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Sample records for north atlantic-arctic region

  1. Building International Research Partnerships in the North Atlantic-Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benway, Heather M.; Hofmann, Eileen; St. John, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The North Atlantic-Arctic region, which is critical to the health and socioeconomic well being of North America and Europe, is susceptible to climate-driven changes in circulation, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems. The need for strong investment in the study of biogeochemical and ecosystem processes and interactions with physical processes over a range of time and space scales in this region was clearly stated in the 2013 Galway Declaration, an intergovernmental statement on Atlantic Ocean cooperation (http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-459_en.htm). Subsequently, a workshop was held to bring together researchers from the United States, Canada, and Europe with expertise across multiple disciplines to discuss an international research initiative focused on key features, processes, and ecosystem services (e.g., Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, spring bloom dynamics, fisheries, etc.) and associated sensitivities to climate changes.

  2. Meltwater and precipitation runoff to the North Atlantic, Arctic, and Gulf of Mexico from the Laurentide Ice Sheet and adjacent regions during the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teller, James T.

    1990-12-01

    Runoff from North America may have played a significant role in ocean circulation and climate change during the last deglaciation. Because the driving force behind such changes may have been related to salinity of the north flowing Atlantic Ocean conveyor circulation, it is critical to know the volume, timing, and location of fresh water entering the North Atlantic from the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet. During the Younger Dryas cold episode, 11,000-10,000 years B.P., there was a two-fold increase in the volume of meltwater plus precipitation runoff, to more than 1700 km³ yr-1, flowing through the St. Lawrence valley to the North Atlantic, mainly because retreating ice allowed the glacial Lake Agassiz basin to drain eastward into the Great Lakes at this time. There was a corresponding decline in discharge from Lake Agassiz through the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Runoff to the Arctic Ocean also increased at about the beginning of the Younger Dryas, from 740 to 900 km³ yr-1, because of the capture of what is now the headwater region of the Mackenzie River watershed. This, in combination with rising sea level and warming climate, may have increased the amount of pack ice reaching the North Atlantic through the Norwegian Sea from the Arctic Ocean. At 10,000 years B.P., eastward overflow from the western interior of North America was blocked by advancing ice, again forcing overflow to the Gulf of Mexico and, possibly, to the northwest into the Arctic Ocean. Although total runoff to the oceans from all regions draining from the Laurentide Ice Sheet did not vary substantially between 12,000 and 9000 years B.P., if discharge to the Gulf of Mexico is excluded, fresh water reaching the North Atlantic averaged 4000 km³ yr-1 during the Younger Dryas, in contrast to 2870 km³ yr-1 just before this cold episode and 3440 km³ yr-1 just after it.

  3. New insights into late Neogene glacial dynamics, tectonics, and hydrocarbon migrations in the Atlantic-Arctic gateway region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knies, J.; Baranwal, S.; Fabian, K.; Grøsfjeld, K.; Andreassen, K.; Husum, K.; Mattingsdal, R.; Gaina, C.; De Schepper, S.; Vogt, C.; Andersen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Notwithstanding the recent IODP drilling on the Lomonosov Ridge, the Late Cenozoic history of the Arctic Ocean still remains elusive. The tectonic processes leading to the development of the only deep-water connection to the Arctic Ocean via the Fram Strait are still poorly understood. Also, the influence of the gateway region on changes in Arctic-Atlantic ocean circulation, uplift/erosion on the adjacent hinterland, as well as glacial initiation and its consequences for the petroleum systems in the regions, remain unclear. By revisiting Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 151, holes 911A and 910C and interpreting new multi-channel seismic data, we have now established a new comprehensive chronological framework for the Yermak Plateau and revealed important paleoenvironmental changes for the Atlantic-Arctic gateway during the late Neogene. The improved chronostratigraphic framework is established through continuous paleomagnetic and biostratigraphic data as well as selected intervals with stable ?18O and ?13C data derived from benthic foraminifera Cassidulina teretis. Supported by acoustic profiling, the new data indicate a continuous late Miocene/early Pliocene age (~5-6 Ma) for the base of both holes. The depositional regime north (Yermak Plateau) and south of the Fram Strait (Hovgaard Ridge) was rather shallow during the late Miocene and water mass exchange between the Arctic and Atlantic was restricted. Ice sheets on the Svalbard Platform evolved during the late Miocene, however did not reach the coastline before 3.3 Ma. Migration of gaseous hydrocarbons occurred prior to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (~2.7 Ma) as indicated by high-amplitude reflections, corroborating the occurrence of greigite mineralization and stable carbon isotope excursions in planktic/benthic foraminifera. The data indicate that Pleistocene erosion and uplift in the Barents Sea region had probably only minor effects on reservoir leakages than previously thought.

  4. Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic circulation controlled by the Oligocene-Miocene subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stärz, Michael; Jokat, Wilfried; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    Changes in high latitude ocean gateways are thought to be main drivers of Cenozoic climate evolution. However, the link between global climate changes and the early ocean gateway formation between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean (incl. the Greenland and Norwegian Seas) controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge is poorly understood. Here, we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model for Oligocene-Miocene boundary conditions to address a threshold behaviour for the ventilation of the Arctic Ocean controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. Our model simulations reveal that a deepening of the ridge from approx. 100 to 200 metres below sea-level forces major reorganizations in the North Atlantic-Arctic circulation associated with extreme salinity and temperature changes in the Arctic Ocean. These changes are induced by an abrupt regime shift from restricted estuarine conditions to a bi-directional flow regime similar to today. Taking uncertainties in timing into account this suggests that tectonic processes, which started at the late Eocene to Oligocene controlled the climate and circulation regime of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Coupling Between Deglacial Shifts in the Position of the North Atlantic Arctic Front and Precipitation in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boessenkool, K. P.; Brinkhuis, H.; Visscher, H.

    2001-12-01

    As a response to a northern position of the Arctic Front, the present-day climate of western Europe is strongly moderated by the presence of the Gulf Stream and its extensions. The ocean currents transport warm and saline water of equatorial-Atlantic origin to the northeastern Atlantic seaboard. Prevailing westerly winds carry the warm and moist maritime air from the North Atlantic to the down-wind regions in Europe. Deglacial changes in North Atlantic sea-surface temperature (SST) associated with southward shifts in the position of the Arctic Front (up to ~30\\deg. mainly along the Northeast Atlantic seaboard) have affected the temperature, wind, and precipitation regimes in the North Atlantic borderlands. Effects are long since known to be most prominent in western Europe, and throughout this area considerable advances have been made to specify a variety of proxy records of fluctuations in terrestrial surface temperature. In marked contrast, patterns of deglacial fluctuations in precipitation in western Europe are still poorly investigated, despite their intimate relation to temperature and wind regime. Deglacial precipitation rates are known to be strongly influenced by changes in the North Atlantic SST. Low SSTs and sea-ice cool the maritime air masses, reducing their moisture-bearing capacity. Distinctive episodes of lowered SST, such as the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial, may have caused considerable aridification in large parts of western Europe. Simulation studies with atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs; Renssen et al., 1996) demonstrate strong surface westerlies and connected cyclonic depressions during YD winters in the North Atlantic region. In order to corroborate the concept of an intensified westerly cyclonic activity during the YD and a concomitant increase in wintertime precipitation in southwestern Europe, we studied a succession of deglacial palynological assemblages of a marine sediment core (SO75-6KL) from the western Iberian margin

  6. Air temperature variations on the Atlantic - Arctic boundary since 1802: the low-frequency pattern and ocean teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, K. R.; Overland, J. E.; Jónsson, T.; Smoliak, B. V.

    2010-12-01

    A two-hundred year instrumental record of annual surface air temperature (SAT) in the Atlantic - Arctic boundary region was reconstructed from four station-based composite time series (Fig. 1). Credibility is supported by ice core records, other temperature proxies, and historical evidence. This record (designated TNA) provides new perspective on past climate fluctuations in a region where pivotal climate system processes occur and where unexplained low-frequency variations were observed during the 20th century. TNA shows that the low-frequency pattern of the 20th century does not have a clear analog in the previous century. During the 19th century decadal-scale climate fluctuations occurred in irregular episodes; none were as distinctive as the early 20th century warming event (~1920 to mid-century), which is the most striking historical feature in the record. Evidence of a strong teleconnection between TNA and SST anomalies in the western boundary current - southern recirculation gyre (WBC) region of the North Atlantic Ocean provides an opportunity to reframe the problem of low-frequency variability in the region in terms tractable to theory and empirical investigation. Positive fluctuations in both TNA (and by extension other climate variables associated with it) and SST in the WBC region could be initiated by persistent variations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation that promote the advection of warm maritime air into the Atlantic - Arctic region and simultaneously limit flux-induced cooling in the Nordic Seas and the WBC/recirculation gyre region. This leads to enhanced ocean heat storage in both regions and may consequently reinforce anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns like those observed during the early 20th century warming event. Figure 1. Extended annual mean SAT record for the Atlantic - Arctic boundary region (TNA). The early 20th century warming (ETCW) episode is marked. Regions represented by station-based composite SAT records used in

  7. Pristine Arctic: background mapping of PAHs, PAH metabolites and inorganic trace elements in the North-Atlantic Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ólína; Jensen, Sophie; Hylland, Ketil; Holth, Tor Fredrik; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Olafsdóttir, Ásdís; El-Taliawy, Haitham; Rigét, Frank; Strand, Jakob; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders; Hoydal, Katrin S; Halldórsson, Halldór Pálmar

    2014-09-15

    As the ice cap of the Arctic diminishes due to global warming, the polar sailing route will be open larger parts of the year. These changes are likely to increase the pollution load on the pristine Arctic due to large vessel traffic from specific contaminant groups, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A well-documented baseline for PAH concentrations in the biota in the remote regions of the Nordic Seas and the sub-Arctic is currently limited, but will be vital in order to assess future changes in PAH contamination in the region. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from remote sites in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Norway and Sweden as well as from urban sites in the same countries for comparison. Cod (Gadus morhua) was caught north of Iceland and along the Norwegian coast. Sixteen priority PAH congeners and the inorganic trace elements arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead were analysed in the blue mussel samples as well as PAH metabolites in cod bile. Σ16PAHs ranged from 28 ng/g dry weight (d.w.) (Álftafjörður, NW Iceland) to 480 ng/g d.w. (Ísafjörður, NW Iceland). Mussel samples from Mjóifjörður, East Iceland and Maarmorilik, West Greenland, contained elevated levels of Σ16PAHs, 370 and 280 ng/g d.w., respectively. Levels of inorganic trace elements varied with highest levels of arsenic in mussels from Ísafjörður, Iceland (79 ng/g d.w.), cadmium in mussels from Mjóifjörður, Iceland (4.3 ng/g d.w.), mercury in mussels from Sørenfjorden, Norway (0.23 ng/g d.w.) and lead in mussels from Maarmorilik, Greenland (21 ng/g d.w.). 1-OH-pyrene was only found above limits of quantification (0.5 ng/mL) in samples from the Norwegian coast, ranging between 44 and 140 ng/ml bile. Generally, PAH levels were low in mussels from the remote sites investigated in the study, which indicates limited current effect on the environment. PMID:24995638

  8. Amerika und Eurafrika: the origin of the Atlantic-Arctic Ocean . Geol Rundsch 30:138-147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Toit, A. L.

    The Atlantic-Arctic Basin is antipodal to the Pacific. Powerful evidence is cited to indicate its development through continental drift, as suggested by Pickering in 1907. Initiated from the Mesozoic Tethys and progressively enlarged during the Tertiary, its outlines were essentially determined by tensional-rifting oriented mainly NE and NW within a zone extending more than half round the circumference of the Earth, from the Antarctic to Alaska. During the Alpine diastrophism fold linkages, which functioned as land bridges, were pushed up across the ocean between the West Indies and Eurafrica and subsequently destroyed by the continued westerly drift of the Americas. Crustal stretching was accompanied by widespread volcanicity. The Mid-Atlantic Rise is recent and has an isostatic basis. The Atlantic-Arctic stretch-basin is largely bordered by fault-line coasts and by down-warped shores that show the marginal, entrenched, terrestrially-evolved drainage areas known as submarine canyons.

  9. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  10. Physical properties of the Atlantic - Arctic water exchange formation. Modelling and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshonkin, Sergey; Gusev, Anatoly; Bagno, Alexey; Zalesny, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Physical mechanisms of water exchange between North Atlantic (NA) and Arctic Oceans (AO) in 1958-2009 are analyzed using results of numerical experiments with the eddy-permitting ocean circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model). Changes of heat and salt transports by West Spitsbergen and East Greenland currents caused by atmospheric forcing produce the baroclinic modes of velocity anomalies in the layer 0-300m, stabilizing ocean response on the atmospheric forcing, which stimulates keeping water exchange between NA and AO at the certain climatological level. We revealed the quick response of dense water outflow by near-bottom current in the deep NA layers through the Denmark Strait at monthly timescale on the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index change, as well as the response at the scale 39 months. The quick response on NAO is broken in 1969-1978, which is caused by the Great Salinity Anomaly. Transverse oscillations of the Norwegian current front have the great influence on the formation of the intermediate dense waters of Greenland and Norwegian Seas (GNS). Dense water outflow to the NA deep layers through the Faroe Channels with the time lag of 1 year respond to the transverse oscillations of the front. The mass transport of by near-bottom current through Faroe Channels to the NA can be used as the integral index of formation and discharge of new high-density water portions generated due to mixing of salt warm Atlantic waters and freshened cold Arctic waters in GNS. The research was supported by the Council on the Russian Federation President Grants (grant № MK-3241.2015.5)

  11. Population structure and gene flow of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Atlantic Arctic based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L W; Born, E W; Gjertz, I; Wiig, O; Holm, L E; Bendixen, C

    1998-10-01

    The population structure of the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, was studied using 11 polymorphic microsatellites and restriction fragment length polymorphism detected in the NADH-dehydrogenase ND1, ND2 and ND3/4 segments in mtDNA. A total of 105 walrus samples were analysed from northwest (NW) Greenland, east (E) Greenland, Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land. Two of the 10 haplotypes detected in the four samples were diagnostic for the NW Greenland sample, which implied that the group of walruses in this area is evolutionary distinct from walruses in the other three areas. One individual sampled in E Greenland exhibited a Pacific haplotype, which proved a connection between the Pacific walrus and walruses in eastern Greenland. The Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and E Greenland samples shared the most common haplotype, indicating very little differentiation at the mtDNA level. Gene flow (Nm) estimates among the four areas indicated a very restricted exchange of female genes between NW Greenland and the more eastern Atlantic Arctic samples, and a closer relationship between the three samples composing the eastern Atlantic Arctic. The genetic variation at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci grouped individuals into three populations, NW Greenland, E Greenland and a common Franz Joseph Land-Svalbard population, which were connected by moderate gene flow.

  12. Population structure and gene flow of the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the eastern Atlantic Arctic based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite variation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L W; Born, E W; Gjertz, I; Wiig, O; Holm, L E; Bendixen, C

    1998-10-01

    The population structure of the Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, was studied using 11 polymorphic microsatellites and restriction fragment length polymorphism detected in the NADH-dehydrogenase ND1, ND2 and ND3/4 segments in mtDNA. A total of 105 walrus samples were analysed from northwest (NW) Greenland, east (E) Greenland, Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land. Two of the 10 haplotypes detected in the four samples were diagnostic for the NW Greenland sample, which implied that the group of walruses in this area is evolutionary distinct from walruses in the other three areas. One individual sampled in E Greenland exhibited a Pacific haplotype, which proved a connection between the Pacific walrus and walruses in eastern Greenland. The Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard and E Greenland samples shared the most common haplotype, indicating very little differentiation at the mtDNA level. Gene flow (Nm) estimates among the four areas indicated a very restricted exchange of female genes between NW Greenland and the more eastern Atlantic Arctic samples, and a closer relationship between the three samples composing the eastern Atlantic Arctic. The genetic variation at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci grouped individuals into three populations, NW Greenland, E Greenland and a common Franz Joseph Land-Svalbard population, which were connected by moderate gene flow. PMID:9787444

  13. Surgical morbidity in the North Coast Health Region.

    PubMed

    Brand, N; Clarke, Q; Eather, L; Garbutt, M; Leedow, M; Perry, J; Spencer, O; Spillane, P

    1994-06-01

    A comparison of morbidity following 20 selected surgical procedures was conducted in the North Coast Health Region of NSW in 1988. Morbidity rates between procedures, hospitals and hospital levels were compared and the effects of age, gender and the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating on morbidity were examined. The respective perceptions of doctors and patients regarding complications were also compared. The study gives conditional support to the continuation of a surgical programme in Level 3 hospitals in the North Coast Health Region.

  14. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  15. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  16. North polar region of Mars: imaging results from viking 2.

    PubMed

    Cutts, J A; Blasius, K R; Briggs, G A; Carr, M H; Greeley, R; Masursky, H

    1976-12-11

    During October 1976, the Viking 2 orbiter acquired approximately 700 high-resolution images of the north polar region of Mars. These images confirm the existence at the north pole of extensive layered deposits largely covered over with deposits of perennial ice. An unconformity within the layered deposits suggests a complex history of climate change during their time of deposition. A pole-girdling accumulation of dunes composed of very dark materials is revealed for the first time by the Viking cameras. The entire region is devoid of fresh impact craters. Rapid rates of erosion or deposition are implied. A scenario for polar geological evolution, involving two types of climate change, is proposed.

  17. North Carolina and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This document details North Carolina's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array…

  18. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  19. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. A Regional Climate Change Assessment Program for North America

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Gutowski, William; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; McGinnis, Seth; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun

    2009-09-08

    There are two main uncertainties in determining future climate: the trajectories of future emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the response of the global climate system to any given set of future emissions [Meehl et al., 2007]. These uncertainties normally are elucidated via application of global climate models, which provide information at relatively coarse spatial resolutions. Greater interest in, and concern about, the details of climate change at regional scales has provided the motivation for the application of regional climate models, which introduces additional uncertainty [Christensen et al., 2007a]. These uncertainties in fi ne- scale regional climate responses, in contrast to uncertainties of coarser spatial resolution global models in which regional models are nested, now have been documented in numerous contexts [Christensen et al., 2007a] and have been found to extend to uncertainties in climate impacts [Wood et al., 2004; Oleson et al., 2007]. While European research in future climate projections has moved forward systematically to examine combined uncertainties from global and regional models [Christensen et al., 2007b], North American climate programs have lagged behind. To fi ll this research gap, scientists developed the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (-NARCCAP). The fundamental scientifi c motivation of this international program is to explore separate and combined uncertainties in regional projections of future climate change resulting from the use of multiple atmosphere- ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) to drive multiple regional climate models (RCMs). An equally important, and related, motivation for this program is to provide the climate impacts and adaptation community with high- resolution regional climate change scenarios that can be used for studies of the societal impacts of climate change and possible adaptation strategies.

  1. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: RADIO STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Susan G.; Eilek, Jean A.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2015-04-01

    We present deep radio images of the inner ∼50 kpc of Centaurus A, taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 90 cm. We focus on the Transition Regions between the inner galaxy—including the active nucleus, inner radio lobes, and star-forming disk—and the outer radio lobes. We detect previously unknown extended emission around the Inner Lobes, including radio emission from the star-forming disk. We find that the radio-loud part of the North Transition Region (NTR), known as the North Middle Lobe, is significantly overpressured relative to the surrounding interstellar medium. We see no evidence for a collimated flow from the active galactic nucleus through this region. Our images show that the structure identified by Morganti et al. as a possible large-scale jet appears to be part of a narrow ridge of emission within the broader, diffuse, radio-loud region. This knotty radio ridge is coincident with other striking phenomena: compact X-ray knots, ionized gas filaments, and streams of young stars. Several short-lived phenomena in the NTR, as well as the frequent re-energization required by the Outer Lobes, suggest that energy must be flowing through both Transition Regions at the present epoch. We suggest that the energy flow is in the form of a galactic wind.

  2. Geologic map of the north polar region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Fortezzo, Corey M.

    2012-01-01

    The north polar region of Mars occurs within the central and lowest part of the vast northern plains of Mars and is dominated by the roughly circular north polar plateau, Planum Boreum. The northern plains formed very early in Martian time and have collected volcanic flows and sedimentary materials shed from highland sources. Planum Boreum has resulted from the accumulation of water ice and dust particles. Extensive, uncratered dune fields adjacent to Planum Boreum attest to the active and recent transport and accumulation of sand. Our geologic map of Planum Boreum is the first to record its entire observable stratigraphic record using the various post-Viking image and topography datasets released before 2009. We also provide much more detail in the map than previously published, including some substantial revisions based on new data and observations. The available data have increased and improved immensely in quantity, resolution, coverage, positional accuracy, and spectral range, enabling us to resolve previously unrecognized geomorphic features, stratigraphic relations, and compositional information. We also employ more carefully prescribed and effective mapping methodologies and digital techniques, as well as formatting guidelines. The foremost aspect to our mapping approach is how geologic units are discriminated based primarily on their temporal relations with other units as expressed in unit contacts by unconformities or by gradational relations. Whereas timing constraints of such activity in the north polar region are now better defined stratigraphically, they remain poorly constrained chronologically. The end result is a new reconstruction of the sedimentary, erosional, and structural histories of the north polar region and how they may have been driven by climate conditions, available geologic materials, and eolian, periglacial, impact, magmatic, hydrologic, and tectonic activity.

  3. Relief and geology of the north polar region of the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Burba, G. A.; Shashkina, V. P.; Bogomolov, A. F.; Zherikhin, N. V.; Skrypnik, G. I.; Kudrin, L. V.; Bergman, M. Y.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Description of topographic features is given for the North polar region of the planet Venus. Principal geomorphic types of terrain are characterized as well as their geologic relations. Relative ages of geologic units in Venus North polar region are discussed.

  4. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  5. Regional Model Simulations of Cyclones Over The North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keup-Thiel, E.; Klepp, C.; Raschke, E.; Rockel, B.

    Regional model simulations have been carried out for selected cyclones to study wa- ter cycle components over the North Atlantic Ocean. The simulations have been per- formed with the regional model REMO which is based in the dynamical part on the regional weather forecast model system EM/DM of the German Weather Service and on the physical parameterizations of the climate model ECHAM4. Case studies have been done for special cyclones in January/February 1997. For these investigations the regional model REMO has been used with a horizontal resolution of 1/6 degrees, a vertical resolution on 20 levels and a timestep of 60 seconds. As input at the bound- aries and for initialization ECMWF-Analysis fields in T213 resolution were available. Water cycle components such as cloud liquid water content and precipitation are very important for climate simulations and weather forecasts. The uncertainties associated with quantitative estimates of the water cycle components are highlighted by a com- parison of satellite data with simulations of cyclones over the North Atlantic with the regional model REMO. The validation of model simulations with satellite data from the SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) clearly show the deficiencies of water cycle components. In this context several case studies will be presented and discussed. The vertically integrated water vapor of the regional model is in good agreement with the satellite data. In contrast to that the high precipitation rate in the cold air outbreak on the backside of the cold front derived from satellite data is generally underesti- mated by the regional model. Although the cold front precipitation itself and a small subsidence zone afterwards is well simulated. In line with this, the liquid water content is to low in the cold air outbreak but reasonable at the cold front itself.

  6. Regional Shoreline Change Along the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Erikson, L.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change impacts to the north coast of Alaska threaten sensitive ecosystems, critical energy-related infrastructure, native Alaskan housing and traditional lifestyles, trust species and their habitats, and large tracts of Federally-managed land. Although there are several site-specific and limited regional studies documenting coastal change along the Beaufort and Chukchi Sea coasts, no comprehensive study has documented coastal change or evaluated its causes on a regional scale. As part of a National Assessment of Shoreline Change study along open-ocean sandy shores of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating shoreline changes along the north slope coast of Alaska between Peard Bay and the Canadian border. Rates of change will be calculated for both the mainland and barrier island coasts using shorelines derived from circa 1947 and 1987 NOS T-sheets and from orthorectified photography and/or satellite imagery collected between 2000 and 2007. Here we present results from the first phase of the study, Colville River to Pt. Thomson, for three time periods (1947, 1987, 2004-7). In contrast to previous independent studies, which have documented localized erosion rates of up to 16 m/yr along portions of Alaska's north slope, results from this study show that on a regional scale, shoreline erosion rates along the mainland coast are typically less than 2 m/yr. The offshore barrier islands, however, are highly dynamic and show high rates of localized shoreline retreat along with a regionally consistent decrease in overall land area and associated rotation and migration to the southwest since the 1940s. As part of this study, continued data collection, analysis, and numerical and analytical modeling of the coast and nearshore environments will provide much needed data sets from which to evaluate future changes along this stretch of coast in response to sea-level rise, variability in the Arctic summer sea-ice extent, increased storminess, and other

  7. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  10. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  12. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  13. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  14. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  16. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  17. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  18. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  19. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  1. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North...

  2. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  4. Regional variations in shear wave anisotropy beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C.; Cassidy, J.; Hyndman, R.; Bostock, M.

    2003-04-01

    We have examined shear wave splitting of SKS phases at 25 broadband stations in western North America to constrain regional trends in anisotropy at the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and adjacent regions. At most stations, well-constrained shear wave splitting parameters (delay time and fast direction) were obtained for data from a wide range of azimuths. Delay times of 1.0 to 1.5 s indicate a mantle source for the anisotropy, most likely strain-induced lattice preferred orientation of anisotropic mantle minerals. The fast directions at the CSZ are in good agreement with models for mantle deformation associated with subduction. Within the forearc, fast directions at stations above the Juan de Fuca Plate are parallel to the subduction direction (N70E), suggesting deformation in the mantle beneath the plate due to plate motion. Above the Explorer Plate at the northern end of the CSZ, fast directions are N30E. This may reflect either the more northerly subduction direction of that plate, or a transition from subduction-related deformation to along-margin flow parallel to the transcurrent Queen Charlotte Fault to the north. At four stations in the central backarc, fast directions are parallel to the Juan de Fuca-North America convergence direction, consistent with models of subduction-induced mantle wedge flow. No clear splitting was observed at the two most northern backarc stations, indicating little to no horizontal anisotropy beneath these stations, possibly due to vertical mantle flow around the northern edge of the subducted plate. At a station near the western edge of the North America craton, the splitting parameters show significant azimuthal variations with a 90° periodicity, characteristic of multiple layers of anisotropy. The observations were fit using a two-layer model with an upper anisotropic layer with a fast direction of N12E and delay time of 1.4 s, and a lower layer with a fast direction of N81E and delay time of 2.0 s. The North America craton is

  5. Mars Global Digital Dune Database: Distribution in North Polar Region and Comparison to Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, R. K.; Fenton, L. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Mullins, K. F.; Titus, T. N.; Bourke, M. C.; Hare, T. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2008-03-01

    The north polar portion of the Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) extends coverage of medium to large-size dark dunes to include the region from 65°N to 90°N, building on the previously released equatorial portion that spans 65°S to 65°N.

  6. Lessons learned from North Carolina public health regional surveillance teams' regional exercises.

    PubMed

    Hegle, Jennifer; Markiewicz, Milissa; Benson, Philip; Horney, Jennifer; Rosselli, Richard; MacDonald, Pia

    2011-03-01

    All-hazards exercises bring together emergency response partners at the local, regional, state, and federal levels for the primary purposes of testing response plans, defining roles and responsibilities, assessing capabilities, and making necessary improvements prior to an actual incident. To better understand the benefits and challenges of conducting regional (ie, multicounty) exercises, a study was carried out by the North Carolina Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health. This article describes 5 all-hazards regional exercises conducted by Public Health Regional Surveillance Teams (PHRSTs) in North Carolina in 2009 and highlights 4 unique benefits that resulted from the exercises beyond meeting explicit objectives to test plans and identify areas for improvement: (1) building relationships among response partners, (2) promoting public health assets, (3) testing multiple communications systems, and (4) training exercise evaluators. Challenges of planning and conducting regional exercises also are addressed, followed by recommendations for maximizing the effectiveness of regional public health exercises.

  7. Water Cycling in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    To date, there has been no comprehensive study to understand the partitioning of water into vapor and ice clouds, and the associated effects of dust and surface temperature in the north polar region. Ascertaining the degree to which water is transported out of the cap region versus within the cap region will give much needed insight into the overall story of water cycling on a seasonal basis. In particular, understanding the mechanism for the polar cap surface albedo changes would go along way in comprehending the sources and sinks of water in the northern polar region. We approach this problem by examining Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) atmospheric and surface data acquired in the northern summer season and comparing it to Viking data when possible. Because the TES instrument spans the absorption bands of water vapor, water ice, dust, and measures surface temperature, all three aerosols and surface temperature can be retrieved simultaneously. This presentation will show our latest results on the water vapor, water-ice clouds seasonal and spatial distributions, as well as surface temperatures and dust distribution which may lend insight into where the water is going.

  8. Regional TEMPEST survey in north-east Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geoffrey; Street, Gregory; Kahimise, Ivor; Hutchins, David

    2015-09-01

    A regional scale TEMPEST208 airborne electromagnetic survey was flown in north-east Namibia in 2011. With broad line spacing (4 km) and a relatively low-powered, fixed-wing system, the approach was intended to provide a regional geo-electric map of the area, rather than direct detection of potential mineral deposits. A key component of the geo-electric profiling was to map the relative thickness of the Kalahari sediments, which is up to 200 m thick and obscures most of the bedrock in the area. Knowledge of the thickness would allow explorers to better predict the costs of exploration under the Kalahari. An additional aim was to determine if bedrock conductors were detectable beneath the Kalahari cover. The system succeeded in measuring the Kalahari thickness where this cover was relatively thin and moderately conductive. Limitations in depth penetration mean that it is not possible to map the thickness in the centre of the survey area, and much of the northern half of the survey area. Additional problems arise due to the variable conductivity of the Kalahari cover. Where the conductivity of the Kalahari sediment is close to that of the basement, there is no discernable contrast to delineate the base of the Kalahari. Basement conductors are visible beneath the more thinly covered areas such as in the north-west and south of the survey area. The remainder of the survey area generally comprises deeper, more conductive cover and for the most part basement conductors cannot be detected. A qualitative comparison with VTEM data shows comparable results in terms of regional mapping, and suggests that even more powerful systems such as the VTEM may not detect discrete conductors beneath the thick conductive parts of the Kalahari cover.

  9. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  10. Mars at Ls 176o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurred in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season : Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  11. Mars at Ls 53o: North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurred in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the north polar region of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  12. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds.

  13. Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids.

    PubMed

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Kays, Roland; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America. Concomitant with expansion, coyotes hybridized with wolves and some populations became more wolflike, such that coyotes in the northeast have the largest body size of any coyote population. Using a set of 3102 ancestry informative markers, we identified 60 differentially introgressed regions in 44 canines across this admixture zone. These regions are characterized by an excess of exogenous ancestry and, in northeastern coyotes, are enriched for genes affecting body size and skeletal proportions. Further, introgressed wolf-derived alleles have penetrated into Southern US coyote populations. Because no wolves currently exist in this area, these alleles are unlikely to have originated from recent hybridization. Instead, they probably originated from intraspecific gene flow or ancient admixture. We show that grey wolf and coyote admixture has far-reaching effects and, in addition to phenotypically transforming admixed populations, allows for the differential movement of alleles from different parental species to be tested in new genomic backgrounds. PMID:27106273

  14. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  15. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  16. [Satisfaction with health services in the North Bohemia Region].

    PubMed

    Masopust, V; Rajman, K

    1989-04-01

    In May 1988 in the North Bohemian region an anonymous survey was made in which 3,767 respondents participated, i.e. 0.42% of the population living in the region. The survey was focused on the satisfaction with and attitudes of patients to the health services. 73.64% of the respondents evaluated the provided services positively, 24.39% had an ambivalent attitude and 1.97% evaluated them negatively. Material shortcomings in the health services were criticized by 54.05% of the respondents, 37.75% criticized long waiting periods and 23.17% shortage of health personnel. The greatest advantage of our health services is that they are free of charge (49.91% respondents); availability (48.23%) and good interpersonal relations (21.56%). The satisfaction with the health services was expressed by 85.72% respondents verbally, 5.57% by criticism, 1.57% by a bribe and 1.43% by complaints. The most pretentious group are young patients working in industry. A positive attitude to the health services correlates with a positive evaluation of health workers. Thus the necessity arises to guard the ethical and professional standard of the health workers. PMID:2736659

  17. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  18. Proterozoic history of the midcontinent region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, M. E.; van, W. R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1986-06-01

    Age and petrographic data from the buried basement of the midcontinent region of North America, integrated with information from exposed rocks and magnetic- and gravity-anomaly maps, allow much of the Proterozoic history of the region to be assembled. The Superior craton may be traced into the subsurface on the basis of characteristic magnetic patterns and limited age data. The region between the Superior craton and the Wyoming craton to the west is evidently underlain by southerly extension of the Trans-Hudson orogen of Canada. The Penokean orogen formed on the southern margin of the Superior craton 1890 1830 Ma, but is not inferred west of northwestern Iowa in the subsurface. Between 1780 and 1720 Ma, a major orogen developed along the southern margin of the continent and is exposed in Arizona and Colorado. These rocks are volcanogenic and, for the most part, juvenile additions to the crust; they can be traced beneath the plains as far as eastern Kansas and Nebraska. Another orogen formed farther to the south about 1700 1630 Ma and is exposed in southern Arizona and New Mexico; rocks of this age and type have beer, traced as far east as central Missouri but may extend as far as central Michigan. A major geophysical feature of the midcontinent is a system of northwest-trending magnetic and gravity anomalies in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska; the origin of these is not currently understood. The tectonic history of the midcontinent between 1480 and 1340 Ma was dominated by extensional formation of two widespread granite-rhyolite terranes that evidently were formed from, and overlie, the orogenic provinces. The older, formed 1450 1480 Ma, underlies the eastern midcontinent, whereas the younger, formed 1340 1400 Ma, underlies the southwestern midcontinent. The latest Proterozoic events were the formation of the midcontinent rift system and the collisional Grenville and Llano provinces about 1100 Ma.

  19. Frictional strength of North Anatolian fault in eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pınar, Ali; Coşkun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydın; Kalafat, Doğan

    2016-04-01

    Frequency distribution of azimuth and plunges of P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms is compared with the orientation of maximum compressive stress axis for investigating the frictional strength of three fault segments of North Anatolian fault (NAF) in eastern Marmara Sea, namely Princes' Islands, Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments. In this frame, we retrieved 25 CMT solutions of events in Çınarcık basin and derived a local stress tensor incorporating 30 focal mechanisms determined by other researches. As for the Yalova-Çınarcık and Yalova-Hersek fault segments, we constructed the frequency distribution of P- and T-axes utilizing 111 and 68 events, respectively, to correlate the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations. The analysis yields low frictional strength for the Princes' Island fault segments and high frictional strength for Yalova-Çınarcık, Yalova-Hersek segments. The local stress tensor derived from the inversion of P- and T-axes of the fault plane solutions of Çınarcık basin events portrays nearly horizontal maximum compressive stress axis oriented N154E which is almost parallel to the peak of the frequency distribution of the azimuth of the P-axes. The fitting of the observed and calculated frequency distributions is attained for a low frictional coefficient which is about μ ≈ 0.1. Evidences on the weakness of NAF segments in eastern Marmara Sea region are revealed by other geophysical observations. Our results also show that the local stress field in Çınarcık basin is rotated ≈30° clockwise compared to the regional stress tensor in Marmara region derived from the large earthquakes, whereas the local stress tensor in Yalova-Çınarcık area is found to be rotated ≈30° counterclockwise. The rotation of the two local stress fields is derived in the area where NAF bifurcates into two branches overlaying large electrical conductor.

  20. 77 FR 62535 - Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Midwest Region, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Employment Group, Aerotek, and Manpower, Kalamazoo, Michigan; Hydro Aluminum North... and former workers of Hydro Aluminum North America, Inc., Kalamazoo, Michigan. The subject...

  1. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This document is a collection of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner the agricultural crop, agricultural wastes, municipal wastes and industrial wastes of North Carolina that are potential biomass energy sources.

  2. 78 FR 17427 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service North Slope Federal Subsistence.... ACTION: Notice of meeting (teleconference). SUMMARY: This notice informs the public that the North Slope... Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council will meet to review the draft Tribal...

  3. 76 FR 58569 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Forestry Smoke Management Techniques f. Enforceability of North Dakota's Measures g. Anticipated Net Effect... our proposed partial disapproval of North Dakota's regional haze SIP. In lieu of this proposed FIP, or... meet the Act's requirements concerning non- interference with programs to protect visibility in...

  4. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  5. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Pollock, Jacob F; Hicks, Alan C; Langwig, Kate E; Reynolds, D Scott; Turner, Gregory G; Butchkoski, Calvin M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease affecting hibernating bats in eastern North America that causes mass mortality and precipitous population declines in winter hibernacula. First discovered in 2006 in New York State, WNS is spreading rapidly across eastern North America and currently affects seven species. Mortality associated with WNS is causing a regional population collapse and is predicted to lead to regional extinction of the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), previously one of the most common bat species in North America. Novel diseases can have serious impacts on naïve wildlife populations, which in turn can have substantial impacts on ecosystem integrity. PMID:20689016

  6. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, J. L.; Jeffries, D. S.; Lükewille, A.; Clair, T. A.; Dillon, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J. S.; Kellogg, J. H.; Kemp, A.; Mannio, J.; Monteith, D. T.; Murdoch, P. S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorf, A.; Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Stainton, M. P.; Traaen, T.; van Dam, H.; Webster, K. E.; Wieting, J.; Wilander, A.

    1999-10-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere (`acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain; all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  7. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoddard, J.L.; Jeffries, D.S.; Lukewille, A.; Clair, T.A.; Dillon, P.J.; Driscoll, C.T.; Forsius, M.; Johannessen, M.; Kahl, J.S.; Kellogg, J.H.; Kemp, A.; Mannlo, J.; Monteith, D.T.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Patrick, S.; Rebsdorl, A.; Skjelkvale, B.L.; Stainton, M.P.; Traaen, T.; Van Dam, H.; Webster, K.E.; Wleting, J.; Wllander, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rates of acidic deposition from the atmosphere ('acid rain') have decreased throughout the 1980s and 1990s across large portions of North America and Europe. Many recent studies have attributed observed reversals in surface-water acidification at national and regional scales to the declining deposition. To test whether emissions regulations have led to widespread recovery in surface-water chemistry, we analysed regional trends between 1980 and 1995 in indicators of acidification (sulphate, nitrate and base-cation concentrations, and measured (Gran) alkalinity) for 205 lakes and streams in eight regions of North America and Europe. Dramatic differences in trend direction and strength for the two decades are apparent. In concordance with general temporal trends in acidic deposition, lake and stream sulphate concentrations decreased in all regions with the exception of Great Britain all but one of these regions exhibited stronger downward trends in the 1990s than in the 1980s. In contrast, regional declines in lake and stream nitrate concentrations were rare and, when detected, were very small. Recovery in alkalinity, expected wherever strong regional declines in sulphate concentrations have occurred, was observed in all regions of Europe, especially in the 1990s, but in only one region (of five) in North America. We attribute the lack of recovery in three regions (south/central Ontario, the Adirondack/Catskill mountains and midwestern North America) to strong regional declines in base-cation concentrations that exceed the decreases in sulphate concentrations.

  8. Pliocene planktic foraminifer census data from the North Atlantic region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    PRISM Project Members

    1996-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of the climatic and oceanographic conditions of the Pliocene known as PRISM (Pliocene Research, Interpretation, and Synoptic Mapping). One of the major elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages to estimate seasurface temperatures and identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses (Dowsett, 1991; Dowsett and Poore, 1991; Dowsett et al., 1992; Dowsett et al., 1994). We have analyzed more than 900 samples from 19 core sites in the North Atlantic Basin (Fig. 1) resulting in a large volume of raw census data. These data are presented here together to facilitate comparison of North Atlantic faunal assemblages. Latitude, longitude, water depth, source of faunal data and source of data used to construct age model (or publication from which age model was taken) are provided for each locality in Table 1. All ages refer to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of Berggren et al. (1985). Counts of species tabulated in each sample are given in Tables 2-20. DSDP and ODP sample designations are abbreviated in Tables 2-20 as core-section, depth within section in centimeters (eg. 10-5, 34 = core 10, section 5, 34 cm below top of section 5).

  9. Social Research in North American Moisture-Deficient Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John W., Ed.

    Five papers presented at the 9th symposium held during the 42nd annual meeting of the Southwestern and Rocky Mountain Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science are: (1) "Do We Need a Sociology of Arid Regions"?; (2) "Deficit Creating Influences for Role Performance and Status Acquisition in Sparsely Populated Regions of…

  10. Holocene deposits in the Mangyshlak Peninsula, North Caspian Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrodnykh, Yu. P.; Deliya, S. V.; Romanyuk, B. F.; Fedorov, V. I.; Sorokin, V. M.; Luksha, V. L.

    2014-07-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the data of high-precision seismoacoustic profiling, drilling and sampling of deposits using seabed corers, biostratigraphic studies, and radiocarbon age data was performed for the first time for Mangyshlak sediments in several bottom sites of the North Caspian. It was found that the Mangyshlak sediments comprise numerous linearly stretched depressions of 5-10 m in depth (morphologically similar to modern substeppe ilmen areas in the Volga River delta), which are covered by the Novocaspian sedimentary cover, and river incisions (among them the largest Volga River valley). In addition, the Mangyshlak sediments comprise the deltaic alluvial fans of different sizes along the shelf zone of the North Caspian. Analysis of mollusks and biogenic remains indicates that accumulation of the Mangyshlak sediments occurred in freshwater and slightly salty water environments under various hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions. According to radiocarbon dating of organic matter, the Mangyshlak sediments formed during sea regression in the range of 10-8 ka (isotopic age) or 11.5-8.5 ka (calendar age). Several types of sediments are distinguished: clayey-carbonate sediments, enriched with organic matter up to the formation of sapropel and peat, accumulated at the lowest sea level; weakly calcareous silty-clayey silts, formed during the subsequent intense filling of paleodepressions with terrigenous material. The features of the mineral composition of sediments are as follows: polymineral composition of clayey material with a high proportion of hydromica and disordered mixed-layered formations, a high content of minerals of the epidote group, amphiboles, and other accessory minerals. All of this indicates a genetic relationship between the Mangyshlak sediments and the Volga terrigenous material.

  11. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes.

  12. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes. PMID

  13. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  14. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  15. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  16. MRO HiRISE Observations of Recent Phenomena in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Sutton, S.; HiRISE Science Team

    2016-09-01

    HiRISE and other MRO data show evidence for multiple types of ongoing activity in the north polar region, consistent with the apparent youth of the residual cap surface and highlighting the importance of continued monitoring of the polar regions.

  17. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  18. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  19. Alaska North Slope regional gas hydrate production modeling forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, S.J.; Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Hancock, S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of gas hydrate development scenarios were created to assess the range of outcomes predicted for the possible development of the "Eileen" gas hydrate accumulation, North Slope, Alaska. Production forecasts for the "reference case" were built using the 2002 Mallik production tests, mechanistic simulation, and geologic studies conducted by the US Geological Survey. Three additional scenarios were considered: A "downside-scenario" which fails to identify viable production, an "upside-scenario" describes results that are better than expected. To capture the full range of possible outcomes and balance the downside case, an "extreme upside scenario" assumes each well is exceptionally productive.Starting with a representative type-well simulation forecasts, field development timing is applied and the sum of individual well forecasts creating the field-wide production forecast. This technique is commonly used to schedule large-scale resource plays where drilling schedules are complex and production forecasts must account for many changing parameters. The complementary forecasts of rig count, capital investment, and cash flow can be used in a pre-appraisal assessment of potential commercial viability.Since no significant gas sales are currently possible on the North Slope of Alaska, typical parameters were used to create downside, reference, and upside case forecasts that predict from 0 to 71??BM3 (2.5??tcf) of gas may be produced in 20 years and nearly 283??BM3 (10??tcf) ultimate recovery after 100 years.Outlining a range of possible outcomes enables decision makers to visualize the pace and milestones that will be required to evaluate gas hydrate resource development in the Eileen accumulation. Critical values of peak production rate, time to meaningful production volumes, and investments required to rule out a downside case are provided. Upside cases identify potential if both depressurization and thermal stimulation yield positive results. An "extreme upside

  20. Two centuries of coherent decadal climate variability across the Pacific North American region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.; Villaescusa, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The decadal variability of the Pacific Ocean and North American hydroclimate are subjects of immediate concern for society, yet the length of the instrumental record limits full mechanistic understanding of this variability. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved coral oxygen isotopic record from Clarion Island (18°N, 115°W), a sampling a subtropical region that is strongly influenced by the decadal-scale fluctuations of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and a region that serves as a critical locus for the communication of climate anomalies with the tropics. This Mexican Pacific coral record is highly correlated to coral records from the central tropical Pacific and tree ring records from western North America. Significant changes in the amplitude of oceanic decadal variability in the early nineteenth century are mirrored in the drought reconstructions in western North America. The spatial manifestation of this relationship was relatively invariant, despite notable changes in the climatic mean state.

  1. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  2. Postglacial eruptive history of the Askja region, North Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Margaret E.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; de Joux, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Temporal variations in magma discharge rates on Iceland's neovolcanic rift zones have been associated with deglaciation. We have used tephrochronological and stratigraphic dating of 175 separate eruptive units to estimate volumetric output and reconstruct eruption rates in the Askja region over the postglacial period. We have identified 14 tephra layers that can be used as time marker horizons in the near vicinity of Askja, including the Vatnaöldur (871 ± 2 AD) tephra which has not previously been reported in surface cover profiles in this region. Our improved tephrochronological resolution indicates that, over the past c. 1,500 years, Askja has been significantly more active than has previously been recognised. A minimum of 39 km3 of basaltic magma has been erupted at Askja since the area became ice-free at around 10.3 ka. The absence of the 7.2 ka Hekla 5 tephra from the Askja region suggests that all postglacial lavas now exposed at the surface are younger than 7.2 ka. Time-averaged magma discharge rates at Askja were highest between 7.2 and 4.3 ka. However, the available tephrochronological resolution is not sufficient to resolve any peak in volcanic activity following deglaciation.

  3. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  4. The food of Near East, North West and Western African regions.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Among the countries that can be classified as Near East Africa, North West Africa, and Western Africa, there is a great diversity of foods and dietary patterns. Prevalence of undernourishment as defined by FAO using dietary energy supply data, varies dramatically among these countries, with Tunisia in the lowest prevalence category (<2.5%), and Sierra Leone in the highest prevalence category (>35%). Throughout the 1960's, the dietary energy supply of North West African and Western African countries was similar. However, since the 1970s a great and consistent improvement has been seen in North and North West African countries. Both the proportion and number of undernourished in North Africa is now very similar to that of North America. Oil use, energy from fat, and protein from plant versus animal sources account for a large part of the food pattern differences between countries in these regions. Using Tunisia and Sierra Leone as examples again, dietary diversity as measured by the percentage of energy from foods other than starchy staples, is about 50% in the former, while in the latter, it is only 36%. Fatty fruits such as olives, cocoa and palm fruit have a special role in both the diet and the economies of the region. PMID:14505995

  5. The food of Near East, North West and Western African regions.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Among the countries that can be classified as Near East Africa, North West Africa, and Western Africa, there is a great diversity of foods and dietary patterns. Prevalence of undernourishment as defined by FAO using dietary energy supply data, varies dramatically among these countries, with Tunisia in the lowest prevalence category (<2.5%), and Sierra Leone in the highest prevalence category (>35%). Throughout the 1960's, the dietary energy supply of North West African and Western African countries was similar. However, since the 1970s a great and consistent improvement has been seen in North and North West African countries. Both the proportion and number of undernourished in North Africa is now very similar to that of North America. Oil use, energy from fat, and protein from plant versus animal sources account for a large part of the food pattern differences between countries in these regions. Using Tunisia and Sierra Leone as examples again, dietary diversity as measured by the percentage of energy from foods other than starchy staples, is about 50% in the former, while in the latter, it is only 36%. Fatty fruits such as olives, cocoa and palm fruit have a special role in both the diet and the economies of the region.

  6. Simulated cold events in the northern North Atlantic during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Chamarro, Eduardo; Zanchettin, Davide; Lohmann, Katja; Jungclaus, Johann

    2014-05-01

    Paleoceanographic data show large inter-decadal cold excursions in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western subpolar gyre region and north of Iceland throughout the last millennium. A series of such events could have contributed to demise the Norse settlements over Greenland during the 13th to the 15th century due to associated deteriorating environmental conditions in the region. However, spatial extent, attribution and mechanism(s) of these cold events are not known. In this contribution, we use climate model simulations to clarify the role of the ocean and of coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in triggering these cold events, and to assess whether they can be explained by internal climate variability alone. Specifically, we investigate the North Atlantic-Arctic climate variability in a 1000-year control run describing an unperturbed pre-industrial climate, and in a 3-member ensemble of full-forcing transient simulations of the last millennium. Simulations are performed with the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model for paleo-applications. In the control and transient simulations, we identified cold events of similar amplitude and duration to the reconstructed data. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of simulated cold events are similar in both simulation types. In the transient runs, furthermore, they do not robustly coincide with periods of strong external forcing (e.g. of major volcanic eruptions). We therefore conclude that such events can emerge because of internally-generated regional climate variability alone. Local ocean-atmosphere coupled processes in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre region appear as key part of the mechanism of simulated cold events. In particular, they are typically associated with the onset of prolonged positive sea-level pressure anomalies over the North Atlantic and associated weaker and south-eastward displaced subpolar gyre. The salt transport reduction by the Irminger Current together with an intensification of the

  7. Quaternary North Atlantic Surface Paleoceanography in Regions of Potential Deep-water Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    At the time scale of the Quaternary climate cycles, the sites of formation of North Atlantic Deep Water are not known. The interglacial extreme is presumably exemplified by the modern regions; the Norwegian, Greenland and Labrador Seas. During the major glacial-age coolings in the North Atlantic, the sites may have shifted well to the south, perhaps as far as the limit of the polar front at 40 to 50 N. Still other sites may have been important during intermediate climatic conditions. Because of the close coupling of high-latitude surface waters to North Atlantic Deep Water in the modern ocean, the history of sea-surface temperature (SST) oscillations across the high-latitude North Atlantic is relevant to an understanding of deep-water formation on the longer time scales.

  8. On the variation of regional CO2 exchange over temperate and boreal North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Peylin, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Law, Rachel M.; Patra, Prabir K.; Rayner, Peter J.; Röedenbeck, Christian; Krol, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    net carbon exchange time series spanning two decades for six North American regions are analyzed to examine long-term trends and relationships to temperature and precipitation variations. Results reveal intensification of carbon uptake in eastern boreal North America (0.1 PgC/decade) and the Midwest United States (0.08 PgC/decade). Seasonal cross-correlation analysis shows a significant relationship between net carbon exchange and temperature/precipitation anomalies during the western United States growing season with warmer, dryer conditions leading reduced carbon uptake. This relationship is consistent with "global change-type drought" dynamics which drive increased vegetation mortality, increases in dry woody material, and increased wildfire occurrence. This finding supports the contention that future climate change may increase carbon loss in this region. Similarly, higher temperatures and reduced precipitation are accompanied by decreased net carbon uptake in the Midwestern United States toward the end of the growing season. Additionally, intensified net carbon uptake during the eastern boreal North America growing season is led by increased precipitation anomalies in the previous year, suggesting the influence of "climate memory" carried by regional snowmelt water. The two regions of boreal North America exhibit opposing seasonal carbon-temperature relationships with the eastern half experiencing a net carbon loss with near coincident increases in temperature and the western half showing increased net carbon uptake. The carbon response in the boreal west region lags the temperature anomalies by roughly 6 months. This opposing carbon-temperature relationship in boreal North America may be a combination of different dominant vegetation types, the amount and timing of snowfall, and temperature anomaly differences across boreal North America.

  9. Regional aridity in North America during the middle Holocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Anderson, R.Y.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Increased aridity throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain region during the middle Holocene has been documented from pollen records, aeolian proxy variables in lake cores, and active sand dune migration. Varve calibration provided by a continuously varved record of the Holocene from a core from Elk Lake, northwestern Minnesota, shows that the influx of aeolian elastic material increased beginning about 8 ka and ended about 3.8 ka, with peak aeolian activity at about 6 ka. If aeolian influx to Elk Lake corresponds in time to aeolian influx in other lakes and to maximum dune activity in Minnesota dune fields, then the varve calibration in Elk Lake provides precise time calibration of periods of peak aeolian activity in Minnesota. Palaeowind studies from the Minnesota dune fields show that the dominant wind direction when the dunes were active was from the northwest, the same as the dominant wind direction in dune fields throughout the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains. If the mid-Holocene aeolian activity in Minnesota was driven by an increase in westerly zonal winds, then the varve calibration can be extended to more precisely determine the timing of activity of dunes over a much broader area. We suggest that an increase in the westerly zonal wind field might have a solar-geomagnetic cause.

  10. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  11. Tracking regional and global teleconnections recorded by western North American speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Kelley, Neil P.

    2016-10-01

    Speleothem proxy records are useful for interrogating past climates in the low and mid-latitudes given their ability to provide continuous, high-resolution, and long-lived records that can be dated with high precision. Several speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America have recently been developed that highlight the importance of this archive in documenting past changes in atmospheric circulation. Taken individually, these records hint at teleconnections between western North American hydroclimate and climate changes in the high northern latitudes and tropics. However, there has been no systematic investigation of global climate teleconnections to this region that draws upon the body of North American speleothem records as a whole. Here we review the dominant controls on precipitation oxygen isotopes across the region, and conduct statistical comparisons and network visualizations of high-resolution speleothem oxygen isotope records from western North America to investigate the regional response to pronounced climate changes of the last deglaciation and to determine the pattern of global teleconnections to this region. We find that most western North American speleothem oxygen isotope records demonstrate a robust and consistent response to the events of the last deglaciation, despite differing controls on the oxygen isotope ratio of precipitation across the region. One record that receives a strong influence from the Gulf of Mexico exhibits a contrasting pattern in oxygen isotopes relative to most of the other records, which are dominated by westerly storms generated in the Pacific. During the studied interval, major shifts in Western North American speleothem records appear broadly synchronous at least within the uncertainty of age models. We also find strong statistical linkages between western North American speleothem records and speleothem records of Asian monsoon variability and other records from regions directly influenced by movement of

  12. The evolution of heat anomalies in a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM and the implications for North Atlantic decadal climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Old, C.; Haines, K.

    2003-04-01

    Observational records show that over pentadal and decadal timescales, heat anomalies form and decay in the North Atlantic Ocean. Due to the oceans capacity to store heat, long-term heat anomalies may feedback into the atmosphere through surface-flux processes producing a change in the climatic pattern. Similarly, changes in climate may change the oceans heat content, which can potentially alter the large-scale thermohaline circulation patterns. Hence an understanding of the evolution of oceanic heat anomalies will help determine the role of ocean-atmosphere thermal coupling in decadal scale climate variability. Gösta Walin (Tellus, 1982) developed a novel method for studying the thermal processes within a closed ocean basin through the sorting of water volumes into temperature classes. This allows the transformation rates of water between temperature classes due to advection in and out of the region, surface forcing and internal processes (mixing and diffusion) to be quantified independently. We apply this method to 100 years of monthly averaged data taken from the 1000-year control run of the Hadley Centres coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model, HADCM3. The closed basin formed by the North Atlantic / Arctic Oceans extending from the Equator to the North Pole, with the Artic Ocean being bound by the Bering Strait, forms the transformation basin studied. The results presented are interpreted in terms of the filtered anomalous transformations about the 100-year mean transformations. It will be shown that the model produces significant anomalous transformations over decadal time-scales, and that one of the key factors in the anomalous transformations is the variation in the position of the isotherm outcroppings at the sea-surface, in contrast with the variations in the air-sea fluxes. These findings will be discussed in terms of the causes of decadal climate variability.

  13. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  14. Interannual Comparison of Water Vapor in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Hale, A. S.; Bass, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to better understand the current climate of Mars, we seek to understand atmospheric water in the north polar region. Our approach is to examine the water transport and cycling issues within the north polar region and in/out of the region on seasonal and annual timescales. Viking Mars Atmospheric Water Detector (MAWD) data showed that water vapor increased as the northern summer season progressed and temperatures increased, and that vapor appeared to be transported southward . However, there has been uncertainty about the amount of water cycling in and out of the north polar region, as evidenced by residual polar cap visible brightness changes between one Martian year (Mariner 9 data) and a subsequent year (Viking data). These changes were originally thought to be interannual variations in the amount of frost sublimed based on global dust storm activity . However, Viking thermal and imaging data were re-examined and it was found that 14-35 pr m of water -ice appeared to be deposited on the cap later in the summer season, indicating that some water may be retained and redistributed within the polar cap region. This late summer deposition could be due to adsorption directly onto the cap surface or due to snowfall. We seek to understand what happens to the water on seasonal and interannual timescales. We address these issues by examining water vapor in the north polar region of Mars during the north spring and summer period from MGS TES data and by comparing these results to the Viking MAWD results.

  15. Ar-Ar Ages of Detrital Hornblendes from Glacial Sediments of the North Sea Trough Mouth Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; Haflidason, H.; Sejrup, H. P.

    2007-12-01

    Determining the relative timing of major iceberg calving from different ice sheet margins around the North Atlantic remains an important goal that will lead to a better understanding of causes and consequences of rapid climate variability during the last glacial period. Characterization of the composition of potential contributors is a necessary step towards this goal. The North Sea trough mouth fan is one of the largest glaciogenic debris flow complexes in the North Atlantic/Arctic region, with an approximate area of 142,000 square km (King et al., 1998, Marine Geology v. 152, pp. 217-246; Nygard et al., 2007, Geology, pp. 395-398). The large ice stream trough crosses the shelf along the southern margin of Norway. The crystalline rocks along the southern margin of Norway are Grenville (approximately 1 Ga old orogen). We undertook a study of the Ar-Ar age populations of individual detrital hornblende grains from a sediment sample of the glacigenic debris lobe created during the last phases of the last glacial maximum from the North Sea trough mouth fan. The goal is to test the hypothesis that the ice stream that fed this fan is the source of abundant Grenville age grains found on Bjorn drift site ODP984, at times when North American Grenville sources are not found in the North Atlantic ice rafted detritus belt (Hemming et al., 2005, AGU Spring meeting, PP23A-04). Hornblende grains from North Sea TMF core NH071-B01\\SC1 (1) (63.24N, 3.36E, 1049m) have a dominant age population of Grenville (921 Ma, 19 of 48 grains) with subordinate populations of 1108 Ma (n=3) and 1779 Ma (n=4). Accordingly they lend support to the hypothesis that this ice stream could be the source of IRD on the Bjorn drift. These results could additionally shed light on the pathways of fine grain sediment transport to the Bjorn drift which would contribute a better understanding of sediment processes in the region. For example, the provenance implied for the IRD by the Ar-Ar hornblende ages is

  16. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  17. "Racing to the Top" to Prepare Turnaround Principals in North Carolina: Homegrown Regional Leadership Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Race to the Top (RttT) grant earmarked approximately $17.5 million to "increase the number of principals qualified to lead transformational change in low-performing schools in both rural and urban areas" (NCDPI, 2010, p.10). To accomplish this, the state established three Regional Leadership Academies (RLAs)…

  18. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia perfusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U.S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U.S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks

  19. Genetic discontinuity among regional populations of Lophelia pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Ross, S.W.; Nizinski, M.S.; Brooke, S.; Jarnegren, J.; Waller, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree to which populations are connected through larval dispersal is imperative to effective management, yet little is known about larval dispersal ability or population connectivity in Lophelia pertusa, the dominant framework-forming coral on the continental slope in the North Atlantic Ocean. Using nine microsatellite DNA markers, we assessed the spatial scale and pattern of genetic connectivity across a large portion of the range of L. pertusa in the North Atlantic Ocean. A Bayesian modeling approach found four distinct genetic groupings corresponding to ocean regions: Gulf of Mexico, coastal southeastern U. S., New England Seamounts, and eastern North Atlantic Ocean. An isolation-by-distance pattern was supported across the study area. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation were greatest with the deepest populations, the New England Seamounts (average FST = 0.156). Differentiation was intermediate with the eastern North Atlantic populations (FST = 0.085), and smallest between southeastern U. S. and Gulf of Mexico populations (FST = 0.019), with evidence of admixture off the southeastern Florida peninsula. Connectivity across larger geographic distances within regions suggests that some larvae are broadly dispersed. Heterozygote deficiencies were detected within the majority of localities suggesting deviation from random mating. Gene flow between ocean regions appears restricted, thus, the most effective management scheme for L. pertusa involves regional reserve networks. ?? 2011 US Government.

  20. Groundwater recharge during spring thaw in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snowmelt collects in landscape depressions and appears to replenish groundwater in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America while the soil is frozen. Little is known, however, about the physical state of the soil at the time of recharge. Depth of snow, surface water, water table, and frozen soil ...

  1. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  2. Procedures for the estimation of regional scale atmospheric emissions—An example from the North West Region of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, S. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Watson, A. F. R.; Conlan, D. E.

    This paper considers the value of applying an alternative pro rata methodology to the estimation of atmospheric emissions from a given regional or local area. Such investigations into less time and resource intensive means of providing estimates in comparison to traditional methods are important due to the potential role of new methods in the development of air quality management plans. A pro rata approach is used here to estimate emissions of SO 2, NO x, CO, CO 2, VOCs and black smoke from all sources and Pb from transportation for the North West region of England. This method has the advantage of using readily available data as well as being an easily repeatable procedure which provides a good indication of emissions to be expected from a particular geographical region. This can then provide the impetus for further emission studies and ultimately a regional/local air quality management plan. Results suggest that between 1987 and 1991 trends in the emissions of the pollutants considered have been less favourable in the North West region than in the nation as a whole.

  3. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Phase I Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Arritt, R.; Biner, S.; Bukovsky, Melissa; McGinnis, Seth; Sain, Steve; Caya, Daniel; Correia Jr., James; Flory, Dave; Gutowski, William; Takle, Gene; Jones, Richard; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Moufouma-Okia, Wilfran; McDaniel, Larry; Nunes, A.; Qian, Yun; Roads, J.; Sloan, Lisa; Snyder, Mark A.

    2012-09-20

    The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program is an international effort designed to systematically investigate the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and produce high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models (RCMs) nested within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, with a common domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The program also includes an evaluation component (Phase I) wherein the participating RCMs are nested within 25 years of NCEP/DOE global reanalysis II. The grid spacing of the RCM simulations is 50 km.

  4. Regional Climate Service in Northern Germany -The North German Climate Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, I.; Von Storch, H.

    2012-12-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  5. Mariner 9 observations of the surface of Mars in the north polar region.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Malin, M. C.; Murray, B. C.; Cutts, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the Mariner 9 extended mission the recession of the north polar ice caps was monitored for 130 days. The edge of the cap displayed a peculiar polygonal outline during most of this period. Regional topographic control is suggested as the most likely cause of the polygonality. Whereas densely cratered terrain dominates the south polar region, moderately cratered plains underlie the polar deposits in the north polar region. The mottled cratered plains have been mantled by light deposits located in annular rings south of 70 N. The erosional boundaries between these deposits and the subjacent cratered plains are gradational, show no local topographic relief, and display a spiral serrated circumpolar pattern suggesting eolian erosion. Smooth plains and 'etch-pitted' plains underlie the central polar layered deposits in both polar regions. In addition, these plains have one other morphological variant in the north. Here they display a pattern of very coherent ripple-like waveforms varying in wavelength from several hundred meters to a few kilometers.

  6. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Situated in northwestern Europe, the North Sea region is under influence of air masses from subtropical to arctic origin, and thus exhibits significant natural climate variability. As the land areas surrounding the North Sea are densely populated, climate change is an important issue in terms of e.g. coastal protection, fishery and trade. This study is part of the NOSCCA initiative (North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment) and presents observed variability and changes in atmospheric parameters during the last roughly 200 years. Circulation patterns show considerable decadal variability. In recent decades, a northward shift of storm tracks and increased cyclonic activity has been observed. There is also an indication of increased persistence of weather types. The wind climate is dominated by large multidecadal variability, and no robust long-term trends can be identified in the available datasets. There is a clear positive trend in near-surface temperatures, in particular during spring and winter. Over the region as a whole, no clear long-term precipitation trends are visible, although regional indications exist for an increased risk of extreme precipitation events.

  7. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  8. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  9. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  10. North American Carbon Project (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, Deborah; Post, W. M.; Wei, Yaxing; Michalak, A. M.; West, Tristram O.; Jacobson, Andy; Baker, Ian; Chen, Jing Ming; Davis, K. J.; Hayes, D. J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Jain, Atul K.; Liu, S.; McGuire, A. David; Neilson, R. P.; Potter, Christopher; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David; Raczka, B. M.; Tian, Hanqin; Thornton, P.; Tomelleri, E.; Viovy, N.; Xiao, J.; Yuan, Wenping; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, M.; Cook, R. B.

    2012-05-10

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000 to 2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America.

  11. Intermediate water circulation in the North Pacific subarctic and northern subtropical regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Yasuda, Ichiro

    2003-11-01

    The intermediate water circulation in the North Pacific subarctic and northern subtropical regions is investigated through inverse analysis, focusing on the volume and heat transports from the subtropical to the subarctic regions. The inverse method we adopted is a hybrid method of β-spiral and box inverse methods which permits diapycnal flux. The isopycnal velocities estimated through the inverse analysis are mostly consistent with the oxygen distribution and support the hypothesis that warm and saline intermediate water is transported from the transition domain east of Japan to the northern Gulf of Alaska. The northward volume transport across 46°N between 158°E and 130°W is estimated to be -0.2 to 5.3 Sv in the density range of 26.7-27.2σθ. The upward diapycnal transports in the open subarctic North Pacific (region N) across 26.7 and 27.2σθ isopycnal surfaces are estimated to be 0.2 to 1.5 Sv and -0.2 to 0.9 Sv, respectively. Part of the water transported upward across 26.7σθ might outcrop and be carried to the subtropical region by the southward Ekman drift. Through the examination of heat balance of the intermediate layer in the subarctic region, it is suggested quantitatively that the intermediate heat transport from the south plays an essential role in maintaining the heat of the mesothermal waters in the subarctic region.

  12. Regional patterns in proportion of bird species detected in the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Boulinier, T.; Flather, C.H.; Kendall, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Counts from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) underestimate species richness. We use capture-recapture methods to estimate species richness from BBS count data collected in 1996 and show that detection probabilities demonstrate clear regional patterns. Capture-recapture methods should be used to estimate species richness from count data, and failure to use estimation procedures for species richness could result in biased estimates of spatial change in species richness.

  13. Prevalence Survey of Selected Bovine Pathogens in Water Buffaloes in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease. PMID:24563780

  14. Seasonal Storminess in the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.; Walsh, J. E.; Partain, J.; Gottschalck, J.; Marra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Annually, extra-tropical cyclones present a high impact natural hazard to the North Pacific, Bering Sea, and Alaskan regions. In these regions, extensive subsistence and commercial fishing, new oil and gas field development, tourism, growing interest in and exploitation of new commercial shipping potential, and increasing military and Coast Guard activity, all represent potential parties impacted by storms in these waters. It is of interest to many parties to begin developing capacity to provide some indication of storm activity at a monthly- to seasonal-outlook (30 to 90 days) timeframe. Using storm track data from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center for the North Pacific and Alaskan region, an experimental seasonal storminess outlook product, using eigen-based methods similar to the operational seasonal temperature and precipitation products currently produced at NOAA CPC, has been created and tested in hindcast mode using predicted states of ENSO, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). A sample of the seasonal storminess outlook product will be shown along with a discussion of the utility of individual teleconnection patterns in the generation of the product.

  15. Prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Dos Santos, Priscilla Nunes; de Santana Castro, Gustavo Nunes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Barbosa, José Diomedes

    2014-01-01

    Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.

  16. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  17. Evolution of magmatic and hydrothermal activity in the western Arctic and North Atlantic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokhtin, N. O.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Novikov, G. V.; Kozlov, E. E.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Nikiforov, S. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere in the Arctic region during the Phaneorozic and its polyphase lithotectonic reorganization. Spatiotemporal patterns of the mosaic junction of lithospheric plates of different age are presented for the Caledonian-Hercynian stage and for the Cenozoic evolution of the North Atlantic and Arctic oceanic basins. Special attention is given to the intersections of fault systems with different kinematics, which control the manifestation of peculiar magmatism and the formation of numerous mineral deposits. It is shown that the hydrothermal activity of the region is related to the ocean opening in the Eocene and is confined to the mid-ocean ridge.

  18. Moving from a regional to a continental perspective of Phragmites australis invasion in North America

    PubMed Central

    Kettenring, Karin M.; de Blois, Sylvie; Hauber, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We use a regional comparison of Phragmites australis (common reed) subsp. americanus, P. australis subsp. berlandieri and introduced P. australis (possibly five sublineages) in the Chesapeake Bay, the St Lawrence River, Utah and the Gulf Coast to inform a North American perspective on P. australis invasion patterns, drivers, impacts and research needs. Findings and research needs Our regional assessments reveal substantial diversity within and between the three main lineages of P. australis in terms of mode of reproduction and the types of environment occupied. For introduced P. australis, the timing of introduction also differed between the regions. Nevertheless, a common finding in these regions reinforces the notion that introduced P. australis is opportunistic and thrives in disturbed habitats. Thus, we expect to see substantial expansion of introduced P. australis with increasing anthropogenic disturbances in each of these regions. Although there have been some studies documenting the negative impacts of introduced P. australis, it also plays a beneficial role in some regions, and in some cases, the purported negative impacts are unproven. There is also a broader need to clarify the genetic and ecological relationships between the different introduced sublineages observed in North America, and their relative competitive ability and potential for admixture. This may be done through regional studies that use similar methodologies and share results to uncover common patterns and processes. To our knowledge, such studies have not been performed on P. australis in spite of the broad attention given to this species. Such research could advance theoretical knowledge on biological invasion by helping to determine the extent to which the patterns observed can be generalized or are sublineage specific or region specific. Synthesis Given what appears to be sometimes idiosyncratic invasion patterns when interpreted in isolation in the regions that we analysed, it may

  19. Size Scaling in Western North Atlantic Loggerhead Turtles Permits Extrapolation between Regions, but Not Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Marn, Nina; Klanjscek, Tin; Stokes, Lesley; Jusup, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sea turtles face threats globally and are protected by national and international laws. Allometry and scaling models greatly aid sea turtle conservation and research, and help to better understand the biology of sea turtles. Scaling, however, may differ between regions and/or life stages. We analyze differences between (i) two different regional subsets and (ii) three different life stage subsets of the western North Atlantic loggerhead turtles by comparing the relative growth of body width and depth in relation to body length, and discuss the implications. Results and Discussion Results suggest that the differences between scaling relationships of different regional subsets are negligible, and models fitted on data from one region of the western North Atlantic can safely be used on data for the same life stage from another North Atlantic region. On the other hand, using models fitted on data for one life stage to describe other life stages is not recommended if accuracy is of paramount importance. In particular, young loggerhead turtles that have not recruited to neritic habitats should be studied and modeled separately whenever practical, while neritic juveniles and adults can be modeled together as one group. Even though morphometric scaling varies among life stages, a common model for all life stages can be used as a general description of scaling, and assuming isometric growth as a simplification is justified. In addition to linear models traditionally used for scaling on log-log axes, we test the performance of a saturating (curvilinear) model. The saturating model is statistically preferred in some cases, but the accuracy gained by the saturating model is marginal. PMID:26629702

  20. Thermal and albedo mapping of the polar regions of Mars using Viking thermal mapper observations: 1. North polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Bachman, Jennifer E.; Keegan, Kenneth D.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first maps of the apparent thermal inertia and albedo of the north polar region of Mars. The observations used to create these maps were acquired by the infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instruments on the two Viking orbiters over a 50-day period in 1978 during the Martian early northern summer season. The maps cover the region from 60 deg N to the north pole at a spatial resolution of 1/2 deg of latitude. The analysis and interpretation of these maps is aided by the results of a one-dimensional radiative convective model, which is used to calculate diurnal variations in surface and atmospheric temperatures, and brightness temperatures at the top of the atmospphere for a wide range of assumptions concerning aerosol optical properties and aerosol optical depths. The results of these calculations show that the effects of the Martian atmosphere on remote determinations of surface thermal inertia are more significant than have been indicated in previous studies. The maps of apparent thermal inertia and albedo show a great deal of spatial structure that is well correlated with surface features.

  1. Regional Stratigraphy and Petroleum Systems of the Michigan Basin, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Although more than 100 years of research have gone into deciphering the stratigraphy of the Michigan basin of North America, it remains a challenge to visualize the basin stratigraphy on a regional scale and to describe stratigraphic relations within the basin. Similar difficulties exist for visualizing and describing the regional distribution of petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks. This publication addresses these difficulties by combining data on Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Michigan basin. The areal extent of this structural basin is presented along with data in eight schematic chronostratigraphic sections arranged from north to south, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections. The stratigraphic data are modified from American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) (1984), Johnson and others (1992), Sanford (1993), and Cross (1998), and the time scale is taken from Harland and others (1990). Informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1984) are shown in parentheses. Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also are included, as well as the locations of major petroleum source rocks and major petroleum plays. The stratigraphic units are colored according to predominant lithology, in order to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the Michigan basin. For purposes of comparison, schematic depictions of stratigraphy and interpreted events in the Michigan basin and adjacent Appalachian basin are shown. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  2. Summer temperatures across nothern North America: Regional reconstructions from 1760 using tree-ring densities

    SciTech Connect

    Briffa, K.R.; Jones, P.D.; Schweingruber, F.H.

    1994-12-20

    Using maximum latewood density data from a network of coniferous trees, annually resolved series of average summer half-year (April-September) temperatures have been reconstructed for three regions of North America; Alaska and the Yukon (ALAYUK), the Mackenzie valley (MACKVA), and Quebec and Labrador (QUEBLA). The reconstructions primarily express temperature variability on interannual-to-decadal timescales and extend over the period from AD 1760. These reconstructions represent an extension of the mean climate history for these regions of over 100 years. The ALAYUK series shows relatively warm summers dominating the 1770s and 1820s. The 1760s, 1810s, 1860s, and 1890s were cold; 1810 was the coldest summer over the whole region, though it was very cold in 1783 in the extreme northwest. In MACKVA the 1780s and 1790s were relatively warm, while the 1760s and 1810s were particularly cool. The summers of 1816 and 1817 were extremely cold. The dates of the extreme cold summers in each series emphasize the strong volcanic influence on extreme high-latitude temperatures. However, the reconstructions also highlight the large regional differences in the magnitude of this influence. The severity and spatial extent of severe conditions across western North America in the summer of 1810 supports earlier hypotheses of a major volcanic eruption in 1809 for which there is no historical evidence. 40 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. US regional tornado outbreaks and their links to spring ENSO phases and North Atlantic SST variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ki; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Enfield, David B.; Weaver, Scott J.; Wang, Chunzai; Atlas, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Recent violent and widespread tornado outbreaks in the US, such as occurred in the spring of 2011, have caused devastating societal impact with significant loss of life and property. At present, our capacity to predict US tornado and other severe weather risk does not extend beyond seven days. In an effort to advance our capability for developing a skillful long-range outlook for US tornado outbreaks, here we investigate the spring probability patterns of US regional tornado outbreaks during 1950-2014. We show that the four dominant springtime El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases (persistent versus early-terminating El Niño and resurgent versus transitioning La Niña) and the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole variability are linked to distinct and significant US regional patterns of outbreak probability. These changes in the probability of outbreaks are shown to be largely consistent with remotely forced regional changes in the large-scale atmospheric processes conducive to tornado outbreaks. An implication of these findings is that the springtime ENSO phases and the North Atlantic SST tripole variability may provide seasonal predictability of US regional tornado outbreaks.

  4. Galileo multispectral imaging of the north polar and eastern limb regions of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.; Klaasen, K.P.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C.; Neukum, G.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Heffernan, C.; Breneman, H.; Anger, C.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Gierasch, P.J.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Pilcher, C.B.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.Multispectral images obtained during the Galileo probe's second encounter with the moon reveal the compositional nature of the north polar regions and the northeastern limb. Mare deposits in these regions are found to be primarily low to medium titanium lavas and, as on the western limb, show only slight spectral heterogeneity. The northern light plains are found to have the spectral characteristics of highlands materials, show little evidence for the presence of cryptomaria, and were most likely emplaced by impact processes regardless of their age.

  5. US regional tornado outbreaks and their links to spring ENSO phases and North Atlantic SST variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ki; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Enfield, David B.; Weaver, Scott J.; Wang, Chunzai; Atlas, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Recent violent and widespread tornado outbreaks in the US, such as occurred in the spring of 2011, have caused devastating societal impact with significant loss of life and property. At present, our capacity to predict US tornado and other severe weather risk does not extend beyond seven days. In an effort to advance our capability for developing a skillful long-range outlook for US tornado outbreaks, here we investigate the spring probability patterns of US regional tornado outbreaks during 1950–2014. We show that the four dominant springtime El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases (persistent versus early-terminating El Niño and resurgent versus transitioning La Niña) and the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole variability are linked to distinct and significant US regional patterns of outbreak probability. These changes in the probability of outbreaks are shown to be largely consistent with remotely forced regional changes in the large-scale atmospheric processes conducive to tornado outbreaks. An implication of these findings is that the springtime ENSO phases and the North Atlantic SST tripole variability may provide seasonal predictability of US regional tornado outbreaks.

  6. Seventeen years of annual distribution of ivermectin has not interrupted onchocerciasis transmission in North Region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Katabarwa, Moses N; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Yaya, Souleymanou; Baldiagaï, Jean; Madi, Théodore Kambaba; Yougouda, Abdoulaye; Andze, Gervais Ondobo; Richards, Frank O

    2011-12-01

    We studied onchocerciasis transmission and impact on ocular morbidity in three health districts in North Region, Cameroon, where annual mass ivermectin treatment has been provided for 12-17 years. The studies, which took place from 2008 to 2010, consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf), palpation examinations for nodules, slit lamp examinations for mf in the eye, and Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates. Adults had mf and nodule rates of 4.8% and 13.5%, respectively, and 5.5% had mf in the anterior chamber of the eye. Strong evidence of ongoing transmission was found in one health district, where despite 17 years of annual treatments, the annual transmission potential was 543 L3/person per year; additionally, children under 10 years of age had a 2.6% mf prevalence. Halting ivermectin treatments in North Cameroon now might risk recrudescence of transmission and ocular disease. PMID:22144441

  7. Meter-scale morphology of the north polar region of Mars.

    PubMed

    Herkenhoff, K E; Byrne, S; Russell, P S; Fishbaugh, K E; McEwen, A S

    2007-09-21

    Mars' north pole is covered by a dome of layered ice deposits. Detailed ( approximately 30 centimeters per pixel) images of this region were obtained with the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Planum Boreum basal unit scarps reveal cross-bedding and show evidence for recent mass wasting, flow, and debris accumulation. The north polar layers themselves are as thin as 10 centimeters but appear to be covered by a dusty veneer in places, which may obscure thinner layers. Repetition of particular layer types implies that quasi-periodic climate changes influenced the stratigraphic sequence in the polar layered deposits, informing models for recent climate variations on Mars.

  8. Meter-scale morphology of the north polar region of mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Byrne, S.; Russell, P.S.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Mars' north pole is covered by a dome of layered ice deposits. Detailed (???30 centimeters per pixel) images of this region were obtained with the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Planum Boreum basal unit scarps reveal cross-bedding and show evidence for recent mass wasting, flow, and debris accumulation. The north polar layers themselves are as thin as 10 centimeters but appear to be covered by a dusty veneer in places, which may obscure thinner layers. Repetition of particular layer types implies that quasi-periodic climate changes influenced the stratigraphic sequence in the polar layered deposits, informing models for recent climate variations on Mars.

  9. [THE PATHOGENESIS OF LUNG TUBERCULOMAS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF A FAR NORTH REGION].

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    The specific features of the pathogenesis of lung tuberculomas were studied in 302 patients among the indigenes and newcomers in the Far-North. The predominant formation of caseous foci from the tuberculous infiltrate located in the lung tissue in most cases was ascertained to be the specific feature of the development of lung tuberculomas under the conditions of a Far- North region, in Yakutia in particular. Tuberculoma formation shows a peculiar combination of evolving foci of acute specific pneumonia with a torpid inflammatory process, which contributes to the formation of multiple and large tuberculomas in the presence of significant pneumosclerosis. At the same time, homogeneous tuberculomas most commonly formed in both newcomers and indigenes.

  10. Regional analysis of population trajectories from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Helbig, Andreas J.; Flade, Martin

    1999-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was started in 1966, and provides information on population change and distribution for most of the birds in North America. The geographic extent of the survey, and the logistical compromises needed to survey such a large area, present many challenges for estimation from BBS data. In this paper, we describe the survey and discuss some of the limitations of the survey design and implementation. Analysis of the survey has evolved over time as new statistical methods and insights into the analysis of count data are developed. Survey results and analysis tools for the BBS are now available over intemet; we present new methods that use generalized linear models for estimation of population change and empirical Bayes procedures for regional summaries.

  11. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  12. Flood events across the North Atlantic region - past development and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matti, Bettina; Dieppois, Bastien; Lawler, Damian; Dahlke, Helen E.; Lyon, Steve W.

    2016-04-01

    Flood events have a large impact on humans, both socially and economically. An increase in winter and spring flooding across much of northern Europe in recent years opened up the question of changing underlying hydro-climatic drivers of flood events. Predicting the manifestation of such changes is difficult due to the natural variability and fluctuations in northern hydrological systems caused by large-scale atmospheric circulations, especially under altered climate conditions. Improving knowledge on the complexity of these hydrological systems and their interactions with climate is essential to be able to determine drivers of flood events and to predict changes in these drivers under altered climate conditions. This is particularly true for the North Atlantic region where both physical catchment properties and large-scale atmospheric circulations have a profound influence on floods. This study explores changes in streamflow across North Atlantic region catchments. An emphasis is placed on high-flow events, namely the timing and magnitude of past flood events, and selected flood percentiles were tested for stationarity by applying a flood frequency analysis. The issue of non-stationarity of flood return periods is important when linking streamflow to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Natural fluctuations in these circulations are found to have a strong influence on the outcome causing natural variability in streamflow records. Long time series and a multi-temporal approach allows for determining drivers of floods and linking streamflow to large-scale atmospheric circulations. Exploring changes in selected hydrological signatures consistency was found across much of the North Atlantic region suggesting a shift in flow regime. The lack of an overall regional pattern suggests that how catchments respond to changes in climatic drivers is strongly influenced by their physical characteristics. A better understanding of hydrological response to climate drivers is

  13. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  14. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to

  15. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  16. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2010-05-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Current operational systems like CarbonTracker as well as many previous global inversions including the Transcom suite of inversions have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into larger aggregated regions. An extreme example of this might be where corrections to NEE imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the Parameterized Chemical Transport Model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America

  17. Interactions of tectonic, igneous, and hydraulic processes in the North Tharsis Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Golombek, M. P.; Plescia, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work on the north Tharsis of Mars has revealed a complex geologic history involving volcanism, tectonism, flooding, and mass wasting. Our detailed photogeologic analysis of this region found many previously unreported volcanic vents, volcaniclastic flows, irregular cracks, and minor pit chains; additional evidence that volcanic tectonic processes dominated this region throughout Martian geologic time; and the local involvement of these processes with surface and near surface water. Also, photoclinometric profiles were obtained within the region of troughs, simple grabens, and pit chains, as well as average spacings of pits along pit chains. These data were used together with techniques to estimate depths of crustal mechanical discontinuities that may have controlled the development of these features. In turn, such discontinuities may be controlled by stratigraphy, presence of water or ice, or chemical cementation.

  18. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  19. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  20. Objective calibration of regional climate models: Application over Europe and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellprat, O.; de Elía, R.; Frigon, A.; Kotlarski, S.; Lüthi, D.; Laprise, R.; Schär, C.

    2014-12-01

    An important source of model uncertainty in climate models arises from unconfined model parameters in physical parameterizations. These parameters are commonly estimated on the basis of manual adjustments (expert tuning), which carries the risk of over-tuning the parameters for a specific climate region or time period. This issue is particularly germane in the case of regional climate models (RCM), which are often developed and used in one or a few geographical regions only. Here we address the role of objective parameter calibration in this context. Using a previously developed objective calibration methodology, we calibrate an RCM over two regions (Europe and North America) and investigate the transferability of the results. A total of eight different model parameters are calibrated, using a metamodel to account for parameter interactions. We demonstrate that the calibration is effective in reducing model biases in both domains. For Europe, this concerns in particular a pronounced reduction of the summer warm bias and the associated overestimation of interannual temperature variability, that has persisted previous expert tuning efforts and that is common in many global and regional climate models. The key process responsible behind this improvement is an increased hydrological conductivity. Over North America, there is also some reduction of the summer warm bias, but in addition the calibration achieves a pronounced reduction of winter biases in interannual temperature variability. We also find that the calibrated parameter values are almost identical for both domains, i.e. the parameter calibration is transferable between the two regions. This is a promising result and indicates that models may be more universal than previously considered.

  1. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  2. Climate Change Projections of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Mearns, L. O.; Sain, Steve; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; McGinnis, Seth; Biner, S.; Caya, Daniel; Arritt, R.; Gutowski, William; Takle, Eugene S.; Snyder, Mark A.; Jones, Richard; Nunes, A M B.; Tucker, S.; Herzmann, D.; McDaniel, Larry; Sloan, Lisa

    2013-10-01

    We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of the domain in winter and greater decreases across a swath of the central part in summer, compared to the four GCMs driving the regional models as well as to the full set of CMIP3 GCM results. We pose some possible process-level mechanisms for the difference in intensity of change, particularly for summer. Detailed process-level studies will be necessary to establish mechanisms and credibility of these results. The GCMs explain more variance for winter temperature and the RCMs for summer temperature. The same is true for precipitation patterns. Thus, we recommend that future RCM-GCM experiments over this region include a balanced number of GCMs and RCMs.

  3. Response of the North American monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Addison, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM), an onshore wind shift occurring between July and September, has evolved in character during the Holocene largely due to changes in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Published paleoproxy and modeling studies suggest that prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, the NAM affected a broader region than today, extending westward into the Mojave Desert of California. Holocene proxy SST records from the Gulf of California (GoC) and the adjacent Pacific provide constraints for this changing NAM climatology. Prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, lower GoC SSTs would not have fueled northward surges of tropical moisture up the GoC, which presently contribute most of the monsoon precipitation to the western NAM region. During the early Holocene, the North Pacific High was further north and SSTs in the California Current off Baja California were warmer, allowing monsoonal moisture flow from the subtropical Pacific to take a more direct, northwesterly trajectory into an expanded area of the southwestern U.S. west of 114°W. A new upwelling record off southwest Baja California reveals that enhanced upwelling in the California Current beginning at ∼7500 cal year BP may have triggered a change in NAM climatology, focusing the geographic expression of NAM in the southwest USA into its modern core region east of ∼114°W, in Arizona and New Mexico. Holocene proxy precipitation records from the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, including lakes, vegetation/pollen, and caves are reviewed and found to be largely supportive of this hypothesis of changing Holocene NAM climatology.

  4. Response of the North American monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, John A.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Addison, Jason A.

    2012-09-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM), an onshore wind shift occurring between July and September, has evolved in character during the Holocene largely due to changes in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Published paleoproxy and modeling studies suggest that prior to ˜8000 cal years BP, the NAM affected a broader region than today, extending westward into the Mojave Desert of California. Holocene proxy SST records from the Gulf of California (GoC) and the adjacent Pacific provide constraints for this changing NAM climatology. Prior to ˜8000 cal years BP, lower GoC SSTs would not have fueled northward surges of tropical moisture up the GoC, which presently contribute most of the monsoon precipitation to the western NAM region. During the early Holocene, the North Pacific High was further north and SSTs in the California Current off Baja California were warmer, allowing monsoonal moisture flow from the subtropical Pacific to take a more direct, northwesterly trajectory into an expanded area of the southwestern U.S. west of 114°W. A new upwelling record off southwest Baja California reveals that enhanced upwelling in the California Current beginning at ˜7500 cal year BP may have triggered a change in NAM climatology, focusing the geographic expression of NAM in the southwest USA into its modern core region east of ˜114°W, in Arizona and New Mexico. Holocene proxy precipitation records from the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, including lakes, vegetation/pollen, and caves are reviewed and found to be largely supportive of this hypothesis of changing Holocene NAM climatology.

  5. A regional high-resolution carbon flux inversion of North America for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A. S.; Corbin, K. D.; Baker, I. T.; Uliasz, M.; Parazoo, N.; Andrews, A. E.; Worthy, D. E. J.

    2009-11-01

    Resolving the discrepancies between NEE estimates based upon (1) ground studies and (2) atmospheric inversion results, demands increasingly sophisticated techniques. In this paper we present a high-resolution inversion based upon a regional meteorology model (RAMS) and an underlying biosphere (SiB3) model, both running on an identical 40 km grid over most of North America. Previous papers have utilized inversion regions formed by collapsing biome-similar grid cells into large aggregated regions. The effect of this is that the NEE correction imposed on forested regions on the east coast of the United States might be the same as that imposed on forests on the west coast of the United States while, in reality, there likely exist subtle differences in the two areas, both natural and anthropogenic. Our current inversion framework utilizes a combination of previously employed inversion techniques while allowing carbon flux corrections to be biome independent. Temporally and spatially high-resolution results utilizing biome-independent corrections provide insight into carbon dynamics in North America. In particular, we analyze hourly CO2 mixing ratio data from a sparse network of eight towers in North America for 2004. A prior estimate of carbon fluxes due to gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) is constructed from the SiB3 biosphere model on a 40 km grid. A combination of transport from the RAMS and the parameterized chemical transport model (PCTM) models is used to forge a connection between upwind biosphere fluxes and downwind observed CO2 mixing ratio data. A Kalman filter procedure is used to estimate weekly corrections to biosphere fluxes based upon observed CO2. RMSE-weighted annual NEE estimates, over an ensemble of potential inversion parameter sets, show a mean estimate 0.57 Pg/yr sink in North America. We perform the inversion with two independently derived boundary inflow conditions and calculate jackknife-based statistics to test

  6. Regional Distribution Models with Lack of Proximate Predictors: Africanized Honeybees Expanding North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L. A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species-environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  7. Regional distribution models with lack of proximate predictors: Africanized honeybees expanding north

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Ma, Peter L.A.; Morisette, Jeffery T.; Nickeson, Jaime E.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Nightingale, Joanne M.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models have often been hampered by poor local species data, reliance on coarse-scale climate predictors and the assumption that species–environment relationships, even with non-proximate predictors, are consistent across geographical space. Yet locally accurate maps of invasive species, such as the Africanized honeybee (AHB) in North America, are needed to support conservation efforts. Current AHB range maps are relatively coarse and are inconsistent with observed data. Our aim was to improve distribution maps using more proximate predictors (phenology) and using regional models rather than one across the entire range of interest to explore potential differences in drivers.

  8. Erosion of the Laurentide region of North America by glacial and glaciofluvial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, M.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Collection of seismic reflection data from continental margins and ocean basins surrounding North America makes it possible to estimate the amount of material eroded from the area formerly covered by Laurentide ice sheets since major glaciation began in North America. A minimum estimate is made of 1.62 ?? 106 km3, or an average 120 m of rock physically eroded from the Laurentide region. This figure is an order of magnitude higher than earlier estimates based on the volume of glacial drift, Cenozoic marine sediments, and modern sediment loads of rivers. Most of the sediment produced during Laurentide glaciation has already been transported to the oceans. The importance of continental glaciation as a geomorphic agency in North America may have to be reevaluated. Evidence from sedimentation rates in ocean basins surrounding Greenland and Antarctica suggests that sediment production, sediment transport, and possibly denudation by permanent ice caps may be substantially lower than by periodic ice caps, such as the Laurentide. Low rates of sediment survival from the time of the Permo-Carboniferous and Precambrian glaciations suggest that predominance of marine deposition during some glacial epochs results in shorter lived sediment because of preferential tectonism and cycling of oceanic crust versus continental crust. ?? 1985.

  9. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  10. Regional carbon budget approach and progress in support of the North American Carbon Program: ORCA Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Turner, D.; Cohen, W. B.; Styles, J.

    2005-12-01

    The project is a North American Carbon Program regional intensive, and it is part of CARBIUS, a US-Italy joint effort to develop regional carbon balance approaches. The goals of the project are to 1) provide a regional test of the overall NACP strategy by demonstrating bottom-up and model-data fusion approaches to determining the carbon balance of Oregon and northern California (ORCA project), and 2) to develop global carbon cycle modeling and analysis focused on the use of remote sensing data. The approaches and progress will be presented. The bottom-up approach synthesizes a spatially nested hierarchy of observations (multi-spectral remote sensing, inventories, flux and extensive sites), and the Biome-BGC model to quantify the carbon balance across the region. The model-data fusion scheme uses MODIS products, Landsat data, AmeriFlux carbon dioxide concentration data and a boundary layer model to estimate NEP across the region and partition it among gross primary production, autotrophic respiration, and heterotrophic respiration. Observations are distributed amongst surrounding landcover types through footprint modeling, and incorporated into a parameter estimation scheme to minimize differences between modeled and measured net ecosystem fluxes. The scheme allows estimates of uncertainty and sensitivity of flux components to driving variables. The ultimate goal of the project is to provide critical understanding of the controls on regional carbon balance (how NEP and carbon stocks are influenced by disturbance from fire and management, land use, and interannual climate variation).

  11. Process-based characterization of evapotranspiration sources over the North American monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Theodore J.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a poorly constrained flux in the North American monsoon (NAM) region, leading to potential errors in land-atmosphere feedbacks. We quantified the spatiotemporal variations of ET using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, modified to account for soil evaporation (Esoil), irrigated agriculture, and the variability of land surface properties derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer during 2000-2012. Simulated ET patterns were compared to field observations at 59 eddy covariance towers, water balance estimates in nine basins, and six available gridded ET products. The modified VIC model performed well at eddy covariance towers representing the natural and agricultural land covers in the region. Simulations revealed that major sources of ET were forested mountain areas during the summer season and irrigated croplands at peak times of growth in the winter and summer, accounting for 22% and 9% of the annual ET, respectively. Over the NAM region, Esoil was the largest component (60%) of annual ET, followed by plant transpiration (T, 32%) and evaporation of canopy interception (8%). Esoil and T displayed different relationships with P in natural land covers, with Esoil tending to peak earlier than T by up to 1 month, while only a weak correlation between ET and P was found in irrigated croplands. Based on the model performance, the VIC-based estimates are the most realistic to date for this region. Furthermore, spatiotemporal patterns reveal new information on the magnitudes, locations, and timing of ET in the North American monsoon region with implications on land-atmosphere feedbacks.

  12. Ecosystem Rain-Use Efficiency in the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, G.; Catani, F.; Castelli, F.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the climate change impacts on vegetation and its spatiotemporal patterns can improve our understanding of the interactions between ecologic, hydrologic and atmospheric dynamics. Due to its marked plant phenology driven by precipitation, the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) can serve to reveal ecological responses to climate change in water-controlled ecosystems. Oceanographic anomalies, related to interannual variability in the Pacific, affect the seasonal evolution of the NAMS via remote forcing of the synoptic-scale circulation, which in turn controls warm season climate over much of southwestern North America. To elucidate the effects of climate on vegetation dynamics during the NAMS, we analyze long-term rain-use efficiency (RUE) in the region. RUE is defined in this study as the ratio between satellite-derived net primary production (from AVHRR NDVI composites at 16-day, 8-km resolution) and precipitation (from CPC NOAA daily 1° gridded dataset) occurring during the summer greenness periods, from 1981 to 2006. We identify the following for a set of six diverse ecosystems in the region: (1) the long-term RUE and its interannual variability, (2) its variations with geographic position and topographic attributes, and (3) the correlation structure between RUE and Sea Surface Temperature anomalies in the Pacific. Results reveal ecosystem-specific variations with location and terrain characteristics, corroborating that topography strongly influences plant rain-use strategies in response to hydrologic variations. Linear trends in RUE, compared with vegetation phenology and precipitation dynamics, suggest a long-term signal imposed on the interannual variability. Rain-use efficiency shows modest but statistically significant influences of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the region. Spatiotemporal correlation patterns appear to be prevalently modulated by ecosystem-based biophysical memory and by regional climatic effects. Improved

  13. Use of North American Breeding Bird Survey data to estimate population change for bird conservation regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Fallon, J.E.; Johnson, R.

    2003-01-01

    Conservation planning requires information at a variety of geographic scales, and it is often unclear whether surveys designed for other purposes will provide appropriate information for management at various scales. We evaluated the use of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to meet information needs for conservation planning in Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs). The BBS originally was developed to provide regional estimates for states, provinces, physiographic regions, and larger areas. Many analyses have used physiographic regions within states/provinces as strata. We evaluated potential consequences of using BCRs instead of the BBS physiographic regions, testing for spatial differences in sample intensity within states and provinces. We reclassified the BBS survey routes to BCRs and conducted route regression trend (interval-specific population change) analyses for a variety of regions and time intervals. Our results were similar to those based on traditional BBS regions and suggest minimal consequences of the reclassification for the BBS sample. We summarized population change within BCRs and assessed the efficiency of the BBS in estimating population change for 421 species surveyed. As would be expected from an omnibus survey, many species appeared to be poorly monitored by the BBS, with 42% of species encountered at <1 bird per route from the survey, and 28% of trend estimates too imprecise to detect a 3% per year change over 35 years. Our results indicated that the quality of the survey for estimation of population change varied among BCRs. Population trends of species were heterogeneous over space and time, varying among BCRs for 76% of species and over time for 39% of species. Regional heterogeneity also existed in trends of species groups from the BBS. While 49% of all species in the survey had increasing populations, grassland breeding birds showed consistent declines, with only 18% of species having positive trend estimates. Bird Conservation

  14. An Overview of Observations of Mars' North Polar Region From the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    1998-01-01

    Since its arrival at Mars on September l5, 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been in a near-polar elliptical orbit, with the orbital eccentricity decreasing during orbital periapse passes where the spacecraft aerobrakes through the martian atmosphere. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), an instrument on the MGS, has the ability to range to the martian surface during nonaerobraking passes. MOLA can operate whenever the range from the spacecraft to the surface is less than 786 km, with the limit determined by the number of bits encoded for the range measurement During the capture orbit, aerobraking hiatus, and science phasing orbit (SPO) mission phases, MOLA acquired approximately 200 profiles across the northern hemisphere of Mars and provided more than 2,000,000 measurements of the radius of the planet. These observations cover the region from the north pole to about 10 degrees S latitude with a precision of a few tens of centimeters and an accuracy (at present) of about 30 in. Absolute accuracy of the elevations is limited by the knowledge of the MGS orbits; these should improve later in the mission due to a more optimal tracking geometry, an improved gravitational field, and the use of the high-gain antenna once the spacecraft achieves its approximately 400-km-altitude circular mapping orbit. MOLA measurements so far show a planet with a low, flat high-latitude region in the north and a higher, topographically rougher terrain nearer the equator. The north polar cap stands approximately 2-3 km above the surrounding terrain and displays deep chasms and complex structure. MOLA measurements of elevation, 1064-nm reflectivity, and backscattered pulse width indicate that the layered terrains are composed mainly of ice.

  15. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zheng; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Fang, Yin; Wang, Xiaoping; Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM2.5 levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m(-3) in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m(-3) in PM2.5, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM2.5, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM2.5 were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM2.5 derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF).

  16. Regional carbon and CO2 budgets of North Sea tidal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volta, C.; Laruelle, G. G.; Regnier, P.

    2016-07-01

    This study presents the first regional application of the generic estuarine reactive-transport model C-GEM (Carbon-Generic Estuary Model) that is here combined with high-resolution databases to produce a carbon and CO2 budget for all tidal estuaries discharging into the North Sea. Steady-state simulations are performed for yearly-averaged conditions to quantify the carbon processing in the six main tidal estuaries Elbe, Ems, Humber, Scheldt, Thames, and Weser, which show contrasted physical and biogeochemical dynamics and contribute the most to the regional filter. The processing rates derived from these simulations are then extrapolated to the riverine carbon loads of all the other North Sea catchments intercepted by smaller tidal estuarine systems. The Rhine-Meuse estuarine system is also included in the carbon budget and overall, we calculate that the export of organic and inorganic carbon from tidal estuaries to the North sea amounts to 44 and 409 Gmol C yr-1, respectively, while 41 Gmol C are lost annually through CO2 outgassing. The carbon is mostly exported from the estuaries in its inorganic form (>90%), a result that reflects the low organic/inorganic carbon ratio of the riverine waters, as well as the very intense decomposition of organic carbon within the estuarine systems. Our calculations also reveal that with a filtering capacity of 15% for total carbon, the contribution of estuaries to the CO2 outgassing is relatively small. Organic carbon dynamics is dominated by heterotrophic degradation, which also represents the most important contribution to the estuarine CO2 evasion. Nitrification only plays a marginal role in the CO2 dynamics, while the contribution of riverine oversaturated waters to the CO2 outgassing is generally significant and strongly varies across systems.

  17. A quantification of methane emissions from the Bakken shale play region of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Karion, A.; Aikin, K. C.; Kort, E. A.; Newberger, T.; Smith, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Trainer, M.; Wolter, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas extracted from shale formations accounts for 40% of the domestic U.S. natural gas supply. Although natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide per energy produced than other fossil fuels, this climate benefit may be offset by the methane emitted to the atmosphere through leaks in the natural gas production and distribution infrastructure. To better understand the climate impacts of the oil and natural gas extracted from the Bakken shale play in North Dakota, we present airborne measurements of methane taken over this region aboard a NOAA Twin Otter aircraft during Spring 2014. Using the mass balance technique, we estimate methane emissions from the region with four flights intended for this purpose in May 2014. We further attribute these methane emissions to the oil and gas industry using measurements of ethane and other hydrocarbons aboard the Twin Otter.

  18. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. PMID:23648267

  19. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún

    2016-09-01

    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes.

  20. Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Louise C; Austrheim, Gunnar; Asheim, Leif-Jarle; Bjarnason, Gunnar; Feilberg, Jon; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Hester, Alison J; Holand, Øystein; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Mortensen, Lis E; Mysterud, Atle; Olsen, Erla; Skonhoft, Anders; Speed, James D M; Steinheim, Geir; Thompson, Des B A; Thórhallsdóttir, Anna Gudrún

    2016-09-01

    Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes. PMID:26932602

  1. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  2. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy). In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean) and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount) located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of spring discharges, allowed us to

  3. Factors influencing the career choices of general practitioner trainees in North West Thames Regional Health Authority.

    PubMed Central

    Beardow, R; Cheung, K; Styles, W M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify those factors influencing general practitioner trainees when choosing their future place of work, with particular reference to those issues that might be relevant to a choice of practice in inner London. A questionnaire was sent to the 90 trainees undertaking the final component of general practice training within North West Thames Regional Health Authority in May 1991. Seventy five doctors responded to the questionnaire, of whom 47 (63%) were women. Forty five per cent of women indicated that they wished to work part time, compared with 6% of the men. Only 21 trainees (28%) said that they would consider working in inner London, 36 (48%) stating that they would definitely not work in this location, with only nine (12%) indicating a willingness to work in a single handed practice and 21 (28%) in a two doctor practice. Specific factors identified as important when choosing a practice included a good working relationship with partners and staff, the presence of a practice nurse and practice manager, attached health authority staff, opportunities for postgraduate education, and good relationships with hospitals. Of the 800 practices in the north west Thames region, 62% are either one or two doctor practices, these being more prevalent in inner London areas where training practices are less common. Given the preferences expressed by trainees, future recruitment in inner London is likely to be more difficult than elsewhere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8292415

  4. Steep declines in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Lars O.; Granat, Lennart; Likens, Gene E.; Adri Buishand, T.; Galloway, James N.; Butler, Thomas J.; Rodhe, Henning

    1994-01-01

    HUMAN activities have caused marked changes in atmospheric chemistry over large regions of Europe and North America. Although considerable attention has been paid to the effects of changes in the deposition of acid anions (such as sulphate and nitrate) on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems1-7, little is known about whether the concentrations of basic components of the atmosphere have changed over time8,9 and what the biogeochemical consequences of such potential changes might be. In particular, there has been some controversy8-12 as to whether declines in base-cation deposition have countered effects of recent reductions in SO2emission. Here we report evidence for steep declines in the atmospheric concentrations of base cations (sum of non-sea-salt Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) over the past 10 to 26 years from high-quality precipitation chemistry records in Europe and North America. To varying but generally significant degrees, these base-cation trends have offset recent reductions in sulphate deposition in the regions examined. The observed trends seem to be ecologically important on decadal timescales, and support earlier contentions8-10 that declines in the deposition of base cations may have contributed to increased sensitivity of poorly buffered ecosystems.

  5. Forecast Verification for North American Mesoscale (NAM) Operational Model over Karst/Non-Karst regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Z.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Karst is defined as a landscape that contains especially soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, and marble in which caves, underground water systems, over-time sinkholes, vertical shafts, and subterranean river systems form. The cavities and voids within a karst system affect the hydrology of the region and, consequently, can affect the moisture and energy budget at surface, the planetary boundary layer development, convection, and precipitation. Carbonate karst landscapes comprise about 40% of land areas over the continental U.S east of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Currently, due to the lack of knowledge of the effects karst has on the atmosphere, no existing weather model has the capability to represent karst landscapes and to simulate its impact. One way to check the impact of a karst region on the atmosphere is to check the performance of existing weather models over karst and non-karst regions. The North American Mesoscale (NAM) operational forecast is the best example, of which historical forecasts were archived. Variables such as precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature, dew point, evapotranspiration, and surface winds were taken into account when checking the model performance over karst versus non-karst regions. The forecast verification focused on a five-year period from 2007-2011. Surface station observations, gridded observational dataset, and North American Regional Reanalysis (for certain variables with insufficient observations) were used. Thirteen regions of differing climate, size, and landscape compositions were chosen across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the investigation. Equitable threat score (ETS), frequency bias (fBias), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores were calculated and analyzed for precipitation. RMSE and mean bias (Bias) were analyzed for other variables. ETS, fBias, and RMSE scores show generally a pattern of lower forecast skills, a greater magnitude of error, and a greater under prediction of precipitation over karst than

  6. Applying a regional community concept to forest birds of eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    The regional community concept embraces the idea that species interactions across large areas shape both the geographic/ecological distributions and the local abundances of populations. Within this framework, I analyzed the distribution and abundance of 79 species of land birds across 142 ca. 10-ha census plots from standardized breeding bird censuses in deciduous and mixed forests of eastern North America. To characterize the regional ecological space, plots were ordinated on the basis of species abundances. Within the regional community defined by these synthetic axes, the distribution and abundance of individual species did not appear to be shaped by competition or to reflect the adaptations of individuals: (i) local abundance and population extent across the ordination axes were unrelated, (ii) pairwise correlation coefficients of species abundances were centered on 0, (iii) average species distribution and abundance were independent of the number of close relatives, and (iv) distribution and abundance exhibited no evolutionary (phylogenetic) conservatism. To explain these seemingly random patterns, I speculate that species are approximately evenly matched competitors over much of the region and that their distributions and relative abundances are determined by the labile coevolutionary outcomes of interactions with specialized pathogens. Thus, despite the appearance that random processes determine patterns in the distribution and abundance of populations in the regional community, it is plausible that species-specific deterministic interactions are responsible. Although competition is a dominant force in ecological communities, variation in the distribution and abundance of individual species might instead reflect the outcome of interactions with specialized antagonists, including pathogens.

  7. Understanding Dominant Tracks of Moisture for the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Rajagopalan, B.; Ray, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Summer monsoon rains contribute more than half of the total annual rainfall in the semi-arid region of Southwest United States, also providing important input to river systems like the Colorado River. The North American Monsoon region or Southwest United States experiences great climatic variability on a range of spatial and temporal scales. This region has also been experiencing significant climate and hydroclimate changes over the last few years. Understanding the interannual variability of moisture delivery in this region will help in natural resources management such as water resources, ecology, etc.. In this study, we investigate the major sources of moisture and their interannual variability during the monsoon season. To this end we selected eight locations in the region from the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah to cover the monsoon region of U.S and generated backward moisture trajectories for each wet day during the monsoon season (Jun-Sep) over the historical period 1964-2013, using the HYSPLIT model developed by NOAA. The tracks show clear source preferences. Gulf of Mexico is the dominant source for south eastern part of the domain, Gulf of California is dominant for the south western domain, a combination of these for regions in between and the Pacific provides the source for northern part of the domain. Decreasing trends in the frequency of the dominant moisture source events corresponds well with the decreasing trends in the rainfall over the domain. The frequencies when correlated with large scale climate variables indicate coherent patterns in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. Furthermore, the population means for each source during El Nino and La Nina years were found to be significantly different. Since the moisture from the dominant sources is also responsible for causing extreme rainfall in this region, these trajectories will provide potential predictability of monsoon rainfall and extremes.

  8. HiRISE Monitoring of Ongoing Activity in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Banks, M. E.; Hansen, C. J.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) [1] on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has observed the north polar region during 3 summer seasons on Mars. Here we summarize analyses of the north polar data, focusing on active and recent processes including evolution of frost streaks, the north polar residual cap (NPRC), frost avalanches, and scarp erosion. Bright and dark streaks have been observed at the periphery of the NPRC by previous Mars orbiters and were the target of several HiRISE observations. Some of these HiRISE images indicate that formation of the streaks involves processes more complex than the emplacement of dark veneers proposed by Rodriguez et al. [2]. Bright and dark streaks are seen to evolve during the northern summer, evidence for active eolian redistribution of frost and perhaps darker (non-volatile) dust or sand. Based on MRO Context imager observations of craters on the NPRC, accumulation rates are estimated to be 4-5 mm/yr within these craters, with lower rates likely on the intracrater NPRC surface [3]. The observed crater population probably accumulated during the last 20 ka or less. It is likely that NPRC resurfacing is episodic rather than continuous, and that annual changes may be detectable at HiRISE image resolutions. Therefore, a campaign of HiRISE observations of four NPRC targets near 87°N latitude (the maximum latitude of the MRO ground track) was initiated during the Martian northern summer of 2008 and continued during the summer of 2010. The images acquired during this campaign, with nearly nadir viewing geometry and similar solar azimuth, are being searched for evidence for current redistribution of NPRC material. Analyses are ongoing; no changes have been detected to date. We also conducted an early- to mid-spring 2010 survey of circumpolar scarps to monitor for falls and avalanches of CO2 frost and dust, of the type discovered on a scarp in northern spring 2008 [4]. The results confirm the restriction of

  9. Regional patterns of sea level change in the German North Sea in a worldwide context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Thomas; Frank, Torsten; Jensen, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) is one of the major consequences we are facing in times of a warming climate and it is obvious that a higher sea level influences the heights of occurring storm surges and thus results in a higher risk of inundation for the affected coastal areas. Therefore, regional and global sea level rise are subjects to many recent scientific publications. In contrast, the mean sea level (MSL) and its variability over the last centuries in the German North Sea area have not been analysed in detail up to now. A methodology to analyse observed sea level rise (SLR) in the German Bight, the shallow south-eastern part of the North Sea, is presented. The contribution focuses on the description of the methods used to generate and analyse high quality mean sea level (MSL) time series. Parametric fitting approaches as well as non-parametric data adaptive filters, such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) are applied. For padding non-stationary sea level time series, an advanced approach named Monte-Carlo autoregressive padding (MCAP) is introduced. This approach allows the specification of uncertainties of the behaviour of smoothed time series near the boundaries. The results for the North Sea point to a weak negative acceleration of SLR since 1844 with a strong positive acceleration at the end of the 19th century, to a period of almost no SLR around the 1970s with subsequent positive acceleration and to high recent rates. The comparison between the German North Sea and a global sea level reconstruction clearly reveals the existence of different patterns of SLR. A stronger SLR in the German North Sea area is detected for a period covering some decades starting at the end of the 19th century and for another period covering the last ten to fifteen years. These findings and the indications for the natural variability of this complex system and further research topics will be discussed. This is a German Coastal Engineering Research Council (KFKI) project, funded by the

  10. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  11. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  12. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-10-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  13. Use of a Regionally-Refined Model for Simulations of North American Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, S. A.; Berg, L. K.; Boyle, J. S.; Giangrande, S. E.; Lin, W.; Neale, R. B.; Qian, Y.; Riihimaki, L.; Tang, Q.; Taylor, M.

    2014-12-01

    While global climate models with horizontal resolutions approaching 10 kilometers are becoming more common, their computational expense is too great to permit routine testing with long simulations. Lower resolution global models with regional refinement are a more affordable modeling framework that is potentially useful for understanding the behavior of a high-resolution global model in the region with refinement. In this work, we test this notion by comparing simulations of the Community Atmosphere Model using the Spectral-Element dynamical core with 1/8° latitude-longitude regional refinement over North America to simulations of globally uniform 1/8° resolution model. The focus is on characteristics of warm season precipitation. Comparison to observations collected at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program site in Oklahoma is facilitated by simulations of the regionally-refined model that are nudged to analysis data over the coarse-resolution portion of the grid. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  15. Evidence and effects of wrench faulting, north central Gulf Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.K.

    1995-10-01

    North central Gulf Coast Middle Mesozoic zones of crustal weakness caused by tranform faulting associated with plate separation and rifting, became ideal areas for subsequent tectonic adjustments. Several lines of evidence - manifested in wrench faulting - point toward the existence of such adjustments occurring in the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata of this area. Eight lines of evidence suggest that there are at least four zones of faulting in the region which have been affected by lateral (and vertical) movements and associated extension fracturing. Isopach maps, en echelon fault/fold patterns, location of time-specific igneous activity, offset basement features, anomalous saltwater incursions into freshwater aquifers, offset surface geomorphic features, surface lineaments, and regional hydrocarbon migration patterns all suggest dominant lateral motion along the affected zones in the subsurface and/or surface. Two main results of the region`s wrench faulting are evident in (1) the development of vertical pathways or conduits facilitating hydrocarbon migration from deep, thermally mature source rocks to shallower reservoirs located in non-mature source rock zones; and (2) the development of extension fractures that enhance reservoir porosity. Both results have created the potential for increasing hydrocarbon source volumes available for migration and reservoiring.

  16. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  17. Comparisons of Box Model Calculations and Measurements of Formaldehyde from the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, G. J.; Fried, Alan; Lee, Y.- N.; Wert, B.; Henry, B.; Drummond, J. R.; Evans, M. J.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Goldan, P. D.; Holloway, J. S.; Hubler, Gerhard F.; Jakoubek, R.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Knapp, K.; Kuster, W. C.; Roberts, J.; Rudolph, Jochen; Ryerson, T. B.; Stohl, A.; Stroud, C.; Sueper, D. T.; Trainer, Michael; Williams, J.

    2002-04-18

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) measurements from two independent instruments are compared with photochemical box model calculations. The measurements were made on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft as part of the 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97). The data set considered here consists of air masses sampled between 0 and 8 km over the North Atlantic Ocean which do not show recent influence from emissions or transport. These air masses therefore should be in photochemical steady state with respect to CH2O when constrained by the other P-3 measurements, and methane oxidation was expected to be the predominant source of CH2O in these air masses. For this data set both instruments measured identical CH2O concentrations to within 40 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) on average over the 0–800 pptv range, although differences larger than the combined 2s total uncertainty estimates were observed between the two instruments in 11% of the data. Both instruments produced higher CH2O concentrations than the model in more than 90% of this data set, with a median measured-modeled [CH2O] difference of 0.13 or 0.18 ppbv (depending on the instrument), or about a factor of 2. Such large differences cannot be accounted for by varying model input parameters within their respective uncertainty ranges. After examining the possible reasons for the model-measurement discrepancy, we conclude that there are probably one or more additional unknown sources of CH2O in the North Atlantic troposphere.

  18. Estimating regional landbird populations from enhanced North American Breeding Bird Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the size of bird populations is central to effective conservation planning and prudent management. I updated estimated regional bird populations for the East Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi using data from 275 North American Breeding Bird Surveys from 2009 to 2013. However, regional bird populations estimated from count surveys of breeding birds may be biased due to lack of empirical knowledge of the distance at which a species is effectively detected and the probability of detecting a species if it is present. I used data recorded within two distance classes (0–50 m and >50–400 m) and three 1-min time intervals on 130 Breeding Bird Surveys to estimate detection probability and effective detection distance for 77 species. Incorporating these empirical estimates of detection probability and detection distance resulted in estimated regional populations for these species that were markedly greater than regional populations estimated without species-specific estimates of detection parameters. Using the same Breeding Bird Survey data, I also estimated probability of site occupancy for 66 species and extrapolated this to the proportion of area occupied in the East Gulf Coastal Plain of Mississippi. I combined the area occupied with the reported range of breeding territory size for 54 species to obtain independent estimates of regional bird populations. Although the true population of these species is unknown, estimated populations that incorporated empirical estimates of detection probability and detection distance were more likely to be within the range of independently estimated, occupancy-based, regional population estimates than were population estimates that lacked empirical detection and distance information.

  19. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Overview of Climate Change Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.

    2012-04-01

    NARCCAP is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using six different regional climate models (RCMs ) and multiple global model responses to a future emission scenario, by nesting the RCMs within four atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within NCEP reanalyses. The spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes RCMs that participated in the European PRUDENCE program (HadRM3 and RegCM), the Canadian regional climate model (CRCM) as well as the NCEP regional spectral model (RSM), the NCAR/PSU MM5, and NCAR WRF. AOGCMs include the Hadley Centre HadCM3, NCAR CCSM, the Canadian CGCM3 and the GFDL model. Insufficient funding was available to simulate all 24 combinations of RCMs and AOGCMs. Thus, we used a balanced fractional factorial statistical design to reduce the number of combinations of RCM-AOGCM pairs to twelve. High resolution (50 km) global time-slice experiments based on the GFDL atmospheric model and the NCAR atmospheric model (CAM3) have also been produced and will be compared with the simulations of the regional models. The geographic domain was regionalized into 29 subregions based on common climatological features, and summary climate change statistics for each of the subregions have been produced. In this overview talk, results from the RCM climate change simulations for select subregions of North America will be presented.

  20. Aerosol characteristics in the UTLS region: A satellite-based study over north India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Misra, A.; Kanawade, Vijay P.; Devara, P. C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient and depolarization ratio, obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, were studied in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region over North India (21-30° N and 72-90° E), covering the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) for one-year period from December 2011 to November 2012. An enhanced aerosol layer was observed between 15 and 18 km altitude, in the vicinity of tropopause, with a broad layer depth of about 2 km. The aerosol layer showed strong seasonal, monthly as well as day and night time variability, with a peak value of backscatter coefficient during monsoon season (˜5.54 × 10-3 sr-1 in September). The corresponding depolarization ratio indicates anisotropic (non-spherical) nature of particles. The aerosol layer was found to be highly linked with the variability in tropopause height, showing a positive correlation between tropopause height and the height of maximum backscatter coefficient (correlation coefficient of 0.8). However, it was found to be negatively correlated with the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), with a correlation coefficient of 0.3. We further analyzed outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data during the study period to investigate the link between the observed enhanced aerosol layer in the UTLS region and prevailing deep convective activities over the study region. Low values of OLR during monsoon (about 214 W m-2) indicate the occurrence of deep convection over this region, which may cause a large-scale circulation-driven vertical transport of boundary-layer pollution into the atmosphere of UTLS region. Results may have potential implications for better understanding and assessing the chemical and radiative impacts of these aerosols in the tropical UTLS region.

  1. Extra-regional residence time as a correlate of plant invasiveness: European archaeophytes in North America.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Pysek, Petr

    2009-09-01

    Human activities have degraded biogeographical barriers to dispersal resulting in the spread and naturalization of increasing numbers of nonnative invasive species. One correlate of invasiveness within a region is residence time or time since introduction. Plant species that were introduced into Europe prior to AD 1500 (European archaeophytes) that were subsequently introduced into North America provide a unique opportunity to examine the effect of extra-regional residence time (i.e., residence time that occurred in a nonnative region before a species was introduced into a new region). Here, we examine how nonnative species with extensive extra-regional residence times have affected beta diversity among states in the contiguous United States of America based on an analysis of occupancy and distance decay of similarity. State floras contained an average of 3106 +/- 922 species (mean +/- SD) with 2318 +/- 757 species classified as native, 180 +/- 43 species as European archaeophyte, and 608 -236 species as other exotic with no European archaeophyte association. For European archaeophytes, 42% were identified as noxious weeds in the United States with 8% identified as agricultural and 14% as natural-area weeds (20%, 2%, and 13% for other exotics, respectively). In strong contrast to natives and other exotics, European archaeophytes were more widespread and presented weaker distance-decay patterns. Thus, European archaeophytes were more likely to become noxious weeds, particularly within agricultural areas, and were associated with significant losses in beta diversity. We suggest that this outcome is a consequence of extra-regional residence time, which allowed for the selection of species or the evolution of traits that favored the colonization of arable habitats associated with early agricultural activities in Europe, habitats that are widespread, resource rich, and uniformly distributed in the United States. Our findings suggest that a long-term trajectory can be

  2. FAST TRACK PAPER: Regional observations of the second North Korean nuclear test on 2009 May 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jin Soo; Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Geunyoung

    2010-01-01

    The suspicious seismic event that occurred in the northern Korean Peninsula on 2009 May 25 was declared to be the second underground nuclear test (NK2ND) by North Korea. We investigated the characteristics of NK2ND using seismic signals recorded at regional-distance stations in South Korea and China. The Pn/Lg ratios of NK2ND definitely discriminate this event from two nearby natural earthquakes at frequencies above 4 Hz. Full moment tensor inversion of full waveform data shows that NK2ND had a very large isotropic component. Pure isotropic moment tensor inversion also resulted in good recovery of observed waveforms, with clear indication that NK2ND was explosive in origin. The moment magnitude (Mw) from the full moment tensor inversion was estimated to be 4.5 and network-averaged values of 4.6 and 3.6 were calculated for rms mb(Lg) and Ms(VMAX), respectively. Although mb - Ms signature has been considered one of the most reliable discriminants for separating explosions and earthquakes, this signature showed poor discrimination in the case of NK2ND. The Pn/Lg ratios and moment tensor inversion give more reliable evidence than does the mb - Ms for classifying the suspicious event in the northern Korean Peninsula as a possible explosion. The characteristics of NK2ND are also quite similar to those of the first North Korean nuclear test on 2006 October 9.

  3. A regional appraisal of source rocks north and west of Britain and Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Scotchman, I.C.; Dore, A.G.

    1995-08-01

    Potential source rocks in the string of basins on the Atlantic Margin north and west of Britain and Ireland range in age from Devonian to Tertiary, although the Jurassic appears to have been effective. In the Palaeozoic, thick developments of lacustrine Type I kerogen rich shales occur in the Lower and Middle Devonian of the Orcadian Basin in northeast Scotland while Carboniferous coals and coaly shales are known from well and outcrop in basins flanking the Rockall Trough. The Jurassic contains major source rock developments, the Lias Portree and Pabba and the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation shales which have been correlated to oil shows in the Slyne Trough, and oil discoveries in the West of Shetlands respectively. Anoxic black shales are also tentatively developed in the early Cretaceous. In the younger section, developments of gas-prone, organic poor basinal shales are known in the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene while coals provide a minor gas source in the topmost Palaeocene and Eocene. Regionally, effective source rocks appear to be concentrated in the Jurassic rift basins extending known trends from the Jeanne D`Arc basin through East Greenland to the North Sea/Mid-Norway through the largely unexplored Atlantic Margin area NW of Britain and Ireland.

  4. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation with the National Park Service (NPS). This work has been compiled as a 1:100,000-scale map derived from mapping done at 1:24,000 and 1:62,500 scale. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.discoverlifeinamerica.org/). At the request of NPS, we mapped areas previously not visited, revised the geology where stratigraphic and structural problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  5. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Aleinikoff, John N.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey with the National Park Service (NPS). This work resulted in a 1:100,000-scale geologic map derived from mapping that was conducted at scales of 1:24,000 and 1:62,500. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with the NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory. In response to a request by the NPS, we mapped previously unstudied areas, revised the geology where problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  6. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  7. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.

    PubMed

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

    2013-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

  8. Crustal and upper mantle structure of stable continental regions in North America and northern Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masse, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    From an analysis of many seismic profiles across the stable continental regions of North America and northern Europe, the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure is determined. Analysis procedures include ray theory calculations and synthetic seismograms computed using reflectivity techniques. The P wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is virtually identical to that beneath the Baltic Shield to a depth of at least 800 km. Two major layers with a total thickness of about 42 km characterize the crust of these shield regions. Features of the upper mantle of these region include velocity discontinuities at depths of about 74 km, 330 km, 430 km and 700 km. A 13 km thick P wave low velocity channel beginning at a depth of about 94 km is also present. A number of problems associated with record section interpretation are identified and a generalized approach to seismic profile analysis using many record sections is described. The S wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is derived from constrained surface wave data. The thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Canadian and Baltic Shields is determined to be 95-100 km. The continental plate thickness may be the same as the lithospheric thickness, although available data do not exclude the possibility of the continental plate being thicker than the lithosphere. ?? 1987 Birkha??user Verlag.

  9. Ordovician-Carboniferous tectono-sedimentary evolution of the North Nuratau region, Uzbekistan (Westernmost Tien Shan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, T.; Nurtaev, B.; Kharin, V.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.

    2013-04-01

    The Tien Shan is a c. 2500 km long orogenic belt of which the Nuratau region of eastern Uzbekistan forms the western part. Petrographical and field analysis of the Ordovician-Carboniferous succession in the North Nuratau region provided the basis for a reconstruction of the depositional settings along part of the northern margin of the Alai continent and their evolution during the period of closure of the Turkestan Ocean, which separated the Alai and the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continents. Initial sedimentation (Ordovician) was broadly carbonate dominated, although by Mid-Late Ordovician times siliciclastic input predominated in some areas. These variations, between clastic- and carbonate-dominated regions may have been related to tectonic activity within the Alai continent. Carbonate sedimentation was reestablished in the ?Wenlock, with broad shelf systems forming along the continental margin. Volcanic activity in the Early Devonian records a period of tectonic instability, and this was followed by the reestablishment of the carbonate mosaic, albeit with a greater degree of instability (as indicated by stratigraphic gaps) than in the Silurian. This pattern extended up into the Carboniferous culminating in backarc-related magmatic activity. Final closure of the Turkestan Ocean involved significant folding and thrusting, as well as a major change from compressional to strike-slip movement.

  10. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  11. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  12. Impact of Land Use Change over North America as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, A.; Sushama, L.; Beltrami, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the biogeophysical impacts of human-induced land cover change, particularly crops, on the regional climate of North America, using the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this effect, two simulations are performed with CRCM5 with different land cover datasets - one corresponding to the potential vegetation (i.e. without land use change) and the other corresponding to current land use. Most of the land use changes are concentrated over the US mid-west and south-central Canada, where forests and grasses have been replaced by crops. This transformation changes the surface parameters, particularly vegetation fractional area, leaf area index, albedo, roughness length and rooting depth among other variables, in the regions where land cover change takes place in these simulations. Both simulations span the 1988-2012 period and are driven by ERA-Interim at the lateral boundaries. The sea surface temperature and sea ice cover that vary inter-annually are also taken from ERA-Interim. Results suggest that regions where forests/grasses were replaced by crops generally show increases in albedo, particularly during the spring, fall and winter seasons, with the increase in albedo being largest for winter. This higher increase in albedo during winter is due to a snow-mediated positive feedback. The increased albedo values during winter, spring and fall are reflected in the cooler 2 meter temperature obtained in the simulation with land use change, compared to that with potential vegetation. Some cooling is observed in the summer for the simulation with land use change, mostly due to the increased latent heat fluxes. Increases in precipitation are noted for these regions, but are not statistically significant.

  13. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program: Overview of Climate Change Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.; Narccap Team

    2010-12-01

    NARCCAP is an international program that is serving the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models(RCMs)and multiple global model responses to a future emission scenario, by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within NCEP reanalyses. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes RCMs that participated in the European PRUDENCE program (HadRM3 and RegCM), the Canadian regional climate model (CRCM) as well as the NCEP regional spectral model (RSM), the NCAR/PSU MM5, and NCAR WRF. Candidate AOGCMs include the Hadley Centre HadCM3, NCAR CCSM, the Canadian CGCM3 and the GFDL model. The resulting climate model runs form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts assessments over North America. High resolution (50 km) global time-slice experiments based on the GFDL atmospheric model and the NCAR atmospheric model (CAM3) have also been produced and will be compared with the simulations of the regional models. Additional key science issues are being investigated such as the importance of compatible physics in the nested and nesting models. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple runs are being developed by geophysical statisticians. . In this overview talk, results from Phase II of the project, the RCM simulations using boundary conditions from the current and future runs of the 4 AOGCMs, will be presented.

  14. Applying a regional community concept to forest birds of eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The regional community concept embraces the idea that species interactions across large areas shape both the geographic/ecological distributions and the local abundances of populations. Within this framework, I analyzed the distribution and abundance of 79 species of land birds across 142 ca. 10-ha census plots from standardized breeding bird censuses in deciduous and mixed forests of eastern North America. To characterize the regional ecological space, plots were ordinated on the basis of species abundances. Within the regional community defined by these synthetic axes, the distribution and abundance of individual species did not appear to be shaped by competition or to reflect the adaptations of individuals: (i) local abundance and population extent across the ordination axes were unrelated, (ii) pairwise correlation coefficients of species abundances were centered on 0, (iii) average species distribution and abundance were independent of the number of close relatives, and (iv) distribution and abundance exhibited no evolutionary (phylogenetic) conservatism. To explain these seemingly random patterns, I speculate that species are approximately evenly matched competitors over much of the region and that their distributions and relative abundances are determined by the labile coevolutionary outcomes of interactions with specialized pathogens. Thus, despite the appearance that random processes determine patterns in the distribution and abundance of populations in the regional community, it is plausible that species-specific deterministic interactions are responsible. Although competition is a dominant force in ecological communities, variation in the distribution and abundance of individual species might instead reflect the outcome of interactions with specialized antagonists, including pathogens. PMID:21262795

  15. Climatology of Extreme Winds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska Region Using the North American Regional Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegall, S. T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The high-resolution (32km, 3-hourly) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) surface winds were used to examine the detailed structures of the distribution and evolution of the surface wind across the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska region. First the NARR surface winds were verified against the station observations over the study area and the comparisons indicate that NARR essentially captures the distribution of the observed winds in summer. However, an obvious bias exists in winter, when the easterly component of the bimodal pattern is overestimated, while the westerly component is underestimated, particularly in January. Then we used the NARR surface wind data to examine the wind field climatological features, interannual variability and long-term change over the study area by analyzing the monthly maximums, 99th, 95th, 90th, and 50th percentile wind speeds (m/s) for each month of the year from 1979-2006. Decadal differences (i.e. the difference from 2000-2006 and 1990-1999 and 1990-1999 and 1980-1989) were also investigated to understand the long-term change in the area's surface winds. The results indicated that the maximum wind speeds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas have lower values from January through May. Then there is a progression northward of the higher wind speeds beginning in the Bering Strait in June and continuing into the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during July-October; in November and December the maximum winds in the area start to decrease with a southward migration into the Chukchi Sea and eventually back through the Bering Strait into the Bering Sea, which is coincident with the sea ice retreat and advance in the area. The yearly variance of the wind speeds follow a similar northward and southward migration while the highest variance happened in October. The decadal differences mainly show a large increase in the maximum winds speeds in September and October in the Chukchi Sea.

  16. Lithofacies variability in the Lower Khvalynian sediments of the North Caspian Sea region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshaev, Radik; Svitoch, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    The Early Khvalynian period (~15 500-12 500 cal years B.P.) is characterized by continuous dynamic changes in North Caspian Sea region environment, which has been confirmed by numerous data obtained during the lithofacies analysis of its key sections. Lithofacies complex of the North Caspian Sea region contains four subfacies - clayey, laminated, sandy-clayey and aleurite-clayey. Clayey facie is characterized by absolutely clayey structure with massive nonlamellated or subfissile dark-brown clays and rarely contains thin aleurite layers. This subfacie is one of the most widespread in the North Caspian Sea region. Clayey facies are typical for the most of the key sections in the Middle Volga (Bykovo, Torgun, Rovnoe, Novoprivolnoe, Chapaevka), Lower Volga (Svetly Yar) and on the left side of the Volga River valley (Verkhny Baskunchak, Krivaya Loshchina, Bolshoy Liman). Deep paleodepressions of the Lower Volga and the left side of the Volga River valley are also characterized by the maximum of the average clays thickness, which can reach up to 10 m. Sandy-clayey subfacie is characterized by stratified structure with horizontal and lenticular lamination of clays with sandy-aleuritic interlayers. The average thickness of sand layers is 2-5 cm. At most of the key sections thickness of clay layers is up to twice larger than the sands layers and only on depressions' periphery can be exceeded by some terrigenous interlayers. Sandy-aleuritic parts of clays have different mineral structure. Light suite is dominated by quartz and feldspar with some debris of heavy minerals, glauconite and calcite. Fraction of the heavy minerals contains titano ferrite, epidote, granite, zircon, amphibole, rutile, disthene, tourmaline, sillimanite. Layered subfacie is the most abundant among the chocolate clays and is widespread in the Lower Volga River region and the Ural River valley, but sporadic in Kalmykia and the Volga Delta. Sandy-clayey and aleurit-clayey subfacies have rare

  17. [Population trends in the Mediterranean region: socioeconomic problems associated with the situation in the countries of North Africa].

    PubMed

    Baldi, S

    1990-01-01

    The impact of current rates of population growth on the economies of the countries of North Africa is assessed. The author notes that the countries of the region had agreed in January 1990 to implement as soon as possible a policy of free circulation of migrants among Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania, and Libya in order to reduce levels of emigration from the region and to help resolve labor-supply problems within the region.

  18. Organochlorine insecticide residues in fish and birds from three river systems on the North Coast Region of New South Wales

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, K.W.; Harris, C.R. ); Ahmad, N.; Higginson, F.R. )

    1989-06-01

    In a study on the occurrence and management of organochlorine (OC) insecticide residues on the North Coast Region of New South Wales (NSW), the authors recorded the presence of dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and BHC residues in dairy pasture, sugar cane, or banana plantation soils. DDT residues were seldom present in these soils but others have detected relatively low levels of DDT residues in soils on the Cudgen-Duranbah plateau, an important vegetable and tropical fruit production area overlooking the Tweed, one of the major rivers on the North Coast Region. Although OC residues in these agricultural soils were all relatively low, they could be one source of contamination of North Coast river systems. The authors report results of further work done to assess the extent to which fish and birds collected from river systems in the NSW North Coast Region are contaminated with OC residues. Three of the major rivers - Clarence, Richmond, and Tweed - on the North Coast Region were selected for study. Fish were taken between October, 1983 and February, 1984.

  19. Analysis of Genomic Regions Associated With Coronary Artery Disease Reveals Continent-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in North African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Daniela; Via, Marc; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Esteban, Esther; Chaabani, Hassen; Anaibar, Fatima; Harich, Nourdin; Habbal, Rachida; Ghalim, Noreddine; Moral, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, several genomic regions have been robustly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in different genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted mainly in people of European descent. These kinds of data are lacking in African populations, even though heart diseases are a major cause of premature death and disability. Methods Here, 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the top four CAD risk regions (1p13, 1q41, 9p21, and 10q11) were genotyped in 274 case-control samples from Morocco and Tunisia, with the aim of analyzing for the first time if the associations found in European populations were transferable to North Africans. Results The results indicate that, as in Europe, these four genetic regions are also important for CAD risk in North Africa. However, the individual SNPs associated with CAD in Africa are different from those identified in Europe in most cases (1p13, 1q41, and 9p21). Moreover, the seven risk variants identified in North Africans are efficient in discriminating between cases and controls in North African populations, but not in European populations. Conclusions This study indicates a disparity in markers associated to CAD susceptibility between North Africans and Europeans that may be related to population differences in the chromosomal architecture of these risk regions. PMID:26780859

  20. North polar region of Mars: Advances in stratigraphy, structure, and erosional modification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Skinner, J.A.; Bourke, M.C.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Kolb, E.J.; Okubo, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    We have remapped the geology of the north polar plateau on Mars, Planum Boreum, and the surrounding plains of Vastitas Borealis using altimetry and image data along with thematic maps resulting from observations made by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. New and revised geographic and geologic terminologies assist with effectively discussing the various features of this region. We identify 7 geologic units making up Planum Boreum and at least 3 for the circumpolar plains, which collectively span the entire Amazonian Period. The Planum Boreum units resolve at least 6 distinct depositional and 5 erosional episodes. The first major stage of activity includes the Early Amazonian (???3 to 1 Ga) deposition (and subsequent erosion) of the thick (locally exceeding 1000 m) and evenly-layered Rupes Tenuis unit (Abrt), which ultimately formed approximately half of the base of Planum Boreum. As previously suggested, this unit may be sourced by materials derived from the nearby Scandia region, and we interpret that it may correlate with the deposits that regionally underlie pedestal craters in the surrounding lowland plains. The second major episode of activity during the Middle to Late Amazonian (??? <1 Ga) began with a section of dark, sand-rich and light-toned ice-rich irregularly-bedded sequences (Planum Boreum cavi unit, Abbc) along with deposition of evenly-bedded light-toned ice- and moderate-toned dust-rich layers (Planum Boreum 1 unit, Abb1). These units have transgressive and gradational stratigraphic relationships. Materials in Olympia Planum underlying the dunes of Olympia Undae are interpreted to consist mostly of the Planum Boreum cavi unit (Abbc). Planum Boreum materials were then deeply eroded to form spiral troughs, Chasma Boreale, and marginal scarps that define the major aspects of the polar plateau's current regional topography. Locally- to regionally-extensive (though vertically minor) episodes

  1. Regional economic impacts of water management alternatives: the case of Devils Lake, North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Leistritz, F Larry; Leitch, Jay A; Bangsund, Dean A

    2002-12-01

    Devils Lake, located in a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota has over a century-long history of highly fluctuating water levels. The lake has risen nearly 25 feet (7.7 m) since 1993, more than doubling its surface area. Rising water levels have affected rural lands, transportation routes, and communities near the lake. In response to rising lake levels, Federal, state and local agencies have adopted a three-part approach to flood damage reduction, consisting of (1) upper basin water management to reduce the amount of water reaching the lake, (2) protection for structures and infrastructure if the lake continues to rise, and (3) developing an emergency outlet to release some lake water. The purpose of this study was to provide information about the net regional economic effects of a proposed emergency outlet for Devils Lake. An input-output model was used to estimate the regional economic effects of the outlet, under two scenarios: (1) the most likely future situation (MLS) and (2) a best case situation (BCS) (i.e., where the benefits from the outlet would be greatest), albeit an unlikely one. Regional economic effects of the outlet include effects on transportation (road and railroad construction), agriculture (land kept in production, returned to production sooner, or kept in production longer), residential relocations, and outlet construction expenditures. Effects are measured as changes in gross business volume (gross receipts) for various sectors, secondary employment, and local tax collections. The net regional economic effects of the proposed outlet would be relatively small, and consideration of these economic impacts would not strengthen the case for an outlet.

  2. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Overview of Phase II Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mearns, L. O.

    2008-12-01

    NARCCAP is an international program that serves the climate scenario needs of the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico. We are systematically investigating the uncertainties in regional scale projections of future climate and producing high resolution climate change scenarios using multiple regional climate models(RCMs)and multiple global model responses to a future emission scenario, by nesting the RCMs within atmosphere ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) forced with the A2 SRES scenario, over a domain covering the conterminous US, northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The project also includes a validation component through nesting the participating RCMs within NCEP reanalyses. The basic spatial resolution of the RCM simulations is 50 km. This program includes RCMs that participated in the European PRUDENCE program (HadRM3 and RegCM), the Canadian regional climate model (CRCM) as well as the NCEP regional spectral model (RSM), the NCAR/PSU MM5, and NCAR WRF. AOGCMs include the Hadley Centre HadCM3, NCAR CCSM3, the Canadian CGCM3 and the GFDL model. The resulting climate model runs form the basis for multiple high resolution climate scenarios that can be used in climate change impacts assessments over North America. High resolution (50 km) global time-slice experiments based on the GFDL atmospheric model (AM2.1) and the NCAR atmospheric model (CAM3) have also been produced and will be compared with the simulations of the regional models. There also will be opportunities for double nesting over key regions through which additional modelers in the regional modeling community will be able to participate in NARCCAP. Additional key science issues are being investigated such as the importance of compatible physics in the nested and nesting models. Measures of uncertainty across the multiple runs are being developed by geophysical statisticians. In this overview talk, results from Phase II of the project, the RCM simulations using boundary conditions from the

  3. Surface-Wind Anomalies in North-Atlantic and North Pacific from SSM/I Observations: Influence on Temperature of Adjoining Land Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, R.; Ingraham, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Starr, D.; Terry, J.

    1998-01-01

    Surface winds over the oceans are derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements, assigning direction by Variational Analysis Method (VAM). Validations by comparison with other measurements indicate highly-satisfactory data quality. Providing global coverage from 1988, the dataset is a convenient source for surface-wind climatology. In this study, the interannual variability of zonal winds is analyzed concentrating on the westerlies in North Atlantic and North Pacific, above 30 N. Interannual differences in the westerlies exceeding 10 m sec (exp -1) are observed over large regions, often accompanied by changes of the same magnitude in the easterlies below 30 N. We concentrate on February/March, since elevated temperatures, by advancing snow-melt, can produce early spring. The extremely strong westerlies in 1997 observed in these months over North Atlantic (and also North Pacific) apparently contributed to large surface-temperature anomalies in western Europe, on the order of +3 C above the climatic monthly average for England and France. At these latitudes strong positive anomalies extended in a ring around the globe. We formulated an Index of South westerlies for the North Atlantic, which can serve as an indicator for day-by-day advection effects into Europe. In comparing 1997 and 1998 with the previous years, we establish significant correlations with the temperature anomalies (one to five days later, depending on the region, and on the season). This variability of the ocean-surface winds and of the temperature anomalies on land may be related to the El Nino/La Nina oscillations. Such large temperature fluctuations over large areas, whatever the cause, can be regarded as noise in attempts to assess long-term trends in global temperature.

  4. 77 FR 69893 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service North Slope Federal Subsistence.... ACTION: Notice of meeting (teleconference). SUMMARY: This notice informs the public that the North Slope... with the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the North Slope...

  5. Evaluation of the RAQMS Regional Model During the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Pierce, R.; Crawford, J. H.; Considine, D. B.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Kittaka, C.; Hitchman, M.; Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A) field campaign took place over North America (NA) and the Atlantic during July-August 2004. Among the goals of INTEX-A were to characterize the composition of the troposphere over NA and the outflow of pollution from NA, and to validate satellite observations of tropospheric composition. We test and improve the regional component of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMSN) using the comprehensive dataset, including surface, ozonesonde, aircraft, and satellite measurements of ozone and its precursors obtained during INTEX-A. We show that RAQMSN is able to reproduce the major characteristics of tropospheric ozone-CO-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry over NA during INTEX-A. RAQMSN CO and tropospheric NO2 columns are highly correlated with those of MOPITT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. The model high NO2 bias in the Ohio River Valley reflects the fact that the emission inventory used did not take into account the reduced power plant NOx emissions from this region in 2004 as a result of pollution control programs. The model simulates well the strong day-to-day variability of O3 in the tropopause region as seen in the IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study) ozonesonde data, but shows more stratospherically influenced air in the upper troposphere (UT). The model is also able to simulate the westerly outflow of O3 to the Atlantic as revealed by the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR, July-August 2005-2008 climatology) data from OMI/MLS. We compare RAQMSN simulations with NASA DC-8 in-situ CO, NO2, O3, and total PAN observations during INTEX-A. The simulated CO is within 10 ppbv of the observations except below 900 hPa where the model is about 40 ppbv too high, consistent with a recent report that the national anthropogenic emission inventory from the US EPA is too high by 60% in summer. While overestimated in the boundary layer, NO2 and PAN are underestimated in the UT. Model lightning NOx emissions are

  6. Regional Feedbacks Between the Ocean and the Atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L.; Garcia, M.; Kelly, K. A.; Booth, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The ocean acts to buffer changes in the climate system with the upper 800m of the ocean taking up more than 90% of the excess heat in the climate system. On interannual time scales, surface heat fluxes damp the low-frequency heat content anomalies in some areas of the ocean where heat anomalies can be released back to the atmosphere. Analysis of satellite altimetry observations of SSH (sea surface height) as a proxy for upper ocean heat content and net suface heat flux from OAFlux (Objectively Analyzed air-sea fluxes) 993-2009 allows the identification of the times of the year and the locations in the North Atlantic where heat content anomalies are driving surface fluxes. Heat content has six month persistence while surface flux has at most one month persistence. Times series for each month of the year at each location are created to examine the lagged correlation between upper ocean heat content and the net surface heat fluxes. The heat content anomalies south of the Gulf Stream in June through November are negatively correlated with surface fluxes in November with a warmer ocean leading to surface fluxes out of the ocean. In this region, the mixed-layer by November reaches 100 m and the previous summer's stored heat is accessible to the atmosphere. The high correlations continue into December and January. By February, the correlation is no longer significant. In the region between 15N and 40N off the coast of Africa, January through May heat content are anti-correlated with surface fluxes in May. In May at this location, the climatological sensible heat flux is into the ocean, the planetary boundary layer is stable and stratocumulus clouds are common. Significant correlations in the summer are also found in the central subpolar North Atlantic. This analysis suggests that locally ocean heat content anomalies can feedback to the atmosphere, but only during certain times of the year. The impact on the atmosphere in late fall and early winter can influence of the

  7. Lineament Domain of Regional Strike-Slip Corridor: Insight from the Neogene Transtensional De Geer Transform Fault in NW Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2015-05-01

    Lineaments on regional scale images represent controversial features in tectonic studies. Published models explain the presence of the lineament domains in most geodynamic environments as resulting from the enhanced erosion along strikes normal to the upper crustal regional extension. Despite their success in many tectonic frameworks, these models fail to explain the existing lineament domains in the regional strike-slip corridors that separate regional blocks, including the transform faults. The present paper investigates the lineament distribution in such environments, and specifically presents the results from a study along the shear corridor of the De Geer Transform Fault in the North Atlantic, responsible for the separation and drifting away between Northern Greenland and the Svalbard Archipelago since Oligocene times. The study spans from satellite image analysis and outcrop scale investigations to a more regional analysis on a digital bathymetric model of the North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean. Lineaments were automatically detected in the spectral band 8 (0.52-0.9 μm) of a Landsat 7 image (15 m/pixel resolution). A total of 320 image lineaments were extracted from both the regional and the local scale investigations and statistically analyzed. Results from the multi-scalar lineament analyses revealed the existence of a main N-S lineament domain regionally persistent from the De Geer corridor to the western margin of northern Spitsbergen where it relates to the youngest, post-Oligocene, tectonics observed onshore. This is confirmed by field observations showing that the N-S faults represent the youngest brittle deformation system and systematically cut the deformations associated with the building of the Tertiary West Spitsbergen fold and thrust belt. The N-S lineament domain is the result of the activity of a larger, regional scale tectonic feature, NW-SE oriented and responsible for the localized extension within its deformation corridor, the De Geer Transform

  8. Paleoproterozoic basin development and sedimentation in the Lake Superior region, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Southwick, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The peneplaned Archean craton in the Lake Superior region was the platform upon which a continental margin assemblage was deposited. Extension resulted in localized rifts that received thicker accumulations of sediments and volcanic rocks than did adjacent parts of the platform. Seas transgressed onto the continent several times and an ocean basin opened south of the present-day Lake Superior. Island arcs that formed during subduction collided with the craton margin as the ocean basin closed; oceanic crust is poorly preserved as a dismembered ophiolite sequence. The arc volcanics are preserved as the Wisconsin magmatic terranes. The collision resulted in a fold-and-thrust belt known as the Penokean orogen. To the north of the fold-and-thrust belt, a northward-migrating foreland basin - the Animikie basin - developed. Thick turbidite successions were deposited along the basin axis, and terrigenous clastics and Lake Superior-type iron-formation were deposited on the shelf along the northern margin of the basin. The primary paleoclimatic indicators are: (1) glaciogenic rocks at the base of the Paleoproterozoic succession in Michigan indicating ice-house conditions; 2) remnants of a paleosol on the glaciogenic rocks indicative of deep weathering, probably under subtropical conditions and therefore of greenhouse conditions; and (3) carbonate minerals after gypsum, halite, and anhydrite in stromatolitic dolomite, indicative of aridity. Three second-order depositional sequences are bounded by major unconformities, and can be correlated throughout the Lake Superior region. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional significance of an early Holocene moraine in Enchantment Lakes basin, North Cascade Range, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, R.B., Jr.; Yount, J.C.; Davis, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The upper Enchantment Lakes basin in the North Cascade Range of Washington displays two moraine belts, each recording an episode of glacier advance after the end of the last glaciation. The inner belt, the Brynhild, 0.1 to 0.5 km beyond existing glaciers, postdates Mount St. Helens Wn tephra (???450 yr old), which lies only beyond the moraines. The morainal surface is only slightly weathered, is almost barren of lichens, and is devoid of soil, evidence suggesting that the Brynhild moraines are no more than a century old. The outer moraine, the Brisingamen, 0.3 to 0.7 km beyond existing glaciers, is weathered and is covered with large lichens. On and behind the Brisingamen moraine the Mazama ash (6900 yr old) is present beneath the Mount St. Helens Yn and Wn tephras. Despite more than 7 millennia of weathering, the rock surface behind the Brisingamen moraine is measurably less weathered than the surface beyond, which was last glaciated during the Rat Creek advance about 13,000 yr ago. The age of the Brisingamen moraine therefore is probably early Holocene. The Brisingamen moraine evidently correlates with moraines near Glacier Peak, near Mount Rainier, in northeastern and central Oregon, in the southern Canadian Rockies, and in the northern U.S. Rocky Mountains. These regional effects suggest that a climatic episode of cooling or increased snowfall affected the entire region some time during the early Holocene. ?? 1982.

  10. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  11. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Thermal Stability of Frozen Volatiles in the North Polar Region of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Harmon, John K.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar observations have revealed the presence on Mercury of anomalously bright, depolarizing features that appear to be localized in the permanently shadowed regions of high-latitude impact craters [1]. Observations of similar radar signatures over a range of radar wavelengths implies that they correspond to deposits that are highly transparent at radar wavelengths and extend to depths of several meters below the surface [1]. Thermal models using idealized crater topographic profiles have predicted the thermal stability of surface and subsurface water ice at these same latitudes [2]. One of the major goals of the MESSENGER mission is to characterize the nature of radar-bright craters and presumed associated frozen volatile deposits at the poles of Mercury through complementary orbital observations by a suite of instruments [3]. Here we report on an examination of the thermal stability of water ice and other frozen volatiles in the north polar region of Mercury using topographic profiles obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) instrument [4] in conjunction with a three-dimensional ray-tracing thermal model previously used to study the thermal environment of polar craters on the Moon [5].

  13. Surficial Geologic Map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle; Triplett, James

    2004-01-01

    The Surficial Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina was mapped from 1993 to 2003 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS). This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map was compiled from 2002 to 2003 from unpublished field investigations maps at 1:24,000-scale. The preliminary surficial geologic data and map support cooperative investigations with NPS, the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org/) (Southworth, 2001). Although the focus of our work was within the Park, the geology of the surrounding area is provided for regional context. Surficial deposits document the most recent part of the geologic history of this part of the western Blue Ridge and eastern Tennessee Valley of the Valley and Ridge of the Southern Appalachians. Additionally, there is great variety of surficial materials, which directly affect the different types of soil and associated flora and fauna. The surficial deposits accumulated over tens of millions of years under varied climatic conditions during the Cenozoic era and resulted from a composite of geologic processes.

  14. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    SciTech Connect

    Jatnika, Jajat; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Wandono

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  15. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 2: Scenarios for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Aulinger, A.; Backes, A.; Bieser, J.; Geyer, B.; Quante, M.; Zeretzke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for future shipping emissions in the North Sea have been developed in the framework of the Clean North Sea Shipping project. The effects of changing NOx and SO2 emissions were investigated with the CMAQ chemistry transport model for the year 2030 in the North Sea area. It has been found that, compared to today, the contribution of shipping to the NO2 and O3 concentrations will increase due to the expected enhanced traffic by more than 20 and 5 %, respectively, by 2030 if no regulation for further emission reductions is implemented in the North Sea area. PM2.5 will decrease slightly because the sulfur contents in ship fuels will be reduced as international regulations foresee. The effects differ largely between regions, seasons and date of the implementation of stricter regulations for NOx emissions from newly built ships.

  16. Geochemical and isotopic characterization of mantle xenoliths from the back arc region of north Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundl, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Lukás, Ackerman; Bizimis, Michael; Bjerg, Ernesto; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths brought to the surface by alkali basalts in north Patagonia, Argentina, were studied for their geochemical and isotopic compositions. Samples were collected at four different outcrops within the North Patagonian Massif in Rio Negro Province. The studied sample suite from Comallo (COM), Puesto Diaz (PD), Cerro Chenque (CH) and Prahuaniyeu (PRA) comprises anhydrous spinel-harzburgites, spinel-dunites, as well as one PRA spinel-garnet-lherzolite. Bulk rock Al2O3 and CaO compositions of the studied samples lie within a narrow range of 0.68 to 1.31 wt. % and 0.36 to 1.25 wt. %, respectively. Al2O3 and CaO decrease with increasing MgO ranging from 44.7 to 48.0 wt. %. The single spinel-garnet lherzolite has a more fertile composition with CaO, Al2O3 and MgO of 2.78 wt. %, 2.35 wt. % and 42.2 wt. %, respectively. With the exception of the PRA region, the studied mantle xenoliths represent an overall highly depleted lithospheric mantle underneath northern Patagonia (up to 25% melt extraction). The rock forming minerals show concentrations typical for depleted peridotites with mg# that range from 0.91 to 0.92 for olivine and orthopyroxene and mg# from 0.91 to 0.95 for clinopyroxene. Variably elevated clinopyroxene trace element compositions in all studied north Patagonian mantle samples indicate reactions with a chromatographically fractionated melt after the initial melt depletion event. A percolating melt reacts with a strongly depleted mantle peridotite as it propagates through the wall rock and subsequently changes its composition. These melt-rock reactions lead to a compositionally evolving melt and variably altered mantle sections, which is strongly reflected in primitive mantle normalized clinopyroxene trace element patterns. Bulk rock and mineral compositions, on the other hand, suggest that this melt percolation event has not significantly affected major element systematics. Contrary, isotope and HSE systematics also indicate melt-rock reactions. In

  17. Climate trends of the North American prairie pothole region 1906-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millett, B.; Johnson, W.C.; Guntenspergen, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is unique to North America. Its millions of wetlands and abundant ecosystem goods and services are highly sensitive to wide variations of temperature and precipitation in time and space characteristic of a strongly continental climate. Precipitation and temperature gradients across the PPR are orthogonal to each other. Precipitation nearly triples from west to east from approximately 300 mm/year to 900 mm/year, while mean annual temperature ranges from approximately 1°C in the north to nearly 10°C in the south. Twentieth-century weather records for 18 PPR weather stations representing 6 ecoregions revealed several trends. The climate generally has been getting warmer and wetter and the diurnal temperature range has decreased. Minimum daily temperatures warmed by 1.0°C, while maximum daily temperatures cooled by 0.15°C. Minimum temperature warmed more in winter than in summer, while maximum temperature cooled in summer and warmed in winter. Average annual precipitation increased by 49 mm or 9%. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) trends reflected increasing moisture availability for most weather stations; however, several stations in the western Canadian Prairies recorded effectively drier conditions. The east-west moisture gradient steepened during the twentieth century with stations in the west becoming drier and stations in the east becoming wetter. If the moisture gradient continues to steepen, the area of productive wetland ecosystems will shrink. Consequences for wetlands would be especially severe if the future climate does not provide supplemental moisture to offset higher evaporative demand.

  18. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talpe, Matthieu, J.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Solomon, Sean C.; Vilas, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar images dating back two decades show that the floors of some polar craters on Mercury host radar-bright deposits that have been proposed to consist of frozen volatiles. Several hypotheses have been put forth to explain their source, including volcanic outgassing, chemical sputtering, and deposition of exogenous water ice. Calculations show that volatiles are thermally stable in permanently shadowed areas. An earlier study of the depths of north polar craters determined with photoclinometric techniques applied to Mariner 10 images yielded the conclusion that the mean ratio of crater depth d to rim-crest diameter D for craters hosting polar deposits is two-thirds that of the mean ratio for a comparable population of neighboring craters lacking such deposits. This result could be explained by (though doesn't require) the presence of a thick layer of volatiles within the polar deposit-hosting craters. Here we use altimetric profiles and topographic maps obtained by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) to revisit this analysis. MLA is an instrument on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has been orbiting Mercury since March 2011. MLA transmits a 1064-nm laser pulse at 8 Hz during MESSENGER's trajectory over Mercury s surface. The MLA illuminates surface areas averaging between 15 m and 100 m in diameter, spaced approx 400 m apart along the spacecraft ground track. The radial precision of individual measurements is <1 m, and the current accuracy with respect to Mercury s center of mass is better than 20 m. As of mid-December 2011, MLA coverage had reached to 15 S and has yielded a comprehensive map of the topography of Mercury s northern hemisphere. The MLA data are used here to quantify the shapes of craters in the north polar region and to avoid the shadowing bias of photoclinometric techniques.

  19. Future water availability in North African dams simulated by high-resolution regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramblay, Yves; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Somot, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    In North Africa, the countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia are already experiencing water scarcity and a strong interannual variability of precipitation. To better manage their existing water resources, several dams and reservoirs have been built on most large river catchments. The objective of this study is to provide quantitative scenarios of future changes in water availability for the 47 major dams and reservoirs catchments located in North Africa. An ensemble of regional climate models (RCM) with a spatial resolution of 12km, driven by different general circulation models (GCM), from the EuroCORDEX experiment have been considered to analyze the projected changes on temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) for two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two time horizons (2040-2065 and 2065-2090). PET is estimated from RCM outputs either with the FAO-Penman-Monteith (PM) equation, requiring air temperature, relative humidity, net radiation and wind, or with the Hargreave Samani (HS) equation, requiring only air temperature. The water balance is analyzed by comparing the climatic demand and supply of water, considering that for most of these catchments groundwater storage is negligible over long time periods. Results indicated a future temperature increase for all catchments between +1.8° and +4.2°, depending on the emission scenario and the time period considered. Precipitation is projected to decrease between -14% to -27%, mainly in winter and spring, with a strong East to West gradient. PET computed from PM or HS formulas provided very similar estimates and projections, ranging between +7% to +18%. Changes in PET are mostly driven by rising temperatures and are greatest during dry summer months than for the wet winter season. Therefore the increased PET has a lower impact than declining precipitation on future water availability, which is expected to decrease by -19% to -33% on average.

  20. Nonmethane hydrocarbons at Pico Mountain, Azores: 1. Oxidation chemistry in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, D.; Tanner, D. M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Parrish, D. D.

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) at the Pico Mountain observatory at 2225 m asl on Pico Island, Azores, Portugal, from August 2004 to August 2005 (in part overlapping with the field campaign of the International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation study) were used to investigate NMHC sources and seasonal oxidation chemistry in the central North Atlantic region. Levels of anthropogenic NMHC were characteristic of the marine free troposphere. Their concentrations were low compared to continental sites at higher northern latitudes, but higher than data reported from a similarly located Pacific mountain site at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. These higher NMHC levels are indicative of a greater influence of the adjacent continents on air composition at Pico. Substantially enhanced NMHC concentrations during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were attributed to long-range transport of biomass burning plumes originating from fires in northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. This finding exemplifies the continuing impact of biomass burning plumes on atmospheric composition and chemistry many days downwind of these emission sources. Seasonal cycles with lower NMHC concentrations and lower ratios of more reactive to less reactive NMHC during summer reflect the higher degree of photochemical processing occurring during transport. The NMHC concentrations indicate no significant role of chlorine atom oxidation on NMHC. Ozone above 35 ppbv was measured at Pico Mountain throughout all seasons. Enhanced ozone levels were observed in air that had relatively "fresh" photochemical signatures (e.g., ln [propane]/[ethane] > -2.5). During spring-summer air that was more processed ("older" air with ln [propane]/[ethane] < -2.5) on average had lower ozone levels (down to <20 ppbv). This relationship indicates that conditions in the lower free troposphere over the mid-North Atlantic during the spring and summer lead to net photochemical ozone destruction

  1. Regional Climate and Streamflow Projections in North America Under IPCC CMIP5 Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. I.; Castro, C. L.; Troch, P. A. A.; Mukherjee, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado River system is the predominant source of water supply for the Southwest U.S. and is already fully allocated, making the region's environmental and economic health particularly sensitive to annual and multi-year streamflow variability. Observed streamflow declines in the Colorado Basin in recent years are likely due to synergistic combination of anthropogenic global warming and natural climate variability, which are creating an overall warmer and more extreme climate. IPCC assessment reports have projected warmer and drier conditions in arid to semi-arid regions (e.g. Solomon et al. 2007). The NAM-related precipitation contributes to substantial Colorado streamflows. Recent climate change studies for the Southwest U.S. region project a dire future, with chronic drought, and substantially reduced Colorado River flows. These regional effects reflect the general observation that climate is being more extreme globally, with areas climatologically favored to be wet getting wetter and areas favored to be dry getting drier (Wang et al. 2012). Multi-scale downscaling modeling experiments are designed using recent IPCC AR5 global climate projections, which incorporate regional climate and hydrologic modeling components. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) has been selected as the main regional modeling tool; the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) will be used to generate streamflow projections for the Colorado River Basin. The WRF domain is set up to follow the CORDEX-North America guideline with 25km grid spacing, and VIC model is individually calibrated for upper and lower Colorado River basins in 1/8° resolution. The multi-scale climate and hydrology study aims to characterize how the combination of climate change and natural climate variability is changing cool and warm season precipitation. Further, to preserve the downscaled RCM sensitivity and maintain a reasonable climatology mean based on observed record, a new bias correction

  2. Drivers of diel and regional variations of halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Ziska, F.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Krüger, K.; Peeken, I.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2014-02-01

    Methyl iodide (CH3I), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which are produced naturally in the oceans, take part in ozone chemistry both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The significance of oceanic upwelling regions for emissions of these trace gases in the global context is still uncertain although they have been identified as important source regions. To better quantify the role of upwelling areas in current and future climate, this paper analyzes major factors that influenced halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic including the Mauritanian upwelling during the DRIVE expedition. Diel and regional variability of oceanic and atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 was determined along with biological and physical parameters at six 24 h-stations. Low oceanic concentrations of CH3I from 0.1-5.4 pmol L-1 were equally distributed throughout the investigation area. CHBr3 and CH2Br2 from 1.0 to 42.4 pmol L-1 and to 9.4 pmol L-1, respectively were measured with maximum concentrations close to the Mauritanian coast. Atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3, and CH2Br2 of up to 3.3, 8.9, and 3.1 ppt, respectively were detected above the upwelling, as well as up to 1.8, 12.8, and 2.2 ppt at the Cape Verdean coast. While diel variability in CH3I emissions could be mainly ascribed to oceanic non-biological production, no main driver was identified for its emissions over the entire study region. In contrast, biological parameters showed the greatest influence on the regional distribution of sea-to-air fluxes of bromocarbons. The diel impact of wind speed on bromocarbon emissions increased with decreasing distance to the coast. The height of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) influenced halocarbon emissions via its influence on atmospheric mixing ratios. Oceanic and atmospheric halocarbons correlated well in the study region, and in combination with high oceanic CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 concentrations, local hot spots of atmospheric halocarbons could

  3. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welker, C.; Faust, E.

    2013-01-01

    The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  4. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  5. North-south asymmetry of eolian features in Martian polar regions - Analysis based on crater-related wind markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.

    1981-01-01

    Crater-related wind markers in the north and south polar regions of Mars are analyzed in a study of possible north-south asymmetries in wind activity. Features including crater splotches and associated streaks, and depositional, erosional, frost and frost-sediment streaks were identified and analyzed as wind direction indicators on Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 images of areas poleward of + or - 40 deg latitude. The wind streaks reveal eolian activity at present to be strongest in the north in winter and in the south in spring, due to the hemispherical asymmetry in climate. The alignment of the more massive intercrater dune fields with the presently strongest wind may reflect a longer-term asymmetry in spring flows, as the reorientation times of the dunes exceeded the period of climate asymmetry cycles. Finally, a wider distribution of dune latitudes in the southern polar region is noted to be suggestive of the greater effectiveness of windflow from the south pole.

  6. Fellow travellers: a concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background House mice (Mus musculus) are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings in Norway and the British Isles. Norwegian Viking activity also extended further westwards in the North Atlantic with the settlement of Iceland, short-lived colonies in Greenland and a fleeting colony in Newfoundland in 1000 AD. Here we investigate whether house mouse mtDNA sequences reflect human history in these other regions as well. Results House mice samples from Iceland, whether from archaeological Viking Age material or from modern-day specimens, had an identical mtDNA haplotype to the clade previously linked with Norwegian Vikings. From mtDNA and microsatellite data, the modern-day Icelandic mice also share the low genetic diversity shown by their human hosts on Iceland. Viking Age mice from Greenland had an mtDNA haplotype deriving from the Icelandic haplotype, but the modern-day Greenlandic mice belong to an entirely different mtDNA clade. We found no genetic association between modern Newfoundland mice and the Icelandic/ancient Greenlandic mice (no ancient Newfoundland mice were available). The modern day Icelandic and Newfoundland mice belong to the subspecies M. m. domesticus, the Greenlandic mice to M. m. musculus. Conclusions In the North Atlantic region, human settlement history over a thousand years is reflected remarkably by the mtDNA phylogeny of house mice. In Iceland, the mtDNA data show the arrival and continuity of the house mouse population to the present day, while in Greenland the data suggest the arrival, subsequent extinction and recolonization of house mice - in both places mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the humans, their presence was

  7. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  8. Characterization of the partial RNA1 and RNA2 3' untranslated region of tomato ringspot virus isolates from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 3' non-translated regions (NTRs) of RNA1 and RNA2 of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are long and virtually identical. In this study, sequences containing most of the 3’ NTRs (1168-1265 bp) were determined from 18 ToRSV isolates collected from fruit trees, small fruits, and grapevines in North Am...

  9. Active Mass Wasting of Ices in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Byrne, S.; Pathare, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    The HiRISE camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has discovered two forms of mass-wasting in the north-polar region. One is the scarpward retreat of bright layers of the north polar basal unit (BU, immediately underlying the north polar layered deposits, NPLD) and the overlying NPLD by fracture-controlled and undercutting-assisted piecewise failure of layer edges, resulting in rockfalls and rockslides, called blockfalls here. This is important as it suggests an alternative, significant mode of erosion in addition to sublimation which is traditionally held account-able for erosion of polar surfaces. The other form, caught in-action during imaging, comprises falls and avalanches of frost and dust over a few steep NPLD scarps during early spring. Here we report the latest findings in both of these dramatic and currently active processes and assess their role in the evolution and history of polar deposits. NPLD and BU mass wasting: Typical evidence of recent blockfall activity is in the form of blocks, flows, and debris on BU slopes. In a few cases, the appearance of new blocks in subsequent images proves this process is ongo-ing. In general, [likely] active outcrops have a higher overall MOLA-derived slope than [likely] quiescent outcrops (those with a lack of debris and abundance of sand on the BU). Furthermore, none of the NPLD peripheral scarps without BU exposure have slopes above 40°. This suggests BU exposure and this type of mass wasting play a role in maintaining and possibly creating over-steepened NPLD scarps (often 45°-65°, with sections approaching vertical). The lower-sloped NPLD scarps with no BU present also do not display the severe fracturing that characterizes steep NPLD cliffs directly above BU exposures. This may be due to fracture propagation from undercutting by the BU, thermal stresses induced by rapid and intense heating on steepened slopes with high solar incidence angles, or rapid uncovering of ice that was under compressive stresses

  10. Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North Tien-Shan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tien-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in Tien-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the Tien-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in Tien-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in Tien-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North Tien-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North Tien-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and

  11. Evidence of added value in North American regional climate model hindcast simulations using ever-increasing horizontal resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Laprise, René; Winger, Katja

    2016-07-01

    The study of regional rainfall trends over South Asia is critically important for food security and economy, as both these factors largely depend on the availability of water. In this study, South Asian summer monsoon rainfall trends on seasonal and monthly (June-September) time scales have been investigated using three observational data sets. Our analysis identify a dipole-type structure in rainfall trends over the region north of the Indo-Pak subcontinent, with significant increasing trends over the core monsoon region of Pakistan and significant decreasing trends over the central-north India and adjacent areas. The dipole is also evident in monthly rainfall trend analyses, which is more prominent in July and August. We show, in particular, that the strengthening of northward moisture transport over the Arabian Sea is a likely reason for the significant positive trend of rainfall in the core monsoon region of Pakistan. In contrast, over the central-north India region, the rainfall trends are significantly decreasing due to the weakening of northward moisture transport over the Bay of Bengal. The leading empirical orthogonal functions clearly show the strengthening (weakening) patterns of vertically integrated moisture transport over the Arabian Sea (Bay of Bengal) in seasonal and monthly interannual time scales. The regression analysis between the principal components and rainfall confirm the dipole pattern over the region. Our results also suggest that the extra-tropical phenomena could influence the mean monsoon rainfall trends over Pakistan by enhancing the cross-equatorial flow of moisture into the Arabian Sea.

  12. Revised correlation of Silurian Provincial Series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic units and δ13Ccarb chemostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Brett, Carlton E.; Melchin, Michael J.; Mannik, Peep; Kleffner, Mark A.; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Loydell, David K.; Munnecke, Axel; Jeppsson, Lennart; Corradini, Carlo; Brunton, Frank R.; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent revisions to the biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic assignment of strata from the type area of the Niagaran Provincial Series (a regional chronostratigraphic unit) have demonstrated the need to revise the chronostratigraphic correlation of the Silurian System of North America. Recently, the working group to restudy the base of the Wenlock Series has developed an extremely high-resolution global chronostratigraphy for the Telychian and Sheinwoodian stages by integrating graptolite and conodont biostratigraphy with carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) chemostratigraphy. This improved global chronostratigraphy has required such significant chronostratigraphic revisions to the North American succession that much of the Silurian System in North America is currently in a state of flux and needs further refinement. This report serves as an update of the progress on recalibrating the global chronostratigraphic correlation of North American Provincial Series and Stage boundaries in their type area. The revised North American classification is correlated with global series and stages as well as regional classifications used in the United Kingdom, the East Baltic, Australia, China, the Barrandian, and Altaj. Twenty-four potential stage slices, based primarily on graptolite and conodont zones and correlated to the global series and stages, are illustrated alongside a new composite ??13Ccarb curve for the Silurian. Conodont, graptolite, isotope, New York, Ontario, series, Silurian, stage. ?? 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  13. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  14. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter.

    PubMed

    Zuber, M T; Smith, D E; Solomon, S C; Abshire, J B; Afzal, R S; Aharonson, O; Fishbaugh, K; Ford, P G; Frey, H V; Garvin, J B; Head, J W; Ivanov, A B; Johnson, C L; Muhleman, D O; Neumann, G A; Pettengill, G H; Phillips, R J; Sun, X; Zwally, H J; Banerdt, W B; Duxbury, T C

    1998-12-11

    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  15. Chlorantraniliprole susceptibility in Leptinotarsa decemlineata in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Wei-Ping; Guo, Wen-Chao; Xia, Zhen-Han; Fu, Wen-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2012-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region has evolved resistance to various types of insecticides. Chlorantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds and activates ryanodine receptors. It exhibited excellent efficacy against L. decemlineata in several field trails in Europe. In the present paper, the susceptibility of L. decemlineata fourth-instar larvae derived from six field populations and L. decemlineata adults derived from three field populations to chlorantraniliprole was determined by a topical application. The fourth-instar larvae were substantially more susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than adults, although the range of susceptibility was far greater among the fourth-instar larvae. Regarding stomach toxicities, adult beetles were less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than larvae. Chlorantraniliprole was most toxic to second-instar larvae, followed by third- and fourth-instar larvae. These data suggested that the appropriate timing for chlorantraniliprole spraying is the early larval stage. Moreover, the synergistic activities of chlorantraniliprole in combination with triphenyl phosphate, diethyl maleate, or piperonyl butoxide against fourth-instar larvae from two field populations and adults from one field population were tested. Piperonyl butoxide had synergistic effects with chlorantraniliprole against fourth-instar larvae but not against adult beetles. Conversely, triphenyl phosphate and diethyl maleate exerted little synergistic effects. It appears that there is a potential risk of resistance against chlorantraniliprole resulting from cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. PMID:22606826

  16. Nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmol N L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C (but was lower than 24.3 °C) and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). Clone library analysis results indicated that nifH gene sequences were omnipresent throughout the investigation period. During the period when nitrogen fixation was detected (early summer to fall), the genes affiliated with UCYN-A, Trichodesmium, and γ-proteobacterial phylotype γ-24774A11 were frequently recovered. In contrast, when nitrogen fixation was undetectable (winter to spring), many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria) were recovered. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that UCYN-A was relatively abundant from early to late summer compared with Trichodesmium and γ-24774A11, whereas Trichodesmium abundance was the highest among the three groups during fall.

  17. Observations of the north polar region of Mars from the Mars orbiter laser altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Afzal, R. S.; Aharonson, O.; Fishbaugh, K.; Ford, P. G.; Frey, H. V.; Garvin, J. B.; Head, J. W.; Ivanov, A. B.; Johnson, C. L.; Muhleman, D. O.; Neumann, G. A.; Pettengill, G. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Sun, X.; Zwally, H. J.; Banerdt, W. B.; Duxbury, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    Elevations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) have been used to construct a precise topographic map of the martian north polar region. The northern ice cap has a maximum elevation of 3 kilometers above its surroundings but lies within a 5-kilometer-deep hemispheric depression that is contiguous with the area into which most outflow channels emptied. Polar cap topography displays evidence of modification by ablation, flow, and wind and is consistent with a primarily H2O composition. Correlation of topography with images suggests that the cap was more spatially extensive in the past. The cap volume of 1.2 x 10(6) to 1.7 x 10(6) cubic kilometers is about half that of the Greenland ice cap. Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of CO2 that condensed out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamical structure likely caused by the interaction of propagating wave fronts with surface topography.

  18. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  19. Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.

  20. Amplitude and frequency of temperature extremes over the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogaj, M.; Yiou, P.; Parey, S.; Malek, F.; Naveau, P.

    2006-05-01

    Recent studies on extreme events have focused on the potential change of their intensity during the 20th century, but their frequency evolution has often been overlooked although its socio-economic impact is equally important. This paper focuses on extreme events of high and low temperatures and their amplitude and frequency changes over the last 60 years in the North Atlantic (NA) region. We analyze the temporal evolution of the amplitude and frequency of extreme events through the parameters of an extreme value distribution applied to NCEP reanalysis for the winter and summer seasons. We examine the relation of the statistics of extremes with greenhouse gas forcing and an atmospheric circulation index and obtain a spatial distribution of the trends of those extreme parameters. We find that the frequency of warm extremes increases over most of the NA while their magnitude does not vary as systematically. Apart from the Labrador Sea and parts of Scandinavia, the features of winter cold extremes exhibit decreasing or no trends.

  1. On Not Knowing Zoonotic Diseases: Pastoralists’ Ethnoveterinary Knowledge in the Far North Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Mark; Ewing, Daniel; Garabed, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the implications of Murray Last’s (1981) Knowing About Not Knowing for the study of ethnoveterinary knowledge of mobile pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Specifically, we ask two interrelated questions: (1) what is the nature of this knowledge, and (2) what is the best way to study it? We conducted a study of pastoralists’ knowledge of human and animal infectious diseases to evaluate the claim that mobile pastoralists in the Chad Basin do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. We used a combination of free lists and semi-structured interviews to study pastoralists’ knowledge. The results suggest that pastoralists do not have a concept for zoonotic diseases. Moreover, we found considerable variation in pastoralists’ ethnoveterinary knowledge and examples of not knowing, which contrasts with previous studies that do not describe much variation in ethnoveterinary knowledge. In our discussion, we consider to what extent descriptions of ethnoveterinary knowledge are the product of researchers’ conceptual framework and methodology. PMID:23990687

  2. Active tectonics of North Haji Abad (Hormozgan region) in south of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shafiei bafti, amir

    2014-05-01

    Zagros Active Fold -thrust Belt is situated in the northern margin of the Arabian Plat and formed due to shortening, thickening and uplift of tethys sedimentary basin between Arabian and Iranian plates. In this study, the rate of uplift in the northern margin of the Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are examined. The Zagros fault zone in this region is composed of a set faults, including Deragah, Haji Abad, Tezerj and several other faults and also we call these branches from F1 to F8. These segments puts from northwest to the East- Southeast. Based on field surveys and Geological maps, we prepared a structural map from major faults of Zagros fault system for identify faults pattern and estimating of uplift rate movements in Zagros fault. Three methods used to calculation of uplift rate: A: Asymmetry index Accordance with the procedure, in studied area, northeast drainage are longer than of southwest drainage and east minor drainages also longer than the west side drainages, Uplifting in this region is characterized by mentioned asymmetry factor. The amount of this index is AF=71.81. B. Interaction between the faults movements and erosion process We comparison contrast between uplifting movement rates and erosion rates in different parts of studied region by Smf and other indexes. Average amount of Smf=1.1. C. Evaluation of Uplift rate of alluvial terraces was performed by sediment ages and terraces height. We surveyed Quaternary facieses which have ages between 17,000 and 30,000 years old. the rate of uplifting for each fault is follows : Deragah fault and F8 fault between 1.0 to 1.85mm per year and F7, F6, F5, and F4 faults, have a rate Uplifting between 0.6 to 1.0 mm per year and the rate of Uplift for other faults is between 0.04 to 0.06 mm per year. According to our studies, uplift rates in north -east and south-west more than other regions The minimum rate at different stations are about 0.5mm/y to 0.93mm/y and its maximum is 0.88 mm/y to 1.47mm/y.

  3. Dissolved Organic Matter in Headwater Streams: Compositional Variability across Climatic Regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, R.; Yamashita, Y.; Maie, N.; Cooper, W. T.; Dittmar, T.; Dodds, W. K.; Jones, J. B.; Myoshi, T.; Ortiz-Zayas, J. R.; Podgorski, D. C.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-10-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the largest organic matter pool in freshwater systems, but much of it remains molecularly uncharacterized. Although freshwater systems cover only a small area of the earth's surface, inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. The traditional idea that rivers are simply conduits for refractory carbon delivery to coastal areas is inconsistent with carbon flux estimates, and streams have been shown to serve as reactors for DOM cycling. The overall quality of DOM, and its associated reactivity, can be related to its chemical composition and molecular structure. However, the variability of DOM composition in freshwater ecosystems, particularly in headwater streams, is poorly characterized. Detailed molecular studies of DOM from small streams across climatic regions, which could provide critical information regarding carbon dynamics on a more global scale, have not been performed. To address these issues, this study applies a multi-method analytical approach in an attempt to assess molecular characteristics of DOM and ultrafiltered DOM (UDOM) in headwater streams from different climatic regions in North America. In general terms the chemical and molecular characteristics of UDOM from six different biomes were determined in unsurpassed detail to feature some clear general similarities but also specific differences. While the degree of similarity is remarkable, and suggests similar source strengths, such as soil-derived organic matter and/or similar diagenetic degradation processes for DOM from vastly different environments, each sample was clearly unique in its overall composition, featuring some distinct molecular patterns for at least one or more of the analytical determinations. Molecular and compositional differences of DOM from headwater streams should result from variations in DOM sources and localized environmental conditions, and consequently feature different photo- and bio-reactivity and

  4. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: North Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Brenda L.; And Others

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summaries data collected from 273 North Dakota farm operators (a 39% response) and 232 spouses (a 33% response) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  5. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: Hydroclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watras, C. J.; Read, J. S.; Holman, K. D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A. J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13 years) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables, and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P - E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the midlatitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by an ~12 years downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  6. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  7. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Reactive Nitrogen over the North Atlantic Flight Corridor Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D.; Liu, S. C.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LS) was estimated using the NO(y)-O3 correlation obtained during the SASS Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) carried out over the US continent and North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) region in October and November 1997. To evaluate the large scale impact, we made a reference NO(y)-O3 relationship in air masses, upon which aircraft emissions were considered to have little impact. For this purpose, the integrated input of NO(x) from aircraft into an air mass along a 10-d back trajectory (DELTA-NO(y)) was calculated based on the ANCAT/EC2 emission inventory. The excess NO(y) (dNO(y)) was calculated from the observed NO(y) and the reference NO(y)-O3 relationship. As a result, a weak positive correlation was found between the dNO(y) and DELTA-NO(y), and dNO(y) and NO(x)/NO(y) values, while no positive correlation between the dNO(y) and CO values was found, suggesting that dNO(y) values can be used as a measure of the NO(x) input from aircraft emissions. The excess NO(y) values calculated from another NO(y)-O3 reference relationship made using in-situ CN data also agreed with these dNO(y) values, within the uncertainties. At the NAFC region (45 N - 60 N), the median value of dNO(y) in the troposphere increased with altitude above 9 km and reached 70 pptv (20% of NO(y)) at 11 km. The excess NO(x) was estimated to be about half of the dNO(y) values, corresponding to 30% of the observed NO(x) level. Higher dNO(y) values were generally found in air masses where O3 = 75 - 125 ppbv, suggesting a more pronounced effect around the tropopause. The median value of dNO(y) in the stratosphere at the NAFC region at 8.5 - 11.5 km was about 120 pptv. The higher dNO(y) values in the LS were probably due to the accumulated effect of aircraft emissions, given the long residence time of affected air in the LS. Similar dNO(y) values were also obtained in air masses sampled over

  8. Role of multifractal analysis in understanding the preparation zone for large size earthquake in the North-Western Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teotia, S. S.; Kumar, D.

    2011-02-01

    Seismicity has power law in space, time and magnitude distributions and same is expressed by the fractal dimension D, Omori's exponent p and b-value. The spatio-temporal patterns of epicenters have heterogeneous characteristics. As the crust gets self-organised into critical state, the spatio-temporal clustering of epicenters emerges to heterogeneous nature of seismicity. To understand the heterogeneous characteristics of seismicity in a region, multifractal studies hold promise to characterise the dynamics of region. Multifractal study is done on seismicity data of the North-Western Himalaya region which mainly involve seismogenic region of 1905 Kangra great earthquake in the North-Western Himalaya region. The seismicity data obtained from USGS catalogue for time period 1973-2009 has been analysed for the region which includes the October 2005 Muzafrabad-Kashmir earthquake (Mw =7.6). Significant changes have been observed in generalised dimension Dq, Dq spectra and b-value. The significant temporal changes in generalised dimension Dq, b-value and Dq-q spectra prior to occurrence of Muzaffrabad-Kashmir earthquake relates to distribution of epicenters in the region. The decrease in generalised dimension and b-value observed in our study show the relationship with the clustering of seismicity as is expected in self-organised criticality behaviour of earthquake occurrences. Such study may become important in understanding the preparation zone of large and great size earthquake in various tectonic regions.

  9. Hydrology of the North Cascades region, Washington: 2. A proposed hydrometeorological streamflow prediction method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangborn, Wendell V.; Rasmussen, Lowell A.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of a linear relationship between winter (October-April) precipitation and annual runoff from a drainage basin (Rasmussen and Tangborn, 1976) a physically reasonable model for predicting summer (May-September) streamflow from drainages in the North Cascades region was developed. This hydrometeorological prediction method relates streamflow for a season beginning on the day of prediction to the storage (including snow, ice, soil moisture, and groundwater) on that day. The spring storage is inferred from an input-output relationship based on the principle of conservation of mass: spring storage equals winter precipitation on the basin less winter runoff from the basin and less winter evapotranspiration, which is presumed to be small. The method of prediction is based on data only from the years previous to the one for which the prediction is made, and the system is revised each year as data for the previous year become available. To improve the basin storage estimate made in late winter or early spring, a short-season runoff prediction is made. The errors resulting from this short-term prediction are used to revise the storage estimate and improve the later prediction. This considerably improves the accuracy of the later prediction, especially for periods early in the summer runoff season. The optimum length for the test period appears to be generally less than a month for east side basins and between 1 and 2 months for those on the west side of the Cascade Range. The time distribution of the total summer runoff can be predicted when this test season is used so that on May 1 monthly streamflow for the May-September season can be predicted. It was found that summer precipitation and the time of minimum storage are two error sources that were amenable to analysis. For streamflow predictions in seasons beginning in early spring the deviation of the subsequent summer precipitation from a long-period average will contribute up to 53% of the prediction error

  10. Implementation of EU discharge guidelines at IVAR's Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant of North Jaeren, Stavanger, Norway.

    PubMed

    Tornes, O

    2001-01-01

    Norway is a leading country on wastewater treatment comprising chemical precipitation processes. This is because Norwegian effluent standards to the North Sea have traditionally focused on phosphorus removal. In most cases, chemical treatment therefore has been considered to give lower investment and operating costs than biological treatment. Norwegian wastewater policy and management is based on the EU guidelines resulting from the EEA (European Economic Area) Agreement. According to the 1991 Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive, this will in most cases require secondary treatment. However, primary treatment can be accepted for plants larger than 10,000 PT with effluents to less sensitive coastal areas, if no negative environmental impacts can be proved. The main objective of the Regional Water, Sewerage and Waste Company (IVAR) is to comply with the prevailing effluent limits at lowest possible cost. During the past four years, IVAR has therefore undertaken comprehensive optimising of the precipitation process including full-scale experiments with different coagulant dosing control systems and different types of coagulants. IVAR also accomplished a feasibility study of introducing biological treatment as an alternative to chemical treatment. Under the prevailing frame conditions of discharge requirements and sludge deposit costs, it is not economically feasible to change to organic coagulants or biological treatment. This conclusion might have to be altered resulting from the implementation of new EU regulations and increasing sludge deposit costs. This paper presents results from full-scale experiments, extracts from the feasibility study and a comparison of costs. Furthermore, the practical consequences of implementing the EU-guidelines are discussed.

  11. Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kothawale, D. R.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during the summer monsoon season has been investigated using dynamic, thermodynamic, cloud microphysics and cloud dynamic (CMCD) forcings. Daily rainfall data has been used to understand rainfall variability. Daily ECMWF wind data for the period 2009-2011 have been used to study the wind divergence, shear and vertical velocity profiles. Daily thermodynamic parameters from upper air soundings of Hyderabad (17.448°N, 78.381°E), have been examined. Aircraft data have been used to study CMCD parameters. The divergence is found between surfaces to 850 hPa level whereas the convergence is at 850 hPa, which comes down to surface level during presence of low pressure systems. The divergence is observed at low (700 hPa), mid (600-300 hPa) and upper (250-150 hPa) tropospheric levels. In consequence of these divergence structures, three types of cloud systems viz. shallow, congestus and deep are developed with bases just above 850 hPa and tops at corresponding three divergent levels. The vertical profiles of relative humidity observed by radiosonde data have been analyzed to get the frequency distribution of shallow, congestus and deep clouds. The highest frequency observed is that of congestus clouds. The thermodynamic structure shows dry surface level and warm and moist middle troposphere with tongues of dry air and multilevel inversions which have been attributed to advection of aerosol-rich dry air. The aircraft observations showed high aerosol concentrations from surface to 5 km, polluted clouds with cloud droplet effective radius smaller than that required for collision-coalescence process. The factors which are responsible for causing low rainfall over the rain-shadow area have been identified.

  12. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  13. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinal plants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. Results A total of 106 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinal plants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinal plants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still widely used for treatment

  14. The impact of ENSO and the NAO on extreme winter precipitation in North America in observations and regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whan, Kirien; Zwiers, Francis

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between winter precipitation in North America and indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions with the indices as covariates. Both covariates have a statistically significant influence on precipitation that is well simulated by two regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5. The observed influence of the NAO on extreme precipitation is largest in eastern North America, with the likelihood of a negative phase extreme rainfall event decreased in the north and increased in the south under the positive phase of the NAO. This pattern is generally well simulated by the RCMs although there are some differences in the extent of influence, particularly south of the Great Lakes. A La Niña-magnitude extreme event is more likely to occur under El Niño conditions in California and the southern United States, and less likely in most of Canada and a region south of the Great Lakes. This broad pattern is also simulated well by the RCMs but they do not capture the increased likelihood in California. In some places the extreme precipitation response in the RCMs to external forcing from a covariate is of the opposite sign, despite use of the same lateral boundary conditions and dynamical core. This demonstrates the importance of model physics for teleconnections to extreme precipitation.

  15. Regional aspects of the North American land surface: Atmosphere interactions and their contributions to the variability and predictability of the regional hydrologic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yan

    In this study, we investigate the pathways responsible for soil moisture-precipitation interactions and the mechanisms for soil moisture memory at regional scales through analysis of NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis dataset, which is derived from a system using the mesoscale Eta model coupled with Noah land surface model. The consideration of the relative availability of water and energy leads to the relative strengths of land-atmosphere interaction and soil moisture memory, which are related to the predictability of the regional hydrologic cycle. The seasonal and geographical variations in estimated interaction and memory may establish the relative predictability among the North American basins. The potential for seasonal predictability of the regional hydrologic cycle is conditioned by the foreknowledge of the land surface soil state, which contributes significantly to summer precipitation: (i) The precipitation variability and predictability by strong land-atmosphere interactions are most important in the monsoon regions of Mexico; (ii) Although strong in interactions, the poor soil moisture memory in the Colorado basin and the western part of the Mississippi basin lowers the predictability; (iii) The Columbia basin and the eastern part of the Mississippi basin also stand out as low predictability basins, in that they have good soil moisture memory, but weak strength in interactions, limiting their predictabilities. Our analysis has revealed a highly physically and statistically consistent picture, providing solid support to studies of predictability based on model simulations.

  16. Bibliography of hydrologic and water-quality investigations conducted in or near the Albermarle-Pamlico Sounds Region, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Nelson, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    A bibliography containing 1,100 citations is presented. The cited works are primarily reports of investigations of the effects of land use and land-use change on water quality, artificial drainage, hydrology and hydrodynamics, and water quality in the Albemarle-Pamlico Sounds region, North Carolina. The bibliography is indexed according to research topic and geographic location of the investigation. the bibliography is also computerized and has been transferred to the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study data-management system.

  17. Characterization of Features Associated with Volatile Removal in the Martian North Circumpolar Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbaugh, K. E.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    Building upon previous studies of the north polar region of Mars [e.g., 1, 2, 3, and 4], we [5] outlined evidence for retreat of the polar cap from the 180° W direction, including the presence of polar material remnants and kettle-like features in an arc of irregular, low-lying topography (the Olympia Depression) south of and concentric to Olympia Planitia [5]. In this study, we further characterize and categorize features in this region using Viking and MOC images and high-resolution MOLA data. Within the Olympia Depression are large, deep depressions interpreted to be kettle-like features [5] higher-standing topography surrounding these depressions (some of which is interpreted to be polar material remnants [5]). Together, these constitute the rough terrain. The irregular shape and rough, high-standing floor of the rough terrain is not consistent with these being degraded impact craters. These features appear to have undergone significant removal of volatiles and subsequent collapse to form depressions. Evidence of ridges which may be moraines, sedimentation at the margins and drainage channels has also been found. Dome-like features lie just to the south of the rough terrain. The morphology and dimensions are dissimilar from Martian south polar region and terrestrial volcanic domes [13] in that the width to height ratio is much larger and they are highly degraded. If these domes represent central peak structures, any evidence of rims is gone. Alternatively, these domes could be volatile-rich, representing early stages of what will become the rough terrain. We interpret the individual features of the Olympia Depression to represent kame and kettle topography, resulting from the ablation (melting and sublimation) and retreat of the polar cap. On Mars, the high concentration of polar deposit inter-layered debris (about 40%) will favor the development of kames as ablation occurs and sediment remains. The morphologic features within the Olympia Depression are

  18. Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Diana Y.; Krakauer, Nir Y.; Randerson, James T.; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E.; Southon, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon levels in annual plants provide a means to map out regional and continental-scale fossil fuel plumes in surface air. We collected corn (Zea mays) across North America during the summer of 2004. Plants from mountain regions of western North America showed the smallest influence of fossil fuel-derived CO2 with a mean Δ14C of 66.3‰ +/-1.7‰. Plants from eastern North America and from the Ohio-Maryland region showed a larger fossil fuel influence with a mean Δ14C of 58.8‰ +/- 3.9‰ and 55.2‰ +/- 2.3‰, respectively, corresponding to 2.7 ppm +/- 1.5 ppm and 4.3 ppm +/- 1.0 ppm of added fossil fuel CO2 relative to the mountain west. A model-data comparison suggests that surveys of annual plant Δ14C can provide a useful test of atmospheric mixing in transport models that are used to estimate the spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks.

  19. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  20. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  1. Strength Properties and Organic Carbon of Soils in the North Apalachian Region

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Owen, L B.; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2005-04-01

    Soil strength influenced by management and soil properties controls plant growth, root development, and soil-moisture relations. The impact of textural and structural parameters on soil strength is moderated by soil organic C (SOC) concentration. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess differences in soil strength and SOC concentration in watersheds under long-term (>15 yr) management practices in the North Appalachian region on a predominantly Typic Hapludults on undulating slopes (>6% slope). Seven watersheds without field replication under moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow, disk with beef cattle manure (DiskM), no-till with beef cattle manure (NTm), no-till with no beef cattle manure (NTnm), pasture, and forest were studied. Cone index (CI), shear strength, bulk density (b), volumetric moisture content (v), and SOC concentration were determined at the summit, backslope, and footslope landscape positions at the 0- to 10-, 10- to 20-, and 20- to 30-cm depths. The SOC concentration was slightly higher at the footslope than at the summit position in the cultivated watersheds. The b was lower at the footslope than at the summit in NTm (1.22 vs. 1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) and chisel (1.34 vs. 1.47 Mg m{sup -3}) treatments. Forest had the lowest CI (0.19 MPa), shear strength (6.11 kPa), and b (0.93 Mg m{sup -3}) and the highest SOC concentration (62.7 g kg{sup -1}), whereas MP had the highest CI (0.67 MPa), shear strength (25.5 kPa), b (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}), and the lowest SOC concentration (13.6 g kg{sup -1}) in the 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). The SOC concentration in NTm was 1.7 times higher than that in NTnm, and both no-till treatments had lower b (<1.21 Mg m{sup -3}) than MP (1.44 Mg m{sup -3}) at 0- to 10-cm depth (P < 0.01). Manuring decreased both CI and shear strength, but increased SOC concentration. The b, v, and SOC concentration were potential predictors of CI; whereas b and SOC concentration were of shear strength (r2 > 0.42; P < 0.01). Results show

  2. X-Ray Properties of Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field North Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandra, K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Arnaud, K.; Steidel, C. C.; Adelberger, K. L.; Gardner, J. P.; Teplitz, H. I.; Windhorst, R. A.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe the X-ray properties of a large sample of z approximately 3 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in the region of the Hubble Deep Field North, derived from the 1 Ms public Chandra observation. Of our sample of 148 LBGs, four are detected individually. This immediately gives a measure of the bright AGN (active galactic nuclei) fraction in these galaxies of approximately 3 per cent, which is in agreement with that derived from the UV (ultraviolet) spectra. The X-ray color of the detected sources indicates that they are probably moderately obscured. Stacking of the remainder shows a significant detection (6 sigma) with an average luminosity of 3.5 x 10(exp 41) erg/s per galaxy in the rest frame 2-10 keV band. We have also studied a comparison sample of 95 z approximately 1 "Balmer Break" galaxies. Eight of these are detected directly, with at least two clear AGN based on their high X-ray luminosity and very hard X-ray spectra respectively. The remainder are of relatively low luminosity (< 10(exp 42) erg/s, and the X-rays could arise from either AGN or rapid star-formation. The X-ray colors and evidence from other wavebands favor the latter interpretation. Excluding the clear AGN, we deduce a mean X-ray luminosity of 6.6 x 10(exp 40) erg/s, a factor approximately 5 lower than the LBGs. The average ratio of the UV and X-ray luminosities of these star forming galaxies L(sub UV)/L (sub X), however, is approximately the same at z = 1 as it is at z = 3. This scaling implies that the X-ray emission follows the current star formation rate, as measured by the UV luminosity. We use our results to constrain the star formation rate at z approximately 3 from an X-ray perspective. Assuming the locally established correlation between X-ray and far-IR (infrared) luminosity, the average inferred star formation rate in each Lyman break galaxy is found to be approximately 60 solar mass/yr, in excellent agreement with the extinction-corrected UV estimates. This provides an external

  3. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  4. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I; Ferse, Sebastian C A; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation.

  5. Local and Regional Impacts of Pollution on Coral Reefs along the Thousand Islands North of the Megacity Jakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Gunilla; Januar, Hedi I.; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Kunzmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coral reefs are challenged by multiple stressors due to growing urbanization, industrialization and coastal development. Coral reefs along the Thousand Islands off Jakarta, one of the largest megacities worldwide, have degraded dramatically over recent decades. The shift and decline in coral cover and composition has been extensively studied with a focus on large-scale gradients (i.e. regional drivers), however special focus on local drivers in shaping spatial community composition is still lacking. Here, the spatial impact of anthropogenic stressors on local and regional scales on coral reefs north of Jakarta was investigated. Results indicate that the direct impact of Jakarta is mainly restricted to inshore reefs, separating reefs in Jakarta Bay from reefs along the Thousand Islands further north. A spatial patchwork of differentially degraded reefs is present along the islands as a result of localized anthropogenic effects rather than regional gradients. Pollution is the main anthropogenic stressor, with over 80% of variation in benthic community composition driven by sedimentation rate, NO2, PO4 and Chlorophyll a. Thus, the spatial structure of reefs is directly related to intense anthropogenic pressure from local as well as regional sources. Therefore, improved spatial management that accounts for both local and regional stressors is needed for effective marine conservation. PMID:26378910

  6. Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jumaan, Aisha O; Ghanem, Soha; Taher, Jalaa; Braikat, Mhammed; Al Awaidy, Salah; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2013-12-30

    The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  7. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Greenland ice-core data have revealed large decadal climate variations over the North Atlantic that can be related to a major source of low-frequency variability, the North Atlantic Oscillation. Over the past decade, the Oscillation has remained in one extreme phase during the winters, contributing significantly to the recent wintertime warmth across Europe and to cold conditions in the northwest Atlantic. An evaluation of the atmospheric moisture budget reveals coherent large-scale changes since 1980 that are linked to recent dry conditions over southern Europe and the Mediterranean, whereas northern Europe and parts of Scandinavia have generally experienced wetter than normal conditions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Scale-dependent regional climate predictability over North America inferred from CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensemble simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqing; Li, Wei; Mann, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Through the analysis of ensembles of coupled model simulations and projections collected from CMIP3 and CMIP5, we demonstrate that a fundamental spatial scale limit might exist below which useful additional refinement of climate model predictions and projections may not be possible. That limit varies among climate variables and from region to region. We show that the uncertainty (noise) in surface temperature predictions (represented by the spread among an ensemble of global climate model simulations) generally exceeds the ensemble mean (signal) at horizontal scales below 1000 km throughout North America, implying poor predictability at those scales. More limited skill is shown for the predictability of regional precipitation. The ensemble spread in this case tends to exceed or equal the ensemble mean for scales below 2000 km. These findings highlight the challenges in predicting regionally specific future climate anomalies, especially for hydroclimatic impacts such as drought and wetness.

  9. Seismic hazard assessment for oil-and-gas-bearing shelf zones: A case study of the North Caspian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A. A.; Ivashchenko, A. I.; Kovachev, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Seismic hazard assessment is done for oil field areas in the North Caspian region by a method earlier successfully applied to other areas. The method involves general seismic zoning data, available regional databases on recurrence of seismic shaking, known models of ground motion attenuation in seismoactive regions, and data on geological and geophysical surveys in the studied area. The assigned level of seismic hazard of the region is refined using probabilistic analysis; additionally, disaggregation is made and accelerograms are synthesized (the latter are necessary for seismic microzoning of particular sites using the numerical nonlinear analysis of ground seismic response). The amplitude and spectral characteristics of ground motions are obtained which are necessary for seismic resistance design and construction of petroleum industry objects.

  10. Deep regional resistivity structure across the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin trends, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetotelluric data collected along four, regional scale, southwest-to-northeast profiles show deep resistivity structures beneath the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin gold trends in north-central Nevada, which appear consistent with tectonic breaks in the crust that possibly served as channels for hydrothermal fluids. It seems likely that gold deposits along these linear trends were, therefore, controlled by deep regional crustal fault systems. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of the magnetotelluric data generally show resistive (30 to 1,000 ohm-m) crustal blocks broken by narrow, sub-vertical, two-dimensional, conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) zones that are indicative of large-scale crustal fault zones. These inferred fault zones are regional in scale, trend southeast-to-northwest, and extend to mid-crustal (20 km) depths. The conductors are about 3 to 15 km wide, extend from 1 to 8 km below the surface to about 20 km depth, and show two-dimensional electrical structure with general north to northwesterly strikes. From connecting the locations of the conductors together, a single regional crustal fault zone can be inferred that is about 10 km wide within the upper crust and about 150-km long. It coincides with the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trend. The images also show regional changes in the resistive crust from north to south. Most of Reese River Valley and Boulder Valley are underlain by a thick (20 km) southwest-to-northeast section of conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) rock, suggesting that hightemperature fluids are more pervasive in this area (Battle Mountain Heat-Flow High), which implies that the crust beneath these valleys is more fractured than in the areas surveyed to the south

  11. Passive margin uplift around the North Atlantic region and its role in Northern Hemisphere late Cenozoic glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, Nicholas

    1996-02-01

    Tectonic-climatic models of late Cenozoic global cooling emphasize the importance of middle latitude uplifts (e.g., Tibetan Plateau and the American west) but ignore widespread tectonic events on the margins of the North Atlantic Ocean. Pleistocene glaciations, after 2.5 Ma, are characterized by circum North Atlantic continental ice sheets that formed by the coalescence of perennial snow fields on extensive plateau surfaces in eastern Canada, northwest Britain, and Scandinavia. Plateaus record Cenozoic uplift of peneplains in response to semisynchronous magmatic underplating and thermal buoyancy of rifted continental margins. High-standing plateaus are very sensitive to small reductions in summer temperature. As late Cenozoic climate cooling proceeded, driven by uplift in regions external to the North Atlantic region, elevated plateaus became sites for extensive snow fields and ultimately ice sheets. Circum-Atlantic uplift took place in the key latitudinal belt that is most sensitive to orbitally forced changes in solar irradiation; this, together with albedo effects from large snow fields, could have amplified the relatively weak Milankovitch signal.

  12. [Adaptation-compensatory response in adolescents, indigenous people North of Irkutsk region].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaia, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    A study of pro- and antioxidant status in healthy boys and girls adolescents' representatives Tofalars and Evenks compared to Caucasians newcomers. Revealed activation of the adaptive-compensatory processes in the body young men and women, indigenous peoples of the North as compared to Caucasians alien population, which was reflected statistically significant increase in non-enzymatic components of antioxidant defense system. PMID:25272710

  13. 78 FR 24700 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... 78 FR 16452, is extended. Comments must be received on or before June 17, 2013. The public hearings..., (303) 312-6281, Fallon.Gail@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 15, 2013, we published a... plants in North Dakota. See 78 FR 16452. Public hearings will be held on Wednesday, May 15, 2013, from...

  14. North Pacific region in the Paleogene and Neogene as an example of a semiclosed marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yu. B.

    2015-07-01

    Scenarios of different geological events in the Paleogene and Neogene evolution of the North Pacific ecosystem are considered with definition of five large stages in its development. The formation of biotic communities of large semiclosed systems in paratropical and boreal paleoenvironmemts, rates of their evolution, and influence of migration on their development are reconstructed.

  15. Underrepresentation of Women in the Academic Profession: A Comparative Analysis of the North American Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott; Gonzalez, Laura Padilla

    2013-01-01

    The present study addresses women's underrepresentation in the academic profession, as well as the need for policies and practices aimed at this issue. It compares underrepresentation of academic women in North American countries, and explores, throughout a bivariate analysis, personal, professional, as well as institutional variables related to…

  16. Development Priorities in the West River Region, North Dakota: A Social Attitude and Communication Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, John E.; Stamm, Keith R.

    Presenting a descriptive and prescriptive analysis of the social variables important to planning and informed public participation in the development of the West River Diversion Project in North Dakota (WRDP), this report is organized via the following sections: (1) Knowledge and Evaluation of the Project (How aware are people of the WRDP and its…

  17. 76 FR 60777 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... visibility in other states. See 76 FR 58570. To accommodate the Governor of North Dakota's request submitted... at the public hearings. Verbatim transcripts, in English, of the hearings and written statements will be included in the rulemaking docket. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental...

  18. [Adaptation-compensatory response in adolescents, indigenous people North of Irkutsk region].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaia, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2014-01-01

    A study of pro- and antioxidant status in healthy boys and girls adolescents' representatives Tofalars and Evenks compared to Caucasians newcomers. Revealed activation of the adaptive-compensatory processes in the body young men and women, indigenous peoples of the North as compared to Caucasians alien population, which was reflected statistically significant increase in non-enzymatic components of antioxidant defense system.

  19. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  20. Exploring the origin of ice-filled craters in the north polar region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovius, Niels; Conway, Susan; Barnie, T.; Besserer, J.; Lemouelic, S.; Read, N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the origins of enigmatic ice-filled craters in the north polar region of Mars. We test several explanations for their origin, namely: (1) as polar cap remnants [1] (2) accumulation independently of the polar cap, and (3) upwelling of subsurface water, analogous to either aufice or pingo formation on Earth. Each of these hypotheses has a significant impact on our understanding of Mars' recent geological and climatic history and the behaviour of water and water ice at high latitudes. We used several lines of evidence to assess the most likely formation mechanism. We first performed a crater survey based on THEMIS visual data and MOLA elevation data to identify any craters that had domal central lumps which were different from normal central peaks. From this survey we identified 17 craters for further study. These include Louth, Korolev, Dokka and other unnamed craters. Using data from orbiting spectrometers; OMEGA on ESA's Mars Express and CRISM on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter; we verified that the composition of the exposed central domes was predominantly water ice. We found the domes fell into three groups: (1) those completely covered by dunes, (2) those partially covered by dunes and (3) those with no dunes. We investigated the morphology and the relative position of the domes using MOLA elevation data. We found that the domes are always asymmetrically placed within the craters. However, this asymmetry could not easily be linked to wind directions as revealed by dune slip-faces [2]. The domes often have a moat-like structure and in some cases do not cover the entire crater floor, e.g. Louth Crater. From image data, we identified six craters which possessed internal stratigraphy, in the form of regularly spaced layers, and of these we have inspected three in detail. We found that the layers possess both strong sinuosity and high angle unconformities. We interpret the internal stratigraphy as representing a sequence of regular cyclic

  1. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.

    2016-07-01

    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  2. A new climatic classification of afforestation in Three-North regions of China with multi-source remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2015-10-01

    Afforestation and reforestation activities achieve high attention at the policy agenda as measures for carbon sequestration in order to mitigate climate change. The Three-North Shelter Forest Program, the largest ecological afforestation program worldwide, was launched in 1978 and will last until 2050 in the Three-North regions (accounting for 42.4 % of China's territory). Shelter forests of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program have exhibited severe decline after planting in 1978 due to lack of detailed climatic classification. Besides, a comprehensive assessment of climate adaptation for the current shelter forests was lacking. In this study, the aridity index determined by precipitation and reference evapotranspiration was employed to classify climatic zones for the afforestation program. The precipitation and reference evapotranspiration with 1-km resolution were estimated based on data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, respectively. Then, the detailed climatic classification for the afforestation program was obtained based on the relationship between the different vegetation types and the aridity index. The shelter forests in 2008 were derived from Landsat TM in the Three-North regions. In addition, climatic zones and shelter forests were corrected by comparing with natural vegetation map and field surveys. By overlaying the shelter forests on the climatic zones, we found that 16.30 % coniferous forests, 8.21 % broadleaved forests, 2.03 % mixed conifer-broadleaved forests, and 10.86 % shrubs were not in strict accordance with the climate conditions. These results open new perspectives for potential use of remote sensing techniques for afforestation management.

  3. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  4. A GCM Investigation of Dust Aerosol Impact on the Regional Climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between dust and other physical processes have been found to play an important role in the dust-induced climate change. However, there are large uncertainties regarding whether, where, and how the dust enhances or suppresses precipitation. The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will induce a subsidence to its south and

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH REGION.

    PubMed

    Borisova, N V; Markova, S V; Antipina, U D; Sivtseva, T P; Savvina, I L

    2015-01-01

    Last years the problem of organism's adaptation to severe climate-environmental conditions of the Far North has been intensively developed. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is the most northern republic of the Russian Federation. People have created a unique way of life, language, original culture on this cold part of the earth and have carried centuries later. This unique experience has been saved up throughout many centuries and generated in natural environment of habitation and passed from generation to generation. Last years the changes of living conditions of indigenous population, urbanization and globalisation, deterioration of ecological conditions exhausted reserve possibilities of organism. Among the indigenous population health change has menacing character, especially among the children's population. The analysis of major risk factors of the development of cardiovascular diseases among the indigenous population of the north has been carried out in this research. PMID:26887120

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG INHABITANTS OF THE NORTH REGION.

    PubMed

    Borisova, N V; Markova, S V; Antipina, U D; Sivtseva, T P; Savvina, I L

    2015-01-01

    Last years the problem of organism's adaptation to severe climate-environmental conditions of the Far North has been intensively developed. The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is the most northern republic of the Russian Federation. People have created a unique way of life, language, original culture on this cold part of the earth and have carried centuries later. This unique experience has been saved up throughout many centuries and generated in natural environment of habitation and passed from generation to generation. Last years the changes of living conditions of indigenous population, urbanization and globalisation, deterioration of ecological conditions exhausted reserve possibilities of organism. Among the indigenous population health change has menacing character, especially among the children's population. The analysis of major risk factors of the development of cardiovascular diseases among the indigenous population of the north has been carried out in this research.

  7. A regional technology transfer program. [North Carolina Industrial Applications Center for the Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The proliferation of online searching capabilities among its industrial clients, changes in marketing staff and direction, use of Dun and Bradstreet marketing service files, growth of the Annual Service Package program, and services delivered to clients at the NASA funded North Carolina Science and Technology Research Center are described. The library search service was reactivated and enlarged, and a survey was conducted on the NC/STRC Technical Bulletin's effectiveness. Several quotations from clients assess the overall value of the Center's services.

  8. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

    2010-12-01

    The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

  9. Modeling the impacts of warming on the long-term trends in ecosystem productivity in arctic regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Zelalem; Grant, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Rises in average air temperatures for the Arctic region in particular have been twice as rapid as the global average during the last century. Despite a general warming in most arctic regions, there is large spatial and temporal variation in this warming that affects the productivity of different ecosystems. In this study, we investigated long-term (1979 - 2010) spatial and temporal trends of air temperature change in northern higher latitudes of North America using climate data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) with 3-hourly time step at spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees. The NARR climate data were used to drive a comprehensive mathematical ecosystem model ecosys which simulated land-atmosphere energy and carbon exchange. Trend analysis of temperatures in different regions of the arctic shows a contrasting pattern along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. The highest warming trend was observed in the northeast arctic with a trend of +0.72 0C decade-1, demonstrating amplified warming in the Arctic in the recent decades. Gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and leaf area index (LAI) increased in most parts of the northern ecosystems supporting the hypothesis that higher latitudes and cooler regions tend to have greater gains in carbon attributed to warming over the last three decades. However, negative feedback was also observed in parts of Alaska. In annual scale net carbon uptake was increasing by spatial average of 0.22 gCm-2yr-1. Spatial average active layer depth (ALD) has shown an increase in most part of the region, with an average of 2.3cm decade-1. Further warming could increase the deepening of the ALD that could expose the huge volume of carbon beneath the permafrost and accelerate the rate of carbon losses.

  10. Burden of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Vaccarella, Salvatore; Bruni, Laia; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    In this chapter, we present the available information on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (cancers of the cervix, anogenital cancers, and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx), as well as available data on the prevalence and distribution of HPV types in women with and without cervical cancer, for the countries of the Extended Middle East and North Africa region (EMENA). The EMENA region is characterized by societies that share similar cultures and religions and that are considered to have a more conservative sexual behaviour compared to Western societies. The incidence of cervical cancer is estimated to be relatively low, although it is difficult to assess precisely because systematic and national cancer registries are lacking in many countries of the EMENA region. In these countries, nationwide programs of cervical cancer screening do not exist or are based on a limited opportunistic cytology-based screening, which often lacks quality assurance. The incidence of anogenital cancers other than cervix is very low. The incidence of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx is relatively high in some countries, particularly in Pakistan. Relatively low levels of HPV prevalence have been observed in the several surveys conducted in the EMENA region, although only few young women were included in these studies. Possible changes in lifestyle and sexual behaviour in younger generations might, however, change this scenario. Thus, improving the information on the burden of HPV-related cancers and on the HPV prevalence in the general population is essential to develop a comprehensive intervention policy for future management of cervical cancer in this area. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled

  11. Application of global dynamic vegetation model estimation of aridity changes in drought prone region of North-Eastern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, Vera; Venevskiy, Sergey; Berdnikov, Sergey; Kulygin, Valerii

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are specifically designed for an assessment of integrative continental scale soil and vegetation carbon and water pools and fluxes between these pools and the atmosphere. However, recent DGVMs still remain mainly tools for global studies, which explain limitations of these models in view of regional applications. In this study we investigate possibility of application of state-of-the art SEVER-DGVM for description of contemporary water dynamics in semi-arid regions of North Eastern Eurasia. We suggest simple modifications of input climate and soil data and moving to irregular vector representation of basic spatial units, instead of regular grid cells, aiming increase in accuracy of simulation of water pools and fluxes. The study area is Rostov oblast' with small parts from Stavropol krai and Kalmykia Republic (oblast' and krai are administrative units in Russia), associated with the southern part of River Don watershed. The region is rather big (approximately 800 km in direction North - South and approximately 400 km in direction East - West. SEVER-DGVM, a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was applied as a modelling tool of the study. The model was never before applied specifically for regions of Southern Russia and thus required evaluation and afterwards modification for accuracy of representation of water fluxes and pools. For regionalization of climate data we compared time series for temperature and precipitation from the NCEP climate dataset and from the regional meteorological data. We found that temperature time series from the global dataset are close to the observed, but the NCEP dataset has tendency to underestimate precipitation in Rostov region at daily time step, while providing correct pattern of annual and monthly dynamics. This was corrected using long term daily anomalies of observed daily temperature and precipitation in the region. For regional application of the global vegetation model we defined

  12. The variability of biomass burning and its influence on regional aerosol properties during the wheat harvest season in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lili; Xin, Jinyuan; Li, Xingru; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    The spatial-temporal variation of biomass burning in June during the wheat harvest season in the North China (32-41°N, 111-120°E) and its influence on the regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the chemical compositions of size-segregated aerosols in the urban environment were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the burn ban policy and the influence on regional pollution. Fire events that occurred in early and middle June accounted for approximately 89% of the events during the month, and fire points located in mid-eastern China (32.5-35.5°N, 114-120°E) comprised 71%. The occurrences exhibit oscillatory changes with a minimum in 2008 (during the Beijing Olympics) and a peak and explosive growth in 2012. Under high relative humidity and south winds, fire emissions from straw burning combined with high urban/industrial emissions to produce intensive regional haze pollution in the North Plain. The formation of secondary inorganic particles was intensified due to the interactions of smoke plumes and urban/industrial pollutants in an urban environment. Higher concentrations and percentages (79%) of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon in the fine particles under high relative humidity conditions contributed to a deteriorated urban visibility. Therefore, stronger management and a comprehensive ban on wheat straw burning in June are urgently needed, especially during years when the south wind is dominant.

  13. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  14. Spatio-temporal evolution of Leucophyllum pringlei and allies (Scrophulariaceae): a group endemic to North American xeric regions.

    PubMed

    Gándara, Etelvina; Sosa, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    The taxa of the Leucophyllum pringlei clade were used to understand the influence of the Neogene orogenesis and the Quaternary climate cycles on the diversification of the flora of the xeric regions of North America. This clade includes the five southernmost species of the genus: L. ambiguum, L. flyrii, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola, which are distributed throughout the Chihuahuan Desert north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and L. pringlei in the region of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán south of this mountain range. Here we test whether these species diverged during the pluvial periods of the Pleistocene, and whether L. pringlei diverged earlier from the other species during the uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Using three plastid regions (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, trnL-F) and a nuclear (ITS) marker, phylogenetic analyses were carried out, along with a reconstruction of their ancestral area. Trees retrieved the five species in a monophyletic group with the most recent common ancestor distributed in the Sinaloan dry forest during the Late Miocene (8.08Ma), from where it dispersed to the Chihuahuan Desert during the Late Miocene (6.35Ma). The secondary uplift of the Sierra Madre Occidental during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene influenced a vicariance event. Divergence between L. pringlei and the species from north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occurred during the second volcanic episode in the Late Miocene (7.5-3Ma). The most recent common ancestor of L. ambiguum, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola was widely distributed in the southern part of the Chihuahuan Desert during the Early to Late Pliocene (3.50Ma). The diversification of these three species occurred in the Middle Pleistocene (0.9Ma) during the pluvial and inter-pluvial cycles.

  15. Analysis of North Atlantic Aircraft Data on Oxygenated Intermediate Species Using an Adapted Regional Chemistry-Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Mathur, Rohit; Alapaty, Kiran; Hanna, Adel; Binkowski, Frank; Guan, Hong; Esswein, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Our study is on the interaction of nitrogen oxides with organics as they are exported from their complex sources in Eastern North America. Both urban and specific industrial emissions contribute the nitrogen of the C-H-O-N compounds that affect the global atmosphere, helping determine both ozone and the self-cleaning radical chemistry of the troposphere mediated by the OH radical. Different industrial sources, urban, and natural emissions contribute the organic C. Peroxyacetyl nitrate, CH3C(double bonds O)OONO2 is the most interesting compound for which we can measure the outflow to the full depth of the Atlantic troposphere. As we adapt the 3-d chemical model to describe outflow for specific periods with sufficient accuracy, we are analyzing some valuable information in the NARE-97 complete airborne dataset. (NARE: North Atlantic Regional Experiment). Ames researchers find that there are substantial puzzles in the ratios of PAN/NO2. Peroxy acetyl nitrate provides one of the major long-distance export pathways for active nitrogen from Eastern North America. It should be closely linked with NO, (defined as the sum NO + NO2) by simple thermal association and decomposition reactions, at least when the ambient temperature is substantially above 5 C.

  16. Pertussis immunization in the global pertussis initiative North American region: recommended strategies and implementation considerations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tina; Halperin, Scott; Cherry, James D; Edwards, Kathryn; Englund, Janet A; Glezen, Paul; Greenberg, David; Rothstein, Edward; Skowronski, Danuta

    2005-05-01

    In North America, children currently receive 5 doses of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine between the ages of 2 months and 6 years. Although this schedule has reduced the incidence of childhood pertussis, it has not led to the development of herd immunity in the total population, largely because pertussis immunity wanes with time. The time course over which immunity wanes is uncertain; however, high pertussis antibody titers in adolescents and adults indicate unrecognized infection in these groups. There is evidence that this group serves as a source of infection for young infants who are not fully immunized. Therefore, of the potential strategies reviewed by the North American Global Pertussis Initiative group, universal adolescent immunization would in theory reduce the risk of pertussis in this age group and may reduce transmission to young infants. However, because immunity probably wanes at the same rate in adolescents and children, the burden of disease will likely shift to older age groups, including young adults (parents of vulnerable infants). Therefore the ideal would be immunization of adolescents and adults, particularly those who are in contact with young infants. Adolescent immunization is already recommended in Austria, France, Germany and Canada, and participants in the Global Pertussis Initiative recommend that this strategy be implemented across North America with a view to eventually extending immunization to include adults. The final decision to implement such a strategy will depend on pertussis surveillance studies and analysis of the effectiveness and tolerability of adolescent and adult pertussis immunization as well as program considerations related to feasibility and economics.

  17. Genetic diversity within ITS-1 region of Eimeria species infecting chickens of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, M

    2015-12-01

    Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, inflicts severe economic losses to the poultry industry around the globe. In the present study, ITS-1 based species specific nested PCR revealed prevalence of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, E. necatrix and E. tenella in 79.2%, 12.5%, 64.6%, 89.6%, 60.4%, 64.6% and 97.9% poultry farms of north India, respectively. The ITS-1 sequences of different Eimeria spp. from north India were generated and analyzed to establish their phylogenetic relationship. The sequence identity with available sequences ranged from 80 to 100% in E. tenella, 95 to 100% in E. acervulina, 64 to 97% in E. necatrix, 96 to 99% in E. brunetti and 97 to 98% in E. mitis. Only long ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima could be generated in the present study and it had 80-100% identity with published sequences. Two out of the four ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima had mismatches in the published nested primer sequences from Australia, while one sequence of E. necatrix had a mismatch near 3' end of both forward and reverse published nested primer sequences, warranting for the need of designing new set of degenerate primers for these two species of Eimeria. In the phylogenetic tree, all isolates of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. mitis, E. tenella and E. necatrix clustered in separate clades with high bootstrap value. E. maxima sequences of north Indian isolates grouped in a long form of E. maxima clade. Complete ITS-1 sequences of E. necatrix and E. mitis are reported for the first time from India. Further studies are required with more number of isolates to verify whether these differences are unique to geographical locations.

  18. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Beavan, Athfield N.

    2009-01-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530??14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon (Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ?? 40??14C yr BP and 10,032 ?? 40??14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction. ?? 2009 University of Washington.

  19. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, Neal; Beavan Athfield, Nancy

    2009-11-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530 14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon ( Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ± 40 14C yr BP and 10,032 ± 40 14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction.

  20. Structural development of the central Kyrenia Range (north Cyprus) in its regional setting in the eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Kinnaird, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault planes, of which a subordinate number exhibit slickenlines (fault plane data, n = 2688; with kinematics, n = 537). Additional kinematic data were obtained from C-S fabrics and folds. Small-scale structures in each stratigraphic unit were `backstripped' to reveal relative chronology. Synthesis of the structural information indicates three phases of convergence-related deformation: (1) Late Cretaceous, associated with greenschist facies metamorphism, followed by exhumation that was probably associated with WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW-trending high-angle faulting; (2) Mid-Eocene, associated with southward thrusting, coupled with ~N-S strike-slip (transfer faulting) and oblique faulting in an overall sinistral transpressive stress regime; (3) Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene, involving southward thrusting and folding, localised back-thrusting, extensive fault reactivation and large-scale segmentation of the range. Intense uplift of the Kyrenia Range took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, possibly related to the collision of the Eratosthenes Seamount with the Cyprus trench to the south of the island. The three main convergent phases relate to stages of northward subduction and diachronous continental collision affecting the northerly, active continental margin of the Southern Neotethys.

  1. 77 FR 38185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ..., 2007, SIP revision to address the first implementation period for regional haze.\\1\\ See 77 FR 11858... Carolina's December 17, 2007, SIP revision addresses regional haze for the first implementation period...., ``reasonably attributable visibility impairment.'' See 45 FR 80084. These regulations represented the...

  2. 77 FR 20893 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... regional haze issues, and we promulgated regulations addressing regional haze in 1999. 64 FR 35714 (July 1... requirements. 74 FR 2392. Once EPA has found that a state has failed to make a required submission, EPA is.... 62 FR 38652. Section 110(a)(2) of the CAA lists the elements that such new SIPs must address,...

  3. Looking Through the Ice: Searching for Past and Present Habitable Zones in the Martian North Polar Region Using MOLA DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, M. C.; Farmer, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems have been acknowledged as important gateways to accessing a potential subsurface biology (extant or extinct) on Mars. Groundwater circulation, sustained for up to one billion years by large plutonic bodies (as modeled by previous authors), might well be capable of tapping into a deep subsurface biosphere and subsequently carrying members of microbial communities to the surface. Hence, future robotic missions with near surface drilling capabilities may be able to unearth cryopreserved biosignatures, or perhaps extant organisms, in the midst of the hydrothermal system itself. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have proved to be a valuable tool in the search for potential habitable zones for extant and extinct life, and the detection of possible hydrothermal systems on Mars. When formatted for use in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software package such as ESRI's ArcView, MOLA data can be used to compose DEMs. Those DEMs can, in turn, be used to create contour maps, to allow profiling through features of interest, and to generate hillshaded views, which provide an image-like perspective of a selected area. Furthermore, DEMs eliminate many problems associated with photographic images such as over-/underexposure, poor focus, and albedo values too high or low for optimal observations. During this study, DEMs were used in the analysis of several regions north of 70° N latitude, in the Martian north polar cap and polar cap margin. The regions were selected during a Viking image survey that concentrated on the location of surface expressions of potential magma-ice interactions, and hence past or present hydrothermal activity. Specific features sought included individual volcanoes and volcanic fields, as well as pseudocrater fields, subglacial volcanic constructs (such as tuyas and tindar ridges), fluvial channels and outwash plains (indicative of j”kulhlaup flooding events), possible

  4. Craters hosting radar-bright deposits in Mercury's north polar region: Areas of persistent shadow determined from MESSENGER images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Harmon, John K.; Murchie, Scott L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Blewett, David T.; Denevi, Brett W.

    2013-01-01

    Radar-bright features near Mercury's poles were discovered in Earth-based radar images and proposed to be water ice present in permanently shadowed areas. Images from MESSENGER's one-year primary orbital mission provide the first nearly complete view of Mercury's north polar region, as well as multiple images of the surface under a range of illumination conditions. We find that radar-bright features near Mercury's north pole are associated with locations persistently shadowed in MESSENGER images. Within 10° of the pole, almost all craters larger than 10 km in diameter host radar-bright deposits. There are several craters located near Mercury's north pole with sufficiently large diameters to enable long-lived water ice to be thermally stable at the surface within regions of permanent shadow. Craters located farther south also host radar-bright deposits and show a preference for cold-pole longitudes; thermal models suggest that a thin insulating layer is required to cover these deposits if the radar-bright material consists predominantly of long-lived water ice. Many small (<10 km diameter) and low-latitude (extending southward to 66°N) craters host radar-bright material, and water ice may not be thermally stable in these craters for ~1 Gy, even beneath an insulating layer. The correlation of radar-bright features with persistently shadowed areas is consistent with the deposits being composed of water ice, and future thermal modeling of small and low-latitude craters has the potential to further constrain the nature, source, and timing of emplacement of the radar-bright material.

  5. Climatic Trends in the Triassic to Early Jurassic Lacustrine Succession of East Greenland: Implications for Correlation in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Steven

    2013-04-01

    The Triassic continental successions of the North Atlantic region are poorly age constrained and therefore regional correlation is problematic. Climatic trends offer potential as the basis of regional correlation. The Triassic of East Greenland lies in the northern continuation of the northern North Sea Rift and, following reconstruction, aligns with the Viking Graben. This position, between the northern North Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Barents Shelf successions, means it is key in constructing regional correlations and understanding both tectonic and climatic evolution throughout the Triassic of the North Atlantic region. Detailed sedimentological study of exceptional exposures through the largely lacustrine Mid-Late Triassic succession of East Greenland has provided the basis for a palaeoclimatic reconstruction. This has highlighted the occurrence of significant periods of increased aridity during the Late Ladinian and the Late Carnian which bracket the more humid conditions of the Early Carnian (the 'Carnian Pluvial Event'). Following the Late Carnian arid phase a gradual cooling through the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic is recorded. Comparisons and correlations are made with Triassic successions throughout the North Atlantic. Understanding climatic trends and the response of sedimentary systems to these has important implications for the construction of facies models and therefore the prediction of both reservoir and seal distribution in the prospective North Atlantic petroleum provinces.

  6. Regional Modelling of Air Quality in the Canadian Arctic: Impact of marine shipping and North American wild fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Beagley, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Cousineau, S.; Sassi, M.; Munoz-Alpizar, R.; Racine, J.; Menard, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic atmospheric composition is strongly influenced by long-range transport from mid-latitudes as well as processes occurring in the Arctic locally. Using an on-line air quality prediction model GEM-MACH, simulations were carried out for the 2010 northern shipping season (April - October) over a regional Arctic domain. North American wildfire emissions and Arctic shipping emissions were represented, along with other anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate the principal sources and processes affecting air quality in the Canadian Northern and Arctic regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of sources, transport, and removal processes on the ambient concentrations and atmospheric loading of various pollutants with air quality and climate implications, such as, O3, NOx, SO2, CO, and aerosols (sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon components). Preliminary results from a model simulation of a recent summertime Arctic field campaign will also be presented.

  7. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  8. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

  9. Charge structure of a summer thunderstorm in North China: Simulation using a Regional Atmospheric Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongxia; Qie, Xiushu; Peng, Liang; Li, Wanli

    2014-09-01

    Electrification and simple discharge schemes are coupled into a 3D Regional Atmospheric Model System (RAMS) as microphysical parameterizations, in accordance with electrical experiment results. The dynamics, microphysics, and electrification components are fully integrated into the RAMS model, and the inductive and non-inductive electrification mechanisms are considered in the charging process. The results indicate that the thunderstorm mainly had a normal tripole charge structure. The simulated charge structure and lightning frequency are basically consistent with observations of the lightning radiation source distribution. The non-inductive charging mechanism contributed to the electrification during the whole lifetime of the thunderstorm, while the inductive electrification mechanism played a significant role in the development period and the mature stage when the electric field reached a large value. The charge structure in the convective region and the rearward region are analyzed, showing that the charge density in the convective region was double that in the rearward region.

  10. Impacts of climate change on land-use and wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rashford, Benjamin S.; Adams, Richard M.; Wu, JunJie; Voldseth, Richard A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Werner, Brett; Johnson, W. Carter

    2016-01-01

    Wetland productivity in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is closely linked to climate. A warmer and drier climate, as predicted, will negatively affect the productivity of PPR wetlands and the services they provide. The effect of climate change on wetland productivity, however, will not only depend on natural processes (e.g., evapotranspiration), but also on human responses. Agricultural land use, the predominant use in the PPR, is unlikely to remain static as climate change affects crop yields and prices. Land use in uplands surrounding wetlands will further affect wetland water budgets and hence wetland productivity. The net impact of climate change on wetland productivity will therefore depend on both the direct effects of climate change on wetlands and the indirect effects on upland land use. We examine the effect of climate change and land-use response on semipermanent wetland productivity by combining an economic model of agricultural land-use change with an ecological model of wetland dynamics. Our results suggest that the climate change scenarios evaluated are likely to have profound effects on land use in the North and South Dakota PPR, with wheat displacing other crops and pasture. The combined pressure of land-use and climate change significantly reduces wetland productivity. In a climate scenario with a +4 °C increase in temperature, our model predicts that almost the entire region may lack the wetland productivity necessary to support wetland-dependent species.

  11. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  12. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-08-06

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  13. Episodic nature of earthquake activity in stable continental regions revealed by palaeoseismicity studies of Australian and North American Quaternary faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; Machette, M.N.; Bowman, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Palaeoseismic investigations of recent faulting in stable continental regions of Australia, North America and India show that these faults typically have a long-term behaviour characterised by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10 000 and commonly 100 000 years or more. Long recurrence intervals such as these are well documented by detailed studies of the faults that ruptured during the 1986 Marryat Creek, South Australia and 1988 Tennant Creek, Northern Territory earthquakes. Thus, neotectonic features associated with stable continental region faults such as scarps and grabens commonly have subtle geomorphic expression and may be poorly preserved. Many potentially hazardous faults in stable continental regions are aseismic, which is one reason why the inventory of these faults is incomplete. Although they may be currently aseismic, faults in stable continental regions that are favourably oriented for movement in the current stress field could produce damaging earthquakes, often in unexpected places. Comprehensive palaeoseismic investigations of modern and prehistoric faulting events in stable continental regions are needed to understand the long-term behaviour of these faults, and thereby, improve seismic-hazard assessments.

  14. Mariner 9 observations of the surface of Mars in the north polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Malin, M. C.; Murray, B. C.; Cutts, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The recession rate of the north polar cap, as monitored by Mariner 9, was not significantly different than has been observed from earth in the past. Thus, the dynamic planet-wide dust storm does not seem to have had a noticeable effect on the thickeness of the CO2 deposit which developed during the standard mission. The dominant role of local topography in controlling the configuration of the retreating cap is confirmed. At narrow-angle resolution the retreating frost has high-lighted topographic detail that may represent Martian polar eolian deposits. At wide angle resolution the topography of the smooth plains, rugged etch pitted terrain, and complex central polar deposits is emphasized by the frost.

  15. Interannual variability of monthly sea-ice distributions in the north polar region

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, C.L.

    1992-03-01

    Passive-microwave data from the Nimbus 5 and Nimbus 7 satellites have been used to determine and map, by month, the interannual variability of the spatial distribution of north polar sea ice over the period 1973-1987. Results are illustrated for the months of January and July, during the winter ice growth and summer ice decay seasons, respectively. In January, the greatest interannual variability in the distribution of the ice occurs in the Sea of Okhotsk, whereas the portions of the ice edge exhibiting the least interannual variability lie in the southern Greenland Sea and immediately to the southwest of Svalbard. In July, spatial variability is high in Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay, the southern Kara Sea, and the northern Barents Sea. The monthly maps are meant to allow ready comparison with past and future sea ice distributions and aid in the assessment of whether specific changes are climatically important.

  16. Regional Geograhpic Network Partnerships Supporting Sustainable Landscapes - An Example: The North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural resource management agencies, conservation organizations and other stakeholders are facing increasingly complex environmental challenges that require coordinated management actions at regional and landscape levels. To address these challenges, integrated multi-disciplina...

  17. Campanian to Maastrichtian pollen biostratigraphy and floral turnover rates, Colville River region, north slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Frederiksen, N.O.; Schindler, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    This study is based on occurrence data for 104 angiosperm pollen taxa from 83 pollen-bearing outcrop and core samples taken along the Colville River and stratigraphically distributed from the base of the Sentinel Hill Member of the Schrader Bluff Formation to the top of the Cretaceous section. Many of the pollen taxa are highly useful for intraregional correlations because they have remarkably short stratigraphic ranges and are consistently present within these ranges. Important similarities are present between North Slope pollen assemblages and those of western Canada, Siberia, and China. The Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary is approximately marked by the range bases of Wodehouseia edmontonicola and Senipites drummhellerensis and is nearly as far south (downsection) as Sentinel Hill core test 1. Based on pollen correlations with Alberta, the marine beds at Ocean Point are probably within the middle part of the Maastrichtian, and strata north of Ocean Point that contain Aquilapollenites conatus are uppermost Maastrichtian. Thus, if the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the study area is represented by an unconformity as their data suggest, the lowermost Paleocene is missing, not the uppermost Cretaceous. Maximum diversities of species of the stratigraphically significant Triprojectacites and Expressipollis groups are in the upper Campanian. Major turnovers of angiosperm taxa occurred late in the Campanian and in the Maastrichtian, but high rates of first appearances coincided with high rates of last appearances. Thus, once a fairly high overall angiosperm diversity was established in the middle(.) Campanian, the diversity remained relatively constant until at or near the end of the Maastrichtian.

  18. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities for

  19. Seasonal And Regional Differentiation Of Bio-Optical Properties Within The North Polar Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Stramski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, Slawomir; Allison, David B.; Schwarz, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Using data collected during spring and summer seasons in the north polar Atlantic we examined the variability of the spectral absorption, a(lambda), and backscattering, b(sub b)(lambda), coefficients of surface waters and its relation to phytoplankton pigment concentration and composition. For a given chlorophyll a concentration (TChla), the concentrations of photosynthetic carotenoids (PSC), photoprotective carotenoids (PPC), and total accessory pigments (AP) were consistently lower in spring than in summer. The chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and total particulate matter were also lower in spring, which can be partly attributed to lower proportions of PPC, PSC, and AP in spring. The spring values of the green-to-blue band ratio of the absorption coefficient were higher than the summer ratios. The blue-to-green ratios of backscattering coefficient were also higher in spring. The higher b(sub b) values and lower blue-to-green b(sub b) ratios in summer were likely associated with higher concentrations of detrital particles in summer compared to spring. Because the product of the green-to-blue absorption ratio and the blue-to-green backscattering ratio is a proxy for the blue-to-green ratio of remote-sensing reflectance, we conclude that the performance of ocean color band-ratio algorithms for estimating pigments in the north polar Atlantic is significantly affected by seasonal shifts in the relationships between absorption and TChla as well as between backscattering and TChla. Intriguingly, however, fairly good estimate of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm (potential measure of total particulate matter or particulate organic carbon concentration) can be obtained by applying a single blue-to-green band-ratio algorithm for both spring and summer seasons.

  20. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  1. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  2. Regional temporal persistence of dried soil layer along south-north transect of the Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoxu; Shao, Ming'an; Zhang, Chencheng; Zhao, Chunlei

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of dried soil layer (DSL) threatens the sustainable development of restored ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of China. Knowledge of the regional spatiotemporal characteristics of DSL in water-deficient regions is critical for optimal water management and vegetation restoration. This study assessed regional temporal persistence of DSL using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and relative difference (RD) analyses and determined the dominant driving factors. Two DSL evaluation indices [DSL thickness (DSLT) and DSL soil water content (DSL-SWC)] were calculated by measuring volumetric SWC of the 0-500 cm soil layer at 86 locations along a south-north regional transect of the Loess Plateau in 2013-2014. Based on the study, there was DSL formation at most of the sites (61 out of 86 sites) along the transect. The level of DSL was severe, with mean DSLT of 273 cm and mean DSL-SWC of only 10.8% (v/v) [field capacity (FC) = 22.5% (v/v)]. Mean DSL-SWC generally decreased from south to north, while no obvious trend was noted in DSLT along the transect. Derived rs values indicated a good temporal persistence of spatial patterns of DSL. Also RD analysis showed that DSL with thicker DSLT and/or lower DSL-SWC had much stronger temporal persistence, implying higher possibility for the formation of permanent DSL. The representative locations of each DSL index well represented the regional means of DSLT and DSL-SWC. This suggested that there was the feasibility of directly estimating regional patterns of DSL from theoretical temporal stability. The temporal persistence of DSL patterns was mainly controlled by soil texture, soil organic carbon, field capacity, mean annual precipitation, precipitation seasonal distribution (PSD) and mean annual temperature. We concluded that soil- and climate-related factors dominated regional temporal persistence of DSL. Lower soil water holding capacity, fewer rainfall and more concentrated PSD could intensify the formation and

  3. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    PubMed

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific. PMID:15495964

  4. Can Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model Improve the Simulation of the Interannual Variability of Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Zhou, T.

    2012-12-01

    With the motivation to improve the simulation of interannual variability of western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM), a flexible regional ocean-atmosphere-land system coupled model (FROALS) was developed through the OASIS3.0 coupler. The regionally coupled model is composed of a regional climate model RegCM3 as its atmospheric component, a global climate ocean model (LICOM) as its oceanic component. Impacts of local air-sea interaction on the simulation of interannual variability of WNPSM are investigated by performing regionally ocean-atmosphere coupled and uncoupled simulations, with focus on the El Niño decaying summer. Compared to uncoupled simulation, the regionally coupled simulation exhibits improvements in both the climatology and interannual variability of rainfall over WNP. In El Niño decaying summer, the WNP saw an anomalous anticyclone, less rainfall and enhanced subsidence, which led to an increase in downward shortwave radiation flux, and thereby a warmer SST anomalies. Thus the ocean appears as a slave to atmospheric forcing. But in the uncoupled simulation, the atmosphere is a slave to oceanic SST forcing, the warmer SST anomalies located over east of the Philippines unrealistically produce excessive rainfall. In the regionally coupled run, the un-realistic positive rainfall anomalies and the associated atmospheric circulations over east of the Philippines are significantly improved, highlighting the importance of air-sea coupling in the simulation of interannual variability of WNPSM. One limitation of the model is that the anomalous anticyclone over WNP is weaker than the observation in both the regionally coupled and uncoupled simulations. This is resulted from the weaker simulated climatological summer rainfall intensity over the monsoon trough.

  5. Crust structure of the Northern Margin of North China Craton and adjacent region from Sinoprobe-02 North China seismic WAR/R experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Hou, H.; Guan, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) or Altaids, situated between the Siberian craton(SC) to the north and north China craton (NCC) with tarim to the south, is one of the world's largest accretionary orogens formed by subduction and accretion of juvenile material from the Neoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. The NCC is the oldest craton in China, which suffered Yanshan intercontinental orogenic process and lithosphere thinning in Mesozoic. In the past 20 years, remarkable studies about this region have been carried out and different tectonic models were proposed, however, some crucial geologic problems remain controversial. In order to obtain better knowledge of deep structure and properties of crust on the northern margin of north China craton, a 450 km long WAR/R section was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. Our 450 km long NW-SE WAR/R line extends from west end of the Yanshan orogen, across the Bainaimiao arc, Ondor sum subduction accretion complex to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explorations was conducted in 4 deployments of 300 reftek-125A records and single-channel 4.5Hz geophones with station spacing of 1km. The shooting procedure was employ 500 or 1500kg explosives in 4-5 or 15-23 boreholes at 40-45m depth. The sampling rate was 100 HZ, and recording time window was 1200s. The P wave field on the sections got high quality data for most part of the profile, but have low signal-to-noise for the south end, where closed to Beijing with a lot of ambient noise from traffic, industry and human activity. Arrivals from of refracted and reflected waves from sediments and basement (Pg), intracrust (Pcp, Plp) and Moho (Pmp) were typically observed, but Pn phase through the upper most mantle was only observed for 2 shots. Identification and correlation of seismic phases was done manually on computer screen Zplot software. Each trace has been bandpass filtered (1-20Hz) and normalized with AGC

  6. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Europe, CIS and North America: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Moscow, Russian Federation, October 28-30, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum for Europe and North America was co-hosted by Moscow-based CVETS National Observatory on Vocational Education/Centre for VET Studies, with the support of the Moscow Institute for the Development of Education. It was the fourth of five regional follow-ups to the Shanghai Consensus on developing and sharing policy…

  7. Sulfates in the north polar region of Mars detected by OMEGA/Mars Express.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Yves; Poulet, François; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte

    2005-03-11

    The Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activité (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer observed the northern circumpolar regions of Mars at a resolution of a few kilometers. An extended region at 240 degrees E, 85 degrees N, with an area of 60 kilometers by 200 kilometers, exhibits absorptions at wavelengths of 1.45, 1.75, 1.94, 2.22, 2.26, and 2.48 micrometers. These signatures can be unambiguously attributed to calcium-rich sulfates, most likely gypsum. This region corresponds to the dark longitudinal dunes of Olympia Planitia. These observations reveal that water alteration played a major role in the formation of the constituting minerals of northern circumpolar terrains.

  8. Determinants of Neonatal Mortality in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kolola, Tufa; Ekubay, Meseret; Tesfa, Endalamaw; Morka, Wogene

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality has been declined since the declaration of Millennium Developmental Goals, but the rate was slower since 2006. Thus, this study was designed to assess the determinants of neonatal mortality (NM) in North Shoa Zone. A community based case-control study was conducted on 84 cases and 252 controls. Cases were deceased new-borns within 28 days of birth while controls were infants survived beyond the first 28 days. Data were collected from mothers of the cases and controls using interviewer administered questionnaires. Multivariate analysis was done to examine determinants of NM. Variables significantly associated with NM in bivariate analysis were selected for multivariate analysis. Neonates whose mothers not attended antenatal care (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.44–8.32), delivered at home (AOR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.56–5.26), and not received postnatal care services (AOR: 3.09; 95%CI: 1.73–5.51) were more likely to die. The odds of neonatal death was higher among neonates not breastfed within the first hour of delivery than those who breastfed within the first hour of delivery (AOR: 23.48; 95%CI: 8.43–65.37). Likewise, no-colostrum intake was positively associated with neonatal death. Neonates born to mothers who not received or received a single dose of tetanus toxoid injection (TTI) were more likely to experience death than those neonates born to mothers who received two or more doses of TTI (AOR: 2.05; 95%CI: 1.14–3.70). Furthermore, being small in size at birth (AOR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.33–5.33) and male in sex (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.06–3.26) were risk factors for NM. In conclusion, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with factors that are modifiable through addressing the continuum-of-care approach in healthcare services in North Shoa. This implies that ensuring a continuity of health care services for maternal and new-borns from antenatal to postnatal care will improve neonatal survival. PMID:27741284

  9. Soil Organic Carbon Beneath Croplands and Re-established Grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rebecca L.; Eken, Mikki R.; West, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  10. Soil organic carbon beneath croplands and re-established grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Eken, Mikki R; West, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  11. DUST CONTINUUM AND POLARIZATION FROM ENVELOPE TO CORES IN STAR FORMATION: A CASE STUDY IN THE W51 NORTH REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Guilloteau, Stephane; Dutrey, Anne; Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.

    2013-02-15

    We present the first high-angular resolution (up to 0.''7, {approx}5000 AU) polarization and thermal dust continuum images toward the massive star-forming region W51 North. The observations were carried out with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in both the subcompact (SMA-SubC) and extended (SMA-Ext) configurations at a wavelength of 870 {mu}m. W51 North is resolved into four cores (SMA1 to SMA4) in the 870 {mu}m continuum image. The associated dust polarization exhibits more complex structures than seen at lower angular resolution. We analyze the inferred morphologies of the plane-of-sky magnetic field (B ) in the SMA1 to SMA4 cores and in the envelope using the SMA-Ext and SMA-SubC data. These results are compared with the B archive images obtained from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The polarization percentage is about 1% to 4%, and it is found to decrease with higher intensity in our SMA images, which is a similar trend to that previously reported in the CSO and JCMT data. A correlation between dust intensity gradient position angles ({phi}{sub {nabla}I}) and magnetic field position angles ({phi}{sub B}) is found in the CSO, JCMT, and both SMA data sets. This correlation is further analyzed quantitatively. A systematically tighter correlation between {phi}{sub {nabla}I} and {phi}{sub B} is found in the cores, whereas the correlation decreases in outside-core regions. Magnetic field-to-gravity force ratio ({Sigma}{sub B}) maps are derived using the newly developed polarization-intensity gradient method by Koch et al. We find that the force ratios tend to be small ({Sigma}{sub B} {approx}< 0.5) in the cores in all four data sets. In regions outside of the cores, the ratios increase or the field is even dominating gravity ({Sigma}{sub B} > 1). This possibly provides a physical explanation of the tightening correlation between {phi}{sub {nabla}I} and {phi}{sub B} in the cores: The more the B field lines are

  12. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  13. Long-term seismicity of the Reykjanes Ridge (North Atlantic) recorded by a regional hydrophone array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goslin, Jean; Lourenço, Nuno; Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Haxel, Joe; Luis, Joaquim

    2005-08-01

    The seismicity of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge was recorded by two hydrophone networks moored in the sound fixing and ranging (SOFAR) channel, on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, north and south of the Azores. During its period of operation (05/2002-09/2003), the northern `SIRENA' network, deployed between latitudes 40° 20'N and 50° 30'N, recorded acoustic signals generated by 809 earthquakes on the hotspot-influenced Reykjanes Ridge. This activity was distributed between five spatio-temporal event clusters, each initiated by a moderate-to-large magnitude (4.0-5.6 M) earthquake. The rate of earthquake occurrence within the initial portion of the largest sequence (which began on 2002 October 6) is described adequately by a modified Omori law aftershock model. Although this is consistent with triggering by tectonic processes, none of the Reykjanes Ridge sequences are dominated by a single large-magnitude earthquake, and they appear to be of relatively short duration (0.35-4.5 d) when compared to previously described mid-ocean ridge aftershock sequences. The occurrence of several near-equal magnitude events distributed throughout each sequence is inconsistent with the simple relaxation of mainshock-induced stresses and may reflect the involvement of magmatic or fluid processes along this deep (>2000 m) section of the Reykjanes Ridge.

  14. Yield ratio estimates using regional Pn and Pg from North Korea's underground nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Kang, Ik-Bum; Kim, Geun-Young

    2009-11-01

    On May 25, 2009 North Korea executed a second nuclear test in the vicinity of P'unggyeri where the first nuclear test was performed on October 9, 2006. Seismic signals from the two underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are recorded at broadband stations in South Korea and China. Seismic signals from fourteen broadband stations operated by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), three broadband stations of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in South Korea and the Mudanjiang station (MDJ) of GSN in China are used for this study. Clear Pn, Pg, and Lg phases propagated over 800 km. The nearly co-located two UNEs and seismic recordings at the same stations enable us to estimate the ratio of the Pn and Pg displacement amplitude spectra between two events by eliminating the path effect. The 95% confidence interval of the mean yield ratio is constrained as a function of the depth ratio and all the estimates of Pn and Pg spectral ratios. The mean yield ratio ranges from 3.45 to 6.36 in the 95% confidence interval based on the depth range estimates by Bennett (2008, 2009).

  15. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  16. HLA profile of three ethnic groups living in the North-Western region of Russia.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, I; Spurkland, A; Thorsby, E; Smerdel, A; Tranebjaerg, L; Boldyreva, M; Groudakova, E; Gouskova, I; Alexeev, L L

    2002-01-01

    HLA class II alleles were determined by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP typing of DNA samples from 55 Nentsy, 81 Saami and 73 Pomor individuals from the North-European part of Russia. The results were compared with similar data from Russians. A high frequency of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 haplotype and a low frequency of the DRB1*11-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotype, observed in all three ethnic groups, may indicate a common aboriginal component in their ancestry. Saami and Pomors displayed a similar pattern of allele and haplotype distribution, with the exception of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0304-DQB1*0301 haplotype, which was significantly higher among Saami compared Nentsy, Pomors and Russians. Nentsy individuals had a particularly high frequency of the DRB1*09-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0303 and the DRB1*12-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotypes. Genetic distances and correspondence analysis show that Pomors have a close relationship with Norwegians and Finns, whereas Nentsy and Saami are more closely related to Oriental populations.

  17. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talpe Matthieu; Zuber, Maria T.; Yang, Di; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Mazarico, Erwan; Vilas, Faith

    2012-01-01

    Earth-based radar images of Mercury show radar-bright material inside impact craters near the planet s poles. A previous study indicated that the polar-deposit-hosting craters (PDCs) at Mercury s north pole are shallower than craters that lack such deposits. We use data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft during 11 months of orbital observations to revisit the depths of craters at high northern latitudes on Mercury. We measured the depth and diameter of 537 craters located poleward of 45 N, evaluated the slopes of the northern and southern walls of 30 PDCs, and assessed the floor roughness of 94 craters, including nine PDCs. We find that the PDCs appear to have a fresher crater morphology than the non-PDCs and that the radar-bright material has no detectable influence on crater depths, wall slopes, or floor roughness. The statistical similarity of crater depth-diameter relations for the PDC and non-PDC populations places an upper limit on the thickness of the radar-bright material (< 170 m for a crater 11 km in diameter) that can be refined by future detailed analysis. Results of the current study are consistent with the view that the radar-bright material constitutes a relatively thin layer emplaced preferentially in comparatively young craters.

  18. 77 FR 11858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of North Carolina; Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... arising from the State's reliance on CAIR to meet certain regional haze requirements. See 76 FR 82219... conditions. See 64 FR 35715 (July 1, 1999). \\3\\ Visual range is the greatest distance, in kilometers or miles..., promulgated a list of 156 areas where visibility is identified as an important value. See 44 FR...

  19. Toward a Sustainable Society in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) Region: Roadmap and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassiouny, Noha

    2012-01-01

    The Business and Society Research Cluster (BSRC) at the German University in Cairo, the El-Khazindar Business Research and Case Center at the American University in Cairo and Misr El-Kheir (MEK) Foundation, Egypt, hosted the region's first sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) case studies conference, entitled "Toward a…

  20. 78 FR 16452 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... discussion of regional haze requirements, please see our proposal at 76 FR 58574, 58576. In our proposed action, we proposed to disapprove the State's NO X BART determinations for these units. See 76 FR 58570... BART determinations for these units. 77 FR 20894, 20897 (April 6, 2012). We based our change on...

  1. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  2. Sensitivity of optimized high-resolution North American CH4 emissions to regional CH4 boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanevich, Ilya; Strong, Kimberly; Jones, Dylan; Lin, John; Wecht, Kevin; Andrews, Arlyn; Worthy, Doug; Wennberg, Paul; Wunch, Debra; Roehl, Coleen

    2016-04-01

    Constraining CH4 emissions at subcontinental scales is of great value, especially for quantifying local anthropogenic emissions. However, high-resolution emission estimates are more uncertain, particularly due to their relatively weak signature in the atmosphere and the uncertainty of the CH4 measurements used to infer the emissions. In this work, we investigate the robustness of high-resolution North American emission estimates. We perform regional inversion analyses over North America using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model, with initial and boundary conditions imposed from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model, constrained by NOAA and Environment Canada CH4 flask measurements and CH4 columns measured using Fourier transform spectrometers at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory and at the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Lamont station. We also perform STILT and GEOS-Chem inversions with pseudo in situ- and satellite-like measurements, respectively, to assess the seasonal sensitivity of optimized emissions to uncorrected biases in CH4 boundary conditions. We show that, depending on the season, the sensitivity of the emissions to the biases varies by up to 40%.

  3. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): North polar region (MC-1) distribution, applications, and volume estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayward, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) now extends from 90??N to 65??S. The recently released north polar portion (MC-1) of MGD3 adds ~844 000km2 of moderate- to large-size dark dunes to the previously released equatorial portion (MC-2 to MC-29) of the database. The database, available in GIS- and tabular-format in USGS Open-File Reports, makes it possible to examine global dune distribution patterns and to compare dunes with other global data sets (e.g. atmospheric models). MGD3 can also be used by researchers to identify areas suitable for more focused studies. The utility of MGD3 is demonstrated through three example applications. First, the uneven geographic distribution of the dunes is discussed and described. Second, dune-derived wind direction and its role as ground truth for atmospheric models is reviewed. Comparisons between dune-derived winds and global and mesoscale atmospheric models suggest that local topography may have an important influence on dune-forming winds. Third, the methods used here to estimate north polar dune volume are presented and these methods and estimates (1130km3 to 3250km3) are compared with those of previous researchers (1158km3 to 15 000km3). In the near future, MGD3 will be extended to include the south polar region. ?? 2011 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  4. Survey of aflatoxin M₁ in cheese from the North-east region of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A F; Franco, R C; Rosim, R E; Fernandes, A M

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 24 samples of Minas Frescal cheese and 24 samples of Minas Padrão cheese produced in the North-east region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were analysed for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) between March and August 2008. AFM₁ was detected in 13 (27.1%) samples at concentrations ranging from 0.037 to 0.313 ng g⁻¹. The mean concentrations of AFM₁ in positive samples of Minas Frescal and Minas Padrão cheese were 0.142 ± 0.118 and 0.118 ± 0.054 ng g⁻¹, respectively. It is concluded that the incidence of AFM₁ in Minas cheese may contribute to an increase in the overall ingestion of aflatoxins in the diet, hence indicating the need for the adoption of a tolerance limit for AFM₁ in cheese in Brazil.

  5. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents. PMID:19830913

  6. Identification of new cytotypes of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, 1970 (Valerianaceae) from North-Western Himalayan region of India

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Savita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Kapila, Rakesh; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Valeriana jatamansi, a medicinally important species of the family Valerianaceae, has been cytologically studied in different geographical areas of North-Western Himalayan region of India. The tetraploid cytotype with chromosome numbers 2n=32 is in conformity with the earlier reports of the species from different parts of the world. An octoploid cytotype (2n=64) makes a new addition for the species on a worldwide basis, whereas the diploid cytotype (2n=16) is new to India have been reported for the first time in India. These cytotypes (2n=16, 32, 64) show significant variations with respect to morphology as well as geographical distribution in the Western Indian Himalayas. Further, anomalous populations have been marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility. PMID:26753070

  7. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents.

  8. Cross-sectional study of cattle lice infestation in the region of Nabeul in north-east Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Ben Abdallah, H; Mbarek, Y; Jedidi, M; Darghouth, M A

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study is the first to estimate the prevalence of cattle pediculosis in Tunisia. A total of 39 cattle farms in the region of Nabeul in north-east Tunisia were visited and lice were collected by intensively brushing 789 cattle. The prevalence was estimated to be 20.5% on the farms (8/39) and 4.7% in animals (37/789). Collected parasites were examined under a stereomicroscope and three lice species were identified: Bovicola bovis, Linognathus vituli and Haematopinus eurysternus. Thirty-two animals were infested with the chewing lice B. bovis (4%), three with H. eurysternus (0.4%) and two with L. vituli (0.2%). The infestation prevalence was higher in calves under eight months of age (21.6%)than in adults (0.8%). Decision-makers in animal health should consider this parasitic disease in their control and eradication programmes.

  9. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  10. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  11. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  12. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  13. Bias correction of the CCSM4 for improved regional climate modeling of the North American monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Jin, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates how a form of bias correction using linear regression improves the limitations of the community climate system model (CCSM) version 4 when it is dynamically downscaled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for the North American monsoon (NAM). Long-term biases in the CCSM dataset were removed using the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) dataset as a baseline, from which a physically consistent set of bias-corrected variables were created. To quantitatively identify the effects of CCSM data on the NAM simulations, three 32-year climatologies were generated with WRF driven by (1) CFSR, (2) original CCSM, and (3) bias-corrected CCSM data. The WRF-CFSR simulations serve as a baseline for comparison. With the bias correction, onset dates simulated by WRF bias-corrected CCSM data were generally within a week of the WRF-CFSR climatology, while WRF using the original CCSM data occur up to 3-4 weeks too early over the core of the NAM. Additionally, bias-correction led to improvements in the mature phase of the NAM, reducing August root-mean-square-error values by 26 % over the core of the NAM and 36 % over the northern periphery. Comparison of the CFSR and the bias-corrected CCSM climatologies showed marked consistency in the general evolution of the NAM system. Dry biases in the NAM precipitation existed in each climatology with the original CCSM performing the poorest when compared to observations. The poor performance of the original CCSM simulations stem from biases in the thermodynamic profile supplied to the model through lateral boundary conditions. Bias-correction improved the excessive capping inversions, and mid-level mixing ratio dry biases (2-3 g kg-1) present in the CCSM simulations. Improvements in the bias-corrected CCSM data resulted in greater convective activity and a more representative seasonal distribution of precipitation.

  14. The North Anatolian Fault in the Region of Iznik (Turkey) : Geomorphological Evolution and Archeoseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjelloun, Y. N.; de Sigoyer, J.; Sahin, M.; Garambois, S.; Dessales, H.

    2015-12-01

    This work based on a pluridisciplinary approach coupling earth sciences and archaeology aims to study the recent tectonics along Iznik Lake, which follows the North Anatolian fault middle strand (NAFMS), south of the Marmara Sea in Turkey. Today this strand records a low seismicity and presents a lower slip rate (<5 mm/yr) than the northern strand . However, historical texts suggest a significant earthquake hazard over the last two millennia in this area. Data are needed to attest for the tectonic origin of the lake and the precise location of the faults. Long-term slip rates and stress accumulation on these faults zone are also unknown, which makes it difficult to estimate seismic hazard. The main goal of this work is to collect new data on the past activity of the NAFMS and to estimate slip rates at different time scales. For this, we observe geomorphic and archeological markers of past deformation. The main fault zones were identified using a high resolution DEM (<2m) derived from Pleiades images, and confirmed on the field. These faults intersect and deform geomorphic features, such as terraces, paleoshorelines, alluvial fans.... Terraces deposited by Iznik Lake during high stands, which were tilted and crossed by several faults, were sampled for dating in order to constrain the normal and strike-slip Quaternary slip rate of the faults and their influence on the lake formation. The valley of Kirandere river east of Iznik presents many deflected and offset rivers and ridges, that will be used to constrain a Holocene strike-slip rate. To document the historical activity of the NAFMS around Iznik, we have identified ancient buildings that underwent successive damages and repairs and characterized them through an archeoseismological approach. We particularly studied the roman aqueduct of Iznik which is cut and deformed by a small fault.

  15. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  16. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Stronen, Astrid V.; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A.; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D.

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  17. Regional modeling of wind erosion in the North West and South West of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmousavi, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    About two-thirds of the Iran's area is located in the arid and semiarid region. Lack of soil moisture and vegetation is poor in most areas can lead to soil erosion caused by wind. So that the annual suffered severe damage to large areas of rich soils. Modeling studies of wind erosion in Iran is very low and incomplete. Therefore, this study aimed to wind erosion modeling, taking into three factors: wind speed, vegetation and soil types have been done. Wind erosion sensitivity was modeled using the key factors of soil sensitivity, vegetation cover and wind erodibility as proxies. These factors were first estimated separately by factor sensitivity maps and later combined by fuzzy logic into a regional-scale wind erosion sensitivity map. Large areas were evaluated by using publicly available datasets of remotely sensed vegetation information, soil maps and meteorological data on wind speed. The resulting estimates were verified by field studies and examining the economic losses from wind erosion as compensated by the state insurance company. The spatial resolution of the resulting sensitivity map is suitable for regional applications, as identifying sensitive areas is the foundation for diverse land development control measures and implementing management activities.

  18. A transboundary study of urban sprawl in the Pacific Coast region of North America: The benefits of multiple measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Chris; Schaub, Tim

    2005-12-01

    Sprawling urban development has emerged as a primary concern of policy makers, land preservationists and both urban and rural communities in developing regions across the globe. For the first time in history, more global residents lived in urban areas than not and the trend to urbanization is in full force at the start of the 21st century. An understanding of the nature and character of urban sprawl is complicated by a failure to satisfactorily define it and by the limitations of measurement techniques designed to characterize complex landscape forms. Like other landscape patterns, the quantification of urban sprawl is highly spatially and temporally scale-dependent. This paper summarizes a recent project to measure urban sprawl in the transboundary region of the Pacific Coast of North America. The metropolitan centers of Portland, OR, Seattle, WA and Vancouver, BC, span two nations, three state/provincial governments and dozens of cities. As a region, this was a global leader in population growth in the 1990s. The study relied on three separate methods - an impervious surface metric, a neighborhood density metric and a building permit metric - for quantifying urban growth. The results provide insight on the strengths and shortcomings of different methods with respect to the challenges posed by data availability and format. Taken together they demonstrate the richer understanding that combined methods may offer in characterizing phenomena as difficult to communicate and agree upon as urban sprawl.

  19. Deep-Water Benthic Foraminifers from the Paleocene and Eocene of the North Pacific Region: Paleontology, Biostratigraphy, and Paleoceanological Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshanetskiy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    A zonal scheme for the Lower Paleogene of the northern Pacific Ocean is proposed on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution of benthic foraminifers in the lower bathyal-abyssal beds studied in boreholes in the North and South Pacific regions. This scheme includes eight subdivisions (six zones and two subzones). The boundaries of the benthic zonal subdivisions are defined by bioevents (appearance or disappearance of stratigraphically important taxa) and are linked to the zonal scales based on planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. It is established that most of these bioevents are recognized subglobally. Apart from the evolutionary events, changes in the deep-water benthic foraminiferal assemblages were caused by changes in the paleooceanological environment. This allowed detailed characterization of a global mass extinction of assemblages of deep-water benthic foraminifers in the region studied. It is also established that changes in the assemblages of deep-water benthic foraminifers, observed in either change in their taxonomic composition or changes in abundance and diversity, resulted from the presence of different deep-water masses in the region.

  20. Seroprevalence and Spatial Distribution of Toxoplasmosis in Sheep and Goats in North-Eastern Region of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Haroon; Malik, Ayesha; Arshad, Muhammad; Mustafa, Irfan; Khan, Mobushir Riaz; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Shahzad; Mobeen, Muhammad; Simsek, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease that is caused by Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and humans. Due to its medical and veterinary importance, it is essential to study the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among humans and animals in various parts of the world. The major objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in small ruminants (sheep and goats) of north-eastern region, Pakistan. A total of 1,000 animals comprising of sheep (n=470) and goats (n=530) were examined for T. gondii infection by using ELISA. An epidemiological data was collected in the form of questionnaire. A surface has been generated by using method of interpolation in Arc GIS with the help of IDW (inverse distance weight). The results showed higher seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats (42.8%) as compared to sheep (26.2%). The seroprevalence was higher in females as compared to males in all examined ruminants. Similarly, there is a wide variation in the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different breeds of sheep and goats showing higher seroprevalence in Teddy (52.8%) and Damani breed (34.5%) of goat and sheep’s, respectively. The geographical and spatial distribution of T. gondii shows that it is widely distributed in different parts of the north-eastern region of Pakistan. Our results suggest widespread environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. It suggests us that small ruminants could be a potentially important source of T. gondii infection if their infected meat is consumed undercooked. PMID:27658595

  1. Seroprevalence and Spatial Distribution of Toxoplasmosis in Sheep and Goats in North-Eastern Region of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Haroon; Malik, Ayesha; Arshad, Muhammad; Mustafa, Irfan; Khan, Mobushir Riaz; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Shahzad; Mobeen, Muhammad; Simsek, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease that is caused by Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and humans. Due to its medical and veterinary importance, it is essential to study the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among humans and animals in various parts of the world. The major objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in small ruminants (sheep and goats) of north-eastern region, Pakistan. A total of 1,000 animals comprising of sheep (n=470) and goats (n=530) were examined for T. gondii infection by using ELISA. An epidemiological data was collected in the form of questionnaire. A surface has been generated by using method of interpolation in Arc GIS with the help of IDW (inverse distance weight). The results showed higher seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats (42.8%) as compared to sheep (26.2%). The seroprevalence was higher in females as compared to males in all examined ruminants. Similarly, there is a wide variation in the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different breeds of sheep and goats showing higher seroprevalence in Teddy (52.8%) and Damani breed (34.5%) of goat and sheep's, respectively. The geographical and spatial distribution of T. gondii shows that it is widely distributed in different parts of the north-eastern region of Pakistan. Our results suggest widespread environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. It suggests us that small ruminants could be a potentially important source of T. gondii infection if their infected meat is consumed undercooked. PMID:27658595

  2. Spatiotemporal distribution of seawater pH in the North Pacific subpolar region by using the parameterization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bofeng; Watanabe, Yutaka W.; Yamaguchi, Azusa

    2016-05-01

    We provided parameterizations to speculate changes in the vertical distributions of the seawater total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and pH by using all available observations of dissolved oxygen (DO, µmol kg-1), water temperature (T, ºC), and salinity (S) data from previous high quality data sets of ocean hydrographic properties. All data sets were collected in the North Pacific subpolar region during the period of 2000-2010, for 40-400 m depth, and between 40°N and 56°N, 145°E and 130°W). Root mean square errors for the parameterizations with 7.4 µmol kg-1 for TA, 7.1 µmol kg-1 for DIC, and 0.02 for pH were obtained with R2 of more than 0.95. To evaluate the validity of these parameterizations, we compared measured TA, DIC, and pH with predicted values. The differences were almost within 10 µmol kg-1 for TA and DIC, and 0.05 for pH. Applying our parameterizations to the climatological data sets of DO, T, and S data from World Ocean Atlas 2009, we reconstructed seasonal and monthly vertical distributions of seawater TA, DIC, and pH. Furthermore, by substituting our parameterizations into detailed vertical distributions of DO, T, and S data measured bi-weekly by automatic ocean hydrographic sensors from Argo profiling floats, we described the detailed vertical spatiotemporal distributions of seawater TA, DIC, and pH. In the North Pacific subpolar region, in the case that there is no time-series of ocean carbon species, our parameterizations allowed us to elucidate the dynamics of ocean carbon chemistry from two-week scale to decadal scale.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: G5 and later stars in a North Galactic Pole region (Upgren 1962)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upgren, A. R., Jr.

    2015-11-01

    The catalog is an objective-prism survey of late-type stars in a region of 396 square degrees surrounding the north galactic pole. The objective-prism spectra employed have a dispersion of 58 nm/mm at H-γ and extend into the ultraviolet region. The catalog contains the magnitudes and spectral classes of 4027 stars of class G5 and later, complete to a limiting photographic magnitude of 13.0. The spectral classification of the stars is based on the Yerkes system. The catalog includes the serial numbers of the stars corresponding to the numbers on the identification charts in Upgren (1984), BD and HD numbers, B magnitudes, spectral classes, and letters designating the subregion and identification chart on which each star is located. This survey was undertaken to determine the space densities at varying distances from the galactic plane. Accurate separation of the surveyed stars of G5 and later into giants and dwarfs was achieved through the use of the UV region as well as conventional methods of classification. The resulting catalog of 4027 stars is probably complete over the region to a limiting photographic magnitude of 13.0. The region covered by the survey is the same as that discussed by Slettebak and Stock (1959) and is in the approximate range RA 11:30 to 13:00, Declination +25 to +50 (B1950.0). The catalog includes all M and Carbon stars previously published by Upgren (1960). For a discussion of the classification criteria, the combining of multiple classifications (each spectral image was classified twice), the determination of magnitudes, and additional details about the catalog, the source reference should be consulted. Corrections, accurate positions, more identifications, and remarks have been added in Nov. 2015 by B. Skiff in the file "positions.dat"; see the "History" section below for details. (3 data files).

  4. Eliciting policymakers' and stakeholders' opinions to help shape health system research priorities in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Makhoul, Jihad; Jamal, Diana; Ranson, Michael Kent; Kronfol, Nabil M; Tchaghchagian, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-informed decisions can strengthen health systems. Literature suggests that engaging policymakers and other stakeholders in research priority-setting exercises increases the likelihood of the utilization of research evidence by policymakers. To our knowledge, there has been no previous priority-setting exercise in health policy and systems research in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper presents the results of a recent research priority-setting exercise that identified regional policy concerns and research priorities related to health financing, human resources and the non-state sector, based on stakeholders in nine low and middle income countries (LMICs) of the MENA region. The countries included in this study were Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen. This multi-phased study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The overall approach was guided by the listening priority-setting approach, adapted slightly to accommodate the context of the nine countries. The study was conducted in four key phases: preparatory work, country-specific work, data analysis and synthesis, and validation and ranking. The study identified the top five policy-relevant health systems research priorities for each of the three thematic areas for the next 3-5 years. Study findings can help inform and direct future plans to generate, disseminate and use research evidence for LMICs in the MENA region. Our study process and results could help reduce the great chasm between the policy and research worlds in the MENA region. It is hoped that funding agencies and countries will support and align financial and human resources towards addressing the research priorities that have been identified.

  5. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  6. The transatlantic dust transport from North Africa to the Americas—Its characteristics and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, Gregor; Wernli, Heini; Kerkweg, Astrid; Teubler, Franziska

    2015-11-01

    Transport of Saharan dust over the Atlantic to the Americas is a relevant process since dust is a nutrient for marine and terrestrial ecosystems. It is therefore important to better quantify the frequency and amount of transatlantic dust transport, its preferred altitude and duration, and the regions of dust origin. This study uses a novel combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics, applied to a previously validated 5 year simulation of the fifth generation European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast-Hamburg-model (ECHAM5)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry model, to quantify these dust transport characteristics and their seasonal variations. Results confirm the previously found preferred transatlantic dust pathways: in boreal winter and spring, African dust is mainly transported below 800 hPa toward South America, whereas in summer and autumn the preferred pathway is to the Caribbean and occurs in a layer up to 500 hPa. The averaged transport duration from dust emission to deposition is 10 days in winter for deposition in the Amazon region and almost 12 days in summer for deposition in the Caribbean. These estimates were obtained by combining correlation analyses of Eulerian dust fluxes and trajectory calculations. The latter were also essential to identify the main source regions of transatlantic dust transport, which were found in all seasons in northwestern Africa (Algeria, Mali, and Mauritania) but not farther east, e.g., in the Bodélé Depression. A specific Lagrangian analysis for this dust emission hot spot suggests that wet deposition associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone in winter and the African monsoon in summer inhibits Bodélé dust to leave the African continent.

  7. Regional Tectonic Framework and Human Activities on the North Central Part of The Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.

    2001-12-01

    Faults and fractures northeasterly oriented dipping NW and SE, with slips mainly normal with a slight left lateral component, affect a suite of rocks of Mesozoic to Pleistocene age, in the area of El Bajio, in the states of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Aguascalientes. The faults and fractures have affected the infrastructure of the cities and surroundings of Queretaro, Celaya, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon and Aguascalientes. In the city of Queretaro, the Tlacote-Balvanera active fault has developed a scarp and its motion may potentially affect life lines of great importance. In Celaya City a N-S trending fault traverses the city and has produced a step wise scarp more than 1.80 m high, damaging houses, streets and life lines. In Salamanca, a fault trending N 60oE, dipping to the SE extends from Cerro Gordo to the SW traversing the city and affecting with a varying degree its infrastructure. Displacements observed within the urban area reach as much as 50 cm. Close to Irapuato City, in a quarry near La Valencianita village, a N 45oE trending fault dipping to the NW affects a lacustrine sequence bearing calcareous horizons. The fault exhibits a throw of 10 m and passes north of the urban area. A similarly oriented fault traverses the city of Irapuato, and near the Traffic Circle of Puente de Guadalupe, changes its strike to the SE and continues to the city limits. In the city of Silao, a fault oriented N 60oE, traverses the city and continues to the SW up to the localities of Venta de Ramales and La Aldea. Important displacements in urban and rural areas reach more than 60 cm. Outside the city of Leon in the junction of the highways to Aguascalientes and Guadalajara a normal fault plane NE oriented and dipping SE shows striations compatible with a normal left lateral motion. Faulting is associated with old buried scarps controlled by pre existing faults, and over exploited aquifers. Some of these faults however are considered potentially active based on

  8. Climate Change and West Nile Virus in a Highly Endemic Region of North America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen C.; Jenkins, Emily; Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S.; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of Cx. tarsalis and WNV infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. We selected one median and two extreme outcome scenarios to represent future climate conditions in the 2020 (2010–2039), 2050 (2040–2069) and 2080 (2070–2099) time slices. In currently endemic regions, the projected WNV infection rate under the median outcome scenario in 2050 raised 17.91 times (ranged from 1.29-27.45 times for all scenarios and time slices) comparing to current climate conditions. Seasonal availability of Cx. tarsalis infected with WNV extended from June to August to include May and September. Moreover, our models predicted northward range expansion for Cx. tarsalis (1.06–2.56 times the current geographic area) and WNV (1.08–2.34 times the current geographic area). These findings predict future public and animal health risk of WNV in the Canadian prairie provinces. PMID:23880729

  9. Regional organisation of neonatal intensive care in the North-west.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, M L; Davies, P; Bate, R; Dryburgh, E; Gordon-Nesbitt, D

    1979-07-28

    From January 1976 to July 1978, 234 ill neonates were transported to the regional neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) of St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, from 26 maternity hospitals three to 120 miles (4.8-193.1 km) away. Ninety per cent were transferred from 15 hospitals within a 30-mile (48.3 km) radius of the ICU. Most referring hospitals had more than 2000 births a year and offered good nursing supervision of high-risk neonates in conventional special care baby units (SCBUs). In 200 of the 234 babies respiratory symptoms precipitated referral, hyaline membrane disease being the most common final diagnosis. Altogether 143 babies received definitive mechanical ventilation, and most of them were ventilated in the ambulance en route to the ICU. The neonatal survival rates for all babies and for those who received mechanical ventilation were 61% and 45% respectively. Lethal inoperable malformations and tentorial tears accounted for 23 of the 92 deaths.A crisis-orientated referral service directed towards the treatment of babies with impending or actual respiratory failure needs close collaboration between the regional ICU and referring SCBUs, with parallel development of their facilities and skills. A complementary but distinct pattern of referral is necessary to cater for those high-risk but not critically ill babies who are born in hospitals that lack staff and facilities to provide the vigilant and anticipatory care that is so necessary. PMID:476405

  10. THE COMPLEX NORTH TRANSITION REGION OF CENTAURUS A: A GALACTIC WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Susan G.; Eilek, Jean A.; Owen, Frazer N.

    2015-04-01

    We present deep GALEX images of NGC 5128, the parent galaxy of Centaurus A. We detect a striking “weather ribbon” of far-UV (FUV) and Hα emission which extends more than 35 kpc northeast of the galaxy. This ribbon is associated with a knotty ridge of radio/X-ray emission and is an extension of the previously known string of optical emission-line filaments. Many phenomena in the region are too short-lived to have survived transit out from the inner galaxy; something must be driving them locally. We also detect FUV emission from the galaxy’s central dust lane. Combining this with previous radio and far-IR measurements, we infer an active starburst in the central galaxy which is currently forming stars at ∼2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup −1}, and has been doing so for 50–100 Myr. If the wind from this starburst is enhanced by energy and mass driven out from the active galactic nucleus, the powerful augmented wind can be the driver needed for the northern weather system. We argue that both the diverse weather system, and the enhanced radio emission in the same region, result from the wind’s encounter with cool gas left by one of the recent merger/encounter events in the history of NGC 5128.

  11. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  12. Las Alpujarras region (South East Spain) HLA genes study: evidence of a probable success of 17th century repopulation from North Spain.

    PubMed

    Longás, Javier; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Rey, Diego; Areces, Cristina; Casado, Eduardo Gómez; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Luna, Francisco; de Salamanca, Mercedes Enriquez; Moral, Pedro; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Conquest of Granada Muslim Kingdom (1492 AD) finished with Muslim occupation; they were mostly North African Berbers who had reached Iberia by 711 AD. A politics of Iberian Christianization followed after this date: Jewish were expelled in 1492 and Moriscos (Spaniards practicing Muslim religion or speaking Arab) were expelled from all Spanish territory on 1609 AD. Las Alpujarras is a southern Spain mountainous secluded region, which underwent a repopulation from North Spain and a specific Muslim (Moriscos)-Christian war took place according to historical records. Both Las Alpujarras repopulation by northern Iberians and Moriscos expulsion success have been debated and are regarded as non-clarified episodes. In this study, we have addressed the question whether the repopulation succeeded by determining HLA genes of present day Las Alpujarras inhabitants and compared with those of other Mediterranean populations HLA frequencies and genealogies. HLA frequencies show ambiguous results because of extant HLA similar gene frequencies there exist in North Africa and Spain. This is reflected by the finding of North and South western Mediterraneans close relatedness of HLA dendrograms and correspondence analyses. However, the genealogical study of extended HLA haplotypes particularly Alpujarran high frequency of HLA-A29-B44-DRB1*0701-DQA1*02-DQB1*02 (not found in Algerians but frequent in North and Central Spain) and Alpujarran low frequency extended haplotype HLA-A3-B7-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (frequent in North Europe) reveals that a significant HLA gene flow from North Spain is observed in present day Alpujarrans: both haplotypes are characteristic of North Spain and North Europe, respectively. This may indicate that enforced Alpujarran repopulation from North Spain may have been a success, which was started by Spanish King Philip II in 1571 AD.

  13. Las Alpujarras region (South East Spain) HLA genes study: evidence of a probable success of 17th century repopulation from North Spain.

    PubMed

    Longás, Javier; Martínez-Laso, Jorge; Rey, Diego; Areces, Cristina; Casado, Eduardo Gómez; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Luna, Francisco; de Salamanca, Mercedes Enriquez; Moral, Pedro; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Conquest of Granada Muslim Kingdom (1492 AD) finished with Muslim occupation; they were mostly North African Berbers who had reached Iberia by 711 AD. A politics of Iberian Christianization followed after this date: Jewish were expelled in 1492 and Moriscos (Spaniards practicing Muslim religion or speaking Arab) were expelled from all Spanish territory on 1609 AD. Las Alpujarras is a southern Spain mountainous secluded region, which underwent a repopulation from North Spain and a specific Muslim (Moriscos)-Christian war took place according to historical records. Both Las Alpujarras repopulation by northern Iberians and Moriscos expulsion success have been debated and are regarded as non-clarified episodes. In this study, we have addressed the question whether the repopulation succeeded by determining HLA genes of present day Las Alpujarras inhabitants and compared with those of other Mediterranean populations HLA frequencies and genealogies. HLA frequencies show ambiguous results because of extant HLA similar gene frequencies there exist in North Africa and Spain. This is reflected by the finding of North and South western Mediterraneans close relatedness of HLA dendrograms and correspondence analyses. However, the genealogical study of extended HLA haplotypes particularly Alpujarran high frequency of HLA-A29-B44-DRB1*0701-DQA1*02-DQB1*02 (not found in Algerians but frequent in North and Central Spain) and Alpujarran low frequency extended haplotype HLA-A3-B7-DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 (frequent in North Europe) reveals that a significant HLA gene flow from North Spain is observed in present day Alpujarrans: both haplotypes are characteristic of North Spain and North Europe, respectively. This may indicate that enforced Alpujarran repopulation from North Spain may have been a success, which was started by Spanish King Philip II in 1571 AD. PMID:21633894

  14. A Geophysical Overview of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust of the Mid-Continent Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of geophysical data, including newly released 3-D seismic reflection data, show us that the crustal structure of the Mid-Continent region of North America is very complex. The dimensions of many of the crustal structures is very large by global standards, and thus, they are a tectonic puzzle because of their size, structural complexity, and distance from active plate margins that usually create the driving mechanisms for intraplate deformation evident. The crust of the Mid-Continent region formed during a period of continental growth that extended from about 1.8 to 0.9 Ga. The impressive Mid-Continent rift system (MCRS) tried to interrupt this period of continental growth at about 1.1 Ga but it its western arm failed even though it modified the crust massively. However, the supercontinent resulting from this growth did not survive long and began to break up by ~700 Ma. This period of rifting established the structural framework of the southern Mid-Continent region, subsequent Early Paleozoic basin development, and at least partly, the formation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains in the late Paleozoic. The Southern Oklahoma aulacogen (SOA) is an impressive example of this rifting event. The deformation that formed the Ancestral Rocky Mountains resulted in massive inversion of SOA rift structures and is due to a plate collision in the late Paleozoic whose origin is under debate. There has been increased emphasis on the use of gravity, magnetic, seismic, drilling, and remote sensing data in studies of the Mid-Continent region. For example, the MCRS is traditionally viewed as ending in central Kansas and the SOA can be interpreted as ending in the Texas panhandle. However, we used enhancement of gravity and magnetic data, seismic data, geologic mapping, and deep-drilling data to study its southern extent, and it appears that the MCRS could extend further southward beneath the much younger Anadarko basin of Oklahoma to abut the SOA.

  15. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  16. Interannual increase of regional haze-fog in North China Plain in summer by intensified easterly winds and orographic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ziqi; Sheng, Lifang; Liu, Qian; Yao, Xiaohong; Wang, Wencai

    2015-12-01

    Regional haze-fog events over the North China Plain (NCP) have attracted much attention in recent years. Their increase has been attributed to anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and synoptic weather conditions. We investigated the influence of local meteorological conditions and large-scale circulation on the haze-fog events over the NCP during 2001-2012, and found a significant interannual increase in the number of summer regional haze-fog days. Analysis indicated that local meteorological conditions could partly explain the increase but failed to explain the spatial variation; meanwhile, regional circulation change induced by large-scale circulation and orographic forcing unveiled a possible spatiotemporal variation mechanism. In summer, the prevalent southerly winds over the NCP were obstructed by the Taihang and Yanshan mountains, steadying the outflow direction to the southeast, while different inflow direction controlled by large-scale circulation had different effects on regional circulation. In weak (strong) East Asian summer monsoon years, an intensified eastward (westward) zonal inflow wind component reinforced (weakened) the negative vorticity and formed an anomalous anticyclone (cyclone), which strengthened (weakened) the downward motion, so the dissipation capability was weakened (strengthened) and the wind speed decreased (increased), ultimately resulting in the increased (decreased) occurrence of haze-fog. We also found that the circulation anomaly had a good relationship with strong El Niño and La Niña events. There was more haze-fog over the NCP in the summers that followed a La Niña event, and less in summers that followed an El Niño event. This suggested the possibility that summer haze-fog phenomena could be predicted based on the phase of ENSO.

  17. Cumulative drought and land-use impacts on perennial vegetation across a North American dryland region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Long, A. Lexine; Wallace, Cynthia; Webb, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Question The decline and loss of perennial vegetation in dryland ecosystems due to global change pressures can alter ecosystem properties and initiate land degradation processes. We tracked changes of perennial vegetation using remote sensing to address the question of how prolonged drought and land-use intensification have affected perennial vegetation cover across a desert region in the early 21st century? Location Mojave Desert, southeastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona, USA. Methods We coupled the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Enhanced Vegetation Index (MODIS-EVI) with ground-based measurements of perennial vegetation cover taken in about 2000 and about 2010. Using the difference between these years, we determined perennial vegetation changes in the early 21st century and related these shifts to climate, soil and landscape properties, and patterns of land use. Results We found a good fit between MODIS-EVI and perennial vegetation cover (2000: R2 = 0.83 and 2010: R2 = 0.74). The southwestern, far southeastern and central Mojave Desert had large declines in perennial vegetation cover in the early 21st century, while the northeastern and southeastern portions of the desert had increases. These changes were explained by 10-yr precipitation anomalies, particularly in the cool season and during extreme dry or wet years. Areas heavily impacted by visitor use or wildfire lost perennial vegetation cover, and vegetation in protected areas increased to a greater degree than in unprotected areas. Conclusions We find that we can extrapolate previously documented declines of perennial plant cover to an entire desert, and demonstrate that prolonged water shortages coupled with land-use intensification create identifiable patterns of vegetation change in dryland regions.

  18. Modeled aerosol nitrate formation pathways during wintertime in the Great Lakes region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoo Jung; Spak, Scott N.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Riemer, Nicole; Stanier, Charles O.

    2014-11-01

    Episodic wintertime particle pollution by ammonium nitrate is an important air quality concern across the Midwest U.S. Understanding and accurately forecasting PM2.5 episodes are complicated by multiple pathways for aerosol nitrate formation, each with uncertain rate parameters. Here, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulated regional atmospheric nitrate budgets during the 2009 LADCO Winter Nitrate Study, using integrated process rate (IPR) and integrated reaction rate (IRR) tools to quantify relevant processes. Total nitrate production contributing to PM2.5 episodes is a regional phenomenon, with peak production over the Ohio River Valley and southern Great Lakes. Total nitrate production in the lower troposphere is attributed to three pathways, with 57% from heterogeneous conversion of N2O5, 28% from the reaction of OH and NO2, and 15% from homogeneous conversion of N2O5. TNO3 formation rates varied day-to-day and on synoptic timescales. Rate-limited production does not follow urban-rural gradients and NOx emissions due, to counterbalancing of urban enhancement in daytime HNO3 production with nocturnal reductions. Concentrations of HNO3 and N2O5 and nighttime TNO3 formation rates have maxima aloft (100-500 m), leading to net total nitrate vertical flux during episodes, with substantial vertical gradients in nitrate partitioning. Uncertainties in all three pathways are relevant to wintertime aerosol modeling and highlight the importance of interacting transport and chemistry processes during ammonium nitrate episodes, as well as the need for additional constraint on the system through field and laboratory experiments.

  19. NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration: EM302 Multibeam Survey of the Sangihe-Talaud Region, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobecker, M.; Malik, M.; Johnson, J. E.; Boettcher, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer has just completed a successful 2010 field season, including its first partnership-building mission to Indonesia, INDEX-SATAL 2010 (Indonesia Exploration Sangihe-Talaud region). The mission was part of President Obama’s initiative to build science and technology partnerships with Muslim nations. The Okeanos Explorer is equipped with progressive technology, including a Kongsberg EM302 (30 kHz) multibeam system with bottom backscatter and water column backscatter data collection capabilities. The mapping in the Sangihe-Talaud region of the Celebes Sea produced over 31,000 square kilometers of high resolution data, ranging in depth from 244 meters to more than 7000 meters. The mapped regions include the majority of the western side of the central Sangihe volcanic arc and a narrow transect across the arc in the south. A ~350 km long transect across the northern end of the central Sangihe arc was also mapped, north of the Talaud Islands, and extends eastward across the Sangihe Basin and Molucca Trench to the Philippine Trench. A recent synthesis of deep marine data by Pubellier et al. (2005)1 documents numerous active and inactive subduction zones of opposite polarity in this narrow region. The high resolution bathymetry reveals new details of the seafloor morphology in this complex tectonic regime. At least five seamounts were mapped, including an unknown 1500 meter high seamount and the volcano Kawio Barat, which rises approximately 3500 meters from the seafloor and is the site of white smokers and surprisingly dense and diverse deepwater biological communities. Several additional features were observed, including submarine channels, fans, debris aprons with blocks up to 800 meters in diameter, accretionary ridges and basins, trenches, and some flat topped seamounts. These well-defined features are consistent with the complex interactions between arc development, mass wasting, and subduction. These data provide new opportunities for

  20. Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north-central Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Miller, Kate C.; Erslev, Eric A.; Anderson, Megan L.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yeck, William L.; Harder, Steven H.; Siddoway, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    The crustal structure of north-central Wyoming records a history of complex lithospheric evolution from Precambrian accretion to Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide shortening. We present two active source P wave velocity model profiles collected as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment in 2010. Analyses of these velocity models and single-fold reflection data, together with potential field modeling of regional gravity and magnetic signals, constrain crustal structure and thickness of the Bighorn region. We image a west dipping reflection boundary and model a sharp magnetic contact east of the Bighorn Arch that together may delineate a previously undetected Precambrian suture zone. Localized patches of a high-velocity, high-density lower crustal layer (the "7.× layer") occur across the study area but are largely absent beneath the Bighorn Arch culmination. Moho topography is relatively smooth with no large-scale offsets, with depths ranging from ~50 to 37 km, and is largely decoupled from Laramide basement topography. These observations suggest that (1) the edge of the Archean Wyoming craton lies just east of the Bighorn Mountains, approximately 300 km west of previous interpretations, and (2) Laramide deformation localized in an area with thin or absent 7.× layer, due to its relatively weak lower crust, leading to detachment faulting. Our findings show that Precambrian tectonics in northern Wyoming may be more complicated than previously determined and subsequent Laramide deformation may have been critically dependent on laterally heterogeneous crustal structure that can be linked to Precambrian origins.

  1. Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2008-01-01

    Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized.

  2. Snow-atmosphere coupling and extremes over North America in the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Huziy, O.

    2015-12-01

    Given the importance of land in the climate system, we investigate the influence of land surface, in particular the variation in snow characteristics, on climate variability and extremes over North America using the fifth generation of Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this end, we carried out two CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, where snow is either prescribed (uncoupled) or evolves interactively (coupled) during the model integration. Results indicate a systematic influence of snow on the inter-annual variability of air and surface temperature throughout the winter and spring seasons. In the coupled simulations, where the snow depth and snow cover were allowed to evolve freely, the inter-annual variability of surface and near surface air temperatures were found to be larger. Comparison with the uncoupled simulation suggests that snow depth/cover variability accounts for about 70% of the total surface temperature variability over the northern Great Plains and Canadian Prairies for the winter and spring seasons. The snow-atmosphere coupling is stronger in spring than in winter, since in spring season both the albedo and the latent heat flux contribute to the variability in temperature. Snow is also found to modulate extreme temperature events such as the number of cold days over Prairies during weak La-Nina episodes. These results suggest that initializing forecast models with realistic snow condition could potentially help to improve seasonal/sub-seasonal prediction skill over these snow-atmosphere coupling hotspot regions.

  3. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  4. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985–2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229–54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  5. Regional variation in radiation dose to caribou in the Canadian north: 1992--94

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, C.R.; Ewing, L.L.; Wiewel, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    Research to support Canada`s concept of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste has shown that caribou are chronically exposed to high radiation doses from natural {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po accumulation. Initial results showed that weighted absorbed dose to caribou could reach 500 mGy{center_dot}a{sup {minus}} in some animals. The research continued in 1993/94 to determine the regional variability of these nuclides and to compare observed doses in caribou with criteria recommended to protect the environment. Muscle, liver, kidney and bone from several herds were analyzed for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. The results confirmed the high levels of naturally-occurring nuclides in some herds, while non-detectable levels were observed in other herds. Maximum muscle {sup 137}Cs activity (238 Bq/kg) was observed in the central Canadian Arctic. In all herds, {sup 137}Cs activity was lower than in 1988 and substantially lower than comparable tissues in reindeer from northern Europe. Mean bone {sup 210}Pb activity ranged from non-detectable to 1,285 Bq/kg in a herd from the northeastern Canadian Arctic, including a maximum of 3,600 Bq/kg. Both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po activities in eastern Canadian herds were higher than in European and Russian herds reported in the literature. Regional differences in bone {sup 210}Pb activity correspond with natural {sup 210}Pb deposition and lichen community composition. It is not known if the long-range transport of {sup 210}Pb derived from fossil fuel and gasoline combustion adds significantly to the Canadian Arctic relative to natural sources. Mean weighted absorbed doses to the caribou ranged from < 1 mGy{center_dot}a{sup {minus}1} in herds in the western Arctic to 300 mGy{center_dot}a{sup {minus}1} in the east. Studies on {sup 210}Po distribution show that doses to specific tissues may be substantially higher than these estimates, which assume uniform distribution in tissues.

  6. Analysis of Regional Deformations In Asia and North America Using Vlbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, C.; Luk, P. H.; Shum, C. K.

    Based on the NASA VLBI global solutions glb1123 (Ma, 1999) and glb2001(Ma, 2001), the vertical deformation rates (VDR) of the Kashima and Kashima34 VLBI stations in Japan were re-analysed using the rates of baseline length change from Kashima to 27 global VLBI stations, and from Kashima34 to 12 stations. The velocity vectors of the global VLBI stations were referenced to different ITRFs, i.e., ITRF96, ITRF97 and ITRF2000 for solution sensitivity studies. Using the Eulerian vectors (Sil- laed et al., 1998, Zhang et al., 1999) and based on NNR-NUVEL-1A, the correspond- ing horizontal deformation rates (HDR) of these two stations were also computed and analyzed. The VDR of Kashima34 relative to Kashima is estimated to be -4.2 +/- 0.7 mm/year, and the corresponding HDR of these two stations is 0.9 +/- 0.7 mm/year with AZ at 351.9 +/- 34.2 degrees. To validate the estimated relative deformation rates obtained above, baseline rates of the Kashima and Kashima34 stations relative to 9 common global VLBI stations, and baseline rates relative to 10 stations (9 stations plus Mojave12) have been determined to show that the similar conclusions have been reached. The 9 stations are DSS45 (Tidbinbilla, Australia), Hobert26 (Tasmania, Aus- tralia), Fairbanks (Gilmore Creek, Alaska, USA), Westford (USA), Hartebeesthoek (South Africa), Kauai (Hawaii, USA), Matera (Italy), Seshan25 (Shanghai, China), and Wettzell (Germany); and the additional station used is Mojave12 (USA). We have obtained the averaged relative VDR and HDR between the two stations separated by 300 m as -3.8 +/- 0.8 mm/year, 1.4 +/- 0.8 mm/year with AZ at 336.2 +/- 28.6 de- grees. In addition, the deformation rate of Shanghai, San Francisco, Yuma, Mojave12 and SC-VLBA station regional baselines are analyzed using a similar method and re- sults discussed. In conclusion, the rates of VLBI baseline lengths can be used to accu- rately determine the regional to fine-scale baseline deformations using existing VLBI

  7. A new perspective on the regional hydrologic cycle over North and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shu-Ping

    The GEOS-1 vertically-integrated 3-hr moisture flux reanalyses and hourly-gridded United States station precipitation plus a satellite-based, 6-hr global precipitation estimate were employed to investigate the impacts of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) on the regional hydrological cycle over the central United States (Part I) and the subtropical plains of South America (Part II). Research stressed the influences of upper-level synoptic-scale waves (i.e., synoptic-scale forcings) upon the regional hydrologic processes, which were explored by the impacts associated with the occurrence of LLJ. Besides the conventional budget analysis, the adopted `synoptic-forcing approach' was proven illustrative in describing these impacts through the down-scaling process of LLJs. In Part 1, the major findings include: (1)the seasonal-averaged hydrological cycle over the Great Plains is strongly affected by the occurrence of GPLLJ, (2)the synoptic-scale forcing provided by the upper-level propagating jet (ULJ) streams is essential in generating the large-scale precipitation after the GPLLJ forms from the diurnal boundary layer process, (3)without the dynamic coupling between the ULJ and LLJ, the impact of LLJ on the hydrological cycle is demonstrated to be less important, and (4)the importance of synoptic-scale forcings in preconditioning the setting of wet/dry seasons in the interannual variability of rainfall anomaly is further illustrated by examining the changes of intensity as well as the occurrence frequency between the different types of LLJ. In Part II of this study, it was found that the occurrence of Andean LLJ represents a transient episode that detours the climatic rainfall activity along the South Atlantic Convergent Zone (SACZ) to the subtropical plains (Brazilian Nordeste) in its southwestern (northeastern) flank. The appearance of a seesaw pattern in the rainfall and flux convergence anomalies along the southeastern portion of South America, which is spatially in

  8. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  9. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  10. Peopling of the North Circumpolar Region--insights from Y chromosome STR and SNP typing of Greenlanders.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Pereira, Vania; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The human population in Greenland is characterized by migration events of Paleo- and Neo-Eskimos, as well as admixture with Europeans. In this study, the Y-chromosomal variation in male Greenlanders was investigated in detail by typing 73 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs). Approximately 40% of the analyzed Greenlandic Y chromosomes were of European origin (I-M170, R1a-M513 and R1b-M343). Y chromosomes of European origin were mainly found in individuals from the west and south coasts of Greenland, which is in agreement with the historic records of the geographic placements of European settlements in Greenland. Two Inuit Y-chromosomal lineages, Q-M3 (xM19, M194, L663, SA01 and L766) and Q-NWT01 (xM265) were found in 23% and 31% of the male Greenlanders, respectively. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the Q-M3 lineage of the Greenlanders was estimated to be between 4,400 and 10,900 years ago (y. a.) using two different methods. This is in agreement with the theory that the North Circumpolar Region was populated via a second expansion of humans in the North American continent. The TMRCA of the Q-NWT01 (xM265) lineage in Greenland was estimated to be between 7,000 and 14,300 y. a. using two different methods, which is older than the previously reported TMRCA of this lineage in other Inuit populations. Our results indicate that Inuit individuals carrying the Q-NWT01 (xM265) lineage may have their origin in the northeastern parts of North America and could be descendants of the Dorset culture. This in turn points to the possibility that the current Inuit population in Greenland is comprised of individuals of both Thule and Dorset descent.

  11. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  12. Hybridization among Three Native North American Canis Species in a Region of Natural Sympatry

    PubMed Central

    Hailer, Frank; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Population densities of many species throughout the world are changing due to direct persecution as well as anthropogenic habitat modification. These changes may induce or increase the frequency of hybridization among taxa. If extensive, hybridization can threaten the genetic integrity or survival of endangered species. Three native species of the genus Canis, coyote (C. latrans), Mexican wolf (C. lupus baileyi) and red wolf (C. rufus), were historically sympatric in Texas, United States. Human impacts caused the latter two to go extinct in the wild, although they survived in captive breeding programs. Morphological data demonstrate historic reproductive isolation between all three taxa. While the red wolf population was impacted by introgressive hybridization with coyotes as it went extinct in the wild, the impact of hybridization on the Texas populations of the other species is not clear. Methodology/ Principal Findings We surveyed variation at maternally and paternally inherited genetic markers (mitochondrial control region sequence and Y chromosome microsatellites) in coyotes from Texas, Mexican wolves and red wolves from the captive breeding programs, and a reference population of coyotes from outside the historic red wolf range. Levels of variation and phylogenetic analyses suggest that hybridization has occasionally taken place between all three species, but that the impact on the coyote population is very small. Conclusion/Significance Our results demonstrate that the factors driving introgressive hybridization in sympatric Texan Canis are multiple and complex. Hybridization is not solely determined by body size or sex, and density-dependent effects do not fully explain the observed pattern either. No evidence of hybridization was identified in the Mexican wolf captive breeding program, but introgression appears to have had a greater impact on the captive red wolves. PMID:18841199

  13. Anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in Ndop health district, north west region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in Cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. To effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local Anopheles species is essential. Therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between August 2010 and May 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the Ndop health district in the northwest region of Cameroon where malaria is holoendemic, as a means to acquiring evidence based data for improved vector intervention. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled both indoor and outdoor for four consecutive nights in each locality during each month of survey. Sampling was done by the human landing catch method on volunteers. Anopheles species were identified morphologically and their ovaries randomly dissected for parity determination. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected by Circumsporozoite protein ELISA. Members of An. gambiae complex were further identified to molecular level by PCR and RFLP PCR. Results An. ziemanni was the main malaria vector and whether outdoor or indoor. The man biting rate for the vectors ranged from 6.75 to 8.29 bites per person per night (b/p/n). The entomological inoculation rate for this vector species was 0.0278 infectious bites per person per night (ib/p/n) in Mbapishi, 0.034 ib/p/n in Mbafuh, and 0.063 ib/p/n in Backyit. These were by far greater than that for An. gambiae. No difference was observed in the parity rate of these two vectors. PCR analysis revealed the presence of only An. colluzzi (M- form). Conclusions An. ziemanni is an important local malaria vector in Ndop health district. The findings provide useful baseline information on the anopheles species composition, their distribution and role in malaria transmission that would guide the implementation of integrated vector management strategies in the locality. PMID

  14. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  15. Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

  16. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  17. Integrated evaluation of aerosols during haze-fog episodes at one regional background site in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qi; Li, Weijun; Zhou, Shengzhen; Yang, Lingxiao; Chi, Jianwei; Sui, Xiao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate haze-fog (HF) formation mechanisms and transport, trace gases and aerosols in the aged air masses during regional haze episodes were measured at a regional background site in the North China Plain during 4-19 July, 2011. Mixing state of individual particles, soluble ions of PM2.5, and particle number concentrations were studied using transmission electron microscope, ambient ion monitoring, and wide-range particle spectrometer, respectively. Average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 3 times higher on HF days (70 μg/m3) than on clear days (22 μg/m3). The major soluble ionic components (SO42 -, NO3-, and NH4+) in PM2.5 were over 4 times higher on HF days (40.6 μg/m3) than on clear days (9.1 μg/m3). The high sulfur oxidation ratios (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation ratios (NOR) values during HF days suggest that polluted weather favored transformation of SO2 and NOx into sulfates and nitrates compared to clear days. Particle number fraction of the accumulation mode increases from 11% on clear days up to 26% on HF days. Individual particle analysis shows that secondary inorganic particles (e.g., sulfate and nitrate) as the most abundant species likely determine internal mixing of individual particles and almost half of them mixed refractory particles (e.g., metal, fly ash, soot, and mineral) on HF days. These fine refractory particles were likely emitted from coal fired power plants, heavy industries, and urban city in Shandong and Hebei provinces. Our results suggest that aged air masses mostly contain aged particles of long-range transport and some from new particle formation and growth in the regional background atmosphere.

  18. Use of a Regional Climate Model to Diagnose Circulation and Surface Climate Controls of Wildfire in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetler, S. W.; Bartlein, P. J.; Alder, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We explore monthly North American climate and wildfire relationships through joint analysis of a new wildfire data base and climate simulations that we conducted with the RegCM3 regional climate model. We derived the new data base, which covers 1986-2012, by screening and merging the US FPA-FOD, US NIFC and Canadian CNFDB data guided by an analysis that included the examination of "heavy-tailed" statistical distributions (Pareto and tapered Pareto) in order to maximize the number of combined records while minimizing potential irregularities and noise such as over- and under-reporting and spurious data. We associate area burned from lightning-set wildfires, as registered to the start date of the fires, with the simulated atmospheric circulation and the surface water and energy balances at 50 km over NA and at 15 km for 4 sub-regions of NA. Our 50-km results clearly associate the seasonal cycle and spatial distribution of wildfire in the US and Canada with the seasonal cycle of atmospheric circulation and surface climate, in particular to solar and long-wave radiation and latent and sensible heating. We also use the 50-km model output to diagnose the within-season temporal and spatial characteristics of wildfire (e.g., the Northern Rockies versus the Boreal forest) and the characteristics of individual fire years. Over the 15-km sub-regions, we use composite anomalies of the surface water and energy balances to differentiate the spatial and temporal controls of high- and low-fire years and to assess the role of interannual variability in the fire record

  19. A novel technique for studying F-region ionization patches with the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar - North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G. W.; Hosokawa, K.; St-Maurice, J.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The northward facing Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar - North (RISR-N) and the soon to be operational southward facing RISR-Canada (RISR-C) systems are both exceptional platforms for investigating F-region ionization patches and the polar ionosphere. To advance patch research using these systems, an algorithm has been developed for detecting F-region ionization patches with the RISR-N system. The algorithm is based on the definition of a patch put forward by Crowley [1996]: a volume of F-region plasma with a density that is twice that of the background ionosphere. In this work, the algorithm is applied to the sizeable RISR-N dataset, providing valuable insight into the prevalence of patches over Resolute Bay over a time frame of several years. Additional questions concerning patches are also addressed using the algorithm, including: when compared to each other, do the occurrence rates of patches identified by the Optical Mesosphere and Thermosphere Imagers (OMTI), Polar Dual Auroral Radar Network (PolarDARN) and RISR-N instruments (whose fields-of-view overlap over Resolute Bay) agree? Namely, for every patch that is detected with RISR-N and/or PolarDARN, is there a corresponding patch seen optically? Lastly, using the algorithm, is it possible to advance our ability to distinguish patches from other coherent backscatter echoes detected by PolarDARN? Crowley, G. (1996), Critical review of ionospheric patches and blobs, in Review of Radio Science: 1993-1996, edited by W. R. Stone, pp. 619 648, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U. K.

  20. Snow-atmosphere coupling in current and future climates over North America in the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefera Diro, Gulilat; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    The influence of snow variation on climate variability over North America is assessed using the fifth generation of Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). For this, we first carried out a suite of CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, whereby the snow was either prescribed (uncoupled) or allowed to evolve interactively (coupled) during the model integration. Results indicate a systematic influence of snow on the inter-annual variability of air and surface temperature throughout winter and spring seasons. In the coupled simulations, where the snow depth and snow cover were allowed to evolve freely, the inter-annual variability of surface and near surface air temperatures were found to be larger and explains up to 70% of the surface temperature variation over northern Great Plains and Canadian Prairies. The impact of snow is found to be stronger in spring than in winter, since in spring season both albedo and hydrological effects contribute to the variability in temperature. To study projected changes to snow-atmosphere coupling in future climate, coupled and uncoupled CRCM5 simulations, driven by coupled GCMs, were performed, for current (1981-2010) and future (2071-2100) climates. Coupling regions in the GCM-driven current climate simulations are similar to those obtained with ERA-Interim driven CRCM5 simulations discussed above. In future climate, snow-temperature coupling shows some change in spatial structures and in magnitudes. These results suggest that accurate initialization of snow condition could potentially be helpful to improve seasonal prediction skill over these snow-atmosphere coupling hotspot regions.

  1. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  2. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  3. Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebich, Martina; Mingram, Jens; Han, Jingtai; Liu, Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    The results presented here from the annually laminated sedimentary sequence of Sihailongwan lake provide the first comprehensive palaeoecological record covering the Late Pleniglacial to the Early Holocene (16,700-10,600 cal yrs. BP) from Northeast China. High-resolution pollen analyses have enabled the vegetational and climatic changes of the last glacial-interglacial transition to be reconstructed in more detail than has been previously possible. Moreover, a reliable chronology has been provided by both varve counting and 40 calibrated AMS 14C age determinations. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates predominantly steppe and open taiga-like woodland communities, with abundant Betula, Larix, Alnus fruticosa, Artemisia, grasses and sedges, which are typical of cold and dry conditions between 16,700 and 14,450 cal yrs. BP. The beginning expansion of Ulmus and Fraxinus marks the onset of the Late-glacial climatic amelioration at 14,450 cal yrs. BP. Dense deciduous forests, predominantly consisting of thermophilous broadleaf taxa, become established and widespread during the Early Holocene. Two short-term climatic reversals to colder and/or dryer conditions are recorded in the proxy data between 13,900 and 13,800 cal yrs. BP and 13,100 and 12,900 cal yrs. BP, correlating with the Oldest Dryas/Greenland Interstadial (GI) 1d event and the Gerzensee/Killarney/GI-1b oscillation, respectively. The prominent reappearance of Picea and Larix, coupled with a marked decrease in broadleaved trees, prior to the start of the Holocene, implies a climatic reversal compatible with the Younger Dryas event in the circum-Atlantic region. The evident synchroneity of climate changes in the North Atlantic region and East Asia supports the theory of strong atmospheric coupling between both regions.

  4. Heat flux and topography constraints on thermochemical structure below North China Craton regions and implications for evolution of cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongming; Huang, Jinshui; Zhong, Shijie; Chen, Jiaming

    2016-04-01

    The eastern North China Craton (NCC) has undergone extensive reactivation during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, while the western NCC has remained stable throughout its geological history. Geophysical and geochemical observations, including heat flux, surface topography, crustal and lithospheric thicknesses, and volcanism, show significant contrast between the eastern and western NCC. These observations provide constraints on thermochemical structure and reactivation process of the eastern NCC, thus helping understand the dynamic evolution of cratonic lithosphere. In this study, we determined the residual topography for the NCC region by removing crustal contribution to the topography. We found that the residual topography of the eastern NCC region is generally 0.3-0.9 km higher than the western NCC. We computed a large number of two-dimension thermochemical convection models for gravitational instability of cratonic lithosphere and quantified surface heat flux and topography contrasts between stable and destabilized parts of cratonic lithosphere. These models consider different chemical buoyancy (i.e., buoyancy number B) and viscosity for the cratonic lithosphere. Our models suggest that to explain the difference in heat flux (25-30 mW/m2) and residual topography (0.3-0.9 km) between the eastern and western NCC regions, the buoyancy number B is required to be ~0.3-0.4. This range of B implies that as much as 50% of the original cratonic lithospheric material remains in the present-day eastern NCC lithosphere and its underlying shallow mantle and that the new lithosphere in the eastern NCC may be a mixture of the relics of old craton materials and the normal mantle.

  5. Assessment of aerosol radiative forcing in the North-Eastern region of India using radiative transfer model and regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip

    Regional characterization of atmospheric aerosols is essential from the viewpoint of reducing the current uncertainties in the understanding of their climate implications at regional and global scale. The north-eastern part of India owing to its unique topography and geography located at sub Himalayan range and the middle of Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asian region as well as with scattered local hilly regions persevere complex aerosol environment. Collocated measurements of parameters corresponding to aerosol optical and physical properties i.e., spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) by a 10 channel Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR), near surface aerosol mass concentration of composite aerosols by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Impactor (QCM) and Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration by an Aethalometer have been used in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model to estimate the optical properties of composite aerosols over Dibrugarh (27.3ºN, 94.6ºE, 111 m amsl) for the short wavelength range. The OPAC outputs are then used as inputs to the Rdiative Transfer model ‘Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART)’, developed by the University of California, Santa Barbara, to derive the shortwave aerosol radiative properties. The aerosol optical depth shows maximum value in pre-monsoon season and minimum in post-monsoon season. Columnar aerosols are bimodal in nature with dominant contribution from fine mode aerosols. Unlike columnar aerosols surface aerosol concentration including black carbon shows maximum value in winter and minimum in monsoon season. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) estimated for the period pre-monsoon 2008-winter 2013 shows maximum value in the pre-monsoon season at the surface as well as in the atmosphere corresponding to highest columnar aerosol loading. The surface forcing varies between -37 Wm-2 in Pre-monsoon 2009 and 2011 to -13 Wm-2 in Post-monsoon 2008 while forcing in the Atmosphere

  6. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  7. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  8. Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotz, Preston Enslow

    1979-01-01

    Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

  9. Age Spectra and Transport Rates in the UTLS over the Tropics and the North American Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, J. V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Daube, B. C.; Budney, J.; Commane, R.; Lindaas, J.; McKain, K.; Samra, J.; Santoni, G.; Sargent, M. R.; Smith, J. B.; Anderson, J. G.; Gao, R. S.; Rollins, A. W.; Thornberry, T. D.; Watts, L. A.; Hintsa, E. J.; Moore, F. L.; Elkins, J. W.; Andrews, A. E.; Atlas, E. L.; Navarro, M. A.; Wang, T.; Dessler, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) plays a significant role in controlling the chemical composition and the radiative property of the stratosphere. Transport and mixing processes with time scales ranging from a few hours (e.g., convection) to several months (e.g., slow ascent) have been previously observed in this region of the atmosphere. While the tropics act as the dominant gateway for air entering the stratosphere, monsoon regions have recently gained significant interest as sources of direct injection of surface air into the extratropical stratosphere, bypassing the thermal and chemical control of the tropics. In this study, we use high-altitude aircraft measurements of chemical tracers with different atmospheric lifetimes to investigate the aforementioned processes. These measurements were recently collected over the tropics during the NASA ATTREX campaign and over the North American Monsoon (NAM) region during the NASA SEAC4RS campaign. In addition, we use surface station data and trajectory analysis in order to elucidate the chemical and dynamical context of the aircraft measurements. Our goals are twofold: (i) examine the age of air and age spectra in the UTLS over the tropics and the NAM region, and (ii) examine the transport rates linking the tropics and midlatitudes at UTLS altitudes. This study is primarily based upon the analysis of greenhouse gas data, in particular CO2. This tracer has a well-defined seasonal cycle driven by biosphere-atmosphere interactions and an annual trend driven by anthropogenic activity. This 'clock-like' property makes it a useful tracer for studying transport timescales. This information is then complemented by process-specific information given by additional chemical tracers such as H2O, O3, CO, and short-lived hydrocarbons. Multi-tracer aircraft data from more than 150 vertical profiles over the tropical Pacific and over 50 vertical profiles over the NAM region between Jan 2013 and Mar 2014 provide

  10. Climatic trends in the North Atlantic region during the last 2,000 years in an orbitally forced AOGCM simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.

    2013-12-01

    The global coverage of temporal highly resolved proxy-based climate reconstructions is extending to cover the last 2,000 years. It is thus important to fully understand the effect of the orbital forcing at these time scales, as the imprint of the orbital forcing becomes clearer when analyzing climate on time scales longer than the last 1,000 years. The slow-varying orbital parameters affect the seasonal distribution of the incoming solar radiation. Although changes are not as pronounced compared to the mid-Holocene, still distinct differences exist, with lower insolation between February and May and higher insolation between July and October over the mid- and high northern latitudes 2,000 years ago compared to present. Here, we analyze a simulation with the coupled climate model ECHO-G forced only with changes in orbital variations for the last 2,000 years. Other factors such as solar activity and greenhouse gas changes are set to constant pre-industrial values. The modeled near-surface temperature trends reflect the expected orbitally induced insolation trends over the northern hemispheric continents and the Arctic, with increased temperatures during May and reduced temperatures during October. Over the North Atlantic Ocean, however SST trends are not directly consistent to changes in orbital forcing throughout the year, mostly showing little or slight uniform cooling trends. The strength of the maximum overturning circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean also shows no clear-cut trends that can be linked to changes in external forcings. Other variables related to oceanic convection and surface heat fluxes indicate, however, spatially heterogeneous trend patterns. For example, regions south of Greenland and off Labrador show increases in convection that compensate the decreases over the Labrador and the Norwegian Sea. This pattern varies in intensity and spatial extent between the different winter half year months. Changes in oceanic convection and surface heat

  11. A multi-year study of lower tropospheric aerosol variability and systematic relationships from four North American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. P.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.; Hageman, D.; Schmeisser, L.; Jefferson, A.; Sharma, S.

    2015-11-01

    Hourly averaged aerosol optical properties (AOPs) measured over the years 2010-2013 at four continental North American NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) cooperative aerosol network sites - Southern Great Plains near Lamont, OK (SGP), Bondville, IL (BND), Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (APP), and Egbert, Ontario, Canada (EGB) are analyzed. Aerosol optical properties measured over 1996-2009 at BND and 1997-2009 at SGP are also presented. The aerosol sources and types in the four regions differ enough so as to collectively represent rural, anthropogenically perturbed air conditions over much of eastern continental North America. Temporal AOP variability on monthly, weekly, and diurnal timescales is presented for each site. Differences in annually averaged AOPs and those for individual months at the four sites are used to examine regional AOP variability. Temporal and regional variability are placed in the context of reported aerosol chemistry at the sites, meteorological measurements (wind direction, temperature), and reported regional mixing layer heights. Basic trend analysis is conducted for selected AOPs at the long-term sites (BND and SGP). Systematic relationships among AOPs are also presented. Seasonal variability in PM1 (sub-1 μm particulate matter) scattering and absorption coefficients at 550 nm (σsp and σap, respectively) and most of the other PM1 AOPs is much larger than day of week and diurnal variability at all sites. All sites demonstrate summer σsp and σap peaks. Scattering coefficient decreases by a factor of 2-4 in September-October and coincides with minimum single-scattering albedo (ω0) and maximum hemispheric backscatter fraction (b). The co-variation of ω0 and b lead to insignificant annual cycles in top-of-atmosphere direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFE) at APP and SGP. Much larger annual DRFE cycle amplitudes are observed at EGB (~ 40 %) and BND (~ 25 %), with least negative DRFE in September-October at

  12. Survey of bovine mycotic mastitis in different mammary gland statuses in two north-eastern regions of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Samir; Djebir, Somia; Hadef, Youcef; Benakhla, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in different mammary gland statuses. The study was conducted on 304 dairy cows from ten farms in two north-eastern regions in Algeria; Guelma and Souk Ahras with 922 and 199 samples, respectively, forming thus a total number of 1,121 milk samples. A total of 321 milk samples were collected from clinical mastitis, 544 milk samples from subclinical mastitis and 256 milk samples from healthy mammary glands. Mycological analyses revealed that 10.17% of the treated samples were positive recording 114 species of fungi including 88 yeasts and 26 moulds. The most frequent species was Candida kefyr followed by C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. colliculosa, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. inconspicua, Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Saccharomyces fragilis. Mould species have also been isolated from samples of both healthy milk and clinical mastitis milk. Aspergillus amstelodami (from glaucus group), A. fumigatus and Geotrichum candidum were identified, while the other species including Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. were not identified.

  13. The P-wave velocity of the uppermost mantle of the Rio Grande rift region of north central New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murdock, J.N.; Jaksha, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A network of seismograph stations has operated in north-central New Mexico since 1975. The network is approximately 200 by 300 km in size and encompasses the Rio Grande rift there. Several seismic refraction experiments have been reported in the literature for the region of the network and adjacent areas. Because all of the seismic refraction lines are unreversed, Pn velocities reported were mainly of the inverse travel time slope for the direction of the corresponding line. The values of the inverse slope for those studies range from 7.6 to 8.2 km/s. The purpose of our study is to estimate the P-wave velocity of the uppermost mantle by using the time term method. First, we timed the Pn waves of strong signals from five explosions and eight shallow earthquakes recorded by the network. The main data set, which contains 87 time-distance pairs, was processed by using the time term method. The Pn velocity estimated by this method is 8.0 + or - 0.1 km/s. To corroborate this estimate, we then processed 10 subsets of the main data set in the same way. Almost all of the solutions show velocities of 7.9-8.1 km/s, in agreement with the velocity determined for the main data set. -Authors

  14. Four year longitudinal study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in a region of North-Eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fallico, Loredana; Couvin, David; Peracchi, Marta; Pascarella, Michela; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Rassu, Mario; Manganelli, Riccardo; Rastogi, Nalin; Palù, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested a change of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity in Western Europe due to an increasing proportion of imported cases of tuberculosis (TB). This study analyzed a total of 705 M. tuberculosis strains isolated from 2006 to 2009 in Veneto, a North-Eastern Italian region, to see the impact of foreign-born cases vs. Italian patients on prevailing TB epidemiology. Strains were genotyped using spoligotyping followed by comparison with international genotyping database SITVIT2. Six spoligotyping clusters with suspected phylogeographical specificity for imported cases, were typed by 15-loci MIRUs for a finer characterization. Overall, 410 (58.16%) strains were isolated from foreign-born patients, while 295 (41.84%) were isolated from Italian patients. Older patients (>70 years, i.e., 46.4% of cases) predominated among Italians while younger age groups prevailed among foreign-born patients. Our results suggest that despite a high proportion of reactivation of latent TB infection in elderly Italian-born patients, active TB transmission between foreign-born and Italian patients may be ongoing, and argue in favor of an increased TB surveillance among immigrants to combat TB epidemic in Italy.

  15. Stable isotopic compositions of elemental carbon in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Jiang, Wenjuan; Chen, Shanli; Sun, Deling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Rui, Maoling

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotopic compositions (δ13C) of elemental carbon (EC) in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing region were determined in order to quantitatively evaluate the carbon sources of atmospheric fine particles during different seasons. Besides, δ13C values from potential sources such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, and dust were synchronously measured. The results showed that the average δ13C values of EC in PM1.1 in winter and summer were - 23.89 ± 1.6‰ and - 24.76 ± 0.9‰, respectively. Comparing with δ13C values from potential sources, we concluded that the main sources of EC in PM1.1 were from the emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust. The higher δ13C values in winter than those in summer were chiefly attributed to the more coal consumption. Combining with the concentrations of SO42 - and K+ in PM1.1, the high δ13C values of EC on 24 December and 27 December 2013 were ascribed to extra input of corn straw burning in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust.

  16. The Evolving Genotypic Profile of HIV-1 Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Treatment in the North Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carmen Andréa F; Soares, Marcelo A; Falci, Diego R; Sprinz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV related mutations can be associated with decreased susceptibility to antiretrovirals and treatment failures. There is scarce information about HIV mutations in persons failing HIV treatment in North of Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate evolution of HIV subtypes and mutations patterns related to antiretroviral therapy in this region. We investigated HIV resistance profile in adults failing antiretroviral regimen in Northern Brazil from January, 2004, through December, 2013. Genotype data was evaluated through Stanford University algorithm. There were 377 genotypes from different individuals to evaluate. Resistance mutations were similar to worldwide reports and related to antiretroviral exposure. Most prevalent mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene were M184V (80.1%) and K130N (40.6%). Thymidine associated mutations were more frequent in multiexperienced patients. Most common protease mutations were M46I, V82A, I54V, L90M, I84V, M46L, and L76V. Subtype B was the most prevalent (90.7%). There were differences between subtypes B and non-B mutations. We documented for the first time subtypes and patterns of HIV associated mutations in Northern Brazil. A1 subtype was identified for the first time in this area. Depending on drug regimen and how experienced the patient is, an empirical switch of a failing antiretroviral treatment could be a reasonable option.

  17. Comparison of the Kriging and neural network methods for modeling foF2 maps over North China region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Jing; Lan, Ting; Yang, Guobin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Zhu, Peng; Sun, Hengqing; Cui, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    The F2 layer critical frequency of the ionosphere (foF2) is one of the most significant parameters for studying the ionosphere. To investigate the large-scale characteristics of the ionosphere over particular regions, modeling foF2 is an effective method. In this paper, we use both the Kriging (KG) and neural network (NN) methods to reconstruct foF2 maps over North China. The neural network is trained by the genetic algorithm (GA) to avoid the 'local minimum' phenomenon in most NN applications. We then carry out a comparison between foF2 provided by both the KG and NN methods with vertical model operation of ionosonde data including Beijing, Qingdao, Suzhou, and Changchun. All of the foF2 data used in the comparison are obtained from the oblique and vertical mode operation of ionosonde from the China Ground-based Seismo-ionospheric Monitoring Network. To allow for a possible seasonal and diurnal variation, data obtained from summer, winter, and equinox months are applied in the present comparison. In addition, we make a comparison during a magnetic storm period. The results of our comparisons demonstrate that both the KG and NN methods are appropriate tools for modeling foF2 maps. However, when the data set is spare, the performance of the NN method is better than the KG method. On the other hand, the KG method is more robust than the NN method during a magnetic storm.

  18. A trajectory-based classification of ERA-Interim ice clouds in the region of the North Atlantic storm track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernli, Heini; Boettcher, Maxi; Joos, Hanna; Miltenberger, Annette K.; Spichtinger, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A two-type classification of ice clouds (cirrus) is introduced, based on the liquid and ice water content, LWC and IWC, along air parcel backward trajectories from the clouds. In situ cirrus has no LWC along the trajectory segment containing IWC; it forms via nucleation from the gas phase. In contrast, liquid-origin cirrus has both LWC and IWC along their backward trajectories; it forms via lifting from the lower troposphere and freezing of mixed-phase clouds. This classification is applied to 12 years of ERA-Interim ice clouds in the North Atlantic region. Between 400 and 500 hPa more than 50% are liquid-origin cirrus, whereas this frequency decreases strongly with altitude (<10% at 200 hPa). The relative frequencies of the two categories vary only weakly with season. More than 50% of in situ cirrus occur on top of liquid-origin cirrus, indicating that they often form in response to the strong lifting accompanying the formation of liquid-origin cirrus.

  19. Measurement of alkyl nitrates at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia during the 1993 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, James M.; Bertman, Steven B.; Parrish, David D.; Fehsenfeld, Fredrick C.; Jobson, B. Thomas; Niki, Hiromi

    1998-06-01

    Measurements of six alkyl nitrates, methyl-, ethyl-, 1-propyl-, 2-propyl-, 2-butyl, and 3-pentyl nitrates, and two peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides, peroxyacetic nitric anhydride (PAN) and peroxypropionic nitric anhydride (PPN) were made at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia, during the 1993 North Atlantic Regional Experiment campaign. The correlation of alkyl nitrates (RONO2) with carbon monoxide makes it clear that the chemistry at this site is being driven by continental emissions, since RONO2 compounds are known to be by-products of HC-NOx photochemistry. Comparison of the ratios of alkyl nitrates to their parent hydrocarbons to that of 2-butyl nitrate/butane showed significant deviations from trends predicted from rate constants, branching ratios, and loss rates. For ethyl nitrate this deviation is likely due to a combination of many additional pathways to the intermediate peroxy radical from the decomposition of larger alkoxy radicals. The propyl nitrates showed trends that differed from one another; 2-propyl nitrate was a factor of 2 to 3 higher than predicted, while 1-propyl nitrate was a factor of 8 to 10 higher than predicted. The trend of 3-pentyl nitrate/pentane was relatively close (about 50% lower) to the predicted trend. The relationship between PAN and PPN showed unexpectedly high ratios of PPN to PAN in air masses coming from the south and west of the site, implying a slight local source of PPN.

  20. Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci L. Massey; Giri, Basant; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Chen, Shejun; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Bulk deposition samples were collected in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China in spring, summer, fall and winter from 2007 to 2008. The annually averaged PAHs concentration and deposition flux were 11.81 ± 4.61 µg/g and 5.2 ± 3.89 µg/m2/day respectively. PHE and FLA had the highest deposition flux, accounting for 35.3% and 20.7% of total deposition flux, respectively. More exposure risk from deposition existed in the fall for the local inhabitants. In addition, the PAHs deposition flux in rural villages (3.91 µg/m2/day) and urban areas (8.28 µg/m2/day) was 3.8 and 9.1 times higher than in background area (0.82 µg/m2/day), respectively. This spatial variation of deposition fluxes of PAHs was related to the PAHs emission sources, local population density and air concentration of PAHs, and the PAHs emission sources alone can explain 36%, 49%, 21% and 30% of the spatial variation in spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. PMID:20888097

  1. What to do with chronically sick animals? Pastoralists’ management strategies in the far north region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca B

    2014-01-01

    While the goal of African pastoralists is health and longevity of herd and household, some of their management strategies appear to counter this long-term goal. Pastoralists in the far north region of Cameroon, for example, do not always remove chronically sick animals from their herds, even though chronic diseases, such as brucellosis, are contagious and have the potential to cause fertility problems in the herd. We used ethnographic and epidemiologic methods to understand why pastoralists do not remove chronically sick animals and whether their management strategies have an impact on herd fertility. We used semi-structured interviews to collect data on pastoralists’ understandings of disease and its impacts on fertility as well as data on herd management. We compared these data with disease prevalence and herd fertility data to measure the effect of management strategies on herd fertility. We found that the percentage of chronically sick animals in a herd negatively correlated with herd fertility, but this was not true for the prevalence of brucellosis. Thus, preliminary examination of disease costs and benefits suggests that herders’ decisions to keep sick animals in their herds may lower herd fertility, but this is not due to brucellosis alone. The results of this study underline the complexity of infectious disease ecology in pastoral systems and the need for holistic and comprehensive studies of the ecology of infectious diseases in pastoral systems. PMID:25309717

  2. The Evolving Genotypic Profile of HIV-1 Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Treatment in the North Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Carmen Andréa F; Soares, Marcelo A; Falci, Diego R; Sprinz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV related mutations can be associated with decreased susceptibility to antiretrovirals and treatment failures. There is scarce information about HIV mutations in persons failing HIV treatment in North of Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate evolution of HIV subtypes and mutations patterns related to antiretroviral therapy in this region. We investigated HIV resistance profile in adults failing antiretroviral regimen in Northern Brazil from January, 2004, through December, 2013. Genotype data was evaluated through Stanford University algorithm. There were 377 genotypes from different individuals to evaluate. Resistance mutations were similar to worldwide reports and related to antiretroviral exposure. Most prevalent mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene were M184V (80.1%) and K130N (40.6%). Thymidine associated mutations were more frequent in multiexperienced patients. Most common protease mutations were M46I, V82A, I54V, L90M, I84V, M46L, and L76V. Subtype B was the most prevalent (90.7%). There were differences between subtypes B and non-B mutations. We documented for the first time subtypes and patterns of HIV associated mutations in Northern Brazil. A1 subtype was identified for the first time in this area. Depending on drug regimen and how experienced the patient is, an empirical switch of a failing antiretroviral treatment could be a reasonable option. PMID:26543866

  3. A Regional Climate Mode Discovered in the North Atlantic: Dakar Niño/Niña

    PubMed Central

    Oettli, Pascal; Morioka, Yushi; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    The interrannual variability of coastal sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies confined off Senegal is explored from a new viewpoint of the ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The phenomenon may be classified into “coastal Niño/Niña” in the North Atlantic as discussed recently in the Northeastern Pacific and Southeastern Indian Oceans. The interannual variability of the regional mixed-layer temperature anomaly that evolves in boreal late fall and peaks in spring is associated with the alongshore wind anomaly, mixed-layer depth anomaly and cross-shore atmospheric pressure gradient anomaly, suggesting the existence of ocean-land-atmosphere coupled processes. The coupled warm (cold) event is named Dakar Niño (Niña). The oceanic aspect of the Dakar Niño (Niña) may be basically explained by anomalous warming (cooling) of the anomalously thin (thick) mixed-layer, which absorbs shortwave surface heat flux. In the case of Dakar Niña, however, enhancement of the entrainment at the bottom of the mixed-layer is not negligible. PMID:26739121

  4. Decision Support Process for CO2 Monitoring Network Design, as applied to the North American Permafrost Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creelman, C. A.; Risk, D. A.; Nickerson, N. R.; Simpson, K.; Bourlon, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern regions of Canada and the United States hold vast reserves of soil organic matter (carbon), once protected from decomposition because of cool wet soils, and/or permafrost. Unfortunately, these Northern areas are changing rapidly because the rate of climate warming in the North has significantly outstripped the global average. As a result of permafrost melting and soil processes stimulated by higher temperatures, soil CO2 emissions in these high latitude areas are expected to accelerate. On an annual basis, it is conceivable that these natural Northern CO2 emissions could match or begin to exceed human industrial emissions. From a risk management perspective, the Northern region represents an important climate risk of international interest that should be monitored in a systematic long-term effort. Currently, there is almost no high latitude monitoring done due to limitation of instrumental techniques, remoteness, and other factors. While technology improvements will make this monitoring physically possible, it is critical that the conceptual framework for monitoring also be planned carefully. The monitoring network will need to make efficient use of funding to target high-risk areas, balance many possible emission predictions that vary spatially and temporally, allow for incremental network growth and take into account transportation costs and accessibility. To address these needs, we use a Simulated Annealing based algorithm that determines optimal sampling densities and distributions according to various risk factors. This network optimization makes use of several different potential CO2 emission estimates generated using the Canadian Regional Climate model forecasts and other spatial datasets. These estimates represent a wide range of potential evolutions of soil emissions based on factors such as expected climate change, the distribution of carbon storage, and carbon sensitivity to temperature and moisture changes. The calculated optimal network

  5. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species to variations in sea salt emissions in the North and Baltic Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, D.; Matthias, V.; Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Quante, M.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the oceans' surfaces by wave breaking and bubble bursting processes. These particles impact atmospheric chemistry by affecting condensation of gas-phase species and nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with high air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North and Baltic Sea regions, Northwestern Europe, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and evaluated against European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. As model extension, sea salt emissions are scaled by water salinity because of low salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea and in certain river estuaries. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is separately considered. Additionally, the impact of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate, ammonium and sulfate concentrations is evaluated. The comparisons show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated when going inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. Dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to a minor increase of NH4+ and NO3- and a minor decrease of SO42- concentrations. However, the overall effect is very low and lower than the deviation from measurements. Size resolved measurements of Na+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- are needed for a more detailed analysis on the impact of sea salt particles.

  6. Validation of snow characteristics and snow albedo feedback in the Canadian Regional Climate Model simulations over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, B.; Sushama, L.; Diro, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    Snow characteristics and snow albedo feedback (SAF) over North America, as simulated by the fifth-generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), when driven by ERA-40/ERA-Interim, CanESM2 and MPI-ESM-LR at the lateral boundaries, are analyzed in this study. Validation of snow characteristics is performed by comparing simulations against available observations from MODIS, ISCCP and CMC. Results show that the model is able to represent the main spatial distribution of snow characteristics with some overestimation in snow mass and snow depth over the Canadian high Arctic. Some overestimation in surface albedo is also noted for the boreal region which is believed to be related to the snow unloading parameterization, as well as the overestimation of snow albedo. SAF is assessed both in seasonal and climate change contexts when possible. The strength of SAF is quantified as the amount of additional net shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere as surface albedo decreases in association with a 1°C increase in surface temperature. Following Qu and Hall (2007), this is expressed as the product of the variation in planetary albedo with surface albedo and the change in surface albedo for 1°C change in surface air temperature during the season, which in turn is determined by the strength of the snow cover and snowpack metamorphosis feedback loops. Analysis of the latter term in the seasonal cycle suggests that for CRCM5 simulations, the snow cover feedback loop is more dominant compared to the snowpack metamorphosis feedback loop, whereas for MODIS, the two feedback loops have more or less similar strength. Moreover, the SAF strength in the climate change context appears to be weaker than in the seasonal cycle and is sensitive to the driving GCM and the RCP scenario.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Pastoral Mobility in the Far North Region, Cameroon: Data Analysis and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ningchuan; Cai, Shanshan; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca; Pomeroy, Laura W.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling the movements of humans and animals is critical to understanding the transmission of infectious diseases in complex social and ecological systems. In this paper, we focus on the movements of pastoralists in the Far North Region of Cameroon, who follow an annual transhumance by moving between rainy and dry season pastures. Describing, summarizing, and modeling the transhumance movements in the region are important steps for understanding the role these movements may play in the transmission of infectious diseases affecting humans and animals. We collected data on this transhumance system for four years using a combination of surveys and GPS mapping. An analysis on the spatial and temporal characteristics of pastoral mobility suggests four transhumance modes, each with its own properties. Modes M1 and M2 represent the type of transhumance movements where pastoralists settle in a campsite for a relatively long period of time (≥20 days) and then move around the area without specific directions within a seasonal grazing area. Modes M3 and M4 on the other hand are the situations when pastoralists stay in a campsite for a relatively short period of time (<20 days) when moving between seasonal grazing areas. These four modes are used to develop a spatial-temporal mobility (STM) model that can be used to estimate the probability of a mobile pastoralist residing at a location at any time. We compare the STM model with two reference models and the experiments suggest that the STM model can effectively capture and predict the space-time dynamics of pastoral mobility in our study area. PMID:26151750

  8. Dust Devil Tracks and Wind Streaks in the North Polar Region of Mars: A Study of the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Nathan B.; Tamppari, Leslie K.; Baker, R. David; Cantor, Bruce A.; Hale, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    The 65-72 latitude band of the North Polar Region of Mars, where the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander will land, was studied using satellite images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow-Angle (MOC-NA) camera. Dust devil tracks (DDT) and wind streaks (WS) were observed and recorded as surface evidence for winds. No active dust devils (DDs) were observed. 162 MOC-NA images, 10.3% of total images, contained DDT/WS. Phoenix landing Region C (295-315W) had the highest concentration of images containing DDT/WS per number of available images (20.9%); Region D (130-150W) had the lowest (3.5%). DDT and WS direction were recorded for Phoenix landing regions A (110-130W), B (240-260W), and C to infer local wind direction. Region A showed dominant northwest-southeast DDT/WS, Region B showed dominant north-south, east-west and northeast-southwest DDT/WS, and region C showed dominant west/northwest - east/southeast DDT/ WS. Results indicate the 2007 Phoenix Lander has the highest probability of landing near DDT/WS in landing Region C. Based on DDT/WS linearity, we infer Phoenix would likely encounter directionally consistent background wind in any of the three regions.

  9. [Estimation of shelter forest area in Three-North Shelter Forest Program region based on multi-sensor remote sensing data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Jiao-jun

    2013-08-01

    The Three-North Shelter Forest Program is a key forestry ecological project in China. The quantity and spatial distribution of the shelter forest in the program affect the ecological environment of the entire Three-North region. In this paper, multi-sensor remote sensing data were used to scientifically, objectively and comprehensively estimate the quantity and spatial distribution pattern of the shelter forest in this region in 1978-2008. Firstly, the Landsat TM images (30 m in resolution) were adopted to extract the shelter forest data in this region in 2008. Then, based on random sampling techniques, the calibration formulae for the shelter forest area in different precipitation climate regions estimated by the SPOT5 (2.5 m in resolution) and Landsat TM were constructed. By using the above-mentioned results, the shelter forest area in the Three-North region in 2008 was estimated. In 2008, the total area of the shelter forest (canopy density of arbor shelter forest was >0.3, coverage of shrub shelter forest was > 40%, and accuracy was about 85%) in this region was 328360.03 km2, with 116244.55 km2 in Northeast China, 42981.32 km2 in North China, 76767.05 km2 in Loess Plateau, and 92367.11 km2 in Mongolia-Xinjiang Region. According to the classification of shelter forest types, the areas of coniferous forest, broadleaved forest, mixed broadleaf-conifer forest and shrubland were 62614.74, 121628.51, 22144.09 and 121972.69 km2, respectively.

  10. Temporal Fluctuation in North East Baltic Sea Region Cattle Population Revealed by Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Marianna; Bläuer, Auli; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Harjula, Janne; Nyström Edmark, Veronica; Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Sajantila, Antti; Lidén, Kerstin; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Ancient DNA analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time. To date, most studies of ancient cattle have focused on their domestication in prehistory, while only a limited number of studies have analysed later periods. Conversely, the genetic structure of modern cattle populations is well known given the undertaking of several molecular and population genetic studies. Results Bones and teeth from ancient cattle populations from the North-East Baltic Sea region dated to the Prehistoric (Late Bronze and Iron Age, 5 samples), Medieval (14), and Post-Medieval (26) periods were investigated by sequencing 667 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 155 bp of intron 19 in the Y-chromosomal UTY gene. Comparison of maternal (mtDNA haplotypes) genetic diversity in ancient cattle (45 samples) with modern cattle populations in Europe and Asia (2094 samples) revealed 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes, 24 of which were shared with modern breeds, while 6 were unique to the ancient samples. Of seven Y-chromosomal sequences determined from ancient samples, six were Y2 and one Y1 haplotype. Combined data including Swedish samples from the same periods (64 samples) was compared with the occurrence of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in modern cattle (1614 samples). Conclusions The diversity of haplogroups was highest in the Prehistoric samples, where many haplotypes were unique. The Medieval and Post-Medieval samples also show a high diversity with new haplotypes. Some of these haplotypes have become frequent in modern breeds in the Nordic Countries and North-Western Russia while other haplotypes have remained in only a few local breeds or seem to have been lost. A temporal shift in Y-chromosomal haplotypes from Y2 to Y1 was detected that corresponds with the appearance of new mtDNA haplotypes in the Medieval and Post-Medieval period. This suggests a replacement of the Prehistoric mtDNA and Y chromosomal haplotypes by new types of cattle. PMID:25992976

  11. Statistical characterisation of winter precipitation in the Abruzzo region (Italy) in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Di Lena, Bruno; Chiaudani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and winter precipitation at 75 stations in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) during the period 1951-2009. The analysis was carried out for individual months (December, January, February, March) as well as for 3-month accumulation periods, December to February (DJF) and January to March (JFM). A composite analysis, based on the positive and negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) was used to compare the characteristics of precipitation associated with NAOI positive (NAO+) and negative (NAO-) conditions. Firstly, the NAO+ and NAO- precipitation subsets were compared by using the Brown-Forsythe and Mann-Whitney tests to assess the presence of significant differences in the variance and mean, respectively. Then the L-moment ratio diagrams were used to identify, for each period and NAO phase, the best-fitting two-parameter distribution. The NAO+ and NAO- conditions were also compared on the basis of the first (D1) and ninth (D9) precipitation deciles. The results show that the NAO mainly affects the mean precipitation amounts that are in most cases lower (higher) during the NAO+ (NAO-) phase, particularly for JFM. This influence is characterised by a relevant spatial variability that can be attributed to local factors (orography and distance from the sea). No significant differences were found in the precipitation variance, but this means that NAO+ precipitation, due to lower mean values, is relatively more variable than NAO- precipitation. The L-moment ratio diagrams reveal that the Weibull distribution always provides the best overall fitting for NAO- conditions (with the exception of DJF for which the log-normal is the best). For NAO+ conditions the best-fitting distributions become the generalized Pareto (January and February), the Weibull (DJF) and the Gamma (JFM), while no change in the distribution type is observed in December and March. In most cases, both D

  12. Sedimentary and water column processes in the Oyster Grounds: a potentially hypoxic region of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Weston, K; Fernand, L; Nicholls, J; Marca-Bell, A; Mills, D; Sivyer, D; Trimmer, M

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential causes of low oxygen levels in the bottom water of the Oyster Grounds region of the shallow southern North Sea, an area which provides suitable conditions for low oxygen levels to develop. At the end of the summer stratified period, relevant biogeochemical processes were investigated using a combination of sedimentary and water column rate measurements. Phytoplankton nitrate and ammonium uptake was measured throughout the water column using (15)N labelled isotopes and showed ammonium uptake dominated in the upper and bottom mixed layer with a maximum 294.4 micromol N m(-3)h(-1). In the deep chlorophyll maximum at the thermocline, primary production was dominated by nitrate uptake, with an average of 35.0 micromol N m(-3)h(-1), relative to ammonium uptake, with an average of 24.6 micromol N m(-3)h(-1). This high relative nitrate uptake will in part result in exportable new production to the isolated bottom mixed layer and sediments, as opposed to regenerated ammonium driven uptake. This biomass export was indicated by significant benthic oxygen consumption rates in the stratified region (782-1275 micromol O(2)m(-2)h(-1)micromol N m(-3)h(-1)) long after the end of the spring bloom. The sediments were also an active net source of nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate into the bottom mixed layer of 4.4, 8.4, 2.3 and 68.8 micromol m(-2)h(-1), respectively. The export of new production within the thermocline to the bottom mixed layer and the consequent sediment oxygen consumption in the isolated bottom mixed layer in the Oyster Grounds are expected to have contributed to the low bottom water oxygen concentrations of 2.07 mg l(-1) (64.7 micromol l(-1)) measured. The long stratified period associated with this low oxygen is predicted to occur more regularly in the future and continued monitoring of this ecologically important region is therefore essential if the causes of these potentially damaging low

  13. Section-level relationships of North American Agalinis (Orobanchaceae) based on DNA sequence analysis of three chloroplast gene regions

    PubMed Central

    Neel, Maile C; Cummings, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    Background The North American Agalinis are representatives of a taxonomically difficult group that has been subject to extensive taxonomic revision from species level through higher sub-generic designations (e.g., subsections and sections). Previous presentations of relationships have been ambiguous and have not conformed to modern phylogenetic standards (e.g., were not presented as phylogenetic trees). Agalinis contains a large number of putatively rare taxa that have some degree of taxonomic uncertainty. We used DNA sequence data from three chloroplast genes to examine phylogenetic relationships among sections within the genus Agalinis Raf. (=Gerardia), and between Agalinis and closely related genera within Orobanchaceae. Results Maximum likelihood analysis of sequences data from rbcL, ndhF, and matK gene regions (total aligned length 7323 bp) yielded a phylogenetic tree with high bootstrap values for most branches. Likelihood ratio tests showed that all but a few branch lengths were significantly greater than zero, and an additional likelihood ratio test rejected the molecular clock hypothesis. Comparisons of substitution rates between gene regions based on linear models of pairwise distance estimates between taxa show both ndhF and matK evolve more rapidly than rbcL, although the there is substantial rate heterogeneity within gene regions due in part to rate differences among codon positions. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of Agalinis, including species formerly in Tomanthera, and this group is sister to a group formed by the genera Aureolaria, Brachystigma, Dasistoma, and Seymeria. Many of the previously described sections within Agalinis are polyphyletic, although many of the subsections appear to form natural groups. The analysis reveals a single evolutionary event leading to a reduction in chromosome number from n = 14 to n = 13 based on the sister group relationship of section Erectae and section Purpureae subsection Pedunculares

  14. Association of the C8orf13-BLK Region with Systemic Sclerosis in North-American and European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gourh, Pravitt; Agarwal, Sandeep K; Martin, Ezequiel; Divecha, Dipal; Rueda, Blanca; Bunting, Haley; Assassi, Shervin; Paz, Gene; Shete, Sanjay; McNearney, Terry; Draeger, Hilda; Reveille, John D; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Simeon, Carmen P.; Rodriguez, Luis; Vicente, Esther; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Mayes, Maureen D.; Tann, Filemon K.; Martin, Javier; Arnett, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Genetic studies in the systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease that clinically manifests with dermal and internal organ fibrosis and small vessel vasculopathy, have identified multiple susceptibility genes including HLA-class II, PTPN22, IRF5, and STAT4 which have also been associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These data suggest that there are common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. The current report sought to determine if polymorphisms in the C8orf13-BLK region (chromosome 8p23.1-B lymphoid tyrosine kinase), which is associated with SLE, are associated also with SSc. Methods Two variants in the C8orf13-BLK region (rs13277113 & rs2736340) were tested for association with 1050 SSc cases and 694 controls of North Americans of European descent and replicated in a second series 589 SSc cases and 722 controls from Spain. Results The “T” allele at rs2736340 variant was associated with SSc in both the U.S. and Spanish case-control series (P=6.8×10−5, OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.1–1.4). The “A” allele at rs13277113 variant was associated with SSc in the U.S. series only (P=3.6×10−4, OR 1.32, 95%CI 1.1–1.6) and was significant in the combined analyses of the two series (P=2.0×10−3; OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.1–1.3). Both variants demonstrated an association with the anti-centromere antibody (P=2.2×10−6 and P=5.5×10−4, respectively) and limited SSc (P=3.3×10−5 and P=2.9×10−3, respectively) in the combined analysis. Peripheral blood gene expression profiles suggest that B-cell receptor and NFκB signaling are dysregulated based on the risk haplotype of these variants. Conclusion We identify and replicate the association of the C8orf13-BLK region as a novel susceptibility factor for SSc, placing it in the category of common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. PMID:19796918

  15. Genetic evidence for a single stock of the deep-sea teleost Beryx decadactylus in the North Atlantic Ocean as inferred from mtDNA control region analysis.

    PubMed

    Friess, C; Sedberry, G R

    2011-02-01

    Mitochondrial control region sequences of 141 alfonsino Beryx decadactylus sampled off the coast of South Carolina were compared with 164 sequences from B. decadactylus collected in the Azores for inferring population structure and demographic history of this deep-water teleost in the North Atlantic Ocean. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 100% of the genetic variation was found within populations, indicating an absence of population structure (Φ(ST) = -0· 003). Neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses of pooled sequences suggested that B. decadactylus in the North Atlantic Ocean have undergone population expansion. These results may indicate that transatlantic gene flow occurs, possibly through passive drift of larvae or adult migration. The potential of a shared stock between the eastern and western North Atlantic Ocean will need to be considered if a directed fishery for B. decadactylus were to develop in the U.S.A.

  16. A ground temperature map of the North Atlantic permafrost region based on remote sensing and reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, S.; Østby, T. I.; Gisnås, K.; Schuler, T. V.; Etzelmüller, B.

    2015-06-01

    Permafrost is a key element of the terrestrial cryosphere which makes mapping and monitoring of its state variables an imperative task. We present a modeling scheme based on remotely sensed land surface temperatures and reanalysis products from which mean annual ground temperatures (MAGT) can be derived at a spatial resolution of 1 km at continental scales. The approach explicitly accounts for the uncertainty due to unknown input parameters and their spatial variability at subgrid scale by delivering a range of MAGTs for each grid cell. This is achieved by a simple equilibrium model with only few input parameters which for each grid cell allows scanning the range of possible results by running many realizations with different parameters. The approach is applied to the unglacierized land areas in the North Atlantic region, an area of more than 5 million km2 ranging from the Ural Mountains in the east to the Canadian Archipelago in the west. A comparison to in situ temperature measurements in 143 boreholes suggests a model accuracy better than 2.5 °C, with 139 considered boreholes within this margin. The statistical approach with a large number of realizations facilitates estimating the probability of permafrost occurrence within a grid cell so that each grid cell can be classified as continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost. At its southern margin in Scandinavia and Russia, the transition zone between permafrost and permafrost-free areas extends over several hundred km width with gradually decreasing permafrost probabilities. The study exemplifies the unexploited potential of remotely sensed data sets in permafrost mapping if they are employed in multi-sensor multi-source data fusion approaches.

  17. A ground temperature map of the North Atlantic permafrost region based on remote sensing and reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, S.; Østby, T.; Gisnås, K.; Schuler, T. V.; Etzelmüller, B.

    2015-02-01

    Permafrost is a key element of the terrestrial cryosphere which makes mapping and monitoring of its state variables an imperative task. We present a modeling scheme based on remotely sensed land surface temperatures and reanalysis products from which mean annual ground temperatures (MAGT) can be derived at a spatial resolution of 1 km on continental scale. The approach explicitly accounts for the uncertainty due to unknown input parameters and their spatial variability at subgrid scale by delivering a range of MAGTs for each grid cell. This is achieved by a simple equilibrium model with only few input parameters which for each grid cell allows scanning the range of possible results by running many realizations with different parameters. The approach is applied to the unglacierized land areas in the North Atlantic region, an area of more than 5 million km2 ranging from the Ural mountains in the East to the Canadian Archipelago in the West. A comparison to in-situ temperature measurements in 143 boreholes suggests a model accuracy better than 2.5 °C, with 139 considered boreholes within this margin. The statistical approach with a large number of realizations facilitates estimating the probability of permafrost occurrence within a grid cell so that each grid cell can be classified as continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost. At its southern margin in Scandinavia and Russia, the transition zone between permafrost and permafrost-free areas extends over several hundred km width with gradually decreasing permafrost probabilities. The study exemplifies the unexploited potential of remotely sensed data sets in permafrost mapping if they are employed in multi-sensor multi-source data fusion approaches.

  18. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl.

  19. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    PubMed

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate. PMID:27333874

  20. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    PubMed

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate.

  1. A comparison of blood lead levels in bald eagles from two regions on the great plains of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Restani, M; Harmata, A R; Bortolotti, G R; Wayland, M E

    1998-10-01

    The connection between bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the consumption of waterfowl, lead shotshell pellet ingestion, and subsequent lead exposure is well documented in the United States and is presumed also to be widespread in Canada. We compared blood lead concentrations in samples from bald eagles ranging in age from 0.5- to 1.5-yr-old at Galloway Bay, Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 97) during October-November, 1992-95 and Hauser Lake, Montana, USA (n = 81) during October-December, 1990-94, within the Great Plains region of North America. Abundant prey are available in the form of hunter-injured waterfowl in Saskatchewan and spawning salmon in Montana; both areas attract large numbers of mid-continent bald eagles during fall migration. Blood lead concentrations suggestive of recent lead exposure (> 0.201 microgram/ml) were found in 32% and 8% of eagles at Hauser Lake and Galloway Bay, respectively, when samples from each study area were analyzed independently at two laboratories. To determine if this difference was an artifact of interlaboratory variation, we determined a correction factor by reanalyzing 14 Saskatchewan blood samples at each laboratory and predicted blood lead concentrations from Hauser Lake had the samples been analyzed at the Canadian laboratory. Adjusted blood lead concentrations of samples from Hauser Lake indicated that 21% of eagles were recently exposed to lead, a proportion not significantly different from the proportion of the same exposure category at Galloway Bay. Our data do not support the supposition that a large proportion of bald eagles feeding on waterfowl in areas of high hunting pressure will be exposed to lead via consumption of lead shotshell pellets in waterfowl. PMID:9813839

  2. Antimicrobial use and microbiological testing in district general hospital ICUs of the Veneto region of north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, P; Sefton, A M; Menegozzo, M; Guerriero, C; Bordignon, G; Da Rin, G; Romualdi, C; Pellizzer, G; Livermore, D M

    2016-10-01

    International - predominantly American - studies undertaken in the ICUs of teaching centres show that inadequate antibiotic therapy increases mortality and length of stay. We sought to ascertain whether this also pertains to smaller ICUs in the Veneto region of north-east Italy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such survey in the Veneto area or in Italy as a whole. A retrospective, observational study was performed across five general-hospital ICUs to examine appropriateness of microbiological sampling, empirical antibiotic adequacy, and outcomes. Among 911 patients (mean age, 65.8 years ± 16.2 SD; median ICU stay, 17.0 days [IQR, 8.0-29.0]), 757 (83.1 %) were given empirical antibiotics. Treatment adequacy could be fully assessed in only 212 patients (28.0 %), who received empirical treatment and who had a relevant clinical sample collected at the initiation of this antibiotic (T0). Many other patients only had delayed microbiological investigation of their infections between day 1 and day 10 of therapy. Mortality was significantly higher among the 34.9 % of patients receiving inadequate treatment (48.6 % vs 18.80 %; p < 0.001). Only 32.5 % of combination regimens comprised a broad-spectrum Gram-negative β-lactam plus an anti-MRSA agent, and many combinations were irrational. Inadequate treatment was frequent and was strongly associated with mortality; moreover, there was delayed microbiological investigation of many infections, precluding appropriate treatment modification and de-escalation. Improvements in these aspects and in antibiotic stewardship are being sought.

  3. Modeling of turbulent dissipation and its validation in periodically stratified region in the Liverpool Bay and in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmal, Kaushik; Maity, Subhendu; Warrior, Hari V.

    2015-07-01

    The present work explores the applicability of an alternative eddy viscosity formulation in numerical models dealing with the dynamics of the coastal ocean. The formulation is based on the Reynolds stress anisotropy-anisotropy being an important tool for capturing turbulent mixing. Initially idealized entrainment scenarios are evaluated that are typical for shelf seas viz. entrainment in linearly stratified and two-layer fluids caused by surface wind stress or barotropic pressure gradient-driven bottom stress. An attempt is made to simulate the realistic semi-diurnal cycle of turbulent dissipation in Liverpool Bay Region of Freshwater Inflow (ROFI) in the Irish Sea characterized by strong horizontal gradients and interactions with tidal flow. Turbulent dissipation cycles with a 25-h period using free-falling light yo-yo (FLY) dissipation profiler exhibits a strong asymmetry between ebb and flood. The above dynamics involving tidal straining during the ebb and mixing during the flood has been simulated using k- and the alternative formulated turbulence scheme in a one-dimensional (1-D) dynamic model. The model is forced with observed tidal flow and horizontal gradients of temperature and salinity. Simulated dissipation cycles show good agreement with observation. The present work also involves a comparison of dissipation rate measurements in northern North Sea using the abovementioned turbulence schemes—the measurements being taken using free-falling shear probes and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) sensors. The main forcing provided for the upper and bottom boundary layers are atmospheric forcing and tides, respectively. To compare the observations and model results, quantitative error measurements have also been studied which reveal the applicability of the alternative turbulence scheme.

  4. Tropical cyclones in the North American Regional Reanalysis: The impact of satellite-derived precipitation over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zick, Stephanie E.; Matyas, Corene J.

    2015-09-01

    Continued advancement in the realm of tropical cyclone (TC) forecasting requires a more accurate depiction of these storms at model initialization. This study examines the impact of precipitation assimilation on the representation of TCs in the North American Regional Reanalysis before and after the 2004 introduction of precipitation assimilation over ocean in the vicinity of TCs. The probability distribution function of rainfall rates indicates that light (heavy) precipitation was overforecast (underforecast) in the early time period. Since the precipitation assimilation is applied through an adjustment to the latent heating distribution, the data assimilation system in the later time period initializes a low-level moisture and heating profile that is more conducive to the initiation of deep convection and the generation of precipitation. Consequently, the deep convection and enhanced latent heat release lead to a more robust warm-core temperature perturbation and a better developed secondary circulation, which supplies the TC with larger quantities of moisture from the large-scale environment. Furthermore, the evolution of TC size, which was objectively estimated though the radius of outermost closed isobar, is significantly more skillful (p < 0.05) in post-2003 storms. Based on this study, precipitation assimilation leads to a better analysis of temperature, winds, and moisture in the vicinity of TCs, resulting in improved representations of the water budget and storm life cycle. Therefore, we conclude that efforts toward the development of precipitation assimilation techniques from radar and satellite data sets will be valuable toward the construction of improved TC forecasting tools with more authentic TC representation.

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the COPD assessment test: data from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul W; Shahrour, Naem; Nejjari, Chakib; Lahlou, Aicha; Doble, Adam; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity and performance of the Arabic and Turkish versions of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) for evaluating the severity and impact of COPD symptoms. The data were obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region, a large general population survey of COPD conducted in ten countries of the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom a random sample of 5,681 subjects were administered the CAT by telephone. 5,639 evaluable questionnaires were recovered, representing a completion rate of 99%. In addition, the CAT was administered to an additional 833 subjects fulfilling the epidemiological diagnostic criteria for COPD. Mean scores in the general population were 6.99 ± 6.91 for the Arabic version and 9.88 ± 9.04 for the Turkish version. In patients with COPD, mean scores were 16.2 ± 9.1 and 20.9 ± 10.2 respectively. Scores were consistently higher in smokers than in non-smokers. In the general population, the proportion of respondents fulfilling criteria for COPD rose with higher CAT scores, and particularly above the 80th percentile, where 63% of COPD cases were to be found. This suggests that the CAT may be useful as a case-finding tool in the general population. In the COPD population, healthcare resource consumption rose linearly with CAT score above a threshold score of twenty, arguing in favour of the good criterion validity of the CAT. The internal consistency of the CAT was high (Cronbach's α 0.85 for the Arabic and 0.86 for the Turkish versions) and the factorial structure was unidimensional. In conclusion, this study performed in Arabic and Turkish speaking populations confirms the utility and validity of the CAT as a simple tool to collect data on the severity and impact of COPD symptoms, and suggests that it may potentially be

  6. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  7. A Many-Objective Approach to Developing Adaptive Water Supply Portfolios in the 'Research Triangle' Region of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    This study uses many-objective evolutionary optimization to quantify the tradeoffs water utilities face when developing flexible water shortage response plans. Alternatives to infrastructure development, such as temporary demand management programs and inter-utility water transfer agreements, allow local water providers to develop portfolios of water supply options capable of adapting to changing hydrologic conditions and growing water demand. The extent to which these options are implemented will be determined by a number of conflicting operational and financial considerations. An integrated reservoir simulation model including four large water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina is used to evaluate the potential tradeoffs resulting from regional demands on shared infrastructure, customer concerns, and the financial uncertainty caused by the intermittent and irregular nature of drought. Instead of providing one optimal solution, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) use the concept of non-dominations to discover a set of portfolio options in which no solution is inferior to any other solution in all objectives. Interactive visual analytics enable water providers to explore these tradeoffs and develop water shortage response plans tailored to their individual circumstances. The simulation model is evaluated under a number of different formulations to help identify and visualize the impacts of water efficiency, revenue/cost variability, consumer effects, and inter-utility cooperation. The different problems are formulated by adding portfolio options and objectives in such a way that the lower dimensional problem formulations are sub-sets of the full formulation. The full formulation considers reservoir reliability, water use restriction frequency, total water transfer allotment, total costs, revenue/cost variability, and additional consumer losses during restrictions. The simulation results highlight the inadequacy of lower order

  8. An Intercomparison of Semi-Eulerian and Lagrangian Based Cyclone Tracking Methods for the North Pacific and Alaskan Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shippee, N. J.; Atkinson, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    The idea of considering the "end user perspective" regarding storm activity and objective tracking methods used to compile information on their behaviour is particularly important in the Alaskan region. Annually, coastal regions in the North are exposed to stormy conditions, though most impacts occur during periods where multiple storms track over the same area in a short period of time (serial cyclones) or where strong storms occur without the presence of a protective sea ice buffer. From a fixed perspective (i.e. Eulerian), a storm may be identified more by the impacts that it generates at that location (winds, sea state, erosion). From a Lagrangian (tracking) view, the intensity, duration, and characteristics of the synoptic environment may prove more relevant for understanding. The overall "effectiveness" of an objective tracking method depends on the intended use of the provided information. While pitting different methods against each other is not necessarily a fruitful exercise (Mesquita et al. 2009), the reality is that one method may better reflect the reality of storm activity and impacts to those experiencing the weather first hand. One of the more subtle points in extra-tropical cyclone tracking and comparison work is the method by which a storm is defined. Most cyclones are analyzed on MSLP fields; others define a cyclone by relative vorticity (ζ) maxima at 850 hPa (NH) and minima (SH). Storms can also be defined by wind events, or even impacts, at a location. Using counts of strong wind events at a grid point or location can account for pressure gradients both associated with storms and absent of a synoptic event. Three separate tracking algorithms are analyzed to determine the method most likely to produce a long-term homogeneous dataset that can be used to train a statistical seasonal prediction method. These methods include the Serreze algorithm, Hodges TRACK algorithm, and Atkinson algorithm. Both the Serreze and Hodges methods provide a tracking

  9. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2010-07-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 year flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and access to these products and services is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure

  10. Assessing water resources adaptive capacity to climate change impacts in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlet, A. F.

    2011-05-01

    Climate change impacts in Pacific Northwest Region of North America (PNW) are projected to include increasing temperatures and changes in the seasonality of precipitation (increasing precipitation in winter, decreasing precipitation in summer). Changes in precipitation are also spatially varying, with the northwestern parts of the region generally experiencing greater increases in cool season precipitation than the southeastern parts. These changes in climate are projected to cause loss of snowpack and associated streamflow timing shifts which will increase cool season (October-March) flows and decrease warm season (April-September) flows and water availability. Hydrologic extremes such as the 100 yr flood and extreme low flows are also expected to change, although these impacts are not spatially homogeneous and vary with mid-winter temperatures and other factors. These changes have important implications for natural ecosystems affected by water, and for human systems. The PNW is endowed with extensive water resources infrastructure and well-established and well-funded management agencies responsible for ensuring that water resources objectives (such as water supply, water quality, flood control, hydropower production, environmental services, etc.) are met. Likewise, access to observed hydrological, meteorological, and climatic data and forecasts is in general exceptionally good in the United States and Canada, and is often supported by federally funded programs that ensure that these resources are freely available to water resources practitioners, policy makers, and the general public. Access to these extensive resources support the argument that at a technical level the PNW has high capacity to deal with the potential impacts of natural climate variability on water resources. To the extent that climate change will manifest itself as moderate changes in variability or extremes, we argue that existing water resources infrastructure and institutional arrangements

  11. Moment tensor inversion of the January 8, 2013 (Mw=5.7) and May 24, 2014 (Mw 6.8) North Aegean Earthquakes: seismicity and active tectonics of the North Aegean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, Dogan; Kekovali, Kivanc; Pinar, Ali

    2015-04-01

    The North Aegean Sea is one of the most seismically active and deforming region between the Eurasia and Anatolia tectonic plates. On 8th January 2013 at 14:16 UTC (16:16 local time) a moderate earthquake (Mw= 5.7) occurred between the south of Gökçeada and southwest of Bozcaada Islands. The earthquake was felt at a wide area. Especially felt in the NE Greece south of Lemnos Island and NW Turkey surrounding areas, such as Çanakkale, Marmara Region and Northern Aegean coast as well as to Athens. The area is defined as the continuation of the branch of North Anatolian Fault (NAF) inside the Aegean Sea. Fault plane solution determined by this study shows that the earthquake occurred on NE-SW oriented strike slip fault segment. The aftershocks distribution also supported the rupture of the NE-SW oriented fault. Approximately 17 months later, another big earthquake occurred in the same area. On 24th May 2014, at 09:25 UTC (12:25 local time), a powerful Ml=6.7 (Mw=6.8) earthquake hit Greece and Turkey, 87 km west of Çanakkale, and totally 350 people injured in Greece and Turkey. This earthquake has been strongly felt in Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania. The main-shock occurred on a fault with a NE-SW strike, where the largest portion of the energy was released towards these directions. Therefore the earthquake was felt strongly in Çanakkale, Istanbul and Marmara region. In this study we calculated CMT solutions for main-shock and important aftershocks (M>4.0). CMT analyses were done for 50 important earthquakes. Moment tensor solutions show generally strike-slip faulting. The fault which caused earthquake, is thought to be a branch of North Anatolian Fault Zone in the North Aegean Sea. Generally, the location of the earthquakes and orientation of the NE-SW nodal planes are consistent with right-lateral faulting within the North Aegean Trough (NAT). The Aegean Sea is characterized by dextral strike-slip faulting along NE-SW striking faults, along fault zones formed

  12. Analysis of two Saharan dust events of North Africa in the Mediterranean region by Using SKIRON/Eta model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaouda, D.; Kallos, G.; Azzi, A.; Louka, P.; Benlefki, A.

    2009-04-01

    aerosol is involved in many important processes in Earth's climate system, with important implications for air quality, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and the biosphere, and different impacts on human health. The relative importance of mineral dust in particulate matter depends on location, season and particle size, mainly concentrated in the coarse fraction. Its impacts on climate and environment have increased years after years and needs to be more understood. In the present work, the relationships between the meteorological conditions and dust transport phenomena from the Saharan regions of north Africa and their transport, deposition in both modes, dry and wet deposition in the Mediterranean region, and the Atlantic Ocean, during two dust events namely: case I (01/03/04 - 06/03/04), case II (29/05/05 - 03/06/05), that have been analysed and their major characteristics have been discussed. This analysis has been performed with the aid of the SKIRON modelling system of the University of Athens. The dust module of SKIRON/Eta model incorporates the state of the art parameterization of all the major phases of the desert dust cycle such as production, diffusion, advection and removal. Model results have been compared with TOMS-AI (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrophotometer Aerosol Index) data for a qualitative comparison of the model. The work has been conducted at the framework of TEMPUS project MADEPODIM.

  13. β-Thalassaemia and its Co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in Upper Assam Region of North Eastern India: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Deori, Rumi; Saikia, Sidhartha Protim; Pathak, Kalyani; Panyang, Rita; Rajkakati, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction β-Thalassaemias are common genetic disorders in the Indian subcontinent and its status has not been well studied in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Aim The aim of the study was to show the prevalence of β- thalassaemias and its co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 1200 anaemic patients were investigated for β- thalassaemias. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were done for screening. Results Out of 1200 patients screened, 5.83% β-thalassaemia trait, 2.33% compound Hb E/β-Thalassaemia, 1.33% β-thalassaemia major and 0.42% compound Hb S/β- thalassaemia were detected. A high incidence of thalassaemia is found among the people of Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Conclusion The only way to prevent the disease is carrier detection and awareness among the people about it. PMID:27190829

  14. Regional patterns in prevalence of principal external diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas 1992-1997.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, V; Lang, T; Köves, P

    2000-08-31

    The prevalence and spatial distribution of major diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas were studied in the summers 1992 to 1997. Areas covered were the North Sea, Irish Sea, northern and northeastern British Waters and the English Channel. The diseases studied were lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma and skin ulceration. To standardise data, results were analysed for females >15 cm (>3 yr old). Data were subjected to median polish, and additive, extended and additive plus multiplicative models were applied to best account for effects of region and year. Annual differences in disease prevalence were low whilst differences between areas were pronounced. For lymphocystis higher prevalence was observed in the northwestern sector of the North Sea, at the northern tip of Scotland and in an area south of Iceland. Prevalence was low in the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the southern North Sea, and intermediate in the German Bight. For epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, levels were low at Icelandic stations, in the northern Irish Sea, in the southern North Sea and the English Channel, whilst levels were high in the northwestern part of the North Sea and the German Bight. Elevated levels of skin ulceration were found on the Dogger, at 1 station in the Irish Sea (off Sellafield) and at 1 station to the south of Iceland. Lower levels were detected west of Iceland. Prevalence in all other areas was intermediate. It is concluded that a detailed analysis of available data on disease prevalence and putative causative factors is desirable and, given the good availability of data, would be a promising step forward toward elucidating possible cause and effect relationships between diseases and anthropogenic factors. PMID:11023251

  15. Characterization of Semi-volatility of Atmospheric Submicron Particles at a Regional Background Site in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    HE Lingyan1, HUANG Congni1, HUANG Xiaofeng11. Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China Abstract:The coupling of a Thermal Denuder (TD) with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used in Xianghe, which is a regional background site in North China, during June - July, 2013 to on-line measure the mass concentrations and semi-volatilities of atmospheric submicron particles, including organic matter (OM), SO42- , NO3-, NH4+, and Cl-. The total PM1 mass concentration measured was averagely (47.9±47.3) mg/m3 during the campaign, with OM accounting for 38.2% of the total PM1 mass, followed by SO42- (33.7%), NH4+ (13.8%), NO3- (12.3%), and Cl- (2.0%). It was found that NO3- and Cl- had the highest semi-volatility, with about 60% of them evaporating into the gas phase by increasing the temperature to 50 °C, while SO42- showed the lowest semi-volatility, with almost 90% of its mass remaining in the particle phase at 50 °C. The semi-volatility of OM and NH4+ was at the middle level. The semi-volatility of NO3- was affected by the pollution level of the atmospheric submicron particles since it showed an increasing trend with the increasing of PM1 at 50 °C. The oxygen-to-carbon ration of organic aerosol was 0.47 to 0.60 by increasing the temperature from 50 ℃ to 200 °C. In addition, the semi-volatility of the PM1 species with vacuum aerodynamic diameters of 60-2000 nm was little size dependent. The calculation based on the high-resolution mass spectra of OM showed that CO2+-containing organic species had lower semi-volatility, while C4H9+-containing organic species had higher semi-volatility. The semi-volatility of OM was found to be negatively related to its oxidation state. The quantitative result of atmospheric submicron particles' semi-volatility is essential to the research of the physicochemical

  16. Seabird population trends along the west coast of North America: causes and the extent of regional concordance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Wilson, U.W.

    1994-01-01

    We compared trends in breeding population size among cormorants, gulls, alcids, and others, among the Farallon Islands, and sites in northern California and Washington, Gulf of Alaska, and Bering Sea, but in most cases only during the last two decades. For a given species, trends were usually concordant within the same oceanographic domain, except for Rhinoceros Auklet, which increased across all domains in its northeastern Pacific range. Overall, humans and their domestic animals have had severe negative impacts to individual islands, but recent restoration efforts have had spectacular results. On the other hand, the California Current and the eastern Bering Sea now seem unable to support historic populations of natural, top-trophic predators. The major factor responsible appears to be overfishing by humans of important seabird prey, especially, in a period when climate has been unstable. Notable trends indicating these general patterns were as follows: 1) The Ashy Storm-Petrel on the Farallon Islands, where 80% of this species breeds, may have decreased in response to the increase of gulls in the storm-petrel breeding habitat. 2) Brandt's and Pelagic cormorants in the central California Current declined radically owing to El Nino and antropogenic factors in the early 1980s, and have since failed to recover, contrary to trends in the 1970s; farther north, populations fluctuated slightly but at low levels during this period. 3) Large Larus gulls have increased. 4) Common Murres in the central and northern portions of the California Current exhibited a marked decline during the early 1980s and have since failed to recover. 5) Most Common Murre populations in the Gulf of Alaska appear to be stable; whereas those in the eastern Bering Sea are decreasing. 6) Rhinoceros Auklet has increased throughout its range and has (re-)colonized new sites in the southern portion of it. 7) Tufted Puffin has ceased recovery in the California Current, but in Alaska it has continued to

  17. Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo

    2013-02-01

    Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have

  18. Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo

    2013-02-01

    Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have

  19. Diversity and abundance of mosquito species in relation to their larval habitats in Mizoram, North Eastern Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Vanlalruia, Khawling; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2014-09-01

    The abundance, richness and diversity of anopheline and culicid mosquitoes associated with their habitats, season, and physico-chemical quality of water were surveyed along six districts of Mizoram, North Eastern Himalayan region. The productivity of permanent and temporary habitat types was quantified by carrying out weekly larval sampling using a standard dipping method for a period of three years. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H'), Evenness index (Heve), similarity measures cluster analysis and MANOVA. In total, 5 genera and 20 species of mosquitoes were identified: Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles barbirostris and Anopheles vagus were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 39.71%, 29.39% and 14.52% of total mosquito individuals sampled, respectively. Anopheles sp. diversity was lowest in Lunglei district (H'=0.48) and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.03), whereas Culex sp. diversity was lowest in Lawngtlai (H'=0.38), and highest in Aizawl (H'=2.99) and Kolasib (H'=2.13). This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes of Mizoram. Mosquito larvae were present in both temporary and permanent habitats suitable for breeding with monthly variations dependent on rainfall intensity, temperature, humidity and location. Early instars were more abundant significantly (P<0.0001) than late instars among the habitat types in all study sites. The productivity of mosquito larvae was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in ponds especially in permanent than semi-permanent and temporary. Weekly rainfall intensity led to an increase or decrease in anopheline and culicid larval abundance depending on the location. Mosquito diversity was highest in monsoon season (July-September) and lowest in January-March. A. barbirostris, A. vagus and C. quinquefasciatus appear the most likely habitat generalist as it demonstrates both widespread distribution. Abundance and diversity of culicine and anopheline larvae

  20. Crustal Structure at the North Eastern Tip of Rivera Plate, Nayarit- Marias Islands Region: Scenarios and Tectonic Implications. Tsujal Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danobeitia, J.; Bartolome, R.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Bandy, W. L.; Prada, M.; Cameselle, A. L.; Nunez, D.; Espindola, J. M.; Estrada, F.; Zamora, A.; Gomez, A.; Ortiz, M.

    2014-12-01

    A primarily analysis of marine geophysical data acquired aboard the RRS James Cook in the framework of the project "Characterization of seismic hazard and tsunami associated with cortical contact structure Rivera Jalisco Block Plate (TSUJAL)" is presented. This survey was held in the region of Nayarit-Tres Marias Islands between February and March 2014. The examination of data recorded by 16 OBS 's, deployed along 4 wide angle seismic profiles is presented, using an airgun-array seismic source of 6800 c.i., which allows sampling the crustal structure to the Moho. The profiles are located along the margin off the Marias Islands: a profile of over 200 km NNW-SSE direction and parallel to the western flank of the Islas Marias Islands and three orthogonal thereto. These perpendicular sections sample the lithosphere from the north of Maria Madre Island with a profile of 100 km length, across Maria Magdalena and Mari Cleofas Islands, with a profile of 50 km long, till south of Maria Cleofas with a profile of 100 km long. Coincident multichannel seismic profiles with refraction ones are also surveyed, although shooting with a source of 3,540 c. i., and acquired with a digital "streamer" of 6.0 km long. Simultaneously, multibeam, parametric and potential field data were recorded during seismic acquisition A first analysis shows an anomalously thickened crust in the western flank of the Marias Islands, as indicated by relatively short pre-critical distances of 30-35 km. While the moderate dip of 7 ° of the subduction of the Pacific oceanic plate favors somehow this effect, the existence of a remnant crustal fragment is also likely. Moreover, the images provided by the parametric sounding show abundant mass wasting deposits suggesting of recent active tectonics, possibly generated by earthquakes with moderate magnitude as those reported in the Marias Islands. This set of geophysical data, not only provide valuable information for the seismogenic characterization and

  1. Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for the Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, D. M.; Head, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping of Snegurochka Planitia (V-1) reveals a complex stratigraphy of tectonic and volcanic features that can provide insight into the geologic history of Venus and Archean Earth [1,2], including 1) episodes of both localized crustal uplift and mantle downwelling, 2) shifts from local to regional volcanic activity, and 3) a shift back to local volcanic activity. We present our interpretations of the volcanic history of the region surrounding the north pole of Venus and explore how analysis of new data support our interpretations