts in Africa, and distributed over large distances. Large dust is not generated in significant amounts in Africa, and this accounts for the relative lack of loess deposits. It is a relative lack; examination of the map of loess distribution in the World by Scheidig 1934 (still the best world loess map) shows some possible loess in Africa. In particular there is a band across the continent at around 15°N. We propose some possible sources for this material, and fit these sources into a recently revised deterministic model of loess deposit formation. And look at some exotic but possible indicators of the loessic nature of the 15°N band. Three possible material sources are: (1). The Fonta-Djalon highlands to the west of the loess band, (2). The Bodélé Depression, towards the centre of the loess band, and (3). The Ethiopian highlands to the east. There is a convenient river associated with the loess band; the Niger rises in the Fonta-Djalon region and carries material through the loess zone. The catchment of the Niger is well placed to receive large dust material from the Bodélé depression. Most Bodélé material is small dust carried away in high suspension but small amounts of large dust could be transported to the Niger catchment. Material from the Ethiopian highlands makes up the Nile silt but again some could be transported to the west to contribute to the loess band- which is a modest loess deposit. The deposit can be examined with

  17. Regional variations in shear wave anisotropy beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C.; Cassidy, J.; Hyndman, R.; Bostock, M.

    2003-04-01

    We have examined shear wave splitting of SKS phases at 25 broadband stations in western North America to constrain regional trends in anisotropy at the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and adjacent regions. At most stations, well-constrained shear wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast direction) were obtained for data from a wide range of azimuths. Delay times of 1.0 to 1.5 s indicate a mantle source for the anisotropy, most likely strain-induced lattice preferred orientation of anisotropic mantle minerals. The fast directions at the CSZ are in good agreement with models for mantle deformation associated with subduction. Within the forearc, fast directions at stations above the Juan de Fuca Plate are parallel to the subduction direction (N70E), suggesting deformation in the mantle beneath the plate due to plate motion. Above the Explorer Plate at the northern end of the CSZ, fast directions are N30E. This may reflect either the more northerly subduction direction of that plate, or a transition from subduction-related deformation to along-margin flow parallel to the transcurrent Queen Charlotte Fault to the north. At four stations in the central backarc, fast directions are parallel to the Juan de Fuca-North America convergence direction, consistent with models of subduction-induced mantle wedge flow. No clear splitting was observed at the two most northern backarc stations, indicating little to no horizontal anisotropy beneath these stations, possibly due to vertical mantle flow around the northern edge of the subducted plate. At a station near the western edge of the North America craton, the splitting parameters show significant azimuthal variations with a 90° periodicity, characteristic of multiple layers of anisotropy. The observations were fit using a two-layer model with an upper anisotropic layer with a fast direction of N12E and delay time of 1.4 s, and a lower layer with a fast direction of N81E and delay time of 2.0 s. The North America craton is

  18. Mars Global Digital Dune Database: Distribution in North Polar Region and Comparison to Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, R. K.; Fenton, L. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Mullins, K. F.; Titus, T. N.; Bourke, M. C.; Hare, T. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2008-03-01

    The north polar portion of the Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) extends coverage of medium to large-size dark dunes to include the region from 65°N to 90°N, building on the previously released equatorial portion that spans 65°S to 65°N.

  19. Gene diversity, agroecological structure and introgression patterns among village chicken populations across North, West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource for improving farmers’ income in Africa. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of village chickens across a subset of African countries. Four hundred seventy-two chickens were sampled in 23 administrative provinces across Cameroon, Benin, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. Geographical coordinates were recorded to analyze the relationships between geographic distribution and genetic diversity. Molecular characterization was performed with a set of 22 microsatellite markers. Five commercial lines, broilers and layers, were also genotyped to investigate potential gene flow. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Results High heterozygosity levels, ranging from 0.51 to 0.67, were reported for all local populations, corresponding to the values usually found in scavenging populations worldwide. Allelic richness varied from 2.04 for a commercial line to 4.84 for one population from Côte d’Ivoire. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and local populations was observed in Morocco and in Cameroon, which could be related to long-term improvement programs with the distribution of crossbred chicks. The impact of such introgressions seemed rather limited, probably because of poor adaptation of exotic birds to village conditions, and because of the consumers’ preference for local chickens. No such gene flow was observed in Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, where improvement programs are also less developed. The clustering approach revealed an interesting similarity between local populations found in regions sharing high levels of precipitation, from Cameroon to Côte d’Ivoire. Restricting the study to Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, did not result in a typical breed structure but a south-west to north-east gradient was observed. Three genetically differentiated areas (P < 0.01) were identified, matching with

  20. Lessons learned from North Carolina public health regional surveillance teams' regional exercises.

    PubMed

    Hegle, Jennifer; Markiewicz, Milissa; Benson, Philip; Horney, Jennifer; Rosselli, Richard; MacDonald, Pia

    2011-03-01

    All-hazards exercises bring together emergency response partners at the local, regional, state, and federal levels for the primary purposes of testing response plans, defining roles and responsibilities, assessing capabilities, and making necessary improvements prior to an actual incident. To better understand the benefits and challenges of conducting regional (ie, multicounty) exercises, a study was carried out by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. This article describes 5 all-hazards regional exercises conducted by Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) in North Carolina in 2009 and highlights 4 unique benefits that resulted from the exercises beyond meeting explicit objectives to test plans and identify areas for improvement: (1) building relationships among response partners, (2) promoting public health assets, (3) testing multiple communications systems, and (4) training exercise evaluators. Challenges of planning and conducting regional exercises also are addressed, followed by recommendations for maximizing the effectiveness of regional public health exercises.

  1. Scorpion envenoming in the north of Mali (West Africa): epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dabo, A; Golou, G; Traoré, M S; Diarra, N; Goyffon, M; Doumbo, O

    2011-08-01

    Scorpion envenomation remains a poorly known problem in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Mali, where the incidence is high in Northern area of the country (Sahara desert). We conducted a prospective study in two district health centers, Kidal and Tessalit (North-east of Mali), to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of scorpion stings. This study consisted of an exhaustive follow-up from admission to discharge of all patients stung by scorpions. Of a total of 282 cases recorded during one year, 207 (73.4%) occurred in Kidal, and the remaining 75 (26.6%) took place in Tessalit. The annual incidence was significantly higher in Tessalit (437 cases/100,000 population/year) than in Kidal (243 cases/100,000 population/year) (p < 10⁻⁶). Two hundred two (71.6%) stings occurred inside human dwellings, 142 (50.4%) during sleeping/resting, especially in August. One hundred ninety-one (67.7%) were on the lower extremities. Nocturnal stings, 168 (59.6%), occurred more often than diurnal stings, 114 (40.4%). Most patients, 163 (57.8%), were admitted less than 1 h after being stung. Local pain at the sting site was the common primary complaint. However, moderate and severe clinical signs were significantly higher in children than in adults (p < 0.05). The death rate (3.9%) was higher in children (3.5%) than in adults (0.3%) (p = 8.10⁻⁶; RR = 0.90 [IC: 0.84-0.06]). Of the 22 scorpion species identified, 13 (59.1%) were Leiurus quinquestriiatus, 8 (36.4%) were Androctonus amoreuxi, and 1 (4.5%) specimen was Buthiscus bicalcaratus. From these species, L. quinquestriiatus and A. amoreuxi were responsible of stings. The medical treatment was only symptomatic, and one hundred twenty-eight (45.3%) patients received traditional remedies before seeking medical attention. Our findings suggest that scorpion stings are common in the north of Mali and are a significant threat to human health.

  2. Scorpion envenoming in the north of Mali (West Africa): epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dabo, A; Golou, G; Traoré, M S; Diarra, N; Goyffon, M; Doumbo, O

    2011-08-01

    Scorpion envenomation remains a poorly known problem in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Mali, where the incidence is high in Northern area of the country (Sahara desert). We conducted a prospective study in two district health centers, Kidal and Tessalit (North-east of Mali), to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of scorpion stings. This study consisted of an exhaustive follow-up from admission to discharge of all patients stung by scorpions. Of a total of 282 cases recorded during one year, 207 (73.4%) occurred in Kidal, and the remaining 75 (26.6%) took place in Tessalit. The annual incidence was significantly higher in Tessalit (437 cases/100,000 population/year) than in Kidal (243 cases/100,000 population/year) (p < 10⁻⁶). Two hundred two (71.6%) stings occurred inside human dwellings, 142 (50.4%) during sleeping/resting, especially in August. One hundred ninety-one (67.7%) were on the lower extremities. Nocturnal stings, 168 (59.6%), occurred more often than diurnal stings, 114 (40.4%). Most patients, 163 (57.8%), were admitted less than 1 h after being stung. Local pain at the sting site was the common primary complaint. However, moderate and severe clinical signs were significantly higher in children than in adults (p < 0.05). The death rate (3.9%) was higher in children (3.5%) than in adults (0.3%) (p = 8.10⁻⁶; RR = 0.90 [IC: 0.84-0.06]). Of the 22 scorpion species identified, 13 (59.1%) were Leiurus quinquestriiatus, 8 (36.4%) were Androctonus amoreuxi, and 1 (4.5%) specimen was Buthiscus bicalcaratus. From these species, L. quinquestriiatus and A. amoreuxi were responsible of stings. The medical treatment was only symptomatic, and one hundred twenty-eight (45.3%) patients received traditional remedies before seeking medical attention. Our findings suggest that scorpion stings are common in the north of Mali and are a significant threat to human health. PMID:21605586

  3. Uppermost Mantle Seismic Velocity and Anisotropy in Southwestern Europe and North Africa by Using PN Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A.; Diaz, J.; Gallart, J.

    2011-12-01

    We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath Southwestern Europe and North Africa, compiled from inversion of Pn phases. The method of Hearn (1996) has been applied to Pn lectures from the catalogs of the International Seismological Center and the Spanish Instituto Geografico Nacional, for the time period 1990-2009. A total of 338,691 Pn arrivals coming from 13,027 earthquakes recorded at 802 stations, with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1400 km have been retained after applying quality criteria (maximum depth, minimum number of recordings, maximum residual values...). Our results, grossly consistent with available 3D tomography images, show significant features well correlated with surface geology: (a) The Pn velocities are higher (>8.2 km/s) beneath major sedimentary basins (western edge of the Alboran Sea, Valencia Through, Guadalquivir, Duero, Aquitaine and Po basins), and lower (<7.8 km/s) in orogenic areas (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines chains and Calabrian Arc), confirming the existence of marked variations in crustal thicknesses already documented by active seismic experiments. The lowest velocity values are found under the Betics (<7.5 km/s), while a less pronounced low velocity (7.85 km/s) is observed beneath the Iberian Range, an area where the existence of crustal root is still poorly constrained. (b) Pn anisotropy shows consistent orientations sub-parallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. (c) The station delays beneath Betic and Rif ranges are strongly negative, suggesting the presence of crustal thickening all along the Gibraltar Arc System. However, only the Betics have a very strong low-velocity anomaly and a pronounced anisotropy pattern, suggesting that high temperature material may be present there at subcrustal levels.

  4. Crust and upper-mantle structure of North Africa, Europe and the Middle East from inversion of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Walter, William R.

    2002-05-01

    We estimate the crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure in North Africa, southern Europe, and the Middle East using our surface-wave dispersion tomography results from a previous study. The surface wave tomography study provided high-resolution coverage across the region from more than 6800 Rayleigh and 3800 Love wave paths over the period range from 10-60 s. We have also included additional tomography results from 65 to 120 s. The tomography model provides average Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves for each 2°× 2° block in the region. We use these results to determine velocity structure by fitting the synthetic curves from simplified crust and upper-mantle models to the tomographic data for each block via a grid search. The grid search technique was chosen in order to map out the complete error space and to easily incorporate other data sets or a priori information. The initial grid search is conducted over sediment thickness, crustal velocity, crustal thickness, and upper-mantle velocity. To keep the grid search computationally reasonable, other parameters are held fixed (sediment velocity, Poisson's ratios, and density). Despite the well-known trade-off between crustal thickness and crustal velocity that occurs when fitting surface wave data, the initial grid search is quite successful in retrieving first order features, such as ocean-continent crustal thickness differences and crustal thickening in all but the oldest orogenic zones. We can resolve major sedimentary basins, active ridges, and see differences based on crustal age (e.g. Archean cratons vs Phanarozoic crust). To better control the trade-off inherent in fitting group velocity curves, we also explore using other information to better constrain the grid searches. In particular, we use a global sediment depth and velocity model to fix those parameters and a regional P n tomography to constrain the upper-mantle velocities. In this constrained grid search, we vary crustal thickness

  5. "My Family's Not from Africa--We Come from North Carolina!": Teaching Slavery in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbatha, Waahida

    2012-01-01

    The author knew that most of her students viewed Africa as a homogeneous place and, moreover, a place that they wanted no connection to. She wanted to be sure that she presented Africa in a way that empowered students and made them proud of their ancestry, as opposed to leaving them feeling the shame and humiliation that she once felt. She wanted…

  6. The relationship between African easterly waves and daily rainfall over West Africa: observations and regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, Julien; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between summer African easterly waves (AEWs) and daily rainfall is assessed in West Africa for 1998-2008 using various reanalyses, satellite-derived rainfall products, and a regional climate model (RCM) run at 90- and 30-km resolutions. 3-5 and 6-9 day AEWs are extracted by filtering daily 700 hPa meridional wind time series at 1°W and 11.5°N, and 1°W and 17.5°N, respectively. Both observed and simulated rainfall anomalies are of larger magnitude over West Africa during 3-5-d than 6-9-d AEWs. The RCM simulates larger rainfall rates in phase with the 3-5-d wave trough instead of ahead, unlike the observations, and overestimates the intensity and spatial coverage of rainfall associated with 6-9-d AEWs. The observed and simulated co-variability between 3-5-d (6-9-d) AEW activity and daily rainfall is strong (weak) and mostly located south (north) of 15°N. However, the RCM overestimates the spatial coverage of the AEW-rainfall relationship in the longitudinal (latitudinal) direction in the case of 3-5-d (6-9-d) AEWs. Observed and simulated daily intense rainfall events, extracted using a percentile threshold approach, are mostly located south of 15°N during summer. The observed relationship between their frequency of occurrence and active 3-5-d AEWs is maximal west of 8°E, while extends up to southern Chad in both RCM simulations. Their magnitude is also largely overestimated by the RCM, indicating an exaggerated coupling between the wave activity and the convection. Finally, observed and simulated 3-5-d AEWs establish the most favorable synoptic conditions for the development of intense rainfall events over West Africa.

  7. Water Cycling in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive study to understand the partitioning of water into vapor and ice clouds, and the associated effects of dust and surface temperature in the north polar region. Ascertaining the degree to which water is transported out of the cap region versus within the cap region will give much needed insight into the overall story of water cycling on a seasonal basis. In particular, understanding the mechanism for the polar cap surface albedo changes would go along way in comprehending the sources and sinks of water in the northern polar region. We approach this problem by examining Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric and surface data acquired in the northern summer season and comparing it to Viking data when possible. Because the TES instrument spans the absorption bands of water vapor, water ice, dust, and measures surface temperature, all three aerosols and surface temperature can be retrieved simultaneously. This presentation will show our latest results on the water vapor, water-ice clouds seasonal and spatial distributions, as well as surface temperatures and dust distribution which may lend insight into where the water is going.

  8. Regional TEMPEST survey in north-east Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geoffrey; Street, Gregory; Kahimise, Ivor; Hutchins, David

    2015-09-01

    A regional scale TEMPEST208 airborne electromagnetic survey was flown in north-east Namibia in 2011. With broad line spacing (4 km) and a relatively low-powered, fixed-wing system, the approach was intended to provide a regional geo-electric map of the area, rather than direct detection of potential mineral deposits. A key component of the geo-electric profiling was to map the relative thickness of the Kalahari sediments, which is up to 200 m thick and obscures most of the bedrock in the area. Knowledge of the thickness would allow explorers to better predict the costs of exploration under the Kalahari. An additional aim was to determine if bedrock conductors were detectable beneath the Kalahari cover. The system succeeded in measuring the Kalahari thickness where this cover was relatively thin and moderately conductive. Limitations in depth penetration mean that it is not possible to map the thickness in the centre of the survey area, and much of the northern half of the survey area. Additional problems arise due to the variable conductivity of the Kalahari cover. Where the conductivity of the Kalahari sediment is close to that of the basement, there is no discernable contrast to delineate the base of the Kalahari. Basement conductors are visible beneath the more thinly covered areas such as in the north-west and south of the survey area. The remainder of the survey area generally comprises deeper, more conductive cover and for the most part basement conductors cannot be detected. A qualitative comparison with VTEM data shows comparable results in terms of regional mapping, and suggests that even more powerful systems such as the VTEM may not detect discrete conductors beneath the thick conductive parts of the Kalahari cover.

  9. Towards malaria elimination in the MOSASWA (Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland) region.

    PubMed

    Moonasar, Devanand; Maharaj, Rajendra; Kunene, Simon; Candrinho, Baltazar; Saute, Francisco; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Morris, Natashia

    2016-01-01

    The substantial impact of cross-border collaborative control efforts on the burden of malaria in southern Africa has previously been demonstrated through the successes of the Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative. Increases in malaria cases recorded in the three partner countries (Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland) since termination of that programme in 2011 have provided impetus for the resuscitation of cooperation in the form of the MOSASWA malaria initiative. MOSASWA, launched in 2015, seeks to renew regional efforts to accelerate progress towards malaria elimination goals already established in the region. National malaria programmes, together with developmental partners, academic institutions and the private sector seek to harmonize policy, strengthen capacity, share expertise, expand access to elimination interventions particularly amongst migrant and border population groups, mobilize resources and advocate for long-term funding to ultimately achieve and sustain malaria elimination in the MOSASWA region. PMID:27538990

  10. Dust Aerosol Impact on North Africa Climate: A GCM Investigation of Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions Using A-Train Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, Jonathan; Su, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong

    2012-02-15

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa have been investigated using the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The model includes an efficient and physically based radiation parameterization scheme developed specifically for application to clouds and aerosols. Parameterization of the effective ice particle size in association with the aerosol indirect effect based on cloud and aerosol data retrieved from A-Train satellite observations have been employed in the climate model simulations. Offline simulations reveal that the direct solar, IR, and net forcings by dust aerosols generally increase with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD). When the dust semi-direct effect is included with the presence of ice clouds, positive IR radiative forcing is enhanced, since ice clouds trap substantial IR radiation, while the positive solar forcing with dust aerosols alone has been changed to negative values due to the strong reflection of solar radiation by clouds, indicating that cloud forcing could exceed aerosol forcing. With the aerosol indirect effect, the net cloud forcing is generally reduced for ice water path (IWP) larger than 20 g m-2. The magnitude of the reduction increases with IWP. AGCM simulations show that the reduced ice crystal mean effective size due to the aerosol first indirect effect result in less OLR and net solar flux at the top of the atmosphere over the cloudy area of the North Africa region because ice clouds with smaller size trap more IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation. The precipitation in the same area, however, increases due to the aerosol indirect effect on ice clouds, corresponding to the enhanced convection as indicated by reduced OLR. The increased precipitation seems to be associated with enhanced ice water contents in this region. The 200 mb radiative heating rate shows more cooling with the aerosol indirect effect since greater cooling is

  11. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  12. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    inspection of the Agere Selam (Mekele) intertrappean beds revealed the occurrence of lacustrine limestones and diatomites, which were contrastingly quite subordinate with respect to the fine clastic sediments found in the nearby Amba Alaji area. Further south, the intertrappean section in the Jema valley (100 km north of Addis Ababa and close to the Blue Nile gorge) is 120 m thick with predominant clastic sediments and a few diatomites at the top. Literature information from 35 additional sites, including northern Kenya, Yemen, Sudan and Saudi Arabia sections, confirms the fluvial and lacustrine depositional environment of the intertrappean beds, underlines the interest in their mammal fauna (Chilga, Losodok), and reports exploitable coal seams for some of them. As for the vegetal landscape in which the intertrappean beds were deposited, pollen and plant analysis results indicative of a tropical wet forest, similar to that of present-day western Africa. Another common feature of the intertrappean beds is their relatively limited thickness, averaging a few tens of meters, but reaching a few hundred meters in graben-related basins, such as Delbi Moye in southern Ethiopia. In most cases only thin, lens-shaped successions were deposited above the hummocky topography of their volcanic substratum, commonly unaffected by significant faulting. An average duration of the intertrappean beds is from one to three million years. This time interval is commonly matched by a few tens (or more rarely, hundreds) of meters of sediments left over after erosive episodes or depositional starvation. As to the lateral continuity of the intertrappean beds, the present-day outcrops show large differences: from some tens of kilometers in the Mendefera area, to a few tens of kilometres in the Jema valley, and to a few hundreds meters in the Agere Selam (Mekele) area. Even if it is difficult to quantify the original size of the sedimentation areas, it nevertheless proves that the intertrappean basins

  13. Integrated application of gravity and seismic methods for determining the dip angle of a fault plane: Case of Mahjouba fault (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabtni, H.; Hajji, O.; Jallouli, C.

    2016-07-01

    A procedure for a dip angle determination of a fault plane from gravity field data is presented to constrain a seismic profile interpretation. This procedure is applied on Mahjouba normal fault at the western border of Kalaa Khesba graben (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa). Seismic and detailed gravity data, in this region, were analyzed to provide more constraints on the geometry of the fault dip angle. The Mahjouba fault is mapped as three major parallel lineaments extended for 2 km with a NW-SE to N-S trend. The dip of the Mahjouba fault is estimated from the gravity modeling data to be 45°E. This study reveals that integrating gravity and seismic data provides accurate mapping of faults geometry and such result provides useful information and constraints on the exploration of natural resources.

  14. Integrated application of gravity and seismic methods for determining the dip angle of a fault plane: Case of Mahjouba fault (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabtni, H.; Hajji, O.; Jallouli, C.

    2016-07-01

    A procedure for a dip angle determination of a fault plane from gravity field data is presented to constrain a seismic profile interpretation. This procedure is applied on Mahjouba normal fault at the western border of Kalaa Khesba graben (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa). Seismic and detailed gravity data, in this region, were analyzed to provide more constraints on the geometry of the fault dip angle. The Mahjouba fault is mapped as three major parallel lineaments extended for 2 km with a NW-SE to N-S trend. The dip of the Mahjouba fault is estimated from the gravity modeling data to be 45°E. This study reveals that integrating gravity and seismic data provides accurate mapping of faults geometry and such result provides useful information and constraints on the exploration of natural resources.

  15. Mars at Ls 176o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurred in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season : Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  16. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  17. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds.

  18. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds. PMID:27106273

  19. Analysis and simulation of recent climate variability in the high-mountain regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Emily; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Kilimanjaro is the highest free-standing mountain in the world, and the glaciers at its summit represent regionally unique high-altitude sampling points in the troposphere. The region is influenced by, among other phenomena, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However, the impacts of these phenomena as well as interactions between them on climate conditions in the high-mountain regions of East Africa are poorly constrained. Here we analyze recent high-altitude climate variability in East Africa using a combination of atmospheric reanalysis data, convection permitting (~1 km grid spacing) numerical simulations with the regional atmospheric model WRF, and multi-year in-situ weather station data at the summits of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. We utilize these datasets to elucidate the impact of modes of internal climate variability, with a particular emphasis on ENSO, on both the large- and local-scale atmospheric conditions. Our analysis is compared with a ten-year record of glacier surface-height-change measurements on Kilimanjaro to elucidate the drivers of recent glacier response in East Africa.

  20. Founder mutations in Tunisia: implications for diagnosis in North Africa and Middle East

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tunisia is a North African country of 10 million inhabitants. The native background population is Berber. However, throughout its history, Tunisia has been the site of invasions and migratory waves of allogenic populations and ethnic groups such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottomans and French. Like neighbouring and Middle Eastern countries, the Tunisian population shows a relatively high rate of consanguinity and endogamy that favor expression of recessive genetic disorders at relatively high rates. Many factors could contribute to the recurrence of monogenic morbid trait expression. Among them, founder mutations that arise in one ancestral individual and diffuse through generations in isolated communities. Method We report here on founder mutations in the Tunisian population by a systematic review of all available data from PubMed, other sources of the scientific literature as well as unpublished data from our research laboratory. Results We identified two different classes of founder mutations. The first includes founder mutations so far reported only among Tunisians that are responsible for 30 genetic diseases. The second group represents founder haplotypes described in 51 inherited conditions that occur among Tunisians and are also shared with other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Several heavily disabilitating diseases are caused by recessive founder mutations. They include, among others, neuromuscular diseases such as congenital muscular dystrophy and spastic paraglegia and also severe genodermatoses such as dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and xeroderma pigmentosa. Conclusion This report provides informations on founder mutations for 73 genetic diseases either specific to Tunisians or shared by other populations. Taking into account the relatively high number and frequency of genetic diseases in the region and the limited resources, screening for these founder mutations should provide a rapid and cost effective tool for

  1. Development of a regional food composition table for West Africa.

    PubMed

    Stadlmayr, Barbara; Charrondière, U Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of the nutrient content of foods is fundamental for virtually all nutrition-related projects, programmes and policies. Low quality compositional data may lead to inappropriate policies and funds spent unnecessarily. Existing food composition tables (FCT) for most West African countries date back to 1960 and 1970 and contain in general few foods and components without documentation. As a result of the recommendations by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Nutrition forum and other high level meetings, FAO/INFOODS, WAHO/ECOWAS and Bioversity International developed the West African FCT. It contains 472 foods and 28 components. Emphasis was given to include data on food biodiversity by incorporating cultivars/varieties and underutilized foods. The West African FCT enables users to address diet-related health problems, strengthen local development, enhance trade and promote biodiversity. In addition it contributes to poverty alleviation in both rural and urban areas. The FCT needs to be updated regularly and it is the most recent example of INFOODS for regional food composition activities.

  2. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  3. Female gene pools of Berber and Arab neighboring communities in central Tunisia: microstructure of mtDNA variation in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Cherni, Lotfi; Loueslati, Besma Yaacoubi; Pereira, Luísa; Ennafaâ, Hajer; Amorim, António; El Gaaied, Amel Ben Ammar

    2005-02-01

    North African populations are considered genetically closer to Eurasians than to sub-Saharans. However, they display a considerably high mtDNA heterogeneity among them, namely in the frequencies of the U6, East African, and sub-Saharan haplogroups. In this study, we describe and compare the female gene pools of two neighboring Tunisian populations, Kesra (Berber) and Zriba (non-Berber), which have contrasting historical backgrounds. Both populations presented lower diversity values than those observed for other North African populations, and they were the only populations not showing significant negative Fu's F(S) values. Kesra displayed a much higher proportion of typical sub-Saharan haplotypes (49%, including 4.2% of M1 haplogroup) than Zriba (8%). With respect to U6 sequences, frequencies were low (2% in Kesra and 8% in Zriba), and all belonged to the subhaplogroup U6a. An analysis of these data in the context of North Africa reveals that the emerging picture is complex, because Zriba would match the profile of a Berber Moroccan population, whereas Kesra, which shows twice the frequency of sub-Saharan lineages normally observed in northern coastal populations, would match a western Saharan population except for the low U6 frequency. The North African patchy mtDNA landscape has no parallel in other regions of the world and increasing the number of sampled populations has not been accompanied by any substantial increase in our understanding of its phylogeography. Available data up to now rely on sampling small, scattered populations, although they are carefully characterized in terms of their ethnic, linguistic, and historical backgrounds. It is therefore doubtful that this picture truly represents the complex historical demography of the region rather than being just the result of the type of samplings performed so far.

  4. A new Martian meteorite from Morocco: the nakhlite North West Africa 817

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, V.; Barrat, J. A.; Jambon, A.; Lorand, J. P.; Gillet, Ph.; Javoy, M.; Joron, J. L.; Lesourd, M.

    2002-02-01

    North West Africa (NWA 817) is a single stone of 104 g found in the Sahara (Morocco) by meteorite hunters in November 2000. The meteorite is an unbrecciated, medium-grained olivine-bearing clinopyroxenite with a cumulate texture. It consists of zoned euhedral subcalcic augite (Wo 42En 38-22Fs 20-36), olivine spanning a wide range of compositions (from Fa 56 in the core to Fa 86) with rare magmatic inclusions and an intercumulus mesostasis made of Fe-bearing albitic plagioclase, Si-rich glass, Ti-magnetite with unusual skeletal growth morphologies containing ilmenite exsolutions, acicular pyroxene, olivine and cristobalite. Trace minerals are sulfide droplets and Cl-apatite. Mineral modes (in vol%) are augite 69%, olivine 10%, mesostasis 20% and Fe-Ti oxides 1%. Pervasive alteration produced a reddish clay mineral (hydrous ferrous silicate) in both olivine crystals and the mesostasis. The major element composition of NWA 817 is very similar to that of the other nakhlites: high FeO, MgO and CaO concentrations reflect the abundance of cumulus augite and olivine. Key element ratios such as FeO/MnO (=37), Na/Al (=0.40), K/La (=449), Ga/Al (=3.9×10 -4) and oxygen isotopic composition (Δ 17O=+0.37‰) are clear evidence for a Martian origin. The incompatible trace element pattern as in Nakhla displays a strong light rare earth element enrichment relative to chondrite (La n/Yb n=4.89). However, when compared to the other nakhlites, NWA 817 has specific features: (1) a higher modal proportion of mesostasis; (2) quench textures of Ti-magnetite and Fe-rich clinopyroxene; (3) more Mg-rich olivine core compositions whereas the augite core composition is identical for all nakhlites; (4) a stronger Fe enrichment toward crystal rims of these cumulus minerals. The intercumulus minerals (Ti-magnetite with skeletal growth morphology, acicular chains of clinopyroxene and Fe 3+-rich feldspar) indicate rapid crystallization in response to a high degree of undercooling at the end of

  5. Assessment of Groundwater Potential in Fractured Crystalline rocks of the North West Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessema, A.

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of groundwater potential in crystalline rocks of the North West Province was carried out. The area is located close to the boundary between South Africa and Botswana. The main objective of the study is to investigate groundwater potential using multi-data integration approach. Geologically, the area comprises of volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, carbonates, arenaceous and argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Transvaal Supergroup. The youngest rocks are the Karoo Supergroup and the Quaternary sedimentary cover. Multivariate statistical modelling was carried out to produce groundwater prospectivity map of the area. In addition, groundwater quality was assessed using hydrochemical and environmental isotopes. The statistical modelling includes data-driven and knowledge-based approaches. The data-driven approach includes artificial neural networks (ANNs), weights of evidence (WoE) and logistic regression (LG), while the knowledge-based approach involves the use of fuzzy logic. The two statistical modellings were applied to five evidential themes that include geology, structures, geomorphology, land-use and soil types. The data-driven approach provided nearly similar results showing lithologic units and fracture connectivity play a key role in controlling groundwater occurrence. The influence of lithology is significant in the southern part of the area, while fracture connectivity play important role in controlling groundwater occurrence within the crystalline rocks that are situated in the central and northern parts of the area. In general, the results of multivariate statistical modelling show number of groundwater potential zones varying from very good to very poo. The zone shown as very good and goodgroundwater potential covers ~17% and ~22% of the study area, respectively. These zones correspond to carbonate rocks located in the southern part of the area where percolating rainwater developed large cavities that can store and

  6. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  7. Projection of temperature and heat waves for Africa with an ensemble of CORDEX Regional Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosio, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    The most severe effects of global warning will be related to the frequency and severity of extreme events. We provide an analysis of projections of temperature and related extreme events for Africa based on a large ensemble of Regional Climate Models from the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX). Results are presented not only by means of widely used indices but also with a recently developed Heat Wave Magnitude Index-daily (HWMId), which takes into account both heat wave duration and intensity. Results show that under RCP8.5, warming of more than 3.5 °C is projected in JFM over most of the continent, whereas in JAS temperatures over large part of Northern Africa, the Sahara and the Arabian peninsula are projected to increase up to 6 °C. Large increase in in the number of warm days (Tx90p) is found over sub equatorial Africa, with values up to more than 90 % in JAS, and more than 80 % in JFM over e.g., the gulf of Guinea, Central African Republic, South Sudan and Ethiopia. Changes in Tn90p (warm nights) are usually larger, with some models projecting Tn90p reaching 95 % starting from around 2060 even under RCP4.5 over the Gulf of Guinea and the Sahel. Results also show that the total length of heat spells projected to occur normally (i.e. once every 2 years) under RCP8.5 may be longer than those occurring once every 30 years under the lower emission scenario. By employing the recently developed HWMId index, it is possible to investigate the relationship between heat wave length ad intensity; in particular it is shown that very intense heat waves such as that occurring over the Horn of Africa may have values of HWMId larger than that of longer, but relatively weak, heat waves over West Africa.

  8. EDCTP regional networks of excellence: initial merits for planned clinical trials in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and combating hotspots with escalating but preventable communicable diseases remain major challenges in Africa. The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) intervened to combat poverty-related diseases including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and to conduct multi-centre clinical trials and multi-disciplinary health research through an innovative model of regional Networks of Excellence (NoEs). Methods We participated in a quasi-formative evaluation between October and December 2011 on the 4 regional-led research networks. These included the: Central Africa Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM); East African Consortium for Clinical Research (EACCR); West African Network of Excellence for TB, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), and the Trials of Excellence for Southern Africa (TESA) launched between 2009 and 2010. We shared a participatory appraisal of field reports, progress reports and presentations from each network to jointly outline the initial experiences of the merits, outputs and lessons learnt. Results The self-regulating democratic networks, with 64 institutions in 21 African countries, have trained over 1, 000 African scientists, upgraded 36 sites for clinical trials, leveraged additional € 24 million and generated 38 peer-reviewed publications through networking and partnerships. Conclusions The shared initial merits and lessons learnt portray in part the strengthened capacity of these networks for improved research coordination and conduct of planned multi-center clinical trials in Africa. Increased funding by African agencies, governments and international health partners will ensure sustainability of these networks for research capacity development and demonstrate their commitment to achieving the MDGs in Africa. PMID:23517572

  9. In search of a viable IAU-OAD Regional Node: A case for Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okere, B. I.; Okoh, D. C.; Obi, I. A.; Okeke, P. N.; Opara, F. E.

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) in Cape Town, South Africa, with the aim of using astronomy to stimulate development at all levels including primary, secondary and tertiary education, science research and the public understanding of science is a welcome development to consolidate the gains of IYA2009. To assist the IAU OAD office in achieving its goal of using astronomy as a tool for development, there is need to have OAD regional nodes. In this paper, we present the astronomy activities/programs required of such a Regional Node in Africa and how the Node can play a significant role to realise the vision of Astronomy for a better world!

  10. Sensitivity of Boreal-Summer Circulation and Precipitation to Atmospheric Aerosols in Selected Regions: Part I Africa and India

    SciTech Connect

    Sud, Yogesh C.; Wilcox, Eric; Lau, William K.; Walker, Greg K.; Liu, Xiaohong; Nenes, Athanasios; Lee , Dongmin; Kim, K. - M.; Zhou, Yaping; Bhattacharjee, P. S.

    2009-10-23

    Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) General Circulation Model (GCM) was employed to assess the influence of potential changes in aerosols on the regional circulation, ambient temperatures, and precipitation in four selected regions: India and Africa (current paper), as well as North and South America (companion paper). Ensemble-simulations were carried out with the GCM to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effects, hereafter ADE and AIE. Each simulation was started from the NCEP-analyzed initial conditions for May 1 and was integrated through May-June-July-August of each year: 1982-1987 to provide an ensemble set of six simulations. In the first set, called the baseline experiment (#1), climatological aerosols were prescribed. The next two experiments (#2 and #3) had two sets of simulations each: one with 2X and another with 1/2X the climatological aerosols over each of the four selected regions. In experiment#2, the anomaly regions were advectively restricted (AR), i.e., the large-scale prognostic fields outside the aerosol anomaly regions were prescribed while in experiment#3, the anomaly regions were advectively Interactive (AI) as is the case in a normal GCM integrations, but with the same aerosols anomalies as in experiment #2. Intercomparisons of circulation, diabatic heating, and precipitation difference fields showed large disparities among the AR and AI simulations, which raised serious questions about the AR assumption, commonly invoked in regional climate simulation studies. Consequently AI simulation mode was chosen for the subsequent studies. Two more experiments (#4 and #5) were performed in the AI mode in which ADE and AIE were activated one at a time. The results showed that ADE and AIE work in concert to make the joint influences larger than sum of each acting alone. Moreover, the ADE and AIE influences were vastly different for the Indian and Africa regions, which suggest an imperative need to include them rationally in

  11. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    contained within South Africa's boundaries. In the upper righthand corner of the image is the Bay of Maputo, where sits Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Fires are visible in the northeast corner of the image, near Maputo. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River empties into the Indian Ocean. Tracing the Limpopo inland back toward the west, this river defines the northern boundary of South Africa with both Zimbabwe and Botswana. Johannesburg, the commercial capital of South Africa, can be seen as the greyish pixels in the northeastern region of the country. The country's legislative capital, Pretoria, is about 50 miles north of Johannesburg and 250 miles west of Maputo, in the heart of the Northern Province (formerly known as Transvaal). (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center)

  12. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provides timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhances optimized resource distribution and builds a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  13. Improving regional health care in West Africa using current space systems and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemison, Mae C.; Thomas, J. Segun

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved with establishing an integrated satellite health network in West Africa based on currently available technology. The system proposed makes use of a central national facility capable of transmitting and receiving voice/data and video signals from the entire country. Regional, field and local facilities provide timely epidemiologic information, sharing of medical expertise through telemedical consultations, enhance optimized resource distribution and build a framework for telecommunications for the entire country.

  14. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Murielle; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Holt, Kathryn Elizabeth; Lepillet, Elodie; Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Collard, Jean-Marc; Bercion, Raymond; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Le Hello, Simon; Dougan, Gordon; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Weill, François-Xavier

    2015-04-01

    We identified 3 lineages among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates in the Gulf of Guinea region in Africa during the 2000s. However, the MDR H58 haplotype, which predominates in southern Asia and Kenya, was not identified. MDR quinolone-susceptible isolates contained a 190-kb incHI1 pST2 plasmid or a 50-kb incN pST3 plasmid.

  15. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Gulf of Guinea Region, Africa.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Murielle; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Holt, Kathryn Elizabeth; Lepillet, Elodie; Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Collard, Jean-Marc; Bercion, Raymond; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Le Hello, Simon; Dougan, Gordon; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Weill, François-Xavier

    2015-04-01

    We identified 3 lineages among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates in the Gulf of Guinea region in Africa during the 2000s. However, the MDR H58 haplotype, which predominates in southern Asia and Kenya, was not identified. MDR quinolone-susceptible isolates contained a 190-kb incHI1 pST2 plasmid or a 50-kb incN pST3 plasmid. PMID:25811307

  16. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  17. [Satisfaction with health services in the North Bohemia Region].

    PubMed

    Masopust, V; Rajman, K

    1989-04-01

    In May 1988 in the North Bohemian region an anonymous survey was made in which 3,767 respondents participated, i.e. 0.42% of the population living in the region. The survey was focused on the satisfaction with and attitudes of patients to the health services. 73.64% of the respondents evaluated the provided services positively, 24.39% had an ambivalent attitude and 1.97% evaluated them negatively. Material shortcomings in the health services were criticized by 54.05% of the respondents, 37.75% criticized long waiting periods and 23.17% shortage of health personnel. The greatest advantage of our health services is that they are free of charge (49.91% respondents); availability (48.23%) and good interpersonal relations (21.56%). The satisfaction with the health services was expressed by 85.72% respondents verbally, 5.57% by criticism, 1.57% by a bribe and 1.43% by complaints. The most pretentious group are young patients working in industry. A positive attitude to the health services correlates with a positive evaluation of health workers. Thus the necessity arises to guard the ethical and professional standard of the health workers. PMID:2736659

  18. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  19. Simulating the link between ENSO and summer drought in Southern Africa using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meque, Arlindo; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates the capability of regional climate models (RCMs) in simulating the link between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Southern African droughts. It uses the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, computed using rainfall and temperature data) to identify 3-month drought over Southern Africa, and compares the observed and simulated correlation between ENSO and SPEI. The observation data are from the Climate Research Unit, while the simulation data are from ten RCMs (ARPEGE, CCLM, HIRHAM, RACMO, REMO, PRECIS, RegCM3, RCA, WRF, and CRCM) that participated in the regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) project. The study analysed the rainy season (December-February) data for 19 years (1989-2008). The results show a strong link between ENSO and droughts (SPEI) over Southern Africa. The link is owing to the influence of ENSO on both rainfall and temperature fields, but the correlation between ENSO and temperature is stronger than the correlation between ENSO and rainfall. Hence, using only rainfall to monitor droughts in Southern Africa may underestimate the influence of ENSO on the droughts. Only few CORDEX RCMs simulate the influence of ENSO on Southern African drought as observed. In this regard, the ARPEGE model shows the best simulation, while CRCM shows the worst. The different in the performance may be due to their lateral boundary conditions. The RCA-simulated link between ENSO and Southern African droughts is sensitive to the global dataset used as the lateral boundary conditions. In some cases, using RCA to downscale global circulation models (GCM) simulations adds value to the simulated link between ENSO and the droughts, but in other cases the downscaling adds no value to the link. The added value of RCA to the simulated link decreases as the capability of the GCM to simulate the link increases. This study suggests that downscaling GCM simulations with RCMs over Southern Africa may improve or depreciate the

  20. Impact of 2c warming over the vulnerable areas of Africa region in the AFRICA-CORDEX simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Aquila, Alessandro; Calmanti, Sandro; Mendlik, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We analyse the foreseen climatic changes over the vulnerable areas of African Continent for the most relevant variable, taking advantage of the new regional simulations produced in the AFRICA-CORDEX framework available in the framework of IMPACT2C EU project activities. The focus of the analysis is on the comparison of present climate condition with the period corresponding to +2°C (and +1.5°C) in the future scenario, providing information on the challenges and opportunities that the foreseen changes in hydrological cycle implied by global warming could create in vulnerable areas of African continent as Nile and Niger basins. We use simulations of the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios that typically reach the + 2°C threshold during the next century. We explore two sources of uncertainty. First, we consider the full consistency between global and regional models which is a critical source of uncertainty especially in this area where small scale processes have a direct impact on large scale circulation patterns. We find that, by looking at long term scenarios, significant differences exist between the scenarios produce with global and regional climate models. The second dimension of uncertainty, of enormous practical consequences in the field of climate change studies, is the role of climate variability compared to long term tendencies. In this case, we highlight that, although statistically significant, the tendency in climate variable that are most commonly used in impact studies (temperature, rainfall) is comparable with the range of variability observed in the present climate.

  1. Proterozoic history of the midcontinent region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, M. E.; van, W. R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1986-06-01

    Age and petrographic data from the buried basement of the midcontinent region of North America, integrated with information from exposed rocks and magnetic- and gravity-anomaly maps, allow much of the Proterozoic history of the region to be assembled. The Superior craton may be traced into the subsurface on the basis of characteristic magnetic patterns and limited age data. The region between the Superior craton and the Wyoming craton to the west is evidently underlain by southerly extension of the Trans-Hudson orogen of Canada. The Penokean orogen formed on the southern margin of the Superior craton 1890 1830 Ma, but is not inferred west of northwestern Iowa in the subsurface. Between 1780 and 1720 Ma, a major orogen developed along the southern margin of the continent and is exposed in Arizona and Colorado. These rocks are volcanogenic and, for the most part, juvenile additions to the crust; they can be traced beneath the plains as far as eastern Kansas and Nebraska. Another orogen formed farther to the south about 1700 1630 Ma and is exposed in southern Arizona and New Mexico; rocks of this age and type have beer, traced as far east as central Missouri but may extend as far as central Michigan. A major geophysical feature of the midcontinent is a system of northwest-trending magnetic and gravity anomalies in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska; the origin of these is not currently understood. The tectonic history of the midcontinent between 1480 and 1340 Ma was dominated by extensional formation of two widespread granite-rhyolite terranes that evidently were formed from, and overlie, the orogenic provinces. The older, formed 1450 1480 Ma, underlies the eastern midcontinent, whereas the younger, formed 1340 1400 Ma, underlies the southwestern midcontinent. The latest Proterozoic events were the formation of the midcontinent rift system and the collisional Grenville and Llano provinces about 1100 Ma.

  2. Coal and peat in the sub-Saharan region of Africa: alternative energy options?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Landis, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations of the region. The 11 countries considered in this appraisal reportedly contain coal and peat. On the basis of regional geology, another five countries might also contain coal-bearing rocks. If the resource potential is adequate, coal and peat might be utilized in a variety of ways including substituting for fuelwood, generating electricity, supplying process heat for local industry and increasing agricultural productivity. -from Author

  3. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  4. Active folding and thrusting in North Africa: A framework for a seismotectonic model of the Atlas Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Maouche, Said; Timoulali, Youssef; Bouhadad, Youcef; Bouaziz, Samir

    2013-04-01

    Large earthquakes in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa are often generated on thrust or reverse faults. For inland faults, surface ruptures and long-term active tectonics appear as a thrust escarpment and fold-related faulting visible in the field and using remote sensing images, or measured using space-borne geodesy (GPS or INSAR). For coastal faults, major uplifts of late Quaternary marine terraces and folding with steplike morphology are exposed indicating the incremental development of coastal active deformation. We have investigated the similarities and differences between different active fault-related folding along the Africa - Eurasia convergent plate boundary. These active structures are seismogenic and the striking case studies are the 1960 Agadir (Mw 5.9), the 1954 Orleansville (Mw 6.7), the 1980 El Asnam (Mw 7.3), the 1992 Gafsa (Mw 5.3), the 1999 Ain Temouchent (Mw 6.0), and the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8) earthquakes. From paleoseismic investigations the El Asnam active fold shows 0.6 to 1.0 mm/yr uplift rate. West of Algiers on the Sahel anticline, the levelling of uplifted successive coastal benches and notches document the incremental folding uplift with ~ 0.84 - 1.2 mm/yr uplift rate in the last 120-140 ka. The relatively fast folding growth during late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Atlas Mountains attests for the significance of earthquake activity and the importance of convergent movements between Africa and Eurasia in the Western Mediterranean. This work is prepared in the framework of the UNESCO (SIDA) - IGCP Project 601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa".

  5. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  6. Reviving the African Wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: A Mitochondrial Lineage Ranging More than 6,000 km Wide

    PubMed Central

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  7. Choir singing in Subsaharan Africa: Acoustic factors of a regional style in southern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeiro de Carvalho, Joao

    2005-09-01

    Choir singing is a most prominent form of expressive behavior in Subsaharan Africa. A vast majority of expressive modes involves multipart singing, both within the framework of European tonal system as well as other structured ways of combining vocal sounds of different frequencies. Vocal improvisation stands as an important process for the course of performance; individual voice ranges, as well as issues of social status and musical competence, determine the ways musicians participate in performance. Aesthetic validation is often expressed by the use of a nonverbal expressive mode, ``kulungwani,'' a vocal technique involving the action of the lower maxillae and tongue in order to produce a low-frequency interruption of sound emission. Choral singing intonation processes seem to rely on harmonic results, rather than melodic. A regional choral style in southern Africa seems to have developed, where a particular distribution of formant frequencies and an emphasis on low-frequency energy play a significant role.

  8. Regional assessment of atmospheric organic and black carbon in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gideon van Zyl, Pieter; Maritz, Petra; Beukes, Johan Paul; Liousse, Cathy; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Castéra, Pierre; Venter, Andrew; Pienaar, Kobus

    2014-05-01

    At present limited data exists for atmospheric black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) in South Africa. In this paper BC and OC concentrations were explored in terms of spatial and temporal patterns, mass fractions of BC and OC of the overall aerosol mass, as well as linked to possible sources. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected at five sampling sites in South Africa operated within the DEBITS IDAF network, i.e. Louis Trichardt, Skukuza, Vaal Triangle, Amersfoort and Botsalano, with MiniVol samplers. Samples were analysed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon analyser. OC were higher than BC concentrations at all sites in both size fractions. Most OC and BC were present in the PM2.5 fraction. OC/BC ratios reflected the location of the different DEBITS sites, with sites in or close to anthropogenic source regions having the lowest OC/BC ratios, while background sites had the highest OC/BC ratios. The OC mass fraction percentage varied between 1% and 24%, while the BC mass fraction ranged between 1 and 12 %. The highest OC mass fraction was found at Skukuza in the Kruger National Park, which was attributed to both natural sources and anthropogenic impacts from a dominant path of air mass movement from the anthropogenic industrial hub of South Africa. The highest mass fraction of BC was found at the Vaal Triangle situated within an region highly impacted by industry and household combustion for space heating and cooking. A relatively distinct seasonal pattern was observed, with higher OC and BC concentrations determined between May and October, which coincide with the dry season in the interior of South Africa. Positive correlations between OC and BC concentrations with the distance from back trajectories passing over veld fires were observed, indicating that veld fires contribute significantly to atmospheric OC and BC during the burning months.

  9. Downscaling Pest Risk Analyses: Identifying Current and Future Potentially Suitable Habitats for Parthenium hysterophorus with Particular Reference to Europe and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Brunel, Sarah; Ota, Noboru; Fried, Guillaume; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.; Panetta, F. Dane; Prasad, T. V. Ramachandra; Shabbir, Asad; Yaacoby, Tuvia

    2015-01-01

    Pest Risk Assessments (PRAs) routinely employ climatic niche models to identify endangered areas. Typically, these models consider only climatic factors, ignoring the ‘Swiss Cheese’ nature of species ranges due to the interplay of climatic and habitat factors. As part of a PRA conducted for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, we developed a climatic niche model for Parthenium hysterophorus, explicitly including the effects of irrigation where it was known to be practiced. We then downscaled the climatic risk model using two different methods to identify the suitable habitat types: expert opinion (following the EPPO PRA guidelines) and inferred from the global spatial distribution. The PRA revealed a substantial risk to the EPPO region and Central and Western Africa, highlighting the desirability of avoiding an invasion by P. hysterophorus. We also consider the effects of climate change on the modelled risks. The climate change scenario indicated the risk of substantial further spread of P. hysterophorus in temperate northern hemisphere regions (North America, Europe and the northern Middle East), and also high elevation equatorial regions (Western Brazil, Central Africa, and South East Asia) if minimum temperatures increase substantially. Downscaling the climate model using habitat factors resulted in substantial (approximately 22–53%) reductions in the areas estimated to be endangered. Applying expert assessments as to suitable habitat classes resulted in the greatest reduction in the estimated endangered area, whereas inferring suitable habitats factors from distribution data identified more land use classes and a larger endangered area. Despite some scaling issues with using a globally conformal Land Use Systems dataset, the inferential downscaling method shows promise as a routine addition to the PRA toolkit, as either a direct model component, or simply as a means of better informing an expert assessment of the suitable habitat

  10. Downscaling Pest Risk Analyses: Identifying Current and Future Potentially Suitable Habitats for Parthenium hysterophorus with Particular Reference to Europe and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah; Ota, Noboru; Fried, Guillaume; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M; Panetta, F Dane; Prasad, T V Ramachandra; Shabbir, Asad; Yaacoby, Tuvia

    2015-01-01

    Pest Risk Assessments (PRAs) routinely employ climatic niche models to identify endangered areas. Typically, these models consider only climatic factors, ignoring the 'Swiss Cheese' nature of species ranges due to the interplay of climatic and habitat factors. As part of a PRA conducted for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, we developed a climatic niche model for Parthenium hysterophorus, explicitly including the effects of irrigation where it was known to be practiced. We then downscaled the climatic risk model using two different methods to identify the suitable habitat types: expert opinion (following the EPPO PRA guidelines) and inferred from the global spatial distribution. The PRA revealed a substantial risk to the EPPO region and Central and Western Africa, highlighting the desirability of avoiding an invasion by P. hysterophorus. We also consider the effects of climate change on the modelled risks. The climate change scenario indicated the risk of substantial further spread of P. hysterophorus in temperate northern hemisphere regions (North America, Europe and the northern Middle East), and also high elevation equatorial regions (Western Brazil, Central Africa, and South East Asia) if minimum temperatures increase substantially. Downscaling the climate model using habitat factors resulted in substantial (approximately 22-53%) reductions in the areas estimated to be endangered. Applying expert assessments as to suitable habitat classes resulted in the greatest reduction in the estimated endangered area, whereas inferring suitable habitats factors from distribution data identified more land use classes and a larger endangered area. Despite some scaling issues with using a globally conformal Land Use Systems dataset, the inferential downscaling method shows promise as a routine addition to the PRA toolkit, as either a direct model component, or simply as a means of better informing an expert assessment of the suitable habitat types.

  11. Ambient seismic noise levels: A survey of the permanent and temporary seismographic networks in Morocco, North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fellah, Y.; Khairy Abd Ed-Aal, A.; El Moudnib, L.; Mimoun, H.; Villasenor, A.; Gallart, J.; Thomas, C.; Elouai, D.; Mimoun, C.; Himmi, M.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract The results, of a conducted study carried out to analyze variations in ambient seismic noise levels at sites of the installed broadband stations in Morocco, North Africa, are obtained. The permanent and the temporary seismic stations installed in Morocco of the Scientific Institute ( IS, Rabat, Morocco), institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera (ICTJA, Barcelona, Spain) and Institut für Geophysik (Munster, Germany) were used in this study. In this work, we used 23 broadband seismic stations installed in different structural domains covering all Morocco from south to north. The main purposes of the current study are: 1) to present a catalog of seismic background noise spectra for Morocco obtained from recently installed broadband stations, 2) to assess the effects of experimental temporary seismic vault construction, 3) to determine the time needed for noise at sites to stabilize, 4) to establish characteristics and origin of seismic noise at those sites. We calculated power spectral densities of background noise for each component of each broadband seismometer deployed in the different investigated sites and then compared them with the high-noise model and low-noise Model of Peterson (1993). All segments from day and night local time windows were included in the calculation without parsing out earthquakes. The obtained results of the current study could be used forthcoming to evaluate permanent station quality. Moreover, this study could be considered as a first step to develop new seismic noise models in North Africa not included in Peterson (1993). Keywords Background noise; Power spectral density; Model of Peterson; Scientific Institute; Institute de Ciencias de la Tierra Jaume almera; Institut für Geophysik

  12. Engaging with Adults: The Case for Increased Support to Adult Basic Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    The impacts and cost-effectiveness of adult basic education (ABE) in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined in a review of the new generation of ABE programs in the region. African experts and other international resource persons examined documentation from recent adult literacy, numeracy, and other educational programs targeted toward individuals over…

  13. West Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa     View Larger Image ... the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the ...

  14. The WASCAL regional climate simulations for West Africa - how to add value to existing climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, J.; Heinzeller, D.; Klein, C.; Dieng, D.; Smiatek, G.; Bliefernicht, J.; Sylla, M. B.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    With climate change being one of the most severe challenges to rural Africa in the 21st century, West Africa is facing an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation measures to protect its constantly growing population. WASCAL (West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) is a large-scale research-focused program designed to enhance the resilience of human and environmental systems to climate change and increased variability. An integral part of its climate services is the provisioning of a new set of high resolution, ensemble-based regional climate change scenarios for the region of West Africa. In this contribution, we present the overall concept of the WASCAL regional climate projections and provide information on the dissemination of the data. We discuss the model performance over the validation period for two of the three regional climate models employed, the Weather Research & Forecasting Tool (WRF) and the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling Model COSMO in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM), and give details about a novel precipitation database used to verify the models. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the dynamics of the West African Summer Monsoon and to the added value of our high resolution models over existing data sets. We further present results on the climate change signal obtained from the WRF model runs for the periods 2020-2050 and 2070-2100 and compare them to current state-of-the-art projections from the CORDEX project. As an example, the figure shows the different climate change signals obtained for the total annual rainfall with respect to the 1980-2010 mean (WRF-E: WASCAL 12km high-resolution run MPI-ESM + WRFV3.5.1, CORDEX-E: 50km medium-resolution run MPI-ESM + RCA4, CORDEX-G: 50km medium-resolution run GFDL-ESM + RCA4).

  15. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  16. The Atlas mountains as a biogeographical divide in North-West Africa: evidence from mtDNA evolution in the Agamid lizard Agama impalearis.

    PubMed

    Brown, R P; Suárez, N M; Pestano, J

    2002-08-01

    Since the early Miocene there have been several physical events within NW Africa that are likely to have had a major impact on its faunal diversity. Phylogeographical studies will shed new light on the biogeography of the region. We analysed mitochondrial DNA diversity in the agamid lizard Agama impalearis (also called A. bibronii) based on sequences from mitochondrial genes with very different evolutionary rates (16S rRNA and ND2). Well-supported topologies of rooted maximum parsimony trees (with a Laudakia outgroup) and unrooted haplotype networks indicated two major clades with similar branch lengths. These clades have non-overlapping distributions representing respective areas to the North and West and South and East of the Atlas mountain chain and each could be given full species recognition. Nested clade analyses indicate that historical and possible present-day allopatry account for the primary phylogeographic pattern. Further evidence is provided by the estimated timing of cladogenesis, based on calibration of evolutionary rates in the ND2 gene of another continental Agamid. Sequence divergence between clades corresponds to 8.5-9.4mya, coinciding with the main period of orogenic uplift of the Atlas. Additional evidence of cladogenesis by allopatric fragmentation is also detected within the North/West Atlas clade, although contiguous range expansion is the most predominant explanation of more recent phylogeographic effects in this species. Miocene vicariance mediated by the Atlas may provide a general explanation of intra- and interspecific biogeographical patterns in NW African species.

  17. Frictional strength of North Anatolian fault in eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pınar, Ali; Coşkun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydın; Kalafat, Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Frequency distribution of azimuth and plunges of P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms is compared with the orientation of maximum compressive stress axis for investigating the frictional strength of three fault segments of North Anatolian fault (NAF) in eastern Marmara Sea, namely Princes' Islands, Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments. In this frame, we retrieved 25 CMT solutions of events in Çınarcık basin and derived a local stress tensor incorporating 30 focal mechanisms determined by other researches. As for the Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments, we constructed the frequency distribution of P- and T-axes utilizing 111 and 68 events, respectively, to correlate the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations. The analysis yields low frictional strength for the Princes' Island fault segments and high frictional strength for Yalova-Çınarcık, Yalova-Hersek segments. The local stress tensor derived from the inversion of P- and T-axes of the fault plane solutions of Çınarcık basin events portrays nearly horizontal maximum compressive stress axis oriented N154E which is almost parallel to the peak of the frequency distribution of the azimuth of the P-axes. The fitting of the observed and calculated frequency distributions is attained for a low frictional coefficient which is about μ ≈ 0.1. Evidences on the weakness of NAF segments in eastern Marmara Sea region are revealed by other geophysical observations. Our results also show that the local stress field in Çınarcık basin is rotated ≈30° clockwise compared to the regional stress tensor in Marmara region derived from the large earthquakes, whereas the local stress tensor in Yalova-Çınarcık area is found to be rotated ≈30° counterclockwise. The rotation of the two local stress fields is derived in the area where NAF bifurcates into two branches overlaying large electrical conductor.

  18. Assessing North American multimodel ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecast skill to assist in the early warning of anomalous hydrometeorological events over East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, Jason; Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Robertson, Franklin; Kirtman, Ben

    2016-07-01

    The skill of North American multimodel ensemble (NMME) seasonal forecasts in East Africa (EA), which encompasses one of the most food and water insecure areas of the world, is evaluated using deterministic, categorical, and probabilistic evaluation methods. The skill is estimated for all three primary growing seasons: March-May (MAM), July-September (JAS), and October-December (OND). It is found that the precipitation forecast skill in this region is generally limited and statistically significant over only a small part of the domain. In the case of MAM (JAS) [OND] season it exceeds the skill of climatological forecasts in parts of equatorial EA (Northern Ethiopia) [equatorial EA] for up to 2 (5) [5] months lead. Temperature forecast skill is generally much higher than precipitation forecast skill (in terms of deterministic and probabilistic skill scores) and statistically significant over a majority of the region. Over the region as a whole, temperature forecasts also exhibit greater reliability than the precipitation forecasts. The NMME ensemble forecasts are found to be more skillful and reliable than the forecast from any individual model. The results also demonstrate that for some seasons (e.g. JAS), the predictability of precipitation signals varies and is higher during certain climate events (e.g. ENSO). Finally, potential room for improvement in forecast skill is identified in some models by comparing homogeneous predictability in individual NMME models with their respective forecast skill.

  19. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    the model to reproduce AOD (at 550nm) associated to mineral dust 24, 48 and 72h ahead. A suit of discrete statistics as Mean Normalized Bias Error (MNBE), Mean Normalized Gross Error (MNGE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) has been used in order to evaluate the model behaviour. Categorical statistics or skill scores, as model accuracy, bias, probability of detection, false alarm rate and critical success index have been implemented to test the capability of the model to simulate AOD exceeding thresholds defined by the quartiles of each AERONET site. A previous aerosol characterization of AERONET data has been performed for our study region in order to discriminate desert dust contributions (Basart et al., 2008). The first results of the comparison reveal that the modelled dust field agrees in general reasonably well with sun photometer data. Since dust long-range transport is mainly driven by smaller dust particles, the results of this new 8-bins version (with increased number of dust size bins) is considerably better, since the small particle size range (<10µm effective radius) is well described. The best scores are found in North Africa and Middle East. In the Sahel region, an important sub-estimation is observed in wintertime, when the Atlantic outflow transport is important. This is partially due to the more complex processes associated to dust generation in this region (Warren et al., 2007), not well parameterized in dust models yet. Other causes, such as the correct simulation of regional winds or the threshold friction velocity are under research. Moreover, the interaction of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols from Savannah fires is at its maximum over the region in this season. In southern Europe, the relative errors are higher than in the rest of our study domain mainly due to the presence of different types of aerosols (such as fine pollution aerosols) which appear well-mixed with desert dust. References: Basart, S., C. Pérez, E. Cuevas and J

  20. Taking forward the World TB Day 2016 theme 'Unite to End Tuberculosis' for the WHO Africa Region.

    PubMed

    Ntoumi, Francine; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Macete, Eusebio; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Petersen, Eskild; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global emergency, with an estimated 9.6 million new TB cases worldwide reported in 2014. Twenty-eight percent of these cases were in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region, where the annual case detection rate was 281 per 100000 population-more than double the global average of 133 per 100000. Of the 9.6 million people who developed TB, an estimated 1.2 million (12%) were HIV-positive, and the Africa Region accounted for 74% of these cases. Three million people with TB remain undiagnosed and untreated. Globally, an estimated 480000 had multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Whilst of the African countries, only South Africa has reported a high prevalence of MDR-TB, it is likely that all of Sub-Saharan Africa has an unreported high load of drug-resistant TB. Tragically, in 2014, only 48% of individuals diagnosed with MDR-TB had successful treatment and an estimated 190000 people died of MDR-TB. Of the global TB funding gap of US$ 0.8 billion, the largest funding gap was in the Africa Region, amounting to US$ 0.4 billion in 2015. The MDR-TB pandemic in particular now threatens to devastate entire regions and may fundamentally alter the life-expectancy and demographic profile of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The theme designated for this year's World TB Day, March 24, 2016, is 'Unite to End TB'. From the Africa Region, there is an urgent need to seriously address the political, economic, and social factors that influence host-Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactions and result in disease. Recent political and funder initiatives that provide renewed hope for the alleviation of Africa's TB and TB/HIV problems are discussed.

  1. Regional Feedbacks Between the Ocean and the Atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L.; Garcia, M.; Kelly, K. A.; Booth, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The ocean acts to buffer changes in the climate system with the upper 800m of the ocean taking up more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system. On interannual time scales, surface heat fluxes damp the low-frequency heat content anomalies in some areas of the ocean where heat anomalies can be released back to the atmosphere. Analysis of satellite altimetry observations of SSH (sea surface height) as a proxy for upper ocean heat content and net suface heat flux from OAFlux (Objectively Analyzed air-sea fluxes) 993-2009 allows the identification of the times of the year and the locations in the North Atlantic where heat content anomalies are driving surface fluxes. Heat content has six month persistence while surface flux has at most one month persistence. Times series for each month of the year at each location are created to examine the lagged correlation between upper ocean heat content and the net surface heat fluxes. The heat content anomalies south of the Gulf Stream in June through November are negatively correlated with surface fluxes in November with a warmer ocean leading to surface fluxes out of the ocean. In this region, the mixed-layer by November reaches 100 m and the previous summer's stored heat is accessible to the atmosphere. The high correlations continue into December and January. By February, the correlation is no longer significant. In the region between 15N and 40N off the coast of Africa, January through May heat content are anti-correlated with surface fluxes in May. In May at this location, the climatological sensible heat flux is into the ocean, the planetary boundary layer is stable and stratocumulus clouds are common. Significant correlations in the summer are also found in the central subpolar North Atlantic. This analysis suggests that locally ocean heat content anomalies can feedback to the atmosphere, but only during certain times of the year. The impact on the atmosphere in late fall and early winter can influence of the

  2. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  3. Regional climate simulations over Africa using WRF Model: Sensitivity to the dynamical downscaling methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taima-Hernández, D.; Enríquez, A.; Pérez, J. C.; Díaz, J. P.; González, A.; Expósito, F. J.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of the CORDEX program (COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment) [1] is the production of regional climate change scenarios at a global scale, creating a contribution to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR5 (5th Assessment Report). Inside this project, Africa is the key region due to the lack of data at this moment. In this work, a sensitivity study is performed over the CORDEX-AFRICA domain with the same physical parameterizations and using five different WRF configurations: a long-term continuous run, a monthly re-initialized run, a monthly re-initialized run with soil variables fixed, a long-term continuous run with analysis nudging over the planet boundary layer (PBL) and a long-term continuous run with analysis nudging at the whole atmospheric column. These simulations, driven by ERA-Interim data [2] as initial and lateral boundary conditions and with a 50 km spatial resolution, were performed over the 5-year period between December 1990 and December 1995. In order to assess theperformance of the simulations several statistics, such as correlation coefficient (r), bias, root mean square (RMS) and a defined skill score (SS), based on the difference between areas of the probability density functions (PDFs) associated to study parameters [3], were applied using ERA-Interim, CRU-TS 3.1 and University of Delaware database as validation data for some variables, such as near-surface temperature, precipitation and moisture fluxes.

  4. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of North Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  5. Lower Palaeozoic of North-Western and West-Central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The first compilation in English of the stratigraphy, palaeontology, sedimentology, palaeogeography, and palaeoclimatology of the Lower Palaeozoic found in this area. The fourth volume in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the World Series discusses geological formations such as the lower Cambrian tribolite-bearing sequences of Morocco, those showing evidence of late Ordovician glaciation in West-Central Africa, and the Silurian-Devonian sequences of Morocco and Algeria.

  6. Correlated oceanic and continental records demonstrate past climate and hydrology of North Africa (0-140 ka)

    SciTech Connect

    Lezine, A.M. ); Casanova, J. )

    1991-04-01

    Analysis of pollen and dinocysts in a core from the eastern Atlantic (core V22-196; lat 13{degree}50'N, long 18{degree}57'W) provides the first continuous record of paleoclimate and paleohydrology for the latest climatic cycle. During interglacial intervals, increases in pollen input from humid vegetation zones are correlative with high dinocyst productivity. This data shows a close coincidence of northward extensions of Sudanian and Guinean vegetation zones in North Africa and increases in fresh-water input into the Atlantic. Direct evidence indicates positive hydroclimatic phases at 135, 125, 103, 80, 47, and 12-10 ka, coincident with widespread continental records of high lake levels, that confirm the validity of the U/Th chronology.

  7. Downscaling Reanalysis over Continental Africa with a Regional Model: NCEP Versus ERA Interim Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Five annual climate cycles (1998-2002) are simulated for continental Africa and adjacent oceans by a regional atmospheric model (RM3). RM3 horizontal grid spacing is 0.44deg at 28 vertical levels. Each of 2 simulation ensembles is driven by lateral boundary conditions from each of 2 alternative reanalysis data sets. One simulation downs cales National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis 2 (NCPR2) and the other the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Interim reanalysis (ERA-I). NCPR2 data are archived at 2.5deg grid spacing, while a recent version of ERA-I provides data at 0.75deg spacing. ERA-I-forced simulations are recomrp. ended by the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). Comparisons of the 2 sets of simulations with each other and with observational evidence assess the relative performance of each downscaling system. A third simulation also uses ERA-I forcing, but degraded to the same horizontal resolution as NCPR2. RM3-simulated pentad and monthly mean precipitation data are compared to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, gridded at 0.5deg, and RM3-simulated circulation is compared to both reanalyses. Results suggest that each downscaling system provides advantages and disadvantages relative to the other. The RM3/NCPR2 achieves a more realistic northward advance of summer monsoon rains over West Africa, but RM3/ERA-I creates the more realistic monsoon circulation. Both systems recreate some features of JulySeptember 1999 minus 2002 precipitation differences. Degrading the resolution of ERA-I driving data unrealistically slows the monsoon circulation and considerably diminishes summer rainfall rates over West Africa. The high resolution of ERA-I data, therefore, contributes to the quality of the downscaling, but NCPR2laterai boundary conditions nevertheless produce better simulations of some features.

  8. Impact of land use changes on surface feedbacks in sudanian region of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohard, J. M.; Galle, S.; Mamadou, O.; Peugeot, C.; Seghieri, J.; Kounouhewa, B.; Awanou, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    In West Africa, surface atmosphere exchanges have been found to impact both regional and local features of the Monsoon. At local scale the spatial patterns of Evaporative Fraction can drive the trajectories of mesoscale convective systems. Under Sudanian climate a mean of ~80% of the precipitation return to atmosphere through evapotranspiration but this important amount and its dynamics may vary with the vegetation cover. In consequence, any land use or climate changes can lead to modifications on the surface feedbacks and thus on both the atmospheric and the continental water cycle. In West Africa, Sudanian regions are submitted to a ~3% demographical increase per year, which leads to regular deforestation to the benefit of cultivated areas. This study aims at quantifying the changes in evapotranspiration regime caused by such a land use change under Sudanian climate. Within the framework of The AMMA-CATCH observatory, energy and water vapor fluxes were investigated in west Africa since 2007. Herein, a pluri-annual (2007 - 2010) energy budget of a clear forest and a cultivated area located in northern Benin are analysed. Results show that evapotranspiration rates over the sudanian forest are higher than those of cultivated area, because of agricultural practice and water availability for trees. After harvest, the residual vegetation is burned to bring nutriment to soil and to clean the landscape around the villages. Thus, during the dry season, the cultivated areas are bare. At the same time, a significant evapotranspiration is measured over the forest area despite the lack of precipitations. The deep root system of such vegetation allow the trees to get access to water during the dry season. During the rainy season, a significant difference in evapotransiration rates are also observed. These differences lead to a large deficit of water vapor that returns to the atmosphere and will significantly change the continental water cycle when forests will be replaced by

  9. HIV among People Who Inject Drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Thomas, Sara L.; Riome, Suzanne; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Riedner, Gabriele; Semini, Iris; Tawil, Oussama; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and covering 23 MENA countries. PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, as well as country-level reports were searched up to December 16, 2013. Primary studies reporting (1) the prevalence/incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) among PWIDs; or (2) the prevalence of injecting or sexual risk behaviors, or HIV knowledge among PWID; or (3) the number/proportion of PWID in MENA countries, were eligible for inclusion. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at country level. Risk of bias in predefined quality domains was described to assess the quality of available HIV prevalence measures. After multiple level screening, 192 eligible reports were included in the review. There were 197 HIV prevalence measures on a total of 58,241 PWID extracted from reports, and an additional 226 HIV prevalence measures extracted from the databases. We estimated that there are 626,000 PWID in MENA (range: 335,000–1,635,000, prevalence of 0.24 per 100 adults). We found evidence of HIV epidemics among PWID in at least one-third of MENA countries, most of which are emerging concentrated epidemics and with HIV prevalence overall in the range of 10%–15%. Some of the epidemics have however already reached considerable levels including some of the highest HIV prevalence among PWID globally (87.1% in Tripoli, Libya). The relatively high

  10. Tracing the history of goat pastoralism: new clues from mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Filipe; Queirós, Sara; Gusmão, Leonor; Nijman, Isäac J; Cuppen, Edwin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Davis, Simon J M; Nejmeddine, Fouad; Amorim, António

    2009-12-01

    Valuable insights into the history of human populations have been obtained by studying the genetic composition of their domesticated species. Here we address some of the long-standing questions about the origin and subsequent movements of goat pastoralism in Northern Africa. We present the first study combining results from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome loci for the genetic characterization of a domestic goat population. Our analyses indicate a remarkably high diversity of maternal and paternal lineages in a sample of indigenous goats from the northwestern fringe of the African continent. Median-joining networks and a multidimensional scaling of ours and almost 2000 published mtDNA sequences revealed a considerable genetic affinity between goat populations from the Maghreb (Northwest Africa) and the Near East. It has been previously shown that goats have a weak phylogeographic structure compatible with high levels of gene flow, as demonstrated by the worldwide dispersal of the predominant mtDNA haplogroup A. In contrast, our results revealed a strong correlation between genetic and geographical distances in 20 populations from different regions of the world. The distribution of Y chromosome haplotypes in Maghrebi goats indicates a common origin for goat patrilines in both Mediterranean coastal regions. Taken together, these results suggest that the colonization and subsequent dispersal of domestic goats in Northern Africa was influenced by the maritime diffusion throughout the Mediterranean Sea and its coastal regions of pastoralist societies whose economy included goat herding. Finally, we also detected traces of gene flow between goat populations from the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula corroborating evidence of past cultural and commercial contacts across the Strait of Gibraltar.

  11. Potential for human immunodeficiency virus parenteral transmission in the Middle East and North Africa: an analysis using hepatitis C virus as a proxy biomarker.

    PubMed

    Mohamoud, Yousra A; Miller, F DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-09-28

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has endured several major events of infection parenteral transmission. Recent work has established the utility of using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a proxy biomarker for assessing the epidemic potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parenteral transmission. In this review, we use data on the prevalence of HCV infection antibody (seroprevalence) among general population and high risk population groups to assess the potential for HIV parenteral transmission in MENA. Relatively low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population groups was reported in most MENA countries indicating that parenteral HIV transmission at endemic levels does not appear to be a cause for concern. Nonetheless, there could be opportunities for localized HIV outbreaks and transmission of other blood-borne infections in some settings such as healthcare facilities. Though there have been steady improvements in safety measures related to parenteral modes of transmission in the region, these improvements have not been uniform across all countries. More precautions, including infection control training programs, surveillance systems for nosocomial infections and wider coverage and evaluation of hepatitis B virus immunization programs need to be implemented to avoid the unnecessary spread of HIV, HCV, and other blood-borne pathogens along the parenteral modes of transmission.

  12. Potential for human immunodeficiency virus parenteral transmission in the Middle East and North Africa: An analysis using hepatitis C virus as a proxy biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Mohamoud, Yousra A; Miller, F DeWolfe; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has endured several major events of infection parenteral transmission. Recent work has established the utility of using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a proxy biomarker for assessing the epidemic potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parenteral transmission. In this review, we use data on the prevalence of HCV infection antibody (seroprevalence) among general population and high risk population groups to assess the potential for HIV parenteral transmission in MENA. Relatively low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population groups was reported in most MENA countries indicating that parenteral HIV transmission at endemic levels does not appear to be a cause for concern. Nonetheless, there could be opportunities for localized HIV outbreaks and transmission of other blood-borne infections in some settings such as healthcare facilities. Though there have been steady improvements in safety measures related to parenteral modes of transmission in the region, these improvements have not been uniform across all countries. More precautions, including infection control training programs, surveillance systems for nosocomial infections and wider coverage and evaluation of hepatitis B virus immunization programs need to be implemented to avoid the unnecessary spread of HIV, HCV, and other blood-borne pathogens along the parenteral modes of transmission. PMID:25278675

  13. Molecular assessment of apicomplexan parasites in the snake Psammophis from North Africa: do multiple parasite lineages reflect the final vertebrate host diet?

    PubMed

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, D James

    2013-10-01

    The Apicomplexa are intracellular pathogens of animals, with the Coccidia being the largest group. Among these are the hemogregarines, which include some of the most common hemoparasites found in reptiles. Several studies have reported a possible pattern of prey-predator transmission for some of these parasites. Snakes from the Mediterranean region have been found to be parasitized with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those in lacertids and gekkonids, supporting the prey-predator transmission hypothesis. Here we analyzed specimens of the saurophagous genus Psammophis from North Africa, an ecologically different region. Through molecular analysis of tissue samples we detected 3 different apicomplexan parasites: Caryospora, Sarcocystis, and Hepatozoon. Caryospora was detected in a Forskål's sand snake Psammophis schokari from Algeria, constituting the first time these parasites have been detected from a tissue sample through molecular screening. The obtained Sarcocystis phylogeny does not reflect the relationships of their final hosts, with the parasites identified from snakes forming at least 3 unrelated groups, indicating that it is still premature to predict definitive host based on the phylogeny of these parasites. Three unrelated lineages of Hepatozoon parasites were identified in Psammophis, each closely related to lineages previously identified from different lizard groups, on which these snakes feed. This once again indicates that diet might be a key element in transmission, at least for Hepatozoon species of saurophagous snakes. PMID:23537006

  14. Internationalization "vs" Regionalization of Higher Education in East Africa and the Challenges of Quality Assurance and Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogachi, Oanda

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education in East Africa raises various questions related to its magnitude and intensity, its capacity to address issues of access, equity and regional research and developmental needs. Internationalization and regionalization as processes in higher education can synergize each other but can also limit the success of…

  15. IFLA General Conference 1988. Division of Regional Activities. Sections on: Asia and Oceania; Africa; Latin America and the Caribbean; Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The eight papers in this collection focus on library activities in various geographical regions, e.g., Asia, Oceania, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and Western Australia: (1) "Future Approaches and Prospects of Computerised Information Network among the Countries of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)" (Abdullah…

  16. Southern Africa Regional Office of Astronomy for Development: A New Hub for Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siseho Mutondo, Moola

    2015-08-01

    A new Astronomy for Development hub needs innovative tools and programs. SAROAD is developing exciting tools integrating Raspberry Pi® technology to bring cost-effective astronomy content to learning centres. SAROAD would also like to report achievements in realising the IAU's strategic plan. In order to manage, evaluate and coordinate regional IAU capacity building programmes, including the recruitment and mobilisation of volunteers, SAROAD has built an intranet that is accessible to regional members upon request. Using this resource, regional members can see and participate in regional activities. This resource also forms the foundation for closer collaboration between SAROAD member countries. SAROAD has commenced with projects in the three Task Force areas of Universities and Research, Children and Schools and Public Outreach. Under the three Task Force areas, a total of seven projects have commenced in Zambia. A further two projects involve the collaboration of Zambia and other regional member countries in order to foster engagement with important regional astronomy facilities (e.g. SKA). SAROAD has identified the IAU’s International Year of Light and a starting point for offering regional support for IAU-endorsed global activities. SAROAD has set up a hub dedicated to regional events and activities about the International Year of Light. SAROAD has a database of regional authorities to enable contact with the region's decision makers and experts. SAROAD will hold an annual event which brings forum for astronomy for development. The creation of the database and the SAROAD Road show is a first step towards this goal. The SAROAD website has helped to advertise upcoming events for astronomy development and education; it is used to provide advice, guidance and information for astronomers in all countries in the Southern Africa. Fundraising is the primary goal for SAROAD in 2015 towards financial self-sufficiency by 2020. We report on the methods that work best

  17. Role of the Alboran Sea volcanic arc choking the Mediterranean to the Messinian salinity crisis and foundering biota diversification in North Africa and Southeast Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemer, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccated ~5.96 million years ago when it became isolated from the world oceans during the Messinian salinity crisis. This event permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present rich biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The cause chocking the Mediterranean has been proposed to be tectonic uplift and dynamic topography but the driving mechanism still remains debated. We present a new wide-angle seismic profile that provides a detailed image of the thickness and seismic velocity distribution of the crust in the eastern Alboran basin. The velocity model shows a characteristic structure of a subduction-related volcanic arc with a high-velocity lower crust and a 16-18 km total-thickness igneous crust that magmatic accreted mostly between ~10-6 Ma across the eastern Alboran basin. Estimation of the isostatically corrected depth of the arc crust taking into account the original thermal structure and sediment-loading subsidence since 6 Ma places a large area of the eastern Alboran basin above sea level at the time. This estimation is supported by geophysical data showing subaereal erosional unconformities for that time. This model may explain several up-to-now-disputed features of the Messinian salinity crisis, including: the progressive isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma with the disappearance of open marine taxa, the existence of evaporites mostly to the east of the volcanic arc, the evidence that the Gibraltar straits were not a land bridge offered by continuous Messinian open marine sediments at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, the importance of southeastern Iberia and North Africa as centres of biota diversification since before the salinity crisis, and patterns of speciation irradiating from SE Iberia and the eastern Rif in some taxons.

  18. Simulation of the annual and diurnal cycles of rainfall over South Africa by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Rouault, Mathieu; Roy, Shouraseni Sen

    2014-10-01

    The capability of a current state-of-the-art regional climate model for simulating the diurnal and annual cycles of rainfall over a complex subtropical region is documented here. Hourly rainfall is simulated over Southern Africa for 1998-2006 by the non-hydrostatic model weather research and forecasting (WRF), and compared to a network of 103 stations covering South Africa. We used five simulations, four of which consist of different parameterizations for atmospheric convection at a 0.5 × 0.5° resolution, performed to test the physic-dependency of the results. The fifth experiment uses explicit convection over tropical South Africa at a 1/30° resolution. WRF simulates realistic mean rainfall fields, albeit wet biases over tropical Africa. The model mean biases are strongly modulated by the convective scheme used for the simulations. The annual cycle of rainfall is well simulated over South Africa, mostly influenced by tropical summer rainfall except in the Western Cape region experiencing winter rainfall. The diurnal cycle shows a timing bias, with atmospheric convection occurring too early in the afternoon, and causing too abundant rainfall. This result, particularly true in summer over the northeastern part of the country, is weakly physic-dependent. Cloud-resolving simulations do not clearly reduce the diurnal cycle biases. In the end, the rainfall overestimations appear to be mostly imputable to the afternoon hours of the austral summer rainy season, i.e., the periods during which convective activity is intense over the region.

  19. 78 FR 17427 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service North Slope Federal Subsistence.... ACTION: Notice of meeting (teleconference). SUMMARY: This notice informs the public that the North Slope... Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council will meet to review the draft Tribal...

  20. 76 FR 58569 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Forestry Smoke Management Techniques f. Enforceability of North Dakota's Measures g. Anticipated Net Effect... our proposed partial disapproval of North Dakota's regional haze SIP. In lieu of this proposed FIP, or... meet the Act's requirements concerning non- interference with programs to protect visibility in...

  1. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  2. An Integrated Land Use - Land Cover Change Model for the Southern Africa Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desanker, P. V.

    2001-12-01

    A land use change model covering the Miombo region of Southern Africa region is presented. The model includes a structure that recognizes the scales at which land use change decisions are made in the region, namely the traditional authority for subsistence agricultural land use, and includes social-economic and biophysical constraints to land use at multiple levels. Land cover information for the 1990's based on maps derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data are used to initiative the model. The model, called MELT, can be used to examine impacts of land use change on carbon pools, emissions from land use change (slash and burn agriculture or as a result of soil carbon changes), and spatial patterning of land cover. MELT provides a suitable representation of the process of land use in this region, and will be essential in providing the correct context for observed fire and emissions across the region of the SAFARI 2000 initiative. MELT is implemented using an object-oriented approach, and allows easy linkage with impacts models.

  3. Las Alpujarras region (South East Spain) HLA genes study: evidence of a probable success of 17th century repopulation from North Spain.

    PubMed

    Longás, Javier; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Rey, Diego; Areces, Cristina; Casado, Eduardo Gómez; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Luna, Francisco; de Salamanca, Mercedes Enriquez; Moral, Pedro; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Conquest of Granada Muslim Kingdom (1492 AD) finished with Muslim occupation; they were mostly North African Berbers who had reached Iberia by 711 AD. A politics of Iberian Christianization followed after this date: Jewish were expelled in 1492 and Moriscos (Spaniards practicing Muslim religion or speaking Arab) were expelled from all Spanish territory on 1609 AD. Las Alpujarras is a southern Spain mountainous secluded region, which underwent a repopulation from North Spain and a specific Muslim (Moriscos)-Christian war took place according to historical records. Both Las Alpujarras repopulation by northern Iberians and Moriscos expulsion success have been debated and are regarded as non-clarified episodes. In this study, we have addressed the question whether the repopulation succeeded by determining HLA genes of present day Las Alpujarras inhabitants and compared with those of other Mediterranean populations HLA frequencies and genealogies. HLA frequencies show ambiguous results because of extant HLA similar gene frequencies there exist in North Africa and Spain. This is reflected by the finding of North and South western Mediterraneans close relatedness of HLA dendrograms and correspondence analyses. However, the genealogical study of extended HLA haplotypes particularly Alpujarran high frequency of HLA-A29-B44-DRB1*0701-DQA1*02-DQB1*02 (not found in Algerians but frequent in North and Central Spain) and Alpujarran low frequency extended haplotype HLA-A3-B7-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (frequent in North Europe) reveals that a significant HLA gene flow from North Spain is observed in present day Alpujarrans: both haplotypes are characteristic of North Spain and North Europe, respectively. This may indicate that enforced Alpujarran repopulation from North Spain may have been a success, which was started by Spanish King Philip II in 1571 AD.

  4. Las Alpujarras region (South East Spain) HLA genes study: evidence of a probable success of 17th century repopulation from North Spain.

    PubMed

    Longás, Javier; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Rey, Diego; Areces, Cristina; Casado, Eduardo Gómez; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Luna, Francisco; de Salamanca, Mercedes Enriquez; Moral, Pedro; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Conquest of Granada Muslim Kingdom (1492 AD) finished with Muslim occupation; they were mostly North African Berbers who had reached Iberia by 711 AD. A politics of Iberian Christianization followed after this date: Jewish were expelled in 1492 and Moriscos (Spaniards practicing Muslim religion or speaking Arab) were expelled from all Spanish territory on 1609 AD. Las Alpujarras is a southern Spain mountainous secluded region, which underwent a repopulation from North Spain and a specific Muslim (Moriscos)-Christian war took place according to historical records. Both Las Alpujarras repopulation by northern Iberians and Moriscos expulsion success have been debated and are regarded as non-clarified episodes. In this study, we have addressed the question whether the repopulation succeeded by determining HLA genes of present day Las Alpujarras inhabitants and compared with those of other Mediterranean populations HLA frequencies and genealogies. HLA frequencies show ambiguous results because of extant HLA similar gene frequencies there exist in North Africa and Spain. This is reflected by the finding of North and South western Mediterraneans close relatedness of HLA dendrograms and correspondence analyses. However, the genealogical study of extended HLA haplotypes particularly Alpujarran high frequency of HLA-A29-B44-DRB1*0701-DQA1*02-DQB1*02 (not found in Algerians but frequent in North and Central Spain) and Alpujarran low frequency extended haplotype HLA-A3-B7-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (frequent in North Europe) reveals that a significant HLA gene flow from North Spain is observed in present day Alpujarrans: both haplotypes are characteristic of North Spain and North Europe, respectively. This may indicate that enforced Alpujarran repopulation from North Spain may have been a success, which was started by Spanish King Philip II in 1571 AD. PMID:21633894

  5. Africa-U.S. Higher Education Collaboration Initiative: Empowering African Higher Education for Africa's Transformation. A Discussion Paper for the Africa Region Post-Summit Workshop. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how higher education can contribute to Africa's transformation, reviews the challenges and priorities for higher education institution building, and introduces a proposed partnership program among African and U.S. higher education institutions to strengthen African higher education. In July of 2007 the National Association of…

  6. Regional assessment of the hydropower potential of rivers in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Harald; Stanzel, Philipp; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The 15 countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) face a constant shortage of energy supply, which limits sustained economic growth. Currently there are about 50 operational hydropower plants and about 40 more are under construction or refurbishment. The potential for future hydropower development - especially for small-scale plants in rural areas - is assumed to be large, but exact data are missing. This study supports the energy initiatives of the "ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency" (ECREEE) by assessing the hydropower potential of all rivers in West Africa. For more than 500,000 river reaches the hydropower potential was computed from channel slope and mean annual discharge. In large areas there is a lack of discharge observations. Therefore, an annual water balance model was used to simulate discharge. The model domain covers 5 Mio km², including e.g. the Niger, Volta, and Senegal River basins. The model was calibrated with observed data of 410 gauges, using precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data as inputs. Historic variations of observed annual discharge between 1950 and 2010 are simulated well by the model. As hydropower plants are investments with a lifetime of several decades we also assessed possible changes in future discharge due to climate change. To this end the water balance model was driven with bias-corrected climate projections of 15 Regional Climate Models for two emission scenarios of the CORDEX-Africa ensemble. The simulation results for the river network were up-scaled to sub-areas and national summaries. This information gives a regional quantification of the hydropower potential, expected climate change impacts, as well as a regional classification for general suitability (or non-suitability) of hydropower plant size - from small-scale to large projects.

  7. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  8. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  9. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-10-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agropastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socioeconomic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's (FEWS NET) science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S-8° N, 36-46° E) for the March-April-May (MAM) growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food-insecure, climatically variable, and socioeconomically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world; this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To produce an "agricultural outlook", our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios describing the upcoming season. First, we forced the VIC model with high-quality atmospheric observations to produce baseline soil moisture (SM) estimates (here after referred as SM a posteriori estimates). These compared favorably (correlation = 0.75) with the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI), an index that the FEWS NET uses to estimate crop yields. Next, we evaluated the SM forecasts generated by this system on 5 March and 5 April of each year between 1993 and 2012 by comparing them with the corresponding SM a posteriori estimates. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (SOS) (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month and, in some cases, 3-month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with midseason (i.e., 5

  10. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  11. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  12. Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Fanti, Federico; Therrien, François; Lamanna, Matthew C.

    2011-05-01

    The Albian-Cenomanian Alcântara Formation of northeastern Brazil preserves the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna of this age yet known from northern South America. The Alcântara vertebrate assemblage, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs, displays close similarities to contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. The co-occurrence of as many as eight freshwater or estuarine fish taxa ( Onchopristis, Bartschichthys, Lepidotes, Stephanodus, Mawsonia, Arganodus, Ceratodus africanus, and possibly Ceratodus humei) and up to seven terrestrial archosaur taxa ( Sigilmassasaurus, Rebbachisauridae, Baryonychinae, Spinosaurinae, Carcharodontosauridae, possibly Pholidosauridae, and doubtfully Bahariasaurus) suggests that a land route connecting northeastern Brazil and North Africa existed at least until the Albian. Interestingly, most components of this mid-Cretaceous northern South American/North African assemblage are not shared with coeval southern South American faunas, which are themselves characterized by a number of distinct freshwater and terrestrial vertebrate taxa (e.g., chelid turtles, megaraptoran and unenlagiine theropods). These results suggest that, although mid-Cretaceous faunal interchange was probably possible between northern South America and North Africa, paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, and/or paleoenvironmental barriers may have hindered continental vertebrate dispersal between northern and southern South America during this time.

  13. Effects of Saharan Mineral Dust Aerosols on the Dynamics of an Idealized African Easterly Jet-African Easterly Wave System over North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Dustin Francis Phillip

    The central objective of this work is to examine the direct radiative effects of Saharan mineral dust aerosols on the dynamics of African easterly waves (AEWs) and the African easterly jet (AEJ). Achieving this objective is built around two tasks that use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to an online dust model (WRF-dust model). The first task (Chapter 2) examines the linear dynamics of AEWs; the second task (Chapter 3) examines the nonlinear evolution of AEWs and their interactions with the AEJ. In Chapter 2, the direct radiative effects of dust on the linear dynamics of AEWs are examined analytically and numerically. The analytical analysis combines the thermodynamic equation with a dust continuity equation to form an expression for the generation of eddy available potential energy (APE) by the dust field. The generation of eddy APE is a function of the transmissivity and spatial gradients of the dust, which are modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency. The expression predicts that for a fixed dust distribution, the wave response will be largest in regions where the dust gradients are maximized and the Doppler-shifted frequency vanishes. The numerical analysis calculates the linear dynamics of AEWs using zonally averaged basic states for wind, temperature and dust consistent with summertime conditions over North Africa. For the fastest growing AEW, the dust increases the growth rate from ~15% to 90% for aerosol optical depths ranging from tau=1.0 to tau=2.5. A local energetics analysis shows that for tau=1.0, the dust increases the maximum barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions by ~50% and ~100%, respectively. The maxima in the generation of APE and conversions of energy are co-located and occur where the meridional dust gradient is maximized near the critical layer, i.e., where the Doppler-shifted frequency is small, in agreement with the prediction from the analytical analysis. In Chapter 3, the direct radiative effects of dust

  14. Ground-based Instrumentations in Africa and its Scientific and Societal Benefits to the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2012-07-01

    Much of what we know about equatorial physics is based on Jicamarca Incoherent Scattering Radar (ISR) observations. However, Jicamarca is in the American sector where the geomagnetic equator dips with a fairly large excursion between the geomagnetic and geodetic equator. On the other hand, in the African sector the geomagnetic equator is fairly well aligned with the geodetic equator. Satellites (e.g. ROCSAT, DMSP, C/NOFS) observations have also indicated that the equatorial ionosphere in the African sector responds differently than other sectors. However, these satellite observations have not been confirmed, validated or studied in detail by observations from the ground due to lack of suitable ground-based instrumentation in the region. Thus, the question of what causes or drives these unique density irregularities in the region is still not yet fully understood, leading the investigation of the physics behind each effect into speculative dead ends. During the past couple of years very few (compared to the land-mass that Africa covers) small instruments, like GPS receivers, magnetometers, VHF, and VLF have been either deployed in the region or in process. However, to understand the most dynamic region in terms of ionospheric irregularities, those few instruments are far from enough. Recently, significant progress has been emerging in securing more ground-based instrument into the region, and thus three ionosondes are either deployed or in process. In this paper, results from AMBER magnetometer network, ionosonde, and GPS receivers will be presented. By combining the multi instrument independent observations, this paper will show a cause and effect of space weather impact in the region for the first time. While the magnetometer network, such as those operated under the umbrella of AMBER project, estimates the fundamental electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionospheric motion, the GPS receivers will track the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere. In addition

  15. Are HIV Epidemics among Men Who Have Sex with Men Emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: A Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina; Hilmi, Nahla; McFarland, Willi; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Semini, Iris; Riedner, Gabriele; Tawil, Oussama; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV infection than the general population. MSM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are a largely hidden population because of a prevailing stigma towards this type of sexual behavior, thereby limiting the ability to assess infection transmission patterns among them. It is widely perceived that data are virtually nonexistent on MSM and HIV in this region. The objective of this review was to delineate, for the first time, the evidence on the epidemiology of HIV among MSM in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review of all biological, behavioral, and other related data on HIV and MSM in MENA. Sources of data included PubMed (Medline), international organizations' reports and databases, country-level reports and databases including governmental and nongovernmental organization publications, and various other institutional documents. This review showed that onsiderable data are available on MSM and HIV in MENA. While HIV prevalence continues at low levels among different MSM groups, HIV epidemics appear to be emerging in at least few countries, with a prevalence reaching up to 28% among certain MSM groups. By 2008, the contribution of MSM transmission to the total HIV notified cases increased and exceeded 25% in several countries. The high levels of risk behavior (4–14 partners on average in the last six months among different MSM populations) and of biomarkers of risks (such as herpes simplex virus type 2 at 3%–54%), the overall low rate of consistent condom use (generally below 25%), the relative frequency of male sex work (20%–76%), and the substantial overlap with heterosexual risk behavior and injecting drug use suggest potential for further spread. Conclusions This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM in at least a few MENA countries and could already be in a concentrated state among several

  16. Regional fuel load for two climatically contrasting years in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HéLy, C.; Dowty, P. R.; Alleaume, S.; Caylor, K. K.; Korontzi, S.; Swap, R. J.; Shugart, H. H.; Justice, C. O.

    2003-07-01

    Available fuel loads for burning in savanna ecosystems in the southern African region have been estimated using a new Fuel load-Net Primary Production model based on ecophysiological processes such as respiration and Potential Evapotranspiration. The model outputs 15-day standing available fuel load layers for an entire year (a total of 24 layers). Published data from the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI-92) project and from the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) field campaigns were generally in agreement with the estimations. Consistently with previous studies, precipitation was recognized to be the major climatic driver for fuel production. As a consequence, even though there was a regional increase in precipitation in 1999-2000 as compared to the 1991-1992 periods, the temporal and spatial variability in precipitation at fine scales (site level) was important enough to restrict generalities over the entire region for fuel load production. Four areas of interest, Etosha National Park (Namibia), Mongu (Zambia), Kasama (Zambia), and Kruger National Park (South Africa), were selected to reconstruct an aridity gradient and analyze their fuel load variability over the two years. These areas presented contrasting fuel load distributions for the two very different studied periods with arid areas producing heavier fuel loads in 1999-2000, and the more humid areas producing heavier fuel loads in 1991-1992. The consequences of such fuel load variability and the use of such results are discussed.

  17. Interannual variability in rainy season characteristics over the Limpopo region of southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reason, C. J. C.; Hachigonta, S.; Phaladi, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    This study focuses on the interannual variability of dry spell frequencies, dry and wet spell characteristics and onset dates of the austral summer rainy season over the Limpopo region (22-25 °S, 27-32 °E) of northern South Africa. These characteristics of the rainy season are of considerable interest to farmers, water resource managers and other user groups. The Limpopo region supports a large rural population dependent on rain-fed agriculture as well as significant biodiversity, particularly in the Kruger National/Limpopo Transfrontier Park. It is also a region prone to devastating floods and droughts. Evidence is presented that summer dry spell frequency and onset date are related to ENSO via changes in regional circulation. Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies appear to show a robust relationship with dry spell frequency during the 1979-2002 period analysed. Anomalies in onset date of the rainy season during 1979-2002 appear to be inversely related to Niño 3.4 SST, with the relationship strengthening after 1986. These results suggest that there may be some predictability in these parameters, particularly in dry spell frequency during austral summer, based on existing skill in predicting tropical Pacific SST. Copyright

  18. A vectorial capacity product to monitor changing malaria transmission potential in epidemic regions of Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ceccato, Pietro; Vancutsem, Christelle; Klaver, Robert; Rowland, James; Connor, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are two of the major factors triggering malaria epidemics in warm semi-arid (desert-fringe) and high altitude (highland-fringe) epidemic risk areas. The ability of the mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium spp. is dependent upon a series of biological features generally referred to as vectorial capacity. In this study, the vectorial capacity model (VCAP) was expanded to include the influence of rainfall and temperature variables on malaria transmission potential. Data from two remote sensing products were used to monitor rainfall and temperature and were integrated into the VCAP model. The expanded model was tested in Eritrea and Madagascar to check the viability of the approach. The analysis of VCAP in relation to rainfall, temperature and malaria incidence data in these regions shows that the expanded VCAP correctly tracks the risk of malaria both in regions where rainfall is the limiting factor and in regions where temperature is the limiting factor. The VCAP maps are currently offered as an experimental resource for testing within Malaria Early Warning applications in epidemic prone regions of sub-Saharan Africa. User feedback is currently being collected in preparation for further evaluation and refinement of the VCAP model.

  19. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    inspection of the Agere Selam (Mekele) intertrappean beds revealed the occurrence of lacustrine limestones and diatomites, which were contrastingly quite subordinate with respect to the fine clastic sediments found in the nearby Amba Alaji area. Further south, the intertrappean section in the Jema valley (100 km north of Addis Ababa and close to the Blue Nile gorge) is 120 m thick with predominant clastic sediments and a few diatomites at the top. Literature information from 35 additional sites, including northern Kenya, Yemen, Sudan and Saudi Arabia sections, confirms the fluvial and lacustrine depositional environment of the intertrappean beds, underlines the interest in their mammal fauna (Chilga, Losodok), and reports exploitable coal seams for some of them. As for the vegetal landscape in which the intertrappean beds were deposited, pollen and plant analysis results indicative of a tropical wet forest, similar to that of present-day western Africa. Another common feature of the intertrappean beds is their relatively limited thickness, averaging a few tens of meters, but reaching a few hundred meters in graben-related basins, such as Delbi Moye in southern Ethiopia. In most cases only thin, lens-shaped successions were deposited above the hummocky topography of their volcanic substratum, commonly unaffected by significant faulting. An average duration of the intertrappean beds is from one to three million years. This time interval is commonly matched by a few tens (or more rarely, hundreds) of meters of sediments left over after erosive episodes or depositional starvation. As to the lateral continuity of the intertrappean beds, the present-day outcrops show large differences: from some tens of kilometers in the Mendefera area, to a few tens of kilometres in the Jema valley, and to a few hundreds meters in the Agere Selam (Mekele) area. Even if it is difficult to quantify the original size of the sedimentation areas, it nevertheless proves that the intertrappean basins

  20. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Pollock, Jacob F; Hicks, Alan C; Langwig, Kate E; Reynolds, D Scott; Turner, Gregory G; Butchkoski, Calvin M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats in eastern North America that causes mass mortality and precipitous population declines in winter hibernacula. First discovered in 2006 in New York State, WNS is spreading rapidly across eastern North America and currently affects seven species. Mortality associated with WNS is causing a regional population collapse and is predicted to lead to regional extinction of the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), previously one of the most common bat species in North America. Novel diseases can have serious impacts on naïve wildlife populations, which in turn can have substantial impacts on ecosystem integrity. PMID:20689016

  1. Relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in selected centres in North Africa, the middle east and India: a review of 971 cases.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data regarding the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in North Africa, the Middle East and India (NAF/ME/IN) is scarce in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in this region. Five expert haematopathologists classified 971 consecutive cases of newly-diagnosed NHL from five countries in NAF/ME/IN. After review, 890 cases (91·7%) were confirmed to be NHL and compared to 399 cases from North America (NA). The male-to-female ratio was significantly higher in NAF/ME/IN (1·8) compared to NA (1·1; P< 0·05). The median ages of patients with low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) B-NHL in NAF/ME/IN (56 and 52 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively). In NAF/ME/IN, a significantly lower proportion of LG B-NHL (28·4%) and a higher proportion of HG B-NHL (58·4%) were found compared to NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more common in NAF/ME/IN (49·4%) compared to NA (29·3%), whereas follicular lymphoma was less common in NAF/ME/IN (12·4%) than in NA (33·6%). In conclusion, we found significant differences in NHL subtypes and clinical features between NAF/ME/IN and NA. Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the pathobiology of these differences. PMID:26684877

  2. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, J. L.; Jeffries, D. S.; Lükewille, A.; Clair, T. A.; Dillon, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J. S.; Kellogg, J. H.; Kemp, A.; Mannio, J.; Monteith, D. T.; Murdoch, P. S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorf, A.; Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Stainton, M. P.; Traaen, T.; van Dam, H.; Webster, K. E.; Wieting, J.; Wilander, A.

    1999-10-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere (`acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain; all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  3. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  4. 'Together we are stronger ?!' - Competition and synergies between Plant Functional Types in a changing precipitation regime in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groner, Vivienne; Claussen, Martin; Reick, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the African Humid Period has been studied and debated by various working groups using a wide range of models and palaeo-proxy reconstruction approaches. There have been only few studies addressing the role of plant diversity in this context. We use a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to investigate the potential effect of plant diversity on the abruptness of a vegetation collapse in an changing precipitation regime in North Africa. Ecologists agree that high biodiversity can have a stabilizing effect on ecosystems, especially under changing environmental conditions. However, it remains an open question how well plant diversity is represented in dynamic models that are widely used for studies on past climate changes and the consequences for ecosystems, and which competition and synergy effects determine the retreat of vegetation in aridification scenarios. Could high plant diversity have strengthened the ecosystem, facilitated plant growth and prevented an abrupt vegetation collapse at the end of the African Humid Period? Or could strong competition in a diverse environment have increased ecosystem resilience resulting in an abrupt vegetation collapse instead of a smooth decline? We use the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model JSBACH to study the response of vegetation to a precipitation decline in North Africa. Diversity is represented by a set of Plant Functional Types (PFTs). To identify the effects emerging from different degrees of diversity, we perform simulations with different combinations of PFTs, prescribe atmospheric forcing and neglect feedbacks between land and atmosphere. First analyses show that vegetation retreats faster than the prescribed linear precipitation decline in all simulations. In comparison to single-PFT simulations, competition between PFTs limits in multi-PFT simulations the expansion and persistence of individual PFTs. The replacement of retreating PFTs by others that grow better

  5. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  6. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  7. Late Paleozoic Orogenies in western Africa and eastern North America: The diachronous closure of Theic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alain; Skehan, James W.

    1992-04-01

    The Carboniferous evolution in western Morocco, southeastern Canada, and New England was dominated by intracontinental processes: the subsidence of pull-apart sedimentary basins, and their subsequent deformation during middle Carboniferous to Early Permian times, with the development of autochthonous structures and mainly low- to medium-grade metamorphism. On the other hand, the structural style of the late Carboniferous deformation in the southern Appalachians, and to a substantial degree also in New England, that is related to a continental collision is characterized by deep-seated northwest-vergent thrusts and medium- to high-grade metamorphism. The Mauritanides structures are symmetrically east-vergent thrusts. This pattern is explained by the diachronous closure of the Theic ocean that separated the Avalon and Carolina microcontinental blocks from paleo-Gondwana. The closure of the Theic ocean occurred during Devonian times between the northern Appalachians and the northwestern edge of paleo-Gondwana (Morocco), whereas it was achieved only at the end of Carboniferous times between the southern Appalachians and western Africa (Mauritania-Senegal). The Late Devonian to early Carboniferous counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana induced the opening of the pull-apart basins of Canada, New England, and Morocco as well as, later, the oblique collision in the southern Appalachians and the generalized late Paleozoic dextral transcurrent faulting along the northern edge of paleo-Gondwana.

  8. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    PRISM Project Members

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  9. Social Research in North American Moisture-Deficient Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John W., Ed.

    Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely Populated Regions of…

  10. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  11. Development of a regional GPS-based ionospheric TEC model for South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opperman, Ben D. L.; Cilliers, Pierre J.; McKinnell, Lee-Anne; Haggard, Ray

    Advances in South African space physics research and related disciplines require better spatial and time resolution ionospheric information than was previously possible with the existing ionosonde network. A GPS-based, variable degree adjusted spherical harmonic (ASHA) model was developed for near real-time regional ionospheric total electron content (TEC) mapping over South Africa. Slant TEC values along oblique GPS signal paths are quantified from a network of GPS receivers and converted to vertical TEC by means of the single layer mapping function. The ASHA model coefficients and GPS differential biases are estimated from vertical TEC at the ionospheric pierce points and used to interpolate TEC at any location within the region of interest. Diurnal TEC variations with one minute time resolution and time-varying 2D regional TEC maps are constructed. In order to validate the ASHA method, simulations with an IRI ionosphere were performed, while the ASHA results from actual data were compared with two independent GPS-based methodologies and measured ionosonde data.

  12. Spatial and inter-seasonal behaviour of rainfall in the Soutpansberg region of South Africa as attributed to the changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kephe, Priscilla Ntuchu; Petja, Brilliant Mareme; Kabanda, Tibangayuka Abbas

    2016-10-01

    The inter-seasonal behaviour of rainfall in the Soutpansberg region of South Africa was assessed in relation to changing climate with an attempt to diagnose some of the contributing external factors. Seasonal rainfall data from 1970 to 2009 was characterised for the Soutpansberg using 23 rainfall stations distributed over the mountain range. The normality of rainfall data was quality-controlled using the Pearson correlation coefficient and a double mass curve. Composite rainfall and standardised anomaly index for the region were calculated in order to assess seasonal variability of rainfall. The results showed that the range experienced a decline in seasonal rainfall, from east to west. The North West (NW) part of the region experienced its lowest rainfall in 1985, with a standardised anomaly index (SAI) of -0.94, and its highest rainfall was experienced in 1978, with an SAI of 0.5. The North East (NE) recorded lowest rainfall in 1985 with an SAI of -1, and the highest rainfall was observed in the years ranging from 1977 to 1980 with an SAI of 1. The South East (SE) experienced lowest rainfall in 1985 with a value of -1.25 below the mean, and its highest rainfall (1.25) was experienced in 1976. The study showed that seasonal rainfall in the north-facing slope was lower than the rainfall in the south-facing slope. Trend line analysis indicated that the NW part of the Soutpansberg experienced the most substantial decrease in rainfall. The NW region was followed by the NE, SW, SE and the Central East (CE) respectively in terms of the decline in rainfall. Such behaviour and trends which varies across space and time is a cause for concern in the period of study. This period was characterised by increase in anthropogenic activities, as earlier studies prior to 1970 demonstrated a near stable pattern in terms of the cyclic activity of rainfall.

  13. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  14. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Regional Activities Division. Session on Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on regional activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America which were presented at the 1986 IFLA general conference include: (1) "Appropriate Technology for Libraries in Developing Countries" (Peter N. Chateh, Cameroon); (2) "The Impact of Information Technology on Libraries in Thailand--Present and Future Scene" (Nonglak…

  15. Interpretation of gravity data by the continuous wavelet transform: The case of the Chad lineament (North-Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Braitenberg, Carla; Yang, Yushan

    2013-03-01

    A slightly bended gravity high along the Chad lineament in Central North Africa is analyzed and interpreted by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) method. We use scale normalization on the continuous wavelet transform, allowing analysis of the gravity field in order to determine the sources at different depths. By focusing on homogenous standard sources, such as sphere or cube, horizontal cylinder or prism, sheet and infinite step, we derive the relationships between the source depth and pseudo-wavenumber. Then the source depth can be recovered from tracing the maximal values of the modulus of the complex wavelet coefficients in the CWT-based scalograms that are function of the pseudo-wavenumber. The studied area includes a central gravity high up to 75 km wide, and a secondary high that occurs at the southern part of the anomaly. The interpretation of the depth slices and vertical sections of the modulus maxima of the complex wavelet coefficients allows recognition of a relatively dense terrane located at middle crustal levels (10-25 km depth). A reasonable geological model derived from the 2.5D gravity forward modelling indicates the presence of high density bodies, probably linked to a buried suture, which were thrusted up into the mid-crust during the Neo-Proterozoic terrane collisions between the Saharan metacraton and the Arabian-Nubian shield. We conclude that the Chad line delineates a first order geological boundary, missing on the geologic maps.

  16. POPULATION FREQUENCIES OF THE TRIALLELIC 5HTTLPR IN SIX ETHNICIALLY DIVERSE SAMPLES FROM NORTH AMERICA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, AND AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew; Williams, Redford B.; Bishop, George D.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Thornberry, Terence P; Conger, Rand; Siegler, Ilene C.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Boardman, Jason D; Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Stallings, Michael C.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Genetic differences between populations are a potentially an important contributor to health disparities around the globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among Black and African populations as compared with White, Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a greater number of ‘extra-long’ (‘XL’) 5HTTLPR alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and Native American populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4. PMID:25564228

  17. Economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and CO₂ emissions in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-10-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal link between per capita real gross domestic product (GDP), combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, and CO2 emissions for a panel of five North African countries during the period 1971-2008. Granger causality test results suggest short- and long-run unidirectional causalities running from CO2 emissions and CRW consumption to real GDP and a short-run unidirectional causality running from CRW to CO2 emissions. The results from panel long-run fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) estimates show that CO2 emissions and CRW consumption have a positive and statistically significant impact on GDP. Our policy recommendations are that these countries should use more CRW because this increases their output, reduces their energy dependency on fossil energy, and may decrease their CO2 emissions.

  18. Holocene deposits in the Mangyshlak Peninsula, North Caspian Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrodnykh, Yu. P.; Deliya, S. V.; Romanyuk, B. F.; Fedorov, V. I.; Sorokin, V. M.; Luksha, V. L.

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the data of high-precision seismoacoustic profiling, drilling and sampling of deposits using seabed corers, biostratigraphic studies, and radiocarbon age data was performed for the first time for Mangyshlak sediments in several bottom sites of the North Caspian. It was found that the Mangyshlak sediments comprise numerous linearly stretched depressions of 5-10 m in depth (morphologically similar to modern substeppe ilmen areas in the Volga River delta), which are covered by the Novocaspian sedimentary cover, and river incisions (among them the largest Volga River valley). In addition, the Mangyshlak sediments comprise the deltaic alluvial fans of different sizes along the shelf zone of the North Caspian. Analysis of mollusks and biogenic remains indicates that accumulation of the Mangyshlak sediments occurred in freshwater and slightly salty water environments under various hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions. According to radiocarbon dating of organic matter, the Mangyshlak sediments formed during sea regression in the range of 10-8 ka (isotopic age) or 11.5-8.5 ka (calendar age). Several types of sediments are distinguished: clayey-carbonate sediments, enriched with organic matter up to the formation of sapropel and peat, accumulated at the lowest sea level; weakly calcareous silty-clayey silts, formed during the subsequent intense filling of paleodepressions with terrigenous material. The features of the mineral composition of sediments are as follows: polymineral composition of clayey material with a high proportion of hydromica and disordered mixed-layered formations, a high content of minerals of the epidote group, amphiboles, and other accessory minerals. All of this indicates a genetic relationship between the Mangyshlak sediments and the Volga terrigenous material.

  19. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes.

  20. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes. PMID

  1. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  2. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  3. MRO HiRISE Observations of Recent Phenomena in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Sutton, S.; HiRISE Science Team

    2016-09-01

    HiRISE and other MRO data show evidence for multiple types of ongoing activity in the north polar region, consistent with the apparent youth of the residual cap surface and highlighting the importance of continued monitoring of the polar regions.

  4. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  5. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  6. Digital database development and seismic characterization and calibration for the middle east and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Ground truth information was provided to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for experimental discrimination of mine-related explosions from earthquakes. Remotely sensed data, knowledge of regional, geology and tectonics, and other data sets were provided for two distinct projects at LLNL: (1) Detection of recent strip- mining activity using satellite remote sensing by Dr. William Pickles, and (2) Discrimination of mine- related explosions from earthquakes using regional wave form data by Dr. David Harris and Dr. William Walter. The primary contact person at Comell for this activity was Francisco Gomez, a graduate student whose studies focus on the regional geology and tectonics of Morocco. Two visits were made to LLNL by Francisco Gomez during Winter 1996 and Winter 1997, as well as one visit to Comell by Dave Harris during the Summer of 1997.

  7. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  8. Lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meel, B L

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It kills more people than other natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes, but, because lightning usually kills people one at a time, it tends to be an underrated hazard. High risk groups are uneducated, unsheltered and rural people. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region. It is a review of records between 1993 and 2004 from the medico-legal autopsies at Umtata General Hospital (UGH). During the study period there were 10,860 autopsies performed on those who died of trauma and other unnatural circumstances which included 151 (1.4%) lightning fatalities. This represents 0.31 deaths per million per year. The highest (0.5/million) was in 1999, and the lowest (0.13/million) in 1997. The age of the victims ranged from 1 to 82 years, with a mean of 22 years. Males and females were almost equally represented (50%). The highest number of deaths (26.5%) was in the age group of 11 to 20 years, and the lowest number (2.7%) in the age group of 70+ years. There is a high incidence of lightning fatalities in the Transkei sub-region of South Africa. People need to be educated to disregard the myths of lightning strike.

  9. Regional-scale climate-variability synchrony of cholera epidemics in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Guégan, Jean-François; Petit, Michel; Cazelles, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background The relationship between cholera and climate was explored in Africa, the continent with the most reported cases, by analyzing monthly 20-year cholera time series for five coastal adjoining West African countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Methods We used wavelet analyses and derived methods because these are useful mathematical tools to provide information on the evolution of the periodic component over time and allow quantification of non-stationary associations between time series. Results The temporal variability of cholera incidence exhibits an interannual component, and a significant synchrony in cholera epidemics is highlighted at the end of the 1980's. This observed synchrony across countries, even if transient through time, is also coherent with both the local variability of rainfall and the global climate variability quantified by the Indian Oscillation Index. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that large and regional scale climate variability influence both the temporal dynamics and the spatial synchrony of cholera epidemics in human populations in the Gulf of Guinea, as has been described for two other tropical regions of the world, western South America and Bangladesh. PMID:17371602

  10. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features - two case studies: southern Africa and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, Monika; Mandea, Mioara

    2016-05-01

    Maps of magnetic and gravity field anomalies provide information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, helpful in understanding geological conditions and tectonic structures. Depending on data availability, whether from the ground, airborne, or from satellites, potential field anomaly maps contain information on different ranges of spatial wavelengths, roughly corresponding to sources at different depths. Focussing on magnetic data, we compare amplitudes and characteristics of anomalies from maps based on various available data and as measured at geomagnetic repeat stations. Two cases are investigated: southern Africa, characterized by geologically old cratons and strong magnetic anomalies, and the smaller region of Germany with much younger crust and weaker anomalies. Estimating lithospheric magnetic anomaly values from the ground stations' time series (repeat station crustal biases) reveals magnetospheric field contributions causing time-varying offsets of several nT in the results. Similar influences might be one source of discrepancy when merging anomaly maps from different epochs. Moreover, we take advantage of recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of ˜ 200 km resolution. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Comparing short- and long-wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large-scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement in the southern African region than the German region. This probably indicates stronger concordance between near-surface (down to at most a few km) and deeper (several kilometres down to Curie depth) structures in the former area, which can be seen to agree with a thicker lithosphere and a lower heat flux reported in the literature for the southern

  11. Regional Climate Change Impact on Agricultural Land Use in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, K. F.; Wang, G.; You, L.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture is a key element of the human-induced land use land cover change (LULCC) that is influenced by climate and can potentially influence regional climate. Temperature and precipitation directly impact the crop yield (by controlling photosynthesis, respiration and other physiological processes) that then affects agricultural land use pattern. In feedback, the resulting changes in land use and land cover play an important role to determine the direction and magnitude of global, regional and local climate change by altering Earth's radiative equilibrium. The assessment of future agricultural land use is, therefore, of great importance in climate change study. In this study, we develop a prototype land use projection model and, using this model, project the changes to land use pattern and future land cover map accounting for climate-induced yield changes for major crops in West Africa. Among the inputs to the land use projection model are crop yield changes simulated by the crop model DSSAT, driven with the climate forcing data from the regional climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5, which features a projected decrease of future mean crop yield and increase of inter-annual variability. Another input to the land use projection model is the projected changes of food demand in the future. In a so-called "dumb-farmer scenario" without any adaptation, the combined effect of decrease in crop yield and increase in food demand will lead to a significant increase in agricultural land use in future years accompanied by a decrease in forest and grass area. Human adaptation through land use optimization in an effort to minimize agricultural expansion is found to have little impact on the overall areas of agricultural land use. While the choice of the General Circulation Model (GCM) to derive initial and boundary conditions for the regional climate model can be a source of uncertainty in projecting the future LULCC, results from sensitivity experiments indicate that the changes

  12. Impact of land cover characterization on regional climate modeling over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Pal, Jeremy S.; Wang, Guiling L.; Lawrence, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of high resolution modern vegetation cover on the West African climate is examined using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model implementing the NCAR Community Land Model. Two high resolution 25 km long-term simulations driven by the output from a coarser 50-km resolution simulation are performed for the period 1998-2010. One high resolution simulation uses an earlier and coarser-resolution version of plant functional type distribution and leaf area index, while the other uses a more recent, higher-quality, and finer-resolution version of the data. The results indicate that the new land cover distribution substantially alters the distribution of temperature with warming in Central Nigeria, northern Gulf of Guinea and part of the Sahel due to the replacement of C4 grass with corn; and cooling along the coastlines of the Gulf of Guinea and in Central Africa due to the replacement of C4 grass with tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. Changes in latent heat flux appear to be largely responsible for these temperature changes with a net decrease (increase) in regions of warming (cooling). The improved land cover distribution also results in a wetter monsoon season. The presence of corn tends to favor larger precipitation amounts via more intense events, while the presence of tropical broadleaf evergreen trees tends to favor the occurrence of both more intense and more frequent events. The wetter conditions appear to be sustained via (1) an enhanced soil moisture feedback; and (2) elevated moisture transport due to increased low-level convergence in regions south of 10N where the most substantial land cover differences are present. Overall the changes induced by the improved vegetation cover improve, to some extent, the performance of the high resolution regional climate model in simulating the main West African summer monsoon features.

  13. Two centuries of coherent decadal climate variability across the Pacific North American region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.; Villaescusa, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The decadal variability of the Pacific Ocean and North American hydroclimate are subjects of immediate concern for society, yet the length of the instrumental record limits full mechanistic understanding of this variability. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved coral oxygen isotopic record from Clarion Island (18°N, 115°W), a sampling a subtropical region that is strongly influenced by the decadal-scale fluctuations of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and a region that serves as a critical locus for the communication of climate anomalies with the tropics. This Mexican Pacific coral record is highly correlated to coral records from the central tropical Pacific and tree ring records from western North America. Significant changes in the amplitude of oceanic decadal variability in the early nineteenth century are mirrored in the drought reconstructions in western North America. The spatial manifestation of this relationship was relatively invariant, despite notable changes in the climatic mean state.

  14. Capacity Building for Disaster Management in Vulnerable Regions of Africa: Implementing an Operational Flood Warming System in Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Li, L.; Adler, R.; Policelli, F.

    2008-12-01

    NASA Applied Science program has partnered with USAID and The Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Africa to implement an operational flood warning system for East Africa, SERVIR-Africa project. The project seeks to take advantage of remote sensing information as an alternative and supplemental to ground-based observation in order to preserve the spatial extent of flood hazards. The recently available and virtually uninterrupted supply of satellite-based rainfall estimates is increasingly becoming a cost-effective data source for flood prediction in many under-gauged regions around the world. Our initial focus aims to provide an operational flood warning system for Lake Victoria, a flood-prone region home to 30 million people. The key datasets enabling the development of a distributed hydrological model in Africa include TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) mission, HydroSHEDS hydrological products, MODIS Land cover, and soil parameters provided by FAO. This research focuses on evaluation and integration the TMPA Real- Time product into an online operational flood prediction system. We will also identify the optimal calibration strategy for satellite rainfall data into real-time hydrological modeling, one current knowledge gap that has remained relatively unexplored. Early results demonstrate this flood modeling system is useful decision- support tool for governmental officials and international aid organizations to better quantify flood impacts and extent of hazard risk, as well as more expediently respond to flood emergencies.

  15. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  16. 76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...) Investment: exploring practical solutions through changes in domestic law, policies, or practices that could... economic ties to, a part of the world undergoing profound change, the President on May 19 called for the... more open business climate in the MENA region will consist of a series of building blocks, in which...

  17. Postglacial eruptive history of the Askja region, North Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; de Joux, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Temporal variations in magma discharge rates on Iceland's neovolcanic rift zones have been associated with deglaciation. We have used tephrochronological and stratigraphic dating of 175 separate eruptive units to estimate volumetric output and reconstruct eruption rates in the Askja region over the postglacial period. We have identified 14 tephra layers that can be used as time marker horizons in the near vicinity of Askja, including the Vatnaöldur (871 ± 2 AD) tephra which has not previously been reported in surface cover profiles in this region. Our improved tephrochronological resolution indicates that, over the past c. 1,500 years, Askja has been significantly more active than has previously been recognised. A minimum of 39 km3 of basaltic magma has been erupted at Askja since the area became ice-free at around 10.3 ka. The absence of the 7.2 ka Hekla 5 tephra from the Askja region suggests that all postglacial lavas now exposed at the surface are younger than 7.2 ka. Time-averaged magma discharge rates at Askja were highest between 7.2 and 4.3 ka. However, the available tephrochronological resolution is not sufficient to resolve any peak in volcanic activity following deglaciation.

  18. Seismic discrimination between earthquakes and explosions in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Harris, D.B.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-07-01

    The recently signed Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty provides for an international network of primary and auxiliary seismic monitoring stations (IMS) to verify its compliance. Calibration is required to confidently use these stations to identify and discriminate between earthquakes, mine-related events and clandestine nuclear explosions, particularly for small to moderate seismic events recorded regionally at only a few stations. Given the lack of regional recordings of underground nuclear tests in most of the world, we are making use of mining and industrial explosions to test discriminants. For example we use the Multimax compiled dataset of small earthquakes and quarry explosions in Israel to test regional discriminants at local distances with mixed results. Further complicating calibration is the fact that many INK sites have not yet been installed and others have very short operating histories. When IMS data is available, there is often a lack of independent information (ground truth ) on the seismic sources. Here we describe a procedure for calibrating stations with limited data and apply it to the IMS auxiliary station MDT in Morocco. Data was initially available for three months in 1990 when MDT was operated as part of MEDNET. An event detector was run over the continuous data and regional events identified and roughly located using S-P time and back azimuth. The procedure uses spatial and temporal clustering to identify ''known'' mine blasts. The spatial clustering is done using the waveform correlation technique of Harris (1991) to find events with similar sources and locations. Temporal clustering looks at the time of day and repetition in time of events with the mine blasts occurring during working hours and days repeatedly over a period of time. A set of ''known'' earthquakes is also determined using location, time of day, distribution in time and size criteria. With these independent libraries of identified seismic events, we evaluate promising regional

  19. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally.

  20. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080–2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  1. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Adam M; Latimer, Andrew M; Silander, John A

    2015-07-21

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080-2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  2. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  3. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and

  4. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to < 1 per thousand. These changes reflect the increasing use of synthetic fertilizers (delta15N approximately 0 per thousand) from the 1960s to the present. Sediments from Ghar El Melh show a similar trend, with %N more than tripling, %OM increasing by 50%, and delta15N declining from 6 per thousand to 2 per thousand since 1965. These changes are consistent with the increasing use of water from a nearby river for crop irrigation and agricultural fertilizer use. Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and

  5. The Arab Bed Spring? Sexual rights in troubled times across the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    El Feki, Shereen

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, attitudes in many parts of the Arab region have hardened towards non-conforming sexualities and gender roles, a shift fuelled in part by a rise in Islamic conservatism and exploited by authoritarian regimes. While political cultures have proved slow to change in the wake of the 'Arab Spring', a growing freedom of expression, and increasing activity by civil society, is opening space for discreet challenges to sexual taboos in a number of countries, part of wider debates over human rights and personal liberties in the emerging political and social order. PMID:26718995

  6. The Arab Bed Spring? Sexual rights in troubled times across the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    El Feki, Shereen

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, attitudes in many parts of the Arab region have hardened towards non-conforming sexualities and gender roles, a shift fuelled in part by a rise in Islamic conservatism and exploited by authoritarian regimes. While political cultures have proved slow to change in the wake of the 'Arab Spring', a growing freedom of expression, and increasing activity by civil society, is opening space for discreet challenges to sexual taboos in a number of countries, part of wider debates over human rights and personal liberties in the emerging political and social order.

  7. Constraints on lithospheric structure from satellite potential field data: Africa and Asia. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over North Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by the inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from the external and core fields. The quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within the proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of the MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, the north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibestia and Darfur have been modeled as magnetic induction anomalies due solely to shallower depth to the Curie isotherm surface beneath these features. The MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting the external and core fields to isolate the scalar and vertical component crustal signals. The predicted model magnetic signal arising from the surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isotherm surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by the Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. In summary it is suggested that the region beneath Ahaggar is associated with a strong thermal anomaly and the predicted anomaly best fits the associated MAGSAT anomaly if the African plate is moving in a northeasterly direction.

  8. Informing Comprehensive HIV Prevention: A Situational Analysis of the HIV Prevention and Care Context, North West Province South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lippman, Sheri A.; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Gilvydis, Jennifer M.; Naidoo, Evasen; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Darbes, Lynae; Raphela, Elsie; Ntswane, Lebogang; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Objective Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community’s local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. Method The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO’s Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. Results We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Conclusions Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four ‘themes’ identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills

  9. The dairy chains in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia): from self sufficiency options to food dependency?

    PubMed

    Sraïri, Mohamed Taher; Benyoucef, Mohammed Tahar; Kraiem, Khemais

    2013-12-01

    The Maghreb countries (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) have experienced since the early 1950s a rapid demographic growth coupled to a significant rhythm of urbanization. This has led to a marked increase in the demand of dairy products. In order to secure the supply, specific policies have been implemented. They mainly consisted in the establishment of a dairy industry, based on the processing of either raw milk produced locally (in Morocco and Tunisia) or imported milk powder (in Algeria). These divergent options have had significant consequences on the whole organization of the dairy chains in these countries, from cattle rearing practices, to milk collection and processing. They have also implied differences in milk and its derivatives' prices and levels of consumption. The paper draws a comparative analysis of milk chains within the three countries: a supply mainly based on imports in Algeria, whereas in Morocco and Tunisia, the demand is satisfied by a chain relying on locally produced cattle milk. The paper also emphasizes on the future challenges that will have to be addressed: a rising volatility of milk and other strategic inputs' prices (feed, machinery, cattle, etc.) in global markets, an improvement in consumers' awareness about milk quality, a further pressure on natural resources (mainly soils and water) to get more raw milk, in countries already suffering an acute water stress. The article also establishes recommendations about specific issues related to the development of the dairy chains in the context of North Africa. These are mainly linked to the fragmented offer induced by numerous smallholder farms, which implies obvious difficulties to assess the hygienic and the chemical quality of milk batches delivered daily. Moreover, this fragmented offer also means that specific support programs will have to be designed, as the vast majority of farms are not dairy specialized, expecting both milk and calf crop from their herds.

  10. Interactive effects of grazing, drought, and fire on grassland plant communities in North America and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Sally E; Collins, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Grazing, fire, and climate shape mesic grassland communities. With global change altering all three factors, understanding how grasslands respond to changes in these combined drivers may aid in projecting future changes in grassland ecosystems. We manipulated rainfall and simulated grazing (clipping) in two long-term fire experiments in mesic grasslands in North America (NA) and South Africa (SA). Despite their common drivers, grasslands in NA and SA differ in evolutionary history. Therefore, we expected community structure and production in NA and SA to respond differently to fire, grazing, and drought. Specifically, we hypothesized that NA plant community composition and production would be more responsive than the SA plant communities to changes in the drivers and their interactions, and that despite this expected stability of SA grasslands, drought would be the dominant factor controlling production, but grazing would play the primary role in determining community composition at both sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, NA and SA grasslands generally responded similarly to grazing, drought, and fire. Grazing increased diversity, decreased grass cover and production, and decreased belowground biomass at both sites. Drought alone minimally impacted plant community structure, and we saw similar treatment interactions at the two sites. Drought was not the primary driver of grassland productivity, but instead drought effects were similar to or less than grazing and fire. Even though these grasslands differed in evolutionary history, they responded similarly to our fire, grazing, and climate manipulations. Overall, we found community and ecosystem convergence in NA and SA grasslands. Grazing and fire are as important as climate in controlling mesic grassland ecosystems on both continents.

  11. Pattern of uveitis in Behçet's disease in a referral center in Tunisia, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, Moncef; Attia, Sonia; Yahia, Salim Ben; Jenzeri, Salah; Ghrissi, Rim; Jelliti, Bechir; Zaouali, Sonia; Messaoud, Riadh

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of uveitis in Behçet's disease in Tunisia, North Africa. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients (111 eyes) diagnosed with Behçet's uveitis (BU) at the Department of Ophthalmology, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, Monastir, Tunisia, between January 1995 and December 2006. Forty-seven of 62 patients (75.8%) were men and 15 (24.2%) were women. Mean age at onset was 29.3 years. The average follow-up was 75.6 months. The most common extraocular clinical manifestations were recurrent oral ulcer in all patients and pseudofolliculitis in 52 patients (83.9%). Uveitis was bilateral in 79%. Initial best-corrected visual acuity was > or =20/40 in 41 affected eyes (36.9%) and <20/200 in 49 affected eyes (44.2%). Panuveitis (68 eyes, 61.3%) and posterior uveitis (38 eyes, 34.2%) were the most common forms, followed by anterior uveitis (five eyes, 4.5%). Retinal vasculitis was found in 89 eyes (80.2%). Most common complications included posterior synechiae (32.4%), cataract (31.5%), and cystoid macular edema (19.8%). Systemic corticosteroids were administered in 58 patients (93.5%). Immunosuppressive drugs were used in 22 patients (35.5%). Fifty-six affected eyes (50.5%) had final visual acuity > or =20/40 and 34 affected eyes (30.6%) had final visual acuity <20/200. In Tunisia, BU affects predominantly young men. Bilateral panuveitis associated with retinal vasculitis was the most common ocular manifestation. More than 50% of patients maintained a visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and immunosuppressive therapy probably contributed to the improvement of visual prognosis of these patients.

  12. MtDNA profile of West Africa Guineans: towards a better understanding of the Senegambia region.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alexandra; Brehm, António; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Ene; Villems, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The matrilineal genetic composition of 372 samples from the Republic of Guiné-Bissau (West African coast) was studied using RFLPs and partial sequencing of the mtDNA control and coding region. The majority of the mtDNA lineages of Guineans (94%) belong to West African specific sub-clusters of L0-L3 haplogroups. A new L3 sub-cluster (L3h) that is found in both eastern and western Africa is present at moderately low frequencies in Guinean populations. A non-random distribution of haplogroups U5 in the Fula group, the U6 among the "Brame" linguistic family and M1 in the Balanta-Djola group, suggests a correlation between the genetic and linguistic affiliation of Guinean populations. The presence of M1 in Balanta populations supports the earlier suggestion of their Sudanese origin. Haplogroups U5 and U6, on the other hand, were found to be restricted to populations that are thought to represent the descendants of a southern expansion of Berbers. Particular haplotypes, found almost exclusively in East-African populations, were found in some ethnic groups with an oral tradition claiming Sudanese origin. PMID:15225159

  13. IASI-derived Surface Temperature Under Dusty Conditions: Application to the West Africa Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechri, Rihab; Capelle, Virginie; Chedin, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Giving access to energy and water budgets, Surface Temperature (ST) is considered as a key variable for a wide range of applications in particular for meteorology and climatology. An accurate knowledge of this variable should significantly improve the monitoring of numerous atmospheric and surface processes as well as their interactions. Even-though satellite sensors bring ST global fields at different spatial and temporal scales, the accuracy of these products is still questionable especially over land or for complex atmospheric conditions (presence of clouds, of aerosols, etc.). At LMD, the ST is determined through the simultaneous "Look-up-Table" inversion of satellite METOP/IASI radiances in terms of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), dust layer mean altitude and surface temperature . The main aim of this work is to validate IASI ST product and to analyze its spatial and temporal variability, in particular in the presence of dust aerosols. This approach has been first applied to the West Africa region. The accuracy of this ST product will be assessed in terms of bias and standard deviation against ST products from ECMWF forecast, from other satellite products (MODIS AQUA/TERRA, AATSR,…) and from in-situ measurements for different periods ranging from July 2007 to today according to the availability of these validation data.

  14. Late Permian Melt Percolation through the Crust of North-Central Africa and Its Possible Relationship to the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T. Y.; Yang, C. C.; Wu, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Lo, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Doba gabbro was collected from an exploration well through the Cretaceous Doba Basin of Southern Chad. The gabbro is comprised mostly of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxide minerals and displays cumulus mineral textures. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar step-heating geochronology yielded a Late Permian plateau age of 257 ± 1 Ma. The major and trace elemental geochemistry shows that the gabbro is mildly alkalic to tholeiitic in composition and has trace element ratios (i.e. La/YbN > 7; Sm/YbPM > 3.4; Nb/Y > 1; Zr/Y > 5) indicative of a basaltic melt derived from a garnet-bearing sublithospheric mantle source. The moderately enriched Sr-Nd isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.70495 to 0.70839; eNd(T) = -1.0 to -1.3) fall within the mantle array (i.e. OIB-like) and are similar to other Late Permian plutonic rocks of North-Central Africa (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7070). The Late Permian plutonic igneous complexes of North-Central Africa are geologically associated with tectonic lineaments suggesting they acted as conduits for sublithospheric melts to migrate to middle/upper crustal levels. The source of the magmas may be related to the spatial-temporal association of North-Central Africa with the African large low shear velocity province (LLSVP). The African LLSVP has remained stable since the Late Carboniferous and was beneath the Doba basin during the Permian. We suggest that melts derived from deep seated sources related to the African LLSVP percolated through the North-Central African crust via older tectonic lineaments and form a discontiguous magmatic province.

  15. Climate Change in Africa: Impacts and Effects on the Inhabitants of the Lake Chad Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.; Tahir, S. M.; Olisa, O.

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Energy and Climate Change defined climate as the average weather experienced over a long period. This includes temperature, wind and rainfall patterns. The climate of the Earth is not static, and has changed many times in response to a variety of natural causes. Due to human activities in emmiting green house gases has resulted the Earth to get warmed by 0.74°C over the last hundred years. Around 0.4°C of this warming has occurred since the 1970s. Climate is now one of the major phenomenon threatening lives and humanity in general since the beginning of industrial revolution. Climate exerts a profound influence on the lives of poor populations in the Lake Chad region of Africa who depend on fishing and crop cultivation for livelihood and sustenance, who are unprotected against climate-related diseases, who lacked secure access to water and food and who are vulnerable to hydro meteorological hazard. The effects of climate change on the study area are many and include diminishing resources and conflicts over the available limited water resources. The Lake Chad region is a fragile area with high climate variability and extremes of weather. As this inland water is used for domestic and agricultural purposes, salt mining, as well as transportation by Nigerians, Nigeriens, Chadian and Cameroonians, it is an area of trans-boundary water conflicts. This paper examines the part played by climate change in the decline of fishery resources and livelihood activities in the Lake Chad region. Data from field studies, structured interview and secondary sources show that fish catches and livelihood activities have declined tremendously in recent times due to several factors including overexploitation and increasing demands on the aquatic resources. Findings from the study show that droughty periods have resulted in the reduction of open lake water surface from about 25,000 km2 in 1973 to less than 2,000 km2 in the 1990s. This has led to the diminishing aquatic

  16. Spatial distribution of precipitation annual cycles over South Africa in 10 CORDEX regional climate model present-day simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Alice; Philippon, Nathalie; Pohl, Benjamin; Kalognomou, Evangelia-Anna; Lennard, Christopher; Hewitson, Bruce; Nikulin, Grigori; Dosio, Alessandro; Panitz, Hans-Juergen; Cerezo-Mota, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the ability of 10 regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment-Africa to reproduce the present-day spatial distribution of annual cycles of precipitation over the South African region and its borders. As found in previous studies, annual mean precipitation is quasi-systematically overestimated by the RCMs over a large part of southern Africa south of about 20°S and more strongly over South Africa. The spatial analysis of precipitation over the studied region shows that in most models the distribution of biases appears to be linked to orography. Wet biases are quasi-systematic in regions with higher elevation with inversely neutral to dry biases particularly in the coastal fringes. This spatial pattern of biases is particularly obvious during summer and specifically at the beginning of the rainy season (November and December) when the wet biases are found to be the strongest across all models. Applying a k-means algorithm, a classification of annual cycles is performed using observed precipitation data, and is compared with those derived from modeled data. It is found that the in-homogeneity of the spatial and temporal distribution of biases tends to impact the modeled seasonality of precipitation. Generally, the pattern of rainfall seasonality in the ensemble mean of the 10 RCMs tends to be shifted to the southwest. This spatial shift is mainly linked to a strong overestimation of convective precipitation at the beginning of the rainy season over the plateau inducing an early annual peak and to an underestimation of stratiform rainfall in winter and spring over southwestern South Africa.

  17. Quaternary North Atlantic Surface Paleoceanography in Regions of Potential Deep-water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    At the time scale of the Quaternary climate cycles, the sites of formation of North Atlantic Deep Water are not known. The interglacial extreme is presumably exemplified by the modern regions; the Norwegian, Greenland and Labrador Seas. During the major glacial-age coolings in the North Atlantic, the sites may have shifted well to the south, perhaps as far as the limit of the polar front at 40 to 50 N. Still other sites may have been important during intermediate climatic conditions. Because of the close coupling of high-latitude surface waters to North Atlantic Deep Water in the modern ocean, the history of sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillations across the high-latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an understanding of deep-water formation on the longer time scales.

  18. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  19. Regional aridity in North America during the middle Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Anderson, R.Y.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Increased aridity throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain region during the middle Holocene has been documented from pollen records, aeolian proxy variables in lake cores, and active sand dune migration. Varve calibration provided by a continuously varved record of the Holocene from a core from Elk Lake, northwestern Minnesota, shows that the influx of aeolian elastic material increased beginning about 8 ka and ended about 3.8 ka, with peak aeolian activity at about 6 ka. If aeolian influx to Elk Lake corresponds in time to aeolian influx in other lakes and to maximum dune activity in Minnesota dune fields, then the varve calibration in Elk Lake provides precise time calibration of periods of peak aeolian activity in Minnesota. Palaeowind studies from the Minnesota dune fields show that the dominant wind direction when the dunes were active was from the northwest, the same as the dominant wind direction in dune fields throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. If the mid-Holocene aeolian activity in Minnesota was driven by an increase in westerly zonal winds, then the varve calibration can be extended to more precisely determine the timing of activity of dunes over a much broader area. We suggest that an increase in the westerly zonal wind field might have a solar-geomagnetic cause.

  20. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  1. Molecular assessment of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north Africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Maia, João P; Alvares, Francisco; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Brito, José C; Leite, João V; Harris, D James

    2014-10-01

    Parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. Hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. However, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as trophic transmission. Using the 18S rRNA gene as a marker, we provide an assessment of Hepatozoon prevalence in six wild canid and two rodent species collected between 2003 and 2012 from remote areas in North Africa. By combining this with other predator-prey systems in a phylogenetic framework, we investigate Hepatozoon transmission dynamics in distinct host taxa. Prevalence was high overall among host species (African jerboa Jaculus jaculus [17/47, 36%], greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis [5/7, 71%], side-striped jackal Canis adustus [1/2, 50%], golden jackal Canis aureus [6/32, 18%], pale fox Vulpes pallida [14/28, 50%], Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppellii [6/11, 55%], red fox Vulpes vulpes [8/16, 50%], and fennec fox Vulpes zerda [7/11, 42%]). Phylogenetic analysis showed further evidence of occasional transmission of Hepatozoon lineages from prey to canid predators, which seems to occur less frequently than in other predator-prey systems such as between snakes and lizards. Due to the complex nature of the Hepatozoon lifecycle (heteroxenous and vector-borne), future studies on these wild host species need to clarify the dynamics of alternative modes of Hepatozoon transmission and identify reservoir and definitive hosts in natural populations. We also detected putative Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) infections in two canid species from this region, V. pallida (1/28) and V. zerda (1/11). PMID:25050803

  2. Tracking regional and global teleconnections recorded by western North American speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Kelley, Neil P.

    2016-10-01

    Speleothem proxy records are useful for interrogating past climates in the low and mid-latitudes given their ability to provide continuous, high-resolution, and long-lived records that can be dated with high precision. Several speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America have recently been developed that highlight the importance of this archive in documenting past changes in atmospheric circulation. Taken individually, these records hint at teleconnections between western North American hydroclimate and climate changes in the high northern latitudes and tropics. However, there has been no systematic investigation of global climate teleconnections to this region that draws upon the body of North American speleothem records as a whole. Here we review the dominant controls on precipitation oxygen isotopes across the region, and conduct statistical comparisons and network visualizations of high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America to investigate the regional response to pronounced climate changes of the last deglaciation and to determine the pattern of global teleconnections to this region. We find that most western North American speleothem oxygen isotope records demonstrate a robust and consistent response to the events of the last deglaciation, despite differing controls on the oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation across the region. One record that receives a strong influence from the Gulf of Mexico exhibits a contrasting pattern in oxygen isotopes relative to most of the other records, which are dominated by westerly storms generated in the Pacific. During the studied interval, major shifts in Western North American speleothem records appear broadly synchronous at least within the uncertainty of age models. We also find strong statistical linkages between western North American speleothem records and speleothem records of Asian monsoon variability and other records from regions directly influenced by movement of

  3. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  4. Africa as a regional and global source of atmospheric gases and particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtetwa, Lawrence

    The role of the continent of Africa as a source of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere is investigated in this study. Sources of gases and particulates from Africa include fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide. This study represents the first comprehensive database of gaseous and particulate emissions developed for the continent of Africa on a country by country basis and establishes the framework for country-by-country, assessment of greenhouse gases emissions as required by the Kyoto Conference on Global Warming, which was attended by representatives from more than 100 countries. Calculations of gases and particulates resulting from fossil fuel combustion were based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. Calculations of gases and particulates resulting from biomass burning were based on fire counts obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Block 5 satellites and emission ratios for various gaseous and particulate fire products obtained during the recent Southern African Fire- Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI), an activity of the international Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, part of the international Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP). The calculations of biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide were obtained with the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Biogenic Soil NOx Model. Africa was found to be a significant global source of the following gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and carbon particulates. The results indicate that Africa is the world's single largest continental source of emissions due to biomass burning and that these emissions are likely to increase with time. The study established that on a global scale, Africa was the largest source of soil biogenic NOx. The importance of Africa as a key global source of trace gases and aerosols has

  5. Interannual Comparison of Water Vapor in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to better understand the current climate of Mars, we seek to understand atmospheric water in the north polar region. Our approach is to examine the water transport and cycling issues within the north polar region and in/out of the region on seasonal and annual timescales. Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD) data showed that water vapor increased as the northern summer season progressed and temperatures increased, and that vapor appeared to be transported southward . However, there has been uncertainty about the amount of water cycling in and out of the north polar region, as evidenced by residual polar cap visible brightness changes between one Martian year (Mariner 9 data) and a subsequent year (Viking data). These changes were originally thought to be interannual variations in the amount of frost sublimed based on global dust storm activity . However, Viking thermal and imaging data were re-examined and it was found that 14-35 pr m of water -ice appeared to be deposited on the cap later in the summer season, indicating that some water may be retained and redistributed within the polar cap region. This late summer deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or due to snowfall. We seek to understand what happens to the water on seasonal and interannual timescales. We address these issues by examining water vapor in the north polar region of Mars during the north spring and summer period from MGS TES data and by comparing these results to the Viking MAWD results.

  6. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  7. "Racing to the Top" to Prepare Turnaround Principals in North Carolina: Homegrown Regional Leadership Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Race to the Top (RttT) grant earmarked approximately $17.5 million to "increase the number of principals qualified to lead transformational change in low-performing schools in both rural and urban areas" (NCDPI, 2010, p.10). To accomplish this, the state established three Regional Leadership Academies (RLAs)…

  8. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks

  9. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Ross, S.W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.

  10. Groundwater recharge during spring thaw in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowmelt collects in landscape depressions and appears to replenish groundwater in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America while the soil is frozen. Little is known, however, about the physical state of the soil at the time of recharge. Depth of snow, surface water, water table, and frozen soil ...

  11. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  12. Precipitation recycling in West Africa - regional modeling, evaporation tagging and atmospheric water budget analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald; Knoche, Hans-Richard

    2015-04-01

    Many numerical studies have shown that the West African monsoon is highly sensitive to the state of the land surface. It is however questionable to which extend a local change of land surface properties would affect the local climate, especially with respect to precipitation. This issue is traditionally addressed with the concept of precipitation recycling, defined as the contribution of local surface evaporation to local precipitation. For this study the West African monsoon has been simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using explicit convection, for the domain (1°S-21°N, 18°W-14°E) at a spatial resolution of 10 km, for the period January-October 2013, and using ERA-Interim reanalyses as driving data. This WRF configuration has been selected for its ability to simulate monthly precipitation amounts and daily histograms close to TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data. In order to investigate precipitation recycling in this WRF simulation, surface evaporation tagging has been implemented in the WRF source code as well as the budget of total and tagged atmospheric water. Surface evaporation tagging consists in duplicating all water species and the respective prognostic equations in the source code. Then, tagged water species are set to zero at the lateral boundaries of the simulated domain (no inflow of tagged water vapor), and tagged surface evaporation is considered only in a specified region. All the source terms of the prognostic equations of total and tagged water species are finally saved in the outputs for the budget analysis. This allows quantifying the respective contribution of total and tagged atmospheric water to atmospheric precipitation processes. The WRF simulation with surface evaporation tagging and budgets has been conducted two times, first with a 100 km2 tagged region (11-12°N, 1-2°W), and second with a 1000 km2 tagged region (7-16°N, 6°W -3°E). In this presentation we will investigate hydro

  13. Validation of the regional climate model MAR over the CORDEX Africa domain and comparison with other regional models using unpublished data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prignon, Maxime; Agosta, Cécile; Kittel, Christoph; Fettweis, Xavier; Michel, Erpicum

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the CORDEX project, we have applied the regional model MAR over the Africa domain at a resolution of 50 km. ERA-Interim and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis have been used as 6 hourly forcing at the MAR boundaries over 1950-2015. While MAR was already been validated over the West Africa, it is the first time that MAR simulations are carried out at the scale of the whole continent. Unpublished daily measurements, covering the Sahel and more areas up South, with a large set of variables, are used as validation of MAR, other CORDEX-Africa RCMs and both reanalyses. Comparisons with the CRU and the ECA&D databases are also performed. The unpublished daily data set covers the period 1884-2006 and comes from 1460 stations. The measured variables are wind, evapotranspiration, relative humidity, insolation, rain, surface pressure, temperature, vapour pressure and visibility. It covers 23 countries: Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Canary Islands, Cap Verde, Central Africa, Chad, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Togo.

  14. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (<20 kg N km-2 yr-1), nitrogen release to the watershed must be derived from the mining of soil N stocks. The fraction of riverine N export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  15. International trends in health science librarianship part 15: West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal).

    PubMed

    Sulemani, Solomon Bayugo; Afarikumah, Ebenezer; Aggrey, Samuel Bentil; Ajuwon, Grace A; Diallo, Ousmane

    2015-09-01

    This is the 15th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. It is the third of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal). The next feature column will investigate trends in North Africa. JM.

  16. WMO SDS-WAS NAMEE Regional Center: Towards continuous evaluation of dust models in Northern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, Sara; García-Castillo, Gerardo; Cuevas, Emilio; Terradellas, Enric

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important activities of the Regional Center for Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe of the World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS, http://sds-was.aemet.es) is the dust model intercomparison and forecast evaluation, which is deemed an indispensable service to the users and an invaluable tool to assess model skills. Currently, the Regional Center collects daily dust forecasts from models run by nine partners (BSC, ECMWF, NASA, NCEP, SEEVCCC, EMA, CNR-ISAC, NOA and UK Met Office). A multi-model ensemble has also been set up in an effort to provide added-value products to the users. The first problem to address the dust model evaluation is the scarcity of suitable routine observations near the Sahara, the world's largest source of mineral dust. The present contribution presents preliminary results of dust model evaluation using new observational datasets. The current routine evaluation of dust predictions is focused on total-column dust optical depth (DOD) and uses remote-sensing retrievals from sun-photometric (AERONET) and satellite (MODIS) measurements. However, most users of dust forecasts are interested in the concentration near the surface (in the air we breathe) rather than in the total column content. Therefore, evaluation of the predicted surface concentration is also necessary. In this context, the initiative of the African Monsoon Interdisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) International Program to establish permanent measuring stations in the Sahel is extremely important. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) monitors continuously record PM10 in M'Bour (Senegal); Cinzana (Mali) and Banizoumbou (Niger). This surface model evaluation is complemented with the PM10 observation from the Air Quality Control and Monitoring Network (AQCMN) of the Canary Islands (Spain). The region, located in the sub-tropical Eastern Atlantic (roughly 100 km west of the Moroccan coast), is

  17. Syndromic surveillance of epidemic-prone diseases in response to an influx of migrants from North Africa to Italy, May to October 2011.

    PubMed

    Riccardo, F; Napoli, C; Bella, A; Rizzo, C; Rota, M C; Dente, M G; De Santis, S; Declich, S

    2011-01-01

    Following civil unrest in North Africa early in 2011, there was a large influx of migrants in Italy. A syndromic surveillance system was set up in April to monitor the health of this migrant population and respond rapidly to any health emergency. In the first six months, the system produced 67 alerts across all syndromes monitored and four alarms. There were no health emergencies, however, indicating that this migration flow was not associated with an increased risk of communicable disease transmission in Italy. PMID:22115045

  18. Status of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections among prisoners in the Middle East and North Africa: review and synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The status of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among incarcerated populations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the links between prisons and the HIV epidemic are poorly understood. This review synthesized available HIV and HCV data in prisons in MENA and highlighted opportunities for action. Methods The review was based on data generated through the systematic searches of the MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2003 to December 15, 2015) and the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project (2011 to December 15, 2015). Sources of data included peer-reviewed publications and country-level reports and databases. Results and discussion We estimated a population of 496,000 prisoners in MENA, with drug-related offences being a major cause for incarceration. Twenty countries had data on HIV among incarcerated populations with a median prevalence of 0.6% in Afghanistan, 6.1% in Djibouti, 0.01% in Egypt, 2.5% in Iran, 0% in Iraq, 0.1% in Jordan, 0.05% in Kuwait, 0.7% in Lebanon, 18.0% in Libya, 0.7% in Morocco, 0.3% in Oman, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0% in Palestine, 1.2% in Saudi Arabia, 0% in Somalia, 5.3% in Sudan and South Sudan, 0.04% in Syria, 0.05% in Tunisia, and 3.5% in Yemen. Seven countries had data on HCV, with a median prevalence of 1.7% in Afghanistan, 23.6% in Egypt, 28.1% in Lebanon, 15.6% in Pakistan, and 37.8% in Iran. Syria and Libya had only one HCV prevalence measure each at 1.5% and 23.7%, respectively. There was strong evidence for injecting drug use and the use of non-sterile injecting-equipment in prisons. Incarceration and injecting drugs, use of non-sterile injecting-equipment, and tattooing in prisons were found to be independent risk factors for HIV or HCV infections. High levels of sexual risk behaviour, tattooing and use of non-sterile razors among prisoners were documented. Conclusions Prisons play an important role in HIV and HCV dynamics in MENA and have facilitated the emergence of large HIV epidemics in

  19. The youngest generation GOCE products in unraveling the mysteries of the crust of North-Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, C.; Pivetta, T.; Li, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The newest GOCE observations produce reliable gravity data in remote areas with a resolution that is sufficient to distinguish tectonic lineaments. We use the data to formulate a model of the crust in Central-North Africa, in an area influenced by the presence of two great cratons with deep lithospheric keels, the West-African craton and the Congo craton. In the study area the crust is affected by rifting and magmatism (Benue trough and Cameroon) by basin fill (Chad basin) and by an unknown process that has produced a 1200km long line of increased density, the Chad-line (Braitenberg et al., 2011). The presence of increased localized density for the latter is demonstrated by the gravity signal it produces and which is recovered by GOCE. We integrate seismological investigations, the lithospheric flexure model, and a sediment thickness model to formulate a starting density model, for which we calculate the gravity field. This field reproduces the GOCE-observations to first order, but presents some significant residuals which we use to invert for the masses missing in our starting model. The inversion is accomplished combining spectral inversion methods with an algorithm that minimizes the constrained nonlinear multivariate potential field function iteratively. The spectral approach includes depth estimates with the continuous wavelet transform (Li et al., 2011) which we use as starting solutions of the inversion. Main results are the evidence of dense magmatic products trapped at the base of the crust beneath the Benue trough, implying that the volcanic deposits that reached the surface are only a portion of the entire melting process, as another portion is residing at lower crustal levels, at the mantle-crust transition. Another result concerns a model for the arched linear positive gravity anomaly situated on the Saharan Metacraton: our present model locates the body at upper crustal depths. The knowledge of the depth and nature of this intracrustal body is

  20. Procedures for the estimation of regional scale atmospheric emissions—An example from the North West Region of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, S. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Watson, A. F. R.; Conlan, D. E.

    This paper considers the value of applying an alternative pro rata methodology to the estimation of atmospheric emissions from a given regional or local area. Such investigations into less time and resource intensive means of providing estimates in comparison to traditional methods are important due to the potential role of new methods in the development of air quality management plans. A pro rata approach is used here to estimate emissions of SO 2, NO x, CO, CO 2, VOCs and black smoke from all sources and Pb from transportation for the North West region of England. This method has the advantage of using readily available data as well as being an easily repeatable procedure which provides a good indication of emissions to be expected from a particular geographical region. This can then provide the impetus for further emission studies and ultimately a regional/local air quality management plan. Results suggest that between 1987 and 1991 trends in the emissions of the pollutants considered have been less favourable in the North West region than in the nation as a whole.

  1. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Arritt, R.; Biner, S.; Bukovsky, Melissa; McGinnis, Seth; Sain, Steve; Caya, Daniel; Correia Jr., James; Flory, Dave; Gutowski, William; Takle, Gene; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; McDaniel, Larry; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun; Roads, J.; Sloan, Lisa; Snyder, Mark A.

    2012-09-20

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program is an international effort designed to systematically investigate the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and produce high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, with a common domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The program also includes an evaluation component (Phase I) wherein the participating RCMs are nested within 25 years of NCEP/DOE global reanalysis II. The grid spacing of the RCM simulations is 50 km.

  2. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  3. Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andy

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least one million deaths annually, with 80% of malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has a large impact upon the incidence of vector-borne diseases; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the environmental conditions. A large ensemble of regional climate model simulations has been produced within the ENSEMBLES project framework for both the European and African continent. This work will present recent progress in human and animal disease modelling, based on high resolution climate observations and regional climate simulations. Preliminary results will be given as an illustration, including the impact of climate change upon bluetongue (disease affecting the cattle) over Europe and upon malaria and Rift Valley Fever over Africa. Malaria scenarios based on RCM ensemble simulations have been produced for West Africa. These simulations have been carried out using the Liverpool Malaria Model. Future projections highlight that the malaria incidence decreases at the northern edge of the Sahel and that the epidemic belt is shifted southward in autumn. This could lead to significant public health problems in the future as the demography is expected to dramatically rise over Africa for the 21st century.

  4. Explaining Mathematics Achievement Gains in Botswana and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin; Arends, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test empirically whether and how classroom and school factors contribute to student mathematics learning gains in the border region of North West province, South Africa and Southeastern Botswana. Our results suggest that in both regions, improving teaching quality has an important impact on how much mathematics…

  5. Regional Climate Service in Northern Germany -The North German Climate Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, I.; Von Storch, H.

    2012-12-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  6. Mariner 9 observations of the surface of Mars in the north polar region.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Malin, M. C.; Murray, B. C.; Cutts, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the Mariner 9 extended mission the recession of the north polar ice caps was monitored for 130 days. The edge of the cap displayed a peculiar polygonal outline during most of this period. Regional topographic control is suggested as the most likely cause of the polygonality. Whereas densely cratered terrain dominates the south polar region, moderately cratered plains underlie the polar deposits in the north polar region. The mottled cratered plains have been mantled by light deposits located in annular rings south of 70 N. The erosional boundaries between these deposits and the subjacent cratered plains are gradational, show no local topographic relief, and display a spiral serrated circumpolar pattern suggesting eolian erosion. Smooth plains and 'etch-pitted' plains underlie the central polar layered deposits in both polar regions. In addition, these plains have one other morphological variant in the north. Here they display a pattern of very coherent ripple-like waveforms varying in wavelength from several hundred meters to a few kilometers.

  7. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Situated in northwestern Europe, the North Sea region is under influence of air masses from subtropical to arctic origin, and thus exhibits significant natural climate variability. As the land areas surrounding the North Sea are densely populated, climate change is an important issue in terms of e.g. coastal protection, fishery and trade. This study is part of the NOSCCA initiative (North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment) and presents observed variability and changes in atmospheric parameters during the last roughly 200 years. Circulation patterns show considerable decadal variability. In recent decades, a northward shift of storm tracks and increased cyclonic activity has been observed. There is also an indication of increased persistence of weather types. The wind climate is dominated by large multidecadal variability, and no robust long-term trends can be identified in the available datasets. There is a clear positive trend in near-surface temperatures, in particular during spring and winter. Over the region as a whole, no clear long-term precipitation trends are visible, although regional indications exist for an increased risk of extreme precipitation events.

  8. The Great Karoo region of South Africa: A carbon source or sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Brigitte; Boardman, John; Foster, Ian; Meadows, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Work undertaken in the seasonally arid upland areas of the Great Karoo region of South Africa has established a link between land degradation and overgrazing that began approximately 200 years ago when European farmers first settled the area. In response to changing land use, coupled with shifting rainfall patterns, parts of the landscape are now characterised by badlands on footslopes of valley-sides and complex gully systems on valley floors. Limited precipitation and agricultural intensification, particularly from around the 1920s onwards, resulted in a growing demand for water, and led to the construction of many small reservoirs, most of which are now in-filled with sediment. Whilst the deposited material has provided a means of linking catchment-scale responses to land use changes over the last ca. 100 years, the influence of land degradation on erosion and deposition of soil-associated carbon (C) has received only limited attention. Despite a reversion to extensive agriculture and reduced livestock densities in certain areas, limited vegetation regrowth suggests that soil rehabilitation will be a long-term process. This communication presents preliminary results from an investigation to determine whether land degradation in the Karoo has resulted in a shift from a net sink of C to a net source of C. Sediment deposits from a silted-up reservoir in a small dry valley system was analysed for varying physicochemical parameters. Total Carbon (TC) content was recorded and the sharp decrease in total C content with decreasing depth suggests that land degradation during and after post-European settlement probably led to accelerated erosion of the relatively fertile surface soils, and this presumably resulted in the rapid in-filling of reservoirs with carbon-rich surface material. Overall, the results indicate a sharp decline in soil organic matter (SOM) of eroded material, presumably as a consequence of land degradation. This suggests that in landscapes such as the

  9. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  10. Discriminating dusts and dusts sources using magnetic properties and hematite:Goethite ratios of surface materials and dust from North Africa, the Atlantic and Barbados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldfield, F.; Chiverrell, R. C.; Lyons, R.; Williams, E.; Shen, Z.; Bristow, C.; Bloemendal, J.; Torrent, J.; Boyle, J. F.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic measurements and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy are used in an attempt to differentiate dusts and dust sources in North Africa, over the Atlantic and in Barbados. Special attention is paid to dusts and to lacustrine clay and diatomite samples from the Bodélé Depression, in view of its alleged importance in trans-Atlantic and global dust generation. The results indicate that dusts from the Bodélé Depression can be distinguished from other dusts and potential sources in Niger, Chad, Burkina and Mali on the basis of their magnetic properties, notably their low magnetic concentrations, negligible frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility and distinctive IRM demagnetization characteristics. Dust from over the Atlantic and from Barbados, obtained from meshes in the 1960s and ’70s have high frequency dependent susceptibility values, are quite distinctive from the Bodélé Depression samples and are more closely comparable to samples from elsewhere in the Sahara and especially the Sahel. The Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy data, though of limited value here, are not inconsistent with the inferences based on the magnetic measurements. Overall, the results obtained point to a wide range of sources for dusts both over North Africa itself and across the Atlantic. They do not offer support to the view that dusts from the Bodélé Depression have dominated supply across the Atlantic over the last five decades.

  11. Species on the rocks: Systematics and biogeography of the rock-dwelling Ptyodactylus geckos (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae) in North Africa and Arabia.

    PubMed

    Metallinou, Margarita; Červenka, Jan; Crochet, Pierre-André; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Wilms, Thomas; Geniez, Philippe; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Brito, José C; Carranza, Salvador

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the diversity of species in the Palearctic and the processes that have generated it is still weak for larg