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Sample records for north america opportunities

  1. Market opportunities for fly ash fillers in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.; Harris, T.; Gledhill, J. )

    1990-11-01

    Direct Acid Leaching (DAL) processed fly ash is derived from treating raw and beneficiated coal fly ash with hydrochloric acid. The DAL process allows for the production of fly ash with greater chemical purity and consistency than raw fly ash alone. In addition, DAL fly ash is similar to various minerals used in a wide range of applications that require filler minerals. This project investigates the feasibility of using three grades of DAL fly ash ranging from 10 microns to 30 microns in diameter as an alternative filler material to mineral fillers. Six major applications in North America, requiring large volumes of filler minerals were investigated by region including: (1) asphalt roofing shingles (2) carpet backing (3) joint compound and wallboard (4) industrial coatings (5) plastics (6) vinyl flooring. It is determined that calcium carbonate was the primary mineral filler DAL fly ash would be competing with in the applications investigated. Calcium carbonate is used in all applications investigated. The application which demonstrated the greatest potential for using DAL fly ash is asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles were the largest calcium carbonate consuming application identified, consuming 4.8 million tons in 1988, and is the least sensitive to the dark color of the DAL fly ash. Although the DAL fly ash typically has a smaller particle size, in comparison to calcium carbonate, the asphalt shingle manufacturers felt it would be a good substitute. Other promising applications for DAL fly ash were industrial coatings and plastics where the calcium carbonate particle size requirements of 3 to 6 microns very closely matches the particle size of the DAL fly ash considered in this project. 17 figs., 36 tabs.

  2. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Slate, Dennis; Algeo, Timothy P; Nelson, Kathleen M; Chipman, Richard B; Donovan, Dennis; Blanton, Jesse D; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-12-22

    Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV). Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans) through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US. Progress continues

  3. Comparative assessment of status and opportunities for carbon Dioxide Capture and storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal In North America

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-07-22

    Aside from the target storage regions being underground, geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) and radioactive waste disposal (RWD) share little in common in North America. The large volume of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) needed to be sequestered along with its relatively benign health effects present a sharp contrast to the limited volumes and hazardous nature of high-level radioactive waste (RW). There is well-documented capacity in North America for 100 years or more of sequestration of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. Aside from economics, the challenges of GCS include lack of fully established legal and regulatory framework for ownership of injected CO{sub 2}, the need for an expanded pipeline infrastructure, and public acceptance of the technology. As for RW, the USA had proposed the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the region's first high-level RWD site before removing it from consideration in early 2009. The Canadian RW program is currently evolving with options that range from geologic disposal to both decentralized and centralized permanent storage in surface facilities. Both the USA and Canada have established legal and regulatory frameworks for RWD. The most challenging technical issue for RWD is the need to predict repository performance on extremely long time scales (10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} years). While attitudes toward nuclear power are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changes in climate occur, public perception remains the most serious challenge to opening RW repositories. Because of the many significant differences between RWD and GCS, there is little that can be shared between them from regulatory, legal, transportation, or economic perspectives. As for public perception, there is currently an opportunity to engage the public on the benefits and risks of both GCS and RWD as they learn more about the urgent energy-climate crisis created by greenhouse gas emissions from current fossil-fuel combustion practices.

  4. Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels in North America: Opportunities for Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Vanwiemcgrory, Laura; Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harrington, Lloyd

    2002-05-16

    To support the North American Energy Working Group's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document reached the following conclusions: Out of 24 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations, three products -- refrigerators/freezers, split system central air conditioners, and room air conditioners -- have similar or identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in the three countries. These same three products, as well as three-phase motors, have similar or identical test procedures throughout the region. There are 10 products with different MEPS and test procedures, but which have the short-term potential to develop common test procedures, MEPS, and/or labels. Three other noteworthy areas where possible energy efficiency initiatives have potential for harmonization are standby losses, uniform endorsement labels, and a new standard or label on windows. This paper explains these conclusions and presents the underlying comparative data.

  5. North America: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  6. Anaglyph, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and

  7. Daucus for the flora of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild carrots (Daucus) occurring in North America, Daucus carota...

  8. Conservation Agriculture in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...

  9. The Flooding of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennert, James W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a game, designed for use with primary grade level children, which uses a raised plastic relief map of North America to demonstrate the effect of a rising sea level in order to help the students focus on the variety and location of elevation changes in Canada and the northern United States. (JDH)

  10. Resolving North America`s environmental disputes

    SciTech Connect

    Mauseth, M.

    1998-12-31

    Seventeen years ago John E. Carroll and Newell B. Mack analyzed the then-current status of environmental protection mechanisms used between Canada and the United States. They criticized the ad hoc nature of North America`s history of environmental dispute resolution, which they dubbed ``ad hockery,`` and believed the present ambiguity hurt business, diplomatic relations, and the citizenry`s environment. Since that publication, increasing efforts to incorporate environmental concerns into Conventions have resulted in several multilateral agreements focusing on environmental protection and dispute resolution. Part 2 of this paper introduces a few of these recent agreements and the mechanisms they have established to monitor environmental damage and to enforce the goals of the agreements. The agreements discussed include: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer; Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal; Canada-United States: Agreement on Air Quality; Rio Declaration on Environment and Development; Framework Convention on Climate Change; Convention on Biological Diversity; and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. Part 3 discusses the general concern related to economic development (with the need to maintain ``sustainable development``), the possible environmental impact of NAFTA, and the Supplemental Agreement`s strengths and weaknesses.

  11. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion... on Reconsideration on February 2, 2011, applicable to workers of Bruss North ] America, Russell... production of automobile parts at the Russell Springs, Kentucky location of Bruss North America. The...

  12. [Brazilian migration to North America].

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1992-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analyses of recently collected data, in Toronto, Ontario, as well as in a medium sized U.S. community permit this study to examine the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group, and its rapid expansion. Next, this study focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the U.S. and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Brazilian immigration to North America.

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1994-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analysis of recently collected data in Toronto, Ontario and in a medium-size U.S. community facilitated the examination of the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group and its rapid expansion. Next, it focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the United States and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions. This article closes with a section on the future aspirations of these immigrants."

  14. Canada geese in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusch, Donald H.; Malecki, Richard E.; Trost, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Market hunting and poor stewardship led to record low numbers of geese in the early 1900's, but regulated seasons including closures, refuges, and law enforcement led to restoration of most populations. Winter surveys were begun to study population trends and set responsible harvest regulations for these long-lived and diverse birds. Winter surveys begun in 1936-37 probably represent the oldest continuing index of migratory birds in North America.

  15. Heart Failure in North America

    PubMed Central

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering

  16. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  17. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  18. 75 FR 11921 - Daimler Trucks North America, LLC, A Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corporation Gastonia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... America Corporation Gastonia Components and Logistics Division; Gastonia, NC; Amended Certification... Logistics Division, Gastonia, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 25... Logistics Division, Gastonia, North Carolina, who became totally or partially separated from employment...

  19. Distinguishing Glyceria Species of Western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are seven North American and three introduced European Glyceria species growing in western North America, yet distinguihsing among the species is challenging. As contaminants in annual ryegrass grass seed lots, the introduced species G. declinata and G. fluitans are undesirable domestically, ...

  20. Assessing regional intake fractions in North America.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Sebastien; Manneh, Rima; Shaked, Shanna; Wannaz, Cédric; Horvath, Arpad; Deschênes, Louise; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2009-08-15

    This paper develops the IMPACT North America model, a spatially resolved multimedia, multi-pathway, fate, exposure and effect model that includes indoor and urban compartments. IMPACT North America allows geographic differentiation of population exposure of toxic emissions for comparative risk assessment and life cycle impact assessment within U.S. and Canada. It looks at air, water, soil, sediment and vegetation media, and divides North America into several hundred zones. It is nested within a single world box to account for emissions leaving North America. It is a multi-scale model, covering three different spatial scales--indoor, urban and regional--in all zones in North America. Model results are evaluated against monitored emissions and concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and mercury. Most of the chemical concentrations predicted by the model fall within two orders of magnitude of the monitored data. The model shows that urban intake fractions are one order of magnitude higher than rural intake fractions. The model application and importance is demonstrated by a case study on spatially-distributed emissions over the life cycle of diesel fuel. Depending on population densities and agricultural intensities, intake fractions can vary by eight orders of magnitudes, and even limited indoor emissions can lead to intakes comparable to those from outdoor emissions. To accurately assess these variations in intake fraction, we require the essential three original features described in the present paper: i) inclusion of the continental model within a world box for persistent pollutants, ii) addition of an urban box for short- and medium-lived substances (for grid size larger than 100 km), and iii) assess indoor emissions. This model can therefore be used to screen chemicals and assess regionalized intake fractions within North America for population-based human exposure assessment, life cycle impact assessment, and comparative risk assessment. The model can be

  1. Flora North America: Austerity Casualty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Howard S.

    1973-01-01

    The greatest cooperative effort of taxonomists in the United States of America and Canada to study flora of this continent has come to an abrupt end after seven years of preparatory work. Financial support from government agency has been withdrawn and all significant projects have no alternative but to be closed down. (PS)

  2. The Asian in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    Articles, essays, and book reviews on Asian Americans are included in this anthology. The articles focus on some of the following topics: (1) the Chinese diaspora in America from 1850 to 1943, (2) the significance of Asians in American society, (3) the Chinese on the urban frontier, (4) marriage and the family among Chinese immigrants to America…

  3. 78 FR 2287 - Daimler Buses North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Daimler Buses North America, Inc., a Subsidiary of Daimler North... Buses North America, Inc. a subsidiary of Daimler North America Corp., including leased workers from... related to the production of transit buses. The notice was published in the Federal Register on October...

  4. The next Black America: Obstacles amidst opportunities for Black families.

    PubMed

    Armah, Tichianaa

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the author offers personal accounts on how she feels about the current Black America and obstacles that people face reaching for opportunities for Black families. Focus relies on the current state of Black America, poverty, schools, academic achievement, raising children in the next Black America and much more. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Tall Tales of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    Designed for use in junior high school language arts classes, this learning activity packet introduces students to North American folklore. Selected readings cover Indian tales, real folk heroes (Davy Crockett and John Henry), imaginary folk heroes (Paul Bunyan and Pecos Bill), Black folk stories (Brer Rabbit), and tales of Washington Irving. Each…

  6. The beginnings of seismology in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The study of earthquakes advanced somewhat more slowly in North America than it did in Europe and Japan. J.D. Whitney, professor of geology at Harvard University and former State Geologist of California, studied the Owens Valley, Calif., earthquake of 1872 and reported on it that same year.

  7. Mapping the Llano Estacado of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Llano Estacado is a commonly recognized physiographic region in North America. Renowned for its remarkably level surface and the towering escarpments along its outer margins, the elevated plains of the Llano Estacado form an immense tableland that stands in high relief at the southern end of the...

  8. The genus Sipha in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of the aphid genus Sipha are reported in North America and are reviewed herein. Of these species, three are adventive: Sipha elegans del Guercio, Sipha glyceriae (Kaltenbach), and Sipha maydis Passerini. Sipha maydis was discovered in California in 2007 and now has been found in Georgia...

  9. Is Mexico part of North America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    This question was raised by AGU Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer during an honors banquet at a recent AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. It is an interesting question, hard to answer, or perhaps with too many individual answers.We are not geographically a part of Central America or South America, although we do share language, Indian culture, Spanish heritage, and other characteristics, and these factors do play a role, as do economics and politics. However, geographically, Mexico is part of the North American continent.

  10. Solanum Section Petota for the Flora of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota) occurring in North Ameri...

  11. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  12. Status of soil acidification in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenn, M.E.; Huntington, T.G.; Mclaughlin, S.B.; Eagar, C.; Gomez, A.; Cook, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of leaching of base cations, increased availability of soil Al, and the accumulation and ultimate transmission of acidity from forest soils to streams. Losses of calcium from forest soils and forested watersheds have now been documented as a sensitive early indicator and a functionally significant response to acid deposition for a wide range of forest soils in North America. For red spruce, a clear link has been established between acidic deposition, alterations in calcium and aluminum supplies and increased sensitivity to winter injury. Cation depletion appears to contribute to sugar maple decline on some soils, specifically the high mortality rates observed in northern Pennsylvania over the last decade. While responses to liming have not been systematically examined in North America, in a study in Pennsylvania, restoring basic cations through liming increased basal area growth of sugar maple and levels of calcium and magnesium in soil and foliage. In the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California near the west coast, the pH of the A horizon has declined by at least 2 pH units (to pH 4.0-4.3) over the past 30 years, with no detrimental effects on bole growth; presumably, because of the Mediterranean climate, base cation pools are still high and not limiting for plant growth.

  13. Comparative phylogeography of unglaciated eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Douglas E; Morris, Ashley B; McLachlan, Jason S; Manos, Paul S; Soltis, Pamela S

    2006-12-01

    Regional phylogeographical studies involving co-distributed animal and plant species have been conducted for several areas, most notably for Europe and the Pacific Northwest of North America. Until recently, phylogeographical studies in unglaciated eastern North America have been largely limited to animals. As more studies emerge for diverse lineages (including plants), it seems timely to assess the phylogeography across this region: (i) comparing and contrasting the patterns seen in plants and animals; (ii) assessing the extent of pseudocongruence; and (iii) discussing the potential applications of regional phylogeography to issues in ecology, such as response to climatic change. Unglaciated eastern North America is a large, geologically and topographically complex area with the species examined having diverse distributions. Nonetheless, some recurrent patterns emerge: (i) maritime - Atlantic vs. Gulf Coast; (ii) Apalachicola River discontinuity; (iii) Tombigbee River discontinuity; (iv) the Appalachian Mountain discontinuity; (v) the Mississippi River discontinuity; and (vi) the Apalachicola River and Mississippi River discontinuities. Although initially documented in animals, most of these patterns are also apparent in plants, providing support for phylogeographical generalizations. These patterns may generally be attributable to isolation and differentiation during Pleistocene glaciation, but in some cases may be older (Pliocene). Molecular studies sometimes agree with longstanding hypotheses of glacial refugia, but also suggest additional possible refugia, such as the southern Appalachian Mountains and areas close to the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Many species exhibit distinct patterns that reflect the unique, rather than the shared, aspects of species' phylogeographical histories. Furthermore, similar modern phylogeographical patterns can result from different underlying causal factors operating at different times (i.e. pseudocongruence). One underemphasized

  14. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel M; Moore, Laura B; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  15. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  16. Regenerating America: Opportunities To Build On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodale Press, Inc., Emmaus, PA.

    Many communities are unaware of the power they have and are therefore unfamiliar with how to use it. This document, by the Regeneration Project in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, is directed toward helping community leaders identify and develop opportunities that will help them expand their businesses, employment, and tax base, and improve their overall…

  17. Dengue Research Opportunities in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Catherine A.; Morens, David M.; Cassetti, M. Cristina; Costero-Saint Denis, Adriana; San Martin, Jose-Luis; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a systemic arthropod-borne viral disease of major global public health importance. At least 2.5 billion people who live in areas of the world where dengue occurs are at risk of developing dengue fever (DF) and its severe complications, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Repeated reemergences of dengue in sudden explosive epidemics often cause public alarm and seriously stress healthcare systems. The control of dengue is further challenged by the lack of effective therapies, vaccines, and point-of-care diagnostics. Despite years of study, even its pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. This article discusses recent advances in dengue research and identifies challenging gaps in research on dengue clinical evaluation, diagnostics, epidemiology, immunology, therapeutics, vaccinology/clinical trials research, vector biology, and vector ecology. Although dengue is a major global tropical pathogen, epidemiologic and disease control considerations in this article emphasize dengue in the Americas. PMID:22782946

  18. Ethnic-Nationalism in North America: Some Comparative Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John F.

    In the past two decades there has been an upsurge in ethnic nationalism not only in the recently decolonized world, but also in many of the industrialized countries of Europe and North America. Two major ethnic-nationalist movements in North America have been the separatist movement in Quebec and the civil rights movement in the Southern United…

  19. History of Eidophor projection in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Scott A.

    1997-05-01

    The influence of the Eidophor projection system has been felt for over fifty years, providing users with extreme brightness and unique capabilities in a wide variety of applications. The Eidophor, manufactured by Gretag AG, Switzerland, is an oil layer light valve system invented in 1943 and is still unsurpassed in brightness by any other technology. Although the technology is over 50 years old, there are still many viable uses for the system, particularly in North America. This paper will review the history, technology, applications and outlook for the Eidophor projection system. The applications include permanent locations such as sports arenas and television studios as well as a continuing impact in the large screen display rental community.

  20. Systematics of wolves in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.; Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial morphology of Recent wolves throughout northern and western North America is remarkably consistent. Statistical analysis indicates the presence of four subspecies of gray wolf (Canis lupus) there, which are always distinguishable from the sympatric coyote (C. latrans). A fifth gray wolf subspecies, lycaon, occurs in southeastern Canada, and the red wolf (C. rufus), is found in the southeast. During the early 1900s the coyote moved east of the prairies and hybridized with the native wolves, thereby creating much confusion. Nonetheless, analysis of every available specimen of wild Canis, dating from before the coyote invasion in the region east of the Mississippi River and south of Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York, does indicate the presence of a small wolf, distinct from the coyote and showing the statistical consistency of other wolf populations. That series also has close affinity to specimens of the red wolf collected in Louisiana and Missouri prior to 1925, and to Pleistocene fossils from the east. There was a sharp line of morphological distinction between the wolves of the eastern United States and those of the prairies, but a closer approach by the former to the subspecies lycaon, which in turn intergrades with gray wolf populations in western Ontario and Minnesota. Although gaps in our knowledge remain, a reasonable hypothesis is that the entire forested region from southeastern Canada to the Gulf Coast originally was inhabited by populations of small wolves, with a subspecific or specific line just south of the eastern Great Lakes. There is no evidence that southeastern North America ever was occupied by large gray wolves and coyotes that hybridized to form the red wolf.

  1. Natural Color Mosaic of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This natural-color image combines cloud-free data from over 500 Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) orbits with shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and other sources. An astonishing diversity of geological features, ecological systems and human landscapes across North America is indicated within the image, which spans from 56N, 136W at the upper left to 16N 48W at lower right.

    In addition to the contiguous United States, the scene spans from British Columbia in the northwest to Newfoundland in the northeast, and extends eastward to the lonely Bermuda Islands and southward to the Bahamas, Cuba and Mexico. Draped in green, the eastern and central United States and Canada contrast with the vibrant geology that is laid bare across the arid portions of the southwestern United States and central Mexico. Along Mexico's east coast, the lush vegetation to the east of the Sierra Madre mountain range indicates the orographic rainfall gradient along this subtropical-tropical coast. In the high Rocky Mountains and in British Columbia's Coast Range, many peaks remain snow-covered year-round.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 north and 82 south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during years 2000 - 2004. The image is displayed in an Albers Conic Equal Area projection with the projection center at 36 North, 92 West.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, Theodore R; Winton, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The first detections of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in North America were in Washington State from adult coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon in 1988. Subsequently, VHSV was isolated from adult coho salmon returning to hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest in 1989, 1991 and 1994. These isolates represented a strain of VHSV that was genetically different from European VHSV as determined by DNA sequence analysis and T1 ribonuclease fingerprinting. The North American strain of VHSV was also isolated from skin lesions of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) taken from Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska in 1990, 1991 and 1993. In 1993 and 1994, the virus was isolated from Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) in Alaskan waters of PWS, Kodiak Island, Auke Bay and Port Frederick. During 1993 and 1994 the herring fishery in PWS failed from a probable complex of environmental stressors but VHSV isolates were associated with hemorrhages of the skin and fins in fish that returned to spawn. Also in 1993 and 1994, VHSV was isolated from apparently healthy stocks of herring in British Columbia, Canada and Puget Sound, Washington. Thus, the North American strain of VHSV is enzootic in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean among Pacific herring stocks with Pacific cod serving as a secondary reservoir. Although the North American strain of the virus appears to be moderately pathogenic for herring, causing occasional self-limiting epizootics, it was shown to be relatively avirulent for several species of salmonids. Pacific herring are common prey for cod and salmon and were most probably the source of the VHSV isolates from the adult salmon returning to spawn in rivers or at hatcheries in Washington State. Compelling circumstances involving the European isolates of VHSV suggest that this strain of the virus also is enzootic among marine fish in the Atlantic Oean. The highly pathogenic nature of the European strain of VHSV for salmonid fish may be the

  3. 78 FR 60270 - BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission BP America Inc., BP Corporation North America Inc., BP America Production Company, and BP Energy Company; Notice of Designation of Commission Staff as Non-Decisional With respect to an order issued by the Commission...

  4. Fire and amphibians in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, D.S.; Bury, R.B.; Hyde, E.J.; Pearl, C.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Information on amphibian responses to fire and fuel reduction practices is critically needed due to potential declines of species and the prevalence of new, more intensive fire management practices in North American forests. The goals of this review are to summarize the known and potential effects of fire and fuels management on amphibians and their aquatic habitats, and to identify information gaps to help direct future scientific research. Amphibians as a group are taxonomically and ecologically diverse; in turn, responses to fire and associated habitat alteration are expected to vary widely among species and among geographic regions. Available data suggest that amphibian responses to fire are spatially and temporally variable and incompletely understood. Much of the limited research has addressed short-term (1-3 years) effects of prescribed fire on terrestrial life stages of amphibians in the southeastern United States. Information on the long-term negative effects of fire on amphibians and the importance of fire for maintaining amphibian communities is sparse for the majority of taxa in North America. Given the size and severity of recent wildland fires and the national effort to reduce fuels on federal lands, future studies are needed to examine the effects of these landscape disturbances on amphibians. We encourage studies to address population-level responses of amphibians to fire by examining how different life stages are affected by changes in aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. Research designs need to be credible and provide information that is relevant for fire managers and those responsible for assessing the potential effects of various fuel reduction alternatives on rare, sensitive, and endangered amphibian species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo

    2014-02-01

    Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish

  6. Estimates of shorebird populations in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, R.I.G.; Gill, R.E.; Harrington, B.A.; Skagen, S.K.; Page, G.W.; Gratto-Trevor, C. L.; Haig, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Estimates are presented for the population sizes of 53 species of Nearctic shorebirds occurring regularly in North America, plus four species that breed occasionally. Population estimates range from a few tens to several millions. Overall, population estimates most commonly fall in the range of hundreds of thousands, particularly the low hundreds of thousands; estimated population sizes for large shorebird species currently all fall below 500 000. Population size is inversely related to size (mass) of the species, with a statistically significant negative regression between log(population size) and log(mass). Two outlying groups are evident on the regression graph: one, with populations lower than predicted, includes species considered to be either “at risk” or particularly hard to count, and a second, with populations higher than predicted, includes two species that are hunted. Shorebird population sizes were derived from data obtained by a variety of methods from breeding, migration, and wintering areas, and formal assessments of accuracy of counts or estimates are rarely available. Accurate estimates exist only for a few species that have been the subject of detailed investigation, and the likely accuracy of most estimates is considered poor or low. Population estimates are an integral part of conservation plans being developed for shorebirds in the United States and Canada and may be used to identify areas of key international and regional importance.

  7. Deglacial hydroclimate of midcontinental North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Steven L.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Guyette, Richard P.; Feng, Xiahong; Grimley, David A.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Panyushkina, Irina; Grimm, Eric C.; Marsicek, Jeremiah P.; Shuman, Bryan; Brandon Curry, B.

    2015-03-01

    During the last deglaciation temperatures over midcontinental North America warmed dramatically through the Bølling-Allerød, underwent a cool period associated with the Younger-Dryas and then reverted to warmer, near modern temperatures during the early Holocene. However, paleo proxy records of the hydroclimate of this period have presented divergent evidence. We reconstruct summer relative humidity (RH) across the last deglacial period using a mechanistic model of cellulose and leaf water δ18O and δD combined with a pollen-based temperature proxy to interpret stable isotopes of sub-fossil wood. Midcontinental RH was similar to modern conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum, progressively increased during the Bølling-Allerød, peaked during the Younger-Dryas, and declined sharply during the early Holocene. This RH record suggests deglacial summers were cooler and characterized by greater advection of moisture-laden air-masses from the Gulf of Mexico and subsequent entrainment over the mid-continent by a high-pressure system over the Laurentide ice sheet. These patterns help explain the formation of dark-colored cumulic horizons in many Great Plains paleosol sequences and the development of no-analog vegetation types common to the Midwest during the last deglacial period. Likewise, reduced early Holocene RH and precipitation correspond with a diminished glacial high-pressure system during the latter stages of ice-sheet collapse.

  8. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; La Mont, Stephen P; Eisele, William F; Fresquez, Philip R; Mc Naughton, Michael; Whicker, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  9. Modeling reactive nitrogen in North America: recent ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nitrogen is an essential building block of all proteins and thus an essential nutrient for all life. The bulk of nitrogen in the environment is tightly bound as non-reactive N2. Reactive nitrogen, which is naturally produced via enzymatic reactions, forest fires and lightning, is continually recycled and cascades through air, water, and soil media (Galloway et al., 2003). Human activity has perturbed this cycle through the combustion of fossil fuels and synthesis of fertilizers. The anthropogenic contribution to this cycle is now larger than natural sources in the United States and globally (Galloway et al., 2004). Reactive nitrogen enters the biosphere primarily from emissions of oxidized nitrogen to the atmosphere from combustion sources, as inorganic fertilizer applied to crops as reduced nitrogen fixed from atmospheric N2 through the Haber-Bosch process, as organic fertilizers such as manure, and through the cultivation of nitrogen fixing crops (Canfield et al., 2010). Both the United States (US) Clean Air Act and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) have substantially reduced the emissions of oxidized nitrogen in North America through NOx controls on smokestacks and exhaust pipes (Sickles and Shadwick, 2015; AQA, 2015). However, reduced nitrogen emissions have remained constant during the last few decades of emission reductions. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s Atmospheric Modeling Division (AMAD) c

  10. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  11. Overview and Update of the North America Drought Monitor and North America Climate Extremes Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    The North America Drought Monitor (NADM) is a joint operational drought monitoring activity between scientists and other specialists in the United States, Mexico, and Canada. Like all weather phenomena, drought occurs irrespective of political and international boundaries. The monthly map and narrative product created by this first-of-its-kind effort provides an integrated continental-scale drought assessment tool for decision-makers in all three countries involved in drought monitoring, drought mitigation, and related climate services. The product is prepared by a rotating primary author who utilizes drought indicators which are computed using standard methodologies for stations across the continent, plus national drought monitoring products and feedback from local experts in each of the three countries. The participants include, within the United States: the NOAA National Climatic Data Center, NOAA Climate Prediction Center, USDA Joint Agricultural Weather Facility, and National Drought Mitigation Center; within Mexico: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional/Comision Nacional del Agua; and within Canada: Agriculture and Agrifood Canada and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The NADM is part of a North America Climate Extremes Monitoring (NACEM) system which will monitor and assess climate extremes across the continent. Several climate indicators are currently computed from station daily data to measure (in addition to drought) heavy precipitation, heat waves, and cold waves. Future efforts will add indicators to monitor storm severity and severe weather, including the creation of a North America Climate Extremes Index (NACEI) patterned after the U.S. Climate Extremes Index (USCEI). This presentation will review the history of the NADM/NACEM effort, the data utilized, the indicators computed, and the product preparation and peer review process.

  12. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  13. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography of Italian studies in North America includes books, bibliographies, and reviews of comparative literature studies, translations, and publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology, which are closely related to literature. (SW)

  14. The Hispanic Heritage of North America: Commemorating 500 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013, Florida will commemorate Juan Ponce de Leon's historic voyage. Yet Ponce de Leon's arrival was, in several important ways, not just the beginning of Spain's presence in Florida, but in North America as a whole. Today, the historical Spanish influence on America is palpable--in culture, language, politics, and more. This year marks…

  15. Lengthening Spring Season in Southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzler, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in southwestern North America during the Spring season, a critically important transition season in terms of hydrology, ecosystem dynamics, and water resource management. Major rivers are snow-fed in mountainous headwaters but then flow through a monsoonal region with a Summer precipitation maximum; Spring is the dry season in between snowmelt and monsoon onset and is the principal wildfire season in the Southwest. Evaporation during the warm, dry Spring represents a major hydrologic loss in the surface water budget and is a principal cause of projections of significant decreases in post-snowmelt streamflow, during the first half of the growing season when demand for surface water for irrigated agriculture is highest. As temperatures increase, snowpack is expected to decrease and melt earlier, leading to a smaller and earlier peak in snowmelt runoff. Recent climate model projections suggest that monsoon onset should occur later in the year, delaying the summer rainy season. Each of these effects contributes to projections of a lengthening Spring season, at both the beginning and end of Spring. A longer, warmer Spring season is associated with significant surface drying and increased wildfire risk in the 21st Century across the Southwest. So far changes are observed at the beginning of spring in terms of temperature (increasing) and snowpack (decreasing). Detection of other changes, including metrics of the end of spring, has not been easy, in part due to the huge natural variability of precipitation that affects hydrologic variables in conjunction with temperature. This presentation describes efforts to diagnose and document observed changes in the transitions into and out of the Spring dry season in the Southwest, in variables such as temperature, snowmelt date, timing and magnitude of streamflow, and monsoon onset date.

  16. A dynamic mass budget for toxaphene in North America.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Matthew; Woodfine, David; Brimacombe, Jenn; Toose, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2002-08-01

    A continental-scale dynamic mass budget for toxaphene in North America is presented, based on available information on physicochemical properties, usage patterns, and reported environmental concentrations and using the Berkeley-Trent North American mass balance contaminant fate model (BETR North America). The model describes contaminant fate in 24 ecological regions of North America, including advective transport between regions in the atmosphere, freshwater, and near-shore coastal water. The dynamic mass budget accounts for environmental partitioning, transport, and degradation of the estimated 534 million kg of toxaphene that were used in North America as an insecticide and piscicide between 1945 and 2000. Satisfactory agreement exists between model results and current and historically reported concentrations of toxaphene in air, water, soil, and sediments throughout North America. An estimated 15 million kg of toxaphene are believed to remain in active circulation in the North American environment in the year 2000, with the majority in soils in the southern United States and Mexico, where historic usage was highest. Approximately 70% of total toxaphene deposition from the atmosphere to the Great Lakes is attributed to sources outside the Great Lakes Basin, and an estimated total of 3.9 million kg of toxaphene have been transported to this region from other parts of the continent. The toxaphene mass budget presented here is believed to be the first reported continental-scale multimedia mass budget for any contaminant.

  17. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  18. Apricot Breeding in North America: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many North American consumers, apricot remains a little known and underappreciated fruit. Apricot tonnage and total harvested orchard area are increasing on a worldwide basis while both production and acreage have been declining in North America for several decades. This is in spite of the fac...

  19. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  20. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  1. Modeling Site Amplification in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braganza, S.; Atkinson, G. M.; Ghofrani, H.; Hassani, B.

    2015-12-01

    A critical component in the understanding and interpretation of earthquake ground motions is the role that site effects play. In many parts of eastern North America, the soil layers which overlie glaciated bedrock produce strong and highly variable site responses. We use horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) response spectral ratios as the indicator variable by which to characterize the salient characteristics of site response in eastern Canada. We show that site response can be modeled using two descriptive variables that are readily obtainable: (i) peak resonant frequency (fpeak), as determined from H/V or depth-to-bedrock; and (ii) overall soil type (or stiffness). We use these variables to create a model of site amplification that can be used in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and in real-time interactive ground-motion (IGM) map applications. The key to the site characterization is the relationship between fpeak and drift thickness (depth-to-bedrock), which we derive using H/V data from earthquakes in the region, combined with a detailed digital drift thickness map available online from the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS). The OGS map also provides information on soil type, which is correlated with peak amplitudes (Apeak) of response. We extend the study area to the city of Montreal using similar information from Chouinard and Rosset (2012). H/V spectral shapes may be associated with four main soil categories, which in decreasing order of stiffness are: bedrock, till, sand/clay, and organic soil/fill. The value of Apeak increases as stiffness decreases. We model site response by defining a generic site amplification curve, which is dependent only on fpeak and soil type. The generic curve enables an estimate of site amplification to be made over the entire frequency band of 0.1 to 50 Hz, knowing just the soil thickness and type. These site amplification curves can be applied in the development of regional GMPEs, and in the construction of

  2. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  3. Financing dengue vaccine introduction in the Americas: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna; Clark, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Dengue has escalated in the region of the Americas unabated despite major investments in integrated vector control and prevention strategies. An effective and affordable dengue vaccine can play a critical role in reducing the human and economic costs of the disease by preventing millions around the world from getting sick. However, there are considerable challenges on the path towards vaccine introduction. These include lack of sufficient financing tools, absence of capacity within national level decision-making bodies, and demands that new vaccines place on stressed health systems. Various financing models can be used to overcome these challenges including setting up procurement mechanisms, integrating regional and domestic taxes, and setting up low interest multilateral loans. In this paper we review these challenges and opportunities of financing dengue vaccine introduction in the Americas.

  4. Atlas of Relations Between Climatic Parameters and Distributions of Important Trees and Shrubs in North America - Ecoregions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Climate is the primary factor controlling the continental-scale distribution of plant species, although the relations between climatic parameters and species' ranges are only now beginning to be quantified. This volume examines the relations between climate and the distributions of (1) Kuchler's 'potential natural vegetation' categories for the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America, (2) Bailey's ecoregions of North America, and (3) World Wildlife Fund's ecoregions of North America. For these analyses, we employed a 25-kilometer equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic parameters for North America, coupled with presence-absence data for the occurrence of each ecoregion under the three classification systems under consideration. The resulting relations between climate and ecoregion distributions are presented in graphical and tabular form. Presentation of ecoregion-climate relations here is intended to be useful for a greater understanding of ecosystem evolution, ecosystem dynamics, and potential effects of future climate change on ecoregions.

  5. Commerce in health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, O; Frenk, J; Cruz, C

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses the future of commercial trade in personal health services in North America within the context of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the latter's potential influence on health care for the Mexican people. It begins by defining concepts related to international trade of services, particularly health services, and then proceeds to analyze elements of NAFTA that affect the delivery, regulation, and financing of such services, as well as their future trade within the NAFTA area. It concludes with some recommendations directed at helping Mexico's national health care system confront the risks posed while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the Mexican economy's entry into a broader market.

  6. Ecology and management of the soybean aphid in North America.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, David W; Landis, Douglas A; Brodeur, Jacques; Heimpel, George E; Desneux, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has become the single most important arthropod pest of soybeans in North America. Native to Asia, this invasive species was first discovered in North America in July 2000 and has rapidly spread throughout the northcentral United States, much of southeastern Canada, and the northeastern United States. In response, important elements of the ecology of the soybean aphid in North America have been elucidated, with economic thresholds, sampling plans, and chemical control recommendations widely adopted. Aphid-resistant soybean varieties were available to growers in 2010. The preexisting community of aphid natural enemies has been highly effective in suppressing aphid populations in many situations, and classical biological control efforts have focused on the addition of parasitoids of Asian origin. The keys to sustainable management of this pest include understanding linkages between the soybean aphid and other introduced and native species in a landscape context along with continued development of aphid-resistant varieties.

  7. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  8. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. PMID:26131767

  9. The Triassic-Jurassic boundary in eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Comet, B.

    1988-01-01

    Rift basins of the Atlantic passive margin in eastern North America are filled with thousands of meters of continental rocks termed the Newark Supergroup which provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the fine scale structure of the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction in continental environments. Time control, vital to the understanding of the mechanisms behind mass extinctions, is provided by lake-level cycles apparently controlled by orbitally induced climate change allowing resolution at the less than 21,000 year level. Correlation with other provinces is provided by a developing high resolution magnetostratigraphy and palynologically-based biostratigraphy. A large number of at least local vertebrate and palynomorph extinctions are concentrated around the boundary with survivors constituting the earliest Jurassic assemblages, apparently without the introduction of new taxa. The palynofloral transition is marked by the dramatic elimination of a relatively high diversity Triassic pollen assemblage with the survivors making up a Jurassic assemblage of very low diversity overwhelmingly dominated by Corollina. Based principally on palynological correlations, the hypothesis that these continental taxonomic transitions were synchronous with the massive Triassic-Jurassic marine extinctions is strongly corroborated. An extremely rapid, perhaps catastrophic, taxonomic turnover at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, synchronous in continental and marine realms is hypothesized and discussed.

  10. Cestodes of dogs and cats in North America.

    PubMed

    Conboy, Gary

    2009-11-01

    Cestodes are hermaphroditic flatworms (tapeworms) consisting of a scolex, neck region, and repeating segments. Cestodes lack a mouth, intestine, and body cavity. Life cycles are indirect, with the definitive host acquiring the adult form of the tapeworm by the ingestion of the larval metacestode stage contained in an intermediate host. This article describes the cyclophyllidean and pseudophyllidean groups of infective cestodes. Tapeworm infection is common in dogs and cats in North America. Infection rarely results in clinical disease, but animals infected with tapeworms should be treated. Echinococcosis, though infrequently diagnosed, remains a serious human health threat in North America.

  11. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  12. Is the Central America forearc sliver part of the North America plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Central America Forearc sliver is located between the Central America volcanic arc and the Middle America trench. Several authors have suggested that the forearc is being displaced to the northwest with respect to the Caribbean plate; they point to right-lateral, normal-faulting earthquakes along the Central America volcanic arc as prime evidence of this displacement. Apparently, the forearc continues to the northwest into southeastern Mexico, although this portion of the forearc is not being displaced. I present evidence that suggests that the forearc indeed continues into southeastern Mexico and that it belongs to the North America plate. Physiographically, there is a continuity of the forearc into the Coastal plains of southeastern (Chiapas) Mexico, across the Motagua and Polochic faults. Offshore, cross-sections of the Middle America trench are similar along the mexican (Chiapas) segment, and the Central American segment. Furthermore, at the northwestern end of the coastal plain there are no compressive structures, which suggests that the coastal plain is not being displaced to the northwest. As a matter of fact, fault-plane solutions for shallow earthquakes show extension rather than compression. Shallow, interplate earthquakes along the trench show similar parameters along both segments. P-axes and earthquake slip vectors have consistent azimuths, which relate better with Cocos-North America convergence than with Cocos-Caribbean. Azimuth of T-axes for normal-faulting earthquakes also agree well with Cocos-North America convergence. Similarity in several parameters is thus found across both segments, the Chiapas coastal plain and the Central America forearc sliver proper. This suggests that both segments are continuous and probably one and the same, and belonging to the North America plate. Perhaps more properly, the forearc sliver extends into southeastern Mexico and is part of the zone of deformation associated to the Cocos-North America-Caribbean plates

  13. North America Today: A Reproducible Atlas. 1995 Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This book contains illustrative maps, tables and graphs depicting North America's: size; population; resources; commodities; trade; languages; religions; cities; environment; food and agriculture; schooling; jobs; energy; industry, demographic statistics; women; aspects of government; and territorial disputes. Sections of the book include: (1)…

  14. Upper Tropospheric Jet Streams Over North America During Summer 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    North America. While not as extreme as the " dust bowl " days of the 1930s, many locations set new records for drought and high temperatures. During June...1934, at the height of the dust bowl , "the greatest disaster in American history attributable to me- teorological factors." (Heim, 1988), drought

  15. Academic Talent Development in North America and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…

  16. The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Kate E.; Howell, David G.; Vigil, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain (1:8,000,000 scale) is a product of the US Geological Survey in the I-map series (I-2781). This map was prepared in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Mexican Consejo Recursos de Minerales. This cartographic Tapestry is woven from a geologic map and a shaded relief image. This digital combination reveals the geologic history of North America through the interrelation of rock type, topography and time. Regional surface processes as well as continent-scale tectonic events are exposed in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension, geologic time. The large map shows the varying age of bedrock underlying North America, while four smaller maps show the distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic. This map expands the original concept of the 2000 Tapestry of Time and Terrain, by Jose F. Vigil, Richard J. Pike and David G. Howell, which covered the conterminous United States. The U.S. Tapestry poster and website have been popular in classrooms, homes, and even the Google office building, and we anticipate the North America Tapestry will have a similarly wide appeal, and to a larger audience.

  17. Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  18. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  19. Major Threats to Environmental Quality in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogl, Robert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports study findings of environmental educators' opinions on issues which pose threats to environmental quality in North America and the status of the availability of educational materials for the issues. Identified as priority items were hazardous wastes management, water contamination, and acid deposition. Compares responses of American and…

  20. European cretaceous flints on the coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, K.O.; Kaye, C.A.; Loring, D.H.; Nota, D.J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Flint pebbles and nodules from the Upper Cretaceous chalks of Europe occur offshore and at many seaports along the Atlantic coast of North America, where they were brought as ship's ballast. Isolated pieces imported from Europe as gunflints also are present.

  1. Key Challenges to Collegiate Music Education Programs in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is the linchpin of music education in North America. It is primarily in collegiate institutions that music teachers are educated throughout the life cycles of their careers. This begins with preservice programs, typically at the baccalaureate level, and continues with in-service professional development and graduate degree…

  2. Glass Walls in North America. Technical Paper No. 179.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Solar heat gains (radiation) and its effects on the building environment are discussed, in conjunction with the proper and improper use of large glass areas in the exterior walls of buildings in North America. The difficulties of solar heat gain and of controlling natural light and glare are outlined and said to influence building comfort and air…

  3. Risk of ricin from commercial castor production in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial production of castor, as a source of highly valuable hydroxyl fatty acids, has been limited by both the real and perceived risks of commercial castor production in North America. Crop commodity groups, regulatory governmental agencies, and much of the general public may have reservations ...

  4. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  5. The medicinal flora of Native North America: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Moerman, D E

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the plants of North America which have been used medicinally by Native North Americans. A method using regression residuals is developed for analyzing large quantities of data, divided into subgroups of varying sorts and sizes. The analysis shows that the medicinal species utilized by Native North Americans are distributed in a highly non-random fashion across subclasses and families as well as across groups defined in terms of growth habit and life pattern. This distribution makes sense in terms of both the defensive chemistry and the "complexity" of plants.

  6. The Flora of North America Project: A 21st-Century Tool for Managing Plant Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Judith M.; Morin, Nancy R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes The Flora of North America, the first comprehensive description of all plants growing spontaneously in North America. Discusses online resources, the publication as an educational resource, the published volumes, and scientific and planning applications. (JRH)

  7. 76 FR 46852 - Panasonic Corporation of North America, Business Operations Group, Rolling Meadows, IL; Panasonic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Panasonic Corporation of North America, Business Operations Group... information provided by the company shows that Business Operations Group and Financial Services Organization... follows: All workers of Panasonic Corporation of North America, Business Operations Group, Rolling...

  8. Rainfall variability and predictability issues for North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, B. G.

    2016-04-01

    A multi-millennial simulation with a coupled global climatic model has been used to investigate extreme rainfall events, mainly droughts, over North America. A rainfall index, based on the US Dust Bowl region, was used to generate a time series from which the extreme events could be identified. A very wide range of drought and pluvial multiyear sequences was obtained, all attributable to internal climatic variability. This time series reproduced the basic characteristics of the corresponding observed time series. Composites of years with negative rainfall anomalies over North America from the simulation replicated the observed rainfall composite for the Dust Bowl era, both in spatial character and intensity. Examination of individual years of a simulated composite revealed not only a wide range of rainfall anomaly patterns, dominated by drought conditions, but also ENSO distributions that included El Niño events as well as the expected La Niña events. Composites for pluvial conditions over North America were associated with composited El Niño events, as expected. Correlation of the simulated Dust Bowl rainfall with global surface temperatures identified a principal connection with the ENSO region. No systematic relationship was obtained in the simulation between the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and Dust Bowl region rainfall, with the simulated oscillation having a much more variable periodicity than that found in the limited observations. However, a marked connection was found for SST anomalies adjacent to the northeast coast of North America, but this appears to be forced by ENSO events. A scatter diagram of NINO3.4 SST anomalies with the Dust Bowl region rainfall anomalies, for observations and the simulation, revealed inconsistencies between the occurrence of an ENSO event and the "expected" rainfall anomaly. This, and other analysis, resulted in the conclusion that annual or longer term rainfall predictions over North America, with any systematic

  9. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals.

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler; Surovell, Todd A

    2009-12-08

    The late Pleistocene witnessed the extinction of 35 genera of North American mammals. The last appearance dates of 16 of these genera securely fall between 12,000 and 10,000 radiocarbon years ago (approximately 13,800-11,400 calendar years B.P.), although whether the absence of fossil occurrences for the remaining 19 genera from this time interval is the result of sampling error or temporally staggered extinctions is unclear. Analysis of the chronology of extinctions suggests that sampling error can explain the absence of terminal Pleistocene last appearance dates for the remaining 19 genera. The extinction chronology of North American Pleistocene mammals therefore can be characterized as a synchronous event that took place 12,000-10,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Results favor an extinction mechanism that is capable of wiping out up to 35 genera across a continent in a geologic instant.

  10. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals

    PubMed Central

    Faith, J. Tyler; Surovell, Todd A.

    2009-01-01

    The late Pleistocene witnessed the extinction of 35 genera of North American mammals. The last appearance dates of 16 of these genera securely fall between 12,000 and 10,000 radiocarbon years ago (≈13,800–11,400 calendar years B.P.), although whether the absence of fossil occurrences for the remaining 19 genera from this time interval is the result of sampling error or temporally staggered extinctions is unclear. Analysis of the chronology of extinctions suggests that sampling error can explain the absence of terminal Pleistocene last appearance dates for the remaining 19 genera. The extinction chronology of North American Pleistocene mammals therefore can be characterized as a synchronous event that took place 12,000–10,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Results favor an extinction mechanism that is capable of wiping out up to 35 genera across a continent in a geologic instant. PMID:19934040

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution of Holocene populations in North America.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Michelle A; Kriesche, Björn; Betts, Matthew; Martindale, Andrew; Kulik, Rafal; Schmidt, Volker; Gajewski, Konrad

    2015-09-29

    As the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice Sheets retreated, North America was colonized by human populations; however, the spatial patterns of subsequent population growth are unclear. Temporal frequency distributions of aggregated radiocarbon ((14)C) dates are used as a proxy of population size and can be used to track this expansion. The Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database contains more than 35,000 (14)C dates and is used in this study to map the spatiotemporal demographic changes of Holocene populations in North America at a continental scale for the past 13,000 y. We use the kernel method, which converts the spatial distribution of (14)C dates into estimates of population density at 500-y intervals. The resulting maps reveal temporally distinct, dynamic patterns associated with paleodemographic trends that correspond well to genetic, archaeological, and ethnohistoric evidence of human occupation. These results have implications for hypothesizing and testing migration routes into and across North America as well as the relative influence of North American populations on the evolution of the North American ecosystem.

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution of Holocene populations in North America

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Michelle A.; Kriesche, Björn; Betts, Matthew; Martindale, Andrew; Kulik, Rafal; Schmidt, Volker; Gajewski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    As the Cordilleran and Laurentide Ice Sheets retreated, North America was colonized by human populations; however, the spatial patterns of subsequent population growth are unclear. Temporal frequency distributions of aggregated radiocarbon (14C) dates are used as a proxy of population size and can be used to track this expansion. The Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database contains more than 35,000 14C dates and is used in this study to map the spatiotemporal demographic changes of Holocene populations in North America at a continental scale for the past 13,000 y. We use the kernel method, which converts the spatial distribution of 14C dates into estimates of population density at 500-y intervals. The resulting maps reveal temporally distinct, dynamic patterns associated with paleodemographic trends that correspond well to genetic, archaeological, and ethnohistoric evidence of human occupation. These results have implications for hypothesizing and testing migration routes into and across North America as well as the relative influence of North American populations on the evolution of the North American ecosystem. PMID:26351683

  13. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  14. Lianas as invasive species in North America: Chapter 28

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Liana diversity is typically low in the temperate zones; however, the influx of non-native invasive liana species in North America has increased local diversity at the expense of native habitats and species. Some of the most illustrative studies of invasive lianas in temperate North America compared the biological traits of invasive lianas with native congeners or ecological analogs. The majority of these studies focused on two species, Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle). Temperate zone lianas generally have higher photosynthetic rates than other early successional species and their host trees. Invasive lianas are having an increasing impact on the dynamics and trajectories of North American plant communities. They often exhibit superior growth and survival compared to their native counterparts, and in some cases, invasive lianas may directly contribute to the decline of their native correlates.

  15. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  16. The mantle flow field beneath western North America.

    PubMed

    Silver, P G; Holt, W E

    2002-02-08

    Although motions at the surface of tectonic plates are well determined, the accompanying horizontal mantle flow is not. We have combined observations of surface deformation and upper mantle seismic anisotropy to estimate this flow field for western North America. We find that the mantle velocity is 5.5 +/- 1.5 centimeters per year due east in a hot spot reference frame, nearly opposite to the direction of North American plate motion (west-southwest). The flow is only weakly coupled to the motion of the surface plate, producing a small drag force. This flow field is probably due to heterogeneity in mantle density associated with the former Farallon oceanic plate beneath North America.

  17. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  18. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  19. 76 FR 7590 - Bruss North America Russell Springs, Kentucky; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bruss North America Russell Springs, Kentucky; Notice of Revised... workers of Bruss North America, Russell Springs, Kentucky (subject firm), regarding their application for... review, the Department has determined that the workers and former workers of Bruss North America,...

  20. 76 FR 81987 - Grupo Antolin, a Subsidiary of Grupo Antolin North America Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Grupo Antolin, a Subsidiary of Grupo Antolin North America Including... North America, including on-site leased workers from Job Network, Belvidere, Illinois. The workers... subsidiary of Grupo Antolin North America had their wages reported under a separate unemployment...

  1. 77 FR 47430 - Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger... of SGS North America, Inc., as a commercial gauger. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.13, SGS North America, Inc., 2800 Loop 197 South, Texas City, TX 77592, has been...

  2. Knowledge exchange for climate adaptation planning in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfin, Gregg; Orr, Barron

    2015-04-01

    In western North America, the combination of sustained drought, rapid ecosystem changes, and land use changes associated with urban population growth has motivated concern among ecosystem managers about the implications of future climate changes for the landscapes which they manage. Through literature review, surveys, and workshop discussions, we assess the process of moving from concern, to planning, to action, with an emphasis on questions, such as: What are the roles of boundary organizations in facilitating knowledge exchange? Which practices lead to effective interactions between scientists, decision-makers, and knowledge brokers? While there is no "one size fits all" science communication method, the co-production of science and policy by research scientists, science translators, and decision-makers, as co-equals, is a resource intensive, but effective practice for moving adaptation planning forward. Constructive approaches make use of alliances with early adopters and opinion leaders, and make strong communication links between predictions, impacts and solutions. Resource managers need information on the basics of regional climate variability and global climate change, region-specific projections of climate changes and impacts, frank discussion of uncertainties, and opportunities for candid exploration of these topics with peers and subject experts. Research scientists play critical roles in adaptation planning discussions, because they assist resource managers in clarifying the cascade of interactions leading to potential impacts and, importantly, because decision-makers want to hear the information straight from the scientists conducting the research, which bolsters credibility. We find that uncertainty, formerly a topic to avoided, forms the foundation for constructive progress in adaptation planning. Candid exploration of the array of uncertainties, including those due to modeling, institutional, policy and economic factors, with practitioners, science

  3. Research, management, and status of the osprey in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Chancellor, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Osprey populations were studied throughout North America during the last decade as a result of dramatic declines reported along the North Atlantic Coast in the1950s and early 1960s. Researchers used banding, localized studies, aerial surveys, and pesticide analyses to identify factors influencing regional populations. Declining populations showed extremely poor production, contamination by environmental pollutants (including DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls) and thin-shelled eggs. Following the reduced use and eventual ban of DDT and dieldrin, productivity began to improve. Improvement in affected populations, mainly those along the Atlantic Coast and in the Great Lakes region, began in the late 1960s and is continuing in the 1970s. Most populations in the South Atlantic region, in Western North America, and in Florida and the Gulf of California appeared to be producing at normal or near-normal rates in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although some of the most severely affected populations are still not producing at normal rates, the pattern of improvement and an increase in management activities, including provision of nesting platforms and establishment of Osprey management zones, allow cautious optimism about the future of the species in North America. With its low recruitment potential, however, recovery will be slow.

  4. A mid to late Holocene cryptotephra framework from eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Helen; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Langdon, Pete G.; Pyne-O'Donnell, Sean D. F.; Plunkett, Gill; Froese, Duane G.; Coulter, Sarah; Gardner, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Holocene cryptotephras of Alaskan and Pacific Northwestern origin have recently been detected ca. 7000 km away on the east coast of North America. This study extends the emerging North American tephrochronological framework by geochemically characterising seventeen cryptotephra layers from four newly explored peatlands. All detected tephras were deposited during the late Holocene, with no horizons present in the peat between ca. 3000-5000 years ago. The prevalence of the Alaskan White River Ash eastern lobe (AD 847 ± 1) is confirmed across the eastern seaboard from Newfoundland to Maine and a regional depositional pattern from Mount St Helens Set W (AD 1479-1482) is presented. The first occurrences of four additional cryptotephras in eastern North America are described, three of which may originate from source regions in Mexico, Kamchatka (Russia) and Hokkaido (Japan). The possibility of such tephras reaching eastern North America presents the opportunity to link palaeo-archives from the tropics and eastern Asia with those from the western Atlantic seaboard, aiding inter-regional comparisons of proxy-climatic records.

  5. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.

    2014-12-01

    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential

  6. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  7. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  8. New Eclipidrilus species (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae) from southeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae from southeastern North America are attributed to Eclipidrilus Eisen. All are small worms (diameter 0.2–0.5 mm), having semi-prosoporous male ducts with the atria in X, and spermathecae in IX. Eclipidrilus breviatriatus n. sp. and E. microthecus n. sp. have crosshatched atrial musculature, similar to some E. (Eclipidrilus) species, but they differ from congeners in having small, compact spermathecal ampullae. Eclipidrilus macphersonae n. sp. has a single, median atrium and spermatheca. The new species have been collected only in Sandhills and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain streams of North Carolina.

  9. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

  10. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. S.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Sills, David M. L.; Gough, William A.; Auld, Heather

    2015-03-01

    Tornadoes represent one of nature’s most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  11. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather

    2015-03-25

    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  12. Book review: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2005-01-01

    As stated in the preface of this new guide, shorebirds are among our most engaging birds. Their ecology and behavior are the subjects of numerous ornithological studies, their identification can challenge the skills of the most serious birdwatchers, and people with a casual interest in birds are captivated by the antics of Sanderlings (Calidris alba) chasing waves along a beach. While some books provide a worldwide perspective on shorebird identification, this book is the first guide devoted solely to identifying every species occurring in North America. Its coverage is truly continental, extending from Alaska to Panama and including the West Indies.Review info: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide. By Dennis R. Paulson, 2005. ISBN: 0691102740, 384 pp.

  13. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction, dispersal and establishment of West Nile virus in North America were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. The overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. The cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective. PMID:24008376

  14. The Trenton Group (Upper Ordovician Series) of eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Trenton Group of eastern North America is a predominately carbonate series of sedimentary rocks that contains major oil and gas deposits. The 18 papers contained in this volume discuss the stratigraphy, depositional environment, tectonics, and petroleum and natural gas exploration in this sedimentary sequence. Each of the papers has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

  15. Monitoring the Earthquake source process in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, H.; Ammon, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the implementation of the USGS National Earthquake Information Center Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response system (PAGER), rapid determination of earthquake moment magnitude is essential, especially for earthquakes that are felt within the contiguous United States. We report an implementation of moment tensor processing for application to broad, seismically active areas of North America. This effort focuses on the selection of regional crustal velocity models, codification of data quality tests, and the development of procedures for rapid computation of the seismic moment tensor. We systematically apply these techniques to earthquakes with reported magnitude greater than 3.5 in continental North America that are not associated with a tectonic plate boundary. Using the 0.02-0.10 Hz passband, we can usually determine, with few exceptions, moment tensor solutions for earthquakes with M w as small as 3.7. The threshold is significantly influenced by the density of stations, the location of the earthquake relative to the seismic stations and, of course, the signal-to-noise ratio. With the existing permanent broadband stations in North America operated for rapid earthquake response, the seismic moment tensor of most earthquakes that are M w 4 or larger can be routinely computed. As expected the nonuniform spatial pattern of these solutions reflects the seismicity pattern. However, the orientation of the direction of maximum compressive stress and the predominant style of faulting is spatially coherent across large regions of the continent.

  16. Recent Rates of Forest Harvest and Conversion in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Warren B.; Leckie, Donald; Wulder, Michael A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; de Jong, Ben; Healey, Sean; Law, Beverly; Birdsey, Richard; Houghton, R. A.; Mildrexler, David; Goward, Samuel; Smith, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating ecological disturbance into biogeochemical models is critical for estimating current and future carbon stocks and fluxes. In particular, anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest conversion and wood harvest, strongly affect forest carbon dynamics within North America. This paper summarizes recent (2000.2008) rates of extraction, including both conversion and harvest, derived from national forest inventories for North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico). During the 2000s, 6.1 million ha/yr were affected by harvest, another 1.0 million ha/yr were converted to other land uses through gross deforestation, and 0.4 million ha/yr were degraded. Thus about 1.0% of North America fs forests experienced some form of anthropogenic disturbance each year. However, due to harvest recovery, afforestation, and reforestation, the total forest area on the continent has been roughly stable during the decade. On average, about 110 m3 of roundwood volume was extracted per hectare harvested across the continent. Patterns of extraction vary among the three countries, with U.S. and Canadian activity dominated by partial and clear ]cut harvest, respectively, and activity in Mexico dominated by conversion (deforestation) for agriculture. Temporal trends in harvest and clearing may be affected by economic variables, technology, and forest policy decisions. While overall rates of extraction appear fairly stable in all three countries since the 1980s, harvest within the United States has shifted toward the southern United States and away from the Pacific Northwest.

  17. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, I.T.; Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The highly variable timing of streamflow in snowmelt-dominated basins across western North America is an important consequence, and indicator, of climate fluctuations. Changes in the timing of snowmelt-derived streamflow from 1948 to 2002 were investigated in a network of 302 western North America gauges by examining the center of mass for flow, spring pulse onset dates, and seasonal fractional flows through trend and principal component analyses. Statistical analysis of the streamflow timing measures with Pacific climate indicators identified local and key large-scale processes that govern the regionally coherent parts of the changes and their relative importance. Widespread and regionally coherent trends toward earlier onsets of springtime snowmelt and streamflow have taken place across most of western North America, affecting an area that is much larger than previously recognized. These timing changes have resulted in increasing fractions of annual flow occurring earlier in the water year by 1-4 weeks. The immediate (or proximal) forcings for the spatially coherent parts of the year-to-year fluctuations and longer-term trends of streamflow timing have been higher winter and spring temperatures. Although these temperature changes are partly controlled by the decadal-scale Pacific climate mode [Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)], a separate and significant part of the variance is associated with a springtime warming trend that spans the PDO phases. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  18. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  19. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  20. A revised estimate of Pacific-North America motion and implications for Western North America plate boundary zone tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.

    1987-01-01

    Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.

  1. Population size of snowy plovers breeding in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Susan M.; Lyons, James E.; Andres, Brad A.; T-Smith, Elise Elliot; Palacios, Eduardo; Cavitt, John F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Fellows, Suzanne D.; Maty, Kendra; Howe, William H.; Mellink, Eric; Melvin, Stefani; Zimmerman, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) may be one of the rarest shorebirds in North America yet a comprehensive assessment of their abundance and distribution has not been completed. During 2007 and 2008, 557 discrete wetlands were surveyed and nine additional large wetland complexes sampled in México and the USA. From these surveys, a population of 23,555 (95% CI = 17,299 – 29,859) breeding Snowy Plovers was estimated. Combining the estimate with information from areas not surveyed, the total North American population was assessed at 25,869 (95% CI = 18,917 – 32,173). Approximately 42% of all breeding Snowy Plovers in North America resided at two sites (Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma), and 33% of all these were on wetlands in the Great Basin (including Great Salt Lake). Also, coastal habitats in central and southern Texas supported large numbers of breeding plovers. New breeding sites were discovered in interior deserts and highlands and along the Pacific coast of México; approximately 9% of the North American breeding population occurred in México. Because of uncertainties about effects of climate change and current stresses to breeding habitats, the species should be a management and conservation priority. Periodic monitoring should be undertaken at important sites to ensure high quality habitat is available to support the Snowy Plover population.

  2. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North America” means those waters of North America which are defined in § 42.05-40, and in the exception...

  3. Red pandas (Mammalia, Carnivora: Parailurus) in the biomes of North Eurasia and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Kalmykov, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of the Pliocene red panda ( Parailurus) in the West Transbaikal area, as well as Asian raccoons in North Eurasia and North America, indicates that forested areas with bamboo bushes were wide-spread in the Holarctic during the Neogene. During the Late Pliocene, due to a gradual cooling of the climate, altiplanation, and other factors, their habitat started disintegrating, and red pandas began dying out, surviving only in China.

  4. Impact of Pinewood Nematode in North America: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Bergdahl, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, pinewood nematode (PWN), is the most serious pest of pine forests in Japan, but in North America its role in pine wilt disease is still being studied. The PWN is known to infest many species of Pinus, with P. nigra, P. sylvestris, and P. thunbergii the most susceptible in the eastern United States. Because of its potential, several European countries (Finland, Norway, and Sweden) and Korea have established embargoes against the importation of coniferous wood from regions of the world known to be infested with the PWN. Although the PWN is not considered an economic pest in North American forests, the recent embargoes have established an impact on current forest management practices and an economic impact on North American export trade. PMID:19290210

  5. Future Changes in Snowpack over North America from NARCCAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, R. R.; Mearns, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    As global temperatures rise, snow resources over North America are predicted to change in significant ways. Long-term changes in the timing of the snow season and amount of snow will negatively impact natural ecosystems and the human use of snow resources for water storage, hydroelectric power production, irrigation and recreation. Here we examine future changes in snowpack (snow water equivalent, SWE) using the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP, Mearns et al. 2013) suite of regional climate models (RCMs). These models are intended for use in climate process studies as well as climate change impacts and adaptation studies. SWE from the current climate simulations of the NARCCAP models is compared against an ensemble of off-the-shelf, gridded "observation based" SWE products compiled from a number of sources (satellite, reanalysis, snow-pack models, gridded observations). During winter, the RCMs are found to overestimate SWE in the mountains of western North America. Also, simulated snow tends to stay on the ground for longer than observed in mountainous regions. By mid-Century, the NARCCAP RCMs predict that winter SWE amounts will decrease dramatically over most of North America. The only exception to this is in northern Canada, where warmer temperatures mean it is no longer "too cold to snow" and SWE amounts increase. In some regions, such as the Southern Rockies, the models suggest that decreases in SWE are linked to changes in both precipitation type (transition from snow to rain) and an increase in snowmelt. In other areas, such as New England, the processes driving changes in SWE are less clear. In addition to changes in winter snowpack amounts, the NARCCAP models show that the snow season (defined here as the time with measurable snow on the ground) will decrease substantially. In the future peak snow amounts are expected to occur earlier in the season, and significant snowmelt will happen earlier in spring. These changes will

  6. Webinar Presentation: Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China, was given at the STAR Black Carbon 2016 Webinar Series: Accounting for Impact, Emissions, and Uncertainty held on Nov. 7, 2016.

  7. Interdisciplinarity in the teaching of demography in North America.

    PubMed

    Thomlinson, R

    1983-06-01

    Demography has always been interdisciplinary, and this multiplicity of orientations seems inevitable given the complex nature of demography, i.e., exploration of the causes and consequences of changes in fertility, mortality, and migration. In addition to the 3 fundamental barriers, ancillary ones force demographers to be wide ranging. These variables include age, sex, race, place of birth, ethnic status, language, religion, marital status, education, literacy, employment, occupation, and income. Aside from its historical development, its basic variables, and its many auxiliary factors, a 4th contributor to the breadth of demography is its status as a service discipline. Its discoveries and explanations underlie every social science and offer information to other fields. A 5th contributor to multidisciplinarity is the fact that demographic variables are both independent and dependent in causal sequences. Yet, despite this transdisciplinary character, most demographers work only within their own disciplinary cocoon. Thus, there is a quasiparadoxical situation of a field that is inherently cross-disciplinary and yet whose members are nearly all undisciplinary. Practical restrictions on multidisciplinary include lack of access to others' tools or, given access, avoiding misunderstanding them and thus producing incomplete or misleading results; and the organization of universities and government agencies into semiautonomous departments. The existing system calls for narrow specialists who complement each other. The teaching of population in North America is conducted on 2 levels: college undergraduate and postgraduate. Undergraduate courses often are broadly defined and designed to serve the needs of students from a variety of departments. In many large schools several departments have their own courses. In either situation, the degree of interdisciplinarity may be discretionary with each instructor. Graduate courses should be designed to give the students usable

  8. Dynamical Downscaling over the CORDEX North America Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Simulations have been performed with RegCM4.4 over the CORDEX North America domain using grid spacings of 50 km and 25 km, and a range of model physics options. Each simulation was for the period 1989-2009 using ERA-Interim reanalysis data for initial and boundary conditions. Sensitivity to model physics was found to be much smaller than in a similar suite of simulations over the Central America domain. This is hypothesized to result from the greater control by synoptic-scale circulation systems in the mid-latitude North America domain. The physical significance of differences in results between model configurations was evaluated by comparison to the differences arising from internal variability, produced by holding the model configuration constant and lagging the start date for the simulation. Internal variability was found to be very small for this domain. We infer from this result that in most cases differences between model configurations can be reliably assessed by performing only one simulation with each configuration.

  9. North America carbon dioxide sources and sinks: magnitude, attribution, and uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    King, Anthony W.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; West, Tristram O.; Post, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    North America is both a source and sink of atmospheric CO2. Sources, predominately fossil-fuel combustion in the United States along with contributions from deforestation in Mexico, add CO2 to the atmosphere. Most North America ecosystems, particularly regrowing forests in the United States, are sinks for atmospheric CO2. CO2 is removed from the atmosphere in photosynthesis, converted into biomass and stored as carbon in vegetation, soil and wood products. Fossil-fuel emissions dominate the North American source-sink balance. North America is a net source of atmospheric CO2 with ecosystem sinks balancing approximately 35% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from North America.

  10. Terrane Stations: intra-oceanic subduction assembled western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.; Mihalynuk, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    The western quarter of North America consists of accreted terranes, crustal blocks that were added to the margin in a series of collisions over the past 200 million years - but why? The most widely accepted explanation posits a scenario analogous to Andean subduction, with these terranes conveyed to the continental margin while the oceanic Farallon plate subducted under it. Yet purely Andean-style subduction under North America is questionable as a terrane delivery mechanism, since no comparable accretion sequence took place along the South American margin, and since North American terranes are of very varied provenance. We consider this geological question directly related to a geodynamical one: Why has it been so difficult to reconcile - even on the largest scale - the geometries and locations of slabs in the lower-mantle, as imaged by seismic tomography, with Cretaceous plate reconstructions of the North American west coast (unless anomalous mantle rheology or ad hoc shifts of absolute reference frame are invoked)? This problem was recognized soon after the discovery of the massive, lower-mantle "Farallon slabs" by Grand (1994), but has recently been aggravated by the discovery of additional, more westerly deep slabs (Sigloch et al. 2008), thanks to USArray. Not all of these slabs can be Farallon, unless very non-vertical and/or uneven slab sinking behavior is allowed for. As a joint solution, we offer a radical reinterpretation of paleogeography and test it quantitatively: The seas west of Cretaceous North America must have resembled today's western Pacific. The Farallon and two more plates subducted into the intra-oceanic trenches of a vast archipelago in the eastern Panthalassa (proto-Pacific) ocean, both from the east and the west. The trenches remained stationary throughout much of Jurassic and Cretaceous times, depositing the massive, near-vertical slab walls imaged in the lower mantle today. On their overriding plates, island arcs and subduction complexes

  11. Echinococcus multilocularis in North America: the great unknown

    PubMed Central

    Massolo, Alessandro; Liccioli, Stefano; Budke, Christine; Klein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies have begun to shed light on the distribution and genetic characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), in North America. Recent findings indicate that the parasite is likely expanding its range in the central region of the United States and Canada and that invasions of European strains might have occurred. In our review, we present the available data on E. multilocularis infections in wild and domestic animals and humans in North America and emphasize the lack of knowledge on the distribution of the parasite in wild and domestic hosts. Furthermore, we stress the need to better understand the complexity of host communities and their roles in shaping the transmission and distribution of the parasite. We hypothesize that a lack of knowledge about AE by North American physicians might result in the misdiagnosis of cases and an underestimation of disease incidence. The endemic presence of the parasite in urban areas and a recent human case in Alberta, Canada, suggest that the scientific community may need to reconsider the local public health risks, re-assess past cases that might have been overlooked and increase surveillance efforts to identify new cases of human AE. PMID:25531581

  12. Automotive Mg Research and Development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Joseph A.; Jackman, Jennifer; Li, Naiyi; Osborne, Richard J.; Powell, Bob R.; Sklad, Philip S

    2006-01-01

    Expanding world economic prosperity and probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades require efforts to increase the efficiency of, and the development of alternatives to, petroleum-based fuels used in automotive transportation. North America has been aggressively pursuing both approaches for over ten years. Mainly as a result of lower prices due to global sourcing, magnesium has recently emerged as a serious candidate for lightweighting, and thus increasing the fuel efficiency of, automotive transportation. Automotive vehicles produced in North America currently use more Mg than vehicles produced elsewhere in the world, but the amounts per vehicle are very small in comparison to other materials such as steel, aluminum and plastics. The reasons, besides price, are primarily a less-developed state of technology for Mg in automotive transportation applications and lack of familiarity by the vehicle manufacturers with the material. This paper reviews some publicly-known, recent, present and future North American research and development activities in Mg for automotive applications.

  13. Comparisons of Long-Term Schumann Resonance Records in Europe and North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satori, G.; Williams, E. R.; Zieger, B.; Boldi, R.; Heckman, S.; Rothkin, K.

    1999-01-01

    Two stations at a distance comparable with the wavelength in the Schumann resonance (SR) frequency range, one in Europe (Nagycenk, Hungary) and one in North America (West Greenwich, Rhode Island) have simultaneously monitored the natural vertical electric and horizontal magnetic field components in the frequency range of 3-25 Hz. This is a unique opportunity, as Schumann resonance stations are scarce and even fewer station have records with 5-6 year durations. The main purpose of this paper is to make comparisons in the SR time series measured simultaneously at the two field site, thereby providing access to global behavior on the seasonal and interannual time scales. The comparative measurements described here point out distinct differences in the nature of convection in South America and in Africa and reveal new aspects about the behavior of tropical continental convection on the ENSO time scale.

  14. 75 FR 28297 - Sychip, Inc., a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Murata Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sychip, Inc., a Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Murata Electronics North... Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA). Since January 1, 2010, workers separated from employment at the... Electronics North America, Inc. (MENA). Prior to January 1, 2010, workers of the subject firm had their...

  15. Catalogue of Geadephaga (Coleoptera, Adephaga) of America, north of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract All scientific names of Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, and Carabidae (including cicindelines) recorded from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Available species-group names are listed in their original combinations with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type locality, location of the name-bearing type, and etymology for many patronymic names. In addition, the reference in which a given species-group name is first synonymized is recorded for invalid taxa. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type species with way of fixation, and etymology for most. The reference in which a given genus-group name is first synonymized is recorded for many invalid taxa. Family-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, and type genus. The geographical distribution of all species-group taxa is briefly summarized and their state and province records are indicated. One new genus-group taxon, Randallius new subgenus (type species: Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall, 1838), one new replacement name, Pterostichus amadeus new name for Pterostichus vexatus Bousquet, 1985, and three changes in precedence, Ellipsoptera rubicunda (Harris, 1911) for Ellipsoptera marutha (Dow, 1911), Badister micans LeConte, 1844 for Badister ocularis Casey, 1920, and Agonum deplanatum Ménétriés, 1843 for Agonum fallianum (Leng, 1919), are proposed. Five new genus-group synonymies and 65 new species-group synonymies, one new species-group status, and 12 new combinations (see Appendix 5) are established. The work also includes a discussion of the notable private North American carabid collections, a synopsis of all extant world geadephagan tribes and subfamilies, a brief faunistic assessment of the fauna, a list of valid species-group taxa, a list of North American fossil Geadephaga (Appendix 1), a list of North American Geadephaga larvae described or illustrated (Appendix 2), a list of Geadephaga species

  16. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  17. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI... America, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through...

  18. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  20. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  1. PAGES-Powell North America 2k database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, N.

    2014-12-01

    Syntheses of paleoclimate data in North America are essential for understanding long-term spatiotemporal variability in climate and for properly assessing risk on decadal and longer timescales. Existing reconstructions of the past 2,000 years rely almost exclusively on tree-ring records, which can underestimate low-frequency variability and rarely extend beyond the last millennium. Meanwhile, many records from the full spectrum of paleoclimate archives are available and hold the potential of enhancing our understanding of past climate across North America over the past 2000 years. The second phase of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) North America 2k project began in 2014, with a primary goal of assembling these disparate paleoclimate records into a unified database. This effort is currently supported by the USGS Powell Center together with PAGES. Its success requires grassroots support from the community of researchers developing and interpreting paleoclimatic evidence relevant to the past 2000 years. Most likely, fewer than half of the published records appropriate for this database are publicly archived, and far fewer include the data needed to quantify geochronologic uncertainty, or to concisely describe how best to interpret the data in context of a large-scale paleoclimatic synthesis. The current version of the database includes records that (1) have been published in a peer-reviewed journal (including evidence of the record's relationship to climate), (2) cover a substantial portion of the past 2000 yr (>300 yr for annual records, >500 yr for lower frequency records) at relatively high resolution (<50 yr/observation), and (3) have reasonably small and quantifiable age uncertainty. Presently, the database includes records from boreholes, ice cores, lake and marine sediments, speleothems, and tree rings. This poster presentation will display the site locations and basic metadata of the records currently in the database. We invite anyone with interest in

  2. Survey of aircraft icing simulation test facilities in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.

    1981-01-01

    A survey was made of the aircraft icing simulation facilities in North America: there are 12 wind tunnels, 28 engine test facilities, 6 aircraft tankers and 14 low velocity facilities, that perform aircraft icing tests full or part time. The location and size of the facility, its speed and temperature range, icing cloud parameters, and the technical person to contact are surveyed. Results are presented in tabular form. The capabilities of each facility were estimated by its technical contact person. The adequacy of these facilities for various types of icing tests is discussed.

  3. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2011-01-01

    * The newly described fungus, Geomyces destructans, causes an invasive skin infection in bats and is the likely agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS). * With immune system functions and body temperatures reduced during hibernation, bats may be unusually susceptible to a pathogenic fungus such as G. destructans. * WNS was first observed in a popular show cave near Albany, New York, leading some investigators to suspect that a visitor inadvertently introduced G. destructans at this site, triggering a wider WNS outbreak in North America. * Biologists trying to manage WNS within North American bat populations face major challenges, including the variety of susceptible host species, incredible dispersal capabilities of bats, difficulties in treating such populations, and persistence of the pathogen in their vulnerable underground habitats.

  4. Aerosols from overseas rival domestic emissions over North America.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbin; Remer, Lorraine A; Chin, Mian; Bian, Huisheng; Tan, Qian; Yuan, Tianle; Zhang, Yan

    2012-08-03

    Many types of aerosols have lifetimes long enough for their transcontinental transport, making them potentially important contributors to air quality and climate change in remote locations. We estimate that the mass of aerosols arriving at North American shores from overseas is comparable with the total mass of particulates emitted domestically. Curbing domestic emissions of particulates and precursor gases, therefore, is not sufficient to mitigate aerosol impacts in North America. The imported contribution is dominated by dust leaving Asia, not by combustion-generated particles. Thus, even a reduction of industrial emissions of the emerging economies of Asia could be overwhelmed by an increase of dust emissions due to changes in meteorological conditions and potential desertification.

  5. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade.

  6. New digital data base helps to map North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol A.; Pilkington, Mark; Cuevas, Alejandro; Urrutia, Jaime

    A new effort is underway to compile an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly data base and map for the North American continent by 2002. This program is a joint effort by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales de Mexico (CRM). An integrated, readily accessible, modern digital data base of magnetic anomaly data spanning North America will be a powerful tool for evaluating the structure, geologic processes, and tectonic evolution of the continent, and may also be used to help resolve societal and scientific issues that span national boundaries. Maps derived from the digital data base will provide a view of continentalscale trends not available in individual data sets, help link widely separated areas of out-crop, and unify disparate geologic studies.

  7. Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

    The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

  8. Who Pioneered the Use of Antipsychotics in North America?

    PubMed Central

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Neuroleptics were introduced into North America 60 years ago. The credit for this advance is generally accorded to Heinz Lehmann. I sought to explore whether Lehmann really was the first North American psychiatrist to study the effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and to provide a more balanced view of its application in a clinical context. Method: I searched for historical documents and published articles in several libraries and interviewed psychiatrists active from 1952–1970. Results: The first article in English was published in the July volume of the Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry in 1954 (n = 71). Another article, written in French by Roland Saucier and published in a journal called Le Saguenay Médical, also described the effects of CPZ on a Canadian psychiatric population in August 1954 (n > 200). However, the first prescription for CPZ was written by Roland Saucier, who brought the product back from Paris after a fellowship there. Ruth Kajander, in Ontario, was also one of the first prescribers of this drug, following her study of its use in anesthesia and a publication in the proceedings of a symposium. Conclusion: The contents of the 2 naturalistic studies were compared. Lehmann’s study started 1 month before that of Saucier. Lehmann was the first North American psychiatrist to publish an article on CPZ, but Roland Saucier nevertheless made an important contribution, being the first to prescribe this drug in North America and reporting results for a study with a sample size 3 times that of Lehmann’s study. PMID:25886681

  9. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  10. INTEX-NA: Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Jacob, D.; Pfister, L.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    INTEX-NA is an integrated atmospheric chemistry field experiment to be performed over North America using the NASA DC-8 and P-3B aircraft as its primary platforms. It seeks to understand the exchange of chemicals and aerosols between continents and the global troposphere. The constituents of interest are ozone and its precursors (hydrocarbons, NOX and HOX), aerosols, and the major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). INTEX-NA will provide the observational database needed to quantify inflow, outflow, and transformations of chemicals over North America. INTEX-NA is to be performed in two phases. Phase A will take place during the period of May-August 2004 and Phase B during March-June 2006. Phase A is in summer when photochemistry is most intense and climatic issues involving aerosols and carbon cycle are most pressing, and Phase B is in spring when Asian transport to North America is at its peak. INTEX-NA will coordinate its activities with concurrent measurement programs including satellites (e. g. Terra, Aura, Envisat), field activities undertaken by the North American Carbon Program (NACP), and other U.S. and international partners. However, it is being designed as a 'stand alone' mission such that its successful execution is not contingent on other programs. Synthesis of the ensemble of observation from surface, airborne, and space platforms, with the help of global/regional models is an important It is anticipated that approximately 175 flight hours for each of the aircraft (DC-8 and P-3B) will be required for each Phase. Principal operational sites are tentatively selected to be Bangor, ME; Wallops Island, VA; Seattle, WA; Rhinelander, WI; Lancaster, CA; and New Orleans, LA. These coastal and continental sites can support large missions and are suitable for INTEX-NA objectives. The experiment will be supported by forecasts from meteorological and chemical models, satellite observations, surface networks, and enhanced O3,-sonde releases. In addition to

  11. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L.; Hanner, Robert H.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required. PMID:21670289

  12. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  13. One Health training, research, and outreach in North America

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Cheryl; Kaplan, Bruce; Logan, Jenae E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The One Health (OH) concept, formerly referred to as ‘One Medicine’ in the later part of the 20th century, has gained exceptional popularity in the early 21st century, and numerous academic and non-academic institutions have developed One Health programs. Objectives To summarize One Health training, research, and outreach activities originating in North America. Methods We used data from extensive electronic records maintained by the One Health Commission (OHC) (www.onehealthcommission.org/) and the One Health Initiative (www.onehealthinitiative.com/) and from web-based searches, combined with the corporate knowledge of the authors and their professional contacts. Finally, a call was released to members of the OHC's Global One Health Community listserv, asking that they populate a Google document with information on One Health training, research, and outreach activities in North American academic and non-academic institutions. Results A current snapshot of North American One Health training, research, and outreach activities as of August 2016 has evolved. Conclusions It is clear that the One Health concept has gained considerable recognition during the first decade of the 21st century, with numerous current training and research activities carried out among North American academic, non-academic, government, corporate, and non-profit entities. PMID:27906120

  14. Range expansion by Passer montanus in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, J.L.; Roberts, C.P.; Allen, Craig R.; Brown, M.B.; Moulton, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passer montanus became established in a small area of central North America following its introduction in 1870. P. montanus underwent minimal range expansion in the first 100 years following introduction. However, the North American population of P. montanus is now growing in size and expanding in geographic distribution, having expanded approximately 125 km to the north by 1970. We quantify the distance of spread by P. montanus from its introduction site in the greater St. Louis, Missouri-Illinois, USA area, using distributional (presence) data from the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count surveys for the period of 1951 to 2014. Linear regressions of the average annual range center of P. montanus confirmed significant shifts to the north at a rate of 3.3 km/year (P < 0.001) km/year. Linear regressions of the linear and angular distance of range center indicates significant northern movement (change in angle of mean range center; P < 0.001) since 1951. Our results quantify the extent of a northward range expansion, and suggesting a probable spread of this species northward.

  15. Unrecognized Ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts Leads to Congenital Toxoplasmosis and Causes Epidemics in North America

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Kenneth; Hill, Dolores; Mui, Ernest; Wroblewski, Kristen; Karrison, Theodore; Dubey, J. P.; Sautter, Mari; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Withers, Shawn; Swisher, Charles; Heydemann, Peter; Hosten, Tiffany; Babiarz, Jane; Lee, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Linn, on pages 1090–1.) Background. Congenital toxoplasmosis presents as severe, life-altering disease in North America. If mothers of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis could be identified by risks, it would provide strong support for educating pregnant women about risks, to eliminate this disease. Conversely, if not all risks are identifiable, undetectable risks are suggested. A new test detecting antibodies to sporozoites demonstrated that oocysts were the predominant source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 4 North American epidemics and in mothers of children in the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS). This novel test offered the opportunity to determine whether risk factors or demographic characteristics could identify mothers infected with oocysts. Methods. Acutely infected mothers and their congenitally infected infants were evaluated, including in-person interviews concerning risks and evaluation of perinatal maternal serum samples. Results. Fifty-nine (78%) of 76 mothers of congenitally infected infants in NCCCTS had primary infection with oocysts. Only 49% of these mothers identified significant risk factors for sporozoite acquisition. Socioeconomic status, hometown size, maternal clinical presentations, and ethnicity were not reliable predictors. Conclusions. Undetected contamination of food and water by oocysts frequently causes human infections in North America. Risks are often unrecognized by those infected. Demographic characteristics did not identify oocyst infections. Thus, although education programs describing hygienic measures may be beneficial, they will not suffice to prevent the suffering and economic consequences associated with congenital toxoplasmosis. Only a vaccine or implementation of systematic serologic testing of pregnant women and newborns, followed by treatment, will prevent most congenital toxoplasmosis in North America. PMID:22021924

  16. Ambient seismic noise tomography and structure of eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chuntao; Langston, Charles A.

    2008-03-01

    The time derivative of cross-correlation functions (CCF) of ambient noise fields recorded by two stations can be approximated as the Green's Function (GF) between the stations. The CCFs are thus used as Peudo-GFs (dominated by surface waves) to invert for group velocity structure in eastern North America. Stations from two regional networks deployed to monitor the New Madrid Seismic Zone and eastern Tennessee seismic zone, together with stations of the US National Seismic Network, greatly improve tomographic ray coverage. The short period (T = 5 s) group velocity map shows strong correlations with the depth to Precambrian basement. Many subtle local structures can be clearly identified from the velocity map, including the Ozark uplift, Cincinnati Arch, Nashville Dome and the Blue Ridge province of the Appalachians showing relatively high group velocity. The long period (T = 15 s) group velocity map shows strong correlations with regional geology. Ancient rift basins, such as the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) system, the Reelfoot rift, the Oklahoma Aulacogen and the Eastern Continent Rift, are associated with low velocity belts along their rift axes. We also find that all major seismic zones in eastern North America, such as the New Madrid seismic zone, Eastern Tennessee seismic zone as well as Ouachita Orogen seismic zone, are approximately located at transition zones separating velocity highs and lows. This observation suggests that those seismic zones may reflect the reactivation of ancient faults associated with continental rift and collision zones.

  17. Conservation of native Pacific trout diversity in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Dunham, Jason; García de León, Francisco J; Gresswell, Robert E.; Luna, Arturo Ruiz; Taylor, Eric B.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Rogers, Kevin H.; Escalante, Marco A; Keeley, Ernest R; Temple, Gabriel; Williams, Jack E.; Matthews, Kathleen; Pierce, Ron; Mayden, Richard L.; Kovach, Ryan; Garza, John Carlos; Fausch, Kurt D.

    2016-01-01

    Pacific trout Oncorhynchus spp. in western North America are strongly valued in ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural views, and have been the subject of substantial research and conservation efforts. Despite this, the understanding of their evolutionary histories, overall diversity, and challenges to their conservation is incomplete. We review the state of knowledge on these important issues, focusing on Pacific trout in the genus Oncorhynchus. Although most research on salmonid fishes emphasizes Pacific salmon, we focus on Pacific trout because they share a common evolutionary history, and many taxa in western North America have not been formally described, particularly in the southern extent of their ranges. Research in recent decades has led to the revision of many hypotheses concerning the origin and diversification of Pacific trout throughout their range. Although there has been significant success at addressing past threats to Pacific trout, contemporary and future threats represented by nonnative species, land and water use activities, and climate change pose challenges and uncertainties. Ultimately, conservation of Pacific trout depends on how well these issues are understood and addressed, and on solutions that allow these species to coexist with a growing scope of human influences.

  18. Carbon Consequences of Positive NDVI Anomalies in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neigh, C. S.; Carvalhais, N.; Collatz, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    We present a modeling approach to investigate the carbon consequences of ecosystem disturbance and land cover dynamics in regions of increasing NDVI in North America, which have altered terrestrial patterns of net ecosystem productivity from 1982-2005. Terrestrial carbon fixation and respiration is substantially affected by components of global change (e.g. land cover land use change, and changes in climate variables e.g. warming and drying). The Carnigie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) Biosphere model was run on a monthly time interval to simulate seasonal patterns in net plant carbon fixation, biomass and nutrient allocation, litterfall, soil nitrogen mineralization, and microbial CO2 production. CASA is a bucket type model, which allocates carbon between pools based on logarithmic scalars derived from in situ studies of terrestrial mechanistic processes. Carbon was reallocated between pools based on anthropogenic and abiotic disturbances identified with ancillary and remote sensing data (Landsat, Ikonos, aerial photography, agriculture production statistics, and fire and logging data). We developed modules for CASA and simulated expansion of irrigated agriculture, logging and subsequent recovery, warming in the northern latitudes, and fire with subsequent recovery. Simulations with modules initiated predicted altered carbon allocation in ecosystems with disturbance, and sequestration increased in some of our selected study sites during the 24 year (1982-2005) period while others experienced increased soil respiration. The regions investigated represent spatially complex transient pools of carbon in North America vegetation altered by abiotic and anthropogenic land cover conversions which contributed to the terrestrial Northern Hemisphere sink.

  19. Managing white-tailed deer: eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that coyotes (Canis latrans) are the greatest source of natural mortality for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates (<3 months old). With the range expansion of coyotes eastward in North America, many stakeholders are concerned that coyote predation may be affecting deer populations adversely. We hypothesized that declines in neonate survival, perhaps caused by increasing coyote predation, could be offset by adjusting or eliminating antlerless harvest allocations. We used a stochastic, age-based population simulation model to evaluate combinations of low neonate survival rates, severe winters, and low adult deer survival rates to determine the effectiveness of reduced antlerless harvest at stabilizing deer populations. We found that even in regions with high winter mortality, reduced antlerless harvest rates could stabilize deer populations with recruitment and survival rates reported in the literature. When neonate survival rates were low (25%) and yearling and adult female survival rates were reduced by 10%, elimination of antlerless harvests failed to stabilize populations. Our results suggest increased deer mortality from coyotes can be addressed through reduced hunting harvest of adult female deer in most circumstances throughout eastern North America. However, specific knowledge of adult female survival rates is important for making management decisions in areas where both neonate and adult survival may be affected by predation and other mortality factors.

  20. Holocene Millennial-Scale Climate Variability in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, P. J.; Castiglia, P. J.; Meyer, G. A.; Armour, J.

    2002-12-01

    We compare several high-resolution paleoclimatic records from western North America that indicate near-synchronous millennial-scale climate variability through much of the Holocene. A Holocene pluvial lake system in northern Chihuahua, Mexico alternates between lake highstands representing cooler and wetter conditions and dry playa conditions representing warmer, drier climates. Alpine lakes and bogs from the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico record a series of glacial and periglacial events (colder, effectively wetter climates) that alternate with warmer, drier climates over the late Pleistocene and the Holocene. Forest fire-related sedimentation and alluvial activity from northeast Yellowstone National Park also shows a clear response to millennial-scale climate change during the Holocene. Pulses of fire-related debris flow activity occur during warmer, drier periods that are more prone to droughts. These alternate with cooler, effectively wetter conditions that produce more river discharge and form broad flood plains later preserved as terraces. Pluvial lake highstands in northern Mexico are centered at the following calendar ages: 230 yr B.P., 4.2 ka, 7.4 ka, and 9.3 ka. The northern New Mexico chronology shows cold, effectively wetter climates at the following calendar age midpoints: 200 yr B.P., 3.0 ka, 3.9 ka and 5.7 ka. The Yellowstone chronology shows cold, effectively wetter climates during the following age ranges: 300 to 600 yr B.P., 1.4 to 1.6 ka, 2.8 to 3.1 ka, 3.9 to 4.3 ka, and 5.5 to 6.0 ka. In the Rocky Mountain records, the millennial-scale events are more prominent during the late Holocene Neoglacial interval than during the early to middle Holocene. These climate events in western North America reflect widespread temperature anomalies and to a lesser extent, precipitation anomalies. The cold phases of these events correlate with a North Atlantic record of ice-rafting and cool events (Bond et al., 2001) and suggest that

  1. Participatory Research in North America; A Perspective on Participatory Research in Latin America; Participatory Research in Southern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…

  2. Diversity of birds in eastern North America shifts north with global warming.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kenneth W; McClure, Christopher J W; Rolek, Brian W; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of diversity along latitudinal and elevation gradients, and the coupling of this phenomenon with climate, is a pattern long recognized in ecology. Hypothesizing that climate change may have altered this pattern over time, we investigated whether the aggregate of reported northward shifts of bird ranges in North America is now detectable in community-level indices such as richness and diversity. Here, we report that bird diversity in North America increased and shifted northward between 1966 and 2010. This change in the relationship of diversity to the latitudinal gradient is primarily influenced by range expansions of species that winter in the eastern United States as opposed to species which migrate to this area from wintering grounds in the tropics. This increase in diversity and its northward expansion is best explained by an increase in regional prebreeding season temperature over the past 44 years.

  3. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  4. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Caroline A E

    2005-08-23

    Because of a dearth of Cenozoic grass fossils, the timing of the taxonomic diversification of modern subclades within the grass family (Poaceae) and the rise to ecological dominance of open-habitat grasses remain obscure. Here, I present data from 99 Eocene to Miocene phytolith assemblages from the North American continental interior (Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana/Idaho), constituting the only high-resolution mid-Cenozoic record of grasses. Analyses of these assemblages show that open-habitat grasses had undergone considerable taxonomic diversification by the earliest Oligocene (34 million years ago) but that they did not become ecologically dominant in North America until 7-11 million years later (Late Oligocene or Early Miocene). This pattern of decoupling suggests that environmental changes (e.g., climate changes), rather than taxonomic radiations within Poaceae, provided the key opportunity for open-habitat grasses to expand in North America.

  5. Storm surge along the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, Peter D.; Flick, Reinhard E.; Miller, Arthur J.

    2017-01-01

    Storm surge is an important factor that contributes to coastal flooding and erosion. Storm surge magnitude along eastern North Pacific coasts results primarily from low sea level pressure (SLP). Thus, coastal regions where high surge occurs identify the dominant locations where intense storms make landfall, controlled by storm track across the North Pacific. Here storm surge variability along the Pacific coast of North America is characterized by positive nontide residuals at a network of tide gauge stations from southern California to Alaska. The magnitudes of mean and extreme storm surge generally increase from south to north, with typically high amplitude surge north of Cape Mendocino and lower surge to the south. Correlation of mode 1 nontide principal component (PC1) during winter months (December-February) with anomalous SLP over the northeast Pacific indicates that the dominant storm landfall region is along the Cascadia/British Columbia coast. Although empirical orthogonal function spatial patterns show substantial interannual variability, similar correlation patterns of nontide PC1 over the 1948-1975 and 1983-2014 epochs with anomalous SLP suggest that, when considering decadal-scale time periods, storm surge and associated tracks have generally not changed appreciably since 1948. Nontide PC1 is well correlated with PC1 of both anomalous SLP and modeled wave height near the tide gauge stations, reflecting the interrelationship between storms, surge, and waves. Weaker surge south of Cape Mendocino during the 2015-2016 El Niño compared with 1982-1983 may result from changes in Hadley circulation. Importantly from a coastal impacts perspective, extreme storm surge events are often accompanied by high waves.

  6. Fossil and genomic evidence constrains the timing of bison arrival in North America.

    PubMed

    Froese, Duane; Stiller, Mathias; Heintzman, Peter D; Reyes, Alberto V; Zazula, Grant D; Soares, André E R; Meyer, Matthias; Hall, Elizabeth; Jensen, Britta J L; Arnold, Lee J; MacPhee, Ross D E; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-03-28

    The arrival of bison in North America marks one of the most successful large-mammal dispersals from Asia within the last million years, yet the timing and nature of this event remain poorly determined. Here, we used a combined paleontological and paleogenomic approach to provide a robust timeline for the entry and subsequent evolution of bison within North America. We characterized two fossil-rich localities in Canada's Yukon and identified the oldest well-constrained bison fossil in North America, a 130,000-y-old steppe bison, Bison cf. priscus We extracted and sequenced mitochondrial genomes from both this bison and from the remains of a recently discovered, ∼120,000-y-old giant long-horned bison, Bison latifrons, from Snowmass, Colorado. We analyzed these and 44 other bison mitogenomes with ages that span the Late Pleistocene, and identified two waves of bison dispersal into North America from Asia, the earliest of which occurred ∼195-135 thousand y ago and preceded the morphological diversification of North American bison, and the second of which occurred during the Late Pleistocene, ∼45-21 thousand y ago. This chronological arc establishes that bison first entered North America during the sea level lowstand accompanying marine isotope stage 6, rejecting earlier records of bison in North America. After their invasion, bison rapidly colonized North America during the last interglaciation, spreading from Alaska through continental North America; they have been continuously resident since then.

  7. Opportunities for Small Geothermal Projects: Rural Power for Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.

    1998-11-30

    The objective of this report is to provide information on small geothermal project (less than 5 MW) opportunities in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Philippines. This overview of issues facing small geothermal projects is intended especially for those who are not already familiar with small geothermal opportunities. This is a summary of issues and opportunities and serves as a starting point in determining next steps to develop this market.

  8. [CO2 Budget and Atmospheric Rectification (COBRA) Over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study was to assess terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using an air-borne study. The study was designed to address the measurement gap between plot-scale direct flux measurements and background hemispheric-scale constraints and to refine techniques for measuring terrestrial fluxes at regional to continental scales. The initial funded effort (reported on here) was to involve two air-borne campaigns over North America, one in summer and one in winter. Measurements for COBRA (given the acronym C02BAR in the initial proposal) were conducted from the University of North Dakota Citation 11, a twin-engine jet aircraft capable of profiling from the surface to 12 km and cruising for up to 4 hours and 175m/s. Onboard instrumentation measured concentrations of CO2, CO, and H2O, and meteorological parameters at high rates. In addition, two separate flask sampling systems collected discrete samples for laboratory analysis of CO2,CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, H2, 13CO2, C18O16O,O2/N2, and Ar/N2. The project involved a collaboration between a number of institutions, including (but not limited to) Harvard, NOAA-CMDL, the University of North Dakota, and Scripps.

  9. Wind Power Across Native America: Opportunities, Challenges, and Status (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.; Gough, R.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.

    2009-05-01

    Wind projects on tribal lands are differennt, and this poster outlines the ways in which these projects differ, a summary of existing and pending Native American Wind Projects (50 kW and larger), and tribal wind opportunities and issues.

  10. World's highest tides: Hypertidal coastal systems in North America, South America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Allen W.

    2013-02-01

    Hypertidal systems can be defined as areas where spring tides have ranges greater than 6 m. These very high tidal ranges results in unique patterns of sedimentation within hypertidal estuaries. Such systems are not common but they do occur on a number of continents. This report will discuss six areas that have the highest tides in the world. North America hypertidal systems occur within Cook Inlet in Alaska, USA, Leaf Basin in Ungava Bay, Quebec Province, Canada, and the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada. In South America, the Straits of Magellan and associated Atlantic coastal settings exhibit hypertidal conditions. European hypertidal systems include Bristol Channel and Severn estuary in southwest England and the Gulf of St. Malo in Normandy, France. These six areas have the highest tides in the world and spring tidal ranges that regularly exceed 10 m. All the six areas can be divided into intertidal sedimentological zones. Zone 1 is the outermost zone and contains longitudinal bars. Zone 2 exhibits laterally extensive sand flats. Zone 3 includes the innermost extent of tides and estuarine point bars. Annual and neap-spring cycles have been documented in Zone 3 and are probably the most indicative features of hypertidal systems. The North American systems occur in high-latitude cold climates where winter ice can have a minor or major impact on the development of sedimentary facies. Conversely, the European and Patagonia systems have climates minimal ice formation.

  11. North Pacific atmospheric rivers and their influence on western North America at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Risi, Camille; Tripati, Aradhna E.

    2017-01-01

    Southwestern North America was wetter than present during the Last Glacial Maximum. The causes of increased water availability have been recently debated, and quantitative precipitation reconstructions have been underutilized in model-data comparisons. We investigate the climatological response of North Pacific atmospheric rivers to the glacial climate using model simulations and paleoclimate reconstructions. Atmospheric moisture transport due to these features shifted toward the southeast relative to modern. Enhanced southwesterly moisture delivery between Hawaii and California increased precipitation in the southwest while decreasing it in the Pacific Northwest, in agreement with reconstructions. Coupled climate models that are best able to reproduce reconstructed precipitation changes simulate decreases in sea level pressure across the eastern North Pacific and show the strongest southeastward shifts of moisture transport relative to a modern climate. Precipitation increases of ˜1 mm d-1, due largely to atmospheric rivers, are of the right magnitude to account for reconstructed pluvial conditions in parts of southwestern North America during the Last Glacial Maximum.

  12. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Filipino female in North America.

    PubMed

    Ng, Daniel; Frazee, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been described in Southeast Asia, but has only recently begun to emerge in North America. The hypermucoviscous strain of K. pneumoniae is a particularly virulent strain known to cause devastatingly invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Here we present the first known case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae in North America.

  13. Combining MISR and MODIS data to automatically catalogue smoke plumes in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzoni, Dominic; Tong, Lingling; Diner, David

    2005-01-01

    We are in the early stages of work on EPA task to investigate the effects of fires on air quality in North America, led by Jennifer Logan of Harvard University. JPL's contribution to this study is to find thousands of smoke plumes in satellite images of North America, and derive statistics about their geographic distribution, extent, orientation, and injection height.

  14. 78 FR 18372 - TUV Rheinland of North America, Inc.; Expansion of Recognition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration TUV Rheinland of North America, Inc.; Expansion of Recognition....7. DATES: The expansion of recognition becomes effective on March 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... notice of the expansion of recognition of TUV Rheinland of North America, Inc. (``TUV''), as a...

  15. Progress in the classical biological control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...

  16. 78 FR 76408 - BMW of North America, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, Grant of Petition for Decision of... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of Petition. SUMMARY: BMW North America, LLC,\\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG (collectively referred to as BMW),\\2\\ has determined that certain model year (MY) 2012 BMW X3 SAV...

  17. 76 FR 12410 - BMW of North America, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance BMW of North America, LLC (BMW) \\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG, Munich, Germany, has determined that certain BMW vehicles equipped with ``run- flat'' tires do not fully...

  18. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laura M; Wallace, Roberta S; Clyde, Victoria L; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O'Connor, David H; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia.

  19. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura M.; Wallace, Roberta S.; Clyde, Victoria L.; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D.; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O’Connor, David H.; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia. PMID:26983004

  20. A GPS estimate of relative motion between North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Timothy H.; Mao, Ailin

    GPS velocity data are used to estimate the Euler vector describing rigid body motion of North America relative to South America. Assuming the boundary between the North and South American plates is located near the Fifteen Twenty fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic, the Euler vector predicts extension across the Royal Trough up to 1 mm/yr, and convergence across the Barracuda Ridge at about 2 mm/yr, in agreement with geological estimates averaged over tens of millions of years. Further west, convergence between North and South America at rates up to 8 mm/yr may contribute to deformation of the Caribbean plate along its southwest boundary with South America.

  1. Decadal variability of precipitation over Western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, D.R.; Dettinger, M.D.; Diaz, Henry F.; Graham, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Decadal (>7- yr period) variations of precipitation over western North America account for 20%-50% of the variance of annual precipitation. Spatially, the decadal variability is broken into several regional [O(1000 km)] components. These decadal variations are contributed by fluctuations in precipitation from seasons of the year that vary from region to region and that are not necessarily concentrated in the wettest season(s) alone. The precipitation variations are linked to various decadal atmospheric circulation and SST anomaly patterns where scales range from regional to global scales and that emphasize tropical or extratropical connections, depending upon which precipitation region is considered. Further, wet or dry decades are associated with changes in frequency of at least a few short-period circulation 'modes' such as the Pacific-North American pattern. Precipitation fluctuations over the southwestern United States and the Saskatchewan region of western Canada are associated with extensive shifts of sea level pressure and SST anomalies, suggesting that they are components of low-frequency precipitation variability from global-scale climate proceses. Consistent with the global scale of its pressure and SST connection, the Southwest decadal precipitation is aligned with opposing precipitation fluctuations in northern Africa.Decadal (>7-yr period) variations of precipitation over western North America account for 20%-50% of the variance of annual precipitation. Spatially, the decadal variability is broken into several regional [O(1000 km)] components. These decadal variations are contributed by fluctuations in precipitation from seasons of the year that vary from region to region and that are not necessarily concentrated in the wettest season(s) alone. The precipitation variations are linked to various decadal atmospheric circulation and SST anomaly patterns where scales range from regional to global scales and that emphasize tropical or extratropical

  2. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A.; Troyer, Ryan M.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture.

  3. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  4. Catalog of strong motion stations in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, R. W.

    1990-04-01

    The catalog contains information on all strong motion stations operating in Eastern North America known to the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The location, coordinates, installation dates, type of instrument, operator, structure type and size, and site geology are listed for each station. The format of the catalog is patterned after the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 81-664, 'Western Hemisphere Strong-Motion Accelerograph Station List-1980' but the entries have been updated as of January 1990. There are 237 stations listed in the catalog which include 414 recording instruments. One third of these stations are intended to record free-field ground motion while the rest are associated with large engineered structures. The relationship of station location to seismicity is shown in a series of figures and a method is described to predict peak acceleration levels from an earthquake where the magnitude and distance to station are known.

  5. Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses in North America, Europe, and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Fauziah Mohd; de Micco, Philippe; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Coltiviruses are tickborne viruses of the genus Coltivirus. The type species, Colorado tick fever virus (from North America), has been isolated from patients with flulike syndromes, meningitis, encephalitis, and other severe complications. Another coltivirus, Eyach virus, has been isolated from ticks in France and Germany and incriminated in febrile illnesses and neurologic syndromes. Seadornaviruses are endemic in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia and China. The prototype virus of the genus, Banna virus (BAV), has been isolated from many mosquito species, humans with encephalitis, pigs, and cattle. Two other seadornaviruses, Kadipiro and Liao Ning, were isolated only from mosquitoes. The epidemiology of seadornaviruses remains poorly documented. Evidence suggests that BAV is responsible for encephalitis in humans. Infection with BAV may be underreported because it circulates in regions with a high incidence of Japanese encephalitis and could be misdiagnosed as this disease. PMID:16318717

  6. North America: There's never been a slump like this

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The perspectives for petroleum development in North America are the subject of this survey. Observations include: Revised forecast of U.S. drilling calls for 34,028 wells and 165.8 million ft in 1986; Exploration will suffer the worst loss, with activity down as much as 70%; At best, an average of 675 to 725 rigs are expected to be active the second half; Canadian drillers ride roller coaster up on taxes, down on plunging oil prices; Incentives offered by various Canadian governments are a help, but not a cure; Pemex export earnings nosedive, bringing Mexican debt repayment into question; Guatemalan operators resume activity, major production increases planned for '86; Weak oil prices slash Castro's earnings from resale of Soviet-supplied crude oil.

  7. The Terrestrial Eocene-Oligocene Transition in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, Donald R.; Emry, Robert J.

    1996-06-01

    The transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene epoch, occurring approximately 47 to 30 million years ago, was the most dramatic episode of climatic and biotic change since the demise of the dinosaurs. The mild tropical climates of the Paleocene and early Eocene were replaced by modern climatic conditions and extremes, including glacial ice in Antarctica. The first part of this book summarizes the latest information in the dating and correlation of the strata of late middle Eocene through early Oligocene age in North America. The second part reviews almost all the important terrestrial reptiles and mammals found near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, in the White River Chronofauna--from the turtles, snakes and lizards to the common rodents, carnivores, oreodonts and deer of the Badlands. This is the first comprehensive treatment of these topics in over sixty years, and will be invaluable to vertebrate paleontologists, geologists, mammalogists and evolutionary biologists.

  8. Demographic controls of aboveground forest biomass across North America.

    PubMed

    Vanderwel, Mark C; Zeng, Hongcheng; Caspersen, John P; Kunstler, Georges; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2016-04-01

    Ecologists have limited understanding of how geographic variation in forest biomass arises from differences in growth and mortality at continental to global scales. Using forest inventories from across North America, we partitioned continental-scale variation in biomass growth and mortality rates of 49 tree species groups into (1) species-independent spatial effects and (2) inherent differences in demographic performance among species. Spatial factors that were separable from species composition explained 83% and 51% of the respective variation in growth and mortality. Moderate additional variation in mortality (26%) was attributable to differences in species composition. Age-dependent biomass models showed that variation in forest biomass can be explained primarily by spatial gradients in growth that were unrelated to species composition. Species-dependent patterns of mortality explained additional variation in biomass, with forests supporting less biomass when dominated by species that are highly susceptible to competition (e.g. Populus spp.) or to biotic disturbances (e.g. Abies balsamea).

  9. Acanthocephala of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D J; Cole, R A

    1997-06-01

    Examination of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from several locations in North America contributed new information concerning the acanthocephalan fauna of this host. Representatives of Arythmorhynchus brevis, representing a new host record, were collected from eagles in Florida, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Plagiorhynchus sp. was collected from an eagle in Florida. Corynosoma strumosum was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Andracantha phalacrocoracis, representing a new host record, was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Southwellina hispida, representing a new host record, was collected from eagles in Maine and Virginia. The occurrence of gravid or mature females of A. brevis, Plagiorhynchus sp., and S. hispida suggests that the bald eagle may serve as a competent definitive host for these species.

  10. The medical impact of tornadoes in North America.

    PubMed

    Bohonos, J J; Hogan, D E

    1999-01-01

    North America suffers some of the most severe tornado disasters of any location on the planet. Significant injury and economic impact may result from these storms, particularly in rural areas. Tornadic storms present unique problems for prehospital and Emergency Department personnel. Soft tissue injuries seen after tornadoes are contaminated with polymicrobial flora and may require delayed primary closure. Fractures are a frequent cause of hospital admission and head injury is a frequent cause of death. Advanced warning and proper sheltering actions by a population are the most significant factors in reducing morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the pertinent literature on the medical impact of tornadoes and details the mechanisms of injury, nature of injuries, pre-hospital and ED planning points associated with tornadic storms.

  11. A new genus of Boletaceae from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Halling, Roy E; Baroni, Timothy J; Binder, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Bothia is described as a new genus in the Boletaceae based on Boletinus castanellus described by C.H. Peck from eastern North America. A widespread, occasionally encountered taxon, Bothia castanella possesses a combination of macro- and microscopic features that has prompted past placement in seven different genera. Yet, as a species it is readily recognizable with its chestnut brown, dry pileus, decurrent, pale brown hymenophore with radially elongated tubes, a short, sometimes eccentric, exannulate stipe, yellow brown spore deposit and constant association with Quercus. Phylogenetic analyses of large subunit rDNA and BLAST searches using the ITS region confirm the placement of B. castanella as a unique generic lineage in the Boletaceae.

  12. Canine Leishmaniasis in North America: Emerging or Newly Recognized?

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Christine A.; Barr, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Canine Leishmaniasis is a fatal zoonotic visceralizing disease usually associated with tropical areas. The etiologic agent is an obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum. In 1999, an outbreak of a canine leishmaniasis was reported in a Foxhound kennel in New York, and since that report, several other outbreaks have occurred across the United States in additional Foxhound kennels. Because of the high mortality and transmissibility associated with these outbreaks, it is essential that clinicians be aware of this disease to permit its rapid recognition and institution of control measures. Cases with a travel history may suggest imported disease, these are mainly observed from Southern Europe (south of France, Spain, Italy). Breeds from these and other endemic areas may be at higher risk of infection with Leishmania due to vertical transmission. The purpose of this report is to discuss the clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, control and treatment of canine leishmaniasis with focus on the aspects of this disease within North America. PMID:19932363

  13. Acanthocephala of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.J.; Cole, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Examination of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from several locations in North America contributed new information concerning the acanthocephalan fauna of this host. Representatives of Arythmorhynchus brevis, representing a new host record, were collected from eagles in Florida, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Plagiorhynchus sp. was collected from an eagle in Florida. Corynosoma strumosum was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Andracantha phalacrocoracis, representing a new host record, was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Southwellina hispida, representing a new host record, was collected from eagles in Maine and Virginia. The occurrence of gravid or mature females of A. brevis, Plagiorhynchus sp., and S. hispida suggests that the bald eagle may serve as a competent definitive host for these species.

  14. Dung of Mammuthus in the arid Southwest, North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Davis, Owen K.; Martin, Paul S.

    1986-01-01

    The discovery of a unique organic deposit in a dry cave on the Colorado Plateau, southern Utah, permits the first comparison of the physical characteristics and the diet of the dung of the extinct mammoths from the arid Southwest, North America, with that of mammoths from Siberia and northern China, the only other known locations of such remains. The deposit buried beneath sand and rockfall is composed primarily of mammoth dung, estimated at over 300 m 3. Radiocarbon dates on dung boluses indicate that the mammoths frequented the cave between approximately 14,700 and 11,000 yr B.P. (the range of ages at 2σ). The desiccated boluses, measuring approximately 230 × 170 × 85 mm, are nearly identical in size to dung from extant elephants. The largest contents in the dung are stalks measuring 60 × 4.5 mm. Grasses and sedges dominated the diet, although woody species were commonly eaten.

  15. Distributions of exotic plants in eastern Asia and North America.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinfeng; Qian, Hong; Ricklefs, Robert E; Xi, Weimin

    2006-07-01

    Although some plant traits have been linked to invasion success, the possible effects of regional factors, such as diversity, habitat suitability, and human activity are not well understood. Each of these mechanisms predicts a different pattern of distribution at the regional scale. Thus, where climate and soils are similar, predictions based on regional hypotheses for invasion success can be tested by comparisons of distributions in the source and receiving regions. Here, we analyse the native and alien geographic ranges of all 1567 plant species that have been introduced between eastern Asia and North America or have been introduced to both regions from elsewhere. The results reveal correlations between the spread of exotics and both the native species richness and transportation networks of recipient regions. This suggests that both species interactions and human-aided dispersal influence exotic distributions, although further work on the relative importance of these processes is needed.

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants from North America.

    PubMed

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H; Edgar, J A

    2015-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are mutagenic, carcinogenic, pneumotoxic, teratogenic and fetotoxic. Plants containing PAs commonly poison livestock in many countries, including the USA and Canada. In some regions of the world PA-producing plants sometimes grow in grain crops and items of food made with PA contaminated grain, such as bread baked using contaminated flour, have been, and continue to be, responsible for large incidents of acute, often fatal human poisoning. Herbal medicines and food supplements containing PAs are also recognized as a significant cause of human poisoning and it is desirable that such medications are identified and subjected to strict regulation. In this review we consider the PAs known to be, or likely to be, present in both the traditionally used medicinal plants of North America and also medicinal plants that have been introduced from other countries and are being recommended and used as phytopharmaceuticals in the USA and Canada.

  17. Distributions of exotic plants in eastern Asia and North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Qian, H.; Ricklefs, R.E.; Xi, W.

    2006-01-01

    Although some plant traits have been linked to invasion success, the possible effects of regional factors, such as diversity, habitat suitability, and human activity are not well understood. Each of these mechanisms predicts a different pattern of distribution at the regional scale. Thus, where climate and soils are similar, predictions based on regional hypotheses for invasion success can be tested by comparisons of distributions in the source and receiving regions. Here, we analyse the native and alien geographic ranges of all 1567 plant species that have been introduced between eastern Asia and North America or have been introduced to both regions from elsewhere. The results reveal correlations between the spread of exotics and both the native species richness and transportation networks of recipient regions. This suggests that both species interactions and human-aided dispersal influence exotic distributions, although further work on the relative importance of these processes is needed. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America.

    PubMed

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A; Troyer, Ryan M; Emmenegger, Eveline J; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D

    2003-04-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture.

  19. Biogenic Contributions to Aromatic Hydrocarbon Production over Continental North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sive, B. C.; Russo, R.; Zhou, Y.; Swarthout, R.; Hart, A.

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive suite of temporally and vertically resolved volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements were conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, Colorado from 18 February to 13 March 2011 as part of the Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower (NACHTT) campaign. Specifically, this work investigates and quantifies the contribution of monoterpene oxidation to the secondary production of aromatic hydrocarbons and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursor gases. To date, this area of research has been largely unexplored; however, recent results from laboratory experiments have suggested that biogenic VOC (BVOC) oxidation should be considered as an important source of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially in rural and remote environments. The VOC measurements conducted during the NACHTT campaign provide diurnally and vertically resolved speciated monoterpene data over mid-latitude North America. New insight on biogenic emissions, their subsequent chemical transformations and influences on oxidant cycling will be explored.

  20. A Sharp Edge of the Cratonic Lithosphere of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, T. B.; Skryzalin, P. A.; Menke, W. H.; Levin, V. L.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using teleseismic travel time delays, we develop a tomographic model of the lithosphere beneath northeastern North America, from the shore of James Bay in Quebec to the Atlantic coast of New England and to a depth of 300 km. Three major terranes lie within this cratonic margin: the 2.7 Ga Superior province, the 1 Ga Grenville orogenic belt and the 0.3-0.4 Ga Appalachian terranes, which are bounded by the Grenville Front (GF) and Appalachian Front (AF), respectively. Additionally, the 0.8 Ga Avalon terrain was accreted to coastal New England by strike-skip faulting during the Appalachian orogeny. Our tomographic model uses earthquake seismograms recorded by permanent US and Canadian stations, the Transportable Array and the temporary QMIII deployment. All data were corrected for instrument response and record sections were examined visually to identify gross errors in response and timing. Differential arrival times of P and PKP waves were determined by cross-correlation and have a maximum amplitude of about ±1 second. In our model, lithospheric boundaries do not correlate well with geological boundaries, nor do they strike parallel to them. The seismically-fast (by 5% relative to AK135) cratonic lithosphere of North America is much thicker than that of the younger terranes, extending to 200 km or more depth but with a sharp east-dipping eastern edge located (at Moho depths) 100-250 km northwest of the GF. The lithosphere beneath the Grenville and Appalachian terranes, which were affected by subduction during the Grenville and Appalachian orogenies, is slower (by 4%). A sliver of seismically-fast lithosphere, extending to ~150 km depth, occurs along the Atlantic coast and is interpreted as the Avalonian lithosphere.

  1. EGFR Expression in Gallbladder Carcinoma in North America

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Matthew; Mehrotra, Bhoomi; Limaye, Sewanti; White, Sherrie; Fuchs, Alexander; Lebowicz, Yehuda; Nissel-Horowitz, Sandy; Thomas, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF receptor) expression has been noted in various cancers and has become a useful target for therapeutic interventions. Small studies from Asia and Australia have demonstrated EGFR over-expression in gallbladder cancer. We sought to evaluate the expression of EGFR in a series of 16 gallbladder cancer patients from North America. METHODS: Using tumor registry data, we identified 16 patients diagnosed with gall bladder carcinoma at our medical center between the years of 1998 and 2005. We performed a retrospective review of these patients' charts, obtained cell blocks from pathology archives and stained for EGFR and Her2/neu. RESULTS: Fifteen of sixteen patients were noted to over-express EGFR. Three were determined 1+, nine were 2+ and three were 3+. Eight patients had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, six had moderately differentiated and two had well-differentiated tumors. In this small series, there was a trend toward shorter survival and more poorly differentiated tumors in patients with greater intensity of EGFR expression. One patient was EGFR negative but 3+ for erb-2/Her 2-neu expression. No patient co-expressed EGFR and Her-2-neu. Median survival of patients in this series was 17 months. CONCLUSION: In view of our observations confirming the over-expression of EGFR in our patient population in North America, and the recent success of EGFR targeted therapies in other solid tumors that over-express EGFR, it may now be appropriate to evaluate agents targeting this pathway either as single agents or in combination with standard chemotherapy. PMID:18825277

  2. Degradation of unconsolidated Quaternary landforms in the western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putkonen, Jaakko; O'Neal, Michael

    2006-05-01

    One of the major goals of geomorphology is to understand the rate of landscape evolution and the constraints that erosion sets on the longevity of land surfaces. The latter has also turned out to be vital in modern applications of cosmogenic exposure dating and interpretation of lichenometric data from unconsolidated landforms. Because the effects of landform degradation have not been well documented, disagreements exist among researchers regarding the importance of degradation processes in the dating techniques applied to exposures. Here, we show that all existing qualitative data and quantitative markers of landform degradation collectively suggest considerable lowering of the surface of unconsolidated landforms over the typical life span of Quaternary moraines or fault scarps. Degradation is ubiquitous and considerable even on short time scales of hundreds of years on steeply sloping landforms. These conservative analyses are based entirely on field observations of decreasing slope angles of landforms over the typical range of ages in western North America and widely accepted modeling of landscape degradation. We found that the maximum depth of erosion on fault scarps and moraines is on average 34% of the initial height of the scarp and 25% of the final height of the moraine. Although our observations are limited to fault scarps and moraines, the results apply to any sloping unconsolidated landform in the western North America. These results invalidate the prevailing assumption of no or little surface lowering on sloping unconsolidated landforms over the Quaternary Period and affirm that accurate interpretations of lichen ages and cosmogenically dated boulder ages require keen understanding of the ever-present erosion. In our view, the most important results are twofold: 1) to show with a large data set that degradation affects universally all sloping unconsolidated landforms, and 2) to unambiguously show that even conservative estimates of the total lowering of

  3. Free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from Asia to North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D. Smith,; Dan Jaffe,; Michele Birmele,; Griffin, Dale W.; Andrew Schuerger,; Hee, J.; Michael Roberts,

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. This study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in North America) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the Pacific Ocean, including Asia. Overall deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays, averaged 4.94 × 10(-5) ng DNA m(-3) for bacteria and 4.77 × 10(-3) ng DNA m(-3) for fungi. Aerosols occasionally corresponded with microbial abundance, most often in the springtime. Viable cells were recovered from 27.4 % of bacterial and 47.6 % of fungal samples (N = 124), with 49 different species identified by ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The number of microbial isolates rose significantly above baseline values on 22-23 April 2011 and 13-15 May 2011. Both events were analyzed in detail, revealing distinct free tropospheric chemistries (e.g., low water vapor, high aerosols, carbon monoxide, and ozone) useful for ruling out boundary layer contamination. Kinematic back trajectory modeling suggested air from these events probably originated near China or Japan. Even after traveling for 10 days across the Pacific Ocean in the free troposphere, diverse and viable microbial populations, including presumptive plant pathogens Alternaria infectoria and Chaetomium globosum, were detected in Asian air samples. Establishing a connection between the intercontinental transport of microorganisms and specific diseases in North America will require follow-up investigations on both sides of the Pacific Ocean.

  4. State-of-the-art practices in farmland biodiversity monitoring for North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Felix; Franklin, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Policy makers and farmers need to know the status of farmland biodiversity in order to meet conservation goals and evaluate management options. Based on a review of 11 monitoring programs in Europe and North America and on related literature, we identify the design choices or attributes of a program that balance monitoring costs and usefulness for stakeholders. A useful program monitors habitats, vascular plants, and possibly faunal groups (ecosystem service providers, charismatic species) using a stratified random sample of the agricultural landscape, including marginal and intensive regions. The size of landscape samples varies with the grain of the agricultural landscape; for example, samples are smaller in Europe and larger in North America. Raw data are collected in a rolling survey, which distributes sampling over several years. Sufficient practical experience is now available to implement broad monitoring schemes on both continents. Technological developments in remote sensing, metagenomics, and social media may offer new opportunities for affordable farmland biodiversity monitoring and help to lower the overall costs of monitoring programs.

  5. Biomass enables the transition to a carbon-negative power system across western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Daniel L.; Nelson, James H.; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable biomass can play a transformative role in the transition to a decarbonized economy, with potential applications in electricity, heat, chemicals and transportation fuels. Deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) results in a net reduction in atmospheric carbon. BECCS may be one of the few cost-effective carbon-negative opportunities available should anthropogenic climate change be worse than anticipated or emissions reductions in other sectors prove particularly difficult. Previous work, primarily using integrated assessment models, has identified the critical role of BECCS in long-term (pre- or post-2100 time frames) climate change mitigation, but has not investigated the role of BECCS in power systems in detail, or in aggressive time frames, even though commercial-scale facilities are starting to be deployed in the transportation sector. Here, we explore the economic and deployment implications for BECCS in the electricity system of western North America under aggressive (pre-2050) time frames and carbon emissions limitations, with rich technology representation and physical constraints. We show that BECCS, combined with aggressive renewable deployment and fossil-fuel emission reductions, can enable a carbon-negative power system in western North America by 2050 with up to 145% emissions reduction from 1990 levels. In most scenarios, the offsets produced by BECCS are found to be more valuable to the power system than the electricity it provides. Advanced biomass power generation employs similar system design to advanced coal technology, enabling a transition strategy to low-carbon energy.

  6. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  7. Opportunity Road: The Promise and Challenge of America's Forgotten Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Milano, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    There are millions of youth ages 16 to 24 who are out of school and out of work. They cost the nation billions of dollars every year and over their lifetimes in lost productivity and increased social services. They also represent an opportunity for the nation to tap the talents of millions of potential leaders and productive workers at a time when…

  8. Equality and Opportunity in America, 1800-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pessen, Edward

    1977-01-01

    Maintains that the maldistribution of wealth and static mobility patterns which prevailed in the United States from 1800 to 1940 provide the social and economic basis for present-day inequality. Political reforms have had little effect on living standards, status, and opportunities of most Americans. For journal availability, see SO 505 871.…

  9. 77 FR 45596 - Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...] Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Shell Energy North America (US),...

  10. 77 FR 25133 - Foreign-Trade Zone 126, Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, Brightpoint North America L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution); Notice of Approval On March 2, 2012, the...) authority, on behalf of Brightpoint North America L.P., to produce cell phone kits under FTZ...

  11. The 1992 conference on Latin America`s Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year`s Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America`s energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America`s need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important ``pull`` factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico`s plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  12. Pollution Transport From North America to Greenland During Summer 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, K. S.; Marelle, L.; Ancellet, G.; Ravetta, F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pfister, G.; Emmons, L.; Diskin, G. S.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.

    2013-04-10

    Ozone pollution transported to the Arctic is a significant concern because of the rapid, enhanced warming in high northern latitudes, which is caused, in part, by short lived climate forcers, such as ozone. Long range transport of pollution contributes to background and episodic ozone levels in the Arctic. However, the extent to which plumes are photochemically active during transport, particularly during the summer, is uncertain. Regional chemical transport model simulations are used to examine photochemical production of ozone in air masses originating from boreal fire and anthropogenic emissions over North America and during their transport toward the Arctic during early July 2008. Model results shows good agreement with aircraft data collected over boreal fire source regions in Canada and several days downwind over Greenland during the study period. Pollutant plumes were transported east and north towards the Arctic and show significant ozone enhancements downwind of source regions. Anthropogenic plumes were more photochemically active than fire plumes. Together, both sources made an important contribution to ozone in pollution plumes transported to the Arctic.

  13. Pollution transport from North America to Greenland during summer 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J. L.; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, K. S.; Marelle, L.; Ancellet, G.; Ravetta, F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Pfister, G.; Emmons, L.; Diskin, G. S.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.

    2013-04-10

    Ozone pollution transported to the Arctic is a significant concern because of the rapid, enhanced warming in high northern latitudes, which is caused, in part, by short lived climate forcers, such as ozone. Long range transport of pollution contributes to background and episodic ozone levels in the Arctic. However, the extent to which plumes are photochemically active during transport, particularly during the summer, is uncertain. Regional chemical transport model simulations are used to examine photochemical production 8 of ozone in air masses originating from boreal fire and anthropogenic emissions over North America and during their transport toward the Arctic during early July 2008. Model results shows good agreement with aircraft data collected over boreal fire source regions in Canada and several days down-wind over Greenland during the study period. Pollutant plumes were transported east and north towards the Arctic and show significant ozone enhancements downwind of source regions. Anthropogenic plumes were more photochemically active than fire plumes. Together, both sources made an important contribution to ozone in pollution plumes transported to the Arctic.

  14. Forest losses predict bird extinctions in eastern North America.

    PubMed Central

    Pimm, S L; Askins, R A

    1995-01-01

    Claims that there will be a massive loss of species as tropical forests are cleared are based on the relationship between habitat area and the number of species. Few studies calibrate extinction with habitat reduction. Critics raise doubts about this calibration, noting that there has been extensive clearing of the eastern North American forest, yet only 4 of its approximately 200 bird species have gone extinct. We analyze the distribution of bird species and the timing and extent of forest loss. The forest losses were not concurrent across the region. Based on the maximum extent of forest losses, our calculations predict fewer extinctions than the number observed. At most, there are 28 species of birds restricted to the region. Only these species would be at risk even if all the forests were cleared. Far from providing comfort to those who argue that the current rapid rate of tropical deforestation might cause fewer extinctions than often claimed, our results suggest that the losses may be worse. In contrast to eastern North America, small regions of tropical forest often hold hundreds of endemic bird species. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607581

  15. Psychiatric rehabilitation in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Restrepo, J M; Escobar, M L; Cubillos, L

    2016-11-17

    Comprehensive psychiatric rehabilitation programs in Latin America have been designed across several countries in the region without yet achieving full implementation. Facing an increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders, including alcohol and substance use disorders, the region has responded unevenly to the challenge. Moreover, low priority for mental health in national policies and insufficient funding for mental health services are common barriers for the much-needed mental health services reforms. Reestablishing a primary care community-based model of care has been a shared aspiration for most countries during the last two decades. Comprehensive models of psychiatric rehabilitation developed predominantly in high-income countries need to be culturally adapted to local contexts, while strengthening health systems research will provide evidence on the efficiency of locally designed interventions and on the critical milestones to succeed in the scaling up strategies. Increasing participation of patients and their families in the mental health delivery system is another key factor in order to ensure comprehensive patient-centred psychosocial rehabilitation programs in Latin America.

  16. Variable North Pacific influence on drought in southwestern North America since AD 854

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe-Glynn, Staryl; Johnson, Kathleen R.; Strong, Courtenay; Berkelhammer, Max; Sinha, Ashish; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2013-08-01

    Precipitation in southwestern North America has exhibited significant natural variability over the past few thousand years. This variability has been attributed to sea surface temperature regimes in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and to the attendant shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns. In particular, decadal variability in the North Pacific has influenced precipitation in this region during the twentieth century, but links to earlier droughts and pluvials are unclear. Here we assess these links using δ18O data from a speleothem from southern California that spans AD 854-2007. We show that variations in the oxygen isotopes of the speleothem correlate to sea surface temperatures in the Kuroshio Extension region of the North Pacific, which affect the atmospheric trajectory and isotopic composition of moisture reaching the study site. Interpreting our speleothem data as a record of sea surface temperatures in the Kuroshio Extension, we find a strong 22-year periodicity, suggesting a persistent solar influence on North Pacific decadal variability. A comparison with tree-ring records of precipitation during the past millennium shows that some droughts occurred during periods of warmth in the Kuroshio Extension, similar to the instrumental record. However, other droughts did not and instead must have been influenced by other factors. Finally, we find a significant increase in sea surface temperature variability over the past 150 years, which may reflect an influence of greenhouse gas concentrations on variability in the North Pacific.

  17. 75 FR 64306 - Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shell Energy North America (US), LP; Notice of Institution of Proceeding and... U.S.C. 824e (2005), concerning the justness and reasonableness of Shell Energy North America (US... North America (US), LP, 133 FERC ] 61,033 (2010). The refund effective date in Docket No....

  18. 77 FR 47428 - Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a.... ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a commercial gauger and... accreditation and approval of SGS North America, Inc., as commercial gauger and laboratory became effective...

  19. 77 FR 25728 - Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a.... ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a commercial gauger and... America, Inc., 2310 Highway 69 North, Nederland, TX 77627, has been approved to gauge and accredited...

  20. 76 FR 64961 - Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc. as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc. as a... Security. ACTION: Notice of approval of SGS North America, Inc., Carson, California, as a commercial gauger..._scientific_svcs/org_and_operations.xml . DATES: The approval of SGS North America, Inc. as a...

  1. 77 FR 12865 - Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a.... ACTION: Notice of accreditation and approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a commercial gauger and...: The accreditation and approval of SGS North America, Inc., as commercial gauger and laboratory...

  2. 75 FR 69470 - Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom Including Off-Site Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Tele Atlas North America, Inc., Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom... Doing Business as Tom Tom, Concord, MA; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Detroit, MI; Tele Atlas North America, Inc. Currently Doing Business as Tom Tom, Redwood,...

  3. Proposal for a comprehensive vertical datum for North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. A.; Roman, D. R.; Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.; Youngman, M.

    2013-05-01

    As part of its Ten Year Strategic Plan (2013-2023), the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of the USA is planning to replace the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) by the year 2022. The replacement vertical datum will be defined through a gravimetric geoid model and accessed via GNSS technology, in direct contrast to the definition and access of NAVD 88, which is through passive, generally unmonitored benchmarks connected through geodetic leveling. A USA-Canada-Mexico joint effort is underway to compute a single geoid model by 2022 for the entire region, which can be adopted as the vertical datum reference surface by all countries within the area. The proposed area ranges from the North Pole to the Equator and from the Aleutian Islands (in the west) to the islands of Newfoundland (in the east). As such, the entirety of the Caribbean Sea, all of Central America, all of Hawaii, plus parts of Greenland and South America will be covered. This will allow one singular, unified vertical datum to be accessible to every country in the region, alleviating the need for island-by-island vertical datums as is currently the case. A major component of the geoid modeling effort is NGS's GRAV-D project (Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum). That project has a two-fold approach: First, to collect a static, accurate "snapshot" of the entire gravity field. This is primarily being done through airborne gravity collection over the USA and its territories, as well as through improvements in and additions to terrestrial data holdings. A second, long-term effort of GRAV D is to monitor the geoid over time. This talk will discuss the prospects of improving the static gravity field holdings outside of the USA and its territories, including a discussion on existing holdings, data gaps and NGS's desire for potential collaborations with interested countries in the region both before and after the 2022 datum change.

  4. Imaging the plate boundary between Greenland and North America within the Kane Basin by means of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Axel; Schnabel, Michael; Damm, Volkmar; Piepjohn, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    The Nares Strait is a waterway separating NW Greenland and North America. The nature of the Nares Strait has been subject of discussion for decades, especially if it represents a transform fault that compensated the opening of the Baffin Bay in the Paleogene as Alfred Wegener supposed in 1912. The Kane Basin in the central part of Nares Strait provides an opportunity to cross the proposed fault. Geophysical data were acquired in 2001 and 2010, including among others multichannel and wide-angle seismic data. The eastern part of the Kane Basin is characterized by a solid platform most likely representing a continuation of the Paleoproterozoic Inglefield-Mobile-Belt (Greenland). In the western part, a sedimentary basin with northwestward tilted and eroded layers of Cretaceous age can be resolved. The transition between those two units shows the plate boundary between Greenland and North America and can be considered as a relic of the Wegener Fault.

  5. [The modeling of science: the example of North America].

    PubMed

    Morán-Mendoza, Angel Onofre

    2004-01-01

    Science is a complex human activity that is modeled by a myriad of factors beyond the researcher's control, especially in the medical sciences, where human and economic resources, as well as bioethical and regulatory factors play an important role. Bioethical and regulatory factors are similar between the US, Canada and Mexico, however these countries differ markedly in their economic and human resources: In Canada and the US there are government institutions (CIHR and NIH, respectively) to specifically provide funding to health research, while in Mexico the principal source of funding for all sciences is the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT). The NIH budget for clinical research alone during 2002 was over 7 US billion dollars; the CIHR funding for health research projects was approximately 300 US million dollars, while the support from CONACYT for research and infrastructure in health was aproximately 70 US million dollars. In the year 2000, the US had 8.17 researchers in all areas per 1,000 habitants--of the economically active population (EAP)--, Canada had 5.78 and Mexico 0.55 researchers. These factors impact greatly the scientific productivity: While Canada and the US contributed in 1991-1998 with 31.4% of the world's scientific productivity--measured as the number of articles published--, Latin America contributed with only 2.4% of the world's productivity. This paper also discusses other factors that model science, scientific inquiry, and scientific activity such as, the role of the industry, the media and scientific journals. How these factors influence the Medical Sciences in North America is exemplified herein.

  6. A comparison of the taxonomic richness of temperate plants in East Asia and North America.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong

    2002-11-01

    The taxonomic richness of seed plants at different taxonomic levels was compared between temperate East Asia and North America at both continental and semi-continental scales. In each comparison, land area and latitude range were adjusted to a comparable level between the two continental regions. East Asia is significantly more diverse than North America. In general, differences in taxonomic diversity arise at and below the genus level. At the continental scale, East Asia has 1.3 and 1.5 times as many genera and species, respectively, as North America. The northern part of East Asia has 1.1 times as many species as the northern part of North America. At the genus level, the northern part of East Asia is less diverse than the northern part of North America by a factor of 0.94. This pattern indicates that the diversity bias between the two continental regions results from the flora of southern East Asia. The diversity differences between East Asia and North America are not homogenously distributed across different plant groups. At the species level, East Asia had significantly more species than expected in magnoliids, alismatids, Liliidae, ranunculids, and rosids and had significantly less species in the Commelinidae, Caryophyllidae, and euasterids than North America.

  7. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  8. Predicting Pleistocene climate from vegetation in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehle, C.

    2007-02-01

    Climates at the Last Glacial Maximum have been inferred from fossil pollen assemblages, but these inferred climates are colder for eastern North America than those produced by climate simulations. It has been suggested that low CO2 levels could account for this discrepancy. In this study biogeographic evidence is used to test the CO2 effect model. The recolonization of glaciated zones in eastern North America following the last ice age produced distinct biogeographic patterns. It has been assumed that a wide zone south of the ice was tundra or boreal parkland (Boreal-Parkland Zone or BPZ), which would have been recolonized from southern refugia as the ice melted, but the patterns in this zone differ from those in the glaciated zone, which creates a major biogeographic anomaly. In the glacial zone, there are few endemics but in the BPZ there are many across multiple taxa. In the glacial zone, there are the expected gradients of genetic diversity with distance from the ice-free zone, but no evidence of this is found in the BPZ. Many races and related species exist in the BPZ which would have merged or hybridized if confined to the same refugia. Evidence for distinct southern refugia for most temperate species is lacking. Extinctions of temperate flora were rare. The interpretation of spruce as a boreal climate indicator may be mistaken over much of the region if the spruce was actually an extinct temperate species. All of these anomalies call into question the concept that climates in the zone south of the ice were extremely cold or that temperate species had to migrate far to the south. An alternate hypothesis is that low CO2 levels gave an advantage to pine and spruce, which are the dominant trees in the BPZ, and to herbaceous species over trees, which also fits the observed pattern. Thus climate reconstruction from pollen data is probably biased and needs to incorporate CO2 effects. Most temperate species could have survived across their current ranges at lower

  9. Mercury and methylmercury in aquatic sediment across western North America.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Jacob A; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Lutz, Michelle A; Tate, Michael; Alpers, Charles N; Hall, Britt D; Krabbenhoft, David P; Eckley, Chris S

    2016-10-15

    Large-scale assessments are valuable in identifying primary factors controlling total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations, and distribution in aquatic ecosystems. Bed sediment THg and MeHg concentrations were compiled for >16,000 samples collected from aquatic habitats throughout the West between 1965 and 2013. The influence of aquatic feature type (canals, estuaries, lakes, and streams), and environmental setting (agriculture, forest, open-water, range, wetland, and urban) on THg and MeHg concentrations was examined. THg concentrations were highest in lake (29.3±6.5μgkg(-1)) and canal (28.6±6.9μgkg(-1)) sites, and lowest in stream (20.7±4.6μgkg(-1)) and estuarine (23.6±5.6μgkg(-1)) sites, which was partially a result of differences in grain size related to hydrologic gradients. By environmental setting, open-water (36.8±2.2μgkg(-1)) and forested (32.0±2.7μgkg(-1)) sites generally had the highest THg concentrations, followed by wetland sites (28.9±1.7μgkg(-1)), rangeland (25.5±1.5μgkg(-1)), agriculture (23.4±2.0μgkg(-1)), and urban (22.7±2.1μgkg(-1)) sites. MeHg concentrations also were highest in lakes (0.55±0.05μgkg(-1)) and canals (0.54±0.11μgkg(-1)), but, in contrast to THg, MeHg concentrations were lowest in open-water sites (0.22±0.03μgkg(-1)). The median percent MeHg (relative to THg) for the western region was 0.7%, indicating an overall low methylation efficiency; however, a significant subset of data (n>100) had percentages that represent elevated methylation efficiency (>6%). MeHg concentrations were weakly correlated with THg (r(2)=0.25) across western North America. Overall, these results highlight the large spatial variability in sediment THg and MeHg concentrations throughout western North America and underscore the important roles that landscape and land-use characteristics have on the MeHg cycle.

  10. Magnitude and Carbon Consequences of Forest Management in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, J.; Kurz, W.; de Jong, B. H.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon balance of forests depends on the type, frequency and severity of recent disturbances (carbon source) and the rate of recovery from past disturbance (carbon sink). Harvest and land cover conversion represent significant forest disturbance agents over much of North America. For example, pine forests in the southeastern US are typically harvested at ~20 year intervals, and may occupy about half the regional landscape, resulting in regional landscape turnover rates of 2-3% per year. Inventory data are the primary source for quantifying information on harvest and conversion in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Recent inventory data from these countries indicate timber production of 424 million cu m, 163 million cu m, and 7 million cu m, respectively, with significant year-to-year variability associated with wood products demand and timber price. Areas affected by harvest activity vary as well, with 3.97 Mha (million hectares) and 1.04 Mha affected by harvest in the US and Canada, respectively. Forest cover conversion (deforestation) is thought to be relatively minor in the US and Canada, but recent estimates suggest that forest and woodland cover in Mexico declined by 300-500 Kha/yr during the 1990’s. Recently, satellite remote sensing data products on forest change have been generated that complement the traditional inventory approach. These products are particularly useful for “wall-to-wall” estimates of forest conversion and tracking small disturbances. The type and severity of disturbance cannot be easily determined using satellite observations, however, and therefore some care must be taken to reconcile these products with ground-based data. In this talk we review available resources for characterizing “carbon relevant” information on the magnitude (area, type of activity) of forest management in North America, and attempt a first-order comparison between remote sensing and inventory estimates. We also discuss strategies that might be employed to

  11. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan

  12. The bow and arrow in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Maschner, Herbert; Mason, Owen K

    2013-01-01

    There were at least four waves of bow and arrow use in northern North America. These occurred at 12000, 4500, 2400, and after about 1300 years ago. But to understand the role of the bow and arrow in the north, one must begin in the eighteenth century, when the Russians first arrived in the Aleutian Islands. At that time, the Aleut were using both the atlatl and dart and the bow and arrow (Fig. ). This is significant for two particular and important reasons. First, there are few historic cases in which both technologies were used concurrently; second, the bow and arrow in the Aleutian Islands were used almost exclusively in warfare. The atlatl was a critical technology because the bow and arrow are useless for hunting sea mammals. One cannot launch an arrow from a kayak because it is too unstable and requires that both hands remain on a paddle. To use an atlatl, it is necessary only to stabilize the kayak with a paddle on one side and launch the atlatl dart with the opposite hand. The Aleut on the Alaska Peninsula did indeed use the bow and arrow to hunt caribou there. However, in the 1,400 km of the Aleutian Islands, there are no terrestrial mammals except humans and the bow was reserved almost exclusively for conflicts among them. The most significant event in the history of the bow and arrow is not its early introduction, but rather the Asian War Complex 1300 years ago, when the recurve and backed bows first entered the region, altering regional and hemispheric political dynamics forever. [Figure: see text].

  13. Climate change in our backyards: the reshuffling of North America's winter bird communities.

    PubMed

    Princé, Karine; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Much of the recent changes in North American climate have occurred during the winter months, and as result, overwintering birds represent important sentinels of anthropogenic climate change. While there is mounting evidence that bird populations are responding to a warming climate (e.g., poleward shifts) questions remain as to whether these species-specific responses are resulting in community-wide changes. Here, we test the hypothesis that a changing winter climate should favor the formation of winter bird communities dominated by warm-adapted species. To do this, we quantified changes in community composition using a functional index--the Community Temperature Index (CTI)--which measures the balance between low- and high-temperature dwelling species in a community. Using data from Project FeederWatch, an international citizen science program, we quantified spatiotemporal changes in winter bird communities (n = 38 bird species) across eastern North America and tested the influence of changes in winter minimum temperature over a 22-year period. We implemented a jackknife analysis to identify those species most influential in driving changes at the community level and the population dynamics (e.g., extinction or colonization) responsible for these community changes. Since 1990, we found that the winter bird community structure has changed with communities increasingly composed of warm-adapted species. This reshuffling of winter bird communities was strongest in southerly latitudes and driven primarily by local increases in abundance and regional patterns of colonization by southerly birds. CTI tracked patterns of changing winter temperature at different temporal scales ranging from 1 to 35 years. We conclude that a shifting winter climate has provided an opportunity for smaller, southerly distributed species to colonize new regions and promote the formation of unique winter bird assemblages throughout eastern North America.

  14. A study of ayahuasca use in North America.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rachel; Gurel, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-one subjects who used ayahuasca at least once in North America answered a lengthy set of open-ended questions and completed the 81-item After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. An additional 50 ayahuasca users were interviewed in person. The data for this study represent ayahuasca experience based on more than 2,267 ceremonies. A comparison group of 46 people attending a Catholic spiritual retreat weekend also completed the After the Spiritual Experience Questionnaire. A factor analysis of this questionnaire yielded three factors: Joy in Life, Relationship to the Sacred and Toxic Feelings. Although the ayahuasca users had significantly higher scores on the first two factors, the two groups had modest mean differences indicating a similar response to two very different spiritual experiences. This key finding strongly supports the view that ayahuasca users are engaged in an authentic process as spiritual in nature as that of the retreatants. The qualitative data revealed that ayahuasca users reduced their alcohol intake, ate healthier diets, enjoyed improved mood and greater self-acceptance and felt more loving and compassionate in their relationships. Seventy-four percent of the ayahuasca users said they had a relationship with and received ongoing guidance and support from the spirit of ayahuasca.

  15. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  16. Towards a high resolution, integrated hydrology model of North America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate feedbacks between groundwater dynamics, overland flow, land surface and vegetation processes, and atmospheric boundary layer development that significantly affect local and regional climate across a range of climatic conditions. Furthermore, the type and distribution of vegetation cover alters land-atmosphere water and energy fluxes, as well as runoff generation and overland flow processes. These interactions can result in significant feedbacks on local and regional climate. In mountainous regions, recent research has shown that spatial and temporal variability in annual evapotranspiration, and thus water budgets, is strongly dependent on lateral groundwater flow; however, the full effects of these feedbacks across varied terrain (e.g. from plains to mountains) are not well understood. Here, we present a high-resolution, integrated hydrology model that covers much of continental North America and encompasses the Mississippi and Colorado watersheds. The model is run in a fully-transient manner at hourly temporal resolution incorporating fully-coupled land energy states and fluxes with integrated surface and subsurface hydrology. Connections are seen between hydrologic variables (such as water table depth) and land energy fluxes (such as latent heat) and spatial and temporal scaling is shown to span many orders of magnitude. Using these transient simulations as a proof of concept, we present a vision for future integrated simulation capabilities.

  17. Diversity in shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, T.N.; Steinhilber, M.

    2002-01-01

    Shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) exhibit morphological variability across their geographic range in North America and could comprise more than one distinct morph or taxon. To investigate this, principal components analysis was applied to a data set that consisted of four variables from nine localities. All data were obtained from digital images of the specimens and the excised first gill arch. Confidence ellipses (95%) about the means of bivariate distributions of the principal components revealed that some populations were distinct from the others, but a continuity of overlap clouded understanding of pattern among the variation. Most populations had more and longer gillrakers than shortjaw cisco from George Lake (Manitoba) and Basswood Lake (Ontario) that had fewer and shorter gillrakers. This analysis supports the existence of a short- and few-rakered morph and a long- and many-rakered morph. However, most populations of shortjaw cisco from the Great Lakes across Canada to the Arctic share a similar morphology and likely represent a single, widespread species.

  18. Arctic shorebirds in North America: a decade of monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    Each year shorebirds from North and South America migrate thousands of miles to spend the summer in the Arctic. There they feed in shoreline marshes and estuaries along some of the most productive and pristine coasts anywhere. With so much available food they are able to reproduce almost explosively; and as winter approaches, they retreat south along with their offspring, to return to the Arctic the following spring. This remarkable pattern of movement and activity has been the object of intensive study by an international team of ornithologists who have spent a decade counting, surveying, and observing these shorebirds. In this important synthetic work, they address multiple questions about these migratory bird populations. How many birds occupy Arctic ecosystems each summer? How long do visiting shorebirds linger before heading south? How fecund are these birds? Where exactly do they migrate and where exactly do they return? Are their populations growing or shrinking? The results of this study are crucial for better understanding how environmental policies will influence Arctic habitats as well as the far-ranging winter habitats used by migratory shorebirds.

  19. Paleoindian large mammal hunters on the plains of North America

    PubMed Central

    Frison, George C.

    1998-01-01

    From ≈11,200 to 8,000 years ago, the Great Plains of North America were populated by small Paleoindian hunting groups with well developed weaponry and the expertise to successfully hunt large mammals, especially mammoths and bison. Mammoths became extinct on the Plains by 11,000 years ago, and, although paleoecological conditions were worsening, their demise may have been hastened by human predation. After this, the main target of the Plains Paleoindian hunters consisted of subspecies of bison, Bison antiquus and Bison occidentalis. As bison populations gradually diminished, apparently because of worsening ecological conditions, by ≈8,000 years ago, human subsistence was forced into a greater dependence on small animal and plant foods. Human paleoecology studies of the Paleoindian time period rely heavily on multidisciplinary efforts. Geomorphologists, botanists, soil scientists, palynologists, biologists, and other specialists aid archaeologists in data recovery and analysis, although, with few exceptions, their contributions are derived from the fringes rather than the mainstream of their disciplines. PMID:9826742

  20. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nicole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-08-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 "Quebec" storm and the 2003 "Halloween" storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  1. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  2. Phylogeography of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Talbot, S.L.; Pearce, J.M.; Pierson, Barbara J.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2003-01-01

    Using molecular genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution, we examined levels and partitioning of genetic variation for seven nominal subspecies (11 breeding populations) of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in western North America. Gene trees constructed from mtDNA control region sequence data show that subspecies of Canada Geese do not have distinct mtDNA. Large- and small-bodied forms of Canada Geese were highly diverged (0. 077 average sequence divergence) and represent monophyletic groups. A majority (65%) of 20 haplotypes resolved were observed in single breeding locales. However, within both large- and small-bodied forms certain haplotypes occurred across multiple subspecies. Population trees for both nuclear (microsatellites) and mitochondrial markers were generally concordant and provide resolution of population and subspecific relationships indicating incomplete lineage sorting. All populations and subspecies were genetically diverged, but to varying degrees. Analyses of molecular variance, nested-clade and coalescence-based analyses of mtDNA suggest that both historical (past fragmentation) and contemporary forces have been important in shaping current spatial genetic distributions. Gene flow appears to be ongoing though at different rates, even among currently recognized subspecies. The efficacy of current subspecific taxonomy is discussed in light of hypothesized historical vicariance and current demographic trends of management and conservation concern.

  3. Can coyotes affect deer populations in Southeastern North America?

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, J., C.; Ray, H., Scott; Ruth, Charles; Miller, Karl, V.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The coyote (Canis latrans) is a recent addition to the fauna of eastern North America, and in many areas coyote populations have been established for only a decade or two. Although coyotes are known predators of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in their historic range, effects this new predator may have on eastern deer populations have received little attention. We speculated that in the southeastern United States, coyotes may be affecting deer recruitment, and we present 5 lines of evidence that suggest this possibility. First, the statewide deer population in South Carolina has declined coincident with the establishment and increase in the coyote population. Second, data sets from the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina indicate a new mortality source affecting the deer population concurrent with the increase in coyotes. Third, an index of deer recruitment at SRS declined during the period of increase in coyotes. Fourth, food habits data from SRS indicate that fawns are an important food item for coyotes during summer. Finally, recent research from Alabama documented significant coyote predation on fawns there. Although this evidence does not establish cause and effect between coyotes and observed declines in deer recruitment, we argue that additional research should proactively address this topic in the region. We identified several important questions on the nature of the deer–coyote relationship in the East.

  4. Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Rebecca A; Oberhauser, Karen S; De Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia M

    2011-02-01

    Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats (i.e., migratory escape), and (2) long-distance migration weeds out infected animals (i.e., migratory culling). We combined field-sampling and analysis of citizen science data to examine spatiotemporal trends of parasite prevalence and evaluate evidence for these two mechanisms. Analysis of within-breeding-season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape. Prevalence was also positively related to monarch breeding activity, as indexed by larval density. Among adult monarchs captured at different points along the east coast fall migratory flyway, parasite prevalence declined as monarchs progressed southward, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory culling. Parasite prevalence was also lower among monarchs sampled at two overwintering sites in Mexico than among monarchs sampled during the summer breeding period. Collectively, these results indicate that seasonal migration can affect parasite transmission in wild animal populations, with implications for predicting disease risks for species with threatened migrations.

  5. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  6. School and community relations in North America: Creative tensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.

    1980-09-01

    School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.

  7. Diabetes in North America and the Caribbean: an update.

    PubMed

    Yisahak, Samrawit F; Beagley, Jessica; Hambleton, Ian R; Narayan, K M Venkat

    2014-02-01

    The North America and Caribbean (NAC) Region faces a high burden of diabetes. In 2013, the number of children (aged 0-14 years) with type 1 diabetes was 108,600, with 16.7 new cases diagnosed per 100,000 children. Furthermore, there were 36,755,500 individuals with diabetes (mostly type 2 diabetes) in adults (20-79 years), and an additional 44,277,700 individuals had impaired glucose tolerance. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in adults was 9.6%; the second highest among the seven Regions of the International Diabetes Federation. This estimate is expected to grow to 9.9% by 2035. There was some heterogeneity in the estimates within the Region with the age-adjusted prevalence for the USA estimated at 9.2%, 7.9% for Canada, 12.6% for Mexico, and 9.6% for the Caribbean islands. Mortality due to diabetes in the NAC Region is not limited to older age groups, with 37.6% of deaths occurring in people under the age of 60. The economic impact was also enormous, with healthcare expenditure due to diabetes estimated at 263.2 billion USD for 2013 - the highest of all IDF Regions. Diabetes threatens the public health and economies of countries in the NAC Region, and efforts in prevention and management must be intensified in order to surmount this growing problem.

  8. Background concentrations of 18 air toxics for North America.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael C; Hafner, Hilary R; Montzka, Stephen A

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Clean Air Act identifies 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), or "air toxics," associated with adverse human health effects. Of these air toxics, 18 were targeted as the most important in a 10-City Pilot Study conducted in 2001 and 2002 as part of the National Air Toxics Trend Sites Program. In the present analysis, measurements available from monitoring networks in North America were used to estimate boundary layer background concentrations and trends of these 18 HAPs. The background concentrations reported in this study are as much as 85% lower than those reported in recent studies of HAP concentrations. Background concentrations of some volatile organic compounds were analyzed for trends at the 95% confidence level; only carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) and tetrachloroethylene decreased significantly in recent years. Remote background concentrations were compared with the one-in-a-million (i.e., 10(6)) cancer benchmarks to determine the possible causes of health risk in rural and remote areas; benzene, chloroform, formaldehyde, and chromium (Cr) fine particulate were higher than cancer benchmark values. In addition, remote background concentrations were found to contribute between 5% and 99% of median urban concentrations.

  9. Diabetes and Prediabetes in Patients With Hepatitis B Residing in North America

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mandana; Lombardero, Manuel; Chung, Raymond T.; Terrault, Norah A.; Ghany, Marc G.; Kim, W. Ray; Lau, Daryl; Lisker-Melman, Mauricio; Sanyal, Arun; Lok, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with liver disease progression and increased hepatocellular carcinoma risk, but factors associated with diabetes in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in North America are unknown. We aimed to determine factors predictive of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a large HBV-infected multiethnic cohort. Adults with chronic HBV not receiving antiviral therapy were enrolled from 21 centers in North America. Diabetes was defined by history/medication use or fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL and IFG as fasting glucose 100–125 mg/dL. Of 882 patients included, 47.2% were female, 71.3% Asian, 83.7% foreign born, median age was 44 years, and median body mass index BMI 24.3 kg/m2. In this cohort, 26.0% were hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) positive, 43.9% had HBV DNA ≥20,000 IU/mL, and 26.7% alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥2× upper limit of normal (≥40 U/L women, ≥60 U/L men). Overall, 12.5% had diabetes and 7.8% IFG. The combined prevalence of diabetes or IFG was highest among blacks (36.7%) and those either born in the United States/Canada or foreign born with migration >20 years ago (25.5%). Obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.13), hyperlipidemia (OR, 4.13), hypertension (OR, 3.67), high ALT level (OR, 1.86), and family history of diabetes (OR, 3.43) were associated with diabetes. Factors associated with IFG were obesity (OR, 4.13) and hypertension (OR, 3.27), but also HBeAg positivity (OR, 0.39). Recent migration was negatively associated with diabetes among non-Asians (OR, 0.30). Conclusions Diabetes is more prevalent in HBV-infected North American adults than the general population and is associated with known metabolic risk factors and liver damage, as determined by ALT levels. Among the foreign born, longer duration of North America residence predicted diabetes risk in non-Asians. These results highlight the opportunities for interventions to prevent diabetes especially among at-risk ethnic groups with HBV. PMID

  10. Lincoln estimates of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) abundance in North America

    PubMed Central

    Alisauskas, Ray T; Arnold, Todd W; Leafloor, James O; Otis, David L; Sedinger, James S

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of range-wide abundance, harvest, and harvest rate are fundamental for sound inferences about the role of exploitation in the dynamics of free-ranging wildlife populations, but reliability of existing survey methods for abundance estimation is rarely assessed using alternative approaches. North American mallard populations have been surveyed each spring since 1955 using internationally coordinated aerial surveys, but population size can also be estimated with Lincoln's method using banding and harvest data. We estimated late summer population size of adult and juvenile male and female mallards in western, midcontinent, and eastern North America using Lincoln's method of dividing (i) total estimated harvest, , by estimated harvest rate, , calculated as (ii) direct band recovery rate, , divided by the (iii) band reporting rate, . Our goal was to compare estimates based on Lincoln's method with traditional estimates based on aerial surveys. Lincoln estimates of adult males and females alive in the period June–September were 4.0 (range: 2.5–5.9), 1.8 (range: 0.6–3.0), and 1.8 (range: 1.3–2.7) times larger than respective aerial survey estimates for the western, midcontinent, and eastern mallard populations, and the two population estimates were only modestly correlated with each other (western: r = 0.70, 1993–2011; midcontinent: r = 0.54, 1961–2011; eastern: r = 0.50, 1993–2011). Higher Lincoln estimates are predictable given that the geographic scope of inference from Lincoln estimates is the entire population range, whereas sampling frames for aerial surveys are incomplete. Although each estimation method has a number of important potential biases, our review suggests that underestimation of total population size by aerial surveys is the most likely explanation. In addition to providing measures of total abundance, Lincoln's method provides estimates of fecundity and population sex ratio and could be used in integrated population

  11. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  12. 75 FR 2921 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA... United States. Volvo believes the knowledge and skills tests and training program that Swedish...

  13. New evidence for the antiquity of man in North America deduced from aspartic acid racemization.

    PubMed

    Bada, J L; Schroeder, R A; Carter, G F

    1974-05-17

    Ages of several Californzia Paleo-Indlian skeletons have been deduced from the extent of aspartic acid racemization. These dates suggest that man was present in North America at least 50,000 years before the present.

  14. STUDIES ON RARE AND POORLY KNOWN LEECHES (ANNELIDA: HIRUDINEA: GLOSSIPHONIIDAE) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three taxa within the leech family Glossiphoniidae, Actinobdella inequiannulata, Placobdella hollensis, and Theromyzon spp., though widespread in eastern North America, remain poorly known with respect to their biology and systematics. All three taxa have been collected in New E...

  15. European buckthorn and Asian soybean aphid as components of an extensive invasional meltdown in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We consider the possibility of an extensive invasional meltdown occurring in central North America involving ten Eurasian species. The scenario begins with the potential co-facilitation between the European earthworm LUMBRICUS TERRESTRIS and European buckthorn, RHAMNUS CATHARTICA. European bucktho...

  16. WILD SALMON IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA: FORECASTING THE MOST LIKELY STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future of wild salmon in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as current recovery efforts are, does not appear likely to realize sustain biologically significan...

  17. WILD SALMON IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA; THE HISTORICAL AND POLICY CONTEXT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all of the participants in the Salmon 2100 Project concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, ...

  18. Insect-transmitted viruses affecting tomato production in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect-transmitted viruses cause significant losses annually for tomato production in western North America (California and western Mexico). Considerable variability exists among viruses impacting production throughout the region. This is influenced by variable climatic conditions which affect vec...

  19. Possible minimum depths of large historical earthquakes in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1980-08-01

    For instrumentally recorded earthquakes of magnitude >5.0 in northeastern North America, focal depth has been estimated using corner periods. Agreement has been noted between these estimates and estimates obtained by assuming a spherical source and using absence of surface faulting as a boundary condition. This suggests that in eastern North America the minimum depth of earthquakes with magnitude m/sub blg/>6.0 would be about 10 km.

  20. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  1. Mercury and methylmercury in aquatic sediment across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Jacob; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Lutz, Michelle A; Tate, Michael T.; Alpers, Charles N.; Hall, Britt D.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Eckley, Chris S.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale assessments are valuable in identifying primary factors controlling total mercury (THg) and monomethyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations, and distribution in aquatic ecosystems. Bed sediment THg and MeHg concentrations were compiled for > 16,000 samples collected from aquatic habitats throughout the West between 1965 and 2013. The influence of aquatic feature type (canals, estuaries, lakes, and streams), and environmental setting (agriculture, forest, open-water, range, wetland, and urban) on THg and MeHg concentrations was examined. THg concentrations were highest in lake (29.3 ± 6.5 μg kg− 1) and canal (28.6 ± 6.9 μg kg− 1) sites, and lowest in stream (20.7 ± 4.6 μg kg− 1) and estuarine (23.6 ± 5.6 μg kg− 1) sites, which was partially a result of differences in grain size related to hydrologic gradients. By environmental setting, open-water (36.8 ± 2.2 μg kg− 1) and forested (32.0 ± 2.7 μg kg− 1) sites generally had the highest THg concentrations, followed by wetland sites (28.9 ± 1.7 μg kg− 1), rangeland (25.5 ± 1.5 μg kg− 1), agriculture (23.4 ± 2.0 μg kg− 1), and urban (22.7 ± 2.1 μg kg− 1) sites. MeHg concentrations also were highest in lakes (0.55 ± 0.05 μg kg− 1) and canals (0.54 ± 0.11 μg kg− 1), but, in contrast to THg, MeHg concentrations were lowest in open-water sites (0.22 ± 0.03 μg kg− 1). The median percent MeHg (relative to THg) for the western region was 0.7%, indicating an overall low methylation efficiency; however, a significant subset of data (n > 100) had percentages that represent elevated methylation efficiency (> 6%). MeHg concentrations were weakly correlated with THg (r2 = 0.25) across western North America. Overall, these results highlight the large spatial variability in sediment THg and MeHg concentrations throughout western North America and underscore the important roles that landscape and land

  2. Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic evolution of Arctic North America

    SciTech Connect

    Embry, A.F.

    1987-05-01

    Correlation of the upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic successions of northern Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands has revealed close stratigraphic and tectonic links between these two petroliferous areas. Depositional and tectonic trends have been reconstructed for Arctic North America, and such interpretations can assist petroleum assessments of unexplored areas in the region. Five regional unconformities are recognized, and these allow the succession to be divided into four tectonic sequences: Carboniferous-Lower Permian, Lower Permian-lowest Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Cretaceous. The first sequence, Carboniferous-Lower Permian, developed during a phase of rifting when a series of pull-apart basins formed along the eroded Ellesmerian deformation belt. Fan deltas and shelf carbonates with equivalent basinal shales and evaporites characterize this sequence. An episode of uplift and faulting terminated the first sequence. The second sequence, Lower Permian-lowest Cretaceous, developed under conditions of thermal subsidence over the rifted areas. Clastic sedimentation was dominant with alternating shelf and deltaic deposition. Significant uplift reflecting the initiation of the Amerasian basin by rifting began in earliest Cretaceous. Sequence three, Lower Cretaceous, was deposited during the rifting phase of the Amerasian basin and consists of thick, deltaic, clastic wedges derived from either the craton or the uplifted Brooks Range. The onset of sea-floor spreading in the Amerasian basin in earliest Late Cretaceous resulted in widespread uplift. The fourth sequence, Upper Cretaceous, was deposited coincident with sea-floor spreading in the Amerasian basin. Initial deposits were bituminous shales which were followed by thick clastic wedges that prograded into the ocean basin. This sequence was terminated by uplift in Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary when sea-floor spreading switched to the Eurasian basin.

  3. Predicting Grizzly Bear Density in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, Garth; Heard, Douglas C.; Schwarz, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend. PMID:24367552

  4. Genitourinary tuberculosis in North America: A rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Sourial, Michael W.; Brimo, Fadi; Horn, Ruth; Andonian, Sero

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of mortality from infectious diseases worldwide, genitourinary TB in North America is rare. We review 3 cases of genitourinary TB diagnosed within the last 5 years. Cases: The first case is that of a 76-year-old African-Canadian woman who was referred for percutaneous nephrolithotomy of right lower pole renal stones. Although renal TB was suspected, her initial urinary TB culture was negative. On follow-up imaging, she developed bilateral ureteral thickening and ureteroscopic biopsy confirmed necrotizing granulomata. Repeat urine cultures were positive for M. tuberculosis. The second case is a 73-year-old Italian-Canadian woman who was referred for ureteroscopic biopsy of left thickened ureter to rule out urothelial carcinoma. Initial urine TB cultures were negative, despite biopsies confirming granulomatous inflammation. She was closely followed with urine cytologies and TB cultures. Repeat urine culture was positive for M. tuberculosis. Both patients were treated with a course of anti-tuberculous agents and indwelling ureteral stents to relieve ureteral obstruction. The third case is a 70-year-old Cree woman who was referred for percutaneous nephrolithotomy of a left “staghorn stone” in an atrophic left kidney. Thirty years earlier she had been treated for pulmonary TB in addition to ileocystoplasty for a “thimble” bladder. A computed tomography scan showed autonephrectomized left kidney. Her urine TB cultures were negative. She was placed on prophylactic antibiotics for her recurrent bacterial urinary tract infections. Conclusion: Genitourinary TB may present in various subtle ways, and the astute clinician must have a high index of suspicion for this disease in patients with atypical clinical and radiologic findings. In addition, TB urine cultures should be repeated when there is high index of suspicion. PMID:26279721

  5. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  6. Predicting grizzly bear density in western North America.

    PubMed

    Mowat, Garth; Heard, Douglas C; Schwarz, Carl J

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is often controversial and the disagreement often is focused on the estimates of density used to calculate allowable kill. Many recent estimates of grizzly bear density are now available but field-based estimates will never be available for more than a small portion of hunted populations. Current methods of predicting density in areas of management interest are subjective and untested. Objective methods have been proposed, but these statistical models are so dependent on results from individual study areas that the models do not generalize well. We built regression models to relate grizzly bear density to ultimate measures of ecosystem productivity and mortality for interior and coastal ecosystems in North America. We used 90 measures of grizzly bear density in interior ecosystems, of which 14 were currently known to be unoccupied by grizzly bears. In coastal areas, we used 17 measures of density including 2 unoccupied areas. Our best model for coastal areas included a negative relationship with tree cover and positive relationships with the proportion of salmon in the diet and topographic ruggedness, which was correlated with precipitation. Our best interior model included 3 variables that indexed terrestrial productivity, 1 describing vegetation cover, 2 indices of human use of the landscape and, an index of topographic ruggedness. We used our models to predict current population sizes across Canada and present these as alternatives to current population estimates. Our models predict fewer grizzly bears in British Columbia but more bears in Canada than in the latest status review. These predictions can be used to assess population status, set limits for total human-caused mortality, and for conservation planning, but because our predictions are static, they cannot be used to assess population trend.

  7. Earthquake ground-motion prediction equations for eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, G.M.; Boore, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    New earthquake ground-motion relations for hard-rock and soil sites in eastern North America (ENA), including estimates of their aleatory uncertainty (variability) have been developed based on a stochastic finite-fault model. The model incorporates new information obtained from ENA seismographic data gathered over the past 10 years, including three-component broadband data that provide new information on ENA source and path effects. Our new prediction equations are similar to the previous ground-motion prediction equations of Atkinson and Boore (1995), which were based on a stochastic point-source model. The main difference is that high-frequency amplitudes (f ??? 5 Hz) are less than previously predicted (by about a factor of 1.6 within 100 km), because of a slightly lower average stress parameter (140 bars versus 180 bars) and a steeper near-source attenuation. At frequencies less than 5 Hz, the predicted ground motions from the new equations are generally within 25% of those predicted by Atkinson and Boore (1995). The prediction equations agree well with available ENA ground-motion data as evidenced by near-zero average residuals (within a factor of 1.2) for all frequencies, and the lack of any significant residual trends with distance. However, there is a tendency to positive residuals for moderate events at high frequencies in the distance range from 30 to 100 km (by as much as a factor of 2). This indicates epistemic uncertainty in the prediction model. The positive residuals for moderate events at < 100 km could be eliminated by an increased stress parameter, at the cost of producing negative residuals in other magnitude-distance ranges; adjustment factors to the equations are provided that may be used to model this effect.

  8. The Carbon Budget of Coastal Waters of Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Boyer, E. W.; Burdige, D.; Butman, D. E.; Cai, W. J.; Canuel, E. A.; Chen, R. F.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Kemp, W. M.; Kroeger, K. D.; Mannino, A.; McCallister, S. L.; McGillis, W. R.; Mulholland, M. R.; Salisbury, J.; Signorini, S. R.; Tian, H.; Tzortziou, M.; Vlahos, P.; Wang, A. Z.; Zimmerman, R. C.; Pilskaln, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and the output of numerical and statistical models are synthesized to construct a carbon budget of the coastal waters of eastern North America. The domain extends from the head of tide to (roughly) the continental shelf break and from southern Florida to southern Nova Scotia. The domain area is 2% tidal wetlands, 19% estuarine open water, and 78% shelf water. Separate budgets are constructed for inorganic and organic carbon; for tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters; and for three main subregions: the Gulf of Maine, the Mid-Atlantic Bight, and the South Atlantic Bight. Net primary production for the study region is about 150 Tg C yr-1, with 12% occurring in tidal wetlands and 7% in estuaries. Though respiration and photosynthesis are nearly balanced in most systems and regions, tidal wetlands and shelf waters are each found to be net autotrophic whereas estuaries are net heterotrophic. The domain as a whole is a sink of 5 Tg C yr-1 of atmospheric CO2, with tidal wetlands and shelf waters taking up 10 Tg C yr-1 (split roughly equally) and estuaries releasing 5 Tg C yr-1 to the atmosphere. Carbon burial is about 3 Tg C yr-1, split roughly equally among tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Rivers supply 6-7 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about 2/3 of which is organic. Tidal wetlands supply an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 to estuaries, about half of which is organic. Carbon in organic and inorganic forms is exported from estuaries to shelf waters and from shelf waters to the open ocean. In summary, tidal wetlands and estuaries, though small in area, contribute substantially to the overall carbon budget of the region.

  9. Daymet: Gridded subdaily weather data for North America

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Michele M; Thornton, Peter E; Cook, Robert B; Wei, Yaxing; Eby, Pete I; Devarakonda, Ranjeet

    2011-01-01

    A core requirement for many ecosystem modeling approaches is surface weather fields, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, and incident solar radiation. Carbon dynamics and flux estimates from process models depend strongly on daily and subdaily weather conditions. One common obstacle to model implementation over continental scale regions is the difficulty of obtaining the relevant surface weather observations from in situ networks, and producing spatially interpolated (gridded) surfaces of the necessary weather fields at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. One approach that has been developed to overcome this obstacle is Daymet, a numerical method for producing gridded surfaces of subdaily temperature (daily maximum and minimum temperature), and daily precipitation, humidity, and radiation over large regions of complex terrain, using daily surface weather observations and an accurate elevation grid as input. We are providing a high-quality gridded surface weather product over North America for input to NACP process modeling studies by expanding on the conterminous U.S. Daymet domain to include Canada (south of 52N) and Mexico. Download Daymet Data: http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219. Input data requirements for the conterminous US, Mexico, and Canada for 1980 - 2008 have been used to produce the Daymet product for these areas; the data will be released in Fall 2010. MAST-DC is developing several ways to select and distribute the Daymet data: ftp download, single-pixel extraction, and access through THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). Periodic updates to the continental data set will be implemented as new years of surface observations become available.

  10. Wildfire responses to abrupt climate change in North America.

    PubMed

    Marlon, J R; Bartlein, P J; Walsh, M K; Harrison, S P; Brown, K J; Edwards, M E; Higuera, P E; Power, M J; Anderson, R S; Briles, C; Brunelle, A; Carcaillet, C; Daniels, M; Hu, F S; Lavoie, M; Long, C; Minckley, T; Richard, P J H; Scott, A C; Shafer, D S; Tinner, W; Umbanhowar, C E; Whitlock, C

    2009-02-24

    It is widely accepted, based on data from the last few decades and on model simulations, that anthropogenic climate change will cause increased fire activity. However, less attention has been paid to the relationship between abrupt climate changes and heightened fire activity in the paleorecord. We use 35 charcoal and pollen records to assess how fire regimes in North America changed during the last glacial-interglacial transition (15 to 10 ka), a time of large and rapid climate changes. We also test the hypothesis that a comet impact initiated continental-scale wildfires at 12.9 ka; the data do not support this idea, nor are continent-wide fires indicated at any time during deglaciation. There are, however, clear links between large climate changes and fire activity. Biomass burning gradually increased from the glacial period to the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Although there are changes in biomass burning during the Younger Dryas, there is no systematic trend. There is a further increase in biomass burning after the Younger Dryas. Intervals of rapid climate change at 13.9, 13.2, and 11.7 ka are marked by large increases in fire activity. The timing of changes in fire is not coincident with changes in human population density or the timing of the extinction of the megafauna. Although these factors could have contributed to fire-regime changes at individual sites or at specific times, the charcoal data indicate an important role for climate, and particularly rapid climate change, in determining broad-scale levels of fire activity.

  11. Land-atmosphere coupling over North America in CRCM5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Martynov, A.; Jeong, D. I.; Verseghy, D.; Winger, K.

    2014-11-01

    Land-atmosphere coupling and its impact on extreme precipitation and temperature events over North America are studied using the fifth generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this effect, two 30 year long simulations, spanning the 1981-2010 period, with and without land-atmosphere coupling, have been performed with CRCM5, driven by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis at the boundaries. In the coupled simulation, the soil moisture interacts freely with the atmosphere at each time step, while in the uncoupled simulation, soil moisture is replaced with its climatological value computed from the coupled simulation, thus suppressing the soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. Analyses of the coupled and uncoupled simulations, for the summer period, show strong soil moisture-temperature coupling over the Great Plains, consistent with previous studies. The maxima of soil moisture-precipitation coupling is more spread out and covers the semiarid regions of the western U.S. and parts of the Great Plains. However, the strength of soil moisture-precipitation coupling is found to be generally weaker than that of soil moisture-temperature coupling. The study clearly indicates that land-atmosphere coupling increases the interannual variability of the seasonal mean daily maximum temperature in the Great Plains. Land-atmosphere coupling is found to significantly modulate selected temperature extremes such as the number of hot days, frequency, and maximum duration of hot spells over the Great Plains. Results also suggest additional hot spots, where soil moisture modulates extreme events. These hot spots are located in the southeast U.S. for the hot days/hot spells and in the semiarid regions of the western U.S. for extreme wet spells. This study thus demonstrates that climatologically wet/dry regions can become hot spots of land-atmosphere coupling when the soil moisture decreases/increases to an intermediate transitional level

  12. Magnetic anomaly map of North America south of 50 degrees north from Pogo data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A magnetic anomaly map produced from Pogo data for North America and adjacent ocean areas is presented. At satellite elevations anomalies have wavelengths measured in hundreds of kilometers, and reflect regional structures on a large scale. Prominent features of the map are: (1) a large east-west high through the mid-continent, breached at the Mississippi Embayment; (2) a broad low over the Gulf of Mexico; (3) a strong gradient separating these features, which follows the Southern Appalachian-Ouachita curvature; and (4) a high over the Antilles-Bahamas Platform which extends to northern Florida. A possible relationship between the high of the mid-continent and the 38th parallel lineament is noted.

  13. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  14. The North Pacific as a Regulator of Summertime Climate Over North America and the Asian Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wang, H.

    2004-01-01

    The interannual variability of summertime rainfall over the U.S. may be linked to climate anomalies over Pacific and East Asia through teleconnection patterns that may be components of recurring global climate modes in boreal summer (Lau and Weng 2002). In this study, maintenance of the boreal summer teleconnection patterns is investigated. The particular focus is on the potential effects of North Pacific air-sea interaction on climate anomalies over the U.S. Observational data, reanalysis and outputs of a series of NASA NSIPP AGCM and AGCM coupled to NASA GSFC MLO model experiments are used. Statistical analysis of observations and NSIPP AMIP type simulations indicates that, the interannual variability of observed warm season precipitation over the U.S. is related to SST variation in both tropical and North Pacific, whereas the NSIPP AMIP simulated summertime US. precipitation variation mainly reflects impact of ENS0 in tropical Pacific. This implies the potential importance of air-sea interaction in North Pacific in contributing to the interannual variability of observed summer climate over the U.S. The anomalous atmospheric circulation associated with the dominant summertime teleconnection modes in both observations and NSIPP AMIP simulations are further diagnosed, using stationary wave modeling approach. In observations, for the two dominant modes, both anomalous diabatic heating and anomalous transients significantly contribute to the anomalous circulation. The distributions of the anomalous diabatic heating and transient forcing are quadrature configured over North Pacific and North America, so that both forcings act constructively to maintain the teleconnection patterns. The contrast between observations and NSIPP AMIP simulations from stationary wave modeling diagnosis confirms the previous conclusion based on statistical analysis. To better appreciate the role of extra-tropical air-sea interaction in maintaining the summertime teleconnection pattern

  15. Sitochroa palealis: a Palearctic pyraustine moth (Pyraloidea: Crambidae) newly introduced to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sitochroa palealis (Denis & Schiffermüller) is recorded from North America for the first time. Adults were collected in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. The capture of larvae and adults in four states over a six-year period is strong evidence that S. palealis is established in North Americ...

  16. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  17. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid from Asia and North America based on microsatellites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura, was recently introduced from Asia into North America (NA) where it has become a serious pest of soybeans. This invasive pest spread rapidly throughout the north central United States and southern Canada since its discovery in 2000. We examined 593 individ...

  18. Life Cycles of Agriculturally-Relevant ENSO Teleconnections in North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. B.; Seager, R.; Baethgen, W.; Cane, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Studying ENSO teleconnections as a time-invariant phenomenon is often a useful conceptual framework. However, the seasonal and interannual progression of teleconnections is important for providing useful forecasts. In this study we analyze how climate sensitive portions of major crop growing regions and seasons relate to multi-year ENSO life-cycles in North and South America. We find that temperature and precipitation teleconnections forced directly by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies during boreal winter lead to soil moisture anomalies that persist through the spring to affect major growing seasons in both North and South America. Peak SST anomalies in ENSO life-cycles force atmospheric wave trains that lead to strong teleconnections during boreal winter. These teleconnections are concurrent with, and therefore critical for, South American growing seasons but less so for those of North America. Lagged teleconnections are of primary importance in North America, where the growing season often coincides with near-neutral SST anomalies. Major wheat producing regions of North America coincide with areas of significant soil moisture memory, such as the southern Great Plains, in which peak wintertime teleconnections force soil moisture anomalies that can persist through to early spring. Lagged soil moisture teleconnections also play a role in the late winter / early spring growing seasons of South America, particularly in Argentina.

  19. Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven C; Wang, Xiaoming

    2004-09-30

    Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period, during which intensified global climatic changes took place. Moreover, strong phylogenetic affinities between the flora of eastern North America and eastern Asia clearly demonstrate formerly contiguous connections, but disparity among shared genera (eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunction) implies significant periods of separation since at least the Miocene epoch. Lacustrine sediments deposited within a former sinkhole in the southern Appalachian Mountains provide a rare example of a late Miocene to early Pliocene terrestrial biota from a forested ecosystem. Here we show that the vertebrate remains contained within this deposit represent a unique combination of North American and Eurasian taxa. A new genus and species of the red (lesser) panda (Pristinailurus bristoli), the earliest and most primitive so far known, was recovered. Also among the fauna are a new species of Eurasian badger (Arctomeles dimolodontus) and the largest concentration of fossil tapirs ever recorded. Cladistical analyses of the two new carnivores strongly suggest immigration events that were earlier than and distinct from previous records, and that the close faunal affinities between eastern North America and eastern Asia in the late Tertiary period are consistent with the contemporaneous botanical record.

  20. Ochotona(Lagomorpha) from Late Quaternary Cave Deposits in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Grady, Frederick

    1996-01-01

    Pikas ( Ochtona)—small gnawing mammals, related to rabbits—range today throughout parts of the Northern Hemisphere, but had a wider distribution during the Pleistocene. Nine caves from northeastern North America (a region not occupied by pikas today) have Pleistocene deposits containing remains of Ochotona.We examine 526 fossil specimens (ranging in age from approximately 850,000 to 8670 yr B.P.) from five of these caves. Two morphological forms of Ochotonalived in northeastern North America during the late Pleistocene—a large species (probably O. whartoni) and a small species (probably O. princeps). Ochotonaof glacial age are not necessarily indicative of talus slopes and mesic communities. O. princeps-like of the Irvingtonian of West Virginia were living with an amphibian-reptilian assemblage found in the area today, implying winters not much, if at all, colder than at present. Late glacial and postglacial change in climate south of the ice sheets in effect would have isolated Ochotonain eastern North America, where they were unable to retreat to the west or north. Whereas western pika had the option of moving up in elevation, into boreal islands, eastern forms became restricted to ever-diminishing habitats, culminating in extinction and extirpation. Radiocarbon ages imply that Ochotonalived in eastern North America during the late Pleistocene (late Rancholabrean) and into the earliest Holocene. We describe the youngest remains of Ochotonain eastern North America and the youngest for the extinct large form, O. whartoni.

  1. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  2. 49 CFR 385.709 - Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension and revocation of non-North America... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.709 Suspension and revocation of non-North America-domiciled carrier...

  3. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  4. Developments in Ground-Motion Modeling in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Boore, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent well-recorded earthquakes in Eastern North America (ENA) have led us to re-evaluate concepts that have been "standard fare" in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for ENA for decades, including all published GMPEs that are used in current practice (e.g. Atkinson and Boore, 2011, 2006, 1995; Pezeshk et al., 2011; Campbell, 2003; Toro et al., 1997, etc.). Assumptions common to all ENA GMPEs that may not be true include the following. (1) Typical ENA stress drops, in the context of a Brune model representation of the source spectrum, are in the range of 150-300 bars, with the exception of occasional high-stress events like the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. (2) Attenuation of ground motions can be modeled with a frequency-independent geometric spreading function, either bilinear or trilinear in shape (e.g. Street and Turcotte, 1975; Herrmann and Kijko, 1983; Atkinson and Mereu, 1992; Atkinson, 2004; Boatwright and Seekins, 2011), and an associated frequency-dependent anelastic attenuation term related to the regional Quality factor. The use of a bilinear or trilinear form models the transition from geometric spreading of body waves at close distances to slower surface-wave-type spreading at regional distances. We use ground-motion recordings from recent ENA events to re-examine these basic tenets of GMPE development, in light of constraints on the problem provided at low frequencies by seismic moment, and at high frequencies by stresses inferred from Empirical Greens Function (EGF) analysis. We find strong evidence, in both ground-motion data and from the constraints, that geometric attenuation may be frequency dependent. Moreover, EGF stress drops may be very high (>500 bars) - but they do not lead to particularly large high-frequency ground motions, at least at distances for which we have observations. More complex models of ENA source and attenuation processes appear to be required in order to reconcile our growing ground-motion database

  5. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Rech, J.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods are commonly preserved in wetland, alluvial, loess, and glacial deposits, as well as in sediments at many archeological sites. These shells are composed largely of aragonite (CaCO3) and potentially could be used for radiocarbon dating, but they must meet two criteria before their 14C ages can be considered to be reliable: (1) when gastropods are alive, the 14C activity of their shells must be in equilibrium with the 14C activity of the atmosphere, and (2) after burial, their shells must behave as closed systems with respect to carbon. To evaluate the first criterion, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the 14C content of the most common small terrestrial gastropods in North America, including 247 AMS measurements of modern shell material (3749 individual shells) from 46 different species. The modern gastropods that we analyzed were all collected from habitats on carbonate terrain and, therefore, the data presented here represent worst-case scenarios. In sum, ~78% of the shell aliquots that we analyzed did not contain dead carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks even though it was readily available at all sites, 12% of the aliquots contained between 5 and 10% dead carbon, and a few (3% of the total) contained more than 10%. These results are significantly lower than the 20-30% dead carbon that has been reported previously for larger taxa living in carbonate terrain. For the second criterion, we report a case study from the American Midwest in which we analyzed fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods (7 taxa; 18 AMS measurements; 173 individual shells) recovered from late-Pleistocene sediments. The fossil shells yielded 14C ages that were statistically indistinguishable from 14C ages of well-preserved plant macrofossils from the same stratum. Although just one site, these results suggest that small terrestrial gastropod shells may behave as closed systems with respect to carbon over geologic

  6. Earthquake source properties and wave propagation in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhaes de Matos Viegas Fernandes, Gisela Sofia

    The study of intraplate earthquakes is fundamental for the understanding of the physics of faulting, seismic hazard assessment, and nuclear monitoring, but large to moderate well recorded intraplate earthquakes are scarce. I use the best recorded earthquake in Eastern North America (ENA)---the Mw 5.0 20 April 2002, Au Sable Forks, NY, earthquake and its aftershock sequence to investigate wave propagation and earthquake source properties in ENA. The Au Sable Forks epicenter is located near the boundary of two distinct geological provinces Appalachian (New England) and Grenville (New York). Existing regional one-dimensional (1D) crustal models were derived from seismic surveys or from sparse ground-motions recordings from regional moderate earthquakes. I obtain improved 1D crustal models for these two provinces by forward modeling, for the first time, multi-path high-quality ground-motions of a moderate earthquake in ENA. Using Au Sable Forks earthquake records at 16 stations (epicentral distances < 400 km) at intermediate frequencies (<1 Hz), I generate synthetic seismograms using the frequency-wave number method. The new models improve the fit of synthetics to data at all 6 stations in the Grenville province and at 5 of the 10 stations in the Appalachian province. I identify complex wave paths along the boundary between the provinces, and 3% azimuthal anisotropy in the Appalachian crust. It is unknown how much earthquake source properties depend on the tectonic setting in which the earthquakes occur. Debate exists regarding the invariance of stress drop with earthquake size in ENA, and whether earthquakes in intraplate regions have higher stress drops than those in more tectonically active regions. I estimate source parameters for 22 earthquakes (M1-M5) of the Au Sable Forks sequence, using two alternative methods: a direct wave method (Empirical Green's Function) and a coda wave method (Coda Ratio) applied for the first time to small magnitude earthquakes. Both

  7. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  8. The physical demands of electrical utilities work in North America.

    PubMed

    Meade, Robert D; Lauzon, Martin; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the physical demands associated with electrical utilities work in North America and how they influence the level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced. Three common job categories were monitored as they are normally performed in thirty-two electrical utility workers: (i) Ground Work (n = 11), (ii) Bucket Work (n = 9), and (iii) Manual Pole Work (n = 12). Video analysis was performed to determine the proportion of the work monitoring period (duration: 187 ± 104 min) spent at different levels of physical effort (i.e., rest as well as light, moderate and heavy effort). Core and skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured continuously. On average, workers spent 35.9 ± 15.9, 36.8 ± 17.8, 24.7 ± 12.8, and 2.6 ± 3.3% of the work period at rest and performing work classified as light, moderate, and heavy physical effort, respectively. Moreover, a greater proportion of the work period was spent performing heavy work in Ground Work (1.6 ± 1.4%) relative to Bucket Work (0.0 ± 0.0%; P<0.01) and in Manual Pole Climbing (5.5 ± 3.6%) in comparison to both other work job (both P≤0.03). Furthermore, the proportion of time spent during work classified as heavy physical effort was positively correlated to the mean (r = 0.51, P<0.01) and peak (r = 0.42, P = 0.02) core temperatures achieved during the work period as well as the mean heart rate response (presented as a percentage of heart rate reserve; r = 0.40, P = 0.03). Finally, mean and peak core temperatures and mean heart rate responses increased from the first to the second half of the work shift; however, no differences in the proportion of the work spent at the different intensity classifications were observed. We show that Manual Pole Work is associated with greater levels of physical effort compared to Ground or Bucket Work. Moreover, we suggest that the proportion of time spent performing work classified as heavy physical exertion is related to the level of thermal and

  9. A multicenter evaluation of linezolid antimicrobial activity in North America.

    PubMed

    Ballow, Charles H; Jones, Ronald N; Biedenbach, Douglas J

    2002-05-01

    Overall, 141 centers in North America enrolled in this international surveillance study designed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity and spectrum of linezolid, a new oxazolidinone. Each participant tested the susceptibility of clinical isolates of staphylococcal species (n = 85) against 12 drugs, and enterococcal species (n = 40) against 6 drugs using reference broth microdilution trays; and of streptococcal species (n = 25) against 6 drugs using Etests (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden). Quality control testing was conducted using recommended strains, and verification of resistance to linezolid and select other agents was performed by a regional monitor. Of the 20,161 isolates collected from sites across the United States (US; n = 132) and Canada (n = 9), 18,307 were included in this analysis. Oxacillin resistance occurred in 38.7 and 70.6% of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) isolates, respectively. Vancomycin resistance was reported in 65.9 and 2.6% of Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis, respectively. Penicillin resistance occurred in 37.2% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17.5% constituting high-level resistance (MIC, > or =2 microg/ml). The MIC(90) for linezolid was 1 microg/ml for streptococci, 2 microg/ml for enterococci and CoNS isolates, and 4 microg/ml for S. aureus. Using the US FDA-recommended susceptible breakpoints for linezolid, there were no confirmed reports of linezolid resistance (i.e., MIC > or =8 microg/ml). The occurrence of linezolid MICs was unimodal and generally varied between, 1-4 microg/ml for staphylococci (94% of recorded results), 1-2 microg/ml for enterococci (93%), and 0.5-1 microg/ml for streptococci (85%). Susceptibility to linezolid was not influenced by susceptibility to other antiicrobials such as vancomycin, beta-lactams or macrolides. Only linezolid was universally active against essentially all tested Gram-positive specimens. The unimodal susceptibility pattern is indicative of excellent

  10. Avian Influenza Risk Surveillance in North America with Online Media

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Colin; Yee, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The use of Internet-based sources of information for health surveillance applications has increased in recent years, as a greater share of social and media activity happens through online channels. The potential surveillance value in online sources of information about emergent health events include early warning, situational awareness, risk perception and evaluation of health messaging among others. The challenge in harnessing these sources of data is the vast number of potential sources to monitor and developing the tools to translate dynamic unstructured content into actionable information. In this paper we investigated the use of one social media outlet, Twitter, for surveillance of avian influenza risk in North America. We collected AI-related messages over a five-month period and compared these to official surveillance records of AI outbreaks. A fully automated data extraction and analysis pipeline was developed to acquire, structure, and analyze social media messages in an online context. Two methods of outbreak detection; a static threshold and a cumulative-sum dynamic threshold; based on a time series model of normal activity were evaluated for their ability to discern important time periods of AI-related messaging and media activity. Our findings show that peaks in activity were related to real-world events, with outbreaks in Nigeria, France and the USA receiving the most attention while those in China were less evident in the social media data. Topic models found themes related to specific AI events for the dynamic threshold method, while many for the static method were ambiguous. Further analyses of these data might focus on quantifying the bias in coverage and relation between outbreak characteristics and detectability in social media data. Finally, while the analyses here focused on broad themes and trends, there is likely additional value in developing methods for identifying low-frequency messages, operationalizing this methodology into a

  11. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P.; van Oevelen, P. J.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Schlosser, C. A.; Wood, E. F.; Ek, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  12. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-05-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projected increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial, energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinated effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observational and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the information

  13. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  14. Foliar pathogens of Populus angustifolia are consistent with a hypothesis of Beringian migration into North America.

    PubMed

    Busby, Posy E; Aime, M Catherine; Newcombe, George

    2012-07-01

    Populus angustifolia, the narrowleaf cottonwood, is considered one of two native species of Populus section Tacamahaca restricted to western North America. Efforts to construct a definitive phylogeny of Populus spp. are complicated by ancient hybridization, but some phylogenetic analyses suggest P. angustifolia is more closely related to Asian congeners than to Populus trichocarpa, the other species of Populus section Tacamahaca in western North America. Because hosts and their obligate symbionts can display parallel phylogeographic patterns, we evaluated the possibility of a Beringian migration into North America by an Asian ancestor of P. angustifolia by determining the distributions, host preferences, and, in some cases, closest phylogenetic relatives of fungal leaf pathogens of P. angustifolia. Phyllactinia populi, a common foliar pathogen on Populus spp. in Asia but unknown on P. trichocarpa, was found on P. angustifolia in multiple sites. Mycosphaerella angustifoliorum, also unknown on P. trichocarpa, was commonly collected on P. angustifolia. Conversely, many common foliar pathogens of P. trichocarpa in western North America were not found on P. angustifolia; only Melampsora×columbiana and Drepanopeziza populi were common to both Populus species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that M. angustifoliorum was not part of the diversification of Mycosphaerella on Populus that includes all other Mycosphaerella species on Populus in North America: Mycosphaerella populicola, Mycosphaerella populorum, M. sp. 1, and M. sp. 2. The latter two undescribed species represent a newly discovered diversification of M. populorum in western North America. Overall, the leaf pathogen community of P. angustifolia is consistent with a Beringian migration into North America by the ancestor of P. angustifolia.

  15. Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Armstrong, Lori R.; Childs, James E.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Khabbaz, Rima; Peters, C.J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Rodents are the principal hosts of Sin Nombre virus, 4 other hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America, and the 3 North American arenaviruses. Serum samples from 757 persons who had worked with rodents in North America and handled neotomine or sigmodontine rodents were tested for antibodies against Sin Nombre virus, Whitewater Arroyo virus, Guanarito virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Antibodies against Sin Nombre virus were found in 4 persons, against Whitewater Arroyo virus or Guanarito virus in 2 persons, and against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in none. These results suggest that risk for infection with hantaviruses or arenaviruses usually is low in persons whose occupations entail close physical contact with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in North America. PMID:17553266

  16. Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lafontaine, J Donald; Schmidt, B Christian

    2011-01-01

    A total of 115 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Thirty-two of these are changes in authorship and/or date of publication or spelling. Taxonomic changes are 33 new or revised synonymies, three new combinations, and six revisions in status from synonymy to valid species.

  17. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  18. Resolving the evolutionary history of Campanula (Campanulaceae) in western North America.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Barry M; Galbreath, Kurt E; DeChaine, Eric G

    2011-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic works have begun to address long-standing questions regarding the systematics of Campanula (Campanulaceae). Yet, aspects of the evolutionary history, particularly in northwestern North America, remain unresolved. Thus, our primary goal in this study was to infer the phylogenetic positions of northwestern Campanula species within the greater Campanuloideae tree. We combined new sequence data from 5 markers (atpB, rbcL, matK, and trnL-F regions of the chloroplast and the nuclear ITS) representing 12 species of Campanula with previously published datasets for worldwide campanuloids, allowing us to include approximately 75% of North American Campanuleae in a phylogenetic analysis of the Campanuloideae. Because all but one of North American Campanula species are nested within a single campanuloid subclade (the Rapunculus clade), we conducted a separate set of analyses focused specifically on this group. Our findings show that i) the campanuloids have colonized North America at least 6 times, 4 of which led to radiations, ii) all but one North American campanuloid are nested within the Rapunculus clade, iii) in northwestern North America, a C. piperi-C. lasiocarpa ancestor gave rise to a monophyletic Cordilleran clade that is sister to a clade containing C. rotundifolia, iv) within the Cordilleran clade, C. parryi var. parryi and C. parryi var. idahoensis exhibit a deep, species-level genetic divergence, and v) C. rotundifolia is genetically diverse across its range and polyphyletic. Potential causes of diversification and endemism in northwestern North America are discussed.

  19. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BATRACHOSPERMUM MACROSPORUM (BATRACHOSPERMALES, RHODOPHYTA) FROM NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA(1).

    PubMed

    Vis, Morgan L; Cameron Hodge, J; Necchi, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Phylogeographic trends in Batrachospermum macrosporum Mont. were investigated using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 and 3 genes (cox2-3). A total of 11 stream segments were sampled with seven in the coastal plain of North America and four in tropical areas of South America. Fifteen thalli were sampled from seven streams, 14 thalli from two streams, and eight thalli from two streams. There were 16 haplotypes detected using 149 individuals. Of the eight haplotypes from locations in North America, all were 334 base pairs (bp) in length, and of those from South America, five were 344 bp, and three were 348 bp. Two individual networks were produced: one for the haplotypes from North America and another for those from South America, and these could not be joined due to the large number of base pair differences. This split between haplotypes from North and South America was confirmed with sequence data of the rbcL gene. There was very little genetic variation among the haplotypes from the North American locations, leading us to hypothesize that these are fairly recent colonization events along the coastal plain. In contrast, there was high variation among haplotypes from South America, and it would appear that the Amazon serves as a center of diversity. We detected considerable variation in haplotypes among streams, but frequently, a single haplotype in an individual stream segment, which is consistent with data from previous studies of other batrachospermalean taxa, may suggest a single colonization event per stream.

  20. North Pacific seasonality and the glaciation of North America 2.7 million years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Ganopolski, A.; Sigman, D. M.; Rosell-Mele, A.; Swann, G. E.; Tiedemann, R.; Jaccard, S. L.; Bollmann, J.; Maslin, M. A.; Leng, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    2006-12-01

    To initiate and sustain the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets of the Plio-Pleistocene ice ages, in particular the large Laurentide ice masses on North America, two requirements are broadly recognized. First, the more polar continental areas must be sufficiently cold for precipitation to fall as snow rather than rain and for snow and ice to survive the warm summer melting season. Second, adequate moisture must be introduced to high northern latitudes to promote the accumulation of glacial ice. In attempts to explain the initiation of major Northern Hemisphere Glaciation 2.7 Myr ago, much attention has been given to the temperature requirements of continental glaciation. The time interval between 4.5 and 3.1 Myr was dominated by a pronounced long-term minimum in the amplitude of the 41 kyr cycle in the obliquity of Earth's rotation which would have failed to produce particularly cold northern hemisphere summers, the key requirement posited by Milankovitch for the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation. During this time interval, there may have been several aborted shifts toward glaciation, for example between 4.1 - 3.9 Myr and 3.5 - 3.3 Myr. During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene, a high amplitude in the obliquity cycle resulted in periods of low tilt angle, which, in turn, would have yielded periods with cold summers in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, it has been suggested that the progressive increase in the amplitude of the obliquity cycle tipped the scale between 3.1 - 2.5 Myr, allowing for long-term expansion of Northern Hemisphere ice. In short, our long-held view of the temperature requirement of glaciation is largely consistent with the timing of the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. However, the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation has proven to be inconsistent with ideas regarding the water vapor requirement. The subarctic Pacific represents a major source of water vapor to boreal North America yet has largely been overlooked in efforts

  1. A Ceratopsian Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Western North America, and the Biogeography of Neoceratopsia

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Maxwell, W. Desmond; Cifelli, Richard L.; Wedel, Mathew J.

    2014-01-01

    The fossil record for neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of North America primarily comprises isolated teeth and postcrania of limited taxonomic resolution, hampering previous efforts to reconstruct the early evolution of this group in North America. An associated cranium and lower jaw from the Cloverly Formation (?middle–late Albian, between 104 and 109 million years old) of southern Montana is designated as the holotype for Aquilops americanus gen. et sp. nov. Aquilops americanus is distinguished by several autapomorphies, including a strongly hooked rostral bone with a midline boss and an elongate and sharply pointed antorbital fossa. The skull in the only known specimen is comparatively small, measuring 84 mm between the tips of the rostral and jugal. The taxon is interpreted as a basal neoceratopsian closely related to Early Cretaceous Asian taxa, such as Liaoceratops and Auroraceratops. Biogeographically, A. americanus probably originated via a dispersal from Asia into North America; the exact route of this dispersal is ambiguous, although a Beringian rather than European route seems more likely in light of the absence of ceratopsians in the Early Cretaceous of Europe. Other amniote clades show similar biogeographic patterns, supporting an intercontinental migratory event between Asia and North America during the late Early Cretaceous. The temporal and geographic distribution of Upper Cretaceous neoceratopsians (leptoceratopsids and ceratopsoids) suggests at least intermittent connections between North America and Asia through the early Late Cretaceous, likely followed by an interval of isolation and finally reconnection during the latest Cretaceous. PMID:25494182

  2. Investigation of aerosol-precipitation interactions in North-Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we report an investigation of the effects of changes in aerosols on clouds and precipitation patterns in North America. The online meteorology/chemistry Weather, Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) version 3.2 is used in the simulation. The domain of our study covers the Eastern parts of Canada and U.S. with a 12-km grid resolution. The purpose of the study is to asses the effects on meteorology (especially clouds and precipitation) of changes in aerosols that may occur due to future changes in population and emissions regulations. The first task is the creation of a series of emission scenarios reflecting the expected changes in these parameters. In order to prepare the anthropogenic and biogenic hourly emissions for the WRF-Chem simulations, we began with the annual, state or county wide total emission inventories for area, point and mobile sources in 2008, which are available from the U.S. EPA website and the corresponding Canadian emission inventories for year 2006, provided by Environment Canada. Surrogate files for the allocation of emissions from area and mobile sources were generated by processing a set of GIS shape files using the Surrogate Generator Tool. The raw emission inventories were then processed using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) system version 2.7 to generate the speciated, gridded and hourly emission data needed for the WRF-Chem simulation. Several one-month simulations were conducted to investigate the performance of the model, followed by preliminary studies of the effects of anthropogenic and biogenic aerosols on precipitation patterns. For these initial studies, scenarios were carried out assuming zero emissions, biogenic-only emissions and biogenic plus anthropogenic emissions. The results of these studies will be discussed in this report, along with their implications for the design of the more detailed scenarios to follow. In the latter, we will address the effect of changes in aerosols due to

  3. Disturbance Frequency Changes in Western North and South America During the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.; Bianchi, M. M.; Briles, C.; Brunelle, A.; Long, C.; Markgraf, V.; Marlon, J.; Meeker, C.; Power, M.; Walsh, M.

    2003-12-01

    Fire is the dominant form of natural disturbance in temperate forested ecosystems, and as such, it serves as a process that links climate change to biosphere response. High-resolution charcoal records from the western temperate forests of North and South America provide an opportunity to compare current and recent (pre-settlement) changes in disturbance frequency with those during the Holocene. Charcoal data describe past fire activity under different climate and vegetation settings and offer information on changing levels of biomass as well as variations in fire frequency. An assessment of North American sites indicates gradually increasing levels of charcoal from the late-glacial to 2 ka, which is consistent with increasing fuel production during the Holocene. Fire-frequency data from both hemispheres indicate that the spatial heterogeneity evident in modern fire regimes has existed throughout the Holocene despite changes in the large-scale controls of climate. The heterogeneity is a result of spatial variations in the seasonal distribution of precipitation and their influence on fire climate and weather. Summer-dry areas (i.e., low summer:annual precipitation) registered higher-than-present fire activity in the early Holocene from ca. 13 to 7 ka. In North America, fire activity was apparently controlled by the early-Holocene strengthening of the northeast Pacific subtropical high during the summer insolation maximum. In Patagonia, high fire activity may have caused by the carry-over effects of low winter soil moisture during the winter insolation maximum. A decline in fire activity in summer-dry regions in the late Holocene suggests seasonally wetter conditions as a result of the onset of ENSO, less seasonality in precipitation, and/or the development of more closed forests. Summer-wet regions show the influence of stronger monsoonal circulation in the early Holocene, which caused a reduction in fire activity. In these regions, the late Holocene featured

  4. On cold spells in North America and storminess in western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messori, Gabriele; Caballero, Rodrigo; Gaetani, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the dynamical and statistical links between cold extremes over eastern North America and storminess over western Europe, with a focus on the midlatitude jet stream, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA). The analysis is performed on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 20th Century Reanalysis. The large-scale circulation associated with the cold spells corresponds to advection of cold air from the Arctic region into North America and to a very zonal and intense North Atlantic jet, shifted persistently south of its climatological location. These features of the Atlantic jet are conducive to destructive windstorms and intense precipitation over a large part of southern and continental Europe and the British Isles. The cold spells are preceded by a negative NAO and followed by a positive PNA; however, we interpret the associated circulation anomalies as being distinct from these standard modes of climate variability.

  5. Quality Control Methodology Of A Surface Wind Observational Database In North Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. The database consists of 526 sites (486 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions with uneven measurement units and changing measuring procedures, instrumentation and heights. The records span from 1953 to 2010. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. The first phases deal with problems often related with data recording and management: (1) compilation stage dealing with the detection of typographical errors, decoding problems, site displacements and unification of institutional practices; (2) detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; (3) detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. The last phases are focused on instrumental errors: (4) problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; (5) high variability related erroneous records; (6) standardization of wind speed record biases due to changing measurement heights, detection of wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales, and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Additionally, around 15.9% wind speed records and 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected.

  6. The Helvella lacunosa species complex in western North America: cryptic species, misapplied names and parasites.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhu H; Landeros, Fidel; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Hansen, Karen; Vellinga, Else C

    2013-01-01

    Based on morphology, fungal species have been considered widespread and as a result names of species from Europe or eastern North America were applied to species in western North America. However, DNA sequences have shown that many western taxa are different from their European counterparts; one such case is presented here. Comparisons of ITS and LSU rDNA sequences from ectomycorrhizal root tips and ascomata of specimens identified as Helvella lacunosa from North America, Europe and Asia revealed that the taxa from western North America and Mexico formed a well supported clade different from the eastern North American, European and Asian taxa. Within this western North American clade there are at least four taxa. Here we describe two of these western taxa as new species: Helvella vespertina and Helvella dryophila. Helvella vespertina is a bigger version of H. lacunosa, is variable in hymenial color and shape and forms ectomycorrhizae with conifers; it fruits typically Oct-Jan. Helvella dryophila is characterized by a dark almost black, squat pileus, a light stipe when young, medium size and forms ectomycorrhizae with Quercus species; it fruits Jan-Jun. Due to insufficient material, the two other Helvella taxa are discussed but not formally described here. We also examined the Hypomyces and other mycoparasites associated with the ascomata of Helvella species and discuss misleadingly labeled sequences in public databases.

  7. Metallogeny of the midcontinent rift system of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, S.W.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1.1 Ga Midcontinent rift system of North America is one of the world's major continental rifts and hosts a variety of mineral deposits. The rocks and mineral deposits of this 2000 km long rift are exposed only in the Lake Superior region. In the Lake Superior region, the rift cuts across Precambrian basement terranes ranging in age from ??? 1850 Ma to more than 3500 Ma. Where exposed, the rift consists of widespread tholeiitic basalt flows with local interlayered rhyolite and clastic sedimentary rocks. Beneath the center of Lake Superior the volcanic and sedimentary rocks are more than 30 km deep as shown by recent seismic reflection profiles. This region hosts two major classes of mineral deposits, magmatic and hydrothermal. All important mineral production in this region has come from hydrothermal deposits. Rift-related hydrothermal deposits include four main types: (1) native copper deposits in basalts and interflow sediments; (2) sediment-hosted copper sulfide and native copper; (3) copper sulfide veins and lodes hosted by rift-related volcanic and sedimentary rocks; and (4) polymetallic (five-element) veins in the surrounding Archean country rocks. The scarcity of sulfur within the rift rocks resulted in the formation of very large deposits of native metals. Where hydrothermal sulfides occur (i.e., shale-hosted copper sulfides), the source of sulfur was local sedimentary rocks. Magmatic deposits have locally supported exploration and minor production, but most are subeconomic presently. These deposits occur in intrusions exposed near the margins of the rift and include CuNiPGE and TiFe (V) in the Duluth Complex, U-REE-Nb in small carbonatites, and breccia pipes resulting from local hydrothermal activity around small felsic intrusions. Mineralization associated with some magmatic bodies resulted from the concentration of incompatible elements during fractional crystallization. Most of the sulfide deposits in intrusions, however, contain sulfur derived from

  8. Explicit tests of palaeodrainage connections of southeastern North America and the historical biogeography of Orangethroat Darters (Percidae: Etheostoma: Ceasia).

    PubMed

    Bossu, Christen M; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Ceas, Patrick A; Near, Thomas J

    2013-11-01

    The alteration in palaeodrainage river connections has shaped patterns of speciation, genetic diversity and the geographical distribution of the species-rich freshwater fauna of North America. The integration of ancestral range reconstruction methods and divergence time estimates provides an opportunity to infer palaeodrainage connectivity and test alternative palaeodrainage hypotheses. Members of the Orangethroat Darter clade, Ceasia, are endemic to southeastern North America and occur north and south of the Pleistocene glacial front, a distributional pattern that makes this clade of closely related species an ideal system to investigate the number and location of glacial refugia and compare alternative hypotheses regarding the proposed evolution of the Teays-Mahomet palaeodrainage. This study utilized time-calibrated mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies and present-day geographical distributions to investigate hypothesized Teays-Mahomet River connections through time using a dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis (DEC) framework. Results of DEC ancestral area reconstructions indicate that the Teays-Mahomet River was a key dispersal route between disjunct highland regions connecting the Mississippi River tributaries to the Old-Ohio Drainage minimally at two separate occasions during the Pleistocene. There was a dynamic interplay between palaeodrainage connections through time and postglacial range expansion from three glacial refugia that shaped the current genetic structure and geographical distributions of the species that comprise Ceasia.

  9. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.

    2012-11-01

    The sudden environmental catastrophe in the wake of the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact had drastic effects that rippled through animal communities. To explore how these effects may have been exacerbated by prior ecological changes, we used a food-web model to simulate the effects of primary productivity disruptions, such as those predicted to result from an asteroid impact, on ten Campanian and seven Maastrichtian terrestrial localities in North America. Our analysis documents that a shift in trophic structure between Campanian and Maastrichtian communities in North America led Maastrichtian communities to experience more secondary extinction at lower levels of primary production shutdown and possess a lower collapse threshold than Campanian communities. Of particular note is the fact that changes in dinosaur richness had a negative impact on the robustness of Maastrichtian ecosystems against environmental perturbations. Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America.

  10. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Roopnarine, Peter D; Angielczyk, Kenneth D

    2012-11-13

    The sudden environmental catastrophe in the wake of the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact had drastic effects that rippled through animal communities. To explore how these effects may have been exacerbated by prior ecological changes, we used a food-web model to simulate the effects of primary productivity disruptions, such as those predicted to result from an asteroid impact, on ten Campanian and seven Maastrichtian terrestrial localities in North America. Our analysis documents that a shift in trophic structure between Campanian and Maastrichtian communities in North America led Maastrichtian communities to experience more secondary extinction at lower levels of primary production shutdown and possess a lower collapse threshold than Campanian communities. Of particular note is the fact that changes in dinosaur richness had a negative impact on the robustness of Maastrichtian ecosystems against environmental perturbations. Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America.

  11. Late Cretaceous restructuring of terrestrial communities facilitated the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in North America

    PubMed Central

    Roopnarine, Peter D.; Angielczyk, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden environmental catastrophe in the wake of the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact had drastic effects that rippled through animal communities. To explore how these effects may have been exacerbated by prior ecological changes, we used a food-web model to simulate the effects of primary productivity disruptions, such as those predicted to result from an asteroid impact, on ten Campanian and seven Maastrichtian terrestrial localities in North America. Our analysis documents that a shift in trophic structure between Campanian and Maastrichtian communities in North America led Maastrichtian communities to experience more secondary extinction at lower levels of primary production shutdown and possess a lower collapse threshold than Campanian communities. Of particular note is the fact that changes in dinosaur richness had a negative impact on the robustness of Maastrichtian ecosystems against environmental perturbations. Therefore, earlier ecological restructuring may have exacerbated the impact and severity of the end-Cretaceous extinction, at least in North America. PMID:23112149

  12. The Younger Dryas ET Impact Theory and Terminal Pleistocene Mammalian Extinctions in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandson, J. M.; Kennett, D. J.; Kennett, J.; Braje, T.; Culleton, B.

    2007-05-01

    Despite decades of intensive study and debate, no consensus has been reached on what caused the extinction of North America's mammalian megafauna at the end of the Pleistocene. In a scholarly standoff, prominent scientists have shown that neither "human overkill" or "climate change" models adequately account for the patterns found in the paleontological and archaeological records of North America. The Younger Dryas ET Impact theory may dramatically alter this debate, adding a catastrophic trigger to help explain the rapid extinction of many large mammals about 12,900 years ago. New data suggest that an extraterrestrial impact focused in northern and eastern North America may have devastated the megafauna through: (1) direct mortality caused by the impacts shock wave, debris, and massive wildfires; (2) dramatic reduction of terrestrial food supplies, rapid climatic change, and ecological reorganization; and (3) coup-de-grace effects of surviving human populations rapidly expanding after the impact.

  13. High-resolution Neogene and Quaternary estimates of Nubia-Eurasia-North America Plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, C.; Iaffaldano, G.; Merkouriev, S.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstructions of the history of convergence between the Nubia and Eurasia plates constitute an important part of a broader framework for understanding deformation in the Mediterranean region and the closing of the Mediterranean Basin. Herein, we combine high-resolution reconstructions of Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate motions to determine rotations that describe Nubia-Eurasia Plate motion at ˜1 Myr intervals for the past 20 Myr. We apply trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian inference to the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America rotation sequences in order to reduce noise in the newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations. The noise-reduced rotation sequences for the Eurasia-North America and Nubia-North America Plate pairs describe remarkably similar kinematic histories since 20 Ma, consisting of relatively steady seafloor spreading from 20 to 8 Ma, ˜20 per cent opening-rate slowdowns at 8-6.5 Ma, and steady plate motion from ˜7 Ma to the present. Our newly estimated Nubia-Eurasia rotations predict that convergence across the central Mediterranean Sea slowed by ˜50 per cent and rotated anticlockwise after ˜25 Ma until 13 Ma. Motion since 13 Ma has remained relatively steady. An absence of evidence for a significant change in motion immediately before or during the Messinian Salinity Crisis at 6.3-5.6 Ma argues against a change in plate motion as its causative factor. The detachment of the Arabian Peninsula from Africa at 30-24 Ma may have triggered the convergence rate slowdown before 13 Ma; however, published reconstructions of Nubia-Eurasia motion for times before 20 Ma are too widely spaced to determine with confidence whether the two are correlated. A significant discrepancy between our new estimates of Nubia-Eurasia motion during the past few Myr and geodetic estimates calls for further investigation.

  14. Waterbird conservation for the Americas: The North American waterbird conservation plan, version 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, James A.; Steinkamp, Melanie J.; Parsons, Katharine C.; Capp, Jack; Cruz, Martin Acosta; Coulter, Malcolm; Davidson, Ian; Dickson, Loney; Edelson, Naomi; Elliot, Richard; Erwin, R. Michael; Hatch, Scott A.; Kress, Stephen; Milko, Robert; Miller, Steve; Mills, Kyra L.; Paul, Richard; Phillips, Roberto; Saliva, Jorge E.; Syderman, Bill; Trapp, John; Wheeler, Jennifer; Wohl, Kenton D.

    2002-01-01

    The North American Waterbird Conservation Plan (the Plan) is the product of an independent partnership of individuals and institutions having interest and responsibility for conservation of waterbirds and their habitats in the Americas. This partnership - Waterbird Conservation for the Americas - was created to support a vision in which the distribution, diversity, and abundance of populations and habitats of breeding, migratory, and nonbreeding waterbirds are sustained or restored throughout the lands and waters of North America, Central America, and the Caribbean.The Plan provides a continental-scale framework for the conservation and management of 210 species of waterbirds, including seabirds, coastal waterbirds, wading birds, and marshbirds utilizing aquatic habitats in 29 nations throughout North America, Central America, the islands and pelagic waters of the Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic, the U.S.-associated Pacific Islands and pelagic inland and pelagic waters of the Pacific. Birds as familiar as herons, loons, pelicans, and gulls, as well as the lesser known albatrosses, petrels, auks, and rails are among the species considered in the Plan. These birds' dependence on aquatic habitats such as wooded swamps, stream corridors, salt marshes, barrier islands, continental shelf waters and open pelagic waters make them especially vulnerable to the myriad threats facing water and wetland resources globally. In addition, the congregatory behavior of many waterbirds increases population risks by concentrating populations in limited areas.

  15. From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: Tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Joshua D.

    2015-09-25

    As part of my NSD Innovation awarded funds (95470 Powell Innovation: charge code N38540) one my deliverables was a review article for journal submission summarizing my work on this project. My NSD Innovation project is expressing Ebola antibodies in tobacco plants. I've attached abstract below Title: From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America Abstract: Abstract: In 2012 scientists funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) produced 10 million doses of influenza vaccine in tobacco in a milestone deadline of one month. Recently the experimental antibody cocktail Zmapp™, also produced in tobacco, has shown promise as an emergency intervention therapeutic against Ebola. These two examples showcase how collaborative efforts between government, private industry and academia are applying plant biotechnology to combat pathogenic agents. Opportunities now exist repurposing tobacco expression systems for exciting new applications in synthetic biology, biofuels production and industrial enzyme production. Lastly, as plant-produced biotherapeutics become more mainstream, government funding agencies need to be cognizant of the idea that many plant-produced biologicals are often safer, cheaper and just as efficacious as their counterparts that are produced using traditional expression systems.

  16. From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: Tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America

    DOE PAGES

    Powell, Joshua D.

    2015-09-25

    As part of my NSD Innovation awarded funds (95470 Powell Innovation: charge code N38540) one my deliverables was a review article for journal submission summarizing my work on this project. My NSD Innovation project is expressing Ebola antibodies in tobacco plants. I've attached abstract below Title: From pandemic preparedness to biofuel production: tobacco finds its biotechnology niche in North America Abstract: Abstract: In 2012 scientists funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) produced 10 million doses of influenza vaccine in tobacco in a milestone deadline of one month. Recently the experimental antibody cocktail Zmapp™, also produced inmore » tobacco, has shown promise as an emergency intervention therapeutic against Ebola. These two examples showcase how collaborative efforts between government, private industry and academia are applying plant biotechnology to combat pathogenic agents. Opportunities now exist repurposing tobacco expression systems for exciting new applications in synthetic biology, biofuels production and industrial enzyme production. Lastly, as plant-produced biotherapeutics become more mainstream, government funding agencies need to be cognizant of the idea that many plant-produced biologicals are often safer, cheaper and just as efficacious as their counterparts that are produced using traditional expression systems.« less

  17. Space-Based Ornithology - Studying Bird Migration and Environmental Change in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-01-01

    Natural fluctuations in the availability of critical stopover sites coupled with anthropogenic destruction of wetlands, land-use change, and anticipated losses due to climate change present migratory birds with a formidable challenge. Space based technology in concert with bird migration modeling and geographical information analysis yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. We use an individual-based bird biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate and hydrologic data, and biological field observations to study migratory bird responses to environmental change in North America. Simulation allows us to study bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. We illustrate our approach by simulating the spring migration of pectoral sandpipers from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska. Mean stopover length and trajectory patterns are consistent with field observations.

  18. Space-based ornithology: studying bird migration and environmental change in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James A.; Deppe, Jill L.

    2008-10-01

    Natural fluctuations in the availability of critical stopover sites coupled with anthropogenic destruction of wetlands, land-use change, and anticipated losses due to climate change present migratory birds with a formidable challenge. Space based technology in concert with bird migration modeling and geographical information analysis yields new opportunities to shed light on the distribution and movement of organisms on the planet and their sensitivity to human disturbances and environmental changes. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we are creating ecological forecasting tools for science and application users to address the consequences of loss of wetlands, flooding, drought or other natural disasters such as hurricanes on avian biodiversity and bird migration. We use an individual-based bird biophysical migration model, driven by remotely sensed land surface data, climate and hydrologic data, and biological field observations to study migratory bird responses to environmental change in North America. Simulation allows us to study bird migration across multiple scales and can be linked to mechanistic processes describing the time and energy budget states of migrating birds. We illustrate our approach by simulating the spring migration of pectoral sandpipers from the Gulf of Mexico to Alaska. Mean stopover length and trajectory patterns are consistent with field observations.

  19. The Tropical Pacific and Sub-Arctic Weather in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to the classical El Niño, other structures in tropical Pacific SST anomalies have a strong influence on extratropical weather. Since 1979 the second EOF of global SST is a mode with warm SST in the western equatorial Pacific and cool SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific. This pattern has a strong signal in the extratropical North Pacific associated with the Rossby wave anomalies that are forced in the tropics and propagate over North America, and has been termed the North Pacific Mode. This mode is associated with a ridge on the west coast of North American and a trough downstream of the Rocky Mountains. This mode of variability had a strong influence on the winters of 2014 and 2015, and appears to have played a strong role in the cold winter of 2014 in central and eastern North America. This pattern persisted from the middle of 2013 through at least July of 2015, and also seems to have an effect on summer weather anomalies of the same nature. In the past the strength of the North Pacific Mode has preceded strong El Niño events, after which point it went into a strongly negative phase. This history suggests a transition to a more classical El Niño anomaly pattern for the winter of 2016, which would produce a warmer winter in central and eastern North America and cool and moist conditions over the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. General circulation model simulations of winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Legates, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, observed sea-level pressures were used to evaluate winter and summer sea-level pressures over North America simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation models. The objective of the study is to determine how similar the spatial and temporal distributions of GCM-simulated daily sea-level pressures over North America are to observed distributions. Overall, both models are better at reproducing observed within-season variance of winter and summer sea-level pressures than they are at simulating the magnitude of mean winter and summer sea-level pressures. -from Authors

  1. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, Patrick M; Hudson, Patrick L

    2004-02-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  2. Gravity anomalies, plate tectonics and the lateral growth of Precambrian North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    The widespread gravity coverage of North America provides a picture of the gross structural fabric of the continent via the trends of gravity anomalies. The structural picture so obtained reveals a mosaic of gravity trend domains, many of which correlate closely with structural provinces and orogenic terranes. The gravity trend map, interpreted in the light of plate-tectonic theory, thus provides a new perspective for examining the mode of assembly and growth of North America. Suture zones, palaeosubduction directions, and perhaps, contrasting tectonic histories may be identified using gravity patterns.

  3. Pacific-North America plate motions - New results from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1990-01-01

    The state of Pacific-North America plate interaction is updated using newest VLBI measurements and newly developed rigid plate tectonic models. Particular attention is given to examining the extent of relative motion between the Pacific plate and the North America plate as measured from their stable interiors, the evidence of Pacific plate deformation off the central California coast, and the distribution of path integrated deformaton east of the San Andreas fault. The information obtained on these questions is discussed in the framework of implications for lithospheric rheology and earthquake hazard.

  4. Earliest conifers of North America: upland and/or paleoclimatic indicators?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Darrah, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oldest conifer compressions and permineralized remains from North America, which are assignable to Walchia Sternberg, are found in strata of Westphalian C and D ages in the central Colorado trough of Colorado, the Nemaha highlands of Oklahoma, and the central Appalachian basin. These early conifer occurrences are consistent with dry conditions in Colorado and less dry or wet-dry, better drained, more oxidizing upland conditions in the central Appalachian basin, possibly tectonically controlled, which may have been a prelude to a widespread climatic change in Stephanian or Permian time in North America. -Authors

  5. AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES IN NORTH AMERICA: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although emission inventories are the foundation of air quality management and have supported substantial improvements in North American air quality, they have a number of shortcomings that can potentially lead to ineffective air quality management strategies. New technologies fo...

  6. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Jennifer L.; Scanlin, Dennis; Quinlan, Paul

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  7. A short narrative - Challenges and opportunities in expanding research in the Middle East, North Afr

    Cancer.gov

    CGH CRTA, Hedieh Mehrtash interviews CGH's Dr. Marie Ricciardone who works with a network of partners in the Middle East and North Africa region, on experiences, challenges, and opportunities in the region.

  8. Northeastern North America as a potential refugium for boreal forests in a warming climate.

    PubMed

    D'Orangeville, L; Duchesne, L; Houle, D; Kneeshaw, D; Côté, B; Pederson, N

    2016-06-17

    High precipitation in boreal northeastern North America could help forests withstand the expected temperature-driven increase in evaporative demand, but definitive evidence is lacking. Using a network of tree-ring collections from 16,450 stands across 583,000 km(2) of boreal forests in Québec, Canada, we observe a latitudinal shift in the correlation of black spruce growth with temperature and reduced precipitation, from negative south of 49°N to largely positive to the north of that latitude. Our results suggest that the positive effect of a warmer climate on growth rates and growing season length north of 49°N outweighs the potential negative effect of lower water availability. Unlike the central and western portions of the continent's boreal forest, northeastern North America may act as a climatic refugium in a warmer climate.

  9. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  10. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  11. The orphan tsunami of 1700—Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Musumi-Rokkaku, Satoko; Satake, Kenji; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Kazue; Yamaguchi, David K.

    2005-09-15

    The Orphan Tsunami of 1700, now in its second edition, tells this scientific detective story through its North American and Japanese clues. The discoveries underpin many of today’s precautions against earthquakes and tsunamis in the Cascadia region of northwestern North America. The Japanese tsunami of March 2011 called attention to those hazards as a mirror image of the transpacific waves of January 1700.

  12. Tackling malnutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Galicia, Luis; de Romaña, Daniel López; Harding, Kimberly B; De-Regil, Luz María; Grajeda, Rubén

    2016-08-01

    Undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are still a public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions. To assess the nutrition landscape in LAC countries and guide future nutrition efforts and investments, the Pan American Health Organization and the Micronutrient Initiative joined efforts to 1) identify information gaps and describe the current nutritional situation in the region; 2) map existing policies to address malnutrition in Latin America; 3) describe the impact of conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs) on nutrition and health outcomes; and 4) identify the challenges and opportunities to address malnutrition in the region. This article summarizes the methods and key findings from that research and describes the current challenges and opportunities in addressing malnutrition in the LAC region. LAC countries have advanced in reducing undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, but important gaps in information are a major concern. These countries have policies to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, but comprehensive and intersectoral policies to tackle obesity are lacking. CCTs in Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico have been reported to have a positive impact on child nutrition and health outcomes, providing an opportunity to integrate nutrition actions in intersectoral platforms. The current epidemiological situation and policy options offer an opportunity for countries, technical agencies, donors, and other stakeholders to jointly scale up nutrition actions. This can support the development of comprehensive and intersectoral policies to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, strengthen national nutrition surveillance systems, incorporate monitoring and evaluation as systematic components of policies and programs, document and increase investments in nutrition, and assess the effectiveness of such policies to support political commitment and guarantee

  13. 75 FR 51846 - BlueScope Buildings North America Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Buildings North America Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through... wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Buttler... as follows: All workers of BlueScope Buildings North America, including workers whose...

  14. 77 FR 39689 - Application To Export Electric Energy; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...; IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: IPR-GDF SUEZ Energy Marketing North America, Inc... Mexico would be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies,...

  15. 76 FR 18212 - E.ON Climate & RenewablesNorth America, LLC, et al. v. Midwest Independent Transmission System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission E.ON Climate & RenewablesNorth America, LLC, et al. v. Midwest Independent... Climate & Renewables North America, LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC, Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. and...

  16. 76 FR 55082 - Re-Accreditation and Re-Approval of SGS North America, Inc. as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection Re-Accreditation and Re-Approval of SGS North America, Inc... Security. ACTION: Notice of re-approval of SGS North America, Inc., Baytown, Texas, as a commercial gauger... 78408, has been re-approved to gauge petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and...

  17. 76 FR 29797 - International Automotive Components, North America, Including On-Site Leased Workers From At-Work...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Automotive Components, North America, Including On- Site..., applicable to workers of International Automotive Components, North America, including on-site leased workers... engaged employment related to the production of component parts for the automotive industry. The...

  18. 78 FR 21189 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; BMW of North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Standard; BMW of North America, LLC AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... full the BMW of North America, LLC (BMW) petition for exemption of the X4 vehicle line in accordance...-marking requirements of the Theft Prevention Standard (49 CFR part 541). BMW requested...

  19. 76 FR 51468 - BMW of North America, LLC, a subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt of Petition for Decision of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration BMW of North America, LLC, a subsidiary of BMW AG, Receipt... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Receipt of Petition for Inconsequential Noncompliance. SUMMARY: BMW of North America, LLC,\\1\\ a subsidiary of BMW AG.\\2\\ (collectively referred to as ``BMW'') has determined that...

  20. 75 FR 8921 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the cell phone kitting and distribution facilities of... kitting and distribution of cell phones at the facilities of Brightpoint North America L.P., located...

  1. Skeletal variation among early Holocene North American humans: implications for origins and diversity in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Benjamin M

    2012-12-01

    The movement of humans into the Americas remains a major topic of debate among scientific disciplines. Central to this discussion is ascertaining the timing and migratory routes of the earliest colonizers, in addition to understanding their ancestry. Molecular studies have recently argued that the colonizing population was isolated from other Asian populations for an extended period before proceeding to colonize the Americas. This research has suggested that Beringia was the location of this "incubation," though archaeological and skeletal data have not yet supported this hypothesis. This study employs the remains of the five most complete North American male early Holocene skeletons to examine patterns of human morphology at the earliest observable time period. Stature, body mass, body breadth, and limb proportions are examined in the context of male skeletal samples representing the range of morphological variation in North America in the last two millennia of the Holocene. These are also compared with a global sample. Results indicate that early Holocene males have variable postcranial morphologies, but all share the common trait of wide bodies. This trait, which is retained in more recent indigenous North American groups, is associated with adaptations to cold climates. Peoples from the Americas exhibit wider bodies than other populations sampled globally. This pattern suggests the common ancestral population of all of these indigenous American groups had reduced morphological variation in this trait. Furthermore, this provides support for a single, possibly high latitude location for the genetic isolation of ancestors of the human colonizers of the Americas.

  2. Research and application of biochar in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar production and application in soil are proposed as a good strategy for carbon sequestration, providing simultaneous benefits for improving soil quality and increasing agronomic productivity. In this chapter, we summarized historic and current researches and application of biochar in North Am...

  3. The first nearly cryptic Scorpionfly (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first, nearly cryptic species of scorpionfly from the United States, Panorpa cryptica Bicha and Schiff, n. sp., is described from northern Georgia, southwestern North Carolina and northwestern South Carolina. This insect was initially differentiated from the very similar Panorpa nebulosa Westwoo...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Tomato Viroids in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American greenhouse tomato industry has expanded dramatically in the last couple of decades. Nearly 40% of fresh tomatoes in the U.S. supermarkets are now produced in greenhouses. The intense production practices and the protective plant growing environment resulted in a number of unique...

  5. Aurora Borealis over Northern North America and Canada

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video was taken by the crew of Expedition 30 on board the International Space Station. The sequence of shots was taken January 29, 2012 from 10:18:13 to 10:31:28 GMT, on a pass from the North ...

  6. Vegetable cultivar descriptions for North America, List 27

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This list of the North American vegetable cultivars was developed using the database of cultivars registered with the American Seed Trade Association, as well as published descriptions from scientific journals, seed catalogs, and websites of seed companies. Assistant editors responsible for each cr...

  7. Selenium biofortification in North America: Using naturally selenium-rich feeds for livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective is to demonstrate how livestock feed manufactures could lead the way in North America for large-scale Se biofortification of livestock using naturally Se-rich products. With this in mind, a cooperative group, which included researchers, a feed manufacture, a livestock association, and ...

  8. Science and Management of the Introduced Seagrass Zostera japonica in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy seagrass is considered a prime indicator of estuarine ecosystem function. On the Pacific coast of North America, at least two congeners of Zostera occur: native Zostera marina, and introduced, Z. japonica. Z. japonica is considered “invasive” and therefore, ecologically...

  9. The Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume VI: English in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, John, Ed.

    This book is one volume in a series that examines the history of English. It traces the history of English in North America during the past 400 years, from its British background to its present position among the varieties of English used worldwide. Influences that have formed American English include political, social, and cultural changes in…

  10. A new species of Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocoris aquilivenis Lewis, n. sp. is described from the mountainous areas of western North America. It is compared to the Nearctic species Anthocoris tomentosus Péricart and Anthocoris antevolens White, and to Anthocoris sibiricus Reuter, a related Palearctic species. Illustrations are provided o...

  11. 78 FR 38388 - SGS North America, Inc. (Formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Recognized Testing Laboratory by the addition of one test site and the removal of one test site. This notice... modification of the NRTL scope of recognition of SGS North America, Inc., and formally reflects the name change...: All submissions must include the Agency name and the OSHA docket number (OSHA-2006-0040). OSHA...

  12. Phenotypic variability in a panel of strawberry cultivars from North America and the European Union

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phenotypic diversity in 96 antique and modern cultivars from the European Union and North America was evaluated in Michigan and Oregon, in 2011 and 2012. A total of thirty-five fruit and developmental characteristics were measured. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among cultivars...

  13. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  14. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  15. 78 FR 48909 - SGS North America, Inc. (formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc.)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... headquarters from 291 Fairfield Avenue, Fairfield, NJ 07004, to 620 Old Peachtree Road, Suwanee, GA 30024. As a... addition of the Suwanee, GA, site. As a result, OSHA preliminarily determined that it should expand SGS's... SGS North America, Inc., formerly SGS U.S. Testing Company, Inc., as a Nationally Recognized...

  16. Comment on "DNA from pre-Clovis human coprolites in Oregon, North America".

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Macphail, Richard I

    2009-07-10

    Gilbert et al. (Reports, 9 May 2008, p. 786) presented DNA analysis of coprolites recovered from an Oregon cave as evidence for a human presence in North America before the Clovis culture. Results of our micromorphological and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses of one of the reported coprolites are difficult to reconcile with the DNA results identifying the coprolite as human.

  17. Proceedings of the 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2015 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the Hilton Garden Inn, Manhattan, KS from September 1-3, 2015. The meeting was attended by nearly 200 participants representing a diverse cross section of the sorghum industry including sorghum research community fr...

  18. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its final decision regarding Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) application for an exemption for Andreas Hamsten to enable him to continue...

  19. First record of human infection with the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense in North America.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Barbara; Scholz, Tomás; Peduzzi, Raffaele; Kuchta, Roman

    2008-02-01

    The tapeworm Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea), originally described from Japan, is reported from a man in North America for the first time. Species identification was based on sequences of ribosomal (partial 18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (partial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) genes of proglottids expelled from a Czech tourist who ate raw Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from British Columbia, Canada.

  20. First breeding records of whooping swan and brambling in North America at Attu Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Sonneborn, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    We document the first breeding records of Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) in Alaska and North America on Attu Island in the Western Aleutians in the spring of 1996. Five cygnets were seen with adults and the nest located, and a territorial pair of Bramblings was observed and a nest with eggs found.

  1. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF COMMON LOON GENETIC STRUCTURE IN NORTH AMERICA BASED ON FIVE MICROSATELLITE LOCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study seeks to determine fine-scale genetic structure of Common Loon breeding populations in order to link wintering birds with their breeding regions. Common Loons are large piscivorous birds that breed in lakes of northern North America and Iceland. Loons are highly phil...

  2. Impact of emergence of avian influenza in North America and preventative measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1959, the world has experienced 39 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootics with the largest beginning in 1996 in China that spread to affect 70 countries in Asia, Europe and Africa, and recently North America. Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 HPAI viruses were identified in USA. ...

  3. A new dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with Asian affinities from the latest Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed

    Evans, David C; Larson, Derek W; Currie, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    Dromaeosaurids from the Maastrichtian of North America have a poor fossil record and are known largely from isolated teeth, which have typically been referred to taxa based on more complete material from earlier Campanian strata. An almost complete maxilla with well-preserved dentition and an associated dentary from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana are used to establish a new dromaeosaurid taxon in the latest Maastrichtian, immediately prior to the end-Cretaceous extinction event. Acheroraptor temertyorum gen. et sp. nov. is differentiated from other dromaeosaurids on the basis of a hypertrophied postantral wall that projects posteriorly into the antorbital fenestra, a maxillary fenestra positioned low in the antorbital fossa and directly posterior to the promaxillary fenestra, and distinctive dentition with marked apicobasal ridges. The new material allows a dromaeosaurid from the Maastrichtian of North America to be placed within a phylogenetic framework for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Acheroraptor is a velociraptorine that is more closely related to Asian dromaeosaurids, including Tsaagan and Velociraptor, than it is to Dromaeosaurus, Saurornitholestes, or any other taxon from North America. As part of the Lancian Tyrannosaurus-Triceratops fauna, A. temertyorum is the latest occurring dromaeosaurid. Its relationships and occurrence suggest a complex historical biogeographic scenario that involved multiple, bi-directional faunal interchanges between Asia and North America during the Late Cretaceous.

  4. A history of biological disasters of animal origin in North America.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, G A; Giroux, J

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines past occurrences in North America relevant to the possibility of biological disasters with animal origins. With respect to naturally occurring animal disease outbreaks, North America, while not as adversely affected by epizootics as other regions, has had its fair share of such outbreaks of both 'traditional' and emerging animal diseases. The traditional category includes such diseases as anthrax, classical swine fever, bluetongue, brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, and the family of equine encephalomyelitis viruses. The emerging diseases include relatively more recent culprits such as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, poultry enteritis mortality syndrome, and newly discovered examples of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Additionally, several serious diseases of human beings that involve animal vectors or reservoirs occur naturally in North America or have emerged in recent decades; these include plague, hantavirus, monkeypox, West Nile virus and avian-derived influenza. At the same time, there have been very few intentional attacks on livestock using biological agents and no recorded cases in North America of animals intentionally being used to transmit disease to humans. According to the historical record, therefore, naturally occurring emerging zoonoses probably constitute the greatest threat in terms of biological disasters with animal origins. However, some of the general trends in terrorist activity, such as the intensification of activities by animal rights extremists against facilities undertaking animal research, mean that the possibility of intentional animal-related biological disasters should not be discounted.

  5. Validation of Western North America Models based on finite-frequency and ray theory imaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Larmat, Carene; Maceira, Monica; Porritt, Robert W.; Higdon, David Mitchell; Rowe, Charlotte Anne; Allen, Richard M.

    2015-02-02

    We validate seismic models developed for western North America with a focus on effect of imaging methods on data fit. We use the DNA09 models for which our collaborators provide models built with both the body-­wave FF approach and the RT approach, when the data selection, processing and reference models are the same.

  6. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  7. Data-driven diagnostics of terrestrial carbon dynamics over North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth's climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of t...

  8. The Flora North America Generalized System for Describing the Morphology of Organisms. Research Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetler, Stanwyn G.

    The file organization for the computerized Flora North America (FNA) data bank is described. A four level character hierarchy allows subdivision of any flora description into as many as four levels in order to specify plant character precisely. Terms at any one level will not necessarily be parallel in status. Both PLANTS and LEAVES serve as…

  9. Sugarcane aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae): A new pest on sorghum in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...

  10. Standards and Guidelines of the Reading Recovery [TM] Council of North America. Third Edition: Fall 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This booklet outlines the Reading Recovery Council of North America's (RRCNA) standards and guidelines for those who are responsible for the establishment and maintenance of effective Reading Recovery and/or "Descubriendo La Lectura" sites. The standards are deemed essential for assuring quality services to children and effective…

  11. Council Connections: A Newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council Connections, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of three years' worth (8 issues) of "Council Connections," the newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America. Each issue offers brief articles, updates of Reading Recovery programs in various countries, messages from the organization's president, past president, and/or the executive director, updates…

  12. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  13. 78 FR 51271 - Michelin North America, Inc., Moot of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... Web site at: http://www.regulations.gov/ . Then follow the online search instructions to locate docket... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Michelin North America, Inc., Moot of Petition for...

  14. 77 FR 65050 - Continental Tire North America, LLC, Mootness of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ....regulations.gov/ . Then follow the online search instructions to locate docket number ``NHTSA-2010-0153... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Continental Tire North America, LLC, Mootness of...

  15. 78 FR 59090 - Nissan North America, Incorporated, Grant of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...://www.regulations.gov/ . Then follow the online search instructions to locate docket number ``NHTSA-2012... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Nissan North America, Incorporated, Grant of Petition...

  16. Population genetics of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) introduced in North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Cordero, David; Delgado, Marina; Liu, Baozhong; Ruesink, Jennifer; Saavedra, Carlos

    2017-01-03

    Globally, the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) stands as the second most important bivalve species in fisheries and aquaculture. Native to the Pacific coast of Asia, it is now well-established in North America and Europe, where its on-going management reflects local economic interests. The historic record of transfers spans the 20(th) century and suggests sequential movement from Japan to North America, as a hitch-hiker on oysters, and then intentional introduction in Europe, but global genetic data are missing. We have studied mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers in nine populations from Asia, North America and Europe. The results from the two types of markers indicated a good concordance of present-day genetic structure with the reported history of clam transfers across continents, and no evidence of relevant concealed introductions from continental Asia in Europe and North America. However, European populations showed a loss of genetic variability and significant genetic differentiation as compared to their American counterparts. Our study shows that in spite of the increasing ease for species to spread out of their native range, in the case of the Manila clam this has not resulted in new invasion waves in the two studied continents.

  17. 78 FR 14778 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the..., which authorized Shell Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a...

  18. 75 FR 26202 - Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  19. 75 FR 57911 - Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; EDF Trading North America, LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... (EDF) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from EDF for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five...

  20. 78 FR 14779 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. AGENCY: Office of Electricity... (US), L.P. (Shell Energy) has applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the..., which authorized Shell Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  1. Multilocus sequence typing of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ isolates in North America and New Zealand.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A panel of 10 multilocus sequence typing (MLST) markers for‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ was developed. Using this marker system, genetic relationships among ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ strains in North America (USA and Mexico) and New Zealand were characterized. MLST analysis differentiated 59 s...

  2. Migration of Computer Science Graduates from South Asia to Europe and North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…

  3. Proceeding of the 2014 sorghum improvement conference of north america (SICNA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2014 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA 2014) meeting was held at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center , Agnes, Corpus Christi, TX on June 25-27, 2014. The meeting was attended by about 80 participants representing a diverse cross section of the sorghum indus...

  4. Genetic diversity of Aphthona flea beetles introduced into North America for biological control of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Aphthona flea beetles from Europe (Aphthona flava, Aphthona cyparissiae, Aphthona nigriscutis, Aphthona czwalinae, and Aphthona lacertosa) have been introduced and become established in North America for the purpose of controlling the noxious weed, leafy spurge. Within species gene...

  5. Population genetics of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) introduced in North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, David; Delgado, Marina; Liu, Baozhong; Ruesink, Jennifer; Saavedra, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) stands as the second most important bivalve species in fisheries and aquaculture. Native to the Pacific coast of Asia, it is now well-established in North America and Europe, where its on-going management reflects local economic interests. The historic record of transfers spans the 20th century and suggests sequential movement from Japan to North America, as a hitch-hiker on oysters, and then intentional introduction in Europe, but global genetic data are missing. We have studied mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers in nine populations from Asia, North America and Europe. The results from the two types of markers indicated a good concordance of present-day genetic structure with the reported history of clam transfers across continents, and no evidence of relevant concealed introductions from continental Asia in Europe and North America. However, European populations showed a loss of genetic variability and significant genetic differentiation as compared to their American counterparts. Our study shows that in spite of the increasing ease for species to spread out of their native range, in the case of the Manila clam this has not resulted in new invasion waves in the two studied continents. PMID:28045054

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes for Forests and Grasslands of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activities have substantially elevated the atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) onto terrestrial ecosystems of North America. Some of this N can stimulate carbon (C) storage in terrestrial ecosystems, but the fertilization effect of added N can be diminished by e...

  7. Recent viroid disease outbreaks in greenhouse tomatoes in North and Central America and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse tomato productions in North America have suffered from several high profile viroid disease outbreaks in recent years. In this presentation, I will summarize and briefly describe each of these viroid disease outbreak and their relationship. What are viroids and their transmission through ...

  8. Archips xylosteana (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a Palearctic leaf-rolling moth, new to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Archips xylosteana (L.), a widespread Palearctic tortricid moth, is reported from St. John’s, Newfoundland, the first confirmed records of this species in North America. Adults were collected by beating branches and foliage of a variety of ornamental trees and shrubs on the campus of Memorial Univer...

  9. Modeling Habitat Associations for the Common Loon (Gavia immer) at Multiple Scales in Northeastern North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) is considered an emblematic and ecologically important example of aquatic-dependent wildlife in North America. The northern breeding range of Common Loons has contracted over the last century, presumably as a result of habitat degradation from human ...

  10. Impact of herbivory on performance of Vincetoxicum spp., invasive weeds in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alien invasive vines Vincetoxicum rossicum and Vincetoxicum nigrum (swallow-wort) are of major concern in eastern North America, where both species invade forested landscapes and threaten faunal and plant diversity. Among the few native natural enemies reported in Eurasia, the specialist chryso...

  11. Critical Issues in Native North America, Volume II. IWGIA Document No. 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Ward, Ed.

    This collection of articles forms the second of two volumes designed to impart to readers some sense of the crucial importance of what is and will be happening to the indigenous peoples of North America. "The Present and Future Status of American Indian Nations," by Robert T. Coulter argues from the perspectives of ideology, power, law,…

  12. Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fossil fuel emissions aside, temperate North America is a net sink of carbon dioxide at present1–3. Year-to-year variations in this carbon sink are linked to variations in hydroclimate that affect net ecosystem productivity3,4. The severity and incidence of climatic extremes, including drought, have...

  13. Phylogeography of Declining Relict and Lowland Leopard Frogs in the Desert Southwest of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the phylogeography of the closely related relict leopard frog (Rana onca) and lowland leopard frog (R. yavapaiensis) – two declining anurans from the warm-desert regions of southwestern North America. We used sequence data from two mitochondrial DNA genes to asses...

  14. Phytophthora ramorum in Canada: evidence for migration within North America and from Europe.

    PubMed

    Goss, Erica M; Larsen, Meg; Vercauteren, Annelies; Werres, Sabine; Heungens, Kurt; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death on oak and ramorum blight on woody ornamentals, has been reported in ornamental nurseries on the West Coast of North America from British Columbia to California. Long-distance migration of P. ramorum has occurred via the nursery trade, and shipments of host plants are known to have crossed the U.S.-Canadian border. We investigated the genotypic diversity of P. ramorum in Canadian nurseries and compared the Canadian population with U.S. and European nursery isolates for evidence of migration among populations. All three of the P. ramorum clonal lineages were found in Canada but, unexpectedly, the most common was the NA2 lineage. The NA1 clonal lineage, which has been the most common lineage in U.S. nurseries, was found relatively infrequently in Canada, and these isolates may have been the result of migration from the United States to Canada. The EU1 lineage was observed almost every year and shared multilocus genotypes with isolates from Europe and the United States. Estimation of migration rates between Europe and North America indicated that migration was higher from Europe to North America than vice versa, and that unidirectional migration from Europe to North America was more likely than bidirectional migration.

  15. Spatial correlation of large historical earthquakes and moderate shocks >10 km deep in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1980-12-01

    A good spatial correlation is noted between historical earthquakes with epicentral intensity > or =VIII (MM) and recent moderate size earthquakes with focal depth >10 km, suggesting that large historical earthquakes in eastern North America may be associated with deep-seated faults

  16. Monthly mean pressure reconstructions for Europe (back to 1780) and North America (to 1958)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Briffa, K.R.

    1987-02-01

    Monthly grid-point pressure data are reconstructed from station records of air temperature, precipitation and pressure for Europe, back to 1780, and North America, back to 1858. The reconstructions are based on a principal components regression technique which relates surface pressure patterns to those of the temperature, precipitation and station pressure data. The relationships are derived over a calibration period and the results are tested with independent data from another period. To illustrate the results examples are given of pressure anomalies over Europe during 1816 (the ''year without a summer''), anomalies over both Europe and North America for January and November 1862 (months with particularly strong anomalies), and anomalies over North America during 1884 (the year after Krakatau). The reconstructions are compared with other monthly mean pressure maps produced by Lamb and Johnson (1966) for Europe for 1780 to 1872 and for North America for 1858 to 1898, and by Kington (1980) for Europe for 1781 to 1785. Both of these map series show systematic biases relative to the present reconstructions. The reconstructed data are available on a magnetic tape.

  17. Modeling Habitat Preferences and Constraints for the Common Loon in Northeastern North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    The common loon, Gavia immer, is considered an emblematic and ecologically important example of aquatic-dependent wildlife in North America. The northern breeding range of loons has contracted over the last century, presumably as a result of habitat degradation from human disturb...

  18. Use of MODIS Snow-Cover Maps for Detecting Snowmelt Trends in North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Riggs, George A.; Robinson, David A.; Hoon-Starr, Jody A.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the snow season in the Northern Hemisphere has been getting shorter in recent decades, consistent with documented global temperature increases. Specifically, the snow is melting earlier in the spring allowing for a longer growing season and associated land-cover changes. Here we focus on North America. Using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) cloud-gap-filled standard snow-cover data product we can detect a trend toward earlier spring snowmelt in the approx 12 years since the MODIS launch. However, not all areas in North America show earlier spring snowmelt over the study period. We show examples of springtime snowmelt over North America, beginning in March 2000 and extending through the winter of 2012 for all of North America, and for various specific areas such as the Wind River Range in Wyoming and in the Catskill Mountains in New York. We also compare our approx 12-year trends with trends derived from the Rutgers Global Snow Lab snow cover climate-data record.

  19. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  20. Increasing Risk of Tree Mortality in Western North America towards the End of 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Rauscher, S. A.; Ringler, T.; Lawrence, D. M.; Williams, A. P.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid and large-scale tree mortality due to recent climate change and climate-change induced insect outbreaks has been observed in western North America. Climate models have projected an increase in future temperatures and changes in precipitation for this region. However, quantitative assessments of the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in vegetation mortality are lacking. We use an Earth System Model (the Community Earth System Model) coupled with a dynamic vegetation model (DGVM) to assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions over western North America under the future A2 emissions scenario. In order to better span uncertainties in future climate, different future sea surface temperature (SST) projections provided by CMIP3 (phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) are used as boundary conditions. Although all model simulations project different future climates, there is a broad consensus amongst our simulations that a decrease (from 45% to 30%) in needleleaf evergreen tree coverage coincident with an increase (from 8% to 20%) in shrubs and grasses will likely happen starting in the mid-21st century over western North America. Our findings suggest that a shift of tree-covered landscape to shrubs and grasses dominated landscape in western North America may take place due to future warming and consequent increases in water deficits.

  1. Definitive hosts of a fatal Versteria species (Cestoda: Taeniidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported fatal metacestode infection in a captive orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) with a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. Data from ermine (Mustela erminea) and mink (Neovison vison) implicate mustelids as definitive North America hosts and expand known Versteria diversity. The orangu...

  2. The Current State of European Studies in North America and of Scholarly Publishing in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacken, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Relates how scholarly publishing in Western Europe feeds into North America. Discusses globalization, regionalism, and particularism; new models and research methodology; Biblio-Darwinism (survival of the fittest publishing languages) and the language of the imprint; differing academic infrastructures of Europe; booming scholarly-title production;…

  3. EXPANSION OF PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS INTO TIDAL WETLANDS OF NORTH AMERICA. (U915648)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phragmites expansion into tidal wetlands of North America is most extensive along the northern and middle Atlantic coasts, but over 80% of the US coastal wetland area occurs along the Gulf of Mexico and southern Atlantic coasts and may be susceptible to ongoing expansio...

  4. Patterns in Japanese Comparative Education Practices: A Contrast with North America and Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the convergence and divergence in the discourses and practices of comparative education in Japan, North America, and Greater China. Research demands, institutional settings, and social and historical background determine the nature of the research discussed and practiced in each place. Some particular patterns were identified…

  5. A new dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with Asian affinities from the latest Cretaceous of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David C.; Larson, Derek W.; Currie, Philip J.

    2013-11-01

    Dromaeosaurids from the Maastrichtian of North America have a poor fossil record and are known largely from isolated teeth, which have typically been referred to taxa based on more complete material from earlier Campanian strata. An almost complete maxilla with well-preserved dentition and an associated dentary from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana are used to establish a new dromaeosaurid taxon in the latest Maastrichtian, immediately prior to the end-Cretaceous extinction event. Acheroraptor temertyorum gen. et sp. nov. is differentiated from other dromaeosaurids on the basis of a hypertrophied postantral wall that projects posteriorly into the antorbital fenestra, a maxillary fenestra positioned low in the antorbital fossa and directly posterior to the promaxillary fenestra, and distinctive dentition with marked apicobasal ridges. The new material allows a dromaeosaurid from the Maastrichtian of North America to be placed within a phylogenetic framework for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Acheroraptor is a velociraptorine that is more closely related to Asian dromaeosaurids, including Tsaagan and Velociraptor, than it is to Dromaeosaurus, Saurornitholestes, or any other taxon from North America. As part of the Lancian Tyrannosaurus- Triceratops fauna, A. temertyorum is the latest occurring dromaeosaurid. Its relationships and occurrence suggest a complex historical biogeographic scenario that involved multiple, bi-directional faunal interchanges between Asia and North America during the Late Cretaceous.

  6. Annotated check list of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera) of America North of Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America is presented, including 856 Crambidae and 685 Pyralidae with 1541 total species. All new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983 are included. In addition...

  7. CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINING DIADROMOUS FISHES THROUGH 2100: LESSONS LEARNED FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific salmon in western North America provides instructive policy lessons for the potential recovery of diadromous fishes throughout the world. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs o...

  8. CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINING DIADROMOUS FISHES THROUGH 2100: LESSONS LEARNED FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon in western North America provides instructive policy lessons for the potential recovery of diadromous fishes throughout the world. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of...

  9. Globalization or Hegemony? Childcare on the Brink: Hints from Three Geographically Distant Localities in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, John P.; Thirumurthy, Vidya; Field, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors examined selected aspects of the structure and curriculum of fifteen childcare centers located in three geographically distant locations in North America and determined that contrasts within and between the regions in terms of structure and curriculum guided by the National Association for the Education of…

  10. 76 FR 11522 - Nuclear Innovation North America LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nuclear Innovation North America LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact... Library, located at 1100 7th Street, Bay City, Texas, has also agreed to make the EIS available to...

  11. Historical Reflections on the Ascendancy of ADHD in North America, c. 1980 - c. 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Paul; Foy, Michael

    2006-01-01

    An ecological niche framework (Hacking, 1998) is utilised to examine the growth of ADHD in North America. The analysis suggests ADHD flourishes, at least in part, due to a complex and historically situated interaction of factors that created a niche within which a particular kind of explanation and treatment for the troubling behaviours of…

  12. A new species of Atheroides Haliday (Hemiptera, Aphididae) native to North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Report and description of the first species of Atheroides Haliday presumed to be native to North America was collected at the Valles Caldera National Preserve, NM, USA. Hypothesis on its placement among the Siphini is based on morphological and phylogenetic analysis. These findings expand the dis...

  13. Characterization of low pathogenicity H5N1 avian influenza viruses from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild bird surveillance in North America for avian influenza (AI) viruses with a goal of early identification of the Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic AI virus has identified at least six low pathogenic H5N1 AI viruses between 2004 and 2006. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from all 6 ...

  14. RNA electropherotypes of human rotaviruses from North and South America*

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, D. H.; Graham, D. Y.; Lopez, J.; Muchinik, G.; Velasco, G.; Stenback, W. A.; Estes, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    Between April 1979 and December 1982, viral agents were found in 231 of 695 children admitted to the Texas Children's Hospital with gastroenteritis. Electron microscopic analysis showed that rotaviruses were the most common viral agents, and a seasonal pattern of rotavirus disease was observed. The migration patterns of the RNA segments of these rotaviruses on electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels were compared with those of rotaviruses collected from other areas of the United States of America and from Argentina, Colombia and Mexico. A number of different RNA electropherotypes were found, including some patterns not previously reported. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:6329538

  15. First Detection of Bat White-Nose Syndrome in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jonathan M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Ballmann, Anne E.; George, Kyle G.; Griffin, Kathryn; Knowles, Susan; Huckabee, John R.; Haman, Katherine H.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Becker, Penny A.; Buchanan, Joseph B.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation. IMPORTANCE White-nose syndrome (WNS) represents one of the most consequential wildlife diseases of modern times. Since it was first documented in New York in 2006, the disease has killed millions of bats and threatens several formerly abundant species with extirpation or extinction. The spread of WNS in eastern North America has been relatively gradual, inducing optimism that disease mitigation strategies could be established in time to conserve bats

  16. Frito-Lay North America/NREL CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-176

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.

    2013-06-01

    Frito Lay North America (FLNA) requires technical assistance for the evaluation and implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in production facilities and distribution centers across North America. Services provided by NREL do not compete with those available in the private sector, but rather provide FLNA with expertise to create opportunities for the private sector renewable/efficiency industries and to inform FLNA decision making regarding cost-effective projects. Services include: identifying the most cost-effective project locations based on renewable energy resource data, utility data, incentives and other parameters affecting projects; assistance with feasibility studies; procurement specifications; design reviews; and other services to support FNLA in improving resource efficiency at facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) establishes the terms and conditions under which FLNA may access capabilities unique to the laboratory and required by FLNA. Each subsequent task issued under this umbrella agreement would include a scope-of-work, budget, schedule, and provisions for intellectual property specific to that task.

  17. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv>Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  18. Mapping Isoprene Emissions over North America using Formaldehyde Column Observations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly; Kurosu, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    I] We present a methodology for deriving emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) using space-based column observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) and apply it to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument over North America during July 1996. The HCHO column is related to local VOC emissions, with a spatial smearing that increases with the VOC lifetime. lsoprene is the dominant HCHO precursor over North America in summer, and its lifetime (approx. = 1 hour) is sufficiently short that the smearing can be neglected. We use the Goddard Earth Observing System global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) to derive the relationship between isoprene emissions and HCHO columns over North America and use these relationships to convert the GOME HCHO columns to isoprene emissions. We also use the GEOS-CHEM model as an intermediary to validate the GOME HCHO column measurements by comparison with in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM model including the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) isoprene emission inventory provides a good simulation of both the GOME data (r(sup 2) = 0.69, n = 756, bias = +l1 %) and the in situ summertime HCHO measurements over North America (r(sup 2) = 0.47, n = 10, bias = -3%). The GOME observations show high values over regions of known high isoprene emissions and a day-to-day variability that is consistent with the temperature dependence of isoprene emission. Isoprene emissions inferred from the GOME data are 20% less than GEIA on average over North America and twice those from the U S . EPA Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS2) inventory. The GOME isoprene inventory when implemented in the GEOS-CHEM model provides a better simulation of the HCHO in situ measurements thaneitherGEIAorBEIS2 (r(sup 2) = 0.71,n= 10, bias = -10 %).

  19. Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes

    PubMed Central

    Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A.; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Angerhofer, Norman; Rogers, Mary P.; Herrera, Rene J.; Woodward, Scott R.; Labuda, Damian; Smith, David Glenn; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Semino, Ornella; Malhi, Ripan S.; Torroni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated migration models to the Americas by using the information contained in native mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from North America. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses of B2a mitogenomes, which are absent in Eskimo–Aleut and northern Na-Dene speakers, revealed that this haplogroup arose in North America ∼11–13 ka from one of the founder Paleo-Indian B2 mitogenomes. In contrast, haplogroup A2a, which is typical of Eskimo–Aleuts and Na-Dene, but also present in the easternmost Siberian groups, originated only 4–7 ka in Alaska, led to the first Paleo-Eskimo settlement of northern Canada and Greenland, and contributed to the formation of the Na-Dene gene pool. However, mitogenomes also show that Amerindians from northern North America, without any distinction between Na-Dene and non–Na-Dene, were heavily affected by an additional and distinctive Beringian genetic input. In conclusion, most mtDNA variation (along the double-continent) stems from the first wave from Beringia, which followed the Pacific coastal route. This was accompanied or followed by a second inland migratory event, marked by haplogroups X2a and C4c, which affected all Amerindian groups of Northern North America. Much later, the ancestral A2a carriers spread from Alaska, undertaking both a westward migration to Asia and an eastward expansion into the circumpolar regions of Canada. Thus, the first American founders left the greatest genetic mark but the original maternal makeup of North American Natives was subsequently reshaped by additional streams of gene flow and local population dynamics, making a three-wave view too simplistic. PMID:23940335

  20. Price convergence in North America natural gas spot markets

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.; Cuc, M.

    1996-12-01

    Government policy changes and subsequent regulatory actions in Canada and the United States (US) in the mid-1980s led to effective deregulation of the commodity market for natural gas. This was done by price deregulation, unbundling of pipeline services, and the fostering of a competitive market through equal and open access to pipeline transportation capacity by all suppliers and users. This paper attempts to measure the degree of price convergence in the North American natural gas spot markets. 38 refs.

  1. Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eunjung; Carbonetto, Peter; Curtis, Ross E.; Wang, Yong; Granka, Julie M.; Byrnes, Jake; Noto, Keith; Kermany, Amir R.; Myres, Natalie M.; Barber, Mathew J.; Rand, Kristin A.; Song, Shiya; Roman, Theodore; Battat, Erin; Elyashiv, Eyal; Guturu, Harendra; Hong, Eurie L.; Chahine, Kenneth G.; Ball, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite strides in characterizing human history from genetic polymorphism data, progress in identifying genetic signatures of recent demography has been limited. Here we identify very recent fine-scale population structure in North America from a network of over 500 million genetic (identity-by-descent, IBD) connections among 770,000 genotyped individuals of US origin. We detect densely connected clusters within the network and annotate these clusters using a database of over 20 million genealogical records. Recent population patterns captured by IBD clustering include immigrants such as Scandinavians and French Canadians; groups with continental admixture such as Puerto Ricans; settlers such as the Amish and Appalachians who experienced geographic or cultural isolation; and broad historical trends, including reduced north-south gene flow. Our results yield a detailed historical portrait of North America after European settlement and support substantial genetic heterogeneity in the United States beyond that uncovered by previous studies. PMID:28169989

  2. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago

    PubMed Central

    Halffman, Carrin M.; Potter, Ben A.; McKinney, Holly J.; Finney, Bruce P.; Rodrigues, Antonia T.; Yang, Dongya Y.; Kemp, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America. PMID:26392548

  3. Early human use of anadromous salmon in North America at 11,500 y ago.

    PubMed

    Halffman, Carrin M; Potter, Ben A; McKinney, Holly J; Finney, Bruce P; Rodrigues, Antonia T; Yang, Dongya Y; Kemp, Brian M

    2015-10-06

    Salmon represented a critical resource for prehistoric foragers along the North Pacific Rim, and continue to be economically and culturally important; however, the origins of salmon exploitation remain unresolved. Here we report 11,500-y-old salmon associated with a cooking hearth and human burials from the Upward Sun River Site, near the modern extreme edge of salmon habitat in central Alaska. This represents the earliest known human use of salmon in North America. Ancient DNA analyses establish the species as Oncorhynchus keta (chum salmon), and stable isotope analyses indicate anadromy, suggesting that salmon runs were established by at least the terminal Pleistocene. The early use of this resource has important implications for Paleoindian land use, economy, and expansions into northwest North America.

  4. Fruits of icacinaceae (tribe iodeae) from the late paleocene of Western north america.

    PubMed

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Manchester, Steven R; Devore, Melanie L

    2008-07-01

    The Icacinaceae occur pantropically today, but are well represented by fossil fruits of the warm Early Middle Eocene, when tropical plants that currently occupy low latitudes were more widely distributed in higher latitudes. Members of this family are first known in the Late Cretaceous; however, fossil fruits of tribe Iodeae are quite rare before the Eocene. In this paper we describe the first formally recognized Late Paleocene icacinaceous taxa from western North America. We name two new species of Icacinicarya based on anatomically preserved fruits and establish a new genus, Icacinicaryites, for impressions with a strong similarity to Icacinicarya that lack anatomical preservation. These new records from the Almont/Beicegel Creek flora in North Dakota and several localities in Wyoming, Colorado, and Montana complement records known from the Early Eocene of England and document an increased diversity of Iodeae and related forms in the Paleogene of western North America.

  5. Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Eunjung; Carbonetto, Peter; Curtis, Ross E.; Wang, Yong; Granka, Julie M.; Byrnes, Jake; Noto, Keith; Kermany, Amir R.; Myres, Natalie M.; Barber, Mathew J.; Rand, Kristin A.; Song, Shiya; Roman, Theodore; Battat, Erin; Elyashiv, Eyal; Guturu, Harendra; Hong, Eurie L.; Chahine, Kenneth G.; Ball, Catherine A.

    2017-02-01

    Despite strides in characterizing human history from genetic polymorphism data, progress in identifying genetic signatures of recent demography has been limited. Here we identify very recent fine-scale population structure in North America from a network of over 500 million genetic (identity-by-descent, IBD) connections among 770,000 genotyped individuals of US origin. We detect densely connected clusters within the network and annotate these clusters using a database of over 20 million genealogical records. Recent population patterns captured by IBD clustering include immigrants such as Scandinavians and French Canadians; groups with continental admixture such as Puerto Ricans; settlers such as the Amish and Appalachians who experienced geographic or cultural isolation; and broad historical trends, including reduced north-south gene flow. Our results yield a detailed historical portrait of North America after European settlement and support substantial genetic heterogeneity in the United States beyond that uncovered by previous studies.

  6. Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history, biology, ecology, impacts, and management.

    PubMed

    Herms, Daniel A; McCullough, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality.

  7. North America and the Francophone: Local and Transnational Movements for the Survival of French-Speaking North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Hilaire, Aonghas

    1997-01-01

    Notes that North American French survives as a first language of home and community in three historic Francophone strongholds: Quebec, New Brunswick, and Louisiana. It is suggested that the dynamics of cooperation between the Quebecois, Acadians, Cajuns, and the global Francophone tell of a common cultural struggle toward a community of…

  8. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  9. Changes in the timing of winter-spring streamflows in eastern North America, 1913-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, G.A.; Dudley, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the timing and magnitude of winter-spring streamflows were analyzed for gaging stations in eastern North America north of 41?? north latitude during various periods through 2002. Approximately 32 percent of stations north of 44?? have significantly earlier flows over the 50, 60, 70, and 90 year periods; 64 percent have significantly earlier flows over the 80 year period; there are no stations significantly later flows for any time period examined. Flows for the average of all stations north of 44?? became earlier by 6.1, 4.4, 4.8, 8.6, and 6.5 days for the 50 through 90 year periods, respectively. Changes over time in monthly mean runoff support the flow timing results - January, February, and particularly March runoff show much higher percentages of stations with increases than with decreases over all time periods and May runoff shows relatively high percentages of stations with decreases.

  10. North America: A better second half for drilling--Maybe. [Oil and gas exploration and development in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper provides data on the exploration, production, and drilling activity of the oil and gas industry in Canada, the US, and Central America. The section on the US discusses trends in drilling activity in both the first and second half of 1993. Statistical information on all oil and gas producing states if provided in a tabular format. Information on exploration and development expenditures is also discussed. Data is also provided drilling and production information for Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and other minor production areas.

  11. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-10-02

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122-1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north.

  12. Spatial gradients in Clovis-age radiocarbon dates across North America suggest rapid colonization from the north

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Buchanan, Briggs

    2007-01-01

    A key issue in the debate over the initial colonization of North America is whether there are spatial gradients in the distribution of the Clovis-age occupations across the continent. Such gradients would help indicate the timing, speed, and direction of the colonization process. In their recent reanalysis of Clovis-age radiocarbon dates, Waters and Stafford [Waters MR, Stafford TW, Jr (2007) Science 315:1122–1126] report that they find no spatial patterning. Furthermore, they suggest that the brevity of the Clovis time period indicates that the Clovis culture represents the diffusion of a technology across a preexisting pre-Clovis population rather than a population expansion. In this article, we focus on two questions. First, we ask whether there is spatial patterning to the timing of Clovis-age occupations and, second, whether the observed speed of colonization is consistent with demic processes. With time-delayed wave-of-advance models, we use the radiocarbon record to test several alternative colonization hypotheses. We find clear spatial gradients in the distribution of these dates across North America, which indicate a rapid wave of advance originating from the north. We show that the high velocity of this wave can be accounted for by a combination of demographic processes, habitat preferences, and mobility biases across complex landscapes. Our results suggest that the Clovis-age archaeological record represents a rapid demic colonization event originating from the north. PMID:17898176

  13. The Role of Soil Water and Land Feedbacks in Decadal Drought in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, S.; Chikamoto, Y.; Noone, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Western North America is susceptible to severe impacts of megadroughts, as evidenced by tree-core or lake sediment records. Future predictions suggest that this region will become more arid, with further consequences for water resources. Understanding the mechanisms of drought variability and persistence in western North America is critical for the eventual development of effective forecasting methods. The ocean is expected to be the main source of decadal memory in the system as the atmosphere varies on a much shorter timescale. The ocean's role in driving the low-frequency variability of the system is potentially predictable. However, low-frequency precipitation anomalies in western North America can occur in the absence of ocean feedbacks. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the north Pacific Ocean only account for around 20 per cent of the low-frequency winter precipitation in California in the CMIP5 historical runs. This is not sufficient to use the skill of global coupled models in predicting ocean conditions ahead of time to successfully forecast the possibility of long-term drought in western North America. Megadroughts therefore may be generated by unpredictable atmospheric noise, or persisted by other sources of low-frequency variability such as land processes and feedbacks. Snowpack in western North America is a crucial water resource for the surrounding communities, storing the winter precipitation for use later in the year. Likewise, soil moisture integrates the precipitation signal; the time scale depends on the depth and characteristics of the soil. Water storage and related variables are more predictable on longer timescales than precipitation, as measured by anomaly correlation for hindcasts compared to a 'perfect model' control run with CESM1.0.3. The importance of antecedent land conditions in persisting megadroughts in western North America is explored with ensemble simulations of CESM1.0.3, where the atmosphere is perturbed at the initiation

  14. Effects of chemistry on convective and non-convective precipitation over North Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    The change in convective and non-convective (microphysically-induced) precipitation due to the influence of chemistry - and particularly that of anthropogenic aerosols - is investigated in this study. The overall effect of chemistry is deduced from a comparison of the results from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF v3.4) model and its corresponding chemistry version (WRF/Chem v3.4). Simulations are conducted for a five-month period from April to August 2009 in a domain covering North Eastern North America with 12 km grid spacing. We created the temporally and spatially distributed anthropogenic emissions from area, point and mobile sources using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE v2.7) modeling system by processing the total annual county or province-based inventories for the U.S. and Canada using the appropriate temporal, chemical speciation and spatial surrogate cross-reference files. This study shows that convective precipitation dominates in the summer and in the southern part of the domain due to greater tropospheric instability in warmer periods. Non-convective precipitation becomes more significant during the spring, but it contributes much less in total rain. Both WRF and WRF/Chem models overpredict the mean total daily precipitation, with a positive bias that increases as the convective precipitation increases in warmer months. This appears to be a common problem with the prediction of convective precipitation; it is associated with its high spatial variability. The comparison of WRF/Chem results with those of WRF shows that a non-negligible change in both convective and cloud-resolved (non-convective) precipitation is caused by chemistry (including aerosols) over most parts of the domain. These changes can be attributed to both radiative and microphysical causes. A chemistry-induced change of approximately 15% is found in the five-month mean daily convective precipitation over areas with high convective rain. This can be traced to

  15. A database of lotic invertebrate traits for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Carlisle, Daren M.; Moulton, Stephen R.; Koski, Marci L.; Kondratieff, Boris C.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment and study of stream communities may be enhanced if functional characteristics such as life-history, habitat preference, and reproductive strategy were more widely available for specific taxa. Species traits can be used to develop these functional indicators because many traits directly link functional roles of organisms with controlling environmental factors (for example, flow, substratum, temperature). In addition, some functional traits may not be constrained by taxonomy and are thus applicable at multiple spatial scales. Unfortunately, a comprehensive summary of traits for North American invertebrate taxa does not exist. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in cooperation with Colorado State University compiled a database of traits for North American invertebrates. A total of 14,127 records for over 2,200 species, 1,165 genera, and 249 families have been entered into the database from 967 publications, texts and reports. Quality-assurance procedures indicated error rates of less than 3 percent in the data entry process. Species trait information was most complete for insect taxa. Traits describing resource acquisition and habitat preferences were most frequently reported, whereas those describing physiological tolerances and reproductive biology were the least frequently reported in the literature. The database is not exhaustive of the literature for North American invertebrates and is biased towards aquatic insects, but it represents a first attempt to compile traits in a web-accessible database. This report describes the database and discusses important decisions necessary for identifying ecologically relevant, environmentally sensitive, non-redundant, and statistically tractable traits for use in bioassessment programs.

  16. Emigration to North America: the continuing option for the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Conway, D

    1990-01-01

    "A commonly held notion among Commonwealth Caribbean commentators on development prospects of the region, holds...that emigration options for the Caribbean are becoming more restrictive, and that traditional receiving countries such as Britain, the United States and Canada, have the will and purpose to restrict entry....Britain's effective immigration policies from 1962 to [the] present appear to amply demonstrate the situation, and exemplify a future restrictive international environment for future generations of Caribbean emigrant hopefuls seeking opportunities 'off the island' in traditional metropoles. This brief commentary argues the contrary."

  17. Genetic diversity and distribution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, M. C.; Morzunov, S. P.; Johnson, A. M.; Bowen, M. D.; Artsob, H.; Yates, T.; Peters, C. J.; Rollin, P. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Nichol, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    The 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the southwestern United States was associated with Sin Nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; The virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of North America. An extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus M genomic segments was generated. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SNV-like hantaviruses are widely distributed in Peromyscus species rodents throughout North America. Classic SNV is the major cause of HPS in North America, but other Peromyscine-borne hantaviruses, e.g., New York and Monongahela viruses, are also associated with HPS cases. Although genetically diverse, SNV-like viruses have slowly coevolved with their rodent hosts. We show that the genetic relationships of hantaviruses in the Americas are complex, most likely as a result of the rapid radiation and speciation of New World sigmodontine rodents and occasional virus-host switching events. PMID:10081674

  18. Patterns of admixture and population structure in native populations of Northwest North America.

    PubMed

    Verdu, Paul; Pemberton, Trevor J; Laurent, Romain; Kemp, Brian M; Gonzalez-Oliver, Angelica; Gorodezky, Clara; Hughes, Cris E; Shattuck, Milena R; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Harry, Harold; William, Theresa; Worl, Rosita; Cybulski, Jerome S; Rosenberg, Noah A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2014-08-01

    The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas.

  19. Patterns of Admixture and Population Structure in Native Populations of Northwest North America

    PubMed Central

    Verdu, Paul; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Laurent, Romain; Kemp, Brian M.; Gonzalez-Oliver, Angelica; Gorodezky, Clara; Hughes, Cris E.; Shattuck, Milena R.; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Harry, Harold; William, Theresa; Worl, Rosita; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Rosenberg, Noah A.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2014-01-01

    The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas. PMID:25122539

  20. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Direct evidence of trophic interactions among apex predators in the Late Triassic of western North America.

    PubMed

    Drumheller, Stephanie K; Stocker, Michelle R; Nesbitt, Sterling J

    2014-11-01

    Hypotheses of feeding behaviors and community structure are testable with rare direct evidence of trophic interactions in the fossil record (e.g., bite marks). We present evidence of four predation, scavenging, and/or interspecific fighting events involving two large paracrocodylomorphs (='rauisuchians') from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation (∼220-210 Ma). The larger femur preserves a rare history of interactions with multiple actors prior to and after death of this ∼8-9-m individual. A large embedded tooth crown and punctures, all of which display reaction tissue formed through healing, record evidence of a failed attack on this individual. The second paracrocodylomorph femur exhibits four unhealed bite marks, indicating the animal either did not survive the attack or was scavenged soon after death. The combination of character states observed (e.g., morphology of the embedded tooth, 'D'-shaped punctures, evidence of bicarination of the marking teeth, spacing of potentially serial marks) indicates that large phytosaurs were actors in both cases. Our analysis of these specimens demonstrates phytosaurs targeted large paracrocodylomorphs in these Late Triassic ecosystems. Previous distinctions between 'aquatic' and 'terrestrial' Late Triassic trophic structures were overly simplistic and built upon mistaken paleoecological assumptions; we show they were intimately connected at the highest trophic levels. Our data also support that size cannot be the sole factor in determining trophic status. Furthermore, these marks provide an opportunity to start exploring the seemingly unbalanced terrestrial ecosystems from the Late Triassic of North America, in which large carnivores far outnumber herbivores in terms of both abundance and diversity.

  3. Watershed boundaries and geographic isolation: patterns of diversification in cutthroat trout from western North America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For wide-ranging species, intraspecific variation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation from local adaptive differences or from physical barriers to movement. Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii), a widely distributed fish species from North America, has been divided into numerous putative subspecies largely based on its isolation in different watersheds. In this study, we examined mtDNA sequence variation of cutthroat trout to determine the major phylogenetic lineages of this polytypic species. We use these data as a means of testing whether geographic isolation by watershed boundaries can be a primary factor organizing intraspecific diversification. Results We collected cutthroat trout from locations spanning almost the entire geographic range of this species and included samples from all major subspecies of cutthroat trout. Based on our analyses, we reveal eight major lineages of cutthroat trout, six of which correspond to subspecific taxonomy commonly used to describe intraspecific variation in this species. The Bonneville cutthroat trout (O. c. utah) and Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. c. bouvieri) did not form separate monophyletic lineages, but instead formed an intermixed clade. We also document the geographic distribution of a Great Basin lineage of cutthroat trout; a group typically defined as Bonneville cutthroat trout, but it appears more closely related to the Colorado River lineage of cutthroat trout. Conclusion Our study indicates that watershed boundaries can be an organizing factor isolating genetic diversity in fishes; however, historical connections between watersheds can also influence the template of isolation. Widely distributed species, like cutthroat trout, offer an opportunity to assess where historic watershed connections may have existed, and help explain the current distribution of biological diversity across a landscape. PMID:22429757

  4. Extra-regional residence time as a correlate of plant invasiveness: European archaeophytes in North America.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Pysek, Petr

    2009-09-01

    Human activities have degraded biogeographical barriers to dispersal resulting in the spread and naturalization of increasing numbers of nonnative invasive species. One correlate of invasiveness within a region is residence time or time since introduction. Plant species that were introduced into Europe prior to AD 1500 (European archaeophytes) that were subsequently introduced into North America provide a unique opportunity to examine the effect of extra-regional residence time (i.e., residence time that occurred in a nonnative region before a species was introduced into a new region). Here, we examine how nonnative species with extensive extra-regional residence times have affected beta diversity among states in the contiguous United States of America based on an analysis of occupancy and distance decay of similarity. State floras contained an average of 3106 +/- 922 species (mean +/- SD) with 2318 +/- 757 species classified as native, 180 +/- 43 species as European archaeophyte, and 608 -236 species as other exotic with no European archaeophyte association. For European archaeophytes, 42% were identified as noxious weeds in the United States with 8% identified as agricultural and 14% as natural-area weeds (20%, 2%, and 13% for other exotics, respectively). In strong contrast to natives and other exotics, European archaeophytes were more widespread and presented weaker distance-decay patterns. Thus, European archaeophytes were more likely to become noxious weeds, particularly within agricultural areas, and were associated with significant losses in beta diversity. We suggest that this outcome is a consequence of extra-regional residence time, which allowed for the selection of species or the evolution of traits that favored the colonization of arable habitats associated with early agricultural activities in Europe, habitats that are widespread, resource rich, and uniformly distributed in the United States. Our findings suggest that a long-term trajectory can be

  5. Preadaptation and post-introduction evolution facilitate the invasion of Phragmites australis in North America.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Brix, Hans

    2014-12-01

    Compared with non-invasive species, invasive plant species may benefit from certain advantageous traits, for example, higher photosynthesis capacity and resource/energy-use efficiency. These traits can be preadapted prior to introduction, but can also be acquired through evolution following introduction to the new range. Disentangling the origins of these advantageous traits is a fundamental and emerging question in invasion ecology. We conducted a multiple comparative experiment under identical environmental condition with the invasive haplotype M lineage of the wetland grass Phragmites australis and compared the ecophysiological traits of this invasive haplotype M in North America with those of the European ancestor and the conspecific North American native haplotype E lineage, P. australis ssp. americanus. The invasive haplotype M differed significantly from the native North American conspecific haplotype E in several ecophysiological and morphological traits, and the European haplotype M had a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus than the native North American P. australis ssp. americanus. Within the haplotype M lineage, the introduced North American P. australis exhibited different biomass allocation patterns and resource/energy-use strategies compared to its European ancestor group. A discriminant analysis of principal components separated the haplotype M and the haplotype E lineages completely along the first canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency and payback time. The second canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and construction costs, significantly separated the introduced P. australis in North America from its European ancestor. Synthesis. We conclude that the European P. australis lineage was preadapted to be invasive prior to its introduction, and that the invasion in North America is further stimulated by rapid post-introduction evolution in

  6. Preadaptation and post-introduction evolution facilitate the invasion of Phragmites australis in North America

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Compared with non-invasive species, invasive plant species may benefit from certain advantageous traits, for example, higher photosynthesis capacity and resource/energy-use efficiency. These traits can be preadapted prior to introduction, but can also be acquired through evolution following introduction to the new range. Disentangling the origins of these advantageous traits is a fundamental and emerging question in invasion ecology. We conducted a multiple comparative experiment under identical environmental condition with the invasive haplotype M lineage of the wetland grass Phragmites australis and compared the ecophysiological traits of this invasive haplotype M in North America with those of the European ancestor and the conspecific North American native haplotype E lineage, P. australis ssp. americanus. The invasive haplotype M differed significantly from the native North American conspecific haplotype E in several ecophysiological and morphological traits, and the European haplotype M had a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus than the native North American P. australis ssp. americanus. Within the haplotype M lineage, the introduced North American P. australis exhibited different biomass allocation patterns and resource/energy-use strategies compared to its European ancestor group. A discriminant analysis of principal components separated the haplotype M and the haplotype E lineages completely along the first canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency and payback time. The second canonical axis, highly related to photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and construction costs, significantly separated the introduced P. australis in North America from its European ancestor. Synthesis. We conclude that the European P. australis lineage was preadapted to be invasive prior to its introduction, and that the invasion in North America is further stimulated by rapid post-introduction evolution in

  7. Stem cell research in Latin America: update, challenges and opportunities in a priority research area.

    PubMed

    Palma, Verónica; Pitossi, Fernando J; Rehen, Stevens K; Touriño, Cristina; Velasco, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell research is attracting wide attention as a promising and fast-growing field in Latin America, as it is worldwide. Many countries in the region have defined Regenerative Medicine as a research priority and a focus of investment. This field generates not only opportunities but also regulatory, technical and operative challenges. In this review, scientists from Uruguay, Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Argentina provide their view on stem cell research in each of their countries. Despite country-specific characteristics, all countries share several issues such as regulatory challenges. Key initiatives of each country to promote stem cell research are also discussed. As a conclusion, it is clear that regional integration should be more emphasized and international collaboration, promoted.

  8. An update to the adventive aphids (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) of America north of Mexico, with notes on intercepted species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An update to the list of adventive aphids in North America north of Mexico is provided , including the location and date of first discovery, biogeographic origin, and economically important North American hosts for 24 previously unrecorded species. Additionally, we discuss aphids intercepted at Uni...

  9. The Megophthalmidia (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) of North America including eight new species

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Megophthalmidia Dziedzicki is a small leiine genus (Mycetophilidae) with seven species described from the Neotropics and ten species from the Palearctic region. Two species of Megophthalmidia have been reported for North America. Recent collecting of Mycetophilidae in California and Arizona, however, shows current North American diversity of Megophthalmidia is at least on par to other regions of the world. Eight new species of Megophthalmidia are described here, increasing the number of Nearctic Megophthalmidia species to nine. Included is a particularly atypical member of the genus, M. saskia sp. n., which expands the genus concept of Megophthalmidia. Of the two species previously recorded for North America, only one actually belongs in the genus. Megophthalmidia occidentalis Johannsen, is fully described and illustrated. The other named species, M. marceda (Sherman) is illustrated and transferred to the genus Ectrepesthoneura Enderlein. A lectotype is designated for this species. A key to the species of Megophthalmidia of North America is provided. The biology of these flies is not yet known. Three of the new Megophthalmidia species – M. lenimenta, M. misericordia, and M. radiata – are only known to occur within small protected areas within the California State Park and UC Natural Reserve systems. PMID:24693214

  10. Intra-oceanic subduction shaped the assembly of Cordilleran North America.

    PubMed

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G

    2013-04-04

    The western quarter of North America consists of accreted terranes--crustal blocks added over the past 200 million years--but the reason for this is unclear. The widely accepted explanation posits that the oceanic Farallon plate acted as a conveyor belt, sweeping terranes into the continental margin while subducting under it. Here we show that this hypothesis, which fails to explain many terrane complexities, is also inconsistent with new tomographic images of lower-mantle slabs, and with their locations relative to plate reconstructions. We offer a reinterpretation of North American palaeogeography and test it quantitatively: collision events are clearly recorded by slab geometry, and can be time calibrated and reconciled with plate reconstructions and surface geology. The seas west of Cretaceous North America must have resembled today's western Pacific, strung with island arcs. All proto-Pacific plates initially subducted into almost stationary, intra-oceanic trenches, and accumulated below as massive vertical slab walls. Above the slabs, long-lived volcanic archipelagos and subduction complexes grew. Crustal accretion occurred when North America overrode the archipelagos, causing major episodes of Cordilleran mountain building.

  11. The first Late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo; Smith, Krister T.; Guerrero-Arenas, Rosalia; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    To date, the terrestrial faunal record of the North American late Eocene has been recovered from its subtropical and temperate regions. We report the first late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America, in southern Mexico. Fossil specimens were collected from mudstones that crop out in the Municipality of Santiago Yolomécatl, in northwestern Oaxaca. Previously published K-Ar ages of 32.9 ± 0.9 and 35.7 ± 1.0 Ma in overlain nearby volcanic rocks and biostratigraphy of these new localities suggests a Chadronian mammal age for this new local fauna. The assemblage is composed by two turtle taxa, Rhineura, two caniform taxa, a sciurid, a jimomyid rodent, a geomyine rodent, Gregorymys, Leptochoerus, Perchoerus probus, Merycoidodon, a protoceratid, Poebrotherium, Nanotragulus, Miohippus assinoboiensis, a chalicotherid, a tapiroid, cf. Amynodontopsis, Trigonias and the hymenopteran ichnofossils Celliforma curvata and Fictovichnus sciuttoi. The records of these taxa in northwestern Oaxaca greatly expand southerly their former geographic distribution in North America. The records of the geomorph rodents and Nanotragulus extend their former known biochronological range to the late Eocene. The hymenopteran ichnofossils in the localities suggest the presence of a bare soil after periodic waterlogging, under a sub-humid to sub-arid climate. This new local fauna represents the first glimpse of Eocene vertebrate and invertebrate terrestrial life from tropical North America.

  12. Population trends of grassland birds in North America are linked to the prevalence of an agricultural epizootic in Europe.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Joseph J; Koslowsky, Hannah M

    2011-03-22

    Globalization of trade has dramatic socioeconomic effects, and, intuitively, significant ecological effects should follow. However, few quantitative examples exist of the interrelationship of globalization, socioeconomics, and ecological patterns. We present a striking illustration of a cascade in which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; "mad cow disease") outbreaks in Europe exerted pressure on global beef markets, subsequently affecting North American hayfields and grassland bird populations. We examined competing models, which linked the prevalence of BSE in five focal countries, volume of beef exports to those countries from North America, and the amount of hayfield harvested and the abundance of grassland birds in North America. We found that (i) imports from North America increased 1 y after BSE outbreaks; (ii) probably because fewer cattle remained, the hay harvest in North America was reduced 2 y after the outbreak; (iii) the reduced hay harvest yielded a positive response in grassland bird populations 3 y after the outbreak.

  13. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    PubMed

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-04

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  14. Space Cooling in North America: Market Overview and Future Impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Baxter, Van D; Khowailed, Gannate; Sikes, Karen; ...

    2015-01-01

    The North American space cooling market, particularly in the United States, is experiencing shifts in regulatory regimes, population patterns, economic conditions, and consumer preferences-all catalyzed further by rapid technological innovation. Taken together these factors may result in a slight reduction in air conditioning shipments in the short term, however the longer term trends indicate a continuing increase in the number of air conditioning systems in the U.S. markets. These increases will be greatest in the warmer and more humid (e.g. higher load demand) regions. This will result in increasing pressure on the U.S. electricity supply system to meet the energymore » peak and consumption demands for building space cooling.« less

  15. Space Cooling in North America: Market Overview and Future Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D; Khowailed, Gannate; Sikes, Karen; Grubbs, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The North American space cooling market, particularly in the United States, is experiencing shifts in regulatory regimes, population patterns, economic conditions, and consumer preferences-all catalyzed further by rapid technological innovation. Taken together these factors may result in a slight reduction in air conditioning shipments in the short term, however the longer term trends indicate a continuing increase in the number of air conditioning systems in the U.S. markets. These increases will be greatest in the warmer and more humid (e.g. higher load demand) regions. This will result in increasing pressure on the U.S. electricity supply system to meet the energy peak and consumption demands for building space cooling.

  16. Global Boreal Forest Mapping with JERS-1: North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Cynthia L.; McDonald, Kyle; Chapman, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative effort is underway to map boreal forests worldwide using L-band, single polarization Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the Japanese Earth Resources (JERS-1) satellite. Final products of the North American Boreal Forest Mapping Project will include two continental scale radar mosaics and supplementary multitemporal mosaics for Alaska, central Canada, and eastern Canada. For selected sites, we are also producing local scale (100 km x 100 km) and regional scale maps (1000 km x 1000 km). As with the nearly completed Amazon component of the Global Rain Forest Mapping project, SAR imagery, radar image mosaics and SAR-derived texture image products will be available to the scientific community on the World Wide Web. Image acquisition for this project has been completed and processing and image interpretation is underway at the Alaska SAR Facility.

  17. Six new species of Acomoptera from North America (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Six new species are described, raising the number of North American Acomoptera species to seven and the genus total to ten, and nearly doubling the number of species within the putative clade containing Acomoptera, Drepanocercus, and Paratinia. These novel species forms have implications for the concept of Acomoptera that in turn, may impact our understanding of its generic relationships and the evolution and composition of Gnoristinae and Sciophilinae. The new species, Acomoptera crispa, Acomoptera digitata, Acomoptera echinosa, Acomoptera forculata, Acomoptera nelsoni,and Acomoptera vockerothi, are compared with the type species of the genus, Acomoptera plexipus (Garrett), whose diagnostic features are imaged and illustrated for the first time. The European species, Acomoptera difficilis (Dziedzicki) is also illustrated and compared. Acomoptera spinistyla (Søli) comb. n. is transferred from Drepanocercus. A key to species is provided. Future work will seek to incorporate this knowledge into a systematic phylogenetic study of relationships between these species and their sister taxa. PMID:22259304

  18. Anatomy of North America: thematic geologic portrayals of the continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Harold; Hoffman, Paul F.; Lewry, John F.; Monger, James W. H.; Rivers, Toby

    1991-02-01

    Six thematic tectonic maps are used to analyse the makeup of the North American continent. Themes are: (1) major tectonic elements of the continent (2) time of last major deformation (3) time of first major deformation (4) miogeoclines and terranes by kindred (5) suture zones and terrane boundaries by age, and (6) time of accretion. Features illustrated include distribution of orogenic belts and their extensions beneath cover sequences to the continental edge, contrast between juvenile and reworked crust in orogenic belts, geometry of ancient continental margins, distribution and classification of accreted terranes, geometry of suture zones and courses of ancient oceans, and how the continent evolved from an assemblage of Archean minicontinents to its present configuration. It is suggested that essentially similar plate tectonic processes controlled continental breakup and assembly from the Archean onwards, albeit with gradual increase in size of continental lithospheric plates and quantitative change in other parameters such as heatflow and character of the mantle.

  19. Transatlantic transport of pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinbin; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Palmer, Paul I.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Field, Brendan D.; Martin, Randall V.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Parrish, David D.; Simmonds, Peter G.; Oltmans, Samuel J.

    2002-07-01

    We examine the transatlantic transport of anthropogenic ozone and its impact on surface ozone in Europe and North America by using a 5-year (1993-1997) simulation with the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry. Long-term time series of ozone and CO at Mace Head (Ireland) and Sable Island (Canada) are used to evaluate transatlantic transport in the model. North American anthropogenic emissions contribute on average 5 ppbv to surface ozone at Mace Head, and up to 10-20 ppbv during transatlantic transport events, which are forerunners of broader events in Europe. These events are associated with low-level westerly flow driven by an intense Icelandic low between Iceland and the British Isles. North American influence on ozone at Mace Head is strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), implying that the NAO index can be used to forecast transatlantic transport of North American pollution to Europe. European anthropogenic emissions contribute on average less than 2 ppbv to surface ozone at Sable Island but up to 5-10 ppbv during transatlantic transport events. These events are associated with low-level easterly flow established by anomalous low pressure at 45°N over the North Atlantic. North American anthropogenic emissions enhance surface ozone in continental Europe by 2-4 ppbv on average in summer and by 5-10 ppbv during transatlantic transport events; transport in the boundary layer and subsidence from the free troposphere are both important mechanisms. We find in the model that 20% of the violations of the European Council ozone standard (55 ppbv, 8-hour average) in the summer of 1997 over Europe would not have occurred in the absence of anthropogenic emissions from North America. North American influence on surface ozone in Europe is particularly strong at the thresholds used for the European standards (55-65 ppbv).

  20. Ecosystem Response to Monsoon Rainfall Variability in Southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Feyen, Luc; Vivoni, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Due to its marked plant phenology driven by precipitation, the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) can serve to reveal ecological responses to climate variability and change in water-controlled regions. This study attempts to elucidate the effects of monsoon rainfall variability on vegetation dynamics over the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) tier I domain (20°-35° N, 105°-115° W). To this end, we analyze long-term dynamics (1982-2004) in seasonal precipitation (Pr), net primary production (NPP) and rain-use efficiency (RUE) based on phenological and biophysical memory metrics from NOAA CPC daily 1° gridded precipitation data and satellite GIMMS semi-monthly NDVI images at 8-km resolution. We focus our analysis on six diverse ecosystems spanning from semi-arid and desert environments to tropical deciduous forests to investigate: 1) the spatially averaged NPP/RUE profiles along the regional Pr gradient, 2) the linkage between NPP and Pr inter-annual variations and 3) the long-term trends of Pr, NPP and RUE. All the biomes show an increase (decrease) in mean NPP (RUE) along the mean seasonal precipitation gradient ranging from 100 to 900 mm. Variations in NPP/RUE profiles differ strongly across ecosystems and show threshold behaviors likely resulting from different physiological responses to climate effects and landscape features. Statistical analysis suggests that the inter-annual variability in NPP is significantly related to the temporal variability in precipitation. In particular, we found that forest biomes are more sensitive to inter-annual variations in precipitation regimes. Semi-arid ecosystems appear to be more resilient, probably because they are more exposed to extreme conditions and consequently better adapted to greater inter and intra-annual climate variability. The long-term positive signal in RUE imposed on its inter-annual variability, which results from a constant NPP under negative long-term trends of Pr, indicates an improved

  1. Monsoon failure enhances drought in southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Meko, D. M.; Stahle, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    The North American monsoon has emerged as a research frontier for paleoclimatology. Precisely dated tree-ring latewood (summer growth) offers unparalleled promise for studying interannual- to decadal-scale monsoon variability over past centuries. From the new network of latewood chronologies in the southwestern U.S., we present a high-quality, 470-year long reconstruction of June-August (monsoon) precipitation for the Arizona-Sonora sub-region of the North American monsoon. For comparison, we developed a companion reconstruction of October-April (cool-season) precipitation from chronologies of earlywood (spring growth). Foremost, these reconstructions demonstrate that many of the well-known southwestern droughts were not just cool-season events, but were also characterized by concurrent failure of the summer monsoon. The early 21st century drought, the late 19th century drought, the 17th century Puebloan drought, and even the 16th century megadrought each contain notable runs of consecutive years with below average monsoon rainfall. The reconstructions also reveal that the interannual relationship between winter and summer precipitation has been unstable through time and that the tendency for dry (wet) winters to be followed by wet [dry] summers was anomalously high during the mid-late 20th century. Cool-season and monsoon moisture variability in this region can be linked to patterns of ocean-atmosphere circulation. However, our understanding of the climate dynamics that would facilitate persistence of dual-season drought and transience in the winter-summer precipitation relationship is far from complete.

  2. Cottonwood Tree Rings and Climate in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. M.; Edmondson, J.; Griffin, E. R.; Meko, D. M.; Merigliano, M. F.; Scott, J. A.; Scott, M. L.; Touchan, R.

    2012-12-01

    In dry landscapes of interior western USA, cottonwood (Populus spp.) seedling establishment often occurs only close to river channels after floods. Where winter is sufficiently cold, cottonwoods also have distinct annual rings and can live up to 370 years, allowing us to reconstruct the long-term history of river flows and channel locations. We have analyzed the annual rate of cottonwood establishment along streams in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota and Idaho. Because the trees germinate next to the river, establishment rates are strongly correlated with the rate of channel migration driven by floods. Along large rivers dominated by snowmelt from the mountains, interannual variation in peak flows and cottonwood establishment is small, and century-scale variation driven by climate change is apparent. The upper Snake, Yellowstone and Green rivers all show a strong decrease in cottonwood establishment beginning in the late 1800s and continuing to the present, indicating a decrease in peak flows prior to flow regulation by large dams. This is consistent with published tree-ring studies of montane conifers showing decreases in snowpack at the same time scale. In contrast, beginning in the late 1800s cottonwood ring widths along the Little Missouri River, North Dakota show an increase in annual growth that continues into the present. Because annual growth is strongly correlated with April-July flows (r=0.69) the ring-width data suggest an increase in April-July flows at the same time tree establishment dates suggest a decrease in peak flows. These results may be reconciled by the hypothesis that increases in low temperatures have decreased snowpack while lengthening the growing season.

  3. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P < 0.05). Percentage hens varied among the 5 most common dabbling ducks found at dens. In eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota, where predation on ducks was greatest, an average of 64% of gadwall, 73% of northern pintail, 81% of blue-winged teal, 81% of mallard, and 90% of northern shoveler remains found at dens were hens. Percentage hens among duck remains found at dens increased as the duck nesting season progressed. Numbers of adult ducks found at individual dens ranged from 0 to 67. The average number of ducks found in and around den entrances was used as an index of fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P < 0.10) and duck population size (r = 0.930, P < 0.05), but all species were not affected in the same manner or to

  4. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America

    PubMed Central

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. Design The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Results Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months’ follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D’Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months’ follow-up. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program. PMID:27375837

  5. The adventive genus Xantholinus Dejean (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylininae in North America: new records and a synthesis of distributional data

    PubMed Central

    Brunke, Adam J.; Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract New distributional and bionomic data are provided for species of the genus Xantholinus in North America. Xantholinus elegans (Olivier 1795) (= X. jarrigei Coiffait 1956)is recorded from North America for the first time, based on specimens collected in Ontario, Canada from 2007-2010. The armature of the internal sac of the aedeagus in situ is illustrated to aid in identification. Xantholinus linearis (Olivier 1795), known previously from the Maritime Provinces of Canada and the eastern United States, is newly recorded from Ontario. Xantholinus longiventris Heer 1839 is still only known from western North America. A key is provided to allow recognition of all three species. PMID:21594027

  6. Effects of climate, tectonism, and variations in sea level on formation of Cretaceous coals of North America

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, P.J.; Brownfield, M.E.; Hansen, D.E.; Hettinger, R.D.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Sanchez, D.

    1988-07-01

    Extensive deposits of Cretaceous coal-bearing strata are present in western North America, extending from the North Slope of Alaska to northern Mexico. Most of the Cretaceous sediments were derived from the active Cordillera region and were deposited in foreland basins on the western margin of the Western Interior seaway. A multidisciplinary study is in progress to document and attempt to explain the temporal and spatial distribution of the Cretaceous coals. The study examines the effects of variations of paleoclimate, tectonics, and relative sea level on a continentwide scale. In addition, coal quality is related to the regional depositional settings. Many aspects of coal quality (for example, maceral composition, ash content, sulfur content) are determined by the flora and hydrology of the mire in which the original peat accumulated. The existence of Cretaceous coals throughout the length of the Western Cordillera provides a unique opportunity to determine variations in mire type with climate over a range of 50/degrees/ of paleolatitude, and to examine the effects of these variations on coal quality. The relationships between coal beds and associated clastic facies should also be expected to change with varying mire types. Recent developments in their understanding of foreland basin evolution, Cretaceous sea level changes, and peat-forming environments make this an optimal time to begin a regional synthesis of North America's Cretaceous coals. Results of this study should aid the development of better predictive models of coal quality and seam thickness. These models will take into account the effects of major controls on sedimentation (climate, tectonics, sea level changes) rather than just the local depositional environment.

  7. 78 FR 15349 - Trade Mission to Central America in Conjunction With the Trade Americas-Opportunities in Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... region. Its deep-water port, Puerto Cort s, is the first port in Latin America to qualify under both the... Department trade mission calendar on www.export.gov , the Trade Americas Web page at ( http://export.gov/tradeamericas/tradeevents/trademissions/centralamericajuly2013/index.asp ), and other Internet Web sites,...

  8. Multiple High Resolution Climate Scenarios over North America for Application to Water Resources (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.

    2009-12-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models(RCMs)and multiple global model responses to a future emission scenario, by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within NCEP reanalyses. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes RCMs that participated in the European PRUDENCE program (HadRM3 and RegCM), the Canadian regional climate model (CRCM) as well as the NCEP regional spectral model (RSM), the NCAR/PSU MM5, and NCAR WRF. Candidate AOGCMs include the Hadley Centre HadCM3, NCAR CCSM, the Canadian CGCM3 and the GFDL model. The resulting climate model runs form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts assessments over North America. High resolution (50 km) global time-slice experiments based on the GFDL atmospheric model and the NCAR atmospheric model (CAM3) have also been produced and will be compared with the simulations of the regional models. There also will be opportunities for double nesting over key regions through which additional modelers in the regional modeling community will be able to participate in NARCCAP. Additional key science issues are being investigated such as the importance of compatible physics in the nested and nesting models. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple runs are being developed by geophysical statisticians. In this overview talk, results from Phase II

  9. Extremely acid Permian lakes and ground waters in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benison, K.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Wopenka, B.; Burruss, R.C.; Pasteris, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporites hosted by red beds (red shales and sandstones), some 275-265 million years old, extend over a large area of the North American mid- continent. They were deposited in non-marine saline lakes, pans and mud- flats, settings that are typically assumed to have been alkaline. Here we use laser Raman microprobe analyses of fluid inclusions trapped in halites from these Permian deposits to argue for the existence of highly acidic (pH < 1) lakes and ground waters. These extremely acidic systems may have extended over an area of 200,000 km2. Modern analogues of such systems may be natural acid lake and groundwater systems (pH ~2-4) in southern Australia. Both the ancient and modern acid systems are characterized by closed drainage, arid climate, low acid-neutralizing capacity, and the oxidation of minerals such as pyrite to generate acidity. The discovery of widespread ancient acid lake and groundwater systems demands a re-evaluation of reconstructions of surface conditions of the past, and further investigations of the geochemistry and ecology of acid systems in general.

  10. Indigenous Peoples of North America: Environmental Exposures and Reproductive Justice

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Katsi; Plain, Ron; Sanchez, Kathy; Waghiyi, Vi; Miller, Pamela; Dufault, Renee; Sislin, Caitlin; Carpenter, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice. Objectives: In this commentary, we review five indigenous communities in various stages of environmental health research and discuss the intersection of environmental health and reproductive justice issues in these communities as well as the limitations of legal recourse. Discussion: The health disparities impacting life expectancy and reproductive capabilities in indigenous communities are due to a combination of social, economic, and environmental factors. The system of federal environmental and Indian law is insufficient to protect indigenous communities from environmental contamination. Many communities are interested in developing appropriate research partnerships in order to discern the full impact of environmental contamination and prevent further damage. Conclusions: Continued research involving collaborative partnerships among scientific researchers, community members, and health care providers is needed to determine the impacts of this contamination and to develop approaches for remediation and policy interventions. PMID:22899635

  11. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  12. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  13. Mitochondrial phylogeography of moose (Alces alces) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hundertmark, Kris J.; Bowyer, R. Terry; Shields, Gerald F.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    Nucleotide variation was assessed from the mitochondrial control region of North American moose (Alces alces) to test predictions of a model of range expansion by stepping-stone dispersal and to determine whether patterns of genetic variation support the current recognition of 4 subspecies. Haplotypes formed a star phylogeny indicative of a recent expansion of populations. Values of nucleotide and haplotype diversity were low continentwide but were greatest in the central part of the continent and lowest in peripheral populations. Despite low mitochondrial diversity, moose exhibited a high degree of differentiation regionally, which was not explained by isolation by distance. Our data indicate a pattern of colonization consistent with a large central population that supplied founders to peripheral populations (other than Alaska), perhaps through rare, long-distance dispersal events (leptokurtic dispersal) rather than mass dispersal by a stepping-stone model. The colonization scenario does not account for the low haplotype diversity observed in Alaska, which may be derived from a postcolonization bottleneck. Establishment of peripheral populations by leptokurtic dispersal and subsequent local adaptation may have been sufficient for development of morphological differentiation among extant subspecies.

  14. Statiscal Downscaling of a surface wind field over northeastern North America: annual to centennial variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; García-Bustamante, Elena; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The region of North Eastern North America is located in a privileged geographical position that allows for interesting relationships between various large-scale circulation modes and the seasonal surface wind. This is a region where the large-scale configurations foster the transit of tropical cyclonic events during the summer season and even more intense extratropical cyclones during winter. In this work we present a statistical downscaling method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) that exploits the relationships among the main modes of circulation over the North Atlantic and Pacific Sectors and the behaviour of surface wind. The statistical technique has been implemented with predictor variables (mean sea level pressure and geopotential height at different levels) provided by all the reanalysis products available to date. The regional scale data consist of a set of 526 sites distributed over North Eastern North America that span over a period of about 60 years (1953-2010). These data have been previously subjected to an exhaustive quality control process, height standardization and wind direction homogenization. Several decades of observations allow for the study of intra to multidecadal variability. Also, the sensitivity of the downscaling methodology to the selection of a systematic sampling of model parameter values has been explored. The statistical relationship obtained by this method also allows for the reconstruction of the regional wind behaviour back to the mid 19th century through various 20th century reanalysis and instrumental sea level pressure datasets.

  15. Using Chief Complaints for Syndromic Surveillance: A Review of Chief Complaint Based Classifiers in North America

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Mike; Dowling, John N.; Chapman, Wendy W.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of Natural Language Processing in the public health informatics domain is the automatic extraction and encoding of data stored in free text patient records. This extracted data can then be utilized by computerized systems to perform syndromic surveillance. In particular, the chief complaint — a short string that describes a patient’s symptoms — has come to be a vital resource for syndromic surveillance in the North American context due to its near ubiquity. This paper reviews fifteen systems in North America — at the city, county, state and federal level — that use chief complaints for syndromic surveillance. PMID:23602781

  16. Abrupt climate oscillations during the last deglaciation in central north america

    PubMed

    Yu; Eicher

    1998-12-18

    Evidence from stable isotopes and a variety of proxies from two Ontario lakes demonstrate that many of the late glacial-to-early Holocene events that are well known from the North Atlantic seaboard, such as the Gerzensee-Killarney Oscillation (also known as the Intra-Allerod Cold Period), Younger Dryas, and Preboreal Oscillation, also occurred in central North America. These results thus imply that climatic forcing acted in the same manner in both regions and that atmospheric circulation played an important role in the propagation of these events.

  17. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyron, A.

    1991-08-01

    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  18. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  19. Transmission of Eurasian avian H2 influenza virus to shorebirds in North America.

    PubMed

    Makarova, N V; Kaverin, N V; Krauss, S; Senne, D; Webster, R G

    1999-12-01

    Influenza A virus of the H2 subtype caused a serious pandemic in 1957 and may cause similar outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolution and the antigenic relationships of avian influenza H2 viruses, we sequenced the haemagglutinin (HA) genes of H2 isolates from shorebirds, ducks and poultry in North America and derived a phylogenetic tree to establish their interrelationships. This analysis confirmed the divergence of H2 HA into two geographical lineages, American and Eurasian. One group of viruses isolated from shorebirds in North America had HA belonging to the Eurasian lineage, indicating an interregional transmission of the H2 gene. Characterization of HA with a monoclonal antibody panel revealed that the antigenicity of the Delaware strains differed from the other avian strains analysed. The data emphasizes the importance of avian influenza surveillance.

  20. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Franson, J. Christian; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

  1. Questioning public perception, conservation policy, and recovery actions for honeybees in North America.

    PubMed

    Colla, Sheila R; MacIvor, J Scott

    2016-09-14

    Global pollinator declines have resulted in an increasing number of policies and actions to help bee populations. In North America, there is strong public engagement, but also growing controversies over how to address declines. This is fueled by complex scientific evidence across species, habitat types, geographic regions, as well as intense lobbying by NGOs, beekeeping, agro-chemical and farming industries. Policy and conservation initiatives often focus on the Western Honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, a domesticated species not native to North America. Although losses of managed honeybee colonies are recorded annually, we argue that honeybee losses are not a conservation problem, but instead a domesticated animal management issue. By focusing attention on honeybees, policies and subsequent resources may undermine native bee conservation and have negative impacts ecologically and socially. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. First detection of bat white-nose syndrome in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Ballmann, Anne; George, Kyle; Griffin, Kathryn M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Huckabee, John R; Haman, Katherine H; Anderson, Christopher D.; Becker, Penny A; Buchanan, Joseph B.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE White-nose syndrome (WNS) represents one of the most consequential wildlife diseases of modern times. Since it was first documented in New York in 2006, the disease has killed millions of bats and threatens several formerly abundant species with extirpation or extinction. The spread of WNS in eastern North America has been relatively gradual, inducing optimism that disease mitigation strategies could be established in time to conserve bats susceptible to WNS in western North America. The recent detection of the fungus that causes WNS in the Pacific Northwest, far from its previous known distribution, increases the urgency for understanding the long-term impacts of this disease and for developing strategies to conserve imperiled bat species.

  3. Neovenatorid theropods are apex predators in the Late Cretaceous of North America.

    PubMed

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Makovicky, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Allosauroid theropods were a diverse and widespread radiation of Jurassic-Cretaceous megapredators. Achieving some of the largest body sizes among theropod dinosaurs, these colossal hunters dominated terrestrial ecosystems until a faunal turnover redefined apex predator guild occupancy during the final 20 million years of the Cretaceous. Here we describe a giant new species of allosauroid--Siats meekerorum gen. et sp. nov.--providing the first evidence for the cosmopolitan clade Neovenatoridae in North America. Siats is the youngest allosauroid yet discovered from the continent and demonstrates that the clade endured there into the Late Cretaceous. The discovery provides new evidence for ecologic sympatry of large allosauroids and small-bodied tyrannosauroids. These data support the hypothesis that extinction of Allosauroidea in terrestrial ecosystems of North America permitted ecological release of tyrannosauroids, which went on to dominate end-Cretaceous food webs.

  4. Millennial-scale variability during the last glacial in vegetation records from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Anderson, R. Scott; Desprat, S.; Grigg, L.D.; Grimm, E.C.; Heusser, L.E.; Jacobs, Brian F.; Lopez-Martinez, C.; Whitlock, C.L.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution pollen records from North America show that terrestrial environments were affected by Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) and Heinrich climate variability during the last glacial. In the western, more mountainous regions, these climate changes are generally observed in the pollen records as altitudinal movements of climate-sensitive plant species, whereas in the southeast, they are recorded as latitudinal shifts in vegetation. Heinrich (HS) and Greenland (GS) stadials are generally correlated with cold and dry climate and Greenland interstadials (GI) with warm-wet phases. The pollen records from North America confirm that vegetation responds rapidly to millennial-scale climate variability, although the difficulties in establishing independent age models for the pollen records make determination of the absolute phasing of the records to surface temperatures in Greenland somewhat uncertain. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Performance of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Phillips, Timothy D; Faeth, Stanley H; McCulley, Rebecca L; Saloniemi, Irma; Helander, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    Human assisted plant invasions from Europe to North America have been more common than the reverse. We tested endophyte-mediated performance of tall fescue in parallel three year experiments in Europe and the USA using endophyte infected and uninfected wild and cultivated plants. Experimental plants were subjected to nutrient and water treatments. Whereas endophyte infection increased tall fescue performance in general, the effects of endophytes on plant growth and reproduction varied among plant origins under different environmental conditions. Naturally endophyte-free Finnish cultivar 'Retu' performed equally well as 'Kentucky-31' in both geographic locations. All Eurasian origin plants performed well in the US. In Finland, plants established well and both cultivars survived over the first winter. However, winter mortality of 'Kentucky-31' plants was higher, particularly in fertilized soils in the subsequent winters. Our results suggest that tall fescue ecotype 'Kentucky-31' that flourishes in North America is poorly adapted to Northern European conditions.

  6. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Pearce, John M; Franson, J Christian; Derksen, Dirk V

    2015-09-28

    It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

  7. Climate change has affected the breeding date of tree swallows throughout North America

    PubMed

    Dunn; Winkler

    1999-12-22

    Increasing evidence suggests that climate change has affected the breeding and distribution of wildlife. If such changes are due to global warming, then we should expect to see large-scale effects. To explore for such effects on avian reproduction, we examined 3450 nest records of tree swallows from across North America. The egg-laying date in tree swallows advanced by up to nine days during 1959-1991. This advance in phenology was associated with increasing surface air temperatures at the time of breeding. Our analysis controlled for several potentially confounding variables such as latitude, longitude, breeding density and elevation. We conclude that tree swallows across North America are breeding earlier and that the most likely cause is a long-term increase in spring temperature.

  8. Extraterrestrial Markers Found at Clovis Sites Across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Becker, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present evidence for an extraterrestrial (ET) impact event with Earth at about 12.9 ka, which, we hypothesize, caused abrupt environmental changes that contributed to Younger Dryas (YD) cooling, major ecological reorganization, broad-scale extinctions, and the rapid human behavioral shifts evident at the end of the Clovis Period. Terminal Clovis-age sites in North American are marked by a thin, discrete layer, the YD boundary layer (YDB) with varying peak abundances of an array or ET markers, including magnetic grains, microspherules, carbon spherules, soot, fullerenes with ET helium, and iridium. We will present data from a number of well- known Clovis sites and other locations in support of the YD impact event. Gainey, north of Detroit, Michigan, is a PaleoAmerican campsite that was located a few tens of kilometers from the southern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at 12.9 ka. Gainey gave its name to the distinctive fluted point style found there, and Gainey sediments contained some of the highest abundances of YDB markers found, suggesting that the YD impact was centered nearby. Murray Springs, near Sierra Vista, Arizona is one of the best known Clovis mammoth kill-sites. A distinctive carbonaceous layer, called a "black mat" and thought to be of algal origin, drapes conformably over the mammoth bones (Haynes and Huckell, 2007). A thin layer (about 2 mm), the YDB, containing Younger Dryas impact event markers, lies at the base of the black mat and immediately overlies the mammoth bones and Clovis artifacts. Blackwater Draw, New Mexico is southwest of the town of Clovis, which gave its name to the type of projectile points first found there. It was a PaleoAmerican hunting site on the bank of a spring-fed waterhole, and the black mat drapes over bones of butchered mammoths and Clovis artifacts. Topper, located on a high bank of the Savannah River near Allendale, South Carolina, was a Clovis-age flint quarry containing thousands of artifacts. YDB markers occur

  9. Management of percids in Lake Erie, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Richard W.; Nepszy, Stephen J.; Rawson, Michael R.; van Densen, W.L.T.; Steinmetz, B.; Hughes, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Erie's fish populations and their habitats have undergone very substantial changes since 1945. Of the four percid forms originally present, the blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum) is presumed extinct, and the sauger (S. canadense) was commercially extinct by the 1950's. The walleye (S. v. vitreum) has remained stable in eastern Lake Erie but the highly productive stock of the western basin collapsed in the 1960's. Closure of the walleye fishery from 1970 to 1973, necessitated by mercury contamination, provided an opportunity for the development of an international management plan for restoration of the stock. An inter-agency Scientific Protocol Committee evaluated walleye dynamics and recommended management by quota beginning in 1976. Although quotas have been exceeded several times, the walleye stock responded well to limited exploitation, steadily increased, and expanded its range. Landings of the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) increased during the 1950's, but a steady decline in abundance, beginning in the early 1970's led to the formation in 1980 of another international inter-agency task group to recommend a basis for quota management. The short-term management recommendation, reported and accepted in 1986, was to reduce fishing effort by 20% by 1990. Both management schemes evolved when the resource agencies of the five jurisdictions (New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario), in the two nations surrounding Lake Erie, perceived a need for the increased and improved management of a shared resource. They sought an international forum in which to develop strategies, appointed inter-agency scientific task groups to develop a basis for management recommendations, and adopted a quota management scheme. Each jurisdiction is responsible for the enforcement and allocation of its portion of the quota between user groups. Reports of catch, effort, and biological observations on stock performance are submitted annually to a standing technical

  10. Regulatory Policy and Markets for Energy Storage in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-05-14

    The last 5 years have been one of the most exciting times for the energy storage industry. We have seen significant advancements in the regulatory process to make accommodations for valuing and monetizing energy storage for what it provides to the grid. The most impactful regulatory decision for the energy storage industry has come from California, where the California Public Utilities Commission issued a decision that mandates procurement requirements of 1.325 GW for energy storage to 3 investor-own utilities in 4 stages: in 2014, 2016, 2018, and 2020. Furthermore, at the Federal level, FERC’s Order 755, requires the transmission operators to develop pay for performance tariffs for ancillary services. This has had direct impact on the market design of US competitive wholesale markets and the monetization of fast responding grid assets. While this order is technology neutral, it clearly plays into the fast-responding capability of energy storage technologies. Today PJM, CAISO, MISO, NYISO, and NE-ISO have implemented Order 755 and offer new tariff for regulation services based on pay-for-performance principles. Furthermore, FERC Order 784, issued in July 2013 requires transmission providers to consider speed and accuracy in determining the requirements for ancillary services. In November 2013, FERC issued Order 972, which revises the small generator interconnection agreement which declares energy storage as a power source. This order puts energy storage on par with existing generators. This paper will discuss the implementation of FERC’s Pay for Performance Regulation order at all ISOs in the U.S. under FERC regulatory authority (this excludes ERCOT). Also discussed will be the market impacts and overall impacts on the NERC regulation performance indexes. The paper will end with a discussion on the California and Ontario, Canada procurement mandates and the opportunity that it may present to the energy storage industry.

  11. Ungulate predation and ecological roles of wolves and coyotes in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Loveless, Karen M; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R

    2017-01-08

    Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C. lupus). We investigated intrinsic and extrinsic influences on per capita kill rates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces) during winter by sympatric packs of eastern coyotes, eastern wolves, and admixed canids in Ontario, Canada to clarify the predatory ability and ecological roles of the different canid top predators of eastern North America. Eastern coyote ancestry within packs negatively influenced per capita total ungulate (deer and moose combined) and moose kill rates. Furthermore, canids in packs dominated by eastern coyote ancestry consumed significantly less ungulate biomass and more anthropogenic food than packs dominated by wolf ancestry. Similar to gray wolves in previous studies, eastern wolves preyed on deer where they were available. However, in areas were deer were scarce, eastern wolves killed moose at rates similar to those previously documented for gray wolves at comparable moose densities across North America. Eastern coyotes are effective deer predators, but their dietary flexibility and low kill rates on moose suggest they have not replaced the ecological role of wolves in eastern North America.

  12. Comment on "DNA from pre-Clovis human coprolites in Oregon, North America".

    PubMed

    Poinar, Hendrik; Fiedel, Stuart; King, Christine E; Devault, Alison M; Bos, Kirsti; Kuch, Melanie; Debruyne, Regis

    2009-07-10

    Gilbert et al. (Reports, 9 May 2008, p. 786) analyzed DNA from radiocarbon-dated paleofecal remains from Paisley Cave, Oregon, which ostensibly demonstrate a human presence in North America predating the well-established Clovis complex. We question the authenticity of their DNA results and argue that in the absence of intact stratigraphy and diagnostic artifacts, and in view of carbon isotope anomalies, the radiocarbon dates of the oldest specimens are unreliable.

  13. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  14. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  15. Earliest report of the genus Phyricodothyris George (Brachiopoda: Reticularioidea) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.L.; Kollar, A.D.; Brezinski, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Described from the Wymps Gap Member of the Mauch Chunk Formation of southwestern Pennsylvania and adjacent Maryland is a new species, Phyricodothyris lauriegrahamae, of the Upper Mississippian reticulariod brachiopod Phyricodothyris George, 1932. The Wymps Gap Limestone from which the type material was collected is middle Chesterian (late Visdan) in age. This is the first report of this genus from confirmed Mississippian rocks in North America.

  16. Attribution of spatial and temporal variations in terrestrial methane flux over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. F.; Tian, H. Q.; Zhang, C.; Liu, M. L.; Ren, W.; Chen, G. S.; Lu, C. Q.; Bruhwiler, L.

    2010-07-01

    The attribution of spatial and temporal variations in terrestrial methane (CH4) flux is essential for assessing and mitigating CH4 emission from terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we used a process-based model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), in conjunction with spatial data of six major environmental factors to attribute the spatial and temporal variations in the terrestrial methane (CH4) flux over North America from 1979 to 2008 to six individual factors and their interaction. Over the past three decades, our simulation indicates that global change factors accumulatively contributed 43.05 Tg CH4-C (1 Tg = 1012 g) emission over North America, among which ozone (O3) pollution led to a reduced CH4 emission by 2.69 Tg CH4-C, all other factors including climate variability, nitrogen (N) deposition, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), N fertilization, and land conversion increased terrestrial CH4 emissions by 40.37 Tg CH4-C, 0.42 Tg CH4-C, 6.95 Tg CH4-C, 0.11 Tg CH4-C, and 3.70 Tg CH4-C, respectively, and interaction between/among these global change factors led to a decline of CH4 emission by 5.80 Tg CH4-C. Climatic variability dominated the inter-annual variations in terrestrial CH4 fluxes at both continental and country levels. The relative importance of each environmental factor in determining the magnitude of methane flux shows substantially spatial variation across North America. This factorial attribution of CH4 fluxes over the North America might benefit policy makers who would like to curb climate warming by reducing CH4 emission.

  17. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 from a Phase-III AIDS Vaccine Trial in North America

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Jobes, David V.; Sinangil, Faruk; Crandall, Keith A.; Posada, David; Berman, Phillip W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, a phase III placebo-controlled trial (VAX004) of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine (AIDSVAX B/B) was completed in 5,403 volunteers at high risk for HIV-1 infection from North America and the Netherlands. A total of 368 individuals became infected with HIV-1 during the trial. The envelope glycoprotein gene (gp120) from the HIV-1 subtype B viruses infecting 349 patients was sequenced from clinical samples taken as close as possible to the time of diagnosis, rendering a final data set of 1,047 sequences (1,032 from North America and 15 from the Netherlands). Here, we used these data in combination with other sequences available in public databases to assess HIV-1 variation as a function of vaccination treatment, geographic region, race, risk behavior, and viral load. Viral samples did not show any phylogenetic structure for any of these factors, but individuals with different viral loads showed significant differences (P = 0.009) in genetic diversity. The estimated time of emergence of HIV-1 subtype B was 1966–1970. Despite the fact that the number of AIDS cases has decreased in North America since the early 90s, HIV-1 genetic diversity seems to have remained almost constant over time. This study represents one of the largest molecular epidemiologic surveys of viruses responsible for new HIV-1 infections in North America and could help the selection of epidemiologically representative vaccine antigens to include in the next generation of candidate HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:19864468

  18. Annotated zoogeography of non-marine Tardigrada. Part III: North America and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Michalczyk, Łukasz; McInnes, Sandra J

    2016-12-01

    This paper is the third monograph of the series that describes the global records of limno-terrestrial water bears (Tardigrada). Here, we provide a comprehensive list of non-marine tardigrades recorded from the North America, providing an updated and revised taxonomy accompanied by geographic co-ordinates, habitat, and biogeographic comments. It is hoped this work will serve as a reference point and background for further zoogeographical and taxonomical studies.

  19. Circulation characteristics of persistent cold spells in central-eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Manson, Alan H.; Li, Yanping; Meek, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The circulation patterns of persistent cold weather spells with durations longer than 10 days in central-eastern North America (United States and Canada; 32°-52°N, 95°-65°W) are investigated by using NCEP reanalysis data from 1948 to 2014. The criteria for the persistent cold spells are: (1) three-day averaged temperature anomalies for the regional average over the central-eastern United States and Canada must be below the 10th percentile, and (2) such extreme cold spells must last at least 10 days. The circulation patterns associated with these cold spells are examined to find the common signals of these events. The circulation anomaly patterns of these cold spells are categorized based on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation (AO), and other climate indices. The atmospheric circulation patterns that favor the cold spells are identified through composites of geopotential height maps for the cold spells. Negative AO phases favor persistent cold spells. Phases of sea surface temperature (SST) modes that are associated with warm SSTs in the eastern extratropical Pacific also favor persistent cold events in the study region. Stratospheric polar vortex breakdown alone is not a good predictor for the regional extreme cold spells in central-eastern North America. The meridional dispersions of quasi-stationary Rossby waves in the Pacific-North America sector in terms of cut-off zonal wavenumber modulated by background flow are analyzed to provide insight into the difference in evolution of the cold spells under different mean AO phases. The waveguide for AO > 1 is in a narrow latitudinal band centered on 40°N, whereas the waveguide for AO <-1 is in a broader latitudinal band from 40° to 65°N. The circulation patterns and lower boundary conditions favorable for persistent cold spells identified by this study can be a stepping-stone for improving winter subseasonal forecasting in North America.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mackenzie Delta province, North America, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Mitchell E.; Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 40 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered nonassociated gas, a mean of 10.5 billion barrels of undiscovered oil (with 46.6 trillion cubic feet of associated gas), and a mean of 4.0 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Mackenzie Delta Province of North America, exclusive of the unassessed deep-water portion of the province.