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Sample records for north atlantic-arctic region

  1. Building International Research Partnerships in the North Atlantic-Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, Heather M.; Hofmann, Eileen; St. John, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The North Atlantic-Arctic region, which is critical to the health and socioeconomic well being of North America and Europe, is susceptible to climate-driven changes in circulation, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems. The need for strong investment in the study of biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and interactions with physical processes over a range of time and space scales in this region was clearly stated in the 2013 Galway Declaration, an intergovernmental statement on Atlantic Ocean cooperation (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-459_en.htm). Subsequently, a workshop was held to bring together researchers from the United States, Canada, and Europe with expertise across multiple disciplines to discuss an international research initiative focused on key features, processes, and ecosystem services (e.g., Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, spring bloom dynamics, fisheries, etc.) and associated sensitivities to climate changes.

  2. North Atlantic / Arctic Oscillations in the Pliocene: A Mechanism for Regional Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Daniel; Csank, Adam; Lunt, Daniel; Haywood, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Pliocene climate is significantly warmer than modern globally, but particularly so in the North Atlantic and adjacent portions of the Arctic. In order to fully understand these changes we must examine not only the mean climate state, but also changes to the significant oscillatory modes of regional climate. The Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations (AO/NAO) are the primary atmospheric oscillatory modes in the North Atlantic / Eastern Arctic region, observed mainly in mean sea level pressure, but accounting for typically a third of all climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Advanced General Circulation Models (GCMs) of both the modern and Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) enable the study of AO/NAO changes between the two intervals and the examination of the causes and significance of any changes. Models show that there is a large change in the mean state of the pressure systems in the North Atlantic, on which the NAO index is based. While the mean Azores High remains relatively constant throughout Pliocene and modern simulations, the mean Icelandic Low is much deeper in MPWP models. By changing the various parameters that are different between the modern and Pliocene simulations, the cause of this change can be examined. The observed changes in mean AO/NAO state can be largely attributed to changes in the orography of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in the Pliocene NAO also include the seasonal and interannual variability seen in the indexes. While the Hadley Centre GCM, used in this study, consistently performs well in studies of regional climate change and atmospheric phenomenon, different GCMs have been shown to produce different NAO responses to climate change. Multiple models can be used to find patterns that are robust between different GCMs, which should be possible in the new PlioMIP study. Secondly, comparison with palaeoclimate proxy data can be used to ground truth the modelled changes. Although this will always be difficult with an interannual

  3. North Atlantic-Arctic Mediterranean exchanges in an ensemble hindcast experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Steffen MalskæR.; Schmith, Torben

    2007-04-01

    An ensemble-hindcast approach is designed to simulate North Atlantic circulation changes during the period 1948-2005 using the Max Plank Institute Ocean Model forced by atmospheric reanalysis data. The experiment seeks to isolate oceanic changes related to the atmospheric forcing history by evaluating the role of initial conditions and masking internal model variability in the ensemble mean results. Characteristics of the complete North Atlantic-Arctic Mediterranean exchange system is described at key sections by time series of exchanges of volume, ice, heat, and liquid freshwater. Volume transports are divided into water masses by properties, and the constructed climatology of exchanges is shown to compare well with available observational estimates of individual branches. In response to the atmospheric forcing history, we find a modest but robust decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation of 0.4 Sv/decade, in total 2-2.5 Sv since 1948. In contrast, overturning exchanges with the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas and with the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean show no sign of cessation. A marked increase in the freshwater storage of the Nordic Seas and in particular of the subpolar Atlantic accompany the model decline in Atlantic overturning. The characteristics of the modeled freshening bears similarities with observed patterns of change since the 1950s, but whereas the origin of observed freshening is uncertain, freshening in the model predominantly results from dynamic changes linked to prominent changes in atmospheric circulation. Moreover, documented increase in the drainage of major Arctic-rivers is found to have a negligible effect on the oceanic changes.

  4. The nonlinear North Atlantic-Arctic ocean response to CO2 forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, Eveline C.; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2017-04-01

    Most climate models project an increase in oceanic energy transport towards high northern latitudes in future climate projections, but the physical mechanisms are not yet fully understood. To obtain a more fundamental understanding of the processes that cause the ocean heat transport to increase, we carried out a set of sensitivity experiments using a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Within these experiments, atmospheric CO2 levels are instantaneously set to one-fourth to four times current values. These model integrations, each with a length of 550 years, result in five considerably different quasi-equilibrium climate states. Our simulations show that poleward ocean heat transport in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic at 70°N increases from 0.03 PW in the coldest climate state to 0.2 PW in the warmest climate state. This increase is caused primarily by changes in sea ice cover, in horizontal ocean currents owing to anomalous winds in response to sea ice changes, and in ocean advection of thermal anomalies. Surprisingly, at subpolar latitudes, the subpolar gyre is found to weaken toward both the warmer and colder climates, relative to the current climate. This nonlinear response is caused by a complex interplay between seasonal sea ice melt, the near-surface wind response to sea ice changes, and changes in the density-driven circulation. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and its associated heat transport even oppose the total ocean heat transport towards the Arctic in the warmest climate. Going from warm to cold climates, or from high to low CO2 concentrations, the strength of the AMOC initially increases, but then declines towards the coldest climate, implying a nonlinear AMOC-response to CO2-induced climate change. Evidently, the North Atlantic-Arctic ocean heat transport depends on an interplay between various (remote) coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice mechanisms that respond in a nonlinear way to climate change.

  5. New insights into late Neogene glacial dynamics, tectonics, and hydrocarbon migrations in the Atlantic-Arctic gateway region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knies, J.; Baranwal, S.; Fabian, K.; Grøsfjeld, K.; Andreassen, K.; Husum, K.; Mattingsdal, R.; Gaina, C.; De Schepper, S.; Vogt, C.; Andersen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Notwithstanding the recent IODP drilling on the Lomonosov Ridge, the Late Cenozoic history of the Arctic Ocean still remains elusive. The tectonic processes leading to the development of the only deep-water connection to the Arctic Ocean via the Fram Strait are still poorly understood. Also, the influence of the gateway region on changes in Arctic-Atlantic ocean circulation, uplift/erosion on the adjacent hinterland, as well as glacial initiation and its consequences for the petroleum systems in the regions, remain unclear. By revisiting Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 151, holes 911A and 910C and interpreting new multi-channel seismic data, we have now established a new comprehensive chronological framework for the Yermak Plateau and revealed important paleoenvironmental changes for the Atlantic-Arctic gateway during the late Neogene. The improved chronostratigraphic framework is established through continuous paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data as well as selected intervals with stable ?18O and ?13C data derived from benthic foraminifera Cassidulina teretis. Supported by acoustic profiling, the new data indicate a continuous late Miocene/early Pliocene age (~5-6 Ma) for the base of both holes. The depositional regime north (Yermak Plateau) and south of the Fram Strait (Hovgaard Ridge) was rather shallow during the late Miocene and water mass exchange between the Arctic and Atlantic was restricted. Ice sheets on the Svalbard Platform evolved during the late Miocene, however did not reach the coastline before 3.3 Ma. Migration of gaseous hydrocarbons occurred prior to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (~2.7 Ma) as indicated by high-amplitude reflections, corroborating the occurrence of greigite mineralization and stable carbon isotope excursions in planktic/benthic foraminifera. The data indicate that Pleistocene erosion and uplift in the Barents Sea region had probably only minor effects on reservoir leakages than previously thought.

  6. Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean circulation controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Stärz, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    High latitude ocean gateway changes are thought to play a key role in Cenozoic climate evolution. However, the underlying ocean dynamics are poorly understood. Here we use a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model to investigate the effect of ocean gateway formation that is associated with the subsidence of the Greenland–Scotland Ridge. We find a threshold in sill depth (∼50 m) that is linked to the influence of wind mixing. Sill depth changes within the wind mixed layer establish lagoonal and estuarine conditions with limited exchange across the sill resulting in brackish or even fresher Arctic conditions. Close to the threshold the ocean regime is highly sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 and the associated modulation in the hydrological cycle. For larger sill depths a bi-directional flow regime across the ridge develops, providing a baseline for the final step towards the establishment of a modern prototype North Atlantic-Arctic water exchange. PMID:28580952

  7. Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean circulation controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge.

    PubMed

    Stärz, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-06-05

    High latitude ocean gateway changes are thought to play a key role in Cenozoic climate evolution. However, the underlying ocean dynamics are poorly understood. Here we use a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model to investigate the effect of ocean gateway formation that is associated with the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We find a threshold in sill depth (∼50 m) that is linked to the influence of wind mixing. Sill depth changes within the wind mixed layer establish lagoonal and estuarine conditions with limited exchange across the sill resulting in brackish or even fresher Arctic conditions. Close to the threshold the ocean regime is highly sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 and the associated modulation in the hydrological cycle. For larger sill depths a bi-directional flow regime across the ridge develops, providing a baseline for the final step towards the establishment of a modern prototype North Atlantic-Arctic water exchange.

  8. Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean circulation controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-06-01

    High latitude ocean gateway changes are thought to play a key role in Cenozoic climate evolution. However, the underlying ocean dynamics are poorly understood. Here we use a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model to investigate the effect of ocean gateway formation that is associated with the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We find a threshold in sill depth (~50 m) that is linked to the influence of wind mixing. Sill depth changes within the wind mixed layer establish lagoonal and estuarine conditions with limited exchange across the sill resulting in brackish or even fresher Arctic conditions. Close to the threshold the ocean regime is highly sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 and the associated modulation in the hydrological cycle. For larger sill depths a bi-directional flow regime across the ridge develops, providing a baseline for the final step towards the establishment of a modern prototype North Atlantic-Arctic water exchange.

  9. Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic circulation controlled by the Oligocene-Miocene subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Changes in high latitude ocean gateways are thought to be main drivers of Cenozoic climate evolution. However, the link between global climate changes and the early ocean gateway formation between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean (incl. the Greenland and Norwegian Seas) controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is poorly understood. Here, we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model for Oligocene-Miocene boundary conditions to address a threshold behaviour for the ventilation of the Arctic Ocean controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Our model simulations reveal that a deepening of the ridge from approx. 100 to 200 metres below sea-level forces major reorganizations in the North Atlantic-Arctic circulation associated with extreme salinity and temperature changes in the Arctic Ocean. These changes are induced by an abrupt regime shift from restricted estuarine conditions to a bi-directional flow regime similar to today. Taking uncertainties in timing into account this suggests that tectonic processes, which started at the late Eocene to Oligocene controlled the climate and circulation regime of the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Pristine Arctic: background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína; Jensen, Sophie; Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Olafsdóttir, Ásdís; El-Taliawy, Haitham; Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders; Hoydal, Katrin S; Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ16PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ16PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment.

  11. Sources and pathways of 90Sr in the North Atlantic-Arctic region: present day and global warming.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Ola M; Pettersson, Lasse H

    2009-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of the anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs and (90)Sr, originating from nuclear bomb testing, the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the Irish Sea (UK), and from the Ob and Yenisey river discharges to the Arctic Ocean, have been simulated using the global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The physical model is forced with daily atmospheric re-analysis fields for the period of 1948-1999. Comparison of the temporal evolution of the observed and the simulated concentrations of (90)Sr has been performed in the Kara Sea. The relative contributions of the different sources on the temporal and spatial distributions of the surface (90)Sr are quantified over the simulated period. It follows that the Ob river discharge dominated the surface (90)Sr over most of the Arctic Ocean and along the eastern and western coasts of Greenland before 1960. During the period of 1980-1990, the atmospheric fallout and the Ob river discharge were equally important for the (90)Sr distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to explore the possible dispersion of accidental released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers under a global warming scenario (2 x CO(2)). The difference between the present-day and the global warming scenario runs indicates that more of the released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is confined to the Arctic Ocean in the global warming run, particularly in the near coastal, non-European part of the Arctic Ocean.

  12. North American Grasslands & Biogeographic Regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American grasslands are the product of a long interaction among land, people, and animals. Covering over one billion hectares across Canada, the United States, and Mexico, a defining trait of the realm is its vast surface area. From subtropical grasslands interspersed with wetlands in the sout...

  13. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  14. Climate change impacts on seals and whales in the North Atlantic Arctic and adjacent shelf seas.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    In a warmer Arctic, endemic marine mammal species will face extreme levels of habitat change, most notably a dramatic reduction in sea ice. Additionally, the physical environmental changes, including less ice and increased water (and air) temperatures will result in alterations to the forage base of arctic marine mammals, including density and distributional shifts in their prey, as well as potential losses of some of their traditionally favoured fat-rich prey species. In addition they are likely to face increased competition from invasive temperate species, increased predation from species formerly unable to access them in areas of extensive sea ice or simply because the water temperature was restrictive, increased disease risk and perhaps also increased risks from contaminants. Over the coming decades it is also likely that arctic marine mammals will face increased impacts from human traffic and development in previously inaccessible, ice-covered areas. Impacts on ice-associated cetaceans are difficult to predict because the reasons for their affiliation with sea ice are not clearly understood. But, it is certain that ice-breeding seals will have marked, or total, breeding-habitat loss in their traditional breeding areas and will certainly undergo distributional changes and in all probability abundance reductions. If species are fixed in traditional spatial and temporal cycles, and are unable to shift them within decadal time scales, some populations will go extinct. In somewhat longer time frames, species extinctions can also be envisaged.

  15. Earthquake Activity in the North Greenland Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2017-04-01

    Many local and regional earthquakes are recorded on a daily basis in northern Greenland. The majority of the earthquakes originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. Particularly active regions away from the plate boundary are found in NE Greenland and in northern Baffin Bay. The seismograph coverage in the region is sparse with the main seismograph stations located at the military outpost, Stations Nord (NOR), the weather station outpost Danmarkshavn (DAG), Thule Airbase (TULEG), and the former ice core drilling camp (NEEM) in the middle of the Greenland ice sheet. Furthermore, data is available from Alert (ALE), Resolute (RES), and other seismographs in northern Canada as well as from a temporary deployment of BroadBand seismographs along the north coast of Greenland from 2004 to 2007. The recorded earthquakes range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event, the largest in NE Greenland, and a 5.7 event, the largest recorded in northern Baffin Bay. The larger events are recorded widely in the region allowing for focal mechanisms to be calculated. Only a few existing focal mechanisms for the region can be found in the ISC bulletin. Two in NE Greenland representing primarily normal faulting and one in Baffin Bay resulting from reverse faulting. New calculations of focal mechanisms for the region will be presented as well as improved hypocenters resulting from analysis involving temporary stations and regional stations that are not included in routine processing.

  16. Waveform Tomography of the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Nicolas Luca; Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Gaina, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The enormous volumes of newly available, broadband seismic data and the continuing development of waveform tomography techniques present us with an opportunity to resolve the structure of North Atlantic at a new level of detail. Dynamics of the North Atlantic Ridge and the Iceland Hotspot, evolution of the passive margins on both sides of the ocean, and the nature of the upper-mantle flow beneath the region are some of the important fundamental problems that we can make progress on using new, more detailed and accurate models of seismic structure and anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We assemble a very large waveform dataset including all publicly available data in the region, from both permanent and temporary seismic networks and experiments conducted in Northern and Western Europe, Iceland, Canada, USA, Greenland and Russia. The tomographic model is constrained by vertical-component waveform fits, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations with respect to a 3D reference velocity model within an approximate sensitivity region between the source and the receiver. The equations are then combined into a large linear system and jointly inverted for a model of shear- and compressional-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. The isotropic-average shear speeds reflect the temperature and composition at depth, offering important new information on both regional- and basin-scale lithospheric structure and evolution. Azimuthal anisotropy provides evidence on the past and present deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the region, which can be interpreted together with other evidence from geological and geophysical data and recent plate kinematic models.

  17. Hunting poisons of the North Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Bisset, N G

    1976-01-01

    The hunting poisons of the North Pacific region are discussed. The most important one used by the Ainu was based on Aconitum species (surku or suruku): on Hokkaido, to some extent A. japonicum Thumb. but probably mainly A. yezoense Nakai and A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; on southern Sakhalin, perhaps A. fischeri Reichb., A. maximum Pall. ex DC., and/or A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; and on the Kuril Islands, A. maximum Pall. ex DC. Poison from the Japanese stingray Dasyatis akajei (Müller et Henle) (aikor chiep) was also much used, alone or mixed with aconite, and was believed by some Ainu to be better than aconite. Adjuvants to these poisons were numerous and varied in each locality. Daphne kamtschatica Maxim. var. yezoensis (Maxim.) Ohwi (ketuhas) was used in hunting walrus. The use of Cynanchum caudatum (Miq.) Maxim. (penup) enabled birds to be caught. Juglans ailanthifolia Carr (nesko) was a fish poison. A critical evaluation of the accounts by Krasheninnikov, Steller, Harms, and others, indicates that the inhibitants of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kamchadal (Itelmen), hunted with a poison derived from Aconitum maximum Pall. ex DC. This same species was almost certainly used in the Aleutian Islands and the Kodiak Island region, principally for hunting whales. There is some evidence that the inhabitants of the far north-eastern part of Siberia and of the Alaskan coasts opposite may also have used poison in hunting. The chemistry and toxicology of the poisons are briefly considered.

  18. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole.

  19. Baroclinic stabilization effect of the Atlantic-Arctic water exchange simulated by the eddy-permitting ocean model and global atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Bagno, Alexey; Gritsun, Andrey; Gusev, Anatoly

    2017-04-01

    Numerical experiments were performed with the global atmosphere-ocean model INMCM5 (for version of the international project CMIP6, resolution for atmosphere is 2°x1.5°, 21 level) and with the three-dimensional, free surface, sigma coordinate eddy-permitting ocean circulation model for Atlantic (from 30°S) - Arctic and Bering sea domain (0.25 degrees resolution, Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model or INMOM). Spatial resolution of the INMCM5 oceanic component is 0.5°x0.25°. Both models have 40 s-levels in ocean. Previously, the simulations were carried out for INMCM5 to generate climatic system stable state. Then model was run for 180 years. In the experiment with INMOM, CORE-II data for 1948-2009 were used. As the goal for comparing results of two these numerical models, we selected evolution of the density and velocity anomalies in the 0-300m active ocean layer near Fram Strait in the Greenland Sea, where oceanic cyclonic circulation influences Atlantic-Arctic water exchange. Anomalies were count without climatic seasonal cycle for time scales smaller than 30 years. We use Singular Value Decomposition analysis (SVD) for density-velocity anomalies with time lag from minus one to six months. Both models perform identical stable physical result. They reveal that changes of heat and salt transports by West Spitsbergen and East Greenland currents, caused by atmospheric forcing, produce the baroclinic modes of velocity anomalies in 0-300m layer, thereby stabilizing ocean response on the atmospheric forcing, which stimulates keeping water exchange between the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean at the certain climatological level. The first SVD-mode of density-velocity anomalies is responsible for the cyclonic circulation variability. The second and third SVD-modes stabilize existing ocean circulation by the anticyclonic vorticity generation. The second and third SVD-modes give 35% of the input to the total dispersion of density anomalies and 16-18% of the

  20. Atlantic-Arctic exchange in a series of ocean model simulations (CORE-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Christina; Behrens, Erik; Biastoch, Arne

    2014-05-01

    In this study we aim to improve the understanding of exchange processes between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The Nordic Sea builds an important connector between these regions, by receiving and modifying warm and saline Atlantic waters, and by providing dense overflow as a backbone of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Using a hierarchy of global ocean/sea-ice models, the specific role of the Nordic Seas, both providing a feedback with the AMOC, but also as a modulator of the Atlantic water flowing into the Arctic Ocean, is examined. The models have been performed under the CORE-II protocol, in which atmospheric forcing of the past 60 years was applied in a subsequent series of 5 iterations. During the course of this 300-year long integration, the AMOC shows substantial changes, which are correlated with water mass characteristics in the Denmark Strait overflow characteristics. Quantitative analyses using Lagrangian trajectories explore the impact of these trends on the Arctic Ocean through the Barents Sea and the Fram Strait.

  1. Canadian forest products shipped into the north-central region.

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1972-01-01

    Documents the imports of Canadian forest products into the north central region and relates import trends to the potential for expanding markets for the region's surplus volume of hardwood growing stock. More than 42% of the $2.1 billion of forest products imported from Canada in 1969 came into the north central region. The value of forest imports has increased...

  2. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  3. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  4. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    Lunar mosaic of ~1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00002

  5. Winter in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a wintertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. Much of the hydrogen is hidden at this time beneath a layer of carbon dioxide frost (dry ice). A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Summer in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a summertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. In some areas, the abundance of water ice is estimated to be up to 90 percent by volume. A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Physical properties of the Atlantic - Arctic water exchange formation. Modelling and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Bagno, Alexey; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Physical mechanisms of water exchange between North Atlantic (NA) and Arctic Oceans (AO) in 1958-2009 are analyzed using results of numerical experiments with the eddy-permitting ocean circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model). Changes of heat and salt transports by West Spitsbergen and East Greenland currents caused by atmospheric forcing produce the baroclinic modes of velocity anomalies in the layer 0-300m, stabilizing ocean response on the atmospheric forcing, which stimulates keeping water exchange between NA and AO at the certain climatological level. We revealed the quick response of dense water outflow by near-bottom current in the deep NA layers through the Denmark Strait at monthly timescale on the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index change, as well as the response at the scale 39 months. The quick response on NAO is broken in 1969-1978, which is caused by the Great Salinity Anomaly. Transverse oscillations of the Norwegian current front have the great influence on the formation of the intermediate dense waters of Greenland and Norwegian Seas (GNS). Dense water outflow to the NA deep layers through the Faroe Channels with the time lag of 1 year respond to the transverse oscillations of the front. The mass transport of by near-bottom current through Faroe Channels to the NA can be used as the integral index of formation and discharge of new high-density water portions generated due to mixing of salt warm Atlantic waters and freshened cold Arctic waters in GNS. The research was supported by the Council on the Russian Federation President Grants (grant № MK-3241.2015.5)

  8. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales. The Task Force describes and prescribes solutions for policy gaps that have emerged since the inception of NAFTA...prevent competing coalitions from forming, it may be prudent to build a coalition in our own back yard, so to speak , through a strategy of North...likely to have conflict over natural resources in the future since they generally follow the rule of law, so to speak , that provides a mechanism to

  9. Population structure and gene flow of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Atlantic Arctic based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L W; Born, E W; Gjertz, I; Wiig, O; Holm, L E; Bendixen, C

    1998-10-01

    The population structure of the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, was studied using 11 polymorphic microsatellites and restriction fragment length polymorphism detected in the NADH-dehydrogenase ND1, ND2 and ND3/4 segments in mtDNA. A total of 105 walrus samples were analysed from northwest (NW) Greenland, east (E) Greenland, Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land. Two of the 10 haplotypes detected in the four samples were diagnostic for the NW Greenland sample, which implied that the group of walruses in this area is evolutionary distinct from walruses in the other three areas. One individual sampled in E Greenland exhibited a Pacific haplotype, which proved a connection between the Pacific walrus and walruses in eastern Greenland. The Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and E Greenland samples shared the most common haplotype, indicating very little differentiation at the mtDNA level. Gene flow (Nm) estimates among the four areas indicated a very restricted exchange of female genes between NW Greenland and the more eastern Atlantic Arctic samples, and a closer relationship between the three samples composing the eastern Atlantic Arctic. The genetic variation at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci grouped individuals into three populations, NW Greenland, E Greenland and a common Franz Joseph Land-Svalbard population, which were connected by moderate gene flow.

  10. Surgical morbidity in the North Coast Health Region.

    PubMed

    Brand, N; Clarke, Q; Eather, L; Garbutt, M; Leedow, M; Perry, J; Spencer, O; Spillane, P

    1994-06-01

    A comparison of morbidity following 20 selected surgical procedures was conducted in the North Coast Health Region of NSW in 1988. Morbidity rates between procedures, hospitals and hospital levels were compared and the effects of age, gender and the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating on morbidity were examined. The respective perceptions of doctors and patients regarding complications were also compared. The study gives conditional support to the continuation of a surgical programme in Level 3 hospitals in the North Coast Health Region.

  11. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  13. North American regional climate reconstruction from ground surface temperature histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NAm2k project, 510 North American borehole temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. To facilitate comparisons and to study the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. Ground surface temperature histories for the last 500 years were obtained for a model describing temperature changes at the surface for several climate-differentiated regions in North America. The evaluation of the model is done by inversion of temperature perturbations using singular value decomposition and its solutions are assessed using a Monte Carlo approach. The results within 95 % confidence interval suggest a warming between 1.0 and 2.5 K during the last two centuries. A regional analysis, composed of mean temperature changes over the last 500 years and geographical maps of ground surface temperatures, show that all regions experienced warming, but this warming is not spatially uniform and is more marked in northern regions.

  14. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1970

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Jr. Ginnaty

    1972-01-01

    The 1970 Lake States veneer-log production and mill receipts were 34.4 and 37.0 million board feet, respectively. The Central States produced 23.5 million board feet and received 30.0 million board feet of veneer logs. Veneer-log production and mill receipts dropped substantially throughout the north central region from 1968.

  15. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  16. Forest statistics for the mountain region of North Carolina 1974

    Treesearch

    Noel D. Cost

    1974-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the Mountain Region of North Carolina. The inventory was started in May 1974 and completed in September 1974. Three previous inventories, completed in 1938, 1955, and 1964, provide statistic for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this report, the primary...

  17. Observations in the Kuroshio Extension Region in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaohui; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Lixin; Zhou, Chun; Li, Rui

    2017-04-01

    The Kuroshio extension region has been identified as a key location in the extratropics in the North Pacific. Until recently, there have been quite limited high-resolution observations in the Kuroshio extension region. Here we report the recent observational work and future plan in the Kuroshio extension region. These observations are under the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Sub-Commission for the Western Pacific (WESTPAC), Air-Sea Interaction in the Kuroshio Extension and its Climate Impact (AIKEC) led by the Ocean University of China (OUC) and the Texas A&M University (TAMU), which aims to setup to maintain continuous and sustainable observations in this region.

  18. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra; Keitt, Bradford S; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie; Jarman, Walter M; Rodriguez-Pastor, Sue; Anderson, David J; Sievert, Paul R; Smith, Donald R

    2006-04-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Pacific are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans.

  19. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. North American Gross Primary Productivity: Regional Characterization and Interannual Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, I. T.; Denning, A.; Stockli, R.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonality and variability in North American photosynthetic activity are investigated. Using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) we simulate 24 years (1983-2006) and evaluate regional and seasonal contribution to annual mean Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as well as its interannual variability. The largest productivity occurs in tropical Mexico, the southeast U.S. and small areas in the Pacific Northwest. Annual variability is largest in tropical Mexico, the desert Southwest, and the Midwestern corridor that separates the eastern forests from the intermountain west. We find that several areas (Midwest, Northeast, SouthWest, Boreal Canada) have an elevated contribution to interannual variability when compared to other regions, but no single region or season consistently determines continental annual GPP anomaly on an annual basis. GPP variability in NA is highly heterogeneous in space and time. We find that GPP variability is generally dependent upon soil moisture in low- and mid-latitudes, and on temperature in the north. Soil moisture is a better metric than raw precipitation as it integrates precipitation events temporally. EOF analysis shows no significance on an annual basis, but a band from the central plains through New England shows a coherent signal for springtime GPP anomalies. As the springtime anomaly is the largest contributor to the annual GPP variability in almost half of the years simulated (11 of 24), we can posit that this region has significant influence over annual North American GPP variability. However, when regressed against climate modes such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Pacific-North America (PNA) patterns, we find that no climate mode can be associated with variability over the entire region highlighted by the EOF analysis. Furthermore, we find that while a general response to temperature is seen (warmer spring implies longer growing season implies anomalous GPP uptake of carbon), in some regions the

  1. North American Regional Reanalysis: Evaluation Highlights and Early Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, F.; Dimego, G.; Kalnay, E.; Shafran, P.; Ebisuzaki, W.; Jovic, D.; Mitchell, K.; Berbery, H.; Fan, Y.; Higgins, W.; Lin, Y.; Shi, W.

    2005-05-01

    Following an about a 6-year development and production effort, the NCEP 25-year (1979-2003) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) has been completed. It is continued in near-real time as a Regional Climate Data Assimilation System, R-CDAS. Done for a domain including all of the North American continent and considerable parts of the adjacent oceans, with a 32 km/ 45 layers resolution, the NARR has resulted in a consistent high resolution climate dataset suitable for numerous applications. As aimed for, comparisons against the available NCEP/NCAR Global Reanalysis (GR) show that its accuracy is generally considerably higher than that of the GR. This is demonstrated by looking at rms fits to rawinsonde observations (raobs), as well as fits to surface data. Assimilation of analyzed precipitation resulted in precipitation fields that to a very high degree replicate the analyzed fields, a feature boding well when it comes to land-surface and hydrology applications. Several lessons that should be useful in planning future reanalyses are mentioned. Early usage of the NARR datasets as reported on at the recent NARR Users Workshop, San Diego, CA, is summarized. It includes additional validation work, uses for water and energy budget assessments in relation to predictability and climate variability issues, efforts at identification of useful severe weather predictors, North American monsoon studies, use for driving regional climate simulations, and more.

  2. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Susan G.; Eilek, Jean A.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  3. Geologic map of the north polar region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2012-01-01

    The north polar region of Mars occurs within the central and lowest part of the vast northern plains of Mars and is dominated by the roughly circular north polar plateau, Planum Boreum. The northern plains formed very early in Martian time and have collected volcanic flows and sedimentary materials shed from highland sources. Planum Boreum has resulted from the accumulation of water ice and dust particles. Extensive, uncratered dune fields adjacent to Planum Boreum attest to the active and recent transport and accumulation of sand. Our geologic map of Planum Boreum is the first to record its entire observable stratigraphic record using the various post-Viking image and topography datasets released before 2009. We also provide much more detail in the map than previously published, including some substantial revisions based on new data and observations. The available data have increased and improved immensely in quantity, resolution, coverage, positional accuracy, and spectral range, enabling us to resolve previously unrecognized geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and compositional information. We also employ more carefully prescribed and effective mapping methodologies and digital techniques, as well as formatting guidelines. The foremost aspect to our mapping approach is how geologic units are discriminated based primarily on their temporal relations with other units as expressed in unit contacts by unconformities or by gradational relations. Whereas timing constraints of such activity in the north polar region are now better defined stratigraphically, they remain poorly constrained chronologically. The end result is a new reconstruction of the sedimentary, erosional, and structural histories of the north polar region and how they may have been driven by climate conditions, available geologic materials, and eolian, periglacial, impact, magmatic, hydrologic, and tectonic activity.

  4. Attribution of the Regional Patterns of North American Climate Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, M.; Kumar, A.; Karoly, D.; Rind, D.; Hegerl, G.; Eischeid, J.

    2007-12-01

    North American trends in surface temperature and precipitation during 1951-2006 exhibit large spatial and seasonal variations. We seek to explain these by synthesizing new information based on existing model simulations of climate and its forcing, and based on modern reanalyses that describe past and current conditions within the free atmosphere. The presentation focuses on current capabilities to explain the spatial variations and seasonal differences in North American climate trends. It will address whether various heterogeneities in space and time can be accounted for by the climate system's sensitivity to time evolving anthropogenic forcing, and examines the influences of non-anthropogenic processes. New findings are presented that indicate anthropogenic forcing alone was unlikely the cause for key regional and seasonal patterns of change, including the absence of summertime warming over the Great Plains of the United States, and the absence of warming during both winter and summer over the southern United States. Key regional features are instead attributed to trends in the principal patterns of atmospheric flow that affect North American climate. It is demonstrated that observed variations in global sea surface temperatures have significantly influenced these patterns of atmospheric flow.

  5. Relief and geology of the north polar region of the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Burba, G. A.; Shashkina, V. P.; Bogomolov, A. F.; Zherikhin, N. V.; Skrypnik, G. I.; Kudrin, L. V.; Bergman, M. Y.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Description of topographic features is given for the North polar region of the planet Venus. Principal geomorphic types of terrain are characterized as well as their geologic relations. Relative ages of geologic units in Venus North polar region are discussed.

  6. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  7. Regional Shoreline Change Along the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Erikson, L.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change impacts to the north coast of Alaska threaten sensitive ecosystems, critical energy-related infrastructure, native Alaskan housing and traditional lifestyles, trust species and their habitats, and large tracts of Federally-managed land. Although there are several site-specific and limited regional studies documenting coastal change along the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coasts, no comprehensive study has documented coastal change or evaluated its causes on a regional scale. As part of a National Assessment of Shoreline Change study along open-ocean sandy shores of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating shoreline changes along the north slope coast of Alaska between Peard Bay and the Canadian border. Rates of change will be calculated for both the mainland and barrier island coasts using shorelines derived from circa 1947 and 1987 NOS T-sheets and from orthorectified photography and/or satellite imagery collected between 2000 and 2007. Here we present results from the first phase of the study, Colville River to Pt. Thomson, for three time periods (1947, 1987, 2004-7). In contrast to previous independent studies, which have documented localized erosion rates of up to 16 m/yr along portions of Alaska's north slope, results from this study show that on a regional scale, shoreline erosion rates along the mainland coast are typically less than 2 m/yr. The offshore barrier islands, however, are highly dynamic and show high rates of localized shoreline retreat along with a regionally consistent decrease in overall land area and associated rotation and migration to the southwest since the 1940s. As part of this study, continued data collection, analysis, and numerical and analytical modeling of the coast and nearshore environments will provide much needed data sets from which to evaluate future changes along this stretch of coast in response to sea-level rise, variability in the Arctic summer sea-ice extent, increased storminess, and other

  8. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  9. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  10. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  11. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  12. 40 CFR 81.257 - North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Iowa Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.257 North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  13. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.193 - North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.193 North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kentucky Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  16. 40 CFR 81.250 - North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.250 North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  17. 40 CFR 81.262 - North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Illinois Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.262 North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  18. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  19. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  20. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  1. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  3. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  4. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  5. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  6. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  7. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  8. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  10. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  11. Lessons learned from North Carolina public health regional surveillance teams' regional exercises.

    PubMed

    Hegle, Jennifer; Markiewicz, Milissa; Benson, Philip; Horney, Jennifer; Rosselli, Richard; MacDonald, Pia

    2011-03-01

    All-hazards exercises bring together emergency response partners at the local, regional, state, and federal levels for the primary purposes of testing response plans, defining roles and responsibilities, assessing capabilities, and making necessary improvements prior to an actual incident. To better understand the benefits and challenges of conducting regional (ie, multicounty) exercises, a study was carried out by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. This article describes 5 all-hazards regional exercises conducted by Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) in North Carolina in 2009 and highlights 4 unique benefits that resulted from the exercises beyond meeting explicit objectives to test plans and identify areas for improvement: (1) building relationships among response partners, (2) promoting public health assets, (3) testing multiple communications systems, and (4) training exercise evaluators. Challenges of planning and conducting regional exercises also are addressed, followed by recommendations for maximizing the effectiveness of regional public health exercises.

  12. Regional Climate Model Projection Credibility for the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukovsky, M. S.; Carrillo, C. M.; Gochis, D. J.; Mearns, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change projections from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) suite of regional climate model (RCM) simulations for the North American monsoon system are assessed herein. We focus on changes in precipitation and the many factors effecting the projections. The end goal of our in-depth, process-based assessment is to establish the differential credibility of the ensemble members. In the end, there is a deceptively strong full-ensemble agreement for a decrease in precipitation during the monsoon season. Bias is considerably affecting many of the model projections, and we find that the simulations that are the most biased, in varying ways, in the baseline/current climate, produce the greatest decreases. Problems in the baseline simulations and projections include those related to: atmospheric moisture content, the monsoon high, the Gulf of California low-level jet, tropical easterly waves, the El Niño Southern Oscillation, precipitation intensity, and other features/phenomena. This presentation will provide a summary of our findings.

  13. Occult Dirofilariosis in Dogs of North Eastern Region in India

    PubMed Central

    Borthakur, Sonjoy Kumar; Deka, Dilip Kumar; Islam, Saidul; Sarmah, Prabhat Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The North Eastern Region in India is endemic for canine heartworm disease but in clinics accurate diagnosis is some times difficult. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of occult infections for heartworm disease in canine in two geographical regions of North Eastern India. Methods: A total of 782 numbers of three categories of dogs namely, working dogs of military and paramilitary forces, pet dogs and stray dogs were screened for the presence of heartworm infection from August 2011 to July, 2012 in Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram). Conventional, immunological and molecular techniques were followed for this epidemiological study. The criteria to determine the occult heartworm cases were based on the differences between heartworm positive cases in PCR test and antigen ELISA test. Results: The findings revealed an overall 22.69 percent occult case. The working dogs had highest prevalence (60%) followed by pet (29.16%) and stray dogs (17.75%). Conclusion: The highest percentage of occult heartworm infection was present in working dogs maintained under military or paramilitary forces. PMID:27047976

  14. Water Cycling in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive study to understand the partitioning of water into vapor and ice clouds, and the associated effects of dust and surface temperature in the north polar region. Ascertaining the degree to which water is transported out of the cap region versus within the cap region will give much needed insight into the overall story of water cycling on a seasonal basis. In particular, understanding the mechanism for the polar cap surface albedo changes would go along way in comprehending the sources and sinks of water in the northern polar region. We approach this problem by examining Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric and surface data acquired in the northern summer season and comparing it to Viking data when possible. Because the TES instrument spans the absorption bands of water vapor, water ice, dust, and measures surface temperature, all three aerosols and surface temperature can be retrieved simultaneously. This presentation will show our latest results on the water vapor, water-ice clouds seasonal and spatial distributions, as well as surface temperatures and dust distribution which may lend insight into where the water is going.

  15. Water Cycling in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive study to understand the partitioning of water into vapor and ice clouds, and the associated effects of dust and surface temperature in the north polar region. Ascertaining the degree to which water is transported out of the cap region versus within the cap region will give much needed insight into the overall story of water cycling on a seasonal basis. In particular, understanding the mechanism for the polar cap surface albedo changes would go along way in comprehending the sources and sinks of water in the northern polar region. We approach this problem by examining Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric and surface data acquired in the northern summer season and comparing it to Viking data when possible. Because the TES instrument spans the absorption bands of water vapor, water ice, dust, and measures surface temperature, all three aerosols and surface temperature can be retrieved simultaneously. This presentation will show our latest results on the water vapor, water-ice clouds seasonal and spatial distributions, as well as surface temperatures and dust distribution which may lend insight into where the water is going.

  16. Complex molecules in the W51 North region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Jialei; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zapata, Luis A.; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Chengpeng; Peng, Yaping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular-line observations in two 2-GHz wide bands centred at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, towards the massive star-forming region W51 North. We identified 84 molecular-line transitions from 17 species and their isotopologues. The molecular gas distribution of these lines mainly peaks in the continuum position of W51 North, and has a small tail extending to the west, probably associated with W51 d2. In addition to the commonly detected nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing species, we detected a large number of transitions of acetone (CH3COCH3) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO), which might suggest that these molecules are present in an early evolutionary stage of massive stars. We have also found that W51 North is an ethanol-rich source. There is no obvious difference in the molecular gas distributions between the oxygen-bearing and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium, with the XCLASS tool, the molecular column densities and rotation temperatures are estimated. We have found that the oxygen-bearing molecules have considerably higher column densities and fractional abundances than the nitrogen-bearing molecules. The rotation temperatures range from 100 to 200 K, suggesting that the molecular emission could originate from a warm environment. Finally, based on the gas distributions, fractional abundances and the rotation temperatures, we conclude that CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3 and CH3CH2CN might be synthesized on the grain surface, while gas phase chemistry is responsible for the production of CH3OCH3, CH3OCHO and CH2CHCN.

  17. North American regional climate reconstruction from underground temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume-Santero, Fernando; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, 514 North American temperature-depth profiles were analyzed to infer recent climate changes. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were reconstructed from the subsurface temperature anomalies using a singular value decomposition (SVD) inversion that retains four principal components and takes into account time logging differences. Steady-state surface temperature and thermal gradient were estimated by linear regression for the lower 100 meters of the temperature profile, and climate induced subsurface temperature anomalies were estimated as departures from the steady-state conditions. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the minimum distance between the model and the data. A regional analysis was performed for the last 5 centuries yielding mean temperature change every 50 years. The GST history results, presented as the mean and 95% confidence interval, show a warming by 1.0°C to 2.5°C during the post industrial era.

  18. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  19. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  20. Mars at Ls 176o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurred in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season : Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  1. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds.

  3. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  4. Regional High-resolution Coupled Atmosphere Ocean Modelling in the North Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumenil-Gates, Lydia; Bülow, Katharina; Ganske, Anette; Heinrich, Hartmut; Klein, Birgit; Klein, Holger; Möller, Jens; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schade, Nils; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Tinz, Birger

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of climate projections in the North Sea area is one of the research tasks of the research programme KLIWAS of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. A multi-model ensemble of three coupled regional atmosphere-ocean models was set up comprising very high resolution simulations for the German coastal regions of the North Sea and the Baltic to represent the complex land-sea-atmosphere conditions in the region. The ensemble consists of simulations made in cooperation with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, the Climate Service Centre and the Max-Planck-Institute for the period of 1950 to 2100. The KLIWAS project thereby adds coupled models to the band-width of possible future climate conditions in the atmosphere as given by the ENSEMBLES project, which were also analyzed. The coupled results are evaluated for present-day climate using a North Sea climatology of maritime conditions at a matching high resolution. In the future climate, while air and water temperatures will rise to the year 2100, the mean wind speed does not show a significant trend, but large decadal variability. The frequency of occurrence of westerly wind directions increases in the majority of simulations and results in an increase of significant wave height in the eastern parts of the North Sea. In an interdisciplinary approach, these results are used to provide regional to local information for the development of adaptation strategies for the estuary, and climate-proofing of infrastructure in the wider context of the project.

  5. Hydroclimatic trends in simulations over the CORDEX North America region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, Raymond; Groisman, Pavel; Daniel, Ariele; Schillerberg, Tayler

    2015-04-01

    An increase in the occurrence of heavy precipitation has been one of the most pronounced climate change signals for the central United States. We study this trend by using the RegCM4 regional climate model to dynamically downscale CMIP5 global projections for 1950-2099 over the CORDEX North America domain. We examine the robustness of the results by driving the regional model with two different global models, by performing simulations at both 50 km and 25 km grid spacing, and by using different convective parameterizations in RegCM4. The global models sample the range of climate sensitivity in CMIP5: HadGEM2-ES has the highest equilibrium climate sensitivity of the CMIP5 models, while GFDL-ESM2M has one of the lowest sensitivities. RegCM4 results show increases in heavy precipitation (> 50 mm/day) over the central United States for the period 1951-2005 similar to observed trends. This trend is predicted to accelerate so that by the end of the 21st century incidence of heavy precipitation increases by a factor of 2 to 3. The trend is robust in that it is produced regardless of the driving global model or the configuration of the regional model. Results also show a modest increase in the number of dry days and a marked increase in the number of long runs of dry days (16 or more consecutive dry days). The combination of heavier events and longer runs of dry days has implications for sectors such as agriculture and water quality. This research was sponsored by USDA NIFA under the Earth System Modeling program and as part of a regional collaborative project.

  6. A Subtropical North Atlantic Regional Atmospheric Moisture Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, F.; D'Addezio, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the ideal location for the world's highest open ocean sea surface salinity. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/day and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/day but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/day. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/day with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/day and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water northward to the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for almost half of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  7. A subtropical North Atlantic regional atmospheric moisture budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addezio, Joseph M.; Bingham, Frederick M.

    2014-12-01

    The synergistic effects of evaporation (E), precipitation (P), and Ekman transport make the Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-1) region in the subtropical North Atlantic (15-30°N, 30-45°W) the natural location for the world's highest open ocean SSS maximum. Using the MERRA and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses, we reproduce the mean hydrologic state of the atmosphere over the SPURS-1 region since 1979 and roughly deduce the change in salinity across the meridional domain due solely to interactions between E-P and Ekman transport. Our findings suggest a region that is highly evaporative at a mean rate of 4.87 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm/d and little seasonality. Precipitation is much more variable with an annual fall maximum around 3 mm/d but only a mean rate of 1.37 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.46 mm/d. The resulting E-P variable has a mean rate of 3.50 mm/d with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm/d and matches well with the moisture flux divergence term although the former is typically larger by a small margin. Strong prevailing easterly trade winds generate northward Ekman transports that advect water toward the salinity maximum around 25°N. A short calculation shows that atmospheric moisture dynamics could potentially account for about one third of the change in salinity between 15°N and 25°N giving an estimate of the role that surface freshwater flux plays in the maintenance of the salinity maximum.

  8. U.S. Regional Strategy for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 O PPO RTUN ITIES...will stress South Korea’s ability to absorb them into their society and economy over the long-run. ECONOMIC INSTABILITY The North Korean economy is in...enormous costs of absorbing the broken economy of the North.40 When contrasted with German reunification, the economy and infrastructure of North Korea are

  9. Nature Run for the North Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Region: System Evaluation and Regional Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, V.; Androulidakis, I.; Halliwell, G. R., Jr.; Kang, H.; Mehari, M. F.; Atlas, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype ocean Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) system, first developed and data validated in the Gulf of Mexico, has been applied on the extended North Atlantic Ocean hurricane region. The main objectives of this study are: a) to contribute toward a fully relocatable ocean OSSE system by expanding the Gulf of Mexico OSSE to the North Atlantic Ocean; b) demonstrate and quantify improvements in hurricane forecasting when the ocean component of coupled hurricane models is advanced through targeted observations and assimilation. The system is based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and has been applied on a 1/250 Mercator mesh for the free-running Nature Run (NR) and on a 1/120 Mercator mesh for the data assimilative forecast model (FM). A "fraternal twin" system is employed, using two different realizations for NR and FM, each configured to produce substantially different physics and truncation errors. The NR has been evaluated using a variety of available observations, such as from AVISO, GDEM climatology and GHRSST observations, plus specific regional products (upper ocean profiles from air-borne instruments, surface velocity maps derived from the historical drifter data set and tropical cyclone heat potential maps derived from altimetry observations). The utility of the OSSE system to advance the knowledge of regional air-sea interaction processes related to hurricane activity is demonstrated in the Amazon region (salinity induced surface barrier layer) and the Gulf Stream region (hurricane impact on the Gulf Stream extension).

  10. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  11. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  12. Wildlife-associated recreation in the North Central Region: participation patterns and management implications

    Treesearch

    Allan Marsinko; John Dwyer

    2002-01-01

    The North Central Region (IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, MO, WI) is a diverse area of the United States. Compared to the remainder of the country, the region as a whole is demographically similar in terms of mean age, education, household income, and gender. However, the North Central region has a higher proportion of Whites and a slightly lower proportion of people residing in...

  13. 77 FR 11858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...EPA is proposing a limited approval of a revision to the North Carolina state implementation plan (SIP) submitted by the State of North Carolina through the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Air Quality (NCDAQ), on December 17, 2007, that addresses regional haze for the first implementation period. This revision addresses the requirements of the Clean......

  14. Development of a regional model for the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Hasibur; Ravichandran, M.; Sengupta, Debasis; Harrison, Matthew J.; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a one-way nested Indian Ocean regional model. The model combines the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM4p1) at global climate model resolution (nominally one degree), and a regional Indian Ocean MOM4p1 configuration with 25 km horizontal resolution and 1 m vertical resolution near the surface. Inter-annual global simulations with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II) surface forcing over years 1992-2005 provide surface boundary conditions. We show that relative to the global simulation, (i) biases in upper ocean temperature, salinity and mixed layer depth are reduced, (ii) sea surface height and upper ocean circulation are closer to observations, and (iii) improvements in model simulation can be attributed to refined resolution, more realistic topography and inclusion of seasonal river runoff. Notably, the surface salinity bias is reduced to less than 0.1 psu over the Bay of Bengal using relatively weak restoring to observations, and the model simulates the strong, shallow halocline often observed in the North Bay of Bengal. There is marked improvement in subsurface salinity and temperature, as well as mixed layer depth in the Bay of Bengal. Major seasonal signatures in observed sea surface height anomaly in the tropical Indian Ocean, including the coastal waveguide around the Indian peninsula, are simulated with great fidelity. The use of realistic topography and seasonal river runoff brings the three dimensional structure of the East India Coastal Current and West India Coastal Current much closer to observations. As a result, the incursion of low salinity Bay of Bengal water into the south-eastern Arabian Sea is more realistic.

  15. Lessons From the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, F.; Dimego, G.; Kalnay, E.; Mitchell, K.

    2006-12-01

    The NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) project had a clear foremost objective: to create a long-term, consistent, high resolution climate dataset for the North American domain as a major improvement upon the earlier global reanalyses in both resolution and accuracy. The assessment of the authors of the NARR AMS Bulletin paper was that this objective has been fully met. Precipitation assimilation, the first in a reanalysis project, resulted in precipitation fields very near those of the ingested precipitation analyses, ensuring that over regions with reasonable density of gauge observations, the hydrological cycle is more realistic than if the model was free to forecast precipitation. With respect to fits to data, not only have the near-surface temperatures and winds been shown to be closer to the observations than those of the NCEP/DOE Global Reanalysis (GR2), as one would expect, but very substantial improvements in the accuracy of winds and temperatures throughout the troposphere compared to that of GR2 have been demonstrated as well. In regard to lessons that may benefit future regional reanalysis projects, three questions deserve attention. First, what are the features of the NARR system that are responsible for its success, to the extent their contributions can be assessed. Next, what are the disappointments, including features that were expected to be beneficial but failed to be confirmed as such, and why. And finally, what are the weaknesses that would or should have been addressed had there been more manpower and time to do so. The first two questions have been addressed in the published BAMS paper and will be briefly summarized in the presentation. As to the third question, a number of weaknesses come to mind. For example, the Eta 3DVAR data assimilation system (EDAS), as used in NARR, 1) achieved little or no benefit from assimilating near-surface data, 2) was resulting in considerable gravity-wave activity, and 3) derived no discernible

  16. Frictional strength of North Anatolian fault in eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pınar, Ali; Coşkun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydın; Kalafat, Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Frequency distribution of azimuth and plunges of P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms is compared with the orientation of maximum compressive stress axis for investigating the frictional strength of three fault segments of North Anatolian fault (NAF) in eastern Marmara Sea, namely Princes' Islands, Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments. In this frame, we retrieved 25 CMT solutions of events in Çınarcık basin and derived a local stress tensor incorporating 30 focal mechanisms determined by other researches. As for the Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments, we constructed the frequency distribution of P- and T-axes utilizing 111 and 68 events, respectively, to correlate the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations. The analysis yields low frictional strength for the Princes' Island fault segments and high frictional strength for Yalova-Çınarcık, Yalova-Hersek segments. The local stress tensor derived from the inversion of P- and T-axes of the fault plane solutions of Çınarcık basin events portrays nearly horizontal maximum compressive stress axis oriented N154E which is almost parallel to the peak of the frequency distribution of the azimuth of the P-axes. The fitting of the observed and calculated frequency distributions is attained for a low frictional coefficient which is about μ ≈ 0.1. Evidences on the weakness of NAF segments in eastern Marmara Sea region are revealed by other geophysical observations. Our results also show that the local stress field in Çınarcık basin is rotated ≈30° clockwise compared to the regional stress tensor in Marmara region derived from the large earthquakes, whereas the local stress tensor in Yalova-Çınarcık area is found to be rotated ≈30° counterclockwise. The rotation of the two local stress fields is derived in the area where NAF bifurcates into two branches overlaying large electrical conductor.

  17. Forest soils bibliography for the North-Central Region (including subject matter index through 1972).

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean

    1973-01-01

    Includes 793 publications dealing with forest soils in the North-Central States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana); Ohio; and the Northern Plains States (Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas). Includes some publications from other regions considered applicable to conditions in the North-Central Region.

  18. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of North Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  19. Politics of North Korean Refugees and Regional Security Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    addressed the refugee issue. Suzanne Scholte sums it up succinctly in an editorial in the Korea Times: The Chinese Government and even U.S. policy...Suzanne Scholte , “What President Obama Should Do About North Korea,” Korea Times, January 27, 2009. 37 sees that it cannot do anything about the...International, 1993. Scholte , Suzanne. “What President Obama Should Do About North Korea.” Korea Times, 27 January 2009. “Security Council Wrestles with N

  20. Evaluating imputation and modeling in the North Central region

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the North Central Research Station, USDA Forest Service, in developing procedures for annual forest inventories include establishing the capability of producing annual estimates of timber volume and related variables. The inventory system developed to accomplish these objectives features an annual sample of measured field plots and techniques for...

  1. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Treesearch

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  2. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  3. Modelling and Prediction of Regions of the North Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-08

    HARVARD UNIVERSITY DIVISION OF APPLIED SCIENCES IT S11 PIERCE HALLAD-A242 424 CMRDE ASCU~r 23ALLAN R. Ro41NSON CABIDE MASSACUSETT 0213 Gordon McKay...Fluid Dynamics Division of Applied Sciences Harvard University Lk t J This was a project for the identification and description of the phenomenology...Oceanography, Harvard University . Roden, G.I., and A.R. Robinson (1989), Subarctic-Subtropical Transition Zone in the North-Eastern Pacific: Mesoscale

  4. Nature of Hesperian Resurfacing in the Scandia-North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Hayward, R. K.; Skinner, J. A.

    2010-03-01

    Formational hypotheses based on preliminary observations and first-year mapping results of the Scandia-North Polar Region of Mars. The map area includes the Scandia Cavi, Scandia Tholi, Scandia Colles, northern Alba Patera, and Vastitas Borealis.

  5. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.124 Section 81.124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  6. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...

  7. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.160 Section 81.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  8. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Pollock, Jacob F; Hicks, Alan C; Langwig, Kate E; Reynolds, D Scott; Turner, Gregory G; Butchkoski, Calvin M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-08-06

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats in eastern North America that causes mass mortality and precipitous population declines in winter hibernacula. First discovered in 2006 in New York State, WNS is spreading rapidly across eastern North America and currently affects seven species. Mortality associated with WNS is causing a regional population collapse and is predicted to lead to regional extinction of the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), previously one of the most common bat species in North America. Novel diseases can have serious impacts on naïve wildlife populations, which in turn can have substantial impacts on ecosystem integrity.

  9. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  10. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, J. L.; Jeffries, D. S.; Lükewille, A.; Clair, T. A.; Dillon, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J. S.; Kellogg, J. H.; Kemp, A.; Mannio, J.; Monteith, D. T.; Murdoch, P. S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorf, A.; Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Stainton, M. P.; Traaen, T.; van Dam, H.; Webster, K. E.; Wieting, J.; Wilander, A.

    1999-10-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere (`acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain; all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  11. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  12. Thermal and albedo mapping of the north and south polar regions of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Keegan, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    The first maps are presented of the north and south polar regions of Mars. The thermal properties of the midlatitude regions from -60 deg to +60 deg latitude were mapped in previous studies. The presented maps complete the mapping of entire planet. The maps for the north and south polar regions were derived from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations. Best fit thermal inertias were determined by comparing the available IRTM 20 micron channel brightness within a given region to surface temperatures computed by a diurnal and seasonal thermal model. The model assumes no atmospheric contributions to the surface heat balance. The resulting maps of apparent thermal inertia and average IRTM measured solar channel lambert albedo for the north and south polar regions from the poles to +/- 60 deg latitude.

  13. Holocene deposits in the Mangyshlak Peninsula, North Caspian Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrodnykh, Yu. P.; Deliya, S. V.; Romanyuk, B. F.; Fedorov, V. I.; Sorokin, V. M.; Luksha, V. L.

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the data of high-precision seismoacoustic profiling, drilling and sampling of deposits using seabed corers, biostratigraphic studies, and radiocarbon age data was performed for the first time for Mangyshlak sediments in several bottom sites of the North Caspian. It was found that the Mangyshlak sediments comprise numerous linearly stretched depressions of 5-10 m in depth (morphologically similar to modern substeppe ilmen areas in the Volga River delta), which are covered by the Novocaspian sedimentary cover, and river incisions (among them the largest Volga River valley). In addition, the Mangyshlak sediments comprise the deltaic alluvial fans of different sizes along the shelf zone of the North Caspian. Analysis of mollusks and biogenic remains indicates that accumulation of the Mangyshlak sediments occurred in freshwater and slightly salty water environments under various hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions. According to radiocarbon dating of organic matter, the Mangyshlak sediments formed during sea regression in the range of 10-8 ka (isotopic age) or 11.5-8.5 ka (calendar age). Several types of sediments are distinguished: clayey-carbonate sediments, enriched with organic matter up to the formation of sapropel and peat, accumulated at the lowest sea level; weakly calcareous silty-clayey silts, formed during the subsequent intense filling of paleodepressions with terrigenous material. The features of the mineral composition of sediments are as follows: polymineral composition of clayey material with a high proportion of hydromica and disordered mixed-layered formations, a high content of minerals of the epidote group, amphiboles, and other accessory minerals. All of this indicates a genetic relationship between the Mangyshlak sediments and the Volga terrigenous material.

  14. North Atlantic Regional Water Resources Study. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    which provide habitats for many types of sweet gale, dogwoods, elder, witch hazel and organisms and interact in a vital way with the alder. This varied...the Region’s longer kinds of native aquatics found in the Region rivers originate in the higher elevations of the are water lilies, arrowheads, sweet ...and pro- forests and cultivated the land, trade with duced grain, potatoes and fruit as well as Europe increased and the port cities grew, livestock

  15. North Atlantic Oscillation Influence on Precipitation Variability around the Southeast African Convergence Zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Maurice J.; Rogers, Jeffrey C.

    2001-09-01

    The relationship between the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) and austral summer (December-February) rainfall variability over southeastern Africa is described. Thirty-one stations in 0°-16°S and 25°-40°E have statistically significant correlations to the NAO index over varying periods of record starting since 1895 and form a regional normalized rainfall index of southeast African rainfall (SEAR) correlated to the NAO index (NAOI) at r = 0.48 over 1894/95-1989/90, although the relationship is r = 0.70 since 1958. The spectrum of the SEAR index has significant amplitude at 7.6 yr, a periodicity commonly associated with the NAO, and the NAOI/SEAR cospectrum has its largest power at this periodicity. NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data, extending from 1958/59 to 1995/96 are used to evaluate moisture and circulation field variations associated with both NAO and SEAR indices. Precipitable water over southeastern Africa varies significantly such that anomalously high (low) convective rainfall occurs over southeast Africa when the NAO is weak (strong). Unusually wet summers are associated with anomalous equatorial westerly flow originating in the subtropical Atlantic and traversing the continent. Relatively dry summers are associated with increased southeasterly monsoon flow originating over the subtropical Indian Ocean. The NAO linkage to southeastern African rainfall is especially pronounced in 300-hPa zonal winds where five highly significant elongated bands of alternating zonal wind anomalies extend from the Atlantic Arctic to equatorial Africa. The latter 300-hPa equatorial band exhibits westerly (easterly) flow during wet (dry) austral summers and undergoes regional divergence (convergence) over southeastern Africa. The westerly flow, along with orographic uplift, has an element of instability due to the vertical component of the Coriolis parameter that assists rain production during wet summer. Potential interactions between the NAO and ENSO in producing regional

  16. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  17. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  18. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  19. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  20. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  1. North Frisian: The North Frisian Language in Education in Germany. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alastair, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union--the northwestern part of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Details are provided about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies,…

  2. North Frisian: The North Frisian Language in Education in Germany, 3rd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alastair G. H., Comp.

    2015-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  3. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  4. Thermal and albedo mapping of the north and south polar regions of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Keegan, K. D.

    1991-01-01

    The first maps of the thermal properties of the north and south polar region of Mars are presented. The maps complete the mapping of the entire planet. The maps for the north polar region were derived from Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) observations obtained from 10 Jun. to 30 Sep. 1978. This period corresponds to the early summer season in the north, when the north residual water ice cap was exposed, and the polar surface temperatures were near their maximum. The maps in the south were derived from observations obtained between 24 Aug. to 23 Sep. 1977. This period corresponds to the late summer season in the south, when the seasonal polar cap had retreated to close to its residual configuration, and the second global dust storm of 1977 had largely subsided. The major results concerning the following topics are summarized: (1) surface water ice; (2) polar dune material; and (3) dust deposits.

  5. Two centuries of coherent decadal climate variability across the Pacific North American region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.; Villaescusa, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The decadal variability of the Pacific Ocean and North American hydroclimate are subjects of immediate concern for society, yet the length of the instrumental record limits full mechanistic understanding of this variability. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved coral oxygen isotopic record from Clarion Island (18°N, 115°W), a sampling a subtropical region that is strongly influenced by the decadal-scale fluctuations of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and a region that serves as a critical locus for the communication of climate anomalies with the tropics. This Mexican Pacific coral record is highly correlated to coral records from the central tropical Pacific and tree ring records from western North America. Significant changes in the amplitude of oceanic decadal variability in the early nineteenth century are mirrored in the drought reconstructions in western North America. The spatial manifestation of this relationship was relatively invariant, despite notable changes in the climatic mean state.

  6. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  7. A North American regional reanalysis climatology of the Haines Index

    Treesearch

    Wei Lu; Joseph J. (Jay) Charney; Sharon Zhong; Xindi Bian; Shuhua. Liu

    2011-01-01

    A warm-season (May through October) Haines Index climatology is derived using 32-km regional reanalysis temperature and humidity data from 1980 to 2007. We compute lapse rates, dewpoint depressions, Haines Index factors A and B, and values for each of the low-, mid- and high-elevation variants of the Haines Index. Statistical techniques are used to investigate the...

  8. Social Research in North American Moisture-Deficient Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John W., Ed.

    Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely…

  9. North Central regional geologic characterization report. Volume 2: Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-08-01

    Volume 8(2) contains the following maps: Geologic map of the Lake Superior Region (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan); Index Map; Overburden Thickness; Faults and Ground Acceleration; Rock and Mineral Resources; Ground Water Basins and Potential Major Discharge Zones; and Ground Water Resource Potential.

  10. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes

  11. Regional assessment of North America: Urbanization trends, biodiversity patterns, and ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhearson, Timon; Auch, Roger F.; Alberti, Marina

    2013-01-01

    North America contains some of the most urbanized landscapes in the world. In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, approximately 80 % of the population is urban, with Mexico slightly less (Kaiser Family Foundation 2013). Population growth combined with economic growth has fueled recent urban land expansion in North America. Between 1970 and 2000, urban land area expanded at a rate of 3.31 % (Seto et al. 2011) creating unique challenges for conserving biodiversity and maintaining regional and local ecosystem services.

  12. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.

    2003-12-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. Even though the seismicity varied significantly, the regional crustal conditions appear to be roughly uniform. In some areas like Arroyo Seco, in the Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by

  13. Cenamps: adding value to the North East region.

    PubMed

    Maw, Alex; Pitkethly, Mike; Gohir, Shak; McMurray, Amanda; Robbins, Dave

    2006-12-01

    Cenamps' highly talented and commercially experienced team work closely with business leaders to stimulate and manage market-led innovation, enabling businesses to develop new products and services as well as strengthen the regional economic foundation, R&D capabilities and performance. Cenamps achieves this by establishing new state-of-the-art R&D facilities and applied research projects for developing new technologies that will yield significant societal, economic and commercial benefits.

  14. Seismicity surveying in central and north mexico region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J. M.; Guzmán, M.; Nieto, A.; Zúñiga, R.; Alaniz, S.; Barboza, R.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. This region is characterized by a very low deformation rate. The seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes. Some large earthquakes have occurred with an unknown returning period; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. Some authors argue that there is not connection between ancient and recent activity. We carried out several seismic surveys in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Altiplano Central. We installed a temporal network, in order to record spatial seismic distribution. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several swarms; one took place in Guanajuato and lasted for 2 weeks. Another crisis occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB at Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. The regional crust conditions appear to be roughly uniform even though the seismicity varies significantly. In some cases like seismic swarms, several microearthquakes are aligned, and seem to be quasi-parallel to the direction of the fault strike, some other times they are perpendicular. However, surface ruptures associated to earthquakes are not observed to confirm this. Then, a challenge is to locate the seismogenic structures, basically because of the surface structures are too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region may give further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field.

  15. Anaesthetic agents for advanced regional anaesthesia: a North American perspective.

    PubMed

    Buckenmaier, Chester C; Bleckner, Lisa L

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the use of regional anaesthesia, particularly peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) and continuous PNBs, has increased in recent years. Accompanying this resurgence in interest has been the development of new local anaesthetics and additives designed to enhance block duration and quality. This manuscript provides a literature-based review on accepted uses of local anaesthetics and adjuncts for a variety of regional anaesthesia techniques. A brief review of local anaesthetic pharmacodynamics describes the action of these drugs in preventing nerve depolarisation, thus blocking nerve impulses. Toxic adverse effects of local anaesthetics, specifically CNS and cardiac manifestations of excessive local anaesthetic blood concentrations and the direct neurotoxic properties of local anaesthetics, are discussed generally and specifically for many commonly used local anaesthetics. Clinically useful ester and amide local anaesthetics are evaluated individually in terms of their physical properties and toxic potential. How these properties impact on the clinical uses of each local anaesthetic is explored. Particular emphasis is placed on the long-acting local anaesthetic toxic potential of racemic bupivacaine compared with levobupivacaine and ropivacaine, which are both levorotatory stereoisomers. Guidelines for using ropivacaine and mepivacaine, based on the authors' experience using advanced regional anaesthesia in a busy practice, is provided. Finally, epinephrine (adrenaline), clonidine and other local anaesthetic additives and their rationale for use is covered along with other future possibilities.

  16. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  17. Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the

  18. Quaternary North Atlantic Surface Paleoceanography in Regions of Potential Deep-water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    At the time scale of the Quaternary climate cycles, the sites of formation of North Atlantic Deep Water are not known. The interglacial extreme is presumably exemplified by the modern regions; the Norwegian, Greenland and Labrador Seas. During the major glacial-age coolings in the North Atlantic, the sites may have shifted well to the south, perhaps as far as the limit of the polar front at 40 to 50 N. Still other sites may have been important during intermediate climatic conditions. Because of the close coupling of high-latitude surface waters to North Atlantic Deep Water in the modern ocean, the history of sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillations across the high-latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an understanding of deep-water formation on the longer time scales.

  19. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  20. Regional aridity in North America during the middle Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Anderson, R.Y.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Increased aridity throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain region during the middle Holocene has been documented from pollen records, aeolian proxy variables in lake cores, and active sand dune migration. Varve calibration provided by a continuously varved record of the Holocene from a core from Elk Lake, northwestern Minnesota, shows that the influx of aeolian elastic material increased beginning about 8 ka and ended about 3.8 ka, with peak aeolian activity at about 6 ka. If aeolian influx to Elk Lake corresponds in time to aeolian influx in other lakes and to maximum dune activity in Minnesota dune fields, then the varve calibration in Elk Lake provides precise time calibration of periods of peak aeolian activity in Minnesota. Palaeowind studies from the Minnesota dune fields show that the dominant wind direction when the dunes were active was from the northwest, the same as the dominant wind direction in dune fields throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. If the mid-Holocene aeolian activity in Minnesota was driven by an increase in westerly zonal winds, then the varve calibration can be extended to more precisely determine the timing of activity of dunes over a much broader area. We suggest that an increase in the westerly zonal wind field might have a solar-geomagnetic cause.

  1. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  2. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  3. Tracking regional and global teleconnections recorded by western North American speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Kelley, Neil P.

    2016-10-01

    Speleothem proxy records are useful for interrogating past climates in the low and mid-latitudes given their ability to provide continuous, high-resolution, and long-lived records that can be dated with high precision. Several speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America have recently been developed that highlight the importance of this archive in documenting past changes in atmospheric circulation. Taken individually, these records hint at teleconnections between western North American hydroclimate and climate changes in the high northern latitudes and tropics. However, there has been no systematic investigation of global climate teleconnections to this region that draws upon the body of North American speleothem records as a whole. Here we review the dominant controls on precipitation oxygen isotopes across the region, and conduct statistical comparisons and network visualizations of high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America to investigate the regional response to pronounced climate changes of the last deglaciation and to determine the pattern of global teleconnections to this region. We find that most western North American speleothem oxygen isotope records demonstrate a robust and consistent response to the events of the last deglaciation, despite differing controls on the oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation across the region. One record that receives a strong influence from the Gulf of Mexico exhibits a contrasting pattern in oxygen isotopes relative to most of the other records, which are dominated by westerly storms generated in the Pacific. During the studied interval, major shifts in Western North American speleothem records appear broadly synchronous at least within the uncertainty of age models. We also find strong statistical linkages between western North American speleothem records and speleothem records of Asian monsoon variability and other records from regions directly influenced by movement of

  4. North American Carbon Balance: Results from the Regional Synthesis Project of the North America Carbon Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Davis, K. J.; Raczka, B. M.; Hayes, D. J.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.; Nacp Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants

    2010-12-01

    Past studies have documented continental scale carbon balances for North America but there are large differences among the results. Recent improvements in the amount and quality of available observation-based data, and application of comparative analyses among approach methods, may allow us to reduce disagreement and resolve sources of discrepancies among flux estimates. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional interim synthesis project has brought together a large number of spatial data sets, and terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TBM) and atmospheric inversion simulation results to construct a holistic assessment of North America carbon fluxes for the years 2000 to 2005. One of the goals of the interim synthesis project has been to investigate the magnitude and potential causes of the large differences in estimated component and net fluxes over regional scales. Although the results to date have not resolved the disparity in estimates of NA carbon fluxes, they have lead to insights into the ability of various types of data and analysis approaches to understand some of the flux discrepancies among the different estimation approaches. Regional TBM results were compared with inversion and inventory-based estimates, as well as modeled and observed flux estimates from eddy covariance sites. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimates range from -2.9 to 0.68 PgC/yr (inversions) and -1.64 to 0.52 PgC/yr (TBMs) for temperate NA. In boreal NA, TBMs, on average, estimate slightly greater uptake than inversions (-0.12 PgC/yr versus -0.07 PgC/yr), but both methods have similar range in estimates. In Temperate NA, inversions, on average, estimate twice the uptake of TBMs (-0.96 PgC/yr versus -0.41 PgC/yr) and have a greater range in estimates. A comparison of NEE estimates for TBMs with both regional drivers and site-specific data indicates that a component for TBM uncertainty is the quality of reanalysis data used as weather forcing in the regional simulations

  5. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject worker...

  6. Ar-Ar Ages of Detrital Hornblendes from Glacial Sediments of the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; Haflidason, H.; Sejrup, H. P.

    2007-12-01

    Determining the relative timing of major iceberg calving from different ice sheet margins around the North Atlantic remains an important goal that will lead to a better understanding of causes and consequences of rapid climate variability during the last glacial period. Characterization of the composition of potential contributors is a necessary step towards this goal. The North Sea trough mouth fan is one of the largest glaciogenic debris flow complexes in the North Atlantic/Arctic region, with an approximate area of 142,000 square km (King et al., 1998, Marine Geology v. 152, pp. 217-246; Nygard et al., 2007, Geology, pp. 395-398). The large ice stream trough crosses the shelf along the southern margin of Norway. The crystalline rocks along the southern margin of Norway are Grenville (approximately 1 Ga old orogen). We undertook a study of the Ar-Ar age populations of individual detrital hornblende grains from a sediment sample of the glacigenic debris lobe created during the last phases of the last glacial maximum from the North Sea trough mouth fan. The goal is to test the hypothesis that the ice stream that fed this fan is the source of abundant Grenville age grains found on Bjorn drift site ODP984, at times when North American Grenville sources are not found in the North Atlantic ice rafted detritus belt (Hemming et al., 2005, AGU Spring meeting, PP23A-04). Hornblende grains from North Sea TMF core NH071-B01\\SC1 (1) (63.24N, 3.36E, 1049m) have a dominant age population of Grenville (921 Ma, 19 of 48 grains) with subordinate populations of 1108 Ma (n=3) and 1779 Ma (n=4). Accordingly they lend support to the hypothesis that this ice stream could be the source of IRD on the Bjorn drift. These results could additionally shed light on the pathways of fine grain sediment transport to the Bjorn drift which would contribute a better understanding of sediment processes in the region. For example, the provenance implied for the IRD by the Ar-Ar hornblende ages is

  7. Interannual Comparison of Water Vapor in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to better understand the current climate of Mars, we seek to understand atmospheric water in the north polar region. Our approach is to examine the water transport and cycling issues within the north polar region and in/out of the region on seasonal and annual timescales. Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD) data showed that water vapor increased as the northern summer season progressed and temperatures increased, and that vapor appeared to be transported southward . However, there has been uncertainty about the amount of water cycling in and out of the north polar region, as evidenced by residual polar cap visible brightness changes between one Martian year (Mariner 9 data) and a subsequent year (Viking data). These changes were originally thought to be interannual variations in the amount of frost sublimed based on global dust storm activity . However, Viking thermal and imaging data were re-examined and it was found that 14-35 pr m of water -ice appeared to be deposited on the cap later in the summer season, indicating that some water may be retained and redistributed within the polar cap region. This late summer deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or due to snowfall. We seek to understand what happens to the water on seasonal and interannual timescales. We address these issues by examining water vapor in the north polar region of Mars during the north spring and summer period from MGS TES data and by comparing these results to the Viking MAWD results.

  8. "Racing to the Top" to Prepare Turnaround Principals in North Carolina: Homegrown Regional Leadership Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Race to the Top (RttT) grant earmarked approximately $17.5 million to "increase the number of principals qualified to lead transformational change in low-performing schools in both rural and urban areas" (NCDPI, 2010, p.10). To accomplish this, the state established three Regional Leadership Academies (RLAs)…

  9. Condom Availability at Four-Year State Universities in the North Central Census Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, K. R.; And Others

    This survey of 66 4-year state universities with enrollments greater than 5,000 students in the North Central census region investigated the availability of condoms on campuses to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The survey sought to determine condom availability, location, cost to students, and…

  10. Annual Forest Inventories for the North Central Region of the United States

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Mark H. Hansen

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective in developing procedures for annual forest inventories for the north central region of the United States is to establish the capability of producing standard forest inventory and analysis estimates on an annual basis. The inventory system developed to accomplish this objective features several primary functions, including (1) an annual sample of...

  11. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  12. Spatio-temporal variations in surface characteristics over the North American Monsoon region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper we summarize the surface characteristics for six locations in western Mexico and southwestern USA (from a subhumid climate in Jalisco, Mexico to the Sonoran Desert climate in Arizona, USA),that lie along a meridional transect within the North American Monsoon (NAM) core region using av...

  13. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  14. The State of Economic and Social Development in the North Central Region of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Keith D.; And Others

    Emphasizing patterns of rural economic and social activity in the North Central Region (NCR) of the U.S., this report utilizes U.S. census data to survey and analyze: population distribution; business patterns; agricultural activity; local and county government expenditures; and income distribution. Among the major findings reported are: slightly…

  15. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  16. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  17. Rural Economic Revitalization: The Cooperative Extension Challenge in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigg, Kenneth E.

    The difficulties presently being faced by rural communities in the North Central Extension Region are well known. Many of these communities have economies which are closely tied to farming and therefore suffer economic hardship in direct relationship to those encountered by farmers. However, a dominant characteristic of communities in the region…

  18. Cucurbit germplasm collections at the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, USA is one of four primary Plant Introduction Stations in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), and has responsibility for maintenance, regeneration, characterization, and distribution of the NPGS Cucumis and Cucurbi...

  19. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of.... The North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  20. Regional model simulation of the North Atlantic cyclone Caroline and comparisons with satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keup-Thiel, E.; Klepp, C.-Ph.; Raschke, E.; Rockel, B.

    2003-03-01

    An individual regional model simulation of cyclone Caroline has been carried out to study water cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a comparison of the model results with SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) satellite data.

  1. Wilderness and wild lands in the Northern Appalachian Region of North America: An ecological perspective

    Treesearch

    Stephen C. Trombulak

    2007-01-01

    The ecological context of the Northern Appalachian region of North America is reviewed and general patterns of ownership and protection status of land discussed. Although there is wide variability among the states and provinces in the proportion of their land that is publicly owned, only a very small proportion, ranging from 0.1 percent to 8.0 percent, anywhere is...

  2. Making Educational Technology Work: State Policies in the North Central Region. NCREL Policy Issues. Number 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2004-01-01

    As the responsibility for allocating resources for technology shifts from federal administrators to state and local education agencies, state and local policymakers face greater accountability for making fiscally and educationally sound decisions. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), the research and development arm of Learning…

  3. Farm Crisis Response: Extension and Research Activities in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul, Comp.; And Others

    The 12 states comprising the North Central Region have been affected in similar ways by the farm crisis of the 1980s. Statewide surveys show sizeable proportions of farm operations that are experiencing moderately high levels of financial stress. The problems caused by chronic stress on family structure and functioning, the loss of mainstreet…

  4. Adult Education and the Challenges of Regional Development: Policy and Sustainability in North Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels--internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the…

  5. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Ross, Steve W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.

  6. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks

  7. Balancing Growth, Harvest, and Consumption of Hardwood Resources in the North Central Region

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Neal Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    The volume of timber in the North Central Region of the Unites States (IN, IL, IA, MN, WI, MI) has more than doubled since 1950. Annual growth of growing stock on timberland is about 2.3 billion cubic feet (8.5 billion board feet). Removals from growing stock are about 1.1 billion cubic feet (3.4 billion board feet). However, the people who live in the region consume...

  8. The empirical formula determination of local magnitude for North Moluccas region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Basri; Suardi, Iman; Heryandoko, Nova; Bunaga, I. Gusti Ketut Satria

    2016-05-01

    The energy of local and regional earthquake is usually expressed by local magnitude. In addition, local magnitude is also useful for seismic hazard assessment. The aims of this study are to determine the empirical formula of local magnitude and the correction distance function, -log A 0, applied for North Moluccas region. This study used waveform data from the MCGA seismic network located around North Moluccas region. We collected 148 maximum amplitude data of 40 earthquake events which are recorded by 6 seismometers with range of time from December 1, 2013 till January 31, 2014, hypocentral distance from 25km till 550 km, and depth below 70 km. The results of this study are the empirical formula of local magnitude, ML = log A + 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, and the correction distance function, logA0 = 0.651logR + 0.0037R 1.3568, respectively. Also we found that the station correction values of the GLMI, LBMI, MNI, SANI, TMSI, and TNTI seismic stations were -0.057, -0.216, -0.322, 0.088, -0.494, and 0.180, respectively. Low amplification is indicated by the positive value of station correction; meanwhile high amplification is by the negative. The correction distance function of North Moluccas region is similar to the Central California region. It means that the attenuation characteristics of the two regions have similarities.

  9. Sensitivity of northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation to surface and boundary forcing: A regional model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Bianucci, Laura; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation, influenced by both North Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres, is one of the hydrographically most variable regions in the North Atlantic Ocean and hosts biologically rich and productive fishing grounds. With the goal of simulating conditions in this productive and complex region, we implemented a nested regional ocean model for the northwest North Atlantic shelves including the Gulf of Maine, the Scotian Shelf, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Grand Banks, and the adjacent deep ocean. Configuring such a model requires choosing external data to supply surface forcing and initial and boundary conditions, as well as the consideration of nesting options. Although these selections can greatly affect model performance and results, often they are not systematically investigated. Here we assessed the sensitivity of our regional model to a suite of atmospheric forcing datasets, to sets of initial and boundary conditions constructed from multiple global ocean models and a larger scale regional ocean model, and to two variants of the model grid - one extending further off-shelf and resolving Flemish Cap topography. We conducted model simulations for a 6-year period and assessed model performance relative to a regional climatological dataset of temperature and salinity, observations collected from multiple monitoring stations and cruise transect lines, satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data, and descriptions of regional currents from literature. Based on this model assessment, we determined the model configuration that best reproduces observations. We find that while all surface forcing datasets are capable of producing model SST close to observed, the different datasets result in significant differences in model sea surface salinity (SSS). We find that initial and boundary conditions based on global ocean models do not necessary produce realistic circulation, and climatological initial and boundary conditions can

  10. 76 FR 58569 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...EPA is proposing to partially approve and partially disapprove a revision to the North Dakota State Implementation Plan (SIP) addressing regional haze submitted by the Governor of North Dakota on March 3, 2010, along with SIP Supplement No. 1 submitted on July 27, 2010, and part of SIP Amendment No. 1 submitted on July 28, 2011. These SIP revisions were submitted to address the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) and our rules that require states to prevent any future and remedy any existing man-made impairment of visibility in mandatory Class I areas caused by emissions of air pollutants from numerous sources located over a wide geographic area (also referred to as the ``regional haze program''). EPA is proposing a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) to address the deficiencies identified in our proposed partial disapproval of North Dakota's regional haze SIP. In lieu of this proposed FIP, or a portion thereof, we are proposing approval of a SIP revision if the State submits such a revision in a timely way, and the revision matches the terms of our proposed FIP. In addition, EPA is proposing to disapprove a revision to the North Dakota SIP addressing the interstate transport of pollutants that the Governor submitted on April 6, 2009. We are proposing to disapprove it because it does not meet the Act's requirements concerning non- interference with programs to protect visibility in other states. To address this deficiency, we are proposing a FIP.

  11. Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; den Besselaar Else, van; Abdel, Hannachi; Jaak, Jaagus; Elizabeth, Kent; Christiana, Lefebvre; Gudrun, Rosenhagen; Anna, Rutgersson; Frederik, Schenk; der Schrier Gerard, van; Tim, Woolings

    2017-04-01

    Two centuries of extreme events over the Baltic Sea and North Sea regions In the framework of the BACC 2 (for the Baltic Sea) and NOSCCA projects (for the North Sea region), studies of past and present variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period (roughly the past 200 years) have been investigated. Findings on trends in temperature and precipitation have already been presented. Here we focus on data homogeneity issues and examine how reliable reanalyses are in this context. Unlike most other regions in the world, there is a wealth of old observations available for the Baltic and North Sea regions, most of it in handwritten form in meteorological journals and other publications. These datasets need to be carefully digitised and homogenized. For this, a thorough quality control must be applied; otherwise the digitised datasets may prove useless or even counterproductive. We present evidence that this step cannot be conducted without human interference and thus cannot be fully automated. Furthermore, inhomogeneities due to e.g. instrumentation and station relocations need to be addressed. A wealth of reanalysis products is available, which can help detect such inhomogeneities in observed time series, but at the same time are prone to biases and/or spurious trends themselves e.g. introduced by changes in the availability and quality of the underlying assimilated data. It therefore in general remains unclear in how far we can simulate the pre-satellite era with respect to homogeneity with reanalyses based only on parts of the observing system. Extreme events and changes in extreme situations are more important and of greater (societal) significance than changes in mean climate. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess not only because they are, per definition, rare events, but also due to the homogeneity issues outlined above. Taking these into account, we present evidence for changes

  12. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Arritt, R.; Biner, S.; Bukovsky, Melissa; McGinnis, Seth; Sain, Steve; Caya, Daniel; Correia Jr., James; Flory, Dave; Gutowski, William; Takle, Gene; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; McDaniel, Larry; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun; Roads, J.; Sloan, Lisa; Snyder, Mark A.

    2012-09-20

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program is an international effort designed to systematically investigate the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and produce high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, with a common domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The program also includes an evaluation component (Phase I) wherein the participating RCMs are nested within 25 years of NCEP/DOE global reanalysis II. The grid spacing of the RCM simulations is 50 km.

  13. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  14. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  15. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time.

  16. North-south regional variation in phospholipase A activity in the venom of Crotalus ruber.

    PubMed

    Straight, R C; Glenn, J L; Wolt, T B; Wolfe, M C

    1992-11-01

    1. Twenty-seven individual venoms from the rattlesnake species Crotalus ruber from different regions were comparatively analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC and analyzed for phospholipase A (PLA) content using a polarographic assay. 2. Two fractions containing PLA activity were detected by HPLC in the venoms of all the C. ruber specimens from southern Baja, Mexico, but specimens from southern California, U.S.A., were lacking corresponding fractions and were extremely low or lacking in PLA activity in their venoms. 3. The north-south regional variation in PLA content in C. ruber venom does not correlate with the north-south ranges (based on external morphology) of the subspecies C. ruber ruber and C. ruber lucasensis.

  17. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Volker; Bewersdorff, Ines; Aulinger, Armin; Quante, Markus

    2010-06-01

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased.

  18. Regional variations in living conditions during the North Korean food crisis of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    In the 1990s, North Korea experienced one of the severest famines in modern history. Considering the level of food deprivation during famines in totalitarian states, substantial debate exists over how differently the crisis affected households and regions. Here, the authors investigate regional differences in socioeconomic living conditions by comparing height-for-age z scores (HAZs) of 9934 preschool children living in 11 administrative provinces. Data are based on 2 UN/DPRK anthropometric surveys performed in North Korea representing cohorts born from 1991 to 2002. Through regression of pooled HAZs on a set of province dummies, the authors find that children born in Pyongyang are more healthy, providing evidence that elites residing in the capital seemingly possess comparative advantages in food supply. When controlling for further variables, they find that boys and older children suffered more during the crisis, although cohorts born before the onset of the famine were significantly better-off.

  19. Crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region: implications for the isostatic compensation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, Dogan; Sandvol, Eric; Sandvol, Christine; Brindisi, Carrie; Barazangi, Muawia

    2001-12-01

    We present a new 3-D crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region that includes detailed topography, sediment thickness, and Moho depth values. The model is obtained by collecting, integrating, and interpolating reliable, published sedimentary rock thickness and Moho depth measurements in the Middle East and North Africa region. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, the 3-D gravity response of the model is calculated and compared with available observed Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region. The gravity modelling shows that the new crustal model predicts large portions of the observed Bouguer anomalies. However, in some regions, such as the Red Sea and Caspian Sea regions, where crustal structure is relatively well-determined, the residual anomalies are of the order of a few hundred milligals. Since the new crustal model results in large residual anomalies in regions where reasonably good constraints exist for the model, these large residuals cannot simply be explained by inaccuracies in the model. To analyse the cause of these residuals further we developed an isostatically compensated (Airy-type) Moho-depth model and calculated its gravity response. Isostatic gravity anomalies are in nearly perfect agreement with the observed gravity values. However, the isostatic model differs significantly from the new (3-D) crustal model. If isostasy is to be maintained, crustal and/or upper mantle lateral density variations are needed to explain the large observed gravity residuals.

  20. SPURS: Salinity Processes in the Upper-Ocean Regional Study: THE NORTH ATLANTIC EXPERIMENT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Eric; Bryan, Frank; Schmitt, Ray

    2015-01-01

    In this special issue of Oceanography, we explore the results of SPURS-1, the first part of the ocean process study Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS). The experiment was conducted between August 2012 and October 2013 in the subtropical North Atlantic and was the first of two experiments (SPURS come in pairs!). SPURS-2 is planned for 20162017 in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean.

  1. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus in various regions within North Carolina during multiple seasons.

    PubMed

    Wilfret, David A; Baker, Brent T; Palavecino, Elizabeth; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) monitors the occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in the United States and has historically reported on activity at the regional level. Prior to the 2007-2008 RSVseason, the CDC did not report seasonal RSV data for cities within North Carolina or for the state. The purpose of the present study is to characterize RSV seasonal activity within North Carolina and to determine the appropriate months in which at-risk children should receive prophylaxis. We prospectively collected RSV test data monthly over three seasons (fall through spring), from September 2003 through July 2006, from a diverse group of hospitals and a community pediatric practice located within five regions throughout North Carolina. Approximately 14,000 laboratory tests, including 23.7% that were RSV positive, were evaluated over the three seasons, and RSV was detected within the state during all but three months of the study. Seasonal variation in the onset (October-November) of RSV activity and duration (six to seven months) of the RSV season according to the specified definition of seasonality was noted yearly within individual regions and among regions. On average over the study period, the greatest percentage of positive tests (33.8%) statewide occurred during January. Our data suggest the RSV season in North Carolina is longer than the national average, and RSV epidemics persist during months that fall outside of those in which RSV prophylaxis is given to high-risk children. Guidelines on the administration of RSV prophylaxis should ideally be based on results of local RSV test data.

  2. Climate change in the circum-North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Kipp, Nilva; Imbrie, John; Rind, David

    1989-01-01

    A survey of new and published palaeoclimate data indicates that both the high- and low-latitude North Atlantic regions were characterized by at least three synchronous periods of abrupt climate change during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. Climate model results suggest that changes in the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may explain much of this nonlinear response of the climate system to astronomical (Milankovitch) forcing.

  3. 77 FR 69893 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...This notice informs the public that the North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council (Council) will hold a public meeting by teleconference on December 7, 2013. The public is invited to participate and to provide oral testimony. The purpose of the Council is to provide recommendations and information to the Federal Subsistence Board, to review policies and management plans, and to provide a public forum for subsistence issues.

  4. 78 FR 17427 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...This notice informs the public that the North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council (Council) will hold a public meeting by teleconference on April 16, 2013. The public is invited to participate and to provide oral testimony. The purpose of the Council is to provide recommendations and information to the Federal Subsistence Board, to review policies and management plans, and to provide a public forum for subsistence issues.

  5. Climate change in the circum-North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Kipp, Nilva; Imbrie, John; Rind, David

    1989-01-01

    A survey of new and published palaeoclimate data indicates that both the high- and low-latitude North Atlantic regions were characterized by at least three synchronous periods of abrupt climate change during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition. Climate model results suggest that changes in the melting history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet may explain much of this nonlinear response of the climate system to astronomical (Milankovitch) forcing.

  6. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  7. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  8. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  9. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  10. Quantitative Development and Distribution of Zooplankton in Medium Lakes of the Kostanay Region (North Kazakhstan Region)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubakirova, Gulzhan A.; Syzdykov, Kuanysh N.; Kurzhykayev, Zhumagazy; Uskenov, Rashit B.; Narbayev, Serik; Begenova, Ainagul B.; Zhumakayeva, Aikumys N.; Sabdinova, Dinara K.; Akhmedinov, Serikbay N.

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of water resources plays an important environmental and economic role, since it allows developing an effective program of regional development with regard to the environmental load. The hydro-chemical regime of lakes includes water temperature, content of biogenic elements, total mineralization, oxygen regime, and other parameters…

  11. Moving from a regional to a continental perspective of Phragmites australis invasion in North America.

    PubMed

    Kettenring, Karin M; de Blois, Sylvie; Hauber, Donald P

    2012-01-01

    We use a regional comparison of Phragmites australis (common reed) subsp. americanus, P. australis subsp. berlandieri and introduced P. australis (possibly five sublineages) in the Chesapeake Bay, the St Lawrence River, Utah and the Gulf Coast to inform a North American perspective on P. australis invasion patterns, drivers, impacts and research needs. FINDINGS AND RESEARCH NEEDS: Our regional assessments reveal substantial diversity within and between the three main lineages of P. australis in terms of mode of reproduction and the types of environment occupied. For introduced P. australis, the timing of introduction also differed between the regions. Nevertheless, a common finding in these regions reinforces the notion that introduced P. australis is opportunistic and thrives in disturbed habitats. Thus, we expect to see substantial expansion of introduced P. australis with increasing anthropogenic disturbances in each of these regions. Although there have been some studies documenting the negative impacts of introduced P. australis, it also plays a beneficial role in some regions, and in some cases, the purported negative impacts are unproven. There is also a broader need to clarify the genetic and ecological relationships between the different introduced sublineages observed in North America, and their relative competitive ability and potential for admixture. This may be done through regional studies that use similar methodologies and share results to uncover common patterns and processes. To our knowledge, such studies have not been performed on P. australis in spite of the broad attention given to this species. Such research could advance theoretical knowledge on biological invasion by helping to determine the extent to which the patterns observed can be generalized or are sublineage specific or region specific. Given what appears to be sometimes idiosyncratic invasion patterns when interpreted in isolation in the regions that we analysed, it may be time to

  12. Moving from a regional to a continental perspective of Phragmites australis invasion in North America

    PubMed Central

    Kettenring, Karin M.; de Blois, Sylvie; Hauber, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We use a regional comparison of Phragmites australis (common reed) subsp. americanus, P. australis subsp. berlandieri and introduced P. australis (possibly five sublineages) in the Chesapeake Bay, the St Lawrence River, Utah and the Gulf Coast to inform a North American perspective on P. australis invasion patterns, drivers, impacts and research needs. Findings and research needs Our regional assessments reveal substantial diversity within and between the three main lineages of P. australis in terms of mode of reproduction and the types of environment occupied. For introduced P. australis, the timing of introduction also differed between the regions. Nevertheless, a common finding in these regions reinforces the notion that introduced P. australis is opportunistic and thrives in disturbed habitats. Thus, we expect to see substantial expansion of introduced P. australis with increasing anthropogenic disturbances in each of these regions. Although there have been some studies documenting the negative impacts of introduced P. australis, it also plays a beneficial role in some regions, and in some cases, the purported negative impacts are unproven. There is also a broader need to clarify the genetic and ecological relationships between the different introduced sublineages observed in North America, and their relative competitive ability and potential for admixture. This may be done through regional studies that use similar methodologies and share results to uncover common patterns and processes. To our knowledge, such studies have not been performed on P. australis in spite of the broad attention given to this species. Such research could advance theoretical knowledge on biological invasion by helping to determine the extent to which the patterns observed can be generalized or are sublineage specific or region specific. Synthesis Given what appears to be sometimes idiosyncratic invasion patterns when interpreted in isolation in the regions that we analysed, it may

  13. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Synthesis Project: Regional Forward Model Intercomparision (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.; Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants, N.; Regional/Continental Interim-Synthesis Team

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of how carbon is exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is gained from direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to larger regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle research is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities (http://nacp.ornl.gov/ int_synthesis.shtml) to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the time period of 2000 through 2005. Here, we present the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare 19 TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations and data currently available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. Bringing model estimates (and available data) together that incorporate a wide range of modeling approaches provides a valuable assessment of the current state of understanding of regional carbon flux across North America. The TBM flux estimates are evaluated over different land cover regions of North America, and with respect to photosynthetic formulation, soil carbon dynamics, environmental driving variables, and temporal resolution. Model estimates are also compared to spatially explicit inventory-based estimates of cropland productivity. There is significant disagreement among the models in their estimates of gross primary production (GPP), with estimates during the peak growing season differing by over 300 gC/(m2 month) in

  14. Morphotectonic analysis of the Hazara arc region of the Himalayas, north Pakistan and northwest India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Seeber, Leonard

    1981-04-01

    In the Hazara arc region of northern Pakistan, some of the active basements structures buried below a thick, detached sedimentary layer are inferred from the distribution of lineaments and the drainage patterns, as viewed in Landsat satellite imagery and from river profiles. A prominent set of NW-trending lineaments seen on satellite imagery, coincides approximately with the southwest or updip side of the Indus—Kohistan seismic zone (IKSZ) —the most active basement structure of the region, even though this structure is buried beneath and decoupled from a 12 km thick sedimentary layer. The IKSZ has been interpreted as an extension of the Himalayan Basement Thrust, and is also associated with a prominent topographic "step". Knickpoints on major rivers in the region lie on or north of the IKSZ. All Indus River tributaries, examined north of the IKSZ, show prominent knickpoints, while two tributaries draining south of the IKSZ have no knickpoints. These results suggest ongoing uplift above and north of the IKSZ, and are consistent with the tectonic model obtained from the seismic data. Another prominent lineament set is detected along the north—south section of the Indus River. This set is probably related to the Indus River horst—anticline and associated reentrant. One of the two highest lineament concentrations occurs at the intersection between the NW-trending IKSZ lineament and the N-trending Indus River lineament. The other is along the west bank of the Indus Valley, 25 km north of Tarbela Dam. A topographic ridge (Swabi—Nowshera ridge) appears to be forming along the west side of the Indus River, in the Peshawar Basin. The rising ridge is ponding the Kabul River upstream of Nowshera, where the drainage is braided.

  15. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal.

  16. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results and Discussion Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal. PMID:26629702

  17. The Regional Impact of Current and Future Dust Levels on Climate in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, K. A.; O'Brien, T. A.; Sloan, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Recent global climate model (GCM) studies indicate that southwestern North America may transition to a more arid climate in the next century due to a shifting further north of the poleward edge of the Hadley cell (resulting from increased land and sea surface temperatures). Accompanying this aridification, it is possible that rates of dust production in this region will increase. While it is known that dust concentrations in the atmosphere affect climate, particularly at the regional level, the magnitude as well as the sign of predicted dust-climate effects vary significantly. Aerosols from dust can either reflect or absorb sunlight depending on several factors including concentration and particle size. Additionally, regional atmospheric circulation patterns (un-resolvable by GCMs) influence the distribution of dust. Using climate scenarios from the most recent version of the regional climate model RegCM with a newly developed dust module, this study examines possible changes in dust production in western North America in the next century and how these changes would affect climate. These results are presented in the context of present day dust-climate interactions. Future scenarios also assess the effects of different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, specifically from the two most disparate IPCC AR4 scenarios for the year 2100: one in which CO2 emissions were frozen at the year 2000 (the lowest atmospheric CO2 increase considered), and the other using the fossil fuel intensive A1F1 scenario (highest CO2 increase). For both CO2 scenarios, the model is run twice: once with and once without dust-climate interactions included in the climate system feedbacks. This study allows inferences to be made about the levels of dust that could occur in 2100 and how these dust concentrations could alter current predictions of climate for the study region. Further, the effect that increasing CO2 levels may have on both the levels of dust, and how dust affects climate, is

  18. Lower Silurian `hot shales' in North Africa and Arabia: regional distribution and depositional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüning, S.; Craig, J.; Loydell, D. K.; Štorch, P.; Fitches, B.

    2000-03-01

    Lowermost Silurian organic-rich (`hot') shales are the origin of 80-90% of Palaeozoic sourced hydrocarbons in North Africa and also played a major role in petroleum generation on the Arabian Peninsula. In most cases, the shales were deposited directly above upper Ordovician (peri-) glacial sandstones during the initial early Silurian transgression that was a result of the melting of the late Ordovician icecap. Deposition of the main organic-rich shale unit in the North African/Arabian region was restricted to the earliest Silurian Rhuddanian stage ( acuminatus, atavus and probably early cyphus graptolite biozones). During this short period (1-2 m.y.), a favourable combination of factors existed which led to the development of exceptionally strong oxygen-deficiency in the area. In most countries of the study area, the post-Rhuddanian Silurian shales are organically lean and have not contributed to petroleum generation. The distribution and thickness of the basal Silurian `hot' shales have been mapped in detail for the whole North African region, using logs from some 300 exploration wells in Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. In addition, all relevant, accessible published and unpublished surface and subsurface data of the lower Silurian shales in North Africa and Arabia have been reviewed, including sedimentological, biostratigraphic and organic geochemical data. The lowermost Silurian hot shales of northern Gondwana are laterally discontinuous and their distribution and thickness were controlled by the early Silurian palaeorelief which was shaped mainly by glacial processes of the late Ordovician ice age and by Pan-African and Infracambrian compressional and extensional tectonism. The thickest and areally most extensive basal Silurian organic-rich shales in North Africa occur in Algeria, Tunisia and western Libya, while on the Arabian Peninsula they are most prolific in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Jordan and Iraq. The hot shales were not deposited in Egypt, which was a

  19. Thermal and albedo mapping of the polar regions of Mars using Viking thermal mapper observations: 1. North polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Bachman, Jennifer E.; Keegan, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the north polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking orbiters over a 50-day period in 1978 during the Martian early northern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg N to the north pole at a spatial resolution of 1/2 deg of latitude. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmospphere for a wide range of assumptions concerning aerosol optical properties and aerosol optical depths. The results of these calculations show that the effects of the Martian atmosphere on remote determinations of surface thermal inertia are more significant than have been indicated in previous studies. The maps of apparent thermal inertia and albedo show a great deal of spatial structure that is well correlated with surface features.

  20. Regional Stratigraphy and Petroleum Systems of the Michigan Basin, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Although more than 100 years of research have gone into deciphering the stratigraphy of the Michigan basin of North America, it remains a challenge to visualize the basin stratigraphy on a regional scale and to describe stratigraphic relations within the basin. Similar difficulties exist for visualizing and describing the regional distribution of petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks. This publication addresses these difficulties by combining data on Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Michigan basin. The areal extent of this structural basin is presented along with data in eight schematic chronostratigraphic sections arranged from north to south, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections. The stratigraphic data are modified from American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) (1984), Johnson and others (1992), Sanford (1993), and Cross (1998), and the time scale is taken from Harland and others (1990). Informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1984) are shown in parentheses. Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also are included, as well as the locations of major petroleum source rocks and major petroleum plays. The stratigraphic units are colored according to predominant lithology, in order to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the Michigan basin. For purposes of comparison, schematic depictions of stratigraphy and interpreted events in the Michigan basin and adjacent Appalachian basin are shown. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  1. Galileo multispectral imaging of the north polar and eastern limb regions of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.; Klaasen, K.P.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.; Neukum, G.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Heffernan, C.; Breneman, H.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Pilcher, C.B.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.

  2. US regional tornado outbreaks and their links to spring ENSO phases and North Atlantic SST variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ki; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Enfield, David B.; Weaver, Scott J.; Wang, Chunzai; Atlas, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Recent violent and widespread tornado outbreaks in the US, such as occurred in the spring of 2011, have caused devastating societal impact with significant loss of life and property. At present, our capacity to predict US tornado and other severe weather risk does not extend beyond seven days. In an effort to advance our capability for developing a skillful long-range outlook for US tornado outbreaks, here we investigate the spring probability patterns of US regional tornado outbreaks during 1950-2014. We show that the four dominant springtime El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases (persistent versus early-terminating El Niño and resurgent versus transitioning La Niña) and the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole variability are linked to distinct and significant US regional patterns of outbreak probability. These changes in the probability of outbreaks are shown to be largely consistent with remotely forced regional changes in the large-scale atmospheric processes conducive to tornado outbreaks. An implication of these findings is that the springtime ENSO phases and the North Atlantic SST tripole variability may provide seasonal predictability of US regional tornado outbreaks.

  3. Recent Population Trends in North Carolina and the Southern Region: 1970-1975. Progress Report Soc. 64, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, William B.

    Estimates of population change and the components of change for North Carolina and its counties were made for the 1970-75 period. Attention was given to the growth patterns in the metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas of North Carolina and the southern region. Data showed that the state's population grew at a faster rate during this period than…

  4. Seventeen Years of Annual Distribution of Ivermectin Has Not Interrupted Onchocerciasis Transmission in North Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Katabarwa, Moses N.; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O.

    2011-01-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12–17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  5. Meter-scale morphology of the north polar region of mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Byrne, S.; Russell, P.S.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Mars' north pole is covered by a dome of layered ice deposits. Detailed (???30 centimeters per pixel) images of this region were obtained with the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Planum Boreum basal unit scarps reveal cross-bedding and show evidence for recent mass wasting, flow, and debris accumulation. The north polar layers themselves are as thin as 10 centimeters but appear to be covered by a dusty veneer in places, which may obscure thinner layers. Repetition of particular layer types implies that quasi-periodic climate changes influenced the stratigraphic sequence in the polar layered deposits, informing models for recent climate variations on Mars.

  6. Meter-scale morphology of the north polar region of Mars.

    PubMed

    Herkenhoff, K E; Byrne, S; Russell, P S; Fishbaugh, K E; McEwen, A S

    2007-09-21

    Mars' north pole is covered by a dome of layered ice deposits. Detailed ( approximately 30 centimeters per pixel) images of this region were obtained with the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Planum Boreum basal unit scarps reveal cross-bedding and show evidence for recent mass wasting, flow, and debris accumulation. The north polar layers themselves are as thin as 10 centimeters but appear to be covered by a dusty veneer in places, which may obscure thinner layers. Repetition of particular layer types implies that quasi-periodic climate changes influenced the stratigraphic sequence in the polar layered deposits, informing models for recent climate variations on Mars.

  7. Seventeen years of annual distribution of ivermectin has not interrupted onchocerciasis transmission in North Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O

    2011-12-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease.

  8. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  9. Flood events across the North Atlantic region - past development and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matti, Bettina; Dieppois, Bastien; Lawler, Damian; Dahlke, Helen E.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2016-04-01

    Flood events have a large impact on humans, both socially and economically. An increase in winter and spring flooding across much of northern Europe in recent years opened up the question of changing underlying hydro-climatic drivers of flood events. Predicting the manifestation of such changes is difficult due to the natural variability and fluctuations in northern hydrological systems caused by large-scale atmospheric circulations, especially under altered climate conditions. Improving knowledge on the complexity of these hydrological systems and their interactions with climate is essential to be able to determine drivers of flood events and to predict changes in these drivers under altered climate conditions. This is particularly true for the North Atlantic region where both physical catchment properties and large-scale atmospheric circulations have a profound influence on floods. This study explores changes in streamflow across North Atlantic region catchments. An emphasis is placed on high-flow events, namely the timing and magnitude of past flood events, and selected flood percentiles were tested for stationarity by applying a flood frequency analysis. The issue of non-stationarity of flood return periods is important when linking streamflow to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Natural fluctuations in these circulations are found to have a strong influence on the outcome causing natural variability in streamflow records. Long time series and a multi-temporal approach allows for determining drivers of floods and linking streamflow to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Exploring changes in selected hydrological signatures consistency was found across much of the North Atlantic region suggesting a shift in flow regime. The lack of an overall regional pattern suggests that how catchments respond to changes in climatic drivers is strongly influenced by their physical characteristics. A better understanding of hydrological response to climate drivers is

  10. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  11. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to

  12. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  13. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1994: Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    While many children across North Dakota enjoy positive life circumstances which support their healthy growth and development, many other children do not. This Kids Count factbook contains data on indicators intended to highlight the condition of North Dakota children from prenatal through adolescent stages of development; these indicators include…

  14. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1995: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    While many children across North Dakota enjoy positive life circumstances which support their healthy growth and development, many others do not. This Kids Count fact book presents a statistical portrait of the condition of North Dakota children from prenatal through adolescent stages of development, based on key indicators. These indicators…

  15. Regional program for prevention of premature birth in northwestern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Meis, P J; Ernest, J M; Moore, M L; Michielutte, R; Sharp, P C; Buescher, P A

    1987-09-01

    We present our experience with introducing and implementing a prematurity prevention program in a 20-county region in northwest North Carolina. The program is based on the risk assessment and educational model. In the first 25 months of results available, 17,370 births occurred in women enrolled in the project. During 1985, 42.5% of all births in the region occurred in the project. During the time span examined, a downward trend was seen for rates of low birth weight births in public and private patients and for very low birth weight births in private patients. During 1985, private births in the project were significantly less likely to be low birth weight or very low birth weight than private births to women not in the project. These results suggest that regional implementation of prematurity prevention programs is feasible and that such programs are particularly appropriate for private patients.

  16. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  17. Interactions of tectonic, igneous, and hydraulic processes in the North Tharsis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Golombek, M. P.; Plescia, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the north Tharsis of Mars has revealed a complex geologic history involving volcanism, tectonism, flooding, and mass wasting. Our detailed photogeologic analysis of this region found many previously unreported volcanic vents, volcaniclastic flows, irregular cracks, and minor pit chains; additional evidence that volcanic tectonic processes dominated this region throughout Martian geologic time; and the local involvement of these processes with surface and near surface water. Also, photoclinometric profiles were obtained within the region of troughs, simple grabens, and pit chains, as well as average spacings of pits along pit chains. These data were used together with techniques to estimate depths of crustal mechanical discontinuities that may have controlled the development of these features. In turn, such discontinuities may be controlled by stratigraphy, presence of water or ice, or chemical cementation.

  18. Review of the physical oceanography of the Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Region. Volume 1. Literature synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.E.; Berger, T.J.; Boicourt, W.C.; Churchill, J.H.; Earle, M.D.

    1993-10-01

    The present study is part of a sequence of programs designed to provide the MMS with a basis for evaluating the potential environmental impacts of oil and gas production off of the Cape Hatteras region. The primary objective of this review is to summarize and critique the present state of knowledge of the physical oceanography of the complex region offshore of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, within the context of understanding the regional circulation and its relation to the fate of any discharges resulting from offshore oil and gas activity. The two other related objectives are to produce an annotated bibliography of the pertinent literature, primarily from 1970 to the present, and to identify relevant oceanographic data sets which can provide a basis for an improved understanding of circulation patterns and physical oceanographic conditions in the study area.

  19. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  20. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, Deborah; Post, Wilfred M; Michalak, Anna; West, Tristram O.; Jacobson, Andrew; Baker, Ian; Chen, Jing M.; Davis, Kenneth; Hayes, Daniel J; Hoffman, Forrest M; Jain, Atul; Liu, Shuguang; Mcguire, David; Neilson, Ronald; Poulter, Ben; Tian, Hanqin; Thornton, Peter E; Tomelleri, Enrico; Viovy, Nicolas; Xiao, Jingfeng; Cook, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as

  1. Impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning over east North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuma, Gemechu; Sushama, Laxmi; Gulilat, Diro; Francois, Roberge

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two experiments were performed for an east North American domain to assess the impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning. The first experiment is performed with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which treats urban regions as areas of bare soil with a high roughness length. The second experiment is similar to the first experiment, except that the urban regions are modeled using the single layer urban canopy model, TEB (Town Energy Balance). Results show that urban heat island (UHI; defined here as the surface temperature difference between urban and non-urban fractions of a given cell and simulation) is reasonably well simulated by the CLASS+TEB experiment. The UHI exhibits seasonal cycle, with UHI being higher in summer (1 deg. C to 5 deg. C). The experiment with CLASS and TEB also simulate higher urban surface runoff as a result of reduced infiltration. Comparison of surface energy fluxes from the urban and rural surfaces were also performed. As expected, results show higher sensible heat flux for urban regions and reduced latent heat flux due to reduced vegetation, and the presence of impervious surface. Following this, TEB has been implemented in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), and this paper will also present some preliminary results related to the impact of urban regions on the regional climate over the same study domain.

  2. Impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning over east North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuma, G. F.; Sushama, L.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, two experiments were performed for an east North American domain to assess the impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning. The first experiment is performed with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which treats urban regions as areas of bare soil with a high roughness length. The second experiment is similar to the first experiment, except that the urban regions are modelled using the single layer urban canopy model, TEB (Town Energy Balance). Results show that urban heat island (UHI; defined here as the surface temperature difference between urban and non-urban fractions of a given cell and simulation) is reasonably well simulated by the CLASS+TEB experiment. The UHI exhibits seasonal cycle, with UHI being higher in summer (1oC to 5oC). The experiment with CLASS and TEB also simulate higher urban surface runoff as a result of reduced infiltration. Comparison of surface energy fluxes from the urban and rural surfaces were also performed. As expected, results show higher sensible heat flux for urban regions and reduced latent heat flux due to reduced vegetation, and the presence of impervious surface. Following this, TEB has been implemented in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), and this paper will also present some preliminary results related to the impact of urban regions on the regional climate over the same study domain.

  3. North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Producing Regional Climate Change Projections for Climate Impacts Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R. W.; Mearns, L.; Anderson, C.; Bader, D.; Buonomo, E.; Caya, D.; Duffy, P.; Elguindi, N.; Giorgi, F.; Gutowski, W.; Held, I.; Nunes, A.; Jones, R.; Laprise, R.; Leung, L. R.; Middleton, D.; Moufouma-Okia, W.; Nychka, D.; Qian, Y.; Roads, J.; Sain, S.; Snyder, M.; Sloan, L.; Takle, E.

    2006-12-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is constructing projections of regional climate change over the coterminous United States and Canada in order to provide climate change information at decision relevant scales. A major goal of NARCCAP is to estimate uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate by using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within multiple atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). NARCCAP is using six nested regional climate models at 50 km resolution to dynamically downscale realizations of current climate (1971-2000) and future climate (2041-2070, following the A2 SRES emission scenario) from four AOGCMs. Global time slice simulations, also at 50 km resolution, will be performed using the GFDL AM2.1 and NCAR CAM3 atmospheric models forced by the AOGCM sea surface temperatures and will be compared with results of the regional models. Results from this multiple-RCM, multiple-AOGCM suite will be statistically analyzed to investigate the cascade of uncertainty as one type of model draws information from another. All output will be made available to the climate analysis and climate impacts assessment communities through an archiving and data distribution plan. The climate impacts community will have these data at unprecedented spatial and temporal (hourly to six-hourly) resolution to support decision-relevant evaluations for public policy. As part of our evaluation of uncertainties, simulations are presently being concluded that nest the participating RCMs within reanalyses of observations. These simulations can be viewed as nesting the RCMs within a GCM that is nearly perfect (constrained by available observations), allowing us to separate errors attributable to the RCMs from those attributable to the driving AOGCMs. Results to date indicate that skill is greater in winter than in summer, and greater for temperature than for precipitation. Temperature and precipitation errors

  4. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  5. Comparative analysis of threshold rainfall-runoff response of small catchments in North Carolina's Piedmont region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, A. L.; Kuntukova, K.; Fu, C.; Dreps, C.; Sun, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recent catchment hydrologic studies have focused on examination of a threshold rainfall-runoff response of hillslopes and small catchments. This threshold response, where runoff generated by a catchment shows a strong nonlinear change as a function of a combined metric of antecedent storage and storm size is of particular interest as it has been proposed as a common or shared behavior. In this study, we analyzed rainfall-runoff data and a series of antecedent storage metrics from five catchments (10-30 ha in size) in North Carolina's Piedmont region for evidence of threshold response. Although located within five miles of each other, the five catchments represent two groupings of catchments with strongly contrasting terrain characteristics, defined here by differences in soils, topography and drainage density. Despite these differences, results showed that each catchment exhibits a clear threshold rainfall-runoff response. Using these experimental results, we have begun to examine whether distributed hydrologic models can capture this shared behavior across sites. The threshold response quantified here and by similar studies offers an interesting summary of catchment response under changing combinations of storm size and antecedent moisture conditions, both variables possibly affected by climate change. In the case of the Triangle area of the Piedmont region of North Carolina, a region that is undergoing increasingly rapid urbanization, these catchments also represent landscape critical to the long term sustainable development of the Falls Lake reservoir, the drinking water source for over half a million people.

  6. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Climate Change Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.

    2011-12-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) and multiple global model responses by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with a medium-high emissions scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within the NCEP reanalysis R2. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes six different RCMs that have been used in various intercomparison programs in Europe and the United States. Four different AOGCMs provide boundary conditions to drive the RCMS for 30 years in the current climate and 30 years for the mid 21st century. The resulting climate model simulations form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts and adaptation assessments over North America. Eleven of the planned 12 sets of current and future simulations have been completed. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple simulations are being developed by geophysical statisticians. In this overview talk, results from the climate change experiments for various subregions, along with measures of uncertainty, will be presented.

  7. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Climate Change Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.

    2012-12-01

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) and multiple global model responses by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with a medium-high emissions scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within the NCEP reanalysis R2. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes six different RCMs that have been used in various intercomparison programs in Europe and the United States. Four different AOGCMs provide boundary conditions to drive the RCMS for 30 years in the current climate and 30 years for the mid 21st century. The resulting climate model simulations form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts and adaptation assessments over North America. All 12 sets of current and future simulations have been completed. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple simulations are being developed by geophysical statisticians. In this overview talk, results from the various climate change experiments for various subregions, along with measures of uncertainty, will be presented

  8. Regional measurements of methane fluxes and methane isotopologues in the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Dumas, E.; Dobosy, R.; Baker, B.; Langford, J.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid changes in the Arctic climate, exemplified by the decrease in end of summer sea ice, require regional understanding of changes in the Arctic system. Due to the inaccessibility of much of the Arctic region in situ aircraft measurements are well suited to providing a high spatial resolution map of a changing Arctic. We present here measurements of methane emissions from thermokarst lakes and melting permafrost in the North Slope region of Alaska. These measurements were acquired during the summer 2013 mission of the Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL) instrument suite using the Aurora Flight Sciences' Centaur aircraft. The FOCAL payload combines the Anderson Group's (Harvard University) Carbon spectrometers for measuring the concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and water vapor and the carbon isotopologues of methane and carbon dioxide with the NOAA Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD) Best Air Turbulence (BAT) probe for measuring the turbulent winds from a moving aircraft. Together these allow for the measurement of trace gas fluxes. The measurements were obtained by flying low (~10 m altitude) over the North Slope.

  9. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  10. Structure of North Atlantic upper mantle based on gravity modelling, regional geochemistry and tectonic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2016-04-01

    We study the link between deep geodynamic processes and their surface expression in the North Atlantic region which has an anomalous, complex structure compared to other oceans. We calculate a model of residual mantle gravity between the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and Svalbard. The calculations are based on GOCE satellite data the regional crustal model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013) ; for the crustal and topography effects, and the global totpgraphy and bathymetry model ETOPO1 from NOAA (Amante and Eakis, 2009). Results are complemented by sensitivity analysis of the various parameters' effects on the models. Our results identify strong heterogeneity in the upper mantle residual gravity, expressed as a sharp contrasts at the continent-ocean transition, positive mantle gravity below the continental blocks and negative - below oceanic blocks; the MOR has low-gravity anomaly. By introducing regional geochemical data and analysis of the tectonical history, we identify a strong correlation between residual mantle gravity anomalies and geochemical anomalies in ɛNd and Mg#. This analysis identifies three zones of North Atlantic mantle based on the correlation between upper mantle gravity and ocean floor age. In the area around Iceland, the residual mantle gravity is systematically lower than predicted from the half-space cooling model, and we estimate the thermal anomaly that could cause this shift.

  11. Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Sain, Steve; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; McGinnis, Seth; Biner, S.; Caya, Daniel; Arritt, R.; Gutowski, William; Takle, Eugene S.; Snyder, Mark A.; Jones, Richard; Nunes, A M B.; Tucker, S.; Herzmann, D.; McDaniel, Larry; Sloan, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of the domain in winter and greater decreases across a swath of the central part in summer, compared to the four GCMs driving the regional models as well as to the full set of CMIP3 GCM results. We pose some possible process-level mechanisms for the difference in intensity of change, particularly for summer. Detailed process-level studies will be necessary to establish mechanisms and credibility of these results. The GCMs explain more variance for winter temperature and the RCMs for summer temperature. The same is true for precipitation patterns. Thus, we recommend that future RCM-GCM experiments over this region include a balanced number of GCMs and RCMs.

  12. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.

    2016-11-01

    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 < M L < 5.6). The extended coda normalization method (CNM) was used to estimate quality factor of P (Q P) and S waves (Q S) at seven frequency bands (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 Hz). The Q P and Q S values have been estimated at lapse times from 40 to 100 s. It has been observed that the estimated values of Q P and Q S are time independent; therefore, the mean values of Q P and Q S at different lapse times have been considered. The frequency dependence of quality factor was determined by using a power-law relationship. The frequency-dependent relationship for Q P was estimated in the form of (62 ± 7)f (1.03 ± 0.07) and (48 ± 5)f (0.95 ± 0.07) in Alborz region and North Central Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8)f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5)f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.

  13. Response of the North American monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, John A.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Addison, Jason A.

    2012-09-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM), an onshore wind shift occurring between July and September, has evolved in character during the Holocene largely due to changes in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Published paleoproxy and modeling studies suggest that prior to ˜8000 cal years BP, the NAM affected a broader region than today, extending westward into the Mojave Desert of California. Holocene proxy SST records from the Gulf of California (GoC) and the adjacent Pacific provide constraints for this changing NAM climatology. Prior to ˜8000 cal years BP, lower GoC SSTs would not have fueled northward surges of tropical moisture up the GoC, which presently contribute most of the monsoon precipitation to the western NAM region. During the early Holocene, the North Pacific High was further north and SSTs in the California Current off Baja California were warmer, allowing monsoonal moisture flow from the subtropical Pacific to take a more direct, northwesterly trajectory into an expanded area of the southwestern U.S. west of 114°W. A new upwelling record off southwest Baja California reveals that enhanced upwelling in the California Current beginning at ˜7500 cal year BP may have triggered a change in NAM climatology, focusing the geographic expression of NAM in the southwest USA into its modern core region east of ˜114°W, in Arizona and New Mexico. Holocene proxy precipitation records from the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, including lakes, vegetation/pollen, and caves are reviewed and found to be largely supportive of this hypothesis of changing Holocene NAM climatology.

  14. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.

    2017-07-01

    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 < M L < 5.6). The extended coda normalization method (CNM) was used to estimate quality factor of P ( Q P) and S waves ( Q S) at seven frequency bands (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 Hz). The Q P and Q S values have been estimated at lapse times from 40 to 100 s. It has been observed that the estimated values of Q P and Q S are time independent; therefore, the mean values of Q P and Q S at different lapse times have been considered. The frequency dependence of quality factor was determined by using a power-law relationship. The frequency-dependent relationship for Q P was estimated in the form of (62 ± 7) f (1.03 ± 0.07) and (48 ± 5) f (0.95 ± 0.07) in Alborz region and North Central Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8) f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5) f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.

  15. Response of the North American monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Addison, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM), an onshore wind shift occurring between July and September, has evolved in character during the Holocene largely due to changes in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Published paleoproxy and modeling studies suggest that prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, the NAM affected a broader region than today, extending westward into the Mojave Desert of California. Holocene proxy SST records from the Gulf of California (GoC) and the adjacent Pacific provide constraints for this changing NAM climatology. Prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, lower GoC SSTs would not have fueled northward surges of tropical moisture up the GoC, which presently contribute most of the monsoon precipitation to the western NAM region. During the early Holocene, the North Pacific High was further north and SSTs in the California Current off Baja California were warmer, allowing monsoonal moisture flow from the subtropical Pacific to take a more direct, northwesterly trajectory into an expanded area of the southwestern U.S. west of 114°W. A new upwelling record off southwest Baja California reveals that enhanced upwelling in the California Current beginning at ∼7500 cal year BP may have triggered a change in NAM climatology, focusing the geographic expression of NAM in the southwest USA into its modern core region east of ∼114°W, in Arizona and New Mexico. Holocene proxy precipitation records from the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, including lakes, vegetation/pollen, and caves are reviewed and found to be largely supportive of this hypothesis of changing Holocene NAM climatology.

  16. Regional distribution models with lack of proximate predictors: Africanized honeybees expanding north

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L.A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species–environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  17. Uranus in 2012 from HST STIS: Methane depletion in north polar region indicates nonseasonal origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Patrick M.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Karkoschka, E.; de Pater, I.; Rages, K. A.; Hammel, H. B.

    2013-10-01

    On 28 September 2012, Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observed Uranus (GO 12894, L. Sromovsky PI). The result is a hyperspectral data cube of one half of the planet with spectral coverage of 300-1000 nm. The observations were designed to characterize latitudinally (from about 50 deg S to the north pole) the vertical structure of aerosols and global distribution of methane after the planet's 2007 equinox. These observations form a unique counterpart to similar observations made in 2002 (GO 9035, E. Karkoschka PI) when Uranus' south pole was in view. In 2002, Uranus was found to have a depletion of methane in southern mid-to-high latitudes (Karkoschka and Tomasko 2009, Icarus 202, 287-309; Sromovsky et al. 2011, Icarus 215, 292-312). Characterizing this distribution is possible by the simultaneous sounding of both hydrogen and methane spectral absorption regions (hydrogen CIA peaks near 825 nm). As Uranus' northern hemisphere came into view, it became apparent from near-IR observations of the troposphere (sensing to about 10 bars), that the north and south hemispheres were asymmetric in brightness, and that unexpectedly rapid seasonal changes were taking place (Sromovsky et al. 2009, Icarus 203, 265-286). The north polar region also has what appear to be many small convective features poleward of 60 deg N, in stark contrast to the south polar region (Sromovsky et al. 2012, Icarus 220, 694-712). Sromovsky et al. 2012 speculated this difference could be due to a seasonally-forced methane abundance asymmetry. However, 2007 NICMOS F108N and Keck NIRC2 PaBeta (1271 nm) equinox imagery suggest that the north polar region is also depleted in methane, as do 2009 IRTF SpeX observations (Tice et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 684-698). We can now confirm this northern hemispheric methane depletion appears symmetric rather than a seasonal phenomenon, thanks to the new STIS observations with an excellent view of Uranus northern latitudes. We will also present

  18. Regional Distribution Models with Lack of Proximate Predictors: Africanized Honeybees Expanding North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L. A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species-environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  19. Regional seesaw between the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas during the last glacial abrupt climate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wary, Mélanie; Eynaud, Frédérique; Swingedouw, Didier; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Matthiessen, Jens; Kissel, Catherine; Zumaque, Jena; Rossignol, Linda; Jouzel, Jean

    2017-06-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations constitute one of the most enigmatic features of the last glacial cycle. Their cold atmospheric phases have been commonly associated with cold sea-surface temperatures and expansion of sea ice in the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. Here, based on dinocyst analyses from the 48-30 ka interval of four sediment cores from the northern Northeast Atlantic and southern Norwegian Sea, we provide direct and quantitative evidence of a regional paradoxical seesaw pattern: cold Greenland and North Atlantic phases coincide with warmer sea-surface conditions and shorter seasonal sea-ice cover durations in the Norwegian Sea as compared to warm phases. Combined with additional palaeorecords and multi-model hosing simulations, our results suggest that during cold Greenland phases, reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and cold North Atlantic sea-surface conditions were accompanied by the subsurface propagation of warm Atlantic waters that re-emerged in the Nordic Seas and provided moisture towards Greenland summit.

  20. GCM simulations of intraseasonal variability in the Pacific/North American region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Park, Chung-Kyu; Moorthi, Shrinivas

    1993-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) simulations of low-frequency variability with time scales of 20 to 70 days are analyzed for the Pacific sector during boreal winter. The GCM's leading mode in the upper-tropospheric zonal wind is associated with fluctuations of the East Asian jet; this mode resembles, in both structure and amplitude, the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern found in the observations on these time scales. In both the model and observations, the PNA anomaly is characterized by: (1) a linear balance in the upper-tropospheric vorticity budget with no significant Rossby wave source in the tropics, (2) a barotropic conversion of kinetic energy from the time mean Pacific jet, and (3) a north/south displacement of the Pacific storm track. In the GCM, the latter is associated with synoptic eddy heat flux and latent heat anomalies that appear to contribute to a strong lower-tropospheric source of wave activity over the North Pacific. This is in contrast to the observations, which show only a weak source of wave activity in this region.

  1. Erosion of the Laurentide region of North America by glacial and glaciofluvial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, M.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Collection of seismic reflection data from continental margins and ocean basins surrounding North America makes it possible to estimate the amount of material eroded from the area formerly covered by Laurentide ice sheets since major glaciation began in North America. A minimum estimate is made of 1.62 ?? 106 km3, or an average 120 m of rock physically eroded from the Laurentide region. This figure is an order of magnitude higher than earlier estimates based on the volume of glacial drift, Cenozoic marine sediments, and modern sediment loads of rivers. Most of the sediment produced during Laurentide glaciation has already been transported to the oceans. The importance of continental glaciation as a geomorphic agency in North America may have to be reevaluated. Evidence from sedimentation rates in ocean basins surrounding Greenland and Antarctica suggests that sediment production, sediment transport, and possibly denudation by permanent ice caps may be substantially lower than by periodic ice caps, such as the Laurentide. Low rates of sediment survival from the time of the Permo-Carboniferous and Precambrian glaciations suggest that predominance of marine deposition during some glacial epochs results in shorter lived sediment because of preferential tectonism and cycling of oceanic crust versus continental crust. ?? 1985.

  2. Low-frequency storminess signal at Bermuda linked to cooling events in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengstum, Peter J.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kingston, Andrew W.; Williams, Bruce E.; Scott, David B.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Little, Shawna N.; Patterson, William P.

    2015-02-01

    North Atlantic climate archives provide evidence for increased storm activity during the Little Ice Age (150 to 600 calibrated years (cal years) B.P.) and centered at 1700 and 3000 cal years B.P., typically in centennial-scale sedimentary records. Meteorological (tropical versus extratropical storms) and climate forcings of this signal remain poorly understood, although variability in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are frequently hypothesized to be involved. Here we present records of late Holocene storminess and coastal temperature change from a Bermudian submarine cave that is hydrographically circulated with the coastal ocean. Thermal variability in the cave is documented by stable oxygen isotope values of cave benthic foraminifera, which document a close linkage between regional temperature change and NAO phasing during the late Holocene. However, erosion of terrestrial sediment into the submarine cave provides a "storminess signal" that correlates with higher-latitude storminess archives and broader North Atlantic cooling events. Understanding the driver of this storminess signal will require higher-resolution storm records to disentangle the contribution of tropical versus extratropical cyclones and a better understanding of cyclone activity during hemispheric cooling periods. Most importantly, however, the signal in Bermuda appears more closely correlated with proxy-based evidence for subtle AMOC reductions than NAO phasing.

  3. Climate variability and land cover change over the North American monsoon region (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Scheftic, W. D.; Broxton, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    The North American Monsoon System over Mexico and southwestern United States represents a weather/climate and ecosystem coupled "macrosystem". The weather and climate affect the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem, while the ecosystem change affects surface energy, water, and carbon fluxes that, in turn, affect weather and climate. Furthermore, long-term weather/climate data have a much coarser horizontal resolution than the satellite land cover data. Here the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data at 32 km grid spacing will be combined with various satellite remote sensing products at 1 km and/or 8 km resolution from AVHRR, MODIS, and SPOT for the period of 1982 to present. Our analysis includes: a) precipitation, wind, and precipitable water data from NARR to characterize the North American monsoon; b) land cover type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green vegetation fraction, and leaf-area index (LAI) data to characterize the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem; c) assessing the consistency of various satellite products; and d) testing the coherence in the weather/climate and ecosystem variability.

  4. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  5. Abrupt climate variability in the North Atlantic region: Did the icebergs do it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, S.; Chen, J.; Gong, X.; Jonkers, L.; Knorr, G.; Thornalley, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present high resolution records of temperature and ice rafted debris over the last ~440Kyr from a sediment core retrieved from the NE Atlantic. Our records reveal that episodes of ice rafting typically occurred after abrupt cooling at the site. Because the site is sensitive to the earliest phases of ice rafting as recorded by other sites across the wider Atlantic, this suggests that icebergs were not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Moreover we find a different relationship between cooling and the arrival of rafted ice at a site ~750km to the SE of ours. We suggest that asynchronous cooling between these locations can be explained by the more gradual southward migration of the North Atlantic polar front. We describe a mechanism that can explain the occurrence of abrupt stadial events over Greenland as a non-linear response as regional cooling continues beyond the threshold necessary for sustaining ocean circulation in its 'warm' mode with active convection north of Iceland. Thus while the freshwater derived from melting icebergs may provide a positive feedback for enhancing and prolonging stadial conditions, it is probably not the trigger for northern stadial events.

  6. Regional seismic variations in the inner core under the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Deuss, A.

    2015-12-01

    An asymmetry between a nearly isotropic, faster `eastern' hemisphere and an anisotropic, slower `western' hemisphere in Earth's inner core has been revealed by previous seismic studies. However, it remains unclear if division of the inner core into just two hemispheres is too simplistic. Here, we carry out regional-scale tomography using a new body wave data set to study the hemisphere boundary region beneath the northern and central Pacific Ocean and North America. If anisotropy is not considered, then a hemispherical pattern seems to be present in the study region, though the hemisphere boundary appears to be irregular. However, once the presence of anisotropy is permitted we find that this region cannot be simply separated into an anisotropic western hemisphere and an isotropic eastern hemisphere; instead the strength of the anisotropy varies regionally. The global hemispherical pattern is not observed here, instead the strongest anisotropy is observed in the centre and south west of the study region. Some of the strongest anisotropy appears to be in the `eastern' inner core, while part of the inner core assumed to be in the western hemisphere shows weaker anisotropy. Thus, this part of the inner core displays complex variations in anisotropy which differ from a simple hemispherical division. We suggest that a long-lived global heterogeneity, such as uneven heat flow through the core-mantle boundary over a period of hundreds of millions of years, may be responsible for the observed pattern of inner core anisotropy.

  7. Ecosystem Rain-Use Efficiency in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, G.; Catani, F.; Castelli, F.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the climate change impacts on vegetation and its spatiotemporal patterns can improve our understanding of the interactions between ecologic, hydrologic and atmospheric dynamics. Due to its marked plant phenology driven by precipitation, the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) can serve to reveal ecological responses to climate change in water-controlled ecosystems. Oceanographic anomalies, related to interannual variability in the Pacific, affect the seasonal evolution of the NAMS via remote forcing of the synoptic-scale circulation, which in turn controls warm season climate over much of southwestern North America. To elucidate the effects of climate on vegetation dynamics during the NAMS, we analyze long-term rain-use efficiency (RUE) in the region. RUE is defined in this study as the ratio between satellite-derived net primary production (from AVHRR NDVI composites at 16-day, 8-km resolution) and precipitation (from CPC NOAA daily 1° gridded dataset) occurring during the summer greenness periods, from 1981 to 2006. We identify the following for a set of six diverse ecosystems in the region: (1) the long-term RUE and its interannual variability, (2) its variations with geographic position and topographic attributes, and (3) the correlation structure between RUE and Sea Surface Temperature anomalies in the Pacific. Results reveal ecosystem-specific variations with location and terrain characteristics, corroborating that topography strongly influences plant rain-use strategies in response to hydrologic variations. Linear trends in RUE, compared with vegetation phenology and precipitation dynamics, suggest a long-term signal imposed on the interannual variability. Rain-use efficiency shows modest but statistically significant influences of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the region. Spatiotemporal correlation patterns appear to be prevalently modulated by ecosystem-based biophysical memory and by regional climatic effects. Improved

  8. Process-based characterization of evapotranspiration sources over the North American monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Theodore J.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. We quantified the spatiotemporal variations of ET using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at 59 eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major sources of ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relationships with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to 1 month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. Based on the model performance, the VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region. Furthermore, spatiotemporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations, and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region with implications on land-atmosphere feedbacks.

  9. Regional carbon and CO2 budgets of North Sea tidal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volta, C.; Laruelle, G. G.; Regnier, P.

    2016-07-01

    This study presents the first regional application of the generic estuarine reactive-transport model C-GEM (Carbon-Generic Estuary Model) that is here combined with high-resolution databases to produce a carbon and CO2 budget for all tidal estuaries discharging into the North Sea. Steady-state simulations are performed for yearly-averaged conditions to quantify the carbon processing in the six main tidal estuaries Elbe, Ems, Humber, Scheldt, Thames, and Weser, which show contrasted physical and biogeochemical dynamics and contribute the most to the regional filter. The processing rates derived from these simulations are then extrapolated to the riverine carbon loads of all the other North Sea catchments intercepted by smaller tidal estuarine systems. The Rhine-Meuse estuarine system is also included in the carbon budget and overall, we calculate that the export of organic and inorganic carbon from tidal estuaries to the North sea amounts to 44 and 409 Gmol C yr-1, respectively, while 41 Gmol C are lost annually through CO2 outgassing. The carbon is mostly exported from the estuaries in its inorganic form (>90%), a result that reflects the low organic/inorganic carbon ratio of the riverine waters, as well as the very intense decomposition of organic carbon within the estuarine systems. Our calculations also reveal that with a filtering capacity of 15% for total carbon, the contribution of estuaries to the CO2 outgassing is relatively small. Organic carbon dynamics is dominated by heterotrophic degradation, which also represents the most important contribution to the estuarine CO2 evasion. Nitrification only plays a marginal role in the CO2 dynamics, while the contribution of riverine oversaturated waters to the CO2 outgassing is generally significant and strongly varies across systems.

  10. A quantification of methane emissions from the Bakken shale play region of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Karion, A.; Aikin, K. C.; Kort, E. A.; Newberger, T.; Smith, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Trainer, M.; Wolter, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas extracted from shale formations accounts for 40% of the domestic U.S. natural gas supply. Although natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide per energy produced than other fossil fuels, this climate benefit may be offset by the methane emitted to the atmosphere through leaks in the natural gas production and distribution infrastructure. To better understand the climate impacts of the oil and natural gas extracted from the Bakken shale play in North Dakota, we present airborne measurements of methane taken over this region aboard a NOAA Twin Otter aircraft during Spring 2014. Using the mass balance technique, we estimate methane emissions from the region with four flights intended for this purpose in May 2014. We further attribute these methane emissions to the oil and gas industry using measurements of ethane and other hydrocarbons aboard the Twin Otter.

  11. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún

    2016-09-01

    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes.

  13. Source characterization of selected North Caspian events from the relative excitation of regional phases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Seismograms of seven recent events (presumed underground nuclear explosions) which occurred during 1976-1979 in the North Caspian Sea region of the western Soviet Kazakh are compared at regional distances for their relative source excitation characteristics. The body wave magnitude estimates of these events range from 5.1 to 6.0. The data consist of analog and digital records collected at stations ranging in instrumental sophistication from temporary sites with single component smoke drum capability to those of SRO, ASRO and array (ILPA) configurations with digitally recorded down-hole observations. The amplitude and frequency measurements of the analog seismograms for the first arrival and the peak amplitude of P coda as well as for the clear S wave signals recorded for different events at the same station are compared.

  14. Mapping wetlands and surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America: Chapter 16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rover, Jennifer R.; Mushet, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is one of the most highly productive wetland regions in the world. Prairie Pothole wetlands serve as a primary feeding and breeding habitat for more than one-half of North America’s waterfowl population, as well as a variety of songbirds, waterbirds, shorebirds, and other wildlife. During the last century, extensive land conversions from grassland with wetlands to cultivated cropland and grazed pastureland segmented and reduced wetland habitat. Inventorying and characterizing remaining wetland habitat is critical for the management of wetland ecosystem services. Remote sensing technologies are often utilized for mapping and monitoring wetlands. This chapter presents background specific to the PPR and discusses approaches employed in mapping its wetlands before presenting a case study.

  15. North Atlantic Oscillation-related climate variability in a regional atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previdi, Michael; Veron, Dana E.

    2005-08-01

    Climate variability over the Greenland ice sheet associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is simulated with the Polar MM5 (PMM5) regional climate model (RCM). Two five-member monthly ensembles, each representative of high or low NAO extremes, are made, with data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40) used to provide the forcing for the RCM runs. Ensemble differences between the high and low NAO cases are discussed, and model output is compared to ERA-40 and to observations from automatic weather stations over Greenland. PMM5 is shown to reproduce several well-known features of NAO-related climate variability in the Greenland region, including colder near-surface air temperatures, lower sea level pressure, stronger westerly winds south of Greenland, and reduced precipitation over western Greenland and the Labrador Sea during high NAO months.

  16. Integration of groundwater information into decision making for regional planning: a portrait for North America.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Roxane; Lebel, Alexandre; Joerin, Florent; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater is widely used as a source of drinking water in North America. However, it can be contaminated by microbial or chemical agents potentially hazardous to human health. In recent decades, governments have developed better knowledge of groundwater and established measures to protect and preserve the resource. Several studies have shown that relevant information on groundwater might prove very useful for regional planning purposes. However, there is little information on how groundwater information contributes to decision making in urban and regional planning in Canada and the United States. The objective of this study is to explore the level of use of groundwater information for land use planning purposes in Canada and the United States and to identify the factors that may explain why some provinces or states are more proactive than others when it comes to using such data for groundwater protection purposes. This paper presents the results of a survey sent across North America to groundwater information producers. The resulting data from the survey were examined using descriptive analyses and multiple correspondence analysis, and illustrate how groundwater data can be integrated into land planning.

  17. Steep declines in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Lars O.; Granat, Lennart; Likens, Gene E.; Adri Buishand, T.; Galloway, James N.; Butler, Thomas J.; Rodhe, Henning

    1994-01-01

    HUMAN activities have caused marked changes in atmospheric chemistry over large regions of Europe and North America. Although considerable attention has been paid to the effects of changes in the deposition of acid anions (such as sulphate and nitrate) on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems1-7, little is known about whether the concentrations of basic components of the atmosphere have changed over time8,9 and what the biogeochemical consequences of such potential changes might be. In particular, there has been some controversy8-12 as to whether declines in base-cation deposition have countered effects of recent reductions in SO2emission. Here we report evidence for steep declines in the atmospheric concentrations of base cations (sum of non-sea-salt Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) over the past 10 to 26 years from high-quality precipitation chemistry records in Europe and North America. To varying but generally significant degrees, these base-cation trends have offset recent reductions in sulphate deposition in the regions examined. The observed trends seem to be ecologically important on decadal timescales, and support earlier contentions8-10 that declines in the deposition of base cations may have contributed to increased sensitivity of poorly buffered ecosystems.

  18. An evaluation of the North Sea circulation in global and regional models relevant for ecosystem simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätsch, Johannes; Burchard, Hans; Dieterich, Christian; Gräwe, Ulf; Gröger, Matthias; Mathis, Moritz; Kapitza, Hartmut; Bersch, Manfred; Moll, Andreas; Pohlmann, Thomas; Su, Jian; Ho-Hagemann, Ha T. M.; Schulz, Achim; Elizalde, Alberto; Eden, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Simulations of the North Sea circulation by the global ocean model MPI-OM and the regional ocean models GETM, HAMSOM, NEMO, TRIM are compared against each other and with observational data for the period 1998-2009. The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of the simulations in particular with respect to their suitability to drive biogeochemical shelf sea models. Our results demonstrate the benefit of the global model to avoid the specification of lateral open boundary conditions. Due to its stretched grid configuration, which provides a higher grid resolution at the Northwest European Shelf, the global model is able to reproduce the large-scale features, such as the water mass distribution and the thermal stratification in the central and northern North Sea, qualitatively similar to the regional models. The simulation of temperature and salinity near the coast however, shows large biases in almost all models because of the coarse meteorological forcing and too coarse vertical resolutions. The simulation of the Baltic Sea exchange and the spread of freshwater along the Norwegian coast proved difficult for all models except GETM, which reproduces impacts of the Baltic Sea outflow reasonably well.

  19. Forecast Verification for North American Mesoscale (NAM) Operational Model over Karst/Non-Karst regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Z.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Karst is defined as a landscape that contains especially soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, and marble in which caves, underground water systems, over-time sinkholes, vertical shafts, and subterranean river systems form. The cavities and voids within a karst system affect the hydrology of the region and, consequently, can affect the moisture and energy budget at surface, the planetary boundary layer development, convection, and precipitation. Carbonate karst landscapes comprise about 40% of land areas over the continental U.S east of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Currently, due to the lack of knowledge of the effects karst has on the atmosphere, no existing weather model has the capability to represent karst landscapes and to simulate its impact. One way to check the impact of a karst region on the atmosphere is to check the performance of existing weather models over karst and non-karst regions. The North American Mesoscale (NAM) operational forecast is the best example, of which historical forecasts were archived. Variables such as precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature, dew point, evapotranspiration, and surface winds were taken into account when checking the model performance over karst versus non-karst regions. The forecast verification focused on a five-year period from 2007-2011. Surface station observations, gridded observational dataset, and North American Regional Reanalysis (for certain variables with insufficient observations) were used. Thirteen regions of differing climate, size, and landscape compositions were chosen across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the investigation. Equitable threat score (ETS), frequency bias (fBias), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores were calculated and analyzed for precipitation. RMSE and mean bias (Bias) were analyzed for other variables. ETS, fBias, and RMSE scores show generally a pattern of lower forecast skills, a greater magnitude of error, and a greater under prediction of precipitation over karst than

  20. Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Regional Climate Impact over Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalth, H. K.; Stenchikov, G.; Zampieri, M.; Bantges, R.; Brindley, H.

    2012-04-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a unique region due in part to the abundance of atmospheric aerosols and their significant contribution to the energy balance of the region. Mineral dust plays a leading role in this process. In this study we evaluate the radiative forcing of dust aerosols in the MENA region and their impact on the regional circulation and temperature distribution using a global high-resolution atmospheric model HIRAM developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We found that dust aerosols reduce downward radiative fluxes at surface up to 30 W/m2 and warm by about this amount the lower five-km-deep atmospheric layer. To better quantify radiative impact of aerosols we have employed the available aerosol satellite observations that primarily provide column integral aerosol optical depth (AOD), as a measure of aerosol burden. Climatology of AOD from different satellites (MODIS, MISR, SEVIRI and CALIPSO) over MENA and their inter comparison is made to have a comprehension of the discrepancies and agreement between them. Though the observed AODs vary among the different instruments spatially and temporally, the difference falls within a factor of less than two. We implement these observed aerosols in HIRAM. The radiative forcing corresponding to the satellite aerosol observation and the sensitivity of regional climate to this forcing are analyzed. The analysis shows that the differential heating in the vertical and the corresponding response of the vertical temperature profile have a profound impact on the tropospheric dynamics and the structure of the boundary layer.

  1. A full holocene tephrochronology for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region: Applications from Kamchatka to North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, Vera; Portnyagin, Maxim; Pendea, I. Florin; Zelenin, Egor; Bourgeois, Joanne; Pinegina, Tatiana; Kozhurin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    Geochemically fingerprinted widespread tephra layers serve as excellent marker horizons which can directly link and synchronize disparate sedimentary archives and be used for dating various deposits related to climate shifts, faulting events, tsunami, and human occupation. In addition, tephras represent records of explosive volcanic activity and permit assessment of regional ashfall hazard. In this paper we report a detailed Holocene tephrochronological model developed for the Kamchatsky Peninsula region of eastern Kamchatka (NW Pacific) based on ∼2800 new electron microprobe analyses of single glass shards from tephra samples collected in the area as well as on previously published data. Tephra ages are modeled based on a compilation of 223 14C dates, including published dates for Shiveluch proximal tephra sequence and regional marker tephras; new AMS 14C dates; and modeled calibrated ages from the Krutoberegovo key site. The main source volcanoes for tephra in the region are Shiveluch and Kliuchevskoi located 60-100 km to the west. In addition, local tephra sequences contain two tephras from the Plosky volcanic massif and three regional marker tephras from Ksudach and Avachinsky volcanoes located in the Eastern volcanic front of Kamchatka. This tephrochronological framework contributes to the combined history of environmental change, tectonic events, and volcanic impact in the study area and farther afield. This study is another step in the construction of the Kamchatka-wide Holocene tephrochronological framework under the same methodological umbrella. Our dataset provides a research reference for tephra and cryptotephra studies in the northwest Pacific, the Bering Sea, and North America.

  2. Regional Kappa Models on North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey) and Their Use in Ground Motion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    karimzadeh Naghshineh, S.; Askan, A.; Sisman, F. N. N.

    2015-12-01

    One approach to model the high-frequency attenuation of spectral amplitudes of S-waves is to express the observed exponential decay in terms of Kappa factor. Kappa is a significant parameter used for identifying the high frequency attenuation behavior of ground motions as well as one of the key parameters for stochastic strong ground motion simulation method. Recently, it has been also used in adjusting ground motion predictions from one region to another. Currently, other than a previous study by the authors, there are no detailed studies on kappa using Turkish strong ground motion datasets. In this study, with the objective of deriving regional kappa models, we examine ground motion datasets from different regions in Turkey with varying source properties, site classes and epicentral distances. Statistical tools are used to investigate the dependency of kappa on these parameters. In addition, potential correlations between kappa and Vs30 values of the stations are also studied. Main findings of this study are regional kappa models on North Anatolian Fault zone. Finally, we also present high-frequency strong motion simulations of past events in the selected regions using the proposed kappa models. Regardless of the magnitude, source-to-site distance and local site conditions at the stations, the high-frequency spectral decay is simulated effectively.

  3. Late quaternary temporal and event classifications, Great Lakes region, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W.H.; Hansel, A.K.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Karrow, P.F.; Larson, G.J.; Lowell, T.V.; Schneider, Allan F.

    1997-01-01

    Several temporal and event classifications are used for the Quaternary glacial and interglacial record in the Great Lakes region of North America. Although based on contrasting principles, the classifications, as practiced, are similar to one another in most respects and they differ little from the classification proposed by Chamberlin a century ago. All are based on stratigraphic units having time-transgressive boundaries; thus the associated time spans and events are diachronous. Where application of geochronologic classification based on isochronous boundaries is not practical or useful, we advocate the use of diachronic principles to establish local and regional temporal and event classifications. Diachronic and event classifications based on such principles are proposed herein for the Great Lakes region. Well-established names, including Wisconsin, Sangamon, and Illinois, are used at the episode (or glaciation/interglaciation) rank without significant redefinition. The Hudson Episode (Interglaciation) is introduced for postglacial time, the current interglacial interval. The Wisconsin Episode is divided into the Ontario, Elgin, and Michigan Subepisodes in the eastern and northern parts of the Great Lakes region and into the Athens and Michigan Subepisodes in the southern and western parts of the Great Lakes region. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  4. Effects of double cropping on summer climate of the North China Plain and neighbouring regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural regions in Asia and produces up to 50% of the cereal consumed in China each year. To meet increasing food demands without expanding croplands, annual agricultural practice in much of the NCP has changed from single to double cropping. The impact of double cropping on the regional climate, through biophysical feedbacks caused by changes in land surface conditions, remains largely unknown. Here we show that observed surface air temperatures during the inter-cropping season (June and July) are 0.40 °C higher over double cropping regions (DCRs) than over single cropping regions (SCRs), with increases in the daily maximum temperature as large as 1.02 °C. Using regional climate modelling, we attribute the higher temperatures in DCRs to reduced evapotranspiration during the inter-cropping period. The higher surface temperatures in June and July affect low-level circulation and, in turn, rainfall associated with the East Asian monsoon over the NCP and neighbouring countries. These findings suggest that double cropping in the NCP can amplify the magnitude of summertime climate changes over East Asia.

  5. Summer temperatures across northern North America: Regional reconstructions from 1760 using tree-ring densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briffa, K. R.; Jones, P. D.; Schweingruber, F. H.

    1994-12-01

    Using maximum latewood density data from a network of coniferous trees, annually resolved series of average summer half-year (April-September) temperatures have been reconstructed for three regions of North America: Alaska and the Yukon (ALAYUK), the Mackenzie valley (MACKVA), and Quebec and Labrador (QUEBLA). The reconstructions primarily express temperature variability on interannual-to-decadal timescales and extend over the period from AD 1760. These reconstructions represent an extension of the mean climate history for these regions of over 100 years. The ALAYUK series shows relatively wann summers dominating the 1770s and 1820s. The 1760s, 1810s, 1860s, and 1890s were cold; 1810 was the coldest summer over the whole region, though it was very cold in 1783 in the extreme northwest. In MACKVA the 1780s and 1790s were warm, while the 1810s, 1830s, and late 1880s were cool. The summer of 1862 was exceptionally warm and 1836 was notably cold. In QUEBLA the 1800s, 1820s, and late 1890s were relatively warm, while the 1760s and 1810s were particularly cool. The summers of 1816 and 1817 were extremely cold. The dates of the extreme cold summers in each series emphasize the strong volcanic influence on extreme high-latitude temperatures. However, the reconstructions also highlight the large regional differences in the magnitude of this influence. The severity and spatial extent of severe conditions across western North America in the summer of 1810 supports earlier hypotheses of a major volcanic eruption in 1809 for which there is no historical evidence.

  6. [B chromosome polymorphism of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) from the north-western region of Russia].

    PubMed

    Chubareva, L A; Petrova, N A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied karyofonds of natural populations and B-chromosome morphology of 8 species of blackflies from the North-Western region of Russia: Odagmia ornata Mg., Hellichiella crassa Rubz., Simulium morsitans Edw., Simulium argyreatum Mg., Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duo-decimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. For this purpose we made slides of squashed blackflies larvae with salivary gland polytene chromosomes stained by aceto-orcein, in addition to similarly stained slides with mitotic chromosomes from gonads and ganglia. Morphology of polytene B-chromosomes of Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. has been first described. B-chromosome polymorphism was found in all species, but the number of B chromosomes was conserved within each differences in polytene individual. Stable and distinct interspecific differences in the morphology of polytene B-chromosomes were demonstrated, and these characters are advisable to use to distinguish the species. We have investigated for the first time karyofonds of Od. ornata populations from Arkhangelsk Region (Solovetskie Islands) and Leningrad Region (railway station Sablino), and those of S. argyreatum populations from Murmansk Region (Kandalaksha environs) and Karelia (railway station Chupa). A long term study of Od. ornata and S. argyrestum population from North-Western Russia revealed interspecific and interpopulation dynamics of the occurrence of specimens with B-chromosomes. Some populations showed an increased percentage of individuals with B-chromosomes. It is suggested that B-chromosomes may play a role in adaptation of polulations to severe environmental conditions.

  7. Understanding Dominant Tracks of Moisture for the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Rajagopalan, B.; Ray, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Summer monsoon rains contribute more than half of the total annual rainfall in the semi-arid region of Southwest United States, also providing important input to river systems like the Colorado River. The North American Monsoon region or Southwest United States experiences great climatic variability on a range of spatial and temporal scales. This region has also been experiencing significant climate and hydroclimate changes over the last few years. Understanding the interannual variability of moisture delivery in this region will help in natural resources management such as water resources, ecology, etc.. In this study, we investigate the major sources of moisture and their interannual variability during the monsoon season. To this end we selected eight locations in the region from the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah to cover the monsoon region of U.S and generated backward moisture trajectories for each wet day during the monsoon season (Jun-Sep) over the historical period 1964-2013, using the HYSPLIT model developed by NOAA. The tracks show clear source preferences. Gulf of Mexico is the dominant source for south eastern part of the domain, Gulf of California is dominant for the south western domain, a combination of these for regions in between and the Pacific provides the source for northern part of the domain. Decreasing trends in the frequency of the dominant moisture source events corresponds well with the decreasing trends in the rainfall over the domain. The frequencies when correlated with large scale climate variables indicate coherent patterns in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Furthermore, the population means for each source during El Nino and La Nina years were found to be significantly different. Since the moisture from the dominant sources is also responsible for causing extreme rainfall in this region, these trajectories will provide potential predictability of monsoon rainfall and extremes.

  8. Support and services provided by public health regional surveillance teams to Local Health Departments in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; Meyer, Anne Marie; Macdonald, Pia D M

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001, many states have created regional structures in an effort to better coordinate/public health preparedness and response efforts, consolidate services, and supplement local government capacity. While several studies have identified specific benefits to regionalization, including enhanced networking, coordination, and communication, little research has examined the effect of regionalization on specific preparedness and response activities. To better understand the impact of regionalizing public health workforce assets in North Carolina, a survey aimed at documenting specific support and services that Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams(PHRSTs) provide to local health departments (LHDs) was developed and administered by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center, located at the North Carolina Institute for Public Health. Of80 potential types of assistance, 26 (33%) were received by 75% or more LHDs, including 9 related to communication and 7 related to exercises. There was significant variation by PHRST region in both the quantity and quality of support and services reported by LHDs. This variation could not be explained by county- or LHD-level variables. PHRST assistance to LHDs is largely focused on communication and liaison activities, regional exercises, and planning. On the basis of these findings, regionalization may provide North Carolina with benefits consistent with those found in other studies such as improved networking and coordination. However, further research is needed to identify whether regional variation is the result of varying capacity or priorities of the PHRSTs or LHDs and to determine how much variation is acceptable.

  9. Regional patterns of sea level change in the German North Sea in a worldwide context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Thomas; Frank, Torsten; Jensen, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) is one of the major consequences we are facing in times of a warming climate and it is obvious that a higher sea level influences the heights of occurring storm surges and thus results in a higher risk of inundation for the affected coastal areas. Therefore, regional and global sea level rise are subjects to many recent scientific publications. In contrast, the mean sea level (MSL) and its variability over the last centuries in the German North Sea area have not been analysed in detail up to now. A methodology to analyse observed sea level rise (SLR) in the German Bight, the shallow south-eastern part of the North Sea, is presented. The contribution focuses on the description of the methods used to generate and analyse high quality mean sea level (MSL) time series. Parametric fitting approaches as well as non-parametric data adaptive filters, such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) are applied. For padding non-stationary sea level time series, an advanced approach named Monte-Carlo autoregressive padding (MCAP) is introduced. This approach allows the specification of uncertainties of the behaviour of smoothed time series near the boundaries. The results for the North Sea point to a weak negative acceleration of SLR since 1844 with a strong positive acceleration at the end of the 19th century, to a period of almost no SLR around the 1970s with subsequent positive acceleration and to high recent rates. The comparison between the German North Sea and a global sea level reconstruction clearly reveals the existence of different patterns of SLR. A stronger SLR in the German North Sea area is detected for a period covering some decades starting at the end of the 19th century and for another period covering the last ten to fifteen years. These findings and the indications for the natural variability of this complex system and further research topics will be discussed. This is a German Coastal Engineering Research Council (KFKI) project, funded by the

  10. Prevalence and diversity of allergic rhinitis in regions of the world beyond Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Katelaris, C H; Lee, B W; Potter, P C; Maspero, J F; Cingi, C; Lopatin, A; Saffer, M; Xu, G; Walters, R D

    2012-02-01

    There is comparatively little information in the public domain on the diversity in prevalence and triggers/factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) in countries beyond western-Europe and North America. To review the prevalence and the sensitizing agents/triggers and factors associated with AR/C in several countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Australia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Turkey. Articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals were assessed and selected for further review, following an extensive literature search using the Medline database. This review demonstrated that prevalence of AR and AR/C in these regions has predominantly been investigated in children; with studies indicating wide inter- and intra-regional variations ranging from 2.9% AR and 3.8% AR/C in 10-18-years-old children from one region in Turkey to 54.1% AR and 39.2% AR/C in 13-14-years-old children in one region in Nigeria. Moreover, the prevalence of AR and AR/C has increased markedly over the last decade particularly in some of the more affluent African countries, China-Taiwan and several Middle East countries, likely as a consequence of improved living standards leading to increased exposure to multiple traditional and non-traditional sensitizing agents and risk factors similar to those noted in western-Europe and North America. Our findings suggest that the greater diversity in prevalence of AR or AR/C in populations in these regions is in contrast to the lower diversity of AR or AR/C in the 'western populations (USA and Europe), which tend to be more uniform. This review provides a comprehensive database of the important allergens and triggers which are likely to influence the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these diverse regions, where the prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing and its adverse impact on the quality of life of affected individuals is increasingly recognised. © 2011 Blackwell

  11. Regional-scale model climatology of the North American monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Robert Timothy, Jr.

    1998-07-01

    The regional climate of the North American monsoon system over the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean and adjacent land areas is simulated during June, July, and August 1990-1997. The Pennsylvania State University/National Center of Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5) is forced by the observed evolution of sea surface temperature and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses of the atmospheric flow on the lateral boundaries. The MM5 reproduces many of the general features of the large-scale circulation found in the NCEP reanalyses. It does, however, develop a stronger regional meridional circulation with higher precipitation rates in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), stronger cross- equatorial flow in the boundary layer, and greater divergent flow aloft. The model ITCZ is displaced too far north and tends to be located over the highest sea surface temperature. Mesoscale circulation features, such as diurnal land/sea breezes and gap flows across Mexico and Central America, are captured. The observed latitudinal transition from the shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL) with stratiform clouds over the cool waters of the equatorial Pacific to a relatively deeper PBL further north is simulated by the model. More tropical cyclones develop in the MM5 than were observed and they were comparatively shorter-lived and weaker. Also, the model, as presently configured, does not realistically simulate the year-to-year variations in tropical cyclones. The regional circulation during Summer 1997 was dominated by the planetary-scale El Ni/tilde no/Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The normally cool waters along the equator were unusually warm with enhanced convection to the south of the mean position of the ITCZ. Large- scale subsidence over Central America and the extreme eastern Pacific Ocean led to drought conditions in that region. The number and intensity of tropical cyclones observed during summer 1997 in the eastern equatorial Pacific

  12. A Comprehensive Regional Shoreline Change Assessment of Alaska’s North Slope: 1947-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.; Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    Impacts of climate change, such as decreasing seasonal sea-ice cover, increasing sea-surface and air temperatures, and other related changes have the potential to accelerate coastal erosion processes along the Alaska North Slope coast. Sensitive Arctic ecosystems and unique species, oil and gas infrastructure, and native Inupiat Eskimo villages, historical sites, and lifestyles are already being threatened by coastal erosion, which is expected to increase with effects of future climate change. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting the first comprehensive regional study of shoreline change of the Alaska North Slope coastline between Icy Cape in the west and Demarcation Point near the U.S.-Canadian border to the east. Rates of change are calculated for approximately 1000 km of the mainland coast and will be calculated for the barrier islands using shorelines derived from circa-1947 and circa-1980s NOS t-sheets and nautical charts and from orthorectified photography and/or satellite imagery collected between 2000 and 2007. This paper presents preliminary results for mainland shoreline change of the study region, excluding barrier islands and river deltas. Results show considerable variation in shoreline change rates across the study region, but with a dominantly erosional trend. Average long-term (1947-2007) erosion rates are generally less than 2 m/yr, with localized areas of 2-4 m/yr for the coastline between the Colville River and the U.S.-Canadian Border. The average erosion rates increase to 2-4 m/yr west of the Colville River to Smith Bay, with rates as high as 16 m/yr around Drew Point, and decrease to less than 2 m/yr, with localized regions of 2-6 m/yr from Smith Bay to Barrow. This study will establish key baseline datasets for future shoreline change analyses of the Alaska north slope coastline and, coupled with continued data collection and numerical modeling, will be an important component in understanding Arctic coastal processes with climate change.

  13. CCD Photometry and Classification of Stars in the North America and Pelican Nebulae Region. II. The Region of NGC 6996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugalys, V.; Straižys, V.; Vrba, F. J.; Boyle, R. P.; Philip, A. G. Davis; Kazlauskas, A.

    Magnitudes and color indices of 620 stars down to V = 17.5 mag in the eight-color Vilnius + I photometric system are obtained in the area of the open cluster NGC 6996 in the North America Nebula. By combining the results of optical photometry and the infrared 2MASS data an increased value of the ratio of total-to-selective extinction is found. For early-type stars it corresponds to RBV=3.5. Spectral types, interstellar color excesses, extinctions and distances of stars are determined from the photometric data. The plot of extinction vs. distance shows that the extinction exhibits a steep rise at 400 pc reaching 3--4 mag. Forty seven main-sequence stars and three red giants are identified as probable cluster members. The cluster distance is found to be 794 pc by ZAMS fitting and 781 pc by averaging individual distances of the 50 probable cluster members. The cluster stars show a range of interstellar extinction, with an average value of AV is 1.92 mag. Fitting the main sequence and red giants of the cluster to the isochrones in the MV vs. (B--V)0 plane gives an age of 3.5× 108 yr. Probably NGC 6996 has no genetic relation to the star-forming region in the North America and Pelican nebulae. About 35 stars in the magnitude range 16--17 in the field of NGC 6996 are suspected to be O--B5 stars belonging to the Perseus spiral arm.

  14. Detecting fossil fuel emissions patterns from subcontinental regions using North American in situ CO2 measurements.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Yoichi P; Michalak, Anna M; Gourdji, Sharon M; Mueller, Kim L; Yadav, Vineet

    2014-06-28

    The ability to monitor fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions from subcontinental regions using atmospheric CO2 observations remains an important but unrealized goal. Here we explore a necessary but not sufficient component of this goal, namely, the basic question of the detectability of FFCO2 emissions from subcontinental regions. Detectability is evaluated by examining the degree to which FFCO2 emissions patterns from specific regions are needed to explain the variability observed in high-frequency atmospheric CO2 observations. Analyses using a CO2 monitoring network of 35 continuous measurement towers over North America show that FFCO2 emissions are difficult to detect during nonwinter months. We find that the compounding effects of the seasonality of atmospheric transport patterns and the biospheric CO2 flux signal dramatically hamper the detectability of FFCO2 emissions. Results from several synthetic data case studies highlight the need for advancements in data coverage and transport model accuracy if the goal of atmospheric measurement-based FFCO2 emissions detection and estimation is to be achieved beyond urban scales. Poor detectability of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from subcontinental regionsDetectability assessed via attribution of emissions patterns in atmospheric dataLoss in detectability due to transport modeling errors and biospheric signal.

  15. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  16. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  17. Regional Climate Response to Volcanic Radiative Forcing in Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G.; Dogar, M.

    2012-04-01

    We have tested the regional climate sensitivity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) to radiation perturbations caused by the large explosive equatorial volcanic eruptions of the second part of 20th century, El Chichon and Pinatubo occurred, respectively, in 1982 and 1991. The observations and reanalysis data show that the surface volcanic cooling in the MENA region is two-three times larger than the global mean response to volcanic forcing. The Red Sea surface temperature appears to be also very sensitive to the external radiative impact. E.g., the sea surface cooling, associated with the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, caused deep water mixing and coral bleaching for a few years. To better quantify these effects we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) to conduct simulations of both the El Chichon and Pinatubo impacts with the effectively 25-km grid spacing. We find that the circulation changes associated with the positive phase of the arctic oscillation amplified the winter temperature anomalies in 1982-1984 and 1991-1993. The dynamic response to volcanic cooling also is characterized by the southward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in summer and associated impact on the precipitation patterns. Thus, these results suggest that the climate regime in the MENA region is highly sensitive to external forcing. This is important for better understanding of the climate variability and change in this region.

  18. Investigating a solar influence on cloud cover using the North American Regional Reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel Scott

    2015-06-01

    The controversial connection between cosmic rays, solar activity, and cloud cover is investigated using a climatological reconstructed reanalysis product: the North American Regional Reanalysis which provides high-resolution, low, mid-level, high, and total cloud cover data over a Lambert conformal conic projection permitting land/ocean discrimination. Pearson's product-moment regional correlations were obtained between monthly cloud cover data and solar variability indicators, cosmic ray neutron monitors, several climatological indices, including the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and between cloud layers. Regions of the mid-latitude oceans exhibited a positive correlation with cosmic ray flux. Additionally, this maritime low cloud cover exhibits the only failed correlation significance with other altitudes. The cross correlation reveals that cloud cover is positively correlated everywhere but for ocean low cloud cover, supporting the unique response of the marine layer. The results of this investigation suggest that with the assumption that solar forcing does impact cloud cover, measurements of solar activity exhibits a slightly higher correlation than GCRs. The only instance where GCRs exhibit a positive regional correlation with cloud cover is for maritime low clouds. The AMO exerts the greatest control of cloud cover in the NARR domain.

  19. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-10-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  20. Evolving the linkages between North American Monsoon Experiment research and services in the binational monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    Multi-year drought, high interannual precipitation variability, and rapid population growth present major challenges to water resources and land managers in the U.S. Southwest and binational monsoon region. The NAME strategy to improve warm season precipitation forecasts is paying off in the understanding of the system and its potential predictability, illustrated by a special issue of the Journal of Climate with about 25 articles and numerous other published papers (e.g. Higgins and Gochis et al. 2006; Gutzler et al. 2004, Higgins et al. 2003). NOAA now has set a goal to NAME and other initiatives also have the potential to provide key insights, such as historic information regarding onset and overall strength of the monsoon as it affects stakeholder interests in flooding, soil moisture, vegetation health, and summer water demand. However, the usual avenues for scientific output, such as peer-reviewed publications and web sites designed for use by climate and weather experts, do not adequately support the flow of knowledge to operational decisionmakers. A recent workshop on Monsoon Region climate Applications in Guaymas, Sonora identified several areas in which monsoon science might contribute to reducing societal vulnerability, as well as some research findings that are suited to transition into model development and operations at service providers including NOAA and SMN. They recommended that products are needed that interpret climate forecasts for water resource management applications, and developing new regionally-tailored climate information products. This presentation will discuss how to enhance the flow of monsoon information and predictions to stakeholders by linking user-oriented perspectives with research results from NAME and other programs, including a new effort for a North American Monsoon Forecast Forum which plans to develop periodic consolidated North American Monsoon outlooks.

  1. Meteorological operational services for civil protection in Veneto region (North-eastern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbi, A.; Monai, M.; Zardini, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Meteorological Centre of Teolo (CMT), part of the Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of the North-eastern Italian region Veneto (ARPAV), is the operational regional meteorological service. Since April 2009 the Centre is linked to and supplies meteorological monitoring and forecasting to the recently constituted Functional Centre of the regional civil protection (CFD Veneto), which operates in the framework of National Civil Protection. The CFD Veneto supplies a multi-disciplinary, technical-scientific support to civil protection activities, to early warnings of natural hazards, in particular related to hydrogeological, hydraulic, and avalanches risks. The north-eastern part of Italy is known to be one of the rainiest regions in Europe. The region Veneto, due to its topographic configuration which includes Alpine reliefs, plans and a coast exposed to the Adriatic Sea, is conducive to heavy and long-lasting precipitation events. Also, strong thunderstorm activity with high precipitation rates, hail, wind gusts, and even tornadoes are relatively frequent occurrences. In this contribution two recent examples of different types of extreme events are briefly analysed by means of the ARPAV multi-sensor observing system which includes weather radar and a dense surface network. We show some of the impacts of such weather events on the territory, the services provided by CFD Veneto, in terms of meteorological forecasting and nowcasting products, and hydrogeologic/hydraulic hazard bullettins. The analysis highlights the difficulty of an efficient wheather forecast for civil defence purposes in a complex situation as ours, where many types of different events are possible. Especially cases of rapid convective events with their intense and very localized phenomena are a significant challenge. It is well-known that such events can bring remarkable material damages and serious danger for the people. For this reason an effective warning system which

  2. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  3. Rain-on-snow events over North America based on two Canadian regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il Jeong, Dae; Sushama, Laxmi

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates projected changes to rain-on-snow (ROS) characteristics (i.e., frequency, rainfall amount, and runoff) for the future 2041-2070 period with respect to the current 1976-2005 period over North America using six simulations, based on two Canadian RCMs, driven by two driving GCMs for RCP4.5 and 8.5 emission pathways. Prior to assessing projected changes, the two RCMs are evaluated by comparing ERA-Interim driven RCM simulations with available observations, and results indicate that both models reproduce reasonably well the observed spatial patterns of ROS event frequency and other related features. Analysis of current and future simulations suggest general increases in ROS characteristics during the November-March period for most regions of Canada and for northwestern US for the future period, due to an increase in the rainfall frequency with warmer air temperatures in future. Future ROS runoff is often projected to increase more than future ROS rainfall amounts, particularly for northeastern North America, during snowmelt months, as ROS events usually accelerate snowmelt. The simulations show that ROS event is a primary flood generating mechanism over most of Canada and north-western and -central US for the January-May period for the current period and this is projected to continue in the future period. More focused analysis over selected basins shows decreases in future spring runoff due to decreases in both snow cover and ROS runoff. The above results highlight the need to take into consideration ROS events in water resources management adaptation strategies for future climate.

  4. Mars landscape evolution: Influence of stratigraphy on geomorphology in the north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Malin, Michael C.; Cantor, Bruce A.; Thomas, Peter C.

    2003-06-01

    Lithology and physical properties of strata exposed at the Earth's surface have direct influence on the erosion and geomorphic expression of landforms. While this is well known on our planet, examples on Mars are just coming to light among the tens of thousands of airphoto-quality images (resolutions 1.5-12 m/pixel) acquired since 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Specific examples occur among Martian north polar layered materials, which MOC images reveal are divided into two distinct stratigraphic units: a lower, dark-toned layered unit and a younger, upper, lighter-toned layered unit. The lower unit is less resistant to wind erosion than the upper unit. The upper unit most likely consists of stratified dust and ice, while the lower unit contains abundant, poorly-cemented sand. Sand is more easily mobilized by wind than dust; the lower resistance to erosion of the lower unit results from the presence of sand. Where wind erosion in polar troughs has penetrated to the lower unit, geomorphic change has proceeded more rapidly: sand has been liberated from the lower unit, and arcuate scarps have formed as the upper unit has been undermined. Wind erosion of the lower unit thus influences the geomorphology of the north polar region; this result likely explains the genesis of the large polar trough, Chasma Boreale, and the relations between dunes and arcuate scarps that have puzzled investigators for nearly three decades. The properties of the stratigraphic units suggest that the upper limit for the amount of water contained in the north polar layered materials may be 30-50% less than previously estimated.

  5. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  6. Estimating regional landbird populations from enhanced North American Breeding Bird Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the size of bird populations is central to effective conservation planning and prudent management. I updated estimated regional bird populations for the East Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi using data from 275 North American Breeding Bird Surveys from 2009 to 2013. However, regional bird populations estimated from count surveys of breeding birds may be biased due to lack of empirical knowledge of the distance at which a species is effectively detected and the probability of detecting a species if it is present. I used data recorded within two distance classes (0–50 m and >50–400 m) and three 1-min time intervals on 130 Breeding Bird Surveys to estimate detection probability and effective detection distance for 77 species. Incorporating these empirical estimates of detection probability and detection distance resulted in estimated regional populations for these species that were markedly greater than regional populations estimated without species-specific estimates of detection parameters. Using the same Breeding Bird Survey data, I also estimated probability of site occupancy for 66 species and extrapolated this to the proportion of area occupied in the East Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi. I combined the area occupied with the reported range of breeding territory size for 54 species to obtain independent estimates of regional bird populations. Although the true population of these species is unknown, estimated populations that incorporated empirical estimates of detection probability and detection distance were more likely to be within the range of independently estimated, occupancy-based, regional population estimates than were population estimates that lacked empirical detection and distance information.

  7. Aerosol characteristics in the UTLS region: A satellite-based study over north India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Misra, A.; Kanawade, Vijay P.; Devara, P. C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient and depolarization ratio, obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, were studied in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region over North India (21-30° N and 72-90° E), covering the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) for one-year period from December 2011 to November 2012. An enhanced aerosol layer was observed between 15 and 18 km altitude, in the vicinity of tropopause, with a broad layer depth of about 2 km. The aerosol layer showed strong seasonal, monthly as well as day and night time variability, with a peak value of backscatter coefficient during monsoon season (˜5.54 × 10-3 sr-1 in September). The corresponding depolarization ratio indicates anisotropic (non-spherical) nature of particles. The aerosol layer was found to be highly linked with the variability in tropopause height, showing a positive correlation between tropopause height and the height of maximum backscatter coefficient (correlation coefficient of 0.8). However, it was found to be negatively correlated with the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), with a correlation coefficient of 0.3. We further analyzed outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data during the study period to investigate the link between the observed enhanced aerosol layer in the UTLS region and prevailing deep convective activities over the study region. Low values of OLR during monsoon (about 214 W m-2) indicate the occurrence of deep convection over this region, which may cause a large-scale circulation-driven vertical transport of boundary-layer pollution into the atmosphere of UTLS region. Results may have potential implications for better understanding and assessing the chemical and radiative impacts of these aerosols in the tropical UTLS region.

  8. Regionality and seasonality of submesoscale and mesoscale turbulence in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hideharu; Klein, Patrice; Sasai, Yoshikazu; Qiu, Bo

    2017-07-01

    The kinetic energy (KE) seasonality has been revealed by satellite altimeters in many oceanic regions. Question about the mechanisms that trigger this seasonality is still challenging. We address this question through the comparison of two numerical simulations. The first one, with a 1/10° horizontal grid spacing, 54 vertical levels, represents dynamics of physical scales larger than 50 km. The second one, with a 1/30° grid spacing, 100 vertical levels, takes into account the dynamics of physical scales down to 16 km. Comparison clearly emphasizes in the whole North Pacific Ocean, not only a significant KE increase by a factor up to three, but also the emergence of seasonal variability when the scale range 16-50 km (called submesoscales in this study) is taken into account. But the mechanisms explaining these KE changes display strong regional contrasts. In high KE regions, such the Kuroshio Extension and the western and eastern subtropics, frontal mixed-layer instabilities appear to be the main mechanism for the emergence of submesoscales in winter. Subsequent inverse kinetic energy cascade leads to the KE seasonality of larger scales. In other regions, in particular in subarctic regions, results suggest that the KE seasonality is principally produced by larger-scale instabilities with typical scales of 100 km and not so much by smaller-scale mixed-layer instabilities. Using arguments from geostrophic turbulence, the submesoscale impact in these regions is assumed to strengthen mesoscale eddies that become more coherent and not quickly dissipated, leading to a KE increase.

  9. Regionality and seasonality of submesoscale and mesoscale turbulence in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hideharu; Klein, Patrice; Sasai, Yoshikazu; Qiu, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The kinetic energy (KE) seasonality has been revealed by satellite altimeters in many oceanic regions. Question about the mechanisms that trigger this seasonality is still challenging. We address this question through the comparison of two numerical simulations. The first one, with a 1/10° horizontal grid spacing, 54 vertical levels, represents dynamics of physical scales larger than 50 km. The second one, with a 1/30° grid spacing, 100 vertical levels, takes into account the dynamics of physical scales down to 16 km. Comparison clearly emphasizes in the whole North Pacific Ocean, not only a significant KE increase by a factor up to three, but also the emergence of seasonal variability when the scale range 16-50 km (called submesoscales in this study) is taken into account. But the mechanisms explaining these KE changes display strong regional contrasts. In high KE regions, such the Kuroshio Extension and the western and eastern subtropics, frontal mixed-layer instabilities appear to be the main mechanism for the emergence of submesoscales in winter. Subsequent inverse kinetic energy cascade leads to the KE seasonality of larger scales. In other regions, in particular in subarctic regions, results suggest that the KE seasonality is principally produced by larger-scale instabilities with typical scales of 100 km and not so much by smaller-scale mixed-layer instabilities. Using arguments from geostrophic turbulence, the submesoscale impact in these regions is assumed to strengthen mesoscale eddies that become more coherent and not quickly dissipated, leading to a KE increase.

  10. North Dakota KIDS COUNT! Fact Book, 2001: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    This KIDS COUNT fact book details statewide and county trends in the well-being of North Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in seven areas: (1) population; (2) family composition; (3) economic condition; (4) child care; (5) child health; (6) education; and (7) children at risk. The report…

  11. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1996: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of North Dakota's children. The statistical report is based on indicators of child well-being in six areas: (1) family composition, including foster care placement; (2) economic conditions, including children in near or extreme poverty; (3) child health, including low birthweight,…

  12. North Dakota KIDS COUNT! Fact Book, 1998: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    This Kids Count fact book details statewide trends in the well-being of North Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in seven areas: (1) population; (2) family composition; (3) economic condition; (4) child health; (5) education; (6) child safety; and (7) teens at risk. The fact book begins with…

  13. North Dakota KIDS COUNT! Fact Book, 2002: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Univ., Fargo. North Dakota KIDS COUNT.

    This KIDS COUNT fact book details statewide and county trends in the well-being of North Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in seven areas: (1) population; (2) family composition; (3) economic condition; (4) child care; (5) child health; (6) education; and (7) children at risk. The report…

  14. North Dakota Kids Count! Fact Book, 1997: State, Regional and County Profiles of Child Well-Being in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks. North Dakota Kids Count.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of North Dakota's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of children's well-being in seven areas: (1) population; (2) family composition; (3) economic condition; (4) child safety; (5) child health; (6) education; and (7) teens at risk. The report begins with an…

  15. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  16. Dunes in the north polar region of Mars - Their possible formation from low-density sedimentary aggregates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Blewett, D. T.

    1987-01-01

    Low-density aggregates composed of submicron clay aerosols were formed experimentally as the sublimation residues of masses of dust-nucleated ice. These ice-dust mixtures are considered to be possible analogs of materials of Martian north polar deposits. Low-density (0.002 g/cu cm) spheroidal pellets formed from these materials in wind tunnel experiments are studied as possible candidates for the formation of dunes in the north polar region of Mars. It is shown that these particles move like sand grains under conditions of saltation and, taken in sufficient quantities, can form the dunes observed in the north circumpolar erg.

  17. Dunes in the north polar region of Mars - Their possible formation from low-density sedimentary aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Blewett, D. T.

    1987-06-01

    Low-density aggregates, composed of submicron clay aerosols, have been formed experimentally as the sublimation residues of masses of dust-nucleated ice. These ice-dust mixtures are possible analogues of materials of Martian north polar deposits. Low density (0,002 g/cm3) spheroidal pellets formed from these materials in wind tunnel experiments have been examined as possible candidates for forming north polar dunes on Mars. It is shown that these particles move like sand grains under conditions of saltation and, given a sufficient supply, would be capable of forming the dunes observed in the north circumpolar region of Mars.

  18. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Isla S; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuss, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C(3) vs. C(4) vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C(3) plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C(3) vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 ( approximately 50-45 ka) and MIS 5 ( approximately 120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region.

  19. FAST TRACK PAPER: Regional observations of the second North Korean nuclear test on 2009 May 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung

    2010-01-01

    The suspicious seismic event that occurred in the northern Korean Peninsula on 2009 May 25 was declared to be the second underground nuclear test (NK2ND) by North Korea. We investigated the characteristics of NK2ND using seismic signals recorded at regional-distance stations in South Korea and China. The Pn/Lg ratios of NK2ND definitely discriminate this event from two nearby natural earthquakes at frequencies above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion of full waveform data shows that NK2ND had a very large isotropic component. Pure isotropic moment tensor inversion also resulted in good recovery of observed waveforms, with clear indication that NK2ND was explosive in origin. The moment magnitude (Mw) from the full moment tensor inversion was estimated to be 4.5 and network-averaged values of 4.6 and 3.6 were calculated for rms mb(Lg) and Ms(VMAX), respectively. Although mb - Ms signature has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, this signature showed poor discrimination in the case of NK2ND. The Pn/Lg ratios and moment tensor inversion give more reliable evidence than does the mb - Ms for classifying the suspicious event in the northern Korean Peninsula as a possible explosion. The characteristics of NK2ND are also quite similar to those of the first North Korean nuclear test on 2006 October 9.

  20. Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B virus genotype C in North China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Wei, Feili; Hu, Dongmei; Li, Qing; Smith, Davey; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can evolve by mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) to permit its escape from neutralization by antibodies such as HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) and from host immune responses. This study investigated the prevalence and pattern of MHR mutations in North China and the clinical correlations of these mutations. The MHRs of 161 HBsAg-positive patients were amplified using nested PCR, and directly sequenced to identify MHR mutations. It was showed that among the 161 patients infected with HBV genotype C in North China, the overall frequency of MHR mutation was 46.6%. Furthermore, MHR mutations were associated with high white blood cell counts (P = 0.025), high bilirubin levels (P = 0.048), and cirrhosis (P = 0.010). The most frequent mutations in patients with both HBsAg-positive and anti-HBs-positive were located in subregion 1 and 3 of MHR, specifically, residue Q101 (29.9%) and I126 (70.6%), which was different from the mutation pattern found in Western Europe and the United States. Taken together, these data indicated important virological and clinical aspects of HBV evolution in terms of the surface gene of genotype C, which might be important for its response to the currently available HBV vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mutations in the Major Hydrophilic Region (MHR) of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C in North China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Wei, Feili; Hu, Dongmei; Li, Qing; Smith, Davey; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can evolve by mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) to permit its escape from neutralization by antibodies such as HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) and from host immune responses. This study investigated the prevalence and pattern of MHR mutations in North China and the clinical correlations of these mutations. The MHRs of 161 HBsAg-positive patients were amplified using nested PCR, and directly sequenced to identify MHR mutations. It was showed that among the 161 patients infected with HBV genotype C in North China, the overall frequency of MHR mutation was 46.6%. Furthermore, MHR mutations were associated with high white blood cell counts (P = 0.025), high bilirubin levels (P = 0.048), and cirrhosis (P = 0.010). The most frequent mutations in patients with both HBsAg-positive and anti-HBs-positive were located in subregion 1 and 3 of MHR, specifically, residue Q101 (29.9%) and I126 (70.6%), which was different from the mutation pattern found in Western Europe and the United States. Taken together, these data indicated important virological and clinical aspects of HBV evolution in terms of the surface gene of genotype C, which might be important for its response to the currently available HBV vaccine. PMID:23080494

  2. Coastal erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores

  3. The Cygnus X region. XIV - The radio continuum of the North America-Pelican nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendker, H. J.; Baars, J. W. M.; Benz, D.

    1983-07-01

    New high resolution radio continuum observations at 2695 MHz are presented for the North America-Pelican nebulae-complex. It is attempted to separate it from fore- and background radiation. A new estimate of the distance of 500 pc has been made. A model of the density distribution of the ionized gas is derived. It consists of three ingredients: a group of 8 early type stars ionizing so-called cavities in the parent molecular cloud, a half-sphere of about 5 pc where the flow out of the cavities dominates, and a roughly 10 pc wide surrounding region, which may be density bounded. The picture is consistent with kinematic data for the molecular cloud which is being photo-dissociated by the stars.

  4. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  5. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation with the National Park Service (NPS). This work has been compiled as a 1:100,000-scale map derived from mapping done at 1:24,000 and 1:62,500 scale. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.discoverlifeinamerica.org/). At the request of NPS, we mapped areas previously not visited, revised the geology where stratigraphic and structural problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  6. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Aleinikoff, John N.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey with the National Park Service (NPS). This work resulted in a 1:100,000-scale geologic map derived from mapping that was conducted at scales of 1:24,000 and 1:62,500. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with the NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory. In response to a request by the NPS, we mapped previously unstudied areas, revised the geology where problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  7. Mastitis in lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, T; Molla, B

    2001-01-01

    Quarter milk samples (n = 543) from 152 traditionally managed lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Afar Region, north-eastern Ethiopia were examined to determine the prevalence of camel mastitis and identify its bacterial causes. Out of 152 camels examined, 19 (12.5%) were diagnosed as clinical mastitis cases based on clinical signs and bacteriological examinations. Of the 257 California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive quarter milk samples 162 (63.0%) yielded pathogenic bacteria. A positive correlation was observed between CMT positive results and presence of major pathogens in camel milk samples. The main mastitis pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, and other species of streptococci, Pasteurella haemolytica and E. coli. Results of the present study suggest that mastitis in Afar camels is prevalent, Gram-positive cocci are the major isolates from camel milk samples and the CMT can be used as a screening test for the detection of mastitis in camels.

  8. [New species of Anolis (Sauria: Iguanidae) from the north region of eastern Cuba].

    PubMed

    Fong, A; Garrido, O H

    2000-01-01

    A new Anolis species of the Alpha section from the north region of eastern Cuba (Holguín province) is described. It differs from all Cuban species of Anolis in its green coloration with greenish gray bands on body, legs and tail, in having subtriangular mental scales as well as in other details of color and scutellation. This new species is most closely related to A. isolepis but it can be distinguished from both, A. i. isolepis and A. i. altitudinalis, by its coloration and pattern, the larger body size, the presence of smooth ventral scales (similar in size to the dorsal scales) and by the absence of enlarged postcloacal scales in the male.

  9. Source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediment in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian sand dunes are prominent features on the landscapes of Earth, Mars, Venus and Titan and sedimentary deposits interpreted as aeolian in origin are found in the rock records of Earth and Mars. The widespread occurrence of aeolian dunes on the surface of these worlds and within their deep-time depositional records suggests that aeolian systems are and likely have been a default depositional environment for the Solar System. Within an aeolian source-to-sink context, we hypothesize that planet-specific boundary conditions strongly impact production, transport, accumulation and preservation of aeolian sediment, whereas dunes and dune-field patterns remain largely similar. This hypothesis is explored within the north polar region of Mars, which hosts the most extensive aeolian dune fields and aeolian sedimentary deposits yet recognized on Mars and appears to be a region of dynamic source-to-sink cycling of aeolian sediments. The Planum Boreum Cavi Unit rests beneath north polar ice cap of Mars and is composed of several hundred meters of niveo-aeolian dune cross-stratification. The overall architecture of the unit consists of sets of preserved dune topography with an upward increase in the abundance of ice. Dune sets are defined by stabilized, polygonally fractured bounding surfaces, erosional bounding surfaces and typical internal lee foresets made of sediment and ice. The accumulation of the Cavi Unit is interpreted as occurring through freezing and serves as an example of a cold temperature boundary condition on aeolian sediment accumulation. Preservation of the Cavi Unit arises because of deposition of the overlying ice cap and contrasts with preservation of aeolian sediment on Earth, which is largely driven by eustasy and tectonics. The Cavi Unit is thought to be one source of sediment for the north polar Olympia Undae Dune Field. The region of Olympia Undae near the Cavi Unit shows a reticulate dune field pattern composed of two sets of nearly orthogonal

  10. The stratigraphic sequence of volcanic and sedimentary units in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Based on photogeologic mapping of Viking orbiter images of Mars, four distinct informal stratigraphic units are defined for the region north of 70 degrees N latitude. They are: (a) bulbous plains, (b) mantled plains, (c) dune deposits, and (d) layered deposits/perennial ice. Background information on the Martian polar caps is provided from telescopic observation, Mariner mission results, and Viking mission results (August 1976-November 1978). A description, and an interpretation and distribution of the stratigraphic units are presented. Surface winds, which were determined from dune orientations, and discussed and implications for the source of circumpolar dune materials are delineated. A list of the Viking Orbiter imagery used in the research, the computer programs for crater size frequency distributions, and the crater size frequency data are presented.

  11. Transboundary Atmospheric Pollution of Oil-Gas Industry Emissions from North Caspian region of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarin, E.; Balakay, L.; Mirkarimova, B.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2012-04-01

    The Atyraus region (Republic of Kazahstan) is occupied with more than 60 oil-gas fields which are actively developing. Moreover, a new world largest field so-called Kashagan has been discovered on the Caspian Sea shelf and its exploitation is planned by the end of 2012. In our study, this region has been selected as a source region of sulphates emissions accounting about 15 tons (2009 estimates). Three locations have been chosen in the region covering adjacent Caspian Sea aquatoria, and emissions were equally distributed among these locations (with an emission rate of 4.72*10-4 kg/sec). From original sulphates emissions between 46-82% are subjected to atmospheric transport away from the sources. Releases were considered to be continuous. The long-term modelling of atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of sulphates was done employing the Lagrangian type model called DERMA, run at the NEC SX6 supercomputing facilities. After each day of release the atmospheric transport has been tracked for the next 2 week period. Input meteorological 3D fields were obtained from the ECMWF data archives. The generated output included air concentration (at model levels), time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition (at the surface). The results of dispersion modelling had been post-processed and integrated into GIS environment (using ArcGIS). These have been further used to calculate annual averaged and summary concentration and deposition fields for administrative regions, counties and cities of Kazakhstan, as well as territories of the neighboring countries. It has been found that on an annual scale, the dominating atmospheric transport of pollution from the Atyraus region is toward east and north-east, mostly due to prevailing westerlies. Although on a hemispheric scale, the wet deposition dominates over dry (63 vs. 37%), for Kazakhstan the wet deposition contribution is slightly larger (65%). For Turkmenistan, dry deposition is almost twice higher compared

  12. Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on Phenytoin Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Outcomes in the Middle East and North Africa Region.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Renée; Wilby, Kyle John; Elewa, Hazem; Ensom, Mary H H

    2017-07-26

    Genetic polymorphisms are known to influence outcomes with phenytoin yet effects in the Middle East and North Africa region are poorly understood. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms on phenytoin pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes in populations originating from the Middle East and North Africa region, and to characterize genotypic and allelic frequencies within the region for genetic polymorphisms assessed. MEDLINE (1946-3 May, 2017), EMBASE (1974-3 May, 2017), Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base, and Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base online databases were searched. Studies were included if genotyping and analyses of phenytoin pharmacokinetics were performed in patients of the Middle East and North Africa region. Study quality was assessed using a National Institutes of Health assessment tool. A secondary search identified studies reporting genotypic and allelic frequencies of assessed genetic polymorphisms within the Middle East and North Africa region. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and multidrug resistance protein 1 C3435T variants were evaluated. While CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants significantly reduced phenytoin metabolism, the impacts of CYP2C19*2 and *3 variants were unclear. The multidrug resistance protein 1 CC genotype was associated with drug-resistant epilepsy, but reported impacts on phenytoin pharmacokinetics were conflicting. Appreciable variability in minor allele frequencies existed both between and within countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. CYP2C9 decrease-of-function alleles altered phenytoin pharmacokinetics in patients originating from the Middle East and North Africa region. The impacts of CYP2C19 and multidrug resistance protein 1 C3435T variants on phenytoin pharmacokinetic and clinical outcomes are unclear and require further investigation. Future research should focus on the clinical outcomes associated with phenytoin therapy. PROSPERO

  13. Mapping landslide processes in the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones: towards a regional hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Basimike, Joseph; Delvaux, Damien; Draida, Salah; Hamenyimana, Jean-Baptiste; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Kubwimana, Désiré; Maki Mateso, Jean-Claude; Michellier, Caroline; Nahimana, Louis; Ndayisenga, Aloys; Ngenzebuhoro, Pierre-Claver; Nkurunziza, Pascal; Nshokano, Jean-Robert; Sindayihebura, Bernard; Philippe, Trefois; Turimumahoro, Denis; Kervyn, François

    2015-04-01

    The mountainous environments of the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones are part of the West branch of the East African Rift. In this area, natural triggering and environmental factors such as heavy rainfalls, earthquake occurrences and steep topographies favour the concentration of mass movement processes. In addition anthropogenic factors such as rapid land use changes and urban expansion increase the sensibility to slope instability. Until very recently few landslide data was available for the area. Now, through the initiation of several research projects and the setting-up of a methodology for data collection adapted to this data-poor environment, it becomes possible to draw a first regional picture of the landslide hazard. Landslides include a wide range of ground movements such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in the region in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithological and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. Here we present the current knowledge of the various slope processes present in these equatorial environments. A particular attention is given to urban areas such as Bukavu and Bujumbura where landslide threat is particularly acute. Results and research perspectives on landslide inventorying, monitoring, and susceptibility and hazard assessment are presented.

  14. Ordovician-Carboniferous tectono-sedimentary evolution of the North Nuratau region, Uzbekistan (Westernmost Tien Shan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, T.; Nurtaev, B.; Kharin, V.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.

    2013-04-01

    The Tien Shan is a c. 2500 km long orogenic belt of which the Nuratau region of eastern Uzbekistan forms the western part. Petrographical and field analysis of the Ordovician-Carboniferous succession in the North Nuratau region provided the basis for a reconstruction of the depositional settings along part of the northern margin of the Alai continent and their evolution during the period of closure of the Turkestan Ocean, which separated the Alai and the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continents. Initial sedimentation (Ordovician) was broadly carbonate dominated, although by Mid-Late Ordovician times siliciclastic input predominated in some areas. These variations, between clastic- and carbonate-dominated regions may have been related to tectonic activity within the Alai continent. Carbonate sedimentation was reestablished in the ?Wenlock, with broad shelf systems forming along the continental margin. Volcanic activity in the Early Devonian records a period of tectonic instability, and this was followed by the reestablishment of the carbonate mosaic, albeit with a greater degree of instability (as indicated by stratigraphic gaps) than in the Silurian. This pattern extended up into the Carboniferous culminating in backarc-related magmatic activity. Final closure of the Turkestan Ocean involved significant folding and thrusting, as well as a major change from compressional to strike-slip movement.

  15. Crustal and upper mantle structure of stable continental regions in North America and northern Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    From an analysis of many seismic profiles across the stable continental regions of North America and northern Europe, the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure is determined. Analysis procedures include ray theory calculations and synthetic seismograms computed using reflectivity techniques. The P wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is virtually identical to that beneath the Baltic Shield to a depth of at least 800 km. Two major layers with a total thickness of about 42 km characterize the crust of these shield regions. Features of the upper mantle of these region include velocity discontinuities at depths of about 74 km, 330 km, 430 km and 700 km. A 13 km thick P wave low velocity channel beginning at a depth of about 94 km is also present. A number of problems associated with record section interpretation are identified and a generalized approach to seismic profile analysis using many record sections is described. The S wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is derived from constrained surface wave data. The thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Canadian and Baltic Shields is determined to be 95-100 km. The continental plate thickness may be the same as the lithospheric thickness, although available data do not exclude the possibility of the continental plate being thicker than the lithosphere. ?? 1987 Birkha??user Verlag.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism in the population of Alagoas state, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Adriana B G; da Silva, Luiz Antonio F; Azevedo, Dalmo A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Mauricio-da-Silva, Luiz

    2008-01-01

    The sequences of the two hypervariable (HV) segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined in 167 randomly selected, unrelated individuals living in the state of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. One hundred and forty-five different haplotypes, associated with 139 variable positions, were determined. More than 95% of the mtDNA sequences could be allocated to specific mtDNA haplogroups according to the mutational motifs. Length heteroplasmy in the C-stretch HV1 and HV2 regions was observed in 22 and 11%, respectively, of the population sample. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.9975 and the probability of two random individuals presenting identical mtDNA haplotypes was 0.0084. The most frequent haplotype was shared by six individuals. All sequences showed high-quality values and phantom mutations were not detected. The diversity revealed in the mitochondrial control region indicates the importance of this locus for forensic casework and population studies within Alagoas, Brazil.

  17. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  18. Implications of North American Boreal Fires on Air Quality and Composition in Nearby and Remote Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.; Edwards, D. P.; Thompson, A. M.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Herman, R. L.; Owen, C. R.; Honrath, R.; Val Martin, M.; Sachse, G. W.; Avery, M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    During the summer of 2004, Alaska and Canada experienced intense wildfire episodes that emitted large amounts of pollutants and aerosols into the atmosphere. We are using simulations with the global chemistry transport model MOZART to study the impact of these emissions on air quality and composition over North America, the Northern Atlantic region, and Europe. The emission inventory we apply for the Alaskan and Canadian wildfires in these simulations is based on a top-down approach using MODIS fire counts, MOPITT CO observations, and the MOZART model. The model has been evaluated by comparison with a large suite of observations such as data from ozone sondes, surface measurements of CO, ozone and nitrogen species, and aircraft observations. The impact of the fires on the concentrations and distributions of the aforementioned trace species will be discussed, including aspects related to air quality. The mid- and lower tropospheric ozone load over North America for summer 2004 is about 7% higher in a simulation including the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires compared to a reference simulation without fires in this region. During July 2004 we estimate that, for about half the time, at least 30% of the ozone load in the lower and middle troposphere over Eastern Canada can be attributed to chemical production from precursors emitted by the fires. Over Western Europe, we find contributions of 10% and higher about one-third of the time. We are investigating the importance of the injection height of fire emissions on atmospheric transport and chemistry, e.g. on the production of tropospheric ozone, and examine the effects of the non-linearity in ozone chemistry. We further compare the radiative forcing of the fire induced increase in ozone concentrations to the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases released by the fires such as CO2 and methane.

  19. Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle of Integrated Precipitable Water in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, C. A.; Quintanar, A.; Adams, D. K.; Martinez-lopez, B.

    2015-12-01

    Organized deep convection over the North American monsoon region (NAM) is a salient climatic feature that has been the subject of several experimental campaigns and modeling efforts. Recently, however, in Mexico and the Caribbean, there has been mounting interest towards implementing low-cost, low-maintenance GPS-meteorological networks (TLALOCNet and COCOnet) that provide near real-time Integrated Precipitable Water data (IPW) into the assimilation cycle of regional models. A wealth of interesting new observational results concerning the link between the diurnal cycle of deep convection and the processes that could alter it at the surface and aloft has open up opportunities of model verification and improvements to the physics that are specific to subtropical deep convection. In this work, the diurnal cycle of IPW is studied using observational data collected during the North American Monsoon GPS Transect Experiment 2013 experiment and numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). WRF was run in climate mode to generate a simulation for the entire experiment using ECMWF ERA-Interim analysis data for initial and boundary conditions and spectral nudging. We classified the days during the experiment, according to type of mesoscale phenomena present each day and averaged days with same weather types in both data sets (observed and simulated). Preliminary results show that the simulated diurnal cycle of IPW is very sensitive to Land Use/Land Cover data and to initial and the boundary conditions. Preliminary results show that the simulated amplitude and phase of the diurnal cycle of IPW is well represented only when a more up-to-date LULC is used (MODIS v.s. 99 USGS LULC) and the Thompson mycrophysics scheme is used. In agreement with the previous results, modeled precipitation time series agree better with observed GPS-meterological station reports during the NAM 2013 experiment.

  20. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  1. Local vs. Regional Groundwater Flow Delineation from Stable Isotopes at Western North America Springs.

    PubMed

    Springer, Abraham E; Boldt, Elizabeth M; Junghans, Katie M

    2017-01-01

    The recharge location for many springs is unknown because they can be sourced from proximal, shallow, atmospheric sources or long-traveled, deep, regional aquifers. The stable isotope ((18) O and (2) H) geochemistry of springs water can provide cost-effective indications of relative flow path distance without the expense of drilling boreholes, conducting geophysical studies, or building groundwater flow models. Locally sourced springs generally have an isotopic signature similar to local precipitation for that region and elevation. Springs with a very different isotopic composition than local meteoric inputs likely have non-local recharge, representing a regional source. We tested this local vs. regional flow derived hypothesis with data from a new, large springs isotopic database from studies across Western North America in Arizona, Nevada, and Alberta. The combination of location-specific precipitation data with stable isotopic groundwater data provides an effective method for flow path determination at springs. We found springs in Arizona issue from a mix of regional and local recharge sources. These springs have a weak elevation trend across 1588 m of elevation where higher elevation springs are only slightly more depleted than low elevation springs with a δ(18) O variation of 5.9‰. Springs sampled in Nevada showed a strong elevation-isotope relationship with high-elevation sites discharging depleted waters and lower elevation springs issuing enriched waters; only a 2.6‰ difference exists in (18) O values over an elevation range of more than 1500 m. Alberta's springs are mostly sourced from local flow systems and show a moderate elevation trend of 1200 m, but the largest range in δ(18) O, 7.1‰.

  2. Sediment characteristics of streams in the eastern Piedmont and western Coastal Plain regions of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Clyde E.

    1976-01-01

    The sediment-transport characteristics of streams were determined in a 15,500-square-kilometre (6,000-square-mile) area of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions of eastern North Carolina during 1969-73. The study covered all or parts of 21 counties and included data for 28 sediment-sampling stations in parts of 4 major river basins?the Roanoke, Pamlico, Neuse, and Cape Fear. Annual suspended-sediment yields ranged from 117 to 4.2 tonnes per square kilometre (333 to 12 tons per square mile). Streams in the Piedmont region have the highest yields. Suspended-sediment yield decreases in an eastward direction from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain region. Sediment characteristics are directly affected by topography, storm runoff, geology, land use, and man-made detention structures. At one sampling station in the 1973 water year 44 percent of the suspended sediment tonnage was transported during 34 days of high flow. In the Piedmont region, sediment yields vary indirectly with the percentage of forest cover in the basin, but there appears to be no definite relationship between forest cover and sediment yield in the Coastal Plain region. Large lakes act as sediment-detention reservoirs. Average annual sediment yields ranged from 34 to 117 tonnes per square kilometre (98 to 333 tons per square mile) for 3 headwater streams which flow into Hyco Lake in Person County; however, the yield for the station less than 3.2 kilometres (2 miles) downstream from Hyco Dam was about 4.2 tonnes per square kilometre (12 tons per square mile). Most suspended sediment during floods in Piedmont streams ranges in size from sand to silt, whereas the suspended material in flooding streams in the Coastal Plain is generally clay size.

  3. Spatial distributions of 137Cs in surface soil in Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Jinyan; Hu, Hongxia

    2012-11-01

    Artificial Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) has been widely deposited over global soils. In this study, we measured (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil samples taken from Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China, during 2007-2008. The surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 452 sites in this region. The activity concentration of (137)Cs in the samples was measured using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCOM-100). The main findings are as following. (1) The activity concentration of (137)Cs in surface soils in the region of study fluctuates within 0.3±0.1 to 12.9±0.4 Bq/kg with mean value of 3.7 Bq/kg. Compared to other regions located at roughly the same latitude, the (137)Cs activity is relatively low. The results indicate that there are no new inputs of the radionuclides into the area at that time and the data obtained could serve as baseline levels of (137)Cs in Jing-Jin-Ji Region. (2) Considering land use types, surface soil in woodland mostly shows high (137)Cs activities with rare natural erosion and anthropogenic activities, and the surface soil with relatively low (137)Cs activities appears in the areas of intensive anthropogenic activities, especially in the cities, river banks, reservoirs and the strongly eroded areas. The findings suggest that the varying distribution of (137)Cs activities in surface soil corresponds with land use types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lithofacies variability in the Lower Khvalynian sediments of the North Caspian Sea region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshaev, Radik; Svitoch, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    The Early Khvalynian period (~15 500-12 500 cal years B.P.) is characterized by continuous dynamic changes in North Caspian Sea region environment, which has been confirmed by numerous data obtained during the lithofacies analysis of its key sections. Lithofacies complex of the North Caspian Sea region contains four subfacies - clayey, laminated, sandy-clayey and aleurite-clayey. Clayey facie is characterized by absolutely clayey structure with massive nonlamellated or subfissile dark-brown clays and rarely contains thin aleurite layers. This subfacie is one of the most widespread in the North Caspian Sea region. Clayey facies are typical for the most of the key sections in the Middle Volga (Bykovo, Torgun, Rovnoe, Novoprivolnoe, Chapaevka), Lower Volga (Svetly Yar) and on the left side of the Volga River valley (Verkhny Baskunchak, Krivaya Loshchina, Bolshoy Liman). Deep paleodepressions of the Lower Volga and the left side of the Volga River valley are also characterized by the maximum of the average clays thickness, which can reach up to 10 m. Sandy-clayey subfacie is characterized by stratified structure with horizontal and lenticular lamination of clays with sandy-aleuritic interlayers. The average thickness of sand layers is 2-5 cm. At most of the key sections thickness of clay layers is up to twice larger than the sands layers and only on depressions' periphery can be exceeded by some terrigenous interlayers. Sandy-aleuritic parts of clays have different mineral structure. Light suite is dominated by quartz and feldspar with some debris of heavy minerals, glauconite and calcite. Fraction of the heavy minerals contains titano ferrite, epidote, granite, zircon, amphibole, rutile, disthene, tourmaline, sillimanite. Layered subfacie is the most abundant among the chocolate clays and is widespread in the Lower Volga River region and the Ural River valley, but sporadic in Kalmykia and the Volga Delta. Sandy-clayey and aleurit-clayey subfacies have rare

  5. [Population trends in the Mediterranean region: socioeconomic problems associated with the situation in the countries of North Africa].

    PubMed

    Baldi, S

    1990-01-01

    The impact of current rates of population growth on the economies of the countries of North Africa is assessed. The author notes that the countries of the region had agreed in January 1990 to implement as soon as possible a policy of free circulation of migrants among Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania, and Libya in order to reduce levels of emigration from the region and to help resolve labor-supply problems within the region.

  6. Analysis of Genomic Regions Associated With Coronary Artery Disease Reveals Continent-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in North African Populations.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Daniela; Via, Marc; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Esteban, Esther; Chaabani, Hassen; Anaibar, Fatima; Harich, Nourdin; Habbal, Rachida; Ghalim, Noreddine; Moral, Pedro

    2016-05-05

    In recent years, several genomic regions have been robustly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in different genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted mainly in people of European descent. These kinds of data are lacking in African populations, even though heart diseases are a major cause of premature death and disability. Here, 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the top four CAD risk regions (1p13, 1q41, 9p21, and 10q11) were genotyped in 274 case-control samples from Morocco and Tunisia, with the aim of analyzing for the first time if the associations found in European populations were transferable to North Africans. The results indicate that, as in Europe, these four genetic regions are also important for CAD risk in North Africa. However, the individual SNPs associated with CAD in Africa are different from those identified in Europe in most cases (1p13, 1q41, and 9p21). Moreover, the seven risk variants identified in North Africans are efficient in discriminating between cases and controls in North African populations, but not in European populations. This study indicates a disparity in markers associated to CAD susceptibility between North Africans and Europeans that may be related to population differences in the chromosomal architecture of these risk regions.

  7. Organochlorine insecticide residues in fish and birds from three river systems on the North Coast Region of New South Wales

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, K.W.; Harris, C.R. ); Ahmad, N.; Higginson, F.R. )

    1989-06-01

    In a study on the occurrence and management of organochlorine (OC) insecticide residues on the North Coast Region of New South Wales (NSW), the authors recorded the presence of dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and BHC residues in dairy pasture, sugar cane, or banana plantation soils. DDT residues were seldom present in these soils but others have detected relatively low levels of DDT residues in soils on the Cudgen-Duranbah plateau, an important vegetable and tropical fruit production area overlooking the Tweed, one of the major rivers on the North Coast Region. Although OC residues in these agricultural soils were all relatively low, they could be one source of contamination of North Coast river systems. The authors report results of further work done to assess the extent to which fish and birds collected from river systems in the NSW North Coast Region are contaminated with OC residues. Three of the major rivers - Clarence, Richmond, and Tweed - on the North Coast Region were selected for study. Fish were taken between October, 1983 and February, 1984.

  8. Beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes in Afro-Uruguayans from two geographical regions (South and North).

    PubMed

    Da Luz, Julio; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Sonati, Maria de Fatima; Sans, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    The beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes were identified in 52 and 40 chromosomes from two Afro-Uruguayan populations located in the South and North of the country, respectively. In both regions, the 5' haplotype 2 (+ - - - -), characteristic of non-African populations, was the most frequent, reflecting a strong process of admixture in Afro-Uruguayans (0.355 and 0.262, respectively). The haplotypes 3 (- - - - +) and 4 (- + - - +), characteristics of African sub-Saharan populations, present inverse frequencies in North and South: whereas in the South haplotype 3 is the second most frequent (0.232), and haplotype 4 presents a low frequency (0.019), in the North haplotype 4 is the third most frequent (0.140), and haplotype 3 only reaches an intermediate frequency (0.088). The pairwise F(ST) and the exact test of differentiation show genetic heterogeneity between both regions. Nei's genetic distance show that South and North present affinities with Bantu groups, although the North present the smallest genetic distance with the Mandenka, a Senegalese population. With respect to 3' haplotypes, haplotype I was the most frequent in both populations, followed by haplotype II, characteristic of sub-Saharan Africans. The high frequencies of haplotype III-Asian could indicate admixture with Native American populations. The differences observed between both Uruguayan regions could be explained by microevolutionary events as genetic drift, founder effects, differential admixture, and/or distinct origin of the African slaves introduced in those regions.

  9. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Skinner, J.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kolb, E.J.; Okubo, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (???3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (Abrt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian (??? <1 Ga) began with a section of dark, sand-rich and light-toned ice-rich irregularly-bedded sequences (Planum Boreum cavi unit, Abbc) along with deposition of evenly-bedded light-toned ice- and moderate-toned dust-rich layers (Planum Boreum 1 unit, Abb1). These units have transgressive and gradational stratigraphic relationships. Materials in Olympia Planum underlying the dunes of Olympia Undae are interpreted to consist mostly of the Planum Boreum cavi unit (Abbc). Planum Boreum materials were then deeply eroded to form spiral troughs, Chasma Boreale, and marginal scarps that define the major aspects of the polar plateau's current regional topography. Locally- to regionally-extensive (though vertically minor) episodes

  10. Regional economic impacts of water management alternatives: the case of Devils Lake, North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Leistritz, F Larry; Leitch, Jay A; Bangsund, Dean A

    2002-12-01

    Devils Lake, located in a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota has over a century-long history of highly fluctuating water levels. The lake has risen nearly 25 feet (7.7 m) since 1993, more than doubling its surface area. Rising water levels have affected rural lands, transportation routes, and communities near the lake. In response to rising lake levels, Federal, state and local agencies have adopted a three-part approach to flood damage reduction, consisting of (1) upper basin water management to reduce the amount of water reaching the lake, (2) protection for structures and infrastructure if the lake continues to rise, and (3) developing an emergency outlet to release some lake water. The purpose of this study was to provide information about the net regional economic effects of a proposed emergency outlet for Devils Lake. An input-output model was used to estimate the regional economic effects of the outlet, under two scenarios: (1) the most likely future situation (MLS) and (2) a best case situation (BCS) (i.e., where the benefits from the outlet would be greatest), albeit an unlikely one. Regional economic effects of the outlet include effects on transportation (road and railroad construction), agriculture (land kept in production, returned to production sooner, or kept in production longer), residential relocations, and outlet construction expenditures. Effects are measured as changes in gross business volume (gross receipts) for various sectors, secondary employment, and local tax collections. The net regional economic effects of the proposed outlet would be relatively small, and consideration of these economic impacts would not strengthen the case for an outlet.

  11. Surface-Wind Anomalies in North-Atlantic and North Pacific from SSM/I Observations: Influence on Temperature of Adjoining Land Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, R.; Ingraham, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Starr, D.; Terry, J.

    1998-01-01

    Surface winds over the oceans are derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements, assigning direction by Variational Analysis Method (VAM). Validations by comparison with other measurements indicate highly-satisfactory data quality. Providing global coverage from 1988, the dataset is a convenient source for surface-wind climatology. In this study, the interannual variability of zonal winds is analyzed concentrating on the westerlies in North Atlantic and North Pacific, above 30 N. Interannual differences in the westerlies exceeding 10 m sec (exp -1) are observed over large regions, often accompanied by changes of the same magnitude in the easterlies below 30 N. We concentrate on February/March, since elevated temperatures, by advancing snow-melt, can produce early spring. The extremely strong westerlies in 1997 observed in these months over North Atlantic (and also North Pacific) apparently contributed to large surface-temperature anomalies in western Europe, on the order of +3 C above the climatic monthly average for England and France. At these latitudes strong positive anomalies extended in a ring around the globe. We formulated an Index of South westerlies for the North Atlantic, which can serve as an indicator for day-by-day advection effects into Europe. In comparing 1997 and 1998 with the previous years, we establish significant correlations with the temperature anomalies (one to five days later, depending on the region, and on the season). This variability of the ocean-surface winds and of the temperature anomalies on land may be related to the El Nino/La Nina oscillations. Such large temperature fluctuations over large areas, whatever the cause, can be regarded as noise in attempts to assess long-term trends in global temperature.

  12. Lineament Domain of Regional Strike-Slip Corridor: Insight from the Neogene Transtensional De Geer Transform Fault in NW Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2015-05-01

    Lineaments on regional scale images represent controversial features in tectonic studies. Published models explain the presence of the lineament domains in most geodynamic environments as resulting from the enhanced erosion along strikes normal to the upper crustal regional extension. Despite their success in many tectonic frameworks, these models fail to explain the existing lineament domains in the regional strike-slip corridors that separate regional blocks, including the transform faults. The present paper investigates the lineament distribution in such environments, and specifically presents the results from a study along the shear corridor of the De Geer Transform Fault in the North Atlantic, responsible for the separation and drifting away between Northern Greenland and the Svalbard Archipelago since Oligocene times. The study spans from satellite image analysis and outcrop scale investigations to a more regional analysis on a digital bathymetric model of the North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean. Lineaments were automatically detected in the spectral band 8 (0.52-0.9 μm) of a Landsat 7 image (15 m/pixel resolution). A total of 320 image lineaments were extracted from both the regional and the local scale investigations and statistically analyzed. Results from the multi-scalar lineament analyses revealed the existence of a main N-S lineament domain regionally persistent from the De Geer corridor to the western margin of northern Spitsbergen where it relates to the youngest, post-Oligocene, tectonics observed onshore. This is confirmed by field observations showing that the N-S faults represent the youngest brittle deformation system and systematically cut the deformations associated with the building of the Tertiary West Spitsbergen fold and thrust belt. The N-S lineament domain is the result of the activity of a larger, regional scale tectonic feature, NW-SE oriented and responsible for the localized extension within its deformation corridor, the De Geer Transform

  13. Evaluation of the RAQMS Regional Model During the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Pierce, R.; Crawford, J. H.; Considine, D. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Kittaka, C.; Hitchman, M.; Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A) field campaign took place over North America (NA) and the Atlantic during July-August 2004. Among the goals of INTEX-A were to characterize the composition of the troposphere over NA and the outflow of pollution from NA, and to validate satellite observations of tropospheric composition. We test and improve the regional component of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMSN) using the comprehensive dataset, including surface, ozonesonde, aircraft, and satellite measurements of ozone and its precursors obtained during INTEX-A. We show that RAQMSN is able to reproduce the major characteristics of tropospheric ozone-CO-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry over NA during INTEX-A. RAQMSN CO and tropospheric NO2 columns are highly correlated with those of MOPITT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. The model high NO2 bias in the Ohio River Valley reflects the fact that the emission inventory used did not take into account the reduced power plant NOx emissions from this region in 2004 as a result of pollution control programs. The model simulates well the strong day-to-day variability of O3 in the tropopause region as seen in the IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study) ozonesonde data, but shows more stratospherically influenced air in the upper troposphere (UT). The model is also able to simulate the westerly outflow of O3 to the Atlantic as revealed by the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR, July-August 2005-2008 climatology) data from OMI/MLS. We compare RAQMSN simulations with NASA DC-8 in-situ CO, NO2, O3, and total PAN observations during INTEX-A. The simulated CO is within 10 ppbv of the observations except below 900 hPa where the model is about 40 ppbv too high, consistent with a recent report that the national anthropogenic emission inventory from the US EPA is too high by 60% in summer. While overestimated in the boundary layer, NO2 and PAN are underestimated in the UT. Model lightning NOx emissions are

  14. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    SciTech Connect

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  15. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside.

  16. Surficial Geologic Map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle; Triplett, James

    2004-01-01

    The Surficial Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina was mapped from 1993 to 2003 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS). This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map was compiled from 2002 to 2003 from unpublished field investigations maps at 1:24,000-scale. The preliminary surficial geologic data and map support cooperative investigations with NPS, the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org/) (Southworth, 2001). Although the focus of our work was within the Park, the geology of the surrounding area is provided for regional context. Surficial deposits document the most recent part of the geologic history of this part of the western Blue Ridge and eastern Tennessee Valley of the Valley and Ridge of the Southern Appalachians. Additionally, there is great variety of surficial materials, which directly affect the different types of soil and associated flora and fauna. The surficial deposits accumulated over tens of millions of years under varied climatic conditions during the Cenozoic era and resulted from a composite of geologic processes.

  17. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Thermal Stability of Frozen Volatiles in the North Polar Region of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Harmon, John K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations have revealed the presence on Mercury of anomalously bright, depolarizing features that appear to be localized in the permanently shadowed regions of high-latitude impact craters [1]. Observations of similar radar signatures over a range of radar wavelengths implies that they correspond to deposits that are highly transparent at radar wavelengths and extend to depths of several meters below the surface [1]. Thermal models using idealized crater topographic profiles have predicted the thermal stability of surface and subsurface water ice at these same latitudes [2]. One of the major goals of the MESSENGER mission is to characterize the nature of radar-bright craters and presumed associated frozen volatile deposits at the poles of Mercury through complementary orbital observations by a suite of instruments [3]. Here we report on an examination of the thermal stability of water ice and other frozen volatiles in the north polar region of Mercury using topographic profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument [4] in conjunction with a three-dimensional ray-tracing thermal model previously used to study the thermal environment of polar craters on the Moon [5].

  19. Distribution and formation of the mesothermal structure (temperature inversions) in the North Pacific subarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Yasuda, Ichiro

    2000-07-01

    The distribution and formation of mesothermal structure (temperature inversions) in the North Pacific subarctic region are investigated through analysis of climatological hydrographic data. It is suggested that the heat and salt that maintain the mesothermal water and thus the halocline in the density range of 26.7-27.2σθ are transported as a crossgyre flow from the transition domain just east of Japan, where the waters are influenced by the subtropical gyre water mass, to the eastern subarctic region. Along the transport route the isopycnal potential temperature and thus salinity are well conserved. In the western subarctic gyre, the Bering Sea, and the northern Gulf of Alaska, the temperature reaches its minimum at the surface in winter and the areal coverage agrees well with the distribution of the mesothermal structure. In the southeastern part of the zonally distributed mesothermal structure in the area of 170°E-150°W and 45°-50°N, where the winter sea surface temperature is higher than that in the deeper layer, dichothermal water is formed by subsurface intrusion of the low-temperature and low-salinity water that outcropped in the previous winter over the warm and saline water transported from the transition domain.

  20. Isolation and survey of antibiotic sensitivity in nosocomial infections in north Maharashtra region.

    PubMed

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Kavita; Pawar, Pankaj; Maheshwari, Vijay

    2013-07-01

    The present work was aimed to study the prevalence of the drug resistance among Gram positive and Gram negative organisms isolated from clinical samples obtained from various private nursing homes of Jalgaon city and surrounding areas in the state of Maharashtra. Different pathogenic organisms were isolated from one thousand seven hundred and ninety clinical samples obtained from various nursing homes of Jalgaon region of North Maharashtra, MS, India during the period of August, 2010 to July, 2011. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of isolated pathogenic organisms was done with fifty different antibiotics of 13 different groups by the disk diffusion technique using Mueller Hinton Agar Plates according to CLSI (formerly NCCLS) guidelines. Out of total samples analyzed 1171 samples showed the presence of infection while in 619 samples no growth of organisms was seen on culture medium. Microbial growth revealed presence of 11 different organisms (E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Acinetobater spp., Streptococccus spp., Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA)) including Candida spp. Sensitivity profile of these organisms towards different antibiotics is reported here. The study resulted in generation of representative status of the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of commonly found organisms in nosocomial infections in the region. This could be useful for the clinicians to choose correct antibiotic and ensure the judicious use of the same for their patients.

  1. Paleoproterozoic basin development and sedimentation in the Lake Superior region, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Southwick, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The peneplaned Archean craton in the Lake Superior region was the platform upon which a continental margin assemblage was deposited. Extension resulted in localized rifts that received thicker accumulations of sediments and volcanic rocks than did adjacent parts of the platform. Seas transgressed onto the continent several times and an ocean basin opened south of the present-day Lake Superior. Island arcs that formed during subduction collided with the craton margin as the ocean basin closed; oceanic crust is poorly preserved as a dismembered ophiolite sequence. The arc volcanics are preserved as the Wisconsin magmatic terranes. The collision resulted in a fold-and-thrust belt known as the Penokean orogen. To the north of the fold-and-thrust belt, a northward-migrating foreland basin - the Animikie basin - developed. Thick turbidite successions were deposited along the basin axis, and terrigenous clastics and Lake Superior-type iron-formation were deposited on the shelf along the northern margin of the basin. The primary paleoclimatic indicators are: (1) glaciogenic rocks at the base of the Paleoproterozoic succession in Michigan indicating ice-house conditions; 2) remnants of a paleosol on the glaciogenic rocks indicative of deep weathering, probably under subtropical conditions and therefore of greenhouse conditions; and (3) carbonate minerals after gypsum, halite, and anhydrite in stromatolitic dolomite, indicative of aridity. Three second-order depositional sequences are bounded by major unconformities, and can be correlated throughout the Lake Superior region. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Forecasting the spread of invasive rainbow smelt in the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Silva, Norman; Olden, Julian D; Maxted, Jeffrey T; Hrabik, Thomas R; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2006-12-01

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) have invaded many North American lakes, often resulting in the extirpation of native fish populations. Yet, their invasion is incipient and provides the rationale for identifying ecosystems likely to be invaded and where management and prevention efforts should be focused. To predict smelt presence and absence, we constructed a classification-tree model based on habitat data from 354 lakes in the native range for smelt in southern Maine. Maximum lake depth, lake area, and Secchi depth (surrogate measure of lake productivity) were the most important predictors. We then used our model to identify lakes vulnerable to invasion in three regions outside the smelt's native range: northern Maine (52 of 244 lakes in the non-native range), Ontario (4447 of 8110), and Wisconsin (553 of 5164). We further identified a subset of lakes with a strong potential for impact (potential-impact lakes) based on the presence of fish species that are affected by rainbow smelt. Ninety-four percent of vulnerable lakes in the non-native range in Maine are also potential-impact lakes, as are 94% and 58% of Ontario and Wisconsin's vulnerable lakes, respectively. Our modeling approach can be applied to other invaders and regions to identify invasion-prone ecosystems, thus aiding in the management of invasive species and the efficient allocation of invasive species mitigation and prevention resources.

  3. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of mantle xenoliths from the back arc region of north Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundl, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Lukás, Ackerman; Bizimis, Michael; Bjerg, Ernesto; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths brought to the surface by alkali basalts in north Patagonia, Argentina, were studied for their geochemical and isotopic compositions. Samples were collected at four different outcrops within the North Patagonian Massif in Rio Negro Province. The studied sample suite from Comallo (COM), Puesto Diaz (PD), Cerro Chenque (CH) and Prahuaniyeu (PRA) comprises anhydrous spinel-harzburgites, spinel-dunites, as well as one PRA spinel-garnet-lherzolite. Bulk rock Al2O3 and CaO compositions of the studied samples lie within a narrow range of 0.68 to 1.31 wt. % and 0.36 to 1.25 wt. %, respectively. Al2O3 and CaO decrease with increasing MgO ranging from 44.7 to 48.0 wt. %. The single spinel-garnet lherzolite has a more fertile composition with CaO, Al2O3 and MgO of 2.78 wt. %, 2.35 wt. % and 42.2 wt. %, respectively. With the exception of the PRA region, the studied mantle xenoliths represent an overall highly depleted lithospheric mantle underneath northern Patagonia (up to 25% melt extraction). The rock forming minerals show concentrations typical for depleted peridotites with mg# that range from 0.91 to 0.92 for olivine and orthopyroxene and mg# from 0.91 to 0.95 for clinopyroxene. Variably elevated clinopyroxene trace element compositions in all studied north Patagonian mantle samples indicate reactions with a chromatographically fractionated melt after the initial melt depletion event. A percolating melt reacts with a strongly depleted mantle peridotite as it propagates through the wall rock and subsequently changes its composition. These melt-rock reactions lead to a compositionally evolving melt and variably altered mantle sections, which is strongly reflected in primitive mantle normalized clinopyroxene trace element patterns. Bulk rock and mineral compositions, on the other hand, suggest that this melt percolation event has not significantly affected major element systematics. Contrary, isotope and HSE systematics also indicate melt-rock reactions. In

  4. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  5. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talpe, Matthieu, J.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Solomon, Sean C.; Vilas, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar images dating back two decades show that the floors of some polar craters on Mercury host radar-bright deposits that have been proposed to consist of frozen volatiles. Several hypotheses have been put forth to explain their source, including volcanic outgassing, chemical sputtering, and deposition of exogenous water ice. Calculations show that volatiles are thermally stable in permanently shadowed areas. An earlier study of the depths of north polar craters determined with photoclinometric techniques applied to Mariner 10 images yielded the conclusion that the mean ratio of crater depth d to rim-crest diameter D for craters hosting polar deposits is two-thirds that of the mean ratio for a comparable population of neighboring craters lacking such deposits. This result could be explained by (though doesn't require) the presence of a thick layer of volatiles within the polar deposit-hosting craters. Here we use altimetric profiles and topographic maps obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) to revisit this analysis. MLA is an instrument on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has been orbiting Mercury since March 2011. MLA transmits a 1064-nm laser pulse at 8 Hz during MESSENGER's trajectory over Mercury s surface. The MLA illuminates surface areas averaging between 15 m and 100 m in diameter, spaced approx 400 m apart along the spacecraft ground track. The radial precision of individual measurements is <1 m, and the current accuracy with respect to Mercury s center of mass is better than 20 m. As of mid-December 2011, MLA coverage had reached to 15 S and has yielded a comprehensive map of the topography of Mercury s northern hemisphere. The MLA data are used here to quantify the shapes of craters in the north polar region and to avoid the shadowing bias of photoclinometric techniques.

  6. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  7. Climate trends of the North American prairie pothole region 1906-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millett, B.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is unique to North America. Its millions of wetlands and abundant ecosystem goods and services are highly sensitive to wide variations of temperature and precipitation in time and space characteristic of a strongly continental climate. Precipitation and temperature gradients across the PPR are orthogonal to each other. Precipitation nearly triples from west to east from approximately 300 mm/year to 900 mm/year, while mean annual temperature ranges from approximately 1°C in the north to nearly 10°C in the south. Twentieth-century weather records for 18 PPR weather stations representing 6 ecoregions revealed several trends. The climate generally has been getting warmer and wetter and the diurnal temperature range has decreased. Minimum daily temperatures warmed by 1.0°C, while maximum daily temperatures cooled by 0.15°C. Minimum temperature warmed more in winter than in summer, while maximum temperature cooled in summer and warmed in winter. Average annual precipitation increased by 49 mm or 9%. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) trends reflected increasing moisture availability for most weather stations; however, several stations in the western Canadian Prairies recorded effectively drier conditions. The east-west moisture gradient steepened during the twentieth century with stations in the west becoming drier and stations in the east becoming wetter. If the moisture gradient continues to steepen, the area of productive wetland ecosystems will shrink. Consequences for wetlands would be especially severe if the future climate does not provide supplemental moisture to offset higher evaporative demand.

  8. Drivers of diel and regional variations of halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Ziska, F.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Peeken, I.; Krüger, K.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2013-07-01

    Methyl iodide (CH3I}, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which are produced naturally in the oceans, take part in ozone chemistry both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The significance of oceanic upwelling regions for emissions of these trace gases in the global context is still uncertain although they have been identified as important source regions. To better quantify the role of upwelling areas in current and future climate, this paper analyzes major factors that influenced halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic including the Mauritanian upwelling during the DRIVE expedition. Diel and regional variability of oceanic and atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 was determined along with biological and meteorological parameters at six 24 h-stations. Low oceanic concentrations of CH3I from 0.1-5.4 pmol L-1 were equally distributed throughout the investigation area. CHBr3 of 1.0-42.4 pmol L-1 and CH2Br2 of 1.0-9.4 pmol L-1 were measured with maximum concentrations close to the Mauritanian coast. Atmospheric mixing rations of CH3I of up to 3.3, CHBr3 to 8.9 and CH2Br2 to 3.1 ppt above the upwelling and 1.8, 12.8, respectively 2.2 ppt at a Cape Verdean coast were detected during the campaign. While diel variability in CH3I emissions could be mainly ascribed to oceanic non-biological production, no main driver was identified for its emissions in the entire study region. In contrast, oceanic bromocarbons resulted from biogenic sources which were identified as regional drivers of their sea-to-air fluxes. The diel impact of wind speed on bromocarbon emissions increased with decreasing distance to the coast. The height of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) was determined as an additional factor influencing halocarbon emissions. Oceanic and atmospheric halocarbons correlated well in the study region and in combination with high oceanic CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 concentrations, local hot spots of atmospheric halocarbons could solely

  9. Drought-waterlog encounter probability research between the diversion region and benefited region in the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z.; Xu, J. J.; Huo, J. J.; Yao, L. Q.; Lin, Y. R.; Hong, X. F.

    2017-08-01

    One of the major risk factors in managing water resources in the South to North Water Transfer Project will be due to spatial and temporal variations in precipitation. This is because the synchronous encounter probability of drought and waterlog can be different at the diversion region and benefited region. This study analyzed the statistical characteristic of drought and waterlog in the diversion region and benefited region and the wetness-dryness encountering probability among the diversion region and benefited region. Besides, the wetness-dryness encountering probability and the surface water resource in the diversion region were also projected based on the outputs of GCMs. The results showed that: (1) The concurrence of drought or waterlog in diversion region and benefited region is uncommon and it benefits the water transfer. (2) In the future, the synchrony of drought/waterlog will increase in wet season while it will decrease in dry season. But the synchrony of drought/waterlog between the north of Haihe River Basin and diversion region will decrease in the late spring, early summer and autumn. (3) The surface water resource is projected to be increased by 8.1∼11.5% compared to the period from 1961 to 2011. The climate change in the future would benefit the water transfer.

  10. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  11. The effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in Australia's North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin J. F.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ivey, Greg N.; Jones, Nicole L.; Péquignet, Christine A.

    2017-05-01

    The numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) and historical wave buoy observations were used to investigate the response of surface wave fields to tropical cyclone (TC) wind forcing on the Australian North West Shelf (NWS). Analysis of historical wave data during TC events at a key location on the NWS showed that an average of 1.7 large TCs impacted the region each year, albeit with high variability in TC track, intensity and size, and also in the surface wave field response. An accurately modeled TC wind field resulted in a good prediction of the observed extreme wave conditions by SWAN. Results showed that the presence of strong background winds during a TC and a long TC lifetime (with large variations in translation speed) can provide additional energy input. This potentially enhances the generated swell waves and increases the spatial extent of the TC generated surface wave fields. For the TC translation speeds in this study, a positive relationship between TC translation speed and the resulting maximum significant wave height and wave field asymmetry was observed. Bottom friction across the wide NWS limited the amount of wave energy reaching the coastal region; consistently reducing wave energy in depths below 50 m, and in the case of the most extreme conditions, in depths up to 100 m that comprise much of the shelf. Nevertheless, whitecapping was still the dominant dissipation mechanism on the broader shelf region. Shelf-scale refraction had little effect on the amount of wave energy reaching the nearshore zone; however, refraction locally enhanced or reduced wave energy depending on the orientation of the isobaths with respect to the dominant wave direction during the TC.

  12. North-south asymmetry of eolian features in Martian polar regions - Analysis based on crater-related wind markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1981-01-01

    Crater-related wind markers in the north and south polar regions of Mars are analyzed in a study of possible north-south asymmetries in wind activity. Features including crater splotches and associated streaks, and depositional, erosional, frost and frost-sediment streaks were identified and analyzed as wind direction indicators on Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images of areas poleward of + or - 40 deg latitude. The wind streaks reveal eolian activity at present to be strongest in the north in winter and in the south in spring, due to the hemispherical asymmetry in climate. The alignment of the more massive intercrater dune fields with the presently strongest wind may reflect a longer-term asymmetry in spring flows, as the reorientation times of the dunes exceeded the period of climate asymmetry cycles. Finally, a wider distribution of dune latitudes in the southern polar region is noted to be suggestive of the greater effectiveness of windflow from the south pole.

  13. Utilizing North American Regional Reanalysis for modeling soil moisture and evapotranspiration in reconstructed watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshta, Nader; Elshorbagy, Amin

    Oil sands development in Canada presents overwhelming challenges for boreal forest conservation and reclamation due to the disturbance of watershed function. Modeling hydrological processes for reclaimed landscapes is essential for assessing the performance of different reclamation strategies and their evolution over time, and requires a reliable continuous source of input data. This study evaluated the utility of precipitation and temperature data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for the hydrological modeling of two reconstructed sites located north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. NARR precipitation and air temperature data were in good agreement with the observed onsite datasets. A generic system dynamics watershed (GSDW) model was initially calibrated using the onsite meteorological data, resulting in simulated soil moisture values that slightly overestimated observed values. The model was re-calibrated using the NARR temperature and precipitation data as inputs while the remaining data (e.g., net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity) were obtained from the weather station. The re-calibrated model was a good alternative to onsite weather station data for simulating soil moisture patterns and evapotranspiration fluxes, particularly in cases of data scarcity. The re-calibrated model was used along with the NARR long term dataset (1979-2006) to evaluate the current/future hydrological performance of existing reconstructed watersheds with respect to soil moisture deficit using a probabilistic framework, and the results compared with long term performance estimates using the onsite-calibrated GSDW model. The study showed overall average correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.64 between the NARR and the onsite observed datasets for temperature and precipitation, respectively, and average root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 4.2 °C and 2.3 mm for the same datasets for the period of 2000-2006. The current study demonstrates and

  14. Electrical conductivity of mantle in the North Central region of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    The mantle electrical conductivity profile of the North Central region of Nigeria was determined using the quiet day ionospheric current variations (Sq). The employed magnetic averaged hourly data were obtained from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) ground based observatories at two Nigerian stations located at Ilorin (8°30‧N, 4°33‧E) and Abuja (8°59‧N, 7°23‧E) for the year 2009 and 2010. The magnetometer data from Pankshin (9°20‧N, 9°27‧E) and Katsina-Ala (7°10‧N, 9°17‧E) for the same years were equally employed. The separation of both the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations was successfully carried out employing spherical harmonic analysis (SHA). Transfer function was performed in computing the conductivity-depth profile for North Central region of Nigeria from the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA. The conductivity value of approximately 0.039 S/m was estimated at a depth of 100 km which rose gradually to 0.087 S/m at 207 km depth and 0.142 S/m at 367 km (close to the base of upper mantle). Subsequently, the conductivity profile continued rising to a value of 0.144 S/m at 442 km, 0.164 S/m at 653 km and 0.174 S/m at 710 km. Finally, value of approximately 0.195 S/m at a depth of 881 km and 0.240 S/m at 1100 km depth were recorded at the lower mantle with no indication of leveling off. Some evidence of discontinuities near 100-214 km, 214-420 km, 420-640 km, 640-900 km and 900-1100 km were clearly obvious. The sharp increase in conductivity from about 100 km depth to 230 km was interpreted to correspond to the global seismic low velocity zone - the asthenosphere.

  15. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  16. Diurnal Weather Cycles at the Tropical Treeline in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, F.

    2007-12-01

    High elevation atmospheric processes in the North American Monsoon region were investigated using half-hour weather data collected from May 22nd, 2001 to March 21st, 2007 at Nevado de Colima, Mexico (19° 35' N, 103° 37' W, 3760 m a.s.l.). After briefly expanding on temporal changes, which were first described by Biondi et al. 2005, I investigate diurnal weather cycles using the entire period of record. During the monsoon, precipitation falls mostly in the afternoon (from 12:00 to 20:00), with a peak around 17:00. Barometric pressure follows a regular wave pattern in all months, with a high at noon in between two lows, one around 5:30 and one between 17:00 and 19:00. Since barometric pressure is higher during the wet season, and the lows are found in all months, the afternoon low is not related to precipitation; rather it may help convective processes during the monsoon season. The diurnal pressure waves correspond to changes in wind speed, but it is unclear if turbulence drives the changes in pressure, as suggested by other authors. In particular, the amplitude of the atmospheric wave is greater in the dry season than in the wet season, in contrast to what was observed at high elevations in the Alps. The diurnal cycle of air temperature shows maxima during the spring, as the increased cloudiness during the summer wet season reduces incoming short wave radiation and its direct outcome, maximum air temperature. The dry season is characterized by greater excursions in air temperature, since the interval between maxima and minima is larger at all hours of the day. Soil temperature (especially the minima) is higher during the wet season, and shows an afternoon peak, most likely related to precipitation. Both minimum and maximum soil temperatures are at their lowest level around noon. Atmospheric vapor and vapor pressure deficit follow opposite patterns, as expected according to the season and the diurnal cycle of precipitation. These data provide a unique baseline for

  17. Fellow travellers: a concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background House mice (Mus musculus) are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings in Norway and the British Isles. Norwegian Viking activity also extended further westwards in the North Atlantic with the settlement of Iceland, short-lived colonies in Greenland and a fleeting colony in Newfoundland in 1000 AD. Here we investigate whether house mouse mtDNA sequences reflect human history in these other regions as well. Results House mice samples from Iceland, whether from archaeological Viking Age material or from modern-day specimens, had an identical mtDNA haplotype to the clade previously linked with Norwegian Vikings. From mtDNA and microsatellite data, the modern-day Icelandic mice also share the low genetic diversity shown by their human hosts on Iceland. Viking Age mice from Greenland had an mtDNA haplotype deriving from the Icelandic haplotype, but the modern-day Greenlandic mice belong to an entirely different mtDNA clade. We found no genetic association between modern Newfoundland mice and the Icelandic/ancient Greenlandic mice (no ancient Newfoundland mice were available). The modern day Icelandic and Newfoundland mice belong to the subspecies M. m. domesticus, the Greenlandic mice to M. m. musculus. Conclusions In the North Atlantic region, human settlement history over a thousand years is reflected remarkably by the mtDNA phylogeny of house mice. In Iceland, the mtDNA data show the arrival and continuity of the house mouse population to the present day, while in Greenland the data suggest the arrival, subsequent extinction and recolonization of house mice - in both places mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the humans, their presence was

  18. Fellow travellers: a concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region.

    PubMed

    Jones, E P; Skirnisson, K; McGovern, T H; Gilbert, M T P; Willerslev, E; Searle, J B

    2012-03-19

    House mice (Mus musculus) are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings in Norway and the British Isles. Norwegian Viking activity also extended further westwards in the North Atlantic with the settlement of Iceland, short-lived colonies in Greenland and a fleeting colony in Newfoundland in 1000 AD. Here we investigate whether house mouse mtDNA sequences reflect human history in these other regions as well. House mice samples from Iceland, whether from archaeological Viking Age material or from modern-day specimens, had an identical mtDNA haplotype to the clade previously linked with Norwegian Vikings. From mtDNA and microsatellite data, the modern-day Icelandic mice also share the low genetic diversity shown by their human hosts on Iceland. Viking Age mice from Greenland had an mtDNA haplotype deriving from the Icelandic haplotype, but the modern-day Greenlandic mice belong to an entirely different mtDNA clade. We found no genetic association between modern Newfoundland mice and the Icelandic/ancient Greenlandic mice (no ancient Newfoundland mice were available). The modern day Icelandic and Newfoundland mice belong to the subspecies M. m. domesticus, the Greenlandic mice to M. m. musculus. In the North Atlantic region, human settlement history over a thousand years is reflected remarkably by the mtDNA phylogeny of house mice. In Iceland, the mtDNA data show the arrival and continuity of the house mouse population to the present day, while in Greenland the data suggest the arrival, subsequent extinction and recolonization of house mice--in both places mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the humans, their presence was also fleeting and left no

  19. Evidence of Short Timescale Flux Density Variations of UC HII Regions in Sgr B2 Main and North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pree, C. G.; Peters, T.; Mac Low, M. M.; Wilner, D. J.; Goss, W. M.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Keto, E. R.; Klessen, R. S.; Monsrud, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have recently published observations of significant flux density variations at 1.3 cm in H ii regions in the star-forming regions Sgr B2 Main and North. To further study these variations, we have made new 7 mm continuum and recombination line observations of Sgr B2 at the highest possible angular resolution of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We have observed Sgr B2 Main and North at 42.9 GHz and at 45.4 GHz in the BnA configuration (Main) and the A configuration (North). We compare these new data to archival VLA 7 mm continuum data of Sgr B2 Main observed in 2003 and Sgr B2 North observed in 2001. We find that 1 of the 41 known ultracompact and hypercompact H ii regions in Sgr B2 (K2-North) has decreased ∼27% in flux density from 142 ± 14 to 103 ± 10 mJy (2.3σ) between 2001 and 2012. A second source, F3c-Main, has increased ∼30% in flux density from 82 ± 8 to 107 ± 11 mJy (1.8σ) between 2003 and 2012. F3c-Main was previously observed to increase in flux density at 1.3 cm over a longer time period between 1989 and 2012. An observation of decreasing flux density, such as that observed in K2-North, is particularly significant since such a change is not predicted by the classical hypothesis of steady expansion of H ii regions during massive star accretion. Our new observations at 7 mm, along with others in the literature, suggest that the formation of massive stars occurs through time-variable and violent accretion.

  20. Characterization of the partial RNA1 and RNA2 3' untranslated region of tomato ringspot virus isolates from North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 3' non-translated regions (NTRs) of RNA1 and RNA2 of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are long and virtually identical. In this study, sequences containing most of the 3’ NTRs (1168-1265 bp) were determined from 18 ToRSV isolates collected from fruit trees, small fruits, and grapevines in North Am...

  1. Asking the Presidents: The Most Pressing Issues at Community Colleges in the North Central Region. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budig, Jeanne E.

    A survey of 350 presidents at two-year colleges in the North Central Accreditation Region generated a list of their perceptions of the currently most pressing issues related to accreditation, academic transfer and vocational/technical education. A total of 162 usable responses was received. Results included the finding that the most pressing issue…

  2. Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North Tien-Shan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tien-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in Tien-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the Tien-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in Tien-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in Tien-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North Tien-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North Tien-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and

  3. Active Mass Wasting of Ices in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Pathare, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered two forms of mass-wasting in the north-polar region. One is the scarpward retreat of bright layers of the north polar basal unit (BU, immediately underlying the north polar layered deposits, NPLD) and the overlying NPLD by fracture-controlled and undercutting-assisted piecewise failure of layer edges, resulting in rockfalls and rockslides, called blockfalls here. This is important as it suggests an alternative, significant mode of erosion in addition to sublimation which is traditionally held account-able for erosion of polar surfaces. The other form, caught in-action during imaging, comprises falls and avalanches of frost and dust over a few steep NPLD scarps during early spring. Here we report the latest findings in both of these dramatic and currently active processes and assess their role in the evolution and history of polar deposits. NPLD and BU mass wasting: Typical evidence of recent blockfall activity is in the form of blocks, flows, and debris on BU slopes. In a few cases, the appearance of new blocks in subsequent images proves this process is ongo-ing. In general, [likely] active outcrops have a higher overall MOLA-derived slope than [likely] quiescent outcrops (those with a lack of debris and abundance of sand on the BU). Furthermore, none of the NPLD peripheral scarps without BU exposure have slopes above 40°. This suggests BU exposure and this type of mass wasting play a role in maintaining and possibly creating over-steepened NPLD scarps (often 45°-65°, with sections approaching vertical). The lower-sloped NPLD scarps with no BU present also do not display the severe fracturing that characterizes steep NPLD cliffs directly above BU exposures. This may be due to fracture propagation from undercutting by the BU, thermal stresses induced by rapid and intense heating on steepened slopes with high solar incidence angles, or rapid uncovering of ice that was under compressive stresses

  4. Evidence of added value in North American regional climate model hindcast simulations using ever-increasing horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Laprise, René; Winger, Katja

    2016-07-01

    The study of regional rainfall trends over South Asia is critically important for food security and economy, as both these factors largely depend on the availability of water. In this study, South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trends on seasonal and monthly (June-September) time scales have been investigated using three observational data sets. Our analysis identify a dipole-type structure in rainfall trends over the region north of the Indo-Pak subcontinent, with significant increasing trends over the core monsoon region of Pakistan and significant decreasing trends over the central-north India and adjacent areas. The dipole is also evident in monthly rainfall trend analyses, which is more prominent in July and August. We show, in particular, that the strengthening of northward moisture transport over the Arabian Sea is a likely reason for the significant positive trend of rainfall in the core monsoon region of Pakistan. In contrast, over the central-north India region, the rainfall trends are significantly decreasing due to the weakening of northward moisture transport over the Bay of Bengal. The leading empirical orthogonal functions clearly show the strengthening (weakening) patterns of vertically integrated moisture transport over the Arabian Sea (Bay of Bengal) in seasonal and monthly interannual time scales. The regression analysis between the principal components and rainfall confirm the dipole pattern over the region. Our results also suggest that the extra-tropical phenomena could influence the mean monsoon rainfall trends over Pakistan by enhancing the cross-equatorial flow of moisture into the Arabian Sea.

  5. Revised correlation of Silurian Provincial Series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic units and δ13Ccarb chemostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Brett, Carlton E.; Melchin, Michael J.; Mannik, Peep; Kleffner, Mark A.; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Loydell, David K.; Munnecke, Axel; Jeppsson, Lennart; Corradini, Carlo; Brunton, Frank R.; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent revisions to the biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic assignment of strata from the type area of the Niagaran Provincial Series (a regional chronostratigraphic unit) have demonstrated the need to revise the chronostratigraphic correlation of the Silurian System of North America. Recently, the working group to restudy the base of the Wenlock Series has developed an extremely high-resolution global chronostratigraphy for the Telychian and Sheinwoodian stages by integrating graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy with carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) chemostratigraphy. This improved global chronostratigraphy has required such significant chronostratigraphic revisions to the North American succession that much of the Silurian System in North America is currently in a state of flux and needs further refinement. This report serves as an update of the progress on recalibrating the global chronostratigraphic correlation of North American Provincial Series and Stage boundaries in their type area. The revised North American classification is correlated with global series and stages as well as regional classifications used in the United Kingdom, the East Baltic, Australia, China, the Barrandian, and Altaj. Twenty-four potential stage slices, based primarily on graptolite and conodont zones and correlated to the global series and stages, are illustrated alongside a new composite ??13Ccarb curve for the Silurian. Conodont, graptolite, isotope, New York, Ontario, series, Silurian, stage. ?? 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  6. Influence of terrain and highway construction on thermokarst distribution, North Slave region, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Peter; Wolfe, Stephen; McWade, Taylor

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost degradation has been observed throughout the north and is expected to have broad reaching effects on the land and its people. Nevertheless, for much of Northern Canada little quantified information about thermokarst exists. For example, in the southern North Slave region, NWT, thermokarst distribution has never been assessed though permafrost is in thermal disequilibrium and modelling suggests permafrost extent will decline. Additionally, differential subsidence has been observed in the subarctic city of Yellowknife and along highway infrastructure connecting it to the south. To better understand present and future permafrost conditions, we mapped the location and size of thermokarst ponding (a change from forest cover to water) in the study area by comparing historic and modern remotely sensed data sets available from 1945, 1961, and 2005. These data were used to evaluate the dominant terrain controls on the distribution of thermokarst in the region, and the potential influence that highway construction may have had on thermokarst development. Historically, discontinuous permafrost developed in a time-transgressive manner during the Holocene as lake-level receded from glacial Lake McConnell to present-day Great Slave Lake (5 mmṡa-1 over the last 8000 years). As a consequence of inundation the upland areas are characterized by extensive wave-washed bedrock outcrops with glaciolacustrine (GL) sediments and glaciofluvial materials occurring between them, whereas the lowland areas feature prominent GL deposits that cover nearly 70 % of the exposed surface. Throughout much of the region ground ice accumulation likely accompanied permafrost aggradation into fine-grained sediments, as is evident by lithalsa growth in particular. Highway 3, constructed during the mid-1960s, was preferentially aligned to crossed terrain underlain by fine-grained sediments to avoid bedrock and waterbodies. Local silt and clay used for highway embankment construction was sourced

  7. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  8. [Species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China].

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Dong; Huang, Jia-Xing; Williams, Paul H; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Bing-Feng

    2010-06-01

    Based on the 1893 specimens collected from Hebei Province, Beijing City, and Tianjin City in 2005-2009, and the specimens deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, this paper analyzed the species diversity and colony characteristics of bumblebees in the Hebei region of North China. A total of 32 species belonging to 8 subgenera of Bombus were recorded, with 32 species in Hebei Province, 18 species in Beijing, and 5 species in Tianjin. The bumblebee in Taihang Mountains, Yanshan Mountains, and Bashang Plateau had the highest richness and abundance, and its food-plant included 80 species of 21 families, among which, Compositae, Leguminosae, and Labiatae were most important. Five bumblebee species, i. e., Bombus hypocrita, B. ignitus, B. patagiatus, B. pyrosoma, and B. picipes, had the largest colony, with more than 110 workers, 160 drones, and 30 young queens produced per colony. The success in rearing colonies of each of the 5 species by queens was > 50%, demonstrating that these 5 species had the potential to be mass-reared, with important applied value for crop pollination.

  9. Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.

  10. Nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmol N L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C (but was lower than 24.3 °C) and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). Clone library analysis results indicated that nifH gene sequences were omnipresent throughout the investigation period. During the period when nitrogen fixation was detected (early summer to fall), the genes affiliated with UCYN-A, Trichodesmium, and γ-proteobacterial phylotype γ-24774A11 were frequently recovered. In contrast, when nitrogen fixation was undetectable (winter to spring), many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria) were recovered. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that UCYN-A was relatively abundant from early to late summer compared with Trichodesmium and γ-24774A11, whereas Trichodesmium abundance was the highest among the three groups during fall.

  11. Regional patterns of mercury content in snowpack, sphagnum, and fish in northeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.; Mower, B.; Perry, R.

    1995-12-31

    High levels of mercury have been found in fish from lakes throughout the northeastern US and eastern Canada, in waters with no known local mercury source. If this mercury originates from anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere, deposition should be higher near population centers or other point sources. The authors surveyed the mercury content of late-season snowpack, sphagnum moss, and fish at locations from southwestern Connecticut to northern Newfoundland to determine if such a pattern existed. Mercury in snow ranged 1.5 to 20 ng/L, and in sphagnum < 24 to 289 ng/g dry wt. Concentrations were generally highest at southwestern sites and lowest at northeastern sites with some exceptions. The highest concentrations in both media were at locations in Rhode Island and New Hampshire, and may reflect local source emissions. Excluding these sites, the range in concentration from south to north is only a factor of two or three. These values are similar to those reported in other areas and reflect the long atmospheric residence time of gaseous elemental mercury. Mercury concentration in fish ranged 0.1 to 1.0 ug/g wet wt. and showed no regional pattern. Rather, fish mercury concentration was affected by fish species and size, being highest in large predatory species such as smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and lowest in small nonpredatory species such as yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

  12. Biological nitrogen fixation in the oxygen-minimum region of the eastern tropical North Pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Amal; Chang, Bonnie X; Widner, Brittany; Bernhardt, Peter; Mulholland, Margaret R; Ward, Bess B

    2017-10-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was investigated above and within the oxygen-depleted waters of the oxygen-minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean. BNF rates were estimated using an isotope tracer method that overcame the uncertainty of the conventional bubble method by directly measuring the tracer enrichment during the incubations. Highest rates of BNF (~4 nM day(-1)) occurred in coastal surface waters and lowest detectable rates (~0.2 nM day(-1)) were found in the anoxic region of offshore stations. BNF was not detectable in most samples from oxygen-depleted waters. The composition of the N2-fixing assemblage was investigated by sequencing of nifH genes. The diazotrophic assemblage in surface waters contained mainly Proteobacterial sequences (Cluster I nifH), while both Proteobacterial sequences and sequences with high identities to those of anaerobic microbes characterized as Clusters III and IV type nifH sequences were found in the anoxic waters. Our results indicate modest input of N through BNF in oxygen-depleted zones mainly due to the activity of proteobacterial diazotrophs.

  13. Evaluation of lichen diversity as an indicator of environmental quality in the North Adriatic submediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Castello, Miris; Skert, Nicola

    2005-01-05

    In 2000, a standardized sampling protocol was developed by a group of European researchers to provide a repeatable and objective strategy for mapping lichen diversity as an indicator of environmental changes; this protocol is nowadays adopted in the guidelines to air quality bioindication in Italy. The present paper shows the results of a study of epiphytic lichen diversity performed according to both the new protocol and the standard methodology previously used in Italy; diversity values are based on frequency counts of all lichen species within particular sampling grids positioned on the trunks and divided in subunits. The survey was carried out in 61 sampling sites of two areas of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (Italy) and Slovenia, characterized by similar climatic conditions and a wide range of anthropic pressure. Biodiversity values obtained following the two sampling methods are highly statistically correlated; this suggests an interpretative continuity of lichen diversity data for biomonitoring purposes. Lichen communities and diversity values occurring in natural areas, far from heavy human influences, are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of floristic releves of 11 sites. Diversity values scored in natural areas are rather variable, and are mainly influenced by the different vegetation types, Parmelion communities having lower diversity values than communities with Xanthorion elements. Evaluation scales of environmental alteration based on lichen diversity in the North Adriatic submediterranean bioclimatic area are provided. Some critical aspects of the sampling strategies are discussed.

  14. On Not Knowing Zoonotic Diseases: Pastoralists’ Ethnoveterinary Knowledge in the Far North Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Mark; Ewing, Daniel; Garabed, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the implications of Murray Last’s (1981) Knowing About Not Knowing for the study of ethnoveterinary knowledge of mobile pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Specifically, we ask two interrelated questions: (1) what is the nature of this knowledge, and (2) what is the best way to study it? We conducted a study of pastoralists’ knowledge of human and animal infectious diseases to evaluate the claim that mobile pastoralists in the Chad Basin do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. We used a combination of free lists and semi-structured interviews to study pastoralists’ knowledge. The results suggest that pastoralists do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. Moreover, we found considerable variation in pastoralists’ ethnoveterinary knowledge and examples of not knowing, which contrasts with previous studies that do not describe much variation in ethnoveterinary knowledge. In our discussion, we consider to what extent descriptions of ethnoveterinary knowledge are the product of researchers’ conceptual framework and methodology. PMID:23990687

  15. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter.

    PubMed

    Zuber, M T; Smith, D E; Solomon, S C; Abshire, J B; Afzal, R S; Aharonson, O; Fishbaugh, K; Ford, P G; Frey, H V; Garvin, J B; Head, J W; Ivanov, A B; Johnson, C L; Muhleman, D O; Neumann, G A; Pettengill, G H; Phillips, R J; Sun, X; Zwally, H J; Banerdt, W B; Duxbury, T C

    1998-12-11

    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  16. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  17. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Afzal, R. S.; Aharonson, O.; Fishbaugh, K.; Ford, P. G.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Ivanov, A. B.; Johnson, C. L.; Muhleman, D. O.; Neumann, G. A.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Sun, X.; Zwally, H. J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Duxbury, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  18. Monitoring of the North Korea's 3rd Nuclear Test using Regional Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Kim, G.; Shin, J.; Kim, T.; Che, I.

    2013-12-01

    Through seismic data exchange with China, Russia and Japan, KIGAM could precisely monitor for the more recent North Korea nuclear test with full azimuthal coverage from the test site. The high coherence of collocated stations' seismograms to the previous two events allowed us to infer the tiny difference in the source locations. By estimating relative location to the 3 event s with minimizing 1st P wave arrival time differences, the 3rd test's location was determined to be at the latitude of 41.275N, longitude of 129.064E which is 400 meter south from the 2009 test. A network averaged body wave magnitude, mb(Pn) was evaluated as 4.9, which varies with directional location of stations widely from 4.2 to 5.5. A network averaged surface wave magnitude was estimated to be 3.9. Moment tensor inversion with data from the regional stations gives us source analysis results with high fidelity. The result shows the 3rd test had a very large isotropic component, indicative of an explosion source, similar inversion results were also obtained from previous 2 tests KIGAM evaluated the yield of the test to be 6~7kTon(×3 kTon) by combining Magnitude-Yield Relationships.

  19. Pollen Analysis of Natural Honeys from the Central Region of Shanxi, North China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010–2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000–100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000–500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  20. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  1. Analysis of a winter regional haze event and its formation mechanism in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. J.; Zhao, P. S.; Xu, J.; Meng, W.; Pu, W. W.; Dong, F.; He, D.; Shi, Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    A regional haze episode occurred in the Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province (BTH) area in the North China Plain (NCP) from 16 to 19 January 2010. The chemical and optical properties of aerosols and the meteorological condition were investigated in this study with intensive measurement of aerosol and trace gases from 14 to 23 January 2010 at five sites. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and surface air stagnation under a high pressure system followed by a low pressure system. The concentrations of PM2.5 and trace gases increased significantly on a regional scale during this episode. The increased aerosol scattering coefficient (σsp), absorption coefficient (σap), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed the importance of aerosol extinction during this haze episode. The increase of secondary inorganic pollutants (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) was observed simultaneously at four sites, especially in the plain area of BTH, which could be identified as a common characteristic of pollution haze in east China. The organic matter (OM) was different from secondary inorganic pollutants, which increased more significantly at Chengde (CD) site than the other three sites in plain area. The sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 were mainly formed through the heterogeneous reaction process in the urban area. The secondary organic aerosols in PM2.5 only existed during haze days at CD but in both haze and normal days at the other three sites. The chemical characteristics of aerosols in PM2.5 indicated that the secondary formation of aerosol was one important mechanism in the formation of haze episode. The strong temperature inversion and descending air motions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) allowed pollutants to accumulate in a shallow layer. The weak surface wind speed produced high pollutants concentration within these source regions. The accumulation of pollutants was one main factor in the haze formation. The enhanced southwest wind in the last period of

  2. Active tectonics of North Haji Abad (Hormozgan region) in south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shafiei bafti, amir

    2014-05-01

    Zagros Active Fold -thrust Belt is situated in the northern margin of the Arabian Plat and formed due to shortening, thickening and uplift of tethys sedimentary basin between Arabian and Iranian plates. In this study, the rate of uplift in the northern margin of the Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are examined. The Zagros fault zone in this region is composed of a set faults, including Deragah, Haji Abad, Tezerj and several other faults and also we call these branches from F1 to F8. These segments puts from northwest to the East- Southeast. Based on field surveys and Geological maps, we prepared a structural map from major faults of Zagros fault system for identify faults pattern and estimating of uplift rate movements in Zagros fault. Three methods used to calculation of uplift rate: A: Asymmetry index Accordance with the procedure, in studied area, northeast drainage are longer than of southwest drainage and east minor drainages also longer than the west side drainages, Uplifting in this region is characterized by mentioned asymmetry factor. The amount of this index is AF=71.81. B. Interaction between the faults movements and erosion process We comparison contrast between uplifting movement rates and erosion rates in different parts of studied region by Smf and other indexes. Average amount of Smf=1.1. C. Evaluation of Uplift rate of alluvial terraces was performed by sediment ages and terraces height. We surveyed Quaternary facieses which have ages between 17,000 and 30,000 years old. the rate of uplifting for each fault is follows : Deragah fault and F8 fault between 1.0 to 1.85mm per year and F7, F6, F5, and F4 faults, have a rate Uplifting between 0.6 to 1.0 mm per year and the rate of Uplift for other faults is between 0.04 to 0.06 mm per year. According to our studies, uplift rates in north -east and south-west more than other regions The minimum rate at different stations are about 0.5mm/y to 0.93mm/y and its maximum is 0.88 mm/y to 1.47mm/y.

  3. North-south asymmetry of Ca II K regions determined from OAUC spectroheliograms: 1996 - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorotovič, I.; Rybák, J.; Garcia, A.; Journoud, P.

    2010-12-01

    The solar activity (SA) evolution levels are not identical in the northern and southern Sun's hemispheres. This fact was repeatedly confirmed in the past by the analysis of a number of long-term observations of various SA indices in individual atmospheric layers of the Sun and in different bandwidths. The north-south asymmetry (NSA) is thus a significant tool in investigation of long-term SA variations. This paper presents a software tool to determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric plages, as measured in the Ca II K3 spectroheliograms registered since 1926 in the Observatário Astronómico da Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, as well as evolution of sizes of these areas in the period 1996 - 2006. The algorithm of the program is limited to determining the total area of bright features in the Ca II K3 emission line based on the definition of the threshold value for relative brightness and, therefore, it does not resolve brightness of individual chromospheric features. A comparison and cross-correlation of this NSA with the NSAs found for the sunspots and coronal green line brightness have been added. In the near future we intend to 1) determine the NSA of the area of bright chromospheric Ca II K3 regions back to the year 1926, and 2) compare the evolution of the surface area of these regions in the period 1970-2006 with the evolution of the magnetic index obtained at Mt. Wilson Observatory, which would also help in setting up a proxy reconstruction of the magnetic index back to 1926. Since 2007 new spectroheliograms have been recorded using a CCD camera and, therefore, in the future we will also address this issue for the period 2007 - present.

  4. Seasonal and Regional Variability in North Pacific Upper-Ocean Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Creedon, R.; Cronin, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    Turbulent diffusion at marine mixed layer base (MLB) plays a fundamental role in the transport of energy between the upper and abyssal ocean. Recent investigations of North Pacific mooring data at Ocean Climate Stations (OCS) Papa (50.1N,144.9W) and KEO (32.3N,144.6E) suggest seasonal and regional variability in thermal diffusivity (κT). In this investigation, it is hypothesized that these observed differences in κT are directly associated with synoptic variability in net surface heat flux (Q0), surface wind stress (τ), mixed layer depth (h), and density stratification at MLB (∂zσ|-h). To test this hypothesis, daily-averaged time series of κT are regressed against those of Q0, τ, h, and ∂zσ|-h at both Papa and KEO over a six year time period (2007-2013). Seasonality of each time series is removed before regression to capture synoptic variability of each variable. Preliminary results of the regression analysis suggest statistically significant correlations between κT and all forcing parameters at both mooring sites. These correlations have well-determined orders of magnitude and signs consistent with the hypothesis. As a result, differences in κT between Papa and KEO may be recast in terms of differences in their correlation coefficients. In order to continue investigation of these parameters and their effects on mean seasonal differences between the two regions, these results will be compared with turbulence predicted by the K-Profile Parameterization ocean turbulence model.

  5. Hydrology of the North Cascades region, Washington: 1. Runoff, precipitation, and storage characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Lowell A.; Tangborn, Wendell V.

    1976-01-01

    The time and space distributions of measured precipitation and measured runoff and of spring storage, which is approximately equal to the subsequent summer runoff of snowmelt and stored groundwater, have been analyzed for the North Cascades region of Washington. Neither precipitation nor runoff shows a consistent relationship with altitude, chiefly because of precipitation-shadowing effects in this region of high relief. The relationship between mean annual precipitation and altitude is improved considerably when a topographic mean altitude is used instead of the actual altitude of the weather station. However, the improvement is not sufficient to explain a number of discrepancies that still occur. Some of the scatter in a precipitation-altitude plot appears to be due to a deficient precipitation catch by high-altitude gages. When the dependence of runoff on precipitation was examined on an annual, seasonal, and monthly basis, it was found that only a few low-altitude gages correlated well with basin runoff. In several instances, annual (water year) runoff could be better predicted from winter precipitation than from annual precipitation. Precipitation and runoff were tested for changes with time and both appeared to have been increasing slightly but not at a statistically significant level. When the summer (May–September) fraction of the total annual runoff is plotted against mean basin altitude, a consistent, physically reasonable, mildly curvilinear relationship is revealed. On the basis of this relationship, by using several drainages with diverse area-altitude profiles the spring storage versus altitude distribution can be estimated for each basin. The area-altitude distribution is used instead of the mean altitude in this calculation because of the apparent nonlinear relationship between runoff and altitude.

  6. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: North Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Brenda L.; And Others

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summaries data collected from 273 North Dakota farm operators (a 39% response) and 232 spouses (a 33% response) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  7. Climate change vulnerability and adaptation in the North Cascades region, Washington

    Treesearch

    Crystal L. Raymond; David L. Peterson; Regina M. Rochefort

    2014-01-01

    The North Cascadia Adaptation Partnership (NCAP) is a science-management partnership consisting of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Mount Baker-Snoqualmie and Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forests and Pacific Northwest Research Station; North Cascades National Park Complex; Mount Rainier National Park; and University of Washington Climate Impacts Group....

  8. Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Cleaveland, Sarah; Cunningham, Andrew A; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Craig, Philip S

    2010-04-19

    Cyst echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonosis in Chile, where studies have focussed mainly in moist southern regions. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock and humans in the semiarid Coquimbo region in north-central Chile. A review of all surgical cases of CE in humans reported in the Elqui, Limarí and Choapa provinces in Coquimbo region for the period comprising 1995-2006 was obtained. In addition, a retrospective study of CE covering condemnation records from slaughterhouses of these provinces from the same period was carried out. The surgical incidence of CE in humans ranged between 2.3 and 8.5 cases per 10(5) people, with more cases reported in provinces with a higher percentage of rural inhabitants (Limarí and Choapa). A total of 174,034 cattle, 22,208 goats, 35,404 sheep, 25,355 swine and 9391 equines were examined during the period. Higher prevalence of CE was detected in cattle (24%), followed by swine (14%), sheep (11%), goats (6%), and equines (9%). More cases of CE in livestock were also found in provinces with higher rural population. The overall trend of the prevalence of CE for each livestock species across years was a significant downward one, except for swine in Elqui and sheep and swine in Choapa. Cattle showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui, in kidney in Limarí and in lungs in Choapa. Swine showed similar prevalence by organs in all provinces. Sheep showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui and Limarí and lower prevalence in Choapa. Goats presented higher prevalence of CE in kidney in all provinces, and equines had higher prevalence of CE in liver in the provinces where animals were slaughtered. Further studied are needed to assess whether these differences are due to different strains affecting these species or due to ecological factors. When analyzing the CE prevalence of each species within each province, a negative correlation between

  9. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Reactive Nitrogen over the North Atlantic Flight Corridor Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D.; Liu, S. C.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LS) was estimated using the NO(y)-O3 correlation obtained during the SASS Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) carried out over the US continent and North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) region in October and November 1997. To evaluate the large scale impact, we made a reference NO(y)-O3 relationship in air masses, upon which aircraft emissions were considered to have little impact. For this purpose, the integrated input of NO(x) from aircraft into an air mass along a 10-d back trajectory (DELTA-NO(y)) was calculated based on the ANCAT/EC2 emission inventory. The excess NO(y) (dNO(y)) was calculated from the observed NO(y) and the reference NO(y)-O3 relationship. As a result, a weak positive correlation was found between the dNO(y) and DELTA-NO(y), and dNO(y) and NO(x)/NO(y) values, while no positive correlation between the dNO(y) and CO values was found, suggesting that dNO(y) values can be used as a measure of the NO(x) input from aircraft emissions. The excess NO(y) values calculated from another NO(y)-O3 reference relationship made using in-situ CN data also agreed with these dNO(y) values, within the uncertainties. At the NAFC region (45 N - 60 N), the median value of dNO(y) in the troposphere increased with altitude above 9 km and reached 70 pptv (20% of NO(y)) at 11 km. The excess NO(x) was estimated to be about half of the dNO(y) values, corresponding to 30% of the observed NO(x) level. Higher dNO(y) values were generally found in air masses where O3 = 75 - 125 ppbv, suggesting a more pronounced effect around the tropopause. The median value of dNO(y) in the stratosphere at the NAFC region at 8.5 - 11.5 km was about 120 pptv. The higher dNO(y) values in the LS were probably due to the accumulated effect of aircraft emissions, given the long residence time of affected air in the LS. Similar dNO(y) values were also obtained in air masses sampled over

  10. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M.; Hassan, Loutfy M.; Galal, Tarek M.; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2–5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion

  11. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  12. Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    2000-2012. The results shown that during the 1980-2000 period the heat content in the region (50º-60ºN; 60º-30ºW) was lower than in the 1955-1970, but higher in (30º-40ºN; 60º-30ºW) region. The data on sea water temperature, obtained as a result of numerical calculations based on the Ocean General Circulation Model (INM RAS), were used for estimate of ocean specific heat. The model is based on a complete system of nonlinear (primitive) equations describing ocean hydro- and thermodynamics in the Boussinesq approximation and written in a spherical σ-coordinate system. Numerical calculations were carried out with horizontal resolution (0.25ºx0.25º) and time step 1 hour. Boundary conditions on surface were taken from data array of CORE. Anomalies of specific heat relative to the mean annual variation in the layer from ocean surface up to 700m depth in North Atlantic region, calculated on model data and averaged for each period of (1959-1974), (1975-1999), (2000-2006), are in very close accordance with the results based on the accepted Levitus' data.

  13. A SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE PROVISION OF A SAFER, MORE ECONOMIC, AND MORE EFFICIENT AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE FOR THE ICAO NORTH ATLANTIC REGION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ICAO Fourth North Atlantic Regional Air Navigation Meeting adopted a recommendation which called for the introduction of a systems planning...concept to the ICAO North Atlantic Region. Following acceptance of this recommendation by the ICAO Council, the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) established

  14. Emerging European winter precipitation pattern linked to atmospheric circulation changes over the North Atlantic region in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; Seo, Hyodae; Kwon, Young-Oh; Parfitt, Rhys; Brands, Swen; Joyce, Terrence M.

    2017-08-01

    Dominant European winter precipitation patterns over the past century, along with their associated extratropical North Atlantic circulation changes, are evaluated using cluster analysis. Contrary to the four regimes traditionally identified based on daily wintertime atmospheric circulation patterns, five distinct seasonal precipitation regimes are detected here. Recurrent precipitation patterns in each regime are linked to changes in atmospheric blocking, storm track, and sea surface temperatures across the North Atlantic region. Multidecadal variability in the frequency of the precipitation patterns reveals more (fewer) winters with wet conditions in northern (southern) Europe in recent decades and an emerging distinct pattern of enhanced wintertime precipitation over the northern British Isles. This pattern has become unusually common since the 1980s and is associated with changes in moisture transport and more frequent atmospheric river events. The observed precipitation changes post-1950 coincide with changes in storm track activity over the central/eastern North Atlantic toward the northern British Isles.

  15. Hydrology of the North Cascades region, Washington: 2. A proposed hydrometeorological streamflow prediction method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangborn, Wendell V.; Rasmussen, Lowell A.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of a linear relationship between winter (October-April) precipitation and annual runoff from a drainage basin (Rasmussen and Tangborn, 1976) a physically reasonable model for predicting summer (May-September) streamflow from drainages in the North Cascades region was developed. This hydrometeorological prediction method relates streamflow for a season beginning on the day of prediction to the storage (including snow, ice, soil moisture, and groundwater) on that day. The spring storage is inferred from an input-output relationship based on the principle of conservation of mass: spring storage equals winter precipitation on the basin less winter runoff from the basin and less winter evapotranspiration, which is presumed to be small. The method of prediction is based on data only from the years previous to the one for which the prediction is made, and the system is revised each year as data for the previous year become available. To improve the basin storage estimate made in late winter or early spring, a short-season runoff prediction is made. The errors resulting from this short-term prediction are used to revise the storage estimate and improve the later prediction. This considerably improves the accuracy of the later prediction, especially for periods early in the summer runoff season. The optimum length for the test period appears to be generally less than a month for east side basins and between 1 and 2 months for those on the west side of the Cascade Range. The time distribution of the total summer runoff can be predicted when this test season is used so that on May 1 monthly streamflow for the May-September season can be predicted. It was found that summer precipitation and the time of minimum storage are two error sources that were amenable to analysis. For streamflow predictions in seasons beginning in early spring the deviation of the subsequent summer precipitation from a long-period average will contribute up to 53% of the prediction error

  16. Observation of regional air pollutant transport between the megacity Beijing and the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingruo; Ye, Chunxiang; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Junxia; Tan, Ziqiang; Lin, Weili; Zeng, Limin; Zhu, Tong

    2016-11-01

    Megacities have strong interactions with the surrounding regions through transport of air pollutants. It has been frequently addressed that the air quality of Beijing is influenced by the influx of air pollutants from the North China Plain (NCP). Estimations of air pollutant cross-boundary transport between Beijing and the NCP are important for air quality management. However, evaluation of cross-boundary transport using long-term observations is very limited. Using the observational results of the gaseous pollutants SO2, NO, NO2, O3, and CO from August 2006 to October 2008 at the Yufa site, a cross-boundary site between the megacity Beijing and the NCP, together with meteorological parameters, we explored a method for evaluating the transport flux intensities at Yufa, as part of the "Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region 2006-2008" (CAREBeijing 2006-2008). The hourly mean ± SD (median) concentration of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 15 ± 16 (9) ppb, 12 ± 25 (3) ppb, 24 ± 19 (20) ppb, 36 ± 39 (23) ppb, 28 ± 27 (21) ppb, 52 ± 24 (45) ppb, and 1.6 ± 1.4 (1.2) ppm during the observation period, respectively. The bivariate polar plots showed the dependence of pollutant concentrations on both wind speed and wind direction, and thus inferred their dominant transport directions. Surface flux intensity calculations further demonstrated the regional transport influence of Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. The net surface transport flux intensity (mean ± SD) of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, Ox, and CO was 6.2 ± 89.5, -4.3 ± 29.5, -0.6 ± 72.3, -4.9 ± 93.0, 14.7 ± 187.8, 14.8 ± 234.9, and 70 ± 2830 µg s-1 m-2 during the observation period, respectively. For SO2, CO, O3, and Ox the surface flux intensities from the NCP to Yufa surpassed those from Beijing to Yufa in all seasons except winter, with the strongest net fluxes largely in summer, which were about 4-8 times those of other seasons. The surface transport flux intensity of NOx

  17. A two-tier atmospheric circulation classification scheme for the European-North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guentchev, Galina S.; Winkler, Julie A.

    A two-tier classification of large-scale atmospheric circulation was developed for the European-North-Atlantic domain. The classification was constructed using a combination of principal components and k-means cluster analysis applied to reanalysis fields of mean sea-level pressure for 1951-2004. Separate classifications were developed for the winter, spring, summer, and fall seasons. For each season, the two classification tiers were identified independently, such that the definition of one tier does not depend on the other tier having already been defined. The first tier of the classification is comprised of supertype patterns. These broad-scale circulation classes are useful for generalized analyses such as investigations of the temporal trends in circulation frequency and persistence. The second, more detailed tier consists of circulation types and is useful for numerous applied research questions regarding the relationships between large-scale circulation and local and regional climate. Three to five supertypes and up to 19 circulation types were identified for each season. An intuitive nomenclature scheme based on the physical entities (i.e., anomaly centers) which dominate the specific patterns was used to label each of the supertypes and types. Two example applications illustrate the potential usefulness of a two-tier classification. In the first application, the temporal variability of the supertypes was evaluated. In general, the frequency and persistence of supertypes dominated by anticyclonic circulation increased during the study period, whereas the supertypes dominated by cyclonic features decreased in frequency and persistence. The usefulness of the derived circulation types was exemplified by an analysis of the circulation associated with heat waves and cold spells reported at several cities in Bulgaria. These extreme temperature events were found to occur with a small number of circulation types, a finding that can be helpful in understanding past

  18. A sub-millimetre survey of dust enshrouded galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borys, C. J.

    2002-12-01

    This thesis investigates the emission of sub-millimetre-wave radiation from galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North region. The data were obtained from dedicated observing runs from our group and others using the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The data were combined using techniques specifically developed here for low signal-to-noise source recovery. The sources found represent over 10% of all cosmological sources SCUBA has detected since it was commissioned. The number of sub-mm galaxies we detect account for a significant fraction of the sub-mm background, and we show that mild extrapolations can reproduce it entirely. We comment on their clustering properties, both with themselves and other high-redshift galaxy types. A multi-wavelength analysis of these galaxies shows that SCUBA sources do not all have similar properties, and are made of a collection including: star-forming radio galaxies; optically invisible objects; active galactic nuclei; and extremely red objects. Reasonable attempts to determine the redshift distribution of the sample show that SCUBA galaxies have a median redshift of around 2, and suggest that the global star formation rate may be dominated by such objects at redshifts beyond about 1. The thesis summarises the current state of extra-galactic sub-mm astronomy, and comments on how new surveys and detectors will allow us to place stronger constraints on the evolution properties of the high-redshift Universe. The research described here was made possible from grants by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and a generous scholarship from the University of British Columbia.

  19. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy).

    PubMed

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Buja, Alessandra; Baldovin, Tatjana; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Saia, Mario

    2013-10-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of -1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC -6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC -4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue.

  20. Effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in the Australian North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin; Lowe, Ryan; Péquignet, Christine; Ivey, Greg; Jones, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern Australian coastline is subject to frequent extreme wave forcing resulting from tropical cyclones (TCs) during the summer months on Australia's North West Shelf (NWS). Compared to the northern hemisphere, knowledge about the wave climate, and TC generated waves in particular on the NWS is limited. TCs on the NWS show considerable variability in paths: some move predominantly parallel to the coastline, while others propagate in a coast-normal direction. It has been suggested that surface wave fields generated by coast-parallel moving TCs are different compared to TCs moving in a coast-normal direction across the shelf. In particular, wave heights generated by coast-parallel storms may be limited in size due to both refraction and bottom friction effects. First, this study evaluates the performance of a numerical wave model (SWAN) to hindcast the surface wave fields under different TC conditions forced by a parametric TC wind model of the region. Hindcast simulations were run for 4 case studies: the coast-parallel TCs Nicholas (2008) and Bianca (2011), and the coast-normal TCs Lua (2012) and Christine (2013). Model output was compared both temporally and spatially by in situ wave buoy data and satellite altimeter data and generally showed a good agreement for throughout the history of these TCs. However, for the more intense and larger system TC Lua, the model was found to overestimate the significant wave heights, especially in the left front quadrant of the storm. A modified SWAN model using adjusted wave energy dissipation terms was found to improve model output under these conditions. Second, output from the numerical simulations is used to analyse the mechanisms behind the generation and dissipation of the wave field and to relate them to tropical cyclone characteristics including the radius of maximum winds and the storm translation speed and direction.

  1. Implementation of EU discharge guidelines at IVAR's Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant of North Jaeren, Stavanger, Norway.

    PubMed

    Tornes, O

    2001-01-01

    Norway is a leading country on wastewater treatment comprising chemical precipitation processes. This is because Norwegian effluent standards to the North Sea have traditionally focused on phosphorus removal. In most cases, chemical treatment therefore has been considered to give lower investment and operating costs than biological treatment. Norwegian wastewater policy and management is based on the EU guidelines resulting from the EEA (European Economic Area) Agreement. According to the 1991 Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive, this will in most cases require secondary treatment. However, primary treatment can be accepted for plants larger than 10,000 PT with effluents to less sensitive coastal areas, if no negative environmental impacts can be proved. The main objective of the Regional Water, Sewerage and Waste Company (IVAR) is to comply with the prevailing effluent limits at lowest possible cost. During the past four years, IVAR has therefore undertaken comprehensive optimising of the precipitation process including full-scale experiments with different coagulant dosing control systems and different types of coagulants. IVAR also accomplished a feasibility study of introducing biological treatment as an alternative to chemical treatment. Under the prevailing frame conditions of discharge requirements and sludge deposit costs, it is not economically feasible to change to organic coagulants or biological treatment. This conclusion might have to be altered resulting from the implementation of new EU regulations and increasing sludge deposit costs. This paper presents results from full-scale experiments, extracts from the feasibility study and a comparison of costs. Furthermore, the practical consequences of implementing the EU-guidelines are discussed.

  2. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  3. Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived over 50 years in the area. The average age of the informants was 74 (with a minimum age of 56 to maximum 84). Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observation using semi-structured questionnaires. Ethnobotanical inventory possessed by the residents included 183 species of plants distributed in 156 genera belonging to 68 families and were used in 626 use-reports. Among them, the medicinal plants were comprised as 42 families, 75 genera, and 83 species in usage in 195 ways. A total of 71 ailments were treated with 222 kinds of remedies using medicinal plants. Parts of plant that were used as treatments total up to 17 and the methods of preparation for medicinal materials add up to 28. Informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that the muscular-skeletal disorders had the highest agreement measure (1.0) followed by cuts and wounds (0.87) and respiratory system disorders (0.77). Overall, 29 plant species showed fidelity level of 100%. This study is noteworthy in that it records rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a time period of pressing environmental changes with regard to the newly built sea wall, eventually leading more or less to the immigration of the seaside inhabitants and the familiarization of the modern medical systems to the farmland inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental changes in the North Atlantic Region: SCANNET as a collaborative approach for documenting, understanding and predicting changes.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Terry V; Johansson, M; Heal, O W; Saelthun, N R; Barkved, L J; Bayfield, N; Brandt, O; Brooker, R; Christiansen, H H; Forchhammer, M; Høye, T T; Humlum, O; Järvinen, A; Jonasson, C; Kohler, J; Magnusson, B; Meltofte, H; Mortensen, L; Neuvonen, S; Pearce, I; Rasch, M; Turner, L; Hasholt, B; Huhta, E; Leskinen, E; Nielsen, N; Siikamäki, P

    2004-11-01

    The lands surrounding the North Atlantic Region (the SCANNET Region) cover a wide range of climate regimes, physical environments and availability of natural resources. Except in the extreme North, they have supported human populations and various cultures since at least the end of the last ice age. However, the region is also important at a wider geographical scale in that it influences the global climate and supports animals that migrate between the Arctic and all the other continents of the world. Climate, environment and land use in the region are changing rapidly and projections suggest that global warming will be amplified there while increasing land use might dramatically reduce the remaining wilderness areas. Because much of the region is sparsely populated--if populated at all--observational records of past environmental changes and their impacts are both few and of short duration. However, it is becoming very important to record the changes that are now in progress, to understand the drivers of these changes, and to predict future consequences of the changes. To facilitate research into understanding impacts of global change on the lands of the North Atlantic Regions, and also to monitor changes in real time, an EU-funded network of research sites and infrastructures was formed in 2000: this was called SCANNET--SCANdinavian/North European NETwork of Terrestrial Field Bases. SCANNET currently consists of 9 core sites and 5 sites within local networks that together cover the broad range of current climate and predicted change in the region. Climate observations are well replicated across the network, whereas each site has tended to select particular environmental and ecological subjects for intensive observation. This provides diversity of both subject coverage and expertise. In this paper, we summarize the findings of SCANNET to-date and outline its information bases in order to increase awareness of data on environmental change in the North Atlantic

  5. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Rashid, Abdur; Murad, Waheed; Bergmeier, Erwin

    2013-04-15

    Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinal plants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 106 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinal plants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinal plants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Medicinal plants are still widely used for treatment in the area of Swat. Some species of

  6. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinal plants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. Results A total of 106 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinal plants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinal plants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still widely used for treatment

  7. Seismic and Infrasound Characteristics of North Korean Nuclear Explosions Utilizing Regional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, B. W.; Park, J.; Che, I. Y.; Hayward, C.

    2016-12-01

    This work analyzes seismic and infrasound signals from four underground nuclear tests by North Korea in 2006, 2009, 2013, and 2016. Regional data from eight seismo-acoustic arrays, operated by Southern Methodist University (SMU) and Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) located in the Korean peninsula, a seismic station in China (MDJ), and two nearby International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound arrays in Russia (IS45) and Japan (IS30) are used. Infrasound signals at the arrays are detected using the progressive multi-channel correlation (PMCC; Cansi, 1995) followed by analyst review and compared to model predictions based on the method of Blom and Waxler (2012) using Ground-to-Space (G2S) specifications (Drob et al., 2003). This comparison documents that infrasound detection and event locations are dependent on the atmospheric conditions and local noise levels at the time of each explosion. Based on empirical yield-scaling relation of Whitaker et al. (2003), infrasound source energies are estimated at the closest array (KSGAR) to be 0.6, 23.5, and 8.2 tons of TNT for 2009, 2013, and 2016, respectively (no clear observations from 2006). The relative seismic source scaling of the four explosions is assessed using Mueller and Murphy source model (1971) based upon regional seismic station spectral ratios of Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg. Using a grid search method, we explore the range of acceptable source models in terms of depth of burial and yields for 2009/2006, 2013/2006, 2016/2006, 2013/2009, 2016/2009, and 2013/2016. Using this methodology the 2013/2016-yield ratio is from 1.05-1.30 with an estimated depth range from 0.71-1.15. The small infrasound yield is a reflection of the fact that the infrasound signal is a result of coupling from strong ground motion directly above the explosion and the atmosphere. Differences in relative yield ratios for seismic and infrasound provide constraints on source depth as well as free surface interactions.

  8. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration for clear sky days over the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Y.; Stisen, S.; Sandholt, I.; Jensen, K. H.

    2009-04-01

    The triangle method combined with thermal inertia for estimation of regional evapotranspiration based on Feng Yun-2C(FY-2C) satellite data and MODIS products over the North China Plain is presented. FY-2C, China's first operational geostationary meteorological satellite which features 5 spectral bands (1 VIS and 4 IR), can acquire one full disc image of China (60° N - 60° S ,45° E - 165° E) per hour every day. Two thermal red channels (IR1: 10.3-11.3 μm) and (IR2:11.5-12.5 μm) were used for surface temperature estimation using a split window algorithm originally proposed for the MSG-SEVIRI sensor assuming the channel response function range of the two split-window channels for MSG SEVIRI and FY-2C are similar and that the center of channels are the same. For application of the improved triangle method taking thermal inertia into account, the surface-air temperature gradient in the Ts-NDVI space, was replaced by the surface temperature temporal change estimated from the Land Surface Temperature at hours 8:00 and 12:00 in local time (ΔTs). Combined with the 16 days composite MODIS Vegetation Indices product (MOD 13) at spatial resolution of 5 km, evaporative fraction was estimated by interpolation in the ΔTs-NDVI triangular-shaped parameter space. Subsequently, regional actual evapotranspiration was estimated based on the derived evaporative fraction and available energy estimated from satellite data. In the piedmont plain with high NDVI and low ΔTs, evapotranspiration rate is high because of irrigation of winter wheat. In the coastal plain NDVI is low and also ΔTs is low as high evapotranspiration rates are sustained water supply from shallow water table. Ground-based measurements of evapotranspiration were retrieved from a lysimeter at the Luancheng eco-agricultural station of China Academy of Sciences. These data are representative for evapotranspiration in the piedmont plain and were used for validation of the actual evapotranspiration retrievals from

  9. Determinants of felt demand for dengue vaccines in the North Caribbean region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bracho-Churio, Yalil T; Martínez-Vega, Ruth A; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Díaz-Quijano, Ronald G; Luna-González, María L; Diaz-Quijano, Fredi A

    2017-05-15

    The increasing burden associated with dengue in Latin America makes it essential to understand the community's interest in acquiring vaccines, as an input to plan its introduction in endemic regions. The objective of this study is to learn the felt demand for dengue vaccines by estimating the willingness to pay and its associated factors in endemic communities of the North Caribbean region of Colombia. A population survey was administered from October to December 2015, including 1037 families in 11 municipalities in Colombia. One adult per family was interviewed on their perception and history of dengue. Participants received a description of four hypothetical scenarios of dengue vaccines, administered in a single dose or in 3 doses, with an effectiveness of 70% for 5 years or 95% for 30 years. The willingness to pay for each one of these vaccines was inquired vs. 5 hypothetical prices in Colombian pesos. Most participants recognized dengue as a serious disease in children (99.3%) and adults (98.6%). 33 (3.2%) of the total respondents reported having suffered dengue and 19 (57.6%) of them required hospitalization. The price of the vaccine was inversely related to the willingness to pay. In addition, single dose vaccines (compared to 3 doses) and one with a protection of 95% for 30 years (compared to an effectiveness of 70% for 5 years), were associated with greater willingness to pay. Greater willingness to pay was observed among the respondents who considered it likely to get the disease, either themselves (OR 1.56; CI 95% 1.08-2.26) or their children (OR 1.89; CI 95% 1.28-2.81), in the next 5 years. The participants who have been diagnosed with dengue also showed greater willingness to pay (OR 1.89; CI 95% 1.01-3.54) compared to those who did not have this history. Factors such as price, number of doses and effectiveness can independently influence the decision to purchase a vaccine against an endemic disease, such as dengue. Additionally, this study reveals

  10. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  11. Morphological and regional variations in body dimensions of the Gujjars of different localities in north-western India.

    PubMed

    Balgir, R S

    2003-09-01

    Physical features and somatometric characters of the wide spread Gujjar population in North-Western India are fascinating. It is all the more interesting to study their morphological and regional variations in the body dimensions. In this paper, anthropometric characters of 200 adult subjects each belonging to Hindu Gujjars in the Ropar District of Punjab and Muslim Gujjars in the Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh in the North-Western part of India were compared. They differ significantly from each other for many physiognomic measurements, suggesting the biological diversity between the two population groups. Further, the comparison of anthropometric measurements between the different localities of the Gujjars showed morphological variations and regional diversity of the isolates in North-Western India. These findings may be attributed to the founder effect, genetic drift, and breeding and geographical isolation of the populations under study and not to secular trends. The findings have also been compared and discussed with the available results of other local populations in North-Western India.

  12. Summary of Second Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Bids on the North Atlantic Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Hartley and Melanie Steinkamp ................................................................................ 3 National Audubon Society’s Program for...Engineers’ North Atlantic Division – Virginia to Maine – John S. Wright...Project Designs – James D. Fraser and Jonathon B. Cohen ..........................................................................49 7 Session VI

  13. 77 FR 20893 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... position is supported by the State's December 20, 2011 letter from North Dakota Department of Health (NDDH...\\ http://www.ftek.com/en-US/products/apc/noxout/ . \\3\\ Institute of Clean Air Companies, White Paper...

  14. Final Report: Independent Design Review, Celanese Fiber Operations Superfund Site, Shelby, North Carolina, EPA Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Celanese site is located in Shelby, North Carolina. Operation of the P&T system was discontinued on a trial basis for two years to evaluate monitored natural attenuation as a potential ground water remedy.

  15. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Prehistoric formula of forest species composition of the resort region Caucasian Mineralnye Vody (RR CMV) in the North Caucasus is 6Q3Cb1Fe [1]. According to it, undisturbed forests of the region consisted of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and the durmast (Quercus cerris L.) by 60%, the European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) by 30% and the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) only by 10%. At present the formula of forest composition of the region is 5Fe3Cb2Q, according to it, the rate of oak-groves (the most valuable to resort landscape gardening) has reduced to 20%, and the ash-tree, though the rate of the hornbeam has not changed, increased up to 50%. Forest breeding populations in the RR CMV are referred to natural medical resources as they have high rehabilitation and climate-regulating properties, the change in forest breeding populations influences the conditions of the resort climate-landscape-therapy. The researches conducted in the perfect oak wood of vegetative origin in Beshtaugorsky Forestry Area (BFA) of the RR CMV have shown the reduction of the pedunculate oak in the tree-stand composition during 1984-2014 from 10 to 8 units in the composition: the European ash (1 unit) and the crataegus monogyna (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the checker tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), the common pear (Pyrus communis L.) have appeared [2]. The rate of the pedunculate oak decreased from 10 units to 9 in the perfect planting of the pedunculate oak of the artificial origin (Mashuk section of the forestry of BFA of the RR CMV) during 1986-2016. Among accompanying breeds there was the English field maple (Acer campestre L.), the Chinese elm in singular (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), the single-seed hawthorn. The reliable regrowth (4C3Fe3Ac+Q+Cm+Pc+Up) in number of 3,9 thousand pieces/hectare defines the perspective of complete replacement of the oak crop in the future on planting with dominance of the hornbeam and the involvement of the ash-tree and the English

  16. Stability in Russia’s Chechnya and Other Regions of the North Caucasus: Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-03

    Putin Meets with Members of the International Discussion Club Valdai,” at www.government.ru/content/governmentactivity/mainnews/archive/2008/09/11...has claimed that Islamic extremists in North Ossetia have been targeting gambling clubs (which were banned but are still operating surreptitiously...the North Caucasus. As a recent sign of such support, Vladimir Vasilyev, head of the Duma Security Committee, stated during a late March 2009 visit

  17. A 5200-year record of freshwater availability for regions in western North America fed by high-elevation runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Hall, Roland I.; Johnston, John W.

    2011-06-01

    Shrinking glaciers and snowpacks are reducing discharge in rivers that drain the central Rocky Mountain region - water that supports downstream societies and ecosystems of western North America. However, a new 5200-year record of Lake Athabasca water-level variations, which serves as a sensitive gauge of past changes in alpine-sourced river discharge, reveals that western Canadian society has developed during a rare period of unusually abundant water ‘subsidized’ by prior glacier expansion. As the ‘alpine water tap’ closes, much drier times are ahead. Future water availability is likely to become similar to the mid-Holocene when Lake Athabasca dropped 2-4 m below the twentieth-century mean. Regions dependent on high-elevation runoff (i.e., western North America) must prepare to cope with impending water scarcity of magnitude not yet experienced since European settlement.

  18. Regional aspects of the North American land surface: Atmosphere interactions and their contributions to the variability and predictability of the regional hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yan

    In this study, we investigate the pathways responsible for soil moisture-precipitation interactions and the mechanisms for soil moisture memory at regional scales through analysis of NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis dataset, which is derived from a system using the mesoscale Eta model coupled with Noah land surface model. The consideration of the relative availability of water and energy leads to the relative strengths of land-atmosphere interaction and soil moisture memory, which are related to the predictability of the regional hydrologic cycle. The seasonal and geographical variations in estimated interaction and memory may establish the relative predictability among the North American basins. The potential for seasonal predictability of the regional hydrologic cycle is conditioned by the foreknowledge of the land surface soil state, which contributes significantly to summer precipitation: (i) The precipitation variability and predictability by strong land-atmosphere interactions are most important in the monsoon regions of Mexico; (ii) Although strong in interactions, the poor soil moisture memory in the Colorado basin and the western part of the Mississippi basin lowers the predictability; (iii) The Columbia basin and the eastern part of the Mississippi basin also stand out as low predictability basins, in that they have good soil moisture memory, but weak strength in interactions, limiting their predictabilities. Our analysis has revealed a highly physically and statistically consistent picture, providing solid support to studies of predictability based on model simulations.

  19. The Cygnus X region. XVI - The ionized gas behind the dark cloud between the North America and Pelican nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heske, A.; Wendker, H. J.

    1985-07-01

    Radio recombination line observations are presented for the ionized gas at selected positions behind the dark cloud separating the North America and Pelican nebulae. The high angular resolution of about 3 arcmin makes it possible to sample the different structural components. The lines are dominated by ionized gas physically similar to that of the visible nebulae. A further extended background source is identified and briefly discussed in terms of an Ori A-type H II region in the Perseus spiral arm.

  20. Bibliography of hydrologic and water-quality investigations conducted in or near the Albermarle-Pamlico Sounds Region, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Nelson, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    A bibliography containing 1,100 citations is presented. The cited works are primarily reports of investigations of the effects of land use and land-use change on water quality, artificial drainage, hydrology and hydrodynamics, and water quality in the Albemarle-Pamlico Sounds region, North Carolina. The bibliography is indexed according to research topic and geographic location of the investigation. the bibliography is also computerized and has been transferred to the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study data-management system.

  1. Are changes in the phytoplankton community structure altering the flux of CO2 in regions of the North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostle, C.; Landschutzer, P.; Johnson, M.; Schuster, U.; Watson, A. J.; Edwards, M.; Robinson, C.

    2016-02-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is a globally important sink of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the strength of the sink varies temporally and regionally. This study uses a neural network method to map the surface ocean pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) and flux of CO2from the atmosphere to the ocean alongside measurements of plankton abundance collected from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey to determine the relationship between regional changes in phytoplankton community structure and regional differences in carbon flux. Despite increasing sea surface temperatures, the Grand Banks of Newfoundland show a decrease in sea surface pCO2 of -2 µatm yr-1 from 1993 to 2011. The carbon flux in the North Sea is variable over the same period. This is in contrast to most of the open ocean within the North Atlantic, where increases in sea surface pCO2 follow the trend of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, i.e. the flux or sink remains constant. The increasing CO2 sink in the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and the variable sink in the North Sea correlate with changes in phytoplankton community composition. This study investigates the biogeochemical and oceanographic mechanisms potentially linking increasing sea surface temperature, changes in phytoplankton community structure and the changing carbon sink in these two important regions of the Atlantic Ocean. The use of volunteer ships to concurrently collect these datasets demonstrates the potential to investigate relationships between plankton community structure and carbon flux in a cost-effective way. These results not only have implications for plankton-dynamic biogeochemical models, but also likely influence carbon export, as different phytoplankton communities have different carbon export efficiencies. Extending and maintaining such datasets is critical to improving our understanding of and monitoring carbon cycling in the surface ocean and improving climate model accuracy.

  2. Characterization of Features Associated with Volatile Removal in the Martian North Circumpolar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbaugh, K. E.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    Building upon previous studies of the north polar region of Mars [e.g., 1, 2, 3, and 4], we [5] outlined evidence for retreat of the polar cap from the 180° W direction, including the presence of polar material remnants and kettle-like features in an arc of irregular, low-lying topography (the Olympia Depression) south of and concentric to Olympia Planitia [5]. In this study, we further characterize and categorize features in this region using Viking and MOC images and high-resolution MOLA data. Within the Olympia Depression are large, deep depressions interpreted to be kettle-like features [5] higher-standing topography surrounding these depressions (some of which is interpreted to be polar material remnants [5]). Together, these constitute the rough terrain. The irregular shape and rough, high-standing floor of the rough terrain is not consistent with these being degraded impact craters. These features appear to have undergone significant removal of volatiles and subsequent collapse to form depressions. Evidence of ridges which may be moraines, sedimentation at the margins and drainage channels has also been found. Dome-like features lie just to the south of the rough terrain. The morphology and dimensions are dissimilar from Martian south polar region and terrestrial volcanic domes [13] in that the width to height ratio is much larger and they are highly degraded. If these domes represent central peak structures, any evidence of rims is gone. Alternatively, these domes could be volatile-rich, representing early stages of what will become the rough terrain. We interpret the individual features of the Olympia Depression to represent kame and kettle topography, resulting from the ablation (melting and sublimation) and retreat of the polar cap. On Mars, the high concentration of polar deposit inter-layered debris (about 40%) will favor the development of kames as ablation occurs and sediment remains. The morphologic features within the Olympia Depression are

  3. Simulated impact of vegetation on climate across the North American monsoon region in CCSM3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Michael; Gutzler, David

    2012-02-01

    The influence of prescribed changes in vegetation on the climate of the North American monsoon region is examined using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model Version 3.5 (NCAR CCSM3.5). Initial value ensemble experiments are performed in which the vegetation cover fraction over the North American monsoon region is reduced by 0.2 and the intra-annual climatic response is assessed probabilistically in each one-year ensemble experiment. Changes in the surface radiation budget include decreases in sensible and latent heat fluxes and increases in upward longwave and downward shortwave radiation fluxes, with small net changes in surface albedo. The climatic responses to reduced vegetation cover fraction include year-round increases in ground and surface air temperature, a dampened hydrologic cycle with decreased springtime evaporation, springtime and autumnal precipitation, and autumnal cloud cover, and enhanced atmospheric subsidence in late autumn. Decreased vegetation shifts the monsoon season over the Southwest United States earlier in the year. Within the North American monsoon region, the most robust vegetation feedbacks to climate are found over woody landscapes.

  4. An evaluation of a coupled atmosphere-ocean modelling system for regional climate studies: extreme events in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Priscilla A.; Mulligan, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the ability of a coupled regional atmosphere-ocean modelling system to simulate two extreme events in the North Atlantic. In this study we use the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST; Warner et al.) modelling system with only the atmosphere and ocean models activated. COAWST couples the atmosphere model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF) to the ocean model (Regional Ocean Modelling System; ROMS) with the Model Coupling Toolkit. Results from the coupled system are compared with atmosphere only simulations of North Atlantic storms to evaluate the performance of the coupled modelling system. Two extreme events (Hurricane Katia and Hurricane Irene) were chosen to assess the level of improvement (or otherwise) arising from coupling WRF with ROMS. These two hurricanes involve different dynamics and present different challenges to the modeling system. This provides a robust assessment of the advantages or disadvantages of coupling WRF with ROMS for regional climate modelling studies of extreme events in the North Atlantic. We examine the ability of the coupled modelling system to simulate these two extreme events by comparing modelled storm tracks, storm intensities, wind speeds and sea surface temperatures with observations in all cases. The effect of domain size, and two different planetary boundary layers used in WRF are also reported.

  5. Simulated Topography in Western North America Impacts Hemispheric Circulation Patterns and Regional Precipitation in IPCC AR4 Coupled Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAfee, S. A.; Russell, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Simulations of the late-20th century (1979-1999) by most of the coupled models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) overestimate mean winter (November to April) precipitation for all or part of western North America in comparison to observations from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. These precipitation errors appear to be associated with 1) a southward bias in 200-hPa zonal-wind speeds, 2) overly zonal flow patterns (weak Pacific-North America pattern), and 3) muted rain shadows, all of which are also prevalent among general circulation models. In addition, the magnitude of error in simulations of late-20th century winter precipitation is significantly correlated with projected changes in winter precipitation in the mid- and late-21st century over parts of the southwestern United States and Mexico, increasing uncertainty about the timing and extent of drying in a region where water resources are already stressed and intensifying drought is expected. We suggest that these problems are related to difficulties in simulating the extent, volume, and topographic complexity of the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada, Cascades and other mountain ranges in the West within the relatively coarse models. These results identify areas of concern in regional precipitation and water resource projections and suggest steps that can be taken to improve both hemispheric-scale circulation patterns and regional hydrological projections for western North America within general circulation models.

  6. X-Ray Properties of Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandra, K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Arnaud, K.; Steidel, C. C.; Adelberger, K. L.; Gardner, J. P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Windhorst, R. A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the X-ray properties of a large sample of z approximately 3 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in the region of the Hubble Deep Field North, derived from the 1 Ms public Chandra observation. Of our sample of 148 LBGs, four are detected individually. This immediately gives a measure of the bright AGN (active galactic nuclei) fraction in these galaxies of approximately 3 per cent, which is in agreement with that derived from the UV (ultraviolet) spectra. The X-ray color of the detected sources indicates that they are probably moderately obscured. Stacking of the remainder shows a significant detection (6 sigma) with an average luminosity of 3.5 x 10(exp 41) erg/s per galaxy in the rest frame 2-10 keV band. We have also studied a comparison sample of 95 z approximately 1 "Balmer Break" galaxies. Eight of these are detected directly, with at least two clear AGN based on their high X-ray luminosity and very hard X-ray spectra respectively. The remainder are of relatively low luminosity (< 10(exp 42) erg/s, and the X-rays could arise from either AGN or rapid star-formation. The X-ray colors and evidence from other wavebands favor the latter interpretation. Excluding the clear AGN, we deduce a mean X-ray luminosity of 6.6 x 10(exp 40) erg/s, a factor approximately 5 lower than the LBGs. The average ratio of the UV and X-ray luminosities of these star forming galaxies L(sub UV)/L (sub X), however, is approximately the same at z = 1 as it is at z = 3. This scaling implies that the X-ray emission follows the current star formation rate, as measured by the UV luminosity. We use our results to constrain the star formation rate at z approximately 3 from an X-ray perspective. Assuming the locally established correlation between X-ray and far-IR (infrared) luminosity, the average inferred star formation rate in each Lyman break galaxy is found to be approximately 60 solar mass/yr, in excellent agreement with the extinction-corrected UV estimates. This provides an external

  7. Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-04-01

    Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show

  8. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  9. Mapping cropland GPP in the north temperate region with space measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanter, L.; Zhang, Y.; Jung, M.; Joiner, J.; Voigt, M.; Huete, A. R.; Zarco-Tejada, P.; Frankenberg, C.; Lee, J.; Berry, J. A.; Moran, S. M.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Beer, C.; Camps-Valls, G.; Buchmann, N. C.; Gianelle, D.; Klumpp, K.; Cescatti, A.; Baker, J. M.; Griffis, T.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring agricultural productivity is important for optimizing management practices in a world under a continuous increase of food and biofuel demand. We used new space measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), a vegetation parameter intrinsically linked to photosynthesis, to capture photosynthetic uptake of the crop belts in the north temperate region. The following data streams and procedures have been used in this analysis: (1) SIF retrievals have been derived from measurements of the MetOp-A / GOME-2 instrument in the 2007-2011 time period; (2) ensembles of process-based and data-driven biogeochemistry models have been analyzed in order to assess the capability of global models to represent crop gross primary production (GPP); (3) flux tower-based GPP estimates covering the 2007-2011 time period have been extracted over 18 cropland and grassland sites in the Midwest US and Western Europe from the Ameriflux and the European Fluxes Database networks; (4) large-scale NPP estimates have been derived by the agricultural inventory data sets developed by USDA-NASS and Monfreda et al. The strong linear correlation between the SIF space retrievals and the flux tower-based GPP, found to be significantly higher than that between reflectance-based vegetation indices (EVI, NDVI and MTCI) and GPP, has enabled the direct upscaling of SIF to cropland GPP maps at the synoptic scale. The new crop GPP estimates we derive from the scaling of SIF space retrievals are consistent with both flux tower GPP estimates and agricultural inventory data. These new GPP estimates show that crop productivity in the US Western Corn Belt, and most likely also in the rice production areas in the Indo-Gangetic plain and China, is up to 50-75% higher than estimates by state-of-the-art data-driven and process-oriented biogeochemistry models. From our analysis we conclude that current carbon models have difficulties in reproducing the special conditions of those highly productive

  10. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  11. Clouds in North Polar Region Tracked by MOC Over Five Day Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    It is mid-summer in the northern hemisphere of Mars--a time of enhanced heating that leads to the release of water vapor into the atmosphere. In the north polar region, temperature differences between bright areas of year-round ice and dark areas of sand and rock create strong winds that mix the atmosphere and create waves of clouds that swirl around the polar cap. Sometimes, as seen during the Viking mission, these winds form tight cyclones; other times, they weave an intricate pattern reflecting the turbulence of the circulation of the atmosphere.

    This animation shows four days of observations of a representative portion of the northern hemisphere. Five Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle image pairs(red/blue filters) were combined. These image pairs were warped to create a polar stereographic map projection, which is used by cartographers to present polar areas as if viewed from above. The edges of the pictures move back and forth because of the slightly different path taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft on each of the five orbits used in this sequence. Seen in the right-hand side of the image is the permanent ice cap and the dark areas that surround it.

    The motion of the clouds viewed in this image is typical for this season on Mars, and shows forms often seen on Earth. Waves of clouds are moving from the upper portion of the frame towards the bottom (towards the east northeast). This motion is most likely the movement of a moister portion of the martian atmosphere under the influence of circumpolar winds. Early in the sequence, a prominent circular band of clouds moves almost due east, rotating slightly counter-clockwise. Towards the end of the sequence, the circle dissipates and a linear set of clouds propagates towards the bottom of the frame. Linear cloud speeds vary from day today, averaging about 16 km/hr (10 miles/hr); rotational rates appear to have been less than 10 km/hr (6 miles/hr).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the

  12. Climate change in the North Pacific region over the past three centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W. K.; Holdsworth, Gerald; Alverson, Keith

    2002-11-01

    The relatively short length of most instrumental climate records restricts the study of climate variability, and it is therefore essential to extend the record into the past with the help of proxy data. Only since the late 1940s have atmospheric data been available that are sufficient in quality and spatial resolution to identify the dominant patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific North America pattern and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Here we present a 301-year snow accumulation record from an ice core at a height of 5,340 m above sea level-from Mount Logan, in northwestern North America. This record shows features that are closely linked with the Pacific North America pattern for the period of instrumental data availability. Our record extends back in time to cover the period from the closing stages of the Little Ice Age to the warmest decade in the past millennium. We find a positive, accelerating trend in snow accumulation after the middle of the nineteenth century. This trend is paralleled by a warming over northwestern North America which has been associated with secular changes in both the Pacific North America pattern and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  13. Climate change in the North Pacific region over the past three centuries.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W K; Holdsworth, Gerald; Alverson, Keith

    2002-11-28

    The relatively short length of most instrumental climate records restricts the study of climate variability, and it is therefore essential to extend the record into the past with the help of proxy data. Only since the late 1940s have atmospheric data been available that are sufficient in quality and spatial resolution to identify the dominant patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific North America pattern and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Here we present a 301-year snow accumulation record from an ice core at a height of 5,340 m above sea level-from Mount Logan, in northwestern North America. This record shows features that are closely linked with the Pacific North America pattern for the period of instrumental data availability. Our record extends back in time to cover the period from the closing stages of the Little Ice Age to the warmest decade in the past millennium. We find a positive, accelerating trend in snow accumulation after the middle of the nineteenth century. This trend is paralleled by a warming over northwestern North America which has been associated with secular changes in both the Pacific North America pattern and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  14. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation.

  15. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I.; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation. PMID:26378910

  16. Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jumaan, Aisha O; Ghanem, Soha; Taher, Jalaa; Braikat, Mhammed; Al Awaidy, Salah; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2013-12-30

    The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  17. Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Giesecke, Thomas; Theuerkauf, Martin; Feeser, Ingo; Behre, Karl-Ernst; Beug, Hans-Jürgen; Chen, Su-Hwa; Christiansen, Jörg; Dörfler, Walter; Endtmann, Elisabeth; Jahns, Susanne; de Klerk, Pim; Kühl, Norbert; Latałowa, Małgorzata; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Rasmussen, Peter; Stockholm, Jette Raal; Voigt, Ricarda; Wiethold, Julian; Wolters, Steffen

    2012-07-01

    By applying the recently developed model REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) (Sugita, 2007) to pollen data from a large number of sites across Northern Germany and Denmark, we construct maps of regional patterns in landscape openness and in cover abundance of key plant taxa in the cultural landscape of north-central Europe for selected time slices in the Holocene. The results indicate that the pattern of landscape openness across the regions of northern Germany and Denmark prior to the introduction of agriculture was affected by soil conditions and degree of continentality. The 8.2 ka climate event did not lead to a general decrease in tree cover, although some changes in species composition were observed. The early phases of agriculture also had little effect on landscape openness at the regional scale, but later human impact lead to large scale deforestation and development of arable areas, grasslands and of heathlands in the north-western part of the region. The timing and degree of deforestation, and the weight between arable and grazing areas varied in space, partly due to differences in natural conditions, partly due to differences in cultural impact.

  18. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Greenland ice-core data have revealed large decadal climate variations over the North Atlantic that can be related to a major source of low-frequency variability, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Over the past decade, the Oscillation has remained in one extreme phase during the winters, contributing significantly to the recent wintertime warmth across Europe and to cold conditions in the northwest Atlantic. An evaluation of the atmospheric moisture budget reveals coherent large-scale changes since 1980 that are linked to recent dry conditions over southern Europe and the Mediterranean, whereas northern Europe and parts of Scandinavia have generally experienced wetter than normal conditions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The Emergence of Trans-Regional Educational Exchange Schemes (TREES) in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how salient aspects of globalization, such as free trade zones, have led to emergence of trans-regional educational exchange schemes (TREES) in higher education. Discusses how these schemes are set apart from others by the proliferation of international university organizations that go beyond region and infiltrate other parts of the globe…

  20. The Emergence of Trans-Regional Educational Exchange Schemes (TREES) in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how salient aspects of globalization, such as free trade zones, have led to emergence of trans-regional educational exchange schemes (TREES) in higher education. Discusses how these schemes are set apart from others by the proliferation of international university organizations that go beyond region and infiltrate other parts of the globe…

  1. Deep regional resistivity structure across the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin trends, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetotelluric data collected along four, regional scale, southwest-to-northeast profiles show deep resistivity structures beneath the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin gold trends in north-central Nevada, which appear consistent with tectonic breaks in the crust that possibly served as channels for hydrothermal fluids. It seems likely that gold deposits along these linear trends were, therefore, controlled by deep regional crustal fault systems. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of the magnetotelluric data generally show resistive (30 to 1,000 ohm-m) crustal blocks broken by narrow, sub-vertical, two-dimensional, conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) zones that are indicative of large-scale crustal fault zones. These inferred fault zones are regional in scale, trend southeast-to-northwest, and extend to mid-crustal (20 km) depths. The conductors are about 3 to 15 km wide, extend from 1 to 8 km below the surface to about 20 km depth, and show two-dimensional electrical structure with general north to northwesterly strikes. From connecting the locations of the conductors together, a single regional crustal fault zone can be inferred that is about 10 km wide within the upper crust and about 150-km long. It coincides with the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trend. The images also show regional changes in the resistive crust from north to south. Most of Reese River Valley and Boulder Valley are underlain by a thick (20 km) southwest-to-northeast section of conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) rock, suggesting that hightemperature fluids are more pervasive in this area (Battle Mountain Heat-Flow High), which implies that the crust beneath these valleys is more fractured than in the areas surveyed to the south

  2. Evidence of added value in North American regional climate model hindcast simulations using ever-increasing horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Laprise, René; Winger, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Commonly termed "added value", the additional regional details gained by high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) over the coarser resolution reanalysis driving data are often indistinguishable at the 0.44° grid mesh computationally affordable large CORDEX domains. In an attempt to highlight the benefits of finer resolutions to study the RCM added value, five North American weather phenomena are evaluated in RCM hindcast simulations using grid meshes of 0.44°, 0.22° and 0.11° with available observations. The results show that the orographic precipitation on the west coast of North America is enhanced and more realistic, with two distinct rain bands in the finer resolution simulation. The spatial distribution of precipitation in August and the high frequency of summer precipitation extremes over southwestern United States reveal that the North American monsoon is improved with increasing resolution. Only the finer RCM simulation shows skill at producing snowbelts around the Great Lakes by capturing lake-effect snow. A comparison of wind roses in the St. Lawrence River Valley indicates that only the finer RCM simulation is able to reproduce wind channeling by resolving complex orography. Finally, the simulation of the summer land-sea breezes by the RCM simulations leads to added value in the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Florida peninsula and the Caribbean islands. Overall, the almost systematic improvements of the finer resolution simulations suggest that higher resolutions, only computationally affordable over smaller domains, might get a higher priority to promote RCM added value.

  3. Analysis of Drought in North Darfur Region of Sudan: Application of the DPSIR Framework on Long Term Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohmmed, Alnail; Zhange, Ke; Makomere, Reuben; Twecan, Dalson; Mohamme, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Darfur region in western Sudan is located in one of the world's most inhospitable environments, adjacent to the Sahara desert, conflicts and drought have severely degraded this fragile area, devastating the environment, livestock and people. Northern Darfur is bedeviled with frequent drought due to insufficient water resources, high summer temperatures, and poor precipitation. Monitoring drought and providing timely seasonal predictions is important for integrated drought risk reduction in the region. This paper evaluates drought conditions in North Darfur by applying meteorological, remote sensing and crop production data, as well as the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) assessment framework. Interviews, group discussions and participant observations were conducted in order to understand the DPSIR framework indicators. The relationship between the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI), Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Soil Moisture Content Index (SMCI) were evaluated utilizing data from all five North Darfur counties during 10 growing seasons (2004-2013). Our results showed a strong correlation between RDI, VCI, and SMAI. Also, a significant agreement was noticed between Yield Anomaly Index (YAI) and Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI). Generally, a high correlation coefficient was obtained between the meteorology drought index and remote sensing indices, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the above indices for evaluating agricultural drought in the sub-Saharan area. Keywords: Drought; Vegetation Condition Index; Reconnaissance Drought Index; Soil Moisture Content Index; North Darfur.

  4. Passive margin uplift around the North Atlantic region and its role in Northern Hemisphere late Cenozoic glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nicholas

    1996-02-01

    Tectonic-climatic models of late Cenozoic global cooling emphasize the importance of middle latitude uplifts (e.g., Tibetan Plateau and the American west) but ignore widespread tectonic events on the margins of the North Atlantic Ocean. Pleistocene glaciations, after 2.5 Ma, are characterized by circum North Atlantic continental ice sheets that formed by the coalescence of perennial snow fields on extensive plateau surfaces in eastern Canada, northwest Britain, and Scandinavia. Plateaus record Cenozoic uplift of peneplains in response to semisynchronous magmatic underplating and thermal buoyancy of rifted continental margins. High-standing plateaus are very sensitive to small reductions in summer temperature. As late Cenozoic climate cooling proceeded, driven by uplift in regions external to the North Atlantic region, elevated plateaus became sites for extensive snow fields and ultimately ice sheets. Circum-Atlantic uplift took place in the key latitudinal belt that is most sensitive to orbitally forced changes in solar irradiation; this, together with albedo effects from large snow fields, could have amplified the relatively weak Milankovitch signal.

  5. North Country Successes: Case Studies of Successful Entrepreneurs in the ANCA Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugh, Ram L.; Gandhi, Prem P.

    This study identifies the characteristics of both successful small businesses and their entrepreneurial owners in a 14-county area of the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA). Of the 100 survey respondents representing successful small businesses, 50% had been in business for less than 14 years; 38% were in manufacturing; 48% employed more…

  6. Water, water everywhere... integrated riparian research in the North Central Region

    Treesearch

    Lynne M. Westphal

    2003-01-01

    Riparian areas are important for many reasons including timber, residential areas, biodiversity, recreation, and industry. Because of the intricate land/water interface, these lands require special care. Determining what this care should be requires more knowledge than we currently have. Hence, the North Central Research Station (NCRS) has initiated the Sustaining...

  7. Data bases for forest inventory in the North-Central Region.

    Treesearch

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen

    1985-01-01

    Describes the data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work Unit at the North Central Forest Experiment Station. Explains how interested parties may obtain information from the databases either through direct access or by special requests to the FIA database manager.

  8. Underrepresentation of Women in the Academic Profession: A Comparative Analysis of the North American Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Gonzalez, Laura Padilla

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses women's underrepresentation in the academic profession, as well as the need for policies and practices aimed at this issue. It compares underrepresentation of academic women in North American countries, and explores, throughout a bivariate analysis, personal, professional, as well as institutional variables related to…

  9. Diseases of intensively cultured hybrid poplars: a summary of recent research in the north central region

    Treesearch

    M. E. Ostry; H. S. McNabb

    1983-01-01

    Several potentially damaging diseases of hybrid poplars hue been identified in the north-central United States. Among the most serious are leaf and stem diseases caused by Melampsora, Marssonina, and Septoria. Short-term chemical controls are of limited usefulness. The most practical control strategy appears to be the use of resistant clones obtained through local...

  10. Observed relation between evapotranspiration and soil moisture in the North American monsoon region 1985

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil moisture control on evapotranspiration is poorly understood in ecosystems experiencing seasonal greening. In this study, we utilize a set of multi-year observations at four eddy covariance sites along a latitudinal gradient in vegetation greening to infer the ET-' relation during the North Ame...

  11. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  12. Regionally increasing baccalaureate-prepared nurses in North Carolina: the RIBN Project.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mary P; Hall, Vincent P; Causey, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    A more highly educated nursing workforce is needed to address the increasingly complex health care needs of our citizens and to expand the pool for future faculty and advanced practice nurses. North Carolina must create new partnerships between community colleges and universities to support seamless progression toward a baccalaureate degree. The RIBN model provides one option to meet this goal.

  13. Managing Regional Collaboration in Higher Education: The Case of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes accomplishments in increasing collaboration in higher education within the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Analyzes procedures for determining equivalencies of courses and degrees and for improving transnational mobility of students and professors. Also discusses the role of the private sector in research, education and…

  14. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  15. Evaluating the performance of CMIP3 and CMIP5 global climate models over the north-east Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of uncertainty in estimating climate projections affected by global warming is the choice of the global climate model (GCM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the skill of GCMs from CMIP3 and CMIP5 databases in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region. It is well known that the seasonal and interannual variability of surface inland variables (e.g. precipitation and snow) and ocean variables (e.g. wave height and storm surge) are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns. Thus, an automatic synoptic classification, based on weather types, has been used to assess whether GCMs are able to reproduce spatial patterns and climate variability. Three important factors have been analyzed: the skill of GCMs to reproduce the synoptic situations, the skill of GCMs to reproduce the historical inter-annual variability and the consistency of GCMs experiments during twenty-first century projections. The results of this analysis indicate that the most skilled GCMs in the study region are UKMO-HadGEM2, ECHAM5/MPI-OM and MIROC3.2(hires) for CMIP3 scenarios and ACCESS1.0, EC-EARTH, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES and CMCC-CM for CMIP5 scenarios. These models are therefore recommended for the estimation of future regional multi-model projections of surface variables driven by the atmospheric circulation in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region.

  16. Modeling radiative transfer in molecular clouds. 1: HCO(+) in the star-forming region W49A North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, Helene R.; Auer, Lawrence H.

    1994-01-01

    A new general multilevel, non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) radiative transfer code, valid for any velocity field, is applied to HCO(+) observations of W49A North. Three classes of collapse models are considered: free-fall collapse (v proportional to 1/sq. root of r), rho proportional to r(exp -3/2) throughout the molecular cloud, successfully reproduces the features of the observations and gives the best fit to the J = 1-0 and J = 3-2 profiles both toward the prominent H II component G of W49A North and off the center. In addition to a slow radial fall-off of density, the theoretical modeling implies the following for the molecular cloud: the large line widths result from motions occurring within the inner 1 pc, and there are probably one or more fragments with peculiar velocities within this same region.

  17. Modeling radiative transfer in molecular clouds. 1: HCO(+) in the star-forming region W49A North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, Helene R.; Auer, Lawrence H.

    1994-01-01

    A new general multilevel, non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) radiative transfer code, valid for any velocity field, is applied to HCO(+) observations of W49A North. Three classes of collapse models are considered: free-fall collapse (v proportional to 1/sq. root of r), rho proportional to r(exp -3/2) throughout the molecular cloud, successfully reproduces the features of the observations and gives the best fit to the J = 1-0 and J = 3-2 profiles both toward the prominent H II component G of W49A North and off the center. In addition to a slow radial fall-off of density, the theoretical modeling implies the following for the molecular cloud: the large line widths result from motions occurring within the inner 1 pc, and there are probably one or more fragments with peculiar velocities within this same region.

  18. An approach to derive regional snow lines and glacier mass change from MODIS imagery, western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, J. M.; Menounos, B.; Moore, R. D.; Tennant, C.

    2013-04-01

    We describe a method to calculate regional snow line elevations and annual equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) from daily MODIS imagery (MOD02QKM) on large glaciers and icefields in western North America. An automated cluster analysis of the cloud-masked visible and near-infrared bands at 250 m resolution is used to delineate glacier facies (snow and ice) for ten glacierized regions between 2000-2011. For each region and season, the maximum observed value of the 20th percentile of snow-covered pixels (ZS(20)) is used to define a regional ELA proxy (ELAest). Our results indicate significant increases in the regional ELA proxy at two continental sites (Peyto Glacier and Gulkana Glacier) over the period of observation, though no statistically significant trends are identified at other sites. To evaluate the utility of regional ELA proxies derived from MOD02QKM imagery, we compare standard geodetic estimates of glacier mass change with estimates derived from historical mass balance gradients and observations of ZS(20) at three large icefields. Our approach yields estimates of mass change that more negative than traditional geodetic approaches, though MODIS-derived estimates are within the margins of error at all three sites. Both estimates of glacier mass change corroborate the continued mass loss of glaciers in western North America. Between 2000 and 2009, the geodetic change approach yields mean annual rates of surface elevation change for the Columbia, Lillooet, and Sittakanay icefields of -0.29 ± 0.05, -0.26 ± 0.05, and -0.63 ± 0.17 m a-1, respectively. This study provides a new technique for glacier facies detection at daily timescales, and contributes to the development of regional estimates of glacier mass change, both of which are critical for studies of glacier contributions to streamflow and global sea level rise.

  19. Exploring the origin of ice-filled craters in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovius, Niels; Conway, Susan; Barnie, T.; Besserer, J.; Lemouelic, S.; Read, N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the origins of enigmatic ice-filled craters in the north polar region of Mars. We test several explanations for their origin, namely: (1) as polar cap remnants [1] (2) accumulation independently of the polar cap, and (3) upwelling of subsurface water, analogous to either aufice or pingo formation on Earth. Each of these hypotheses has a significant impact on our understanding of Mars' recent geological and climatic history and the behaviour of water and water ice at high latitudes. We used several lines of evidence to assess the most likely formation mechanism. We first performed a crater survey based on THEMIS visual data and MOLA elevation data to identify any craters that had domal central lumps which were different from normal central peaks. From this survey we identified 17 craters for further study. These include Louth, Korolev, Dokka and other unnamed craters. Using data from orbiting spectrometers; OMEGA on ESA's Mars Express and CRISM on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; we verified that the composition of the exposed central domes was predominantly water ice. We found the domes fell into three groups: (1) those completely covered by dunes, (2) those partially covered by dunes and (3) those with no dunes. We investigated the morphology and the relative position of the domes using MOLA elevation data. We found that the domes are always asymmetrically placed within the craters. However, this asymmetry could not easily be linked to wind directions as revealed by dune slip-faces [2]. The domes often have a moat-like structure and in some cases do not cover the entire crater floor, e.g. Louth Crater. From image data, we identified six craters which possessed internal stratigraphy, in the form of regularly spaced layers, and of these we have inspected three in detail. We found that the layers possess both strong sinuosity and high angle unconformities. We interpret the internal stratigraphy as representing a sequence of regular cyclic

  20. Ices on Mercury: Chemistry of volatiles in permanently cold areas of Mercury's north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Harju, E. R.; Schriver, D.; Johnson, R. E.; Travnicek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its flyby and orbital observations of Mercury in 2008-2015 indicated the presence of cold icy materials hiding in permanently-shadowed craters in Mercury's north polar region. These icy condensed volatiles are thought to be composed of water ice and frozen organics that can persist over long geologic timescales and evolve under the influence of the Mercury space environment. Polar ices never see solar photons because at such high latitudes, sunlight cannot reach over the crater rims. The craters maintain a permanently cold environment for the ices to persist. However, the magnetosphere will supply a beam of ions and electrons that can reach the frozen volatiles and induce ice chemistry. Mercury's magnetic field contains magnetic cusps, areas of focused field lines containing trapped magnetospheric charged particles that will be funneled onto the Mercury surface at very high latitudes. This magnetic highway will act to direct energetic protons, ions and electrons directly onto the polar ices. The radiation processing of the ices could convert them into higher-order organics and dark refractory materials whose spectral characteristics are consistent with low-albedo materials observed by MESSENGER Laser Altimeter (MLA) and RADAR instruments. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR), scattered UV light and solar energetic particles (SEP) also supply energy for ice processing. Cometary impacts will deposit H2O, CH4, CO2 and NH3 raw materials onto Mercury's surface which will migrate to the poles and be converted to more complex Csbnd Hsbnd Nsbnd Osbnd S-containing molecules such as aldehydes, amines, alcohols, cyanates, ketones, hydroxides, carbon oxides and suboxides, organic acids and others. Based on lab experiments in the literature, possible specific compounds produced may be: H2CO, HCOOH, CH3OH, HCO, H2CO3, CH3C(O)CH3, C2O, CxO, C3O2, CxOy, CH3CHO, CH3OCH2CH2OCH3, C2H6, CxHy, NO2, HNO2, HNO3, NH2OH, HNO, N2H2, N3, HCN, Na2O, Na

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.

    2016-07-01

    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  2. A new climatic classification of afforestation in Three-North regions of China with multi-source remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Afforestation and reforestation activities achieve high attention at the policy agenda as measures for carbon sequestration in order to mitigate climate change. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program, the largest ecological afforestation program worldwide, was launched in 1978 and will last until 2050 in the Three-North regions (accounting for 42.4 % of China's territory). Shelter forests of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program have exhibited severe decline after planting in 1978 due to lack of detailed climatic classification. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of climate adaptation for the current shelter forests was lacking. In this study, the aridity index determined by precipitation and reference evapotranspiration was employed to classify climatic zones for the afforestation program. The precipitation and reference evapotranspiration with 1-km resolution were estimated based on data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, respectively. Then, the detailed climatic classification for the afforestation program was obtained based on the relationship between the different vegetation types and the aridity index. The shelter forests in 2008 were derived from Landsat TM in the Three-North regions. In addition, climatic zones and shelter forests were corrected by comparing with natural vegetation map and field surveys. By overlaying the shelter forests on the climatic zones, we found that 16.30 % coniferous forests, 8.21 % broadleaved forests, 2.03 % mixed conifer-broadleaved forests, and 10.86 % shrubs were not in strict accordance with the climate conditions. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sensing techniques for afforestation management.

  3. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  4. A regional technology transfer program. [North Carolina Industrial Applications Center for the Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The proliferation of online searching capabilities among its industrial clients, changes in marketing staff and direction, use of Dun and Bradstreet marketing service files, growth of the Annual Service Package program, and services delivered to clients at the NASA funded North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center are described. The library search service was reactivated and enlarged, and a survey was conducted on the NC/STRC Technical Bulletin's effectiveness. Several quotations from clients assess the overall value of the Center's services.

  5. The North Central Forest Inventory and Analysis timber product output database--a regional composite approach.

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a regional composite approach to managing timber product output data in a relational database. Describes the development and structure of the regional composite database and demonstrates its use in addressing everyday timber product output information needs.

  6. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  7. Timber volume and type acreage on the national forests of the north Pacific region from the inventory phase of the forest survey

    Treesearch

    R.W. Cowlin; F.L. Moravets

    1937-01-01

    Completion of the forest survey of Oregon and Washington has recently made it possible to compile reliable statistics as to the forest-land areas and timber volumes of the national forests in the North Pacific Region. This region, the sixth of 10 regions into which the United States is divided for purposes of national-forest administration, includes all the national-...

  8. Application of global dynamic vegetation model estimation of aridity changes in drought prone region of North-Eastern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Vera; Venevskiy, Sergey; Berdnikov, Sergey; Kulygin, Valerii

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are specifically designed for an assessment of integrative continental scale soil and vegetation carbon and water pools and fluxes between these pools and the atmosphere. However, recent DGVMs still remain mainly tools for global studies, which explain limitations of these models in view of regional applications. In this study we investigate possibility of application of state-of-the art SEVER-DGVM for description of contemporary water dynamics in semi-arid regions of North Eastern Eurasia. We suggest simple modifications of input climate and soil data and moving to irregular vector representation of basic spatial units, instead of regular grid cells, aiming increase in accuracy of simulation of water pools and fluxes. The study area is Rostov oblast' with small parts from Stavropol krai and Kalmykia Republic (oblast' and krai are administrative units in Russia), associated with the southern part of River Don watershed. The region is rather big (approximately 800 km in direction North - South and approximately 400 km in direction East - West. SEVER-DGVM, a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was applied as a modelling tool of the study. The model was never before applied specifically for regions of Southern Russia and thus required evaluation and afterwards modification for accuracy of representation of water fluxes and pools. For regionalization of climate data we compared time series for temperature and precipitation from the NCEP climate dataset and from the regional meteorological data. We found that temperature time series from the global dataset are close to the observed, but the NCEP dataset has tendency to underestimate precipitation in Rostov region at daily time step, while providing correct pattern of annual and monthly dynamics. This was corrected using long term daily anomalies of observed daily temperature and precipitation in the region. For regional application of the global vegetation model we defined

  9. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  10. The variability of biomass burning and its influence on regional aerosol properties during the wheat harvest season in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xingru; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    The spatial-temporal variation of biomass burning in June during the wheat harvest season in the North China (32-41°N, 111-120°E) and its influence on the regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosols in the urban environment were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the burn ban policy and the influence on regional pollution. Fire events that occurred in early and middle June accounted for approximately 89% of the events during the month, and fire points located in mid-eastern China (32.5-35.5°N, 114-120°E) comprised 71%. The occurrences exhibit oscillatory changes with a minimum in 2008 (during the Beijing Olympics) and a peak and explosive growth in 2012. Under high relative humidity and south winds, fire emissions from straw burning combined with high urban/industrial emissions to produce intensive regional haze pollution in the North Plain. The formation of secondary inorganic particles was intensified due to the interactions of smoke plumes and urban/industrial pollutants in an urban environment. Higher concentrations and percentages (79%) of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon in the fine particles under high relative humidity conditions contributed to a deteriorated urban visibility. Therefore, stronger management and a comprehensive ban on wheat straw burning in June are urgently needed, especially during years when the south wind is dominant.

  11. A link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region in Lonar Lake, central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Philip; Gaye, Birgit; Prasad, Sushma; Plessen, Birgit; Stebich, Martina; Anoop, Ambili; Riedel, Nils; Basavaiah, Nathani

    2014-05-01

    A sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India covers the complete Holocene and was used to reconstruct the monsoon history of the core SW-monsoon region. We compare C/N ratios, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, grain size, as well as amino acid derived degradation proxies with climatically sensitive proxies of other records from South Asia and the North Atlantic region. The comparison reveals some more or less contemporaneous climate shifts. At Lonar Lake, a general long term climate transition from wet conditions during the early Holocene to drier conditions during the late Holocene, delineating the insolation curve, can be reconstructed. Several phases of shorter term climate alteration that superimpose the general climate trend correlate with cold phases in the North Atlantic region. The most pronounced climate deteriorations indicated by our data occurred between 6.2 - 5.2, 4.65 - 3.9, and 2.05 - 0.55 cal ka BP. The strong dry phase between 4.65 - 3.9 cal ka BP at Lonar Lake corroborates the hypothesis that severe climate deterioration contributed to the decline of the Indus Civilisation about 3.9 ka BP.

  12. Spatio-temporal evolution of Leucophyllum pringlei and allies (Scrophulariaceae): a group endemic to North American xeric regions.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Etelvina; Sosa, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    The taxa of the Leucophyllum pringlei clade were used to understand the influence of the Neogene orogenesis and the Quaternary climate cycles on the diversification of the flora of the xeric regions of North America. This clade includes the five southernmost species of the genus: L. ambiguum, L. flyrii, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola, which are distributed throughout the Chihuahuan Desert north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and L. pringlei in the region of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán south of this mountain range. Here we test whether these species diverged during the pluvial periods of the Pleistocene, and whether L. pringlei diverged earlier from the other species during the uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Using three plastid regions (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, trnL-F) and a nuclear (ITS) marker, phylogenetic analyses were carried out, along with a reconstruction of their ancestral area. Trees retrieved the five species in a monophyletic group with the most recent common ancestor distributed in the Sinaloan dry forest during the Late Miocene (8.08Ma), from where it dispersed to the Chihuahuan Desert during the Late Miocene (6.35Ma). The secondary uplift of the Sierra Madre Occidental during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene influenced a vicariance event. Divergence between L. pringlei and the species from north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occurred during the second volcanic episode in the Late Miocene (7.5-3Ma). The most recent common ancestor of L. ambiguum, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola was widely distributed in the southern part of the Chihuahuan Desert during the Early to Late Pliocene (3.50Ma). The diversification of these three species occurred in the Middle Pleistocene (0.9Ma) during the pluvial and inter-pluvial cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronholz, Alexandra; Gräwe, Ulf; Paul, André; Schulz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The influence of a summer storm event in 2007 on the North Sea and its effects on the ocean stratification are investigated using a regional coupled ocean (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS)-atmosphere (Weather Research & Forecasting model, WRF) modeling system. An analysis of potential energy anomaly (PEA, Φ) and its temporal development reveals that the loss of stratification due to the storm event is dominated by vertical mixing in almost the entire North Sea. For specific regions, however, a considerable contribution of depth-mean straining is observed. Vertical mixing is highly correlated with wind induced surface stresses. However, peak mixing values are observed in combination with incoming flood currents. Depending on the phase between winds and tides, the loss of stratification differs strongly over the North Sea. To study the effects of interactive ocean-atmosphere exchange, a fully coupled simulation is compared with two uncoupled ones for the same vertical mixing parameters to identify the impact of spatial resolution as well as of SST feedback. While the resulting new mixed layer depth after the storm event in the uncoupled simulation with lower spatial and temporal resolution of the surface forcing data can still be located in the euphotic zone, the coupled simulation is capable to mix the entire water column and the vertical mixing in the uncoupled simulation with higher resolution of the surface forcing data is strongly amplified. These differences might have notable implications for ecosystem modeling since it could determine the development of new phytoplankton blooms after the storm and for sediment modeling in terms of sediment mobilization. An investigation of restratification after the extreme event illustrates the persistent effect of this summer storm.

  14. Investigating the effects of a summer storm on the North Sea stratification using a regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronholz, Alexandra; Gräwe, Ulf; Paul, André; Schulz, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The influence of a summer storm event in 2007 on the North Sea and its effects on the ocean stratification are investigated using a regional coupled ocean (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS)-atmosphere (Weather Research & Forecasting model, WRF) modeling system. An analysis of potential energy anomaly (PEA, Φ) and its temporal development reveals that the loss of stratification due to the storm event is dominated by vertical mixing in almost the entire North Sea. For specific regions, however, a considerable contribution of depth-mean straining is observed. Vertical mixing is highly correlated with wind induced surface stresses. However, peak mixing values are observed in combination with incoming flood currents. Depending on the phase between winds and tides, the loss of stratification differs strongly over the North Sea. To study the effects of interactive ocean-atmosphere exchange, a fully coupled simulation is compared with two uncoupled ones for the same vertical mixing parameters to identify the impact of spatial resolution as well as of SST feedback. While the resulting new mixed layer depth after the storm event in the uncoupled simulation with lower spatial and temporal resolution of the surface forcing data can still be located in the euphotic zone, the coupled simulation is capable to mix the entire water column and the vertical mixing in the uncoupled simulation with higher resolution of the surface forcing data is strongly amplified. These differences might have notable implications for ecosystem modeling since it could determine the development of new phytoplankton blooms after the storm and for sediment modeling in terms of sediment mobilization. An investigation of restratification after the extreme event illustrates the persistent effect of this summer storm.

  15. Survival from cancer in the north region of Portugal: results from the first decade of the millennium.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Luís; Santos, Lúcio L; Bento, Maria José

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate net survival from cancer diagnosed during the period 2001-2010 in the north region of Portugal to identify the tumours that need actions to improve the outcomes. Data were retrieved from the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal database. The top 20 cancer sites in adults were considered: oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, liver, larynx, lung, skin melanoma, breast, cervix, corpus uteri, ovary, prostate, kidney, bladder, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Net survival was estimated using the Pohar-Perme estimator. The effect of diagnosis period was evaluated using flexible parametric models adjusted for age and sex where appropriate. Thyroid and prostate cancers presented the best 5-year survival (>90%), whereas oesophagus, pancreas, liver and lung cancers the worst 5-year survival (<20%). The largest increase in survival was observed for the larynx. A significant decrease in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted excess mortality was observed for stomach, colon, pancreas, larynx, melanoma, breast, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. For the other cancer sites, no significant trends were observed. For some of these sites, the downward trend in excess mortality was only observed in the short term. An important picture of population-based cancer survival outcomes for the first decade of the millennium in the north region of Portugal was presented in this study. It has been shown that improvements in survival were not universal for all cancer sites. These results should be used to highlight tumours where intervention is needed the most.

  16. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR): A neglected tropical disease in Maghreb region of North Africa and its threat to Europe.

    PubMed

    Baazizi, Ratiba; Mahapatra, Mana; Clarke, Brian Donald; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Khelef, Djamel; Parida, Satya

    2017-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle. PPR was first reported in 1942 in the Ivory Coast in Western Africa and has since extended its range in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa posing an immediate threat of incursion into Europe, South East Asia and South Africa. Although robust vaccines are available, the use of these vaccines in a systematic and rational manner is not widespread, resulting in this devastating disease becoming an important neglected tropical disease in the developing world. We isolated and characterized the PPR virus from an outbreak in Cheraga, northern Algeria, during October 2015 by analyzing the partial N-gene sequence in comparison with other viruses from the Maghreb region. As well as sequencing the full length viral genome and performing real-time RT-PCR on clinical samples. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian temporal and phylogeographic analyses were performed to assess the persistence and spread of PPRV circulation from Eastern Africa in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Recent PPR outbreaks in Cheraga, in the northern part of Algiers (October 2015) and North-West Morocco (June, 2015) highlight that PPRV has spread to the northern border of North Africa and may pose a threat of introduction to Europe. Phylogeographic analysis suggests that lineage IV PPRV has spread from Eastern Africa, most likely from the Sudan 2000 outbreak, into Northern Africa resulting in the 2008 Moroccan outbreak. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis shows that these North African viruses cluster closely together

  17. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR): A neglected tropical disease in Maghreb region of North Africa and its threat to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Brian Donald; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Khelef, Djamel; Parida, Satya

    2017-01-01

    Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious disease listed by the World Organisation for Animal health (OIE) as being a specific hazard. It affects sheep, goats, and wild ungulates, and is prevalent throughout the developing world particularly Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. PPR has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the OIE, after the successful eradication of the related disease, rinderpest in cattle. PPR was first reported in 1942 in the Ivory Coast in Western Africa and has since extended its range in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa posing an immediate threat of incursion into Europe, South East Asia and South Africa. Although robust vaccines are available, the use of these vaccines in a systematic and rational manner is not widespread, resulting in this devastating disease becoming an important neglected tropical disease in the developing world. Methodology We isolated and characterized the PPR virus from an outbreak in Cheraga, northern Algeria, during October 2015 by analyzing the partial N-gene sequence in comparison with other viruses from the Maghreb region. As well as sequencing the full length viral genome and performing real-time RT-PCR on clinical samples. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian temporal and phylogeographic analyses were performed to assess the persistence and spread of PPRV circulation from Eastern Africa in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Conclusions Recent PPR outbreaks in Cheraga, in the northern part of Algiers (October 2015) and North-West Morocco (June, 2015) highlight that PPRV has spread to the northern border of North Africa and may pose a threat of introduction to Europe. Phylogeographic analysis suggests that lineage IV PPRV has spread from Eastern Africa, most likely from the Sudan 2000 outbreak, into Northern Africa resulting in the 2008 Moroccan outbreak. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis shows that these North African

  18. Environmental Conditions Associated with the Occurrence of Large Scale Dust Storms in Arid Regions of North Africa.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    PERFORMINGORG.REPORTNUMBER Regions of North Africa 7. AUTHOR(e) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.) J.M. Prospero, D.M. Helgren, M. Estoque and DAAG29-83-K-0082...J.M. PROSPERO, D.M. HELGREN, J. FERNANDEZ-PARTAGAS AND M. ESTOQUE FEBRUARY, 1986 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE CONTRACT NO. DAAG29-53-K-0082 UNIVERSITY...Dust Storms in West Africa During the Summer of 1974", by M. Estoque , J. Fernandez-Partagas, D.M. Helgren and J.M Prospero. Copies of this report have

  19. First assessment on NOx sources for a regional background site of North China using isotopic analysis linked with modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zheng; Wang, Xiaoping; Tian, Chongguo

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx, including NO and NO2) play an important role in the formation of new particles. Thus NOx emission reduction is one of the most critical steps to improve the air quality, especially in severe air-polluted areas (e.g. the North China). In this study, the sources and conversion mechanisms of NOx were explored at Beihuangcheng Island (BH), a regional background site in North China. Results showed humidity and oxidants were important promoters for the conversion of NOx to nitrate (NO3-) in the atmosphere. Based on nitrogen isotope and an improved Bayesian mixing model, 61.85 ± 2.50%, 24.46 ± 4.02% and 13.69 ± 3.18% of NOx could be attributed to mobile source, coal combustion and biomass burning, respectively, which indicated that mobile source was the primary source for NOx on BH. Seasonally, mobile source was dominant contributor in summer (75.24 ± 5.29%), spring (61.53 ± 4.66%) and autumn (58.72 ± 4.17%). While residential coal combustion confirmed by Mann-Kendall test and moving simulation contributed a main portion of 71.75 ± 11.35% in winter. This work indicated that isotope-modelling is a promising tool for partitioning NOx sources, and provided policy maker with the valuable insight into the NOx reduction in North China.

  20. Analysis of North Atlantic Aircraft Data on Oxygenated Intermediate Species Using an Adapted Regional Chemistry-Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Mathur, Rohit; Alapaty, Kiran; Hanna, Adel; Binkowski, Frank; Guan, Hong; Esswein, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Our study is on the interaction of nitrogen oxides with organics as they are exported from their complex sources in Eastern North America. Both urban and specific industrial emissions contribute the nitrogen of the C-H-O-N compounds that affect the global atmosphere, helping determine both ozone and the self-cleaning radical chemistry of the troposphere mediated by the OH radical. Different industrial sources, urban, and natural emissions contribute the organic C. Peroxyacetyl nitrate, CH3C(double bonds O)OONO2 is the most interesting compound for which we can measure the outflow to the full depth of the Atlantic troposphere. As we adapt the 3-d chemical model to describe outflow for specific periods with sufficient accuracy, we are analyzing some valuable information in the NARE-97 complete airborne dataset. (NARE: North Atlantic Regional Experiment). Ames researchers find that there are substantial puzzles in the ratios of PAN/NO2. Peroxy acetyl nitrate provides one of the major long-distance export pathways for active nitrogen from Eastern North America. It should be closely linked with NO, (defined as the sum NO + NO2) by simple thermal association and decomposition reactions, at least when the ambient temperature is substantially above 5 C.

  1. Nitrous oxide emissions estimated with the Carbon Tracker Lagrange regional inversion framework suggest the North American source comes predominantly from agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevison, C. D.; Andrews, A. E.; Thoning, K. W.; Saikawa, E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Benmergui, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Carbon Tracker Lagrange (CTL) regional inversion framework is used to estimate North American nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of 1.6 ± 0.4 Tg N/yr over 2008-2013. More than half of the North American emissions are estimated to come from the central agricultural belt, extending from southern Canad