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Sample records for north basin icnologia

  1. 65. View from southwest corner of Printz Basin, looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. View from southwest corner of Printz Basin, looking north. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. 63. View from north side of Printz Basin from top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View from north side of Printz Basin from top of dike, looking south. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) SHOWING THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2. BASSWOOD BUOY TENDER AND THREE SMALL VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASIN NO. 1. LARGER VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASINS TO THE EAST, SEEN IN BACKGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. 9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF THE PRESSURE CULVERT STILLING BASIN, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE THE LEVEE TO THE RIGHT. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  5. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an inverted extensional basin: the Cameros Basin (north of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodeo Salè, Silvia; Guimerà, Joan; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José

    2014-09-01

    The Cameros Basin is a part of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift. It is an extensional basin formed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, in the Mesozoic Iberian Rift context, and it was inverted in the Cenozoic as a result of the Alpine contraction. This work aims to reconstruct the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basin during the Mesozoic, using new and revised field, geophysical and subsurface data. The construction of a basin-wide balanced section with partial restorations herein offers new insights into the geometry of the syn-rift deposits. Field data, seismic lines and oil well data were used to identify the main structures of the basin and the basin-forming mechanisms. Mapping and cross-sectional data indicate the marked thickness variation of the depositional sequences across the basin, suggesting that the extension of the depositional area varied during the syn-rift stage and that the depocentres migrated towards the north. From field observation and seismic line interpretation, an onlap of the depositional sequences to the north, over the marine Jurassic substratum, can be deduced. In the last few decades, the structure and geometry of the basin have been strongly debated. The structure and geometry of the basin infill reconstructed herein strongly support the interpretation of the Cameros Basin as an extensional-ramp synclinal basin formed on a blind south-dipping extensional ramp. The gradual hanging-wall displacement to the south shifted the depocentres to the north over time, thus increasing the basin in size northwards, with onlap geometry on the pre-rift substratum. The basin was inverted by means of a main thrust located in a detachment located in the Upper Triassic beds (Keuper), which branched in depth with the Mesozoic extensional fault flat. The reconstruction of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Cameros Basin proposed herein represents a synthesis and an integration of previous studies of the structure and geometry of the

  6. Early evolution of salt structures in north Louisiana salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lobao, J.J.; Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Several salt diapirs and pillows in southern and central north Louisiana have been studied using approximately 355 mi (570 km) of seismic reflection data and information from 57 deep well holes. Using seismic profiles with deep well-hole data is the most advantageous method to document regional salt tectonism through time. The following conclusions were reached on diapirism in the North Louisiana Salt basin. (1) The diapiric event began early (early Coahuilan) in the southern and central part of the basin, and later (late Coahuilan to Comanchean) in the northern part. (2) The initial diapiric event is much more abrupt and intense in the southern and central diapirs when compared with the later diapiric event in the northern diapirs. (3) Regional depocenter shifting, relative sea level, local erosion with salt extrusion, and rapid depositional loading of sediments are the major controls on diapirism in the basin.

  7. Paleozoic tectonic history of the Arctic basin north of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.

    1969-01-01

    The geology of the margin of the Canada Basin, together with geophysical data, leads me to reject the continental subsidence theory for the origin of the deep Canada Basin. Instead, the Canada Basin is, I believe, a true and probably very ancient ocean basin floored by oceanic crust and rimmed by an early Paleozoic geosynclinal belt. In the Upper Devonian, uplifts in this circumarctic geosyncline, accompanied by granitic intrusion, produced a wedge of coarse clastic sediments (exogeosyncline) that spread southward onto adjoining areas of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia. In both northern Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands, thick sequences of upper Paleozoic and younger strata were deposited unconformably on the rocks of the early Paleozoic geosyncline, showing a similarity in tectonic history between the areas. The Paleozoic history of the southern rim of the Canada Basin resembles that of other mobile belts bordering North America. The movement of the floor of the Arctic Ocean against the continental crust of North America (sea-floor spreading) would provide a mechanism to account for the long history of orogenic activity along the basin margin. The sharp bend in the structural elements of southern Alaska (the Alaska orocline) has been cited as evidence of clockwise rotation of the Arctic Islands of Canada from Alaska and the Soviet Arctic to their present position during the Mesozoic. However, the geologic and geophysical evidence available indicates that the Arctic basin has a longer history, extending into the Paleozoic, and that this bend in Alaskan structures may have been largely caused by spreading of the Pacific sea floor against the continental margin in the Gulf of Alaska.

  8. Accretion and hydrothermalism in North Fiji basin, Southwest Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Auzende, J.M.; Eissen, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The North Fiji basin is a marginal basin surrounded by: (1) the New Hebrides island arc in the west, which ends at the Matthew-Hunter Ridge in the south; (2) the Hunter fracture zone in the southeast; (3) the Fiji Islands in the east; and (4) the complex Vitiaz Trench system in the north. The investigations in this area suggest a complex opening has been active for approximately the past 10 m.y. The detailed bathymetry and the structure of the central part of this basin are still poorly known. The major element consists of an axial ridge. The trend of this ridge is imprecise, but it is probably oriented north-south near 173.5/sup 0/E, at least between 21/sup 0/ and 15/sup 0/S. The other remarkable feature consists of a complex system of ridges and faulted blocks running along the western edge of the Fiji Archipelago. This system has been interpreted by some authors as an accretion ridge. The purposes of the third leg of SEAPSO cruise onboard the R/V Jean-Charcot (December 2-24, 1985) are as follows: (1) to explore the typical structures of the North Fiji basin between 21/sup 0/ and 17/sup 0/S (axial ridge, seamounts, fracture zones, and the complex border west of Fiji), using multibeam echo-sounder (Seabeam), seismic reflection, magnetic, and gravimetric surveys; and (2) to complete Seabeam coverage and samplings (such as dredging, coring, water sampling, and bottom photographs) of two to three small box-shaped areas on the axial ridge, in order to localize and eventually characterize hydrothermal vents. The various morphotectonic, petrologic, chemical, and geodynamic results of this survey will be discussed.

  9. Corals of Madison Group (Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, D.L.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Coral faunas studied from subsurface cores of the Mississippian Madison Group in the Williston Basin of North Dakota indicate that Sando's coral zones for outcrops in western North America can be extended into the subsurface of North Dakota. Coral zones II and III are recognized as corresponding roughly to lower and upper Mission Canyon strata, respectively. These data were obtained from 12 wells along the northern border of North Dakota in Divide, Burke, Renville, and Bottineau Counties, and two wells near the center of Williston basin in Dunn and McKenzie Counties. Corals found in dark argillaceous crinoid-skeletal wackestones representing deeper waters are robust, and this may infer a hospitable environment for their growth. However, evidence from the coral and lithologic associations refute the pervading dogma that the occurrence of corals is strictly facies controlled. Abundant smaller corals have been found from buff-colored skeletal wackestones and algal mudstones which alternate with subaqueous anhydrites representing a marginal marine environment. In addition, corals have been found in buff-colored skeletal and peloidal grainstones of adjacent shoals and in brown pisolitic-oolitic packstones-wackestones of possible tidal ponds. These latter deposits may represent allochthonous accumulations, but the amount of time involved in transport of corals would not invalidate their usefulness as biostratigraphic tools.

  10. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  11. The North Pyrenean Aquitaine Basin, France: Evolution and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh, R.; Richert, J.P.; Zolnaie, G.

    1995-06-01

    The Mesozoic-Tertiary Aquitaine basin overlaps the Aquitaine block and the northern edge of the Iberian margin. Both units are situated in the southwesternmost part of the European Continent. The Aquitaine shelf is a stable platform overlying a relatively thin crustal segment; it underwent extensional block faulting and many of its folded structures are related to salt tectonism. The Iberian block is a thicker lithospheric unit that acted as a buttress. At the junction of these two structural domains the South Aquitaine or North Pyrenean area developed, where crustal stretching, rifting, wrenching, and orogenic compression were maximal from the Mesozoic to the Tertiary. The history of the basin has been a suite of rifting attempts, in the context of the progressive opening of the Bay of Biscay, which never completely succeeded. The relative plate motions and the later convergence led, nevertheless, to the formation of the Aquitaine basin and to the emergence of the Pyrenean fold belt. The Mesozoic-Tertiary sedimentary infill of the basin is mostly marine, with thick evaporates, stable platform carbonates, subsiding platform shaly-calcareous deposits, and a characteristic, diachronous turbiditic (flysch) and molasse complex. Events during the basin-forming, extensional, and translational periods contributed more to the generation of the hydrocarbon accumulations than did the effects of the subsequent compressive structural regime. The latter, however, may have enhanced thermal flow and, thus, maturation of hydrocarbon source rocks.

  12. Evolutionary mass-flow megaturbidites in interplate basin: example of the North Pyrenean basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh, R.

    1986-05-01

    The Cretaceous North Pyrenean interplate basin develops in close relationship with the opening of the Bay of Biscay. The basin margins and its gravity sedimentary filling are related to differential movements of Iberian and European plates. Optimal climatic and morphologic conditions allow large amounts of carbonates to be deposited on its margins, major factors provoked the sedimentary and tectonic instability of the basin shelf and slope, particularly by reactivating a deep, ancient fault network. These events generated a single event or a series of successive autosuspended mass flows, which differentiate into megaturbidites, spreading over large areas of the basin floor. This large distribution of instantaneous evolutionary mass-flow megaturbidites, which pertain to the normal carbonate gravity sedimentation of the basin, allows us to determine: (1) paleoenvironments such as areas of paleoslopes; (2) the sedimentary and tectonic migration of the shelf break and of the basinal depocenter, and the relation of migration to regional plate tectonics; (3) evolution of local areas of special interest (petroleum geology), or evolution of the interplate basin, especially when it becomes a single trough (birth of first regional linear sequences); (4) interference of local centered transfer system (i.e., canyon fan or point slope fan) and regional linear transfer system (i.e., shelf break and slope).

  13. Conductivity models for the North Perth Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, T. E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal resources in the North Perth basin, Western Australia, led to acquisition of new, high resolution Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) data, the first of its kind in the area. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques are widely used in geothermal exploration and ground water investigations and they are well suited for application in the Perth basin. Two east-west transects investigating the structure of the onshore basin and its eastern margin, the Darling Fault Zone, are compared with existing geological models and geophysical data. Down-hole temperature data and depth-to-basement models were used to define areas of investigation in the basin, but there are limited geophysical data available. 1D, 2D and 3D modeling of electromagnetic data have been used to produce new conductivity models using existing data to constrain modelling. EM data complement existing gravity and seismic data and support published models in the upper 4-6km. However in deeper parts of the basin, MT data provide additional information allowing for revision of depth-to-basement. In addition to this, we clearly identify a conductivity anomaly associated with the Darling Fault Zone and are able to image this anomaly penetrating into the upper mantle. Fault zone conductors have been imaged on other lithosphere faults around the world, with one explanation being fluids in the enhanced permeability of the damage zone. Evidence to explain the fault zone conductor of the Darling Fault is presented and discussed as it could have significant implications in the identification of new areas, prospective for geothermal resources in the basin.

  14. The Mesozoic rift basins of eastern North America: Potential reservoir or Explorationist's folly

    SciTech Connect

    Pyron, A.

    1991-08-01

    Mesozoic rift basins are found on the East Coast of North America from Georgia to Nova Scotia. The basins formed as a result of extensional activity associated with the breakup of Pangaea. The internal geometry of the basins includes a depositional sequence ranging from coarse fanglomerates to fine-grained siltstones and argillites. Since these Mesozoic rift basins were first studied, they have not been considered to be likely spots for hydrocarbon accumulations. Recently, geologists have reconsidered these Mesozoic basins and have developed a more synergistic approach that suggests that many of these rift basins might be suitable targets for exploration. By analogy, these Mesozoic basins are correlative to similar basins in northwestern Africa, where significant reserved of oil and natural gas have been developed. The similarity between the productive basins in northwestern Africa and the Mesozoic basins of North America and their proximity to major markets provides sufficient rationale to further investigate these basins.

  15. Landslide inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified according to a number of specific characteristics identified at the time recorded in the GIS database. The classification scheme was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009). Several significant landslide characteristics recorded in the database are portrayed with symbology on this map. The specific characteristics shown for each landslide are the activity of landsliding, landslide features, deep or shallow failure, type of landslide movement, and confidence of landslide interpretation. These landslide characteristics are determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features, or landforms, observed for each landslide. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  16. Madison Group (Mississippian) reservoir facies of Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Twenty-seven oil fields producing from the Mission Canyon Limestone and Charles Formation (Madison Group) were studied: 1) along the eastern basin margin (Bluell, Sherwood, Mohall, Glenburn, Haas, and Chola fields), 2) northeast of Nesson anticline (Foothills, North Black Slough, South Black Slough, Rival, Lignite, and Flaxton), 3) along Nesson anticline (North Tioga, Tioga, Beaver Lodge, Capa, Hoffland, Charlson, Hawkeye, Blue Buttes, Antelope, and Clear Creek), and 4) south of the basin center (Lone Butte, Little Knife, Big Stick, Fryburg, and Medora). Mission Canyon reservoirs along the eastern margin are in several shoaling-upward carbonate to anhydrite cycles of pisolitic packstone or grainstone buildups. South of the basin center, only a single shoaling-upward sequence is present, with dolomitized, mostly restructed-marine skeletal wackstone to pelletal wackstone or packstone reservoir facies. Nesson anticline, between these 2 areas, contains a single shoaling-upward sequence without an anhydrite cap. In northern Nesson anticline, Mission Canyon reservoir facies are oolitic-pisolitic, intraclastic wackestone or grainstone buildups or open-marine skeletal packstone or grainstone. Both limestones and dolostones are productive in southern Nesson anticline. Limestone reservoir facies are transitional, open to restricted-marine slightly intraclastic, skeletal wackestone or packstone facies. Dolostone reservoir facies are restricted-marine mudstone to skeletal mudstone and pelletal wackestone or packstone. Northeast of the Nesson anticline, production is from oolitic to pisolitic packstone or grainstone buildups in the Rival subinterval and from restricted-marine, dolomitized spiculitic mudstone in the Midale subinterval (base of Charles Formation). In the northern Nesson anticline, Rival reservoir facies are offshore open to restricted-marine, skeletal, intraclastic, pelletal wackestone and/or packstones.

  17. Surface waters of North Boggy Creek basin in the Muddy Boggy Creek basin in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1958-01-01

    Analysis of short-term streamflow data in North Boggy Creek basin indicates that the average runoff in this region is substantial. The streamflow is highly variable from year to year and from month to month. The estimated total yield from the North Boggy Creek watershed of 231 square miles averages 155,000 acre-feet annually, equivalent to an average runoff depth of 12 1/2 inches. Almost a fourth of the annual volume is contributed by Chickasaw Creek basin, where about 35,000 acre-feet runs off from 46 square miles. Two years of records show a variation in runoff for the calendar year 1957 in comparison to 1956 in a ratio of 13 to 1 for the station on North Boggy Creek and a ratio of 18 to 1 for the station on Chickasaw Creek. In a longer-term record downstream on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris, the corresponding range was 17 to 1, while the calendar years 1945 and 1956 show a 20-fold variation in runoff. Within a year the higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, April to June, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for at least half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is relatively small in the summer. Records for the gaging stations noted indicate that there is little or no base flow in the summer, and thus there will be periods of no flow at times in most years. The variation in runoff during a year is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the reference station on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris. Although the mean flow at that site is 955 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is only 59 cfs and the lowest 30-day flow in a year will average less than 1 cfs in 4 out of 10 years on the average. The estimated mean flow on North Boggy Creek near Stringtown is 124 cfs, but the estimated median daily flow is only 3 1/2 cfs. Because of the high variability in streamflow, development of storage by impoundment will be necessary to attain maximum utilization of the

  18. Sedimentation and subsidence patterns in the central and north basins of Lake Baikal from seismic stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Golmshtok, A.J.; Weber, E.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of sedimentation patterns, basement subsidence, and faulting histories in the north and central basins of Lake Baikal aids in developing an interbasinal seismic stratigraphy that reveals the early synrift evolution of the central portion of the Baikal rift, a major continental rift system. Although there is evidence that the central and northern rift basins evolved at approximately the same time, their sedimentation histories are markedly different. Primary sediment sources for the initial rift phase were from the east flank of the rift; two major deltas developed adjacent to the central basin: the Selenga delta at the south end and the Barguzin delta at the north end. The Barguzin River system, located at the accommodation zone between the central and north basins, also fed into the southern part of the north basin and facilitated the stratigraphic linkage of the two basins. A shift in the regional tectonic environment in the mid Pliocene(?) created a second rift phase distinguished by more rapid subsidence and sediment accumulation in the north basin and by increased subsidence and extensive faulting in the central basin. The Barguzin delta ceased formation and parts of the old delta system were isolated within the north basin and on Academic Ridge. These isolated deltaic deposits provide a model for the development of hydrocarbon plays within ancient rift systems. In this second tectonic phase, the dominant sediment fill in the deeper and more rapidly subsiding north basin shifted from the flexural (eastern) margin to axial transport from the Upper Angara River at the north end of the basin.

  19. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  20. Impact origin of the Newporte structure, Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Forsman, N.F.; Gerlach, T.R.; Anderson, N.L.

    1996-05-01

    The Newporte field is located just south of the United States-Canada border in Renville County, North Dakota, in the north-central portion of the Williston basin. Integration of seismic, well-log, and core data supports the interpretation of an impact origin for the Newporte structure. The structure involves both Precambrian basement and lower Paleozoic sedimentary units. Oil and gas production began in 1977 from brecciated basement rocks along the rim of the 3.2-km-diameter circular structure. Both well logs and seismic data were used to determine thickness changes of sedimentary units overlying the structure. Resulting isopach maps reveal a circular, bowl-shaped feature with a recognizable rim. Microscopic shock metamorphic features in quartz and feldspar are visible in basement clasts that form a mixed breccia with Cambrian Deadwood sandstone within the western rim of the structure. A Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician age is suggested for the structure because of the presence of flatlying Deadwood sandstone overlying mixed basement/sandstone breccia along portions of the rim. Identification of the Newporte structure as an impact crater adds to the growing base of evidence revealing the relevance of impact craters to petroleum exploration.

  1. Deep suture zone in the North Barents Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butsenko, Viktor; Kireev, Artem; Piskarev, Alexey; Savin, Vasily; Smirnov, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Study of sedimentary basin evolution is a part of research for the forecast of oil and gas capacity of the North Barents shelf. Maps of potential fields anomalies are compiled on the basis of the latest geophysical databases, structural maps of the seismic horizons are analyzed, the location of sources of potential fields anomalies are calculated, 3D density and magnetic models of Earth's crust are constructed. Six seismic complexes are allocated in sedimentary cover structure: Devonian - Lower Carboniferous, Upper Carboniferous - Lower Permian, Mid Permian - Lower Triassic, Triassic - Lower Jurassic, Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous - Quaternary. The research of lateral changes of allocated layers thickness gives an idea of sedimentation in the region on various time intervals. The structural and tectonic scheme of the region is made after analysis of new geologic-geophysical materials. Contact zones of heterogeneous blocks of the crystalline basement are marked, disjunctive dislocations in a sedimentary cover and the upper crust, and also zones of increase of sediments thickness in various seismic complexes are designated. The deep suture zone delimiting Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary basins has the most important geological value among disjunctive zones of the region. This zone stretches along the Admiralty Arch in East part of the North Barents shelf and is marked by negative magnetic anomaly 30-50 km wide. In view of special tectonic value of the suture zone marked by this anomaly we have calculated the 3D magnetic crust model. The sedimentary layers of a model section is based on seismic data. As a result of modeling the studied anomaly of a magnetic field can be approximated by the block of basement rocks of the lowered magnetization (1.2 A/m). The surface of this block is located in a zone of anomaly at a depth of 12-14 km. The asymmetry of anomaly is accounted by an inclination to East of the borders of the block with low

  2. Field guide to Laramide basin evolution and drilling activity in North Park and Middle Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechesne, Marieke; Cole, James Channing; Martin, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the geologic history of the North Park–Middle Park area and its past and recent drilling activity. Field trip stops highlight basin formation and the consequences of geologic configuration on oil and gas plays and development. The starting point is the west flank of the Denver Basin to compare and contrast the latest Cretaceous through Eocene basin fill on both flanks of the Front Range, before exploring sediments of the same age in the North Park – Middle Park intermontane basin.

  3. Modeled sulfate concentrations in North Dakota streams, 1993-2008, based on spatial basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    Modeled sulfate concentrations generally were highest (greater than 750 milligrams per liter) in basins in western North Dakota and lowest (less than 250 milligrams per liter) in basins in the upper Sheyenne River and upper James River. Area-weighted means for the basin characteristics also were computed for 10-digit and 8-digit hydrologic units for streams in North Dakota and modeled sulfate concentrations were computed from the characteristics. The resulting distribution of modeled sulfate concentrations was similar to the distribution of estimates for the 12-digit hydrologic units, but less variable because the basin characteristics were averaged over larger areas.

  4. Flash heat simulation events in the north Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazon, Jordi; Pino, David

    2013-04-01

    According to the definition of flash heat event proposed by Mazon et al. in the European Meteorology Meeting (2011 and 2012) from the studied case produced in the Northeast of the Iberian peninsula on 27th August 20120, some other flash heat events have been detected by automatic weather stations around the in the Mediterranean basin (South Italy, Crete island, South Greece and the northeast of the Iberian peninsula). Flash heat event covers those events in which a large increase of temperature last a spatial and temporal scale between heat wave (defined by the WMO as a phenomenon in which the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5°C, with respect to the 1961-1990 period) and heat burst (defined by the AMS as a rare atmospheric event characterized by gusty winds and a rapid increase in temperature and decrease in humidity that can last some minutes). Thus flash heat event may be considered as a rapid modification of the temperature that last several hours, lower than 48 hours, but usually less than 24 hours. Two different flash heat events have been simulated with the WRF mesoscale model in the Mediterranean basin. The results show that two different mechanisms are the main causes of these flash heat events. The first one occurred on 23rd March 2008 in Crete Island due to a strong Foehn effect caused by a strong south and southeast wind, in which the maximum temperature increased during some hours on the night at 32°C. The second one occurred on 1st August 2012 in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, caused by a rapid displacement of warm a ridge from North Africa that lasted around 24 hours.

  5. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  6. Gulf of California analogue for origin of Late Paleozoic ocean basins adjacent to western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Murchey, B.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Ocean crust accreted to the western margin of North America following the Late Devonian to earliest Missippian Antler orogeny is not older than Devonian. Therefore, ocean crust all along the margin of western North America may have been very young following the Antler event. This situation can be compared to the present-day margin of North America which lies adjacent to young ocean crust as a result of the subduction of the Farallon plate and arrival of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Syn- and post-Antler rifting that occurred along the North American margin may well be analogous to the formation of the Gulf of California by the propagation of the East Pacific spreading ridge. Black-arc rifting associated with the subduction of very old ocean crust seems a less likely mechanism for the early stages of ocean basin formation along the late Paleozoic margin of western North America because of the apparent absence of old ocean crust to the west of the arc terranes. The eastern Pacific basins were as long-lived as any truly oceanic basins and may have constituted, by the earliest Permian, a single wedge-shaped basin separated from the western Pacific by rifted fragments of North American arc-terranes. In the Permian, the rifted arcs were once again sites of active magmatism and the eastern Pacific basins began to close, from south (Golconda terrane) to north. Final closure of the northernmost eastern Pacific basin (Angayucham in Alaska) did not occur until the Jurassic.

  7. Estimating the Length of the North Atlantic Basin Hurricane Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    For the interval 1945-2011, the length of the hurricane season in the North Atlantic basin averages about 130 +/- 42 days (the +/-1 standard deviation interval), having a range of 47 to 235 days. Runs-testing reveals that the annual length of season varies nonrandomly at the 5% level of significance. In particular, its trend, as described using 10-yr moving averages, generally has been upward since about 1979, increasing from about 113 to 157 days (in 2003). Based on annual values, one finds a highly statistically important inverse correlation at the 0.1% level of significance between the length of season and the occurrence of the first storm day of the season. For the 2012 hurricane season, based on the reported first storm day of May 19, 2012 (i.e., DOY = 140), the inferred preferential regression predicts that the length of the current season likely will be about 173 +/- 23 days, suggesting that it will end about November 8 +/- 23 days, with only about a 5% chance that it will end either before about September 23, 2012 or after about December 24, 2012.

  8. Double-saloon-door tectonics in the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. K.

    2013-07-01

    Fiji Platform rotated counter clockwise from at least 10.2 Ma until 1.56 Ma, while Vanuatu Arc rotated clockwise from 12/10 Ma until the present. A revised model incorporating these opposite rotations explains the distribution of magnetic anomalies in the North Fiji Basin (NFB). The conjugate margin of southwest Fiji Platform is southeast Vanuatu Arc. Previous models which associate NW-oriented anomalies off southwest Fiji with similarly oriented anomalies northeast of Vanuatu Arc are therefore wrong. Secondly, these models propose a NW-oriented spreading ridge extending to 19°S, 177.5°E, almost 500 km southeast of the mapped extension of rifted island-arc crust on Vanuatu Arc. This creates an unacceptable overlap with Fiji Platform in pre-rift reconstructions. Thirdly, anomalies off SW Fiji which are NW-oriented in their present-day position were oriented NNE during initial breakup. Rather than aligning with NW-oriented anomalies in the western NFB, they are matched by NNE-oriented anomalies off SE Vanuatu Arc. With further rotation, these conjugate anomaly sets form a fan shape in the southern NFB. Fourthly, previous models which recognise a triple junction only from 3 Ma do not explain early WNW-ESE separation of Vanuatu Arc and Fiji Platform required by well-documented opposite rotations. NFB characteristics which match the double-saloon-door tectonic model include opposite rotations of island arc terranes, backarc seafloor spreading which is both arc-parallel and arc-perpendicular, and rifts propagating north, south, northeast and northwest. Features which do not match the double-saloon-door model include the North Fiji Fracture Zone and the West Fiji spreading centre. Both initiated post-1.5 Ma, when Fiji Platform stopped rotating, and only one terrane, Vanuatu Arc, continued to rotate. The NFB developed via double saloon door tectonics from 12/10 Ma until 1.5 Ma, whereas post-1.5 Ma opening constitutes single saloon door rotation.

  9. RELATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad River basin, North Carolina were related to environmental variables using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and linear regression. This study was conducted at the landscape scale because regional variables are controlle...

  10. Tectonic types of deepwater basins and structural segmentation of the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushcharovsky, Yu. M.

    2012-03-01

    Typification of tectonic structures is one of the important lines of tectonic research. Recently, I have published several articles, which are concerned with deepwater oceanic basins. This paper is focused on tectonic typification of deepwater basins of the North Atlantic. They are attributed to three types: perispreading, central thalassogenic, and pericontinental. The first type comprises the Irminger, Iceland, Greenland, and Lofoten basins. The first two basins are associated with the Reykjanes Ridge and the two others, with the Mohns Ridge. The central thalassogenic type is exemplified in the Norwegian Basin, while the pericontinental type in the Rockall Trough. Two systems of basins are distinguished by morphostructural and historical-geological features: the northern system of the Oligocene-Quaternary structures and the southern system of the Paleocene-Quaternary structures. The Greenland-Faroe tectonovolcanic zone serves as their tectonic interface. In the tectonic typology of their deepwater basins, the North Atlantic is closer to the Indian than to other oceans. The present-day configuration of the northern basins is determined by neotectonics. The tectonic movements in the northern system of basins at this stage were more contrasting than in the southern system. This explains the greater depth of the former basins. The spatial position of the deepwater basins belonging to different types determines the tectonic segmentation of the oceanic bottom. The southern, central, and northern latitudinal segments correspond to different geodynamic states of the Earth's interior.

  11. Regional Stratigraphy and Petroleum Systems of the Michigan Basin, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Although more than 100 years of research have gone into deciphering the stratigraphy of the Michigan basin of North America, it remains a challenge to visualize the basin stratigraphy on a regional scale and to describe stratigraphic relations within the basin. Similar difficulties exist for visualizing and describing the regional distribution of petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks. This publication addresses these difficulties by combining data on Paleozoic and Mesozoic stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Michigan basin. The areal extent of this structural basin is presented along with data in eight schematic chronostratigraphic sections arranged from north to south, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections. The stratigraphic data are modified from American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) (1984), Johnson and others (1992), Sanford (1993), and Cross (1998), and the time scale is taken from Harland and others (1990). Informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1984) are shown in parentheses. Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also are included, as well as the locations of major petroleum source rocks and major petroleum plays. The stratigraphic units are colored according to predominant lithology, in order to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the Michigan basin. For purposes of comparison, schematic depictions of stratigraphy and interpreted events in the Michigan basin and adjacent Appalachian basin are shown. The paper version of this map is available for purchase from the USGS Store.

  12. Basin-edge diapirism and updip salt flow in Zechstein of southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Jenyon, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Some unusual and interesting structural geometries have been recognized on seismic lines recorded in the United Kingdom sector of the southern Permian basin of the North Sea. They seem to be the result of diapirism at the northern edge of the (Upper Permian) Zechstein salt basin, and involve the preservation of a 75 km (47 mi) long prism of a younger Mesozoic sequence replaced elsewhere by the widespread Jurassic/Cretaceous late Kimmerian unconformity. It is suggested that the diapiric features described are due to the movement of salt toward the basin edge having been dammed by a change in facies from basinal halite to shelf lithologies over a short distance.

  13. Basin-edge diapirism and updip salt flow in Zechstein of southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Jenyon, M.K.

    1985-12-01

    Some unusual and interesting structural geometries have been recognized on seismic lines recorded in the United Kingdom sector the southern Permian basin of the North Sea. They seem to be the result of diapirism at the northern edge of the (Upper Permian) Zechstein salt basin, and involve the preservation of a 75 km (47 mi) long prism of a younger Mesozoic sequence replaced elsewhere by the widespread Jurassic/Cretaceous late Kimmerian unconformity. It is suggested that the diapiric features described are due to the movement of salt toward the basin edge having been dammed by a change in facies from basinal halite to shelf lithologies over a short distance. 13 figures.

  14. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  15. Different sedimentological and thermal evolution of three north-pyrenean basins during their set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelalou, Roman; Nalpas, Thierry; Bousquet, Romain; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2015-04-01

    The Pyrenean belt is resulting in the inversion of several lower Cretaceous basins, separating the Iberia micro-plate from the Eurasia plate. The eat-west oriented basins are well known for their high-temperature metamorphism synchronous of the last deposits during Aptian-Albian times. For the first time, we present a combined sedimentological and thermal study of three north pyrenean basins (Boucheville, St Paul-de-Fenouillet and Bas-Agly). With the help of detailed stratigraphic logs of each basin, we propose restored cross-sections for the whole area. North-south sections across Boucheville and St Paul-de-Fenouillet basins show that theses basins have large asymmetrical structure. The Boucheville basin is a large anticline bordered by two isoclinal syncline highly skewed, while the St Paul-de-Fenouillet one is a unique syncline. Detailed sedimentalogical observations show common features for these basins: deposits of white limestones and breccias during the Jurassic time following by black sandstones with a calcareous matrix of lower Cretaceous age. On one hand, Jurassic limestones were deposited on a shelf environment and their thickness is homogeneous all over each basin. On the other hand, sandstones deposits seem to occur at greater depths during the Albian time and are displaying asymmetrical north-south variation of their thickness. The quantification of the temperature overprint occurred in the basin was done using the graphitisation of the carbonaceous material, and was measured by RAMAN spectroscopy (Lahfid et al. 2010). Despite their similar deposits, the mapping of the temperature-peak inside the three basins show contrasted thermal evolution. Then we document a lower temperature overprint around 150-200˚C in the northern basin {St Paul-de-Fenouillet) while the highest overprint up to 600˚C has been reached in the southern basin (Boucheville) in which diopside - scapolite and also probably olivine are occurring. These three north-pyrenean basin turn

  16. New insights into the North Taranaki Basin from New Zealand's first broadband 3D survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzcategui, Marjosbet; Francis, Malcolm; Kong, Wai Tin Vincent; Patenall, Richard; Fell, Dominic; Paxton, Andrea; Allen, Tristan

    2016-06-01

    The Taranaki Basin is the only hydrocarbon producing basin in New Zealand. The North Taranaki Basin has widespread two-dimensional (2D) seismic coverage and numerous wells that have not encountered commercial accumulations. This is attributed to the structural complexity in the central graben and the absence of necessary information to help understand the basin's evolution. An active petroleum system has been confirmed by hydrocarbon shows and non-commercial oil and gas discoveries (Karewa-1 and Kora-1). A broadband long offset three-dimensional (3D) seismic survey was acquired and processed by Schlumberger in 2013 to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin. Innovative acquisition techniques were combined with advanced processing and imaging methods. Raypath distortions and depth uncertainty were significantly reduced by processing through tilted transverse isotropy (TTI) anisotropic Kirchhoff prestack depth migration with a geologically constrained velocity model. The survey provided the necessary information to understand the petroleum system and provide evidence for material hydrocarbon accumulations. In this investigation, we assessed the hydrocarbon potential of the North Taranaki Basin using the newly acquired data. 3D seismic interpretation and amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) analysis support the renewed potential of the basin and demonstrate effectiveness of these technologies that together can achieve encouraging results for hydrocarbon exploration.

  17. Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-26

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant ecological and natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea continental shelf including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals including federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012 and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) were contracted to assist the MMS Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region in identifying and prioritizing information needs related to the North Aleutian Basin and potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities. The overall approach focused on three related but separate tasks: (1) identification and

  18. Statistical Aspects of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones: Trends, Natural Variability, and Global Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945- 2005 are examined, including the variation of the yearly frequency of occurrence for various subgroups of storms (all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, major hurricanes, U.S. landfalling hurricanes, and category 4/5 hurricanes); the yearly variation of the mean latitude and longitude (genesis location) of all tropical cyclones and hurricanes; and the yearly variation of the mean peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and durations for all tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes. Also examined is the relationship between inferred trends found in the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity and natural variability and global warming, the latter described using surface air temperatures from the Armagh Observatory Armagh, Northern Ireland. Lastly, a simple statistical technique is employed to ascertain the expected level of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclonic activity for the upcoming 2007 season.

  19. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  20. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The basins north of San Francisco constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  1. Tectonic evolution of the north depression of the south Yellow Sea basin since late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Li, Weiran; Long, Haiyan

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of subsidence history analysis and balanced cross-section analysis, the vertical uplift/subsidence history and horizontal extension/compression history of the north depression of the south Yellow Sea basin are quantitatively studied. The results show that the tectonic evolution of the north depression of the south Yellow Sea basin since late Cretaceous can be divided into a rifting phase (late Cretaceous to Paleogene) and a post-rifting phase (Neogene to Quaternary). The rifting phase can be further subdivided into an initial rifting stage (late Cretaceous), an intensive rifting stage (Paleocene), a rifting termination stage (Eocene), and an inversion-uplifting stage (Oligocene). Together, this division shows the characteristics of an episodic-evolved intracontinental rift-depression basin. The deformation of the north depression of the south Yellow Sea basin since late Cretaceous was mainly fault-related. The horizontal extension and tectonic subsidence were controlled by the activity of faults. The differential evolution of faults also caused variations in local uplift/subsidence movements and the regional heterogeneity in extension. The late Cretaceous initial rifting of the north depression of the south Yellow Sea basin is related to the Pacific-Eurasia convergence. From the Paleocene intensive rifting stage to present, the Pacific-Eurasia convergence and India-Eurasia convergence have played important roles in the evolution of this region.

  2. Large-scale diabase intrusion in the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina: geophysics and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bolich, R.E.; Bevis, M.G.; Won, I.J.; Fodor, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity and magnetic data obtained from the Durham Triassic Basin of North Carolina reveal pronounced positive gravity and magnetic anomalies of 10 milligals and 300 gammas, respectively, along the western border of the basin. In the vicinity of these anomalies, diabase outcrops, some with chilled margins and others with flow features, occur sporadically, but have a combined area of about 100 sq. km. Two-dimensional modeling of the gravity data indicates that the diabase body accounts for the gravity anomaly as a semi-continuous subsurface intrusion. The intrusive body is greater than 250 m thick near the western border of the basin, but thins to about 100 m near the center of the basin. Geochemical data for samples recovered from 4 air-drill sites at one diabase outcrop in Butner, North Carolina yield high MgO concentrations, and low FeO, K2O, and TiO2. The geophysical and geochemical data are consistent with an uncontaminated basaltic magma ascending along a major fissure or fissures and into the basin. In the basin, the diabase encountered unlithified sediments, resulting in both intrusive and extrusive forms. Although similar chemical compositions for Mesozoic North American dikes have been reported, this is the first indication of an intrusive body of such a large extent and primitive chemical composition.

  3. North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity in Relation to Temperature and Decadal- Length Oscillation Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Yearly frequencies of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones, their locations of origin, peak wind speeds, average peak wind speeds, lowest pressures, and average lowest pressures for the interval 1950-2008 are examined. The effects of El Nino and La Nina on the tropical cyclone parametric values are investigated. Yearly and 10-year moving average (10-yma) values of tropical cyclone parameters are compared against those of temperature and decadal-length oscillation, employing both linear and bi-variate analysis, and first differences in the 10-yma are determined. Discussion of the 2009 North Atlantic basin hurricane season, updating earlier results, is given.

  4. Asymmetric basin subsidence and horizontal-axis block rotations in the Miocene North Whipple Basin, SE California and W Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, R.J.; Roberts, P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    A thick, faulted sequence of post-18.5-Ma Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks is well exposed in the Aubrey Hills, W Arizona, and the northeastern Whipple Mountains, SE California. These strata were deposited in alluvial fans and playa lakes of a syntectonic sedimentary basin (North Whipple Basin), which evolved in the upper plate of the Whipple detachment fault on the north flank of the growing proto-Whipple Mountains. Sedimentary deposits reveal substantial lateral changes in thickness and depositional facies (lacustrine to proximal-fan) that provide a record of asymmetric basin subsidence and upper-plate block rotations during strong regional extension. Final uplift, exhumation and unroofing of lower-plate rocks occurred during this time, as evidenced by sandstone-petrographic and conglomerate clast-count studies. Two horizontal orthogonally oriented axes of synbasinal crustal rotation are recognized: extension-perpendicular (NW-SE), and extension-parallel (NE-SW). Rotation about extension-perpendicular axes occurred by displacements on NW-striking normal faults that formed classic half-graben basins in the extending upper plate. Evidence for rotation about an extension-parallel axis is seen in pronounced lateral thickening and coarsening of sedimentary lithofacies toward the SE in the Aubrey Hills. This was likely controlled by synbasinal growth of an extension-parallel syncline, which formed on the NW flank of the Whipple Mountain extension-parallel antiform.

  5. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Ustyurt Basin, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The triangular-shaped North Ustyurt basin is located between the Caspian Sea and the Aral Lake in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan and extends offshore both on the west and east. Along all its sides, the basin is bounded by the late Paleozoic and Triassic foldbelts that are partially overlain by Jurassic and younger rocks. The basin formed on a cratonic microcontinental block that was accreted northward to the Russian craton in Visean or Early Permian time. Continental collision and deformation along the southern and eastern basin margins occurred in Early Permian time. In Late Triassic time, the basin was subjected to strong compression that resulted in intrabasinal thrusting and faulting. Jurassic-Tertiary, mostly clastic rocks several hundred meters to 5 km thick overlie an older sequence of Devonian?Middle Carboniferous carbonates, Upper Precambrian massifs and deformed Caledonian foldbelts. The Carboniferous?Lower Permian clastics, carbonates, and volca-basement is at depths from 5.5 km on the highest uplifts to 11 nics, and Upper Permian?Triassic continental clastic rocks, pri-km in the deepest depressions. marily red beds. Paleogeographic conditions of sedimentation, Three total petroleum systems are identified in the basin. the distribution of rock types, and the thicknesses of pre-Triassic Combined volumes of discovered hydrocarbons in these sysstratigraphic units are poorly known because the rocks have been tems are nearly 2.4 billion barrels of oil and 2.4 trillion cubic penetrated by only a few wells in the western and eastern basin feet of gas. Almost all of the oil reserves are in the Buzachi Arch areas. The basement probably is heterogeneous; it includes and Surrounding Areas Composite Total Petroleum System in 2 Petroleum Geology, Resources?North Ustyurt Basin, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan the western part of the basin. Oil pools are in shallow Jurassic and Neocomian sandstone reservoirs, in structural traps. Source rocks are absent in the total petroleum

  6. Hydrogeological restrictions to saline ground-water discharge in the Red River of the North drainage basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, M.L. Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND )

    1992-01-01

    Discharge of saline water from bedrock aquifers along the eastern margin of the Williston basin is restricted by surficial glacial till and lacustrine deposits in the Red River of the North drainage basin. Water from these aquifers reaches the surface by (1) diffusion; (2) slow, upward seepage along zones of relatively larger hydraulic conductivity in the till and lacustrine deposits; or (3) flow from artesian wells. Ground-water quality varies near the surface because of mixing of water being discharged from bedrock aquifers with shallower ground water in the surficial deposits. Ground-water quality, hydraulic-gradient, and hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from pumped-well and slug tests indicate that flow in the surficial deposits is eastward, but at slow rates because of small hydraulic conductivities. Base-flow and specific-conductance measurements of water in tributaries to the Red River of the North indicate that focused points of ground-water discharge result in substantial increases in salinity in surface water in the northern part of the basin in North Dakota. Core analyses and drillers' logs were used to generalize hydrogeologic characteristics of the deposits in the basin, and a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the basin's geohydrologic processes. Model results indicate that the ground-water flow paths in the bedrock aquifers and surficial deposits converge, and that water from the bedrock aquifers contributes to the overall increase in ground-water discharge toward the east. Model results are supported by water-quality data collected along an east-west hydrogeologic section.

  7. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and summarize the

  8. Basin Management under the Global Climate Change (Take North-East Asia Heilongjiang -Amur Basin and Taihu Basin For Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of global climate change on environment and society causes increasingly concern in different countries around the world. The main climate characteristic values, such as precipitation and temperature, have been changed, which leads to the variation of water resources, especially in large basins. Heilongjiang-Amur Basin and Taihu Basin are two large and important basins in China with large area and population. As global climate change and human activities have siganificant impacts on hydrology and water resources in two basins, the analysis of climate change are of great value. In this study, in Heilongjiang-Amur Basin, precipitation and temperature are investigated and their variation are predicted. And in Taihu Basin, precipitation including plum rain and typhoon, are studied and the variation trend of precipitation is predicted. Hence, the impacts of global climate change are assessed. From the result, it shows that the average temperature will continue to increase, and the precipitation will reduce first and then turn to increase in these two basins. It demonstrates that the water resources have been affected a lot by climate change as well as human activities. And these conclusions are provided as reference for policy makers and basin authorities in water resources management and natural hazards mitigation. Meanwhile, according to basins' particualr characters, the suggestions to future water resources management in two basins are given, and more scientific, comprehensive and sustained managements are required. Especially, in Heilongjiang-Amur River, which is a boundary river between China and Russia, it is very essential to enhance the cooperation between two countries.

  9. Lacustrine sequence stratigraphy and computer modeling of the Erlian fault basin, North China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Changsong; Li Sitian; Ren Jianye; Zhang Yanmei )

    1996-01-01

    Erlian fault basin, a major oil prospecting and producing area in North China, comprises about 40 grabens and half grabens. The basin was formed by extension from Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and filled with more than 3000m thick of clastic lacustrine deposits. Based on the integrated analysis of seismic profiles, logging and cores, 5 sequence sets and 12 sequences, bounded by discontinuous, have been identified. Three types of lacustrine sequences have been identified: (1) deep lacustrine basin sequences, mainly consisting of sublacustrine fan and fan delta systems; (2) shallow lacustrine basin sequences, predominately composed of fan delta and braided delta systems and (3) shallow lacustrine and fluvial basin sequences. The sequence architecture and the basin filling evolution were controlled by the basin structural framework and lacustrine level changes. The computer modeling study by using the backstripping and forward modeling technique has shown that the major unconformities confining the sequences may be generated by the variation in tectonic subsidence rate caused by episodic lithospheric stretching. The model have also be used to predict the sequence architecture and the facies distribution in the basin.

  10. Lacustrine sequence stratigraphy and computer modeling of the Erlian fault basin, North China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Changsong; Li Sitian; Ren Jianye; Zhang Yanmei

    1996-12-31

    Erlian fault basin, a major oil prospecting and producing area in North China, comprises about 40 grabens and half grabens. The basin was formed by extension from Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and filled with more than 3000m thick of clastic lacustrine deposits. Based on the integrated analysis of seismic profiles, logging and cores, 5 sequence sets and 12 sequences, bounded by discontinuous, have been identified. Three types of lacustrine sequences have been identified: (1) deep lacustrine basin sequences, mainly consisting of sublacustrine fan and fan delta systems; (2) shallow lacustrine basin sequences, predominately composed of fan delta and braided delta systems and (3) shallow lacustrine and fluvial basin sequences. The sequence architecture and the basin filling evolution were controlled by the basin structural framework and lacustrine level changes. The computer modeling study by using the backstripping and forward modeling technique has shown that the major unconformities confining the sequences may be generated by the variation in tectonic subsidence rate caused by episodic lithospheric stretching. The model have also be used to predict the sequence architecture and the facies distribution in the basin.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  12. Isotope Geochemistry Survey in Ierissos Gulf Basin, North Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantzi, Paraskevi; Dotsika, Elissavet; Raco, Brunella

    2016-10-01

    Major element chemistry of water samples in Ierissos gulf basin is dominated by Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3 - ions. Water rock interaction is an important mechanism in the mineralization of waters. A link between Skouries and Gomati samples (Mg-HCO3) was detected reflecting the well documented M. Panagia-Gomati fault. In Neochori and M. Panagia samples were identified fluids with different origin. Regarding surface waters, extended bicarbonates action of meteoric waters and reductive conditions, probably control As concentration in surface water. Generally, surface waters in Kokkinolakas basin exceed the WHO limits for As, Sb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Mn, Fe in great rates as natural immobilization mechanisms are suspended.

  13. Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian palynostratigraphy of the Baode section in the Ordos Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Huaicheng; Ouyang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Well-preserved miospores are recorded and illustrated from the Penchi to the lower part of the Sunjiagou formations in the Baode section of the Ordos Basin, North China. Eight palynological biozones are proposed for the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian interval. Among them, five biozones are refined from pre-existing biozones. The biozones are comparable throughout the North China Craton. In contrast, long distance palynological correlation between North China and Euramerica only extends to the end of the Bolsovian (early Moscovian). By reference of associated marine fossils and magnetostratigraphic data, approximate stratigraphic correlation with the international stages is possible in Ordos Basin. Quantitative abundances of spores and pollen from the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian reflect a wet-hot palaeoclimate in the Ordos Basin but with an increasing tendency of palaeoclimatic drying from the Early Kungurian. This drying tendency can be recognized throughout the North China Craton and seems to be related to the suturing process between North China Craton with the combined northeastern China blocks. Reduviasporonites which occurs often in relatively high frequencies in many Permian-Triassic boundary sections was recorded for the first time from the early Kungurian Shansiensis Biozone.

  14. Tectonic fabric of northern North Fiji and Lau basins from GLORIA sidescan

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffin, D.L. ); Clarke, J.E.H.; Johnson, D. ); Jarvis, P. ); Hill, P. ); Huggett, Q.; Pearson, L. ); Price, R. )

    1990-06-01

    GLORIA mosaics, Seabeam, and seismic data over parts of the backarc New Hebrides arc, northwest and central North Fiji basin, Fiji Fracture Zone north of Fiji, Peggy Ridge, northeast Lau basin, northern Tonga arc, northwestern Tonga Trench, and Western Samoa reveal a complex tectonic framework for the region. Two triple junctions and several rifts are clearly delineated by outcrops and ridges of neovolcanic rocks. Backarc troughs in the New Hebrides Arc are commonly floored by volcanic rocks with little sediment cover. The locus of major faults are well defined in places by volcanic ridges and scarps. On the Fiji Fracture Zone north of Fiji, scarps indicate the trace, but west of Fiji it disappears for about 100 km, becoming well pronounced again near the central North Fiji basin triple junction. At Peggy Ridge a very extensive area of sheet-like volcanics indicates activity extends northeast from Peggy Ridge toward the western extension of the Tonga Trench passing west of Niuafo'ou Island, possibly marking a fault-to-trench transition. East of Niuafo'ou Island, backarc spreading close to the Tofua Arc is seen at a nascent triple junction, its northern arm approaching close to the western Tonga Trench. Long linear fault scarps in the trench result from bending of the crust. Only a few areas, including the seafloor north of Samoa, are mainly sediment covered. Two known hydrothermal deposits near the two triple junctions have been imaged, but other mapped areas of extensive neo-volcanics in the vicinity of propagators and pull-apart basins suggest sites for further investigation. The prevalence of ridge propagators and extensional basins suggests their significant role in the development of the region.

  15. Aquatic communities and contaminants in fish from streams of the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Available data on the ecology of aquatic organisms in the Red River of the North Basin, a study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, were collated from numerous sources. Lack of information for invertebrates and algae precluded a general summary of distribution and ecology throughout the basin. Data on fish species distributions in the major streams of the Red River of the North Basin were analyzed based on the drainage area of the stream and the number of ecoregions the stream flowed through. Species richness increased with both drainage area (log drainage area in square kilometers, R2=0.41, p=0.0055) and the number of ecoregions a river flowed through. However, theses two factors are autocorrelated because the larger the drainage, the more likely that the river will flow through more than one ecoregion. A cluster analysis identified five river groups based on similarity of species within the fish community. Analysis of trophic and taxonomic composition provided justification for the cluster groups. There were significant differences (p=0.05) in the trophic composition of the river cluster groups with respect to the number of predator species, omnivore species, benthic insectivore species, and general insectivore species. Although there were no significant differences in the number of species in the bass and sunfish family or the sucker family, the number of species in the minnow family and the darter subfamily were different (p=0.05) among the groups identified by cluster analysis. Data on contaminant concentrations in fish from the Red River of the North indicated that most trace elements and organochlorine compounds present in tissues were not at levels toxic to fish or humans. Minnesota and North Dakota have issued a fish consumption advisory based on levels of mercury and (or) PCBs found in some species.

  16. Watershed scale response to climate change--Starkweather Coulee Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen basins for which the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System has been calibrated and evaluated were selected as study sites. Precipitation Runoff Modeling System is a deterministic, distributed parameter watershed model developed to evaluate the effects of various combinations of precipitation, temperature, and land use on streamflow and general basin hydrology. Output from five General Circulation Model simulations and four emission scenarios were used to develop an ensemble of climate-change scenarios for each basin. These ensembles were simulated with the corresponding Precipitation Runoff Modeling System model. This fact sheet summarizes the hydrologic effect and sensitivity of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System simulations to climate change for the Starkweather Coulee Basin near Webster, North Dakota.

  17. Diachronous fault array growth within continental rift basins: Quantitative analyses from the East Shetland Basin, northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claringbould, Johan; Bell, Rebecca; Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert; Odinsen, Tore

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of rift basins has been the subject of many studies, however, these studies have been mainly restricted to investigating the geometry of rift-related fault arrays. The relative timing of development of individual faults that make up the fault array is not yet well constrained. First-order tectono-stratigraphic models for rifts predict that normal faults develop broadly synchronously throughout the basin during a temporally distinct 'syn-rift' episode. However, largely due to the mechanical interaction between adjacent structures, distinctly diachronous activity is known to occur on the scale of individual fault segments and systems. Our limited understanding of how individual segments and systems contribute to array-scale strain largely reflects the limited dimension and resolution of the data available and methods applied. Here we utilize a regional extensive subsurface dataset comprising multiple 3D seismic MegaSurveys (10,000 km2), long (>75km) 2D seismic profiles, and exploration wells, to investigate the evolution of the fault array in the East Shetland Basin, North Viking Graben, northern North Sea. Previous studies propose this basin formed in response to multiphase rifting during two temporally distinct extensional phases in the Permian-Triassic and Middle-to-Late Jurassic, separated by a period of tectonic quiescence and thermal subsidence in the Early Jurassic. We document the timing of growth of individual structures within the rift-related fault array across the East Shetland Basin, constraining the progressive migration of strain from pre-Triassic-to-Late Jurassic. The methods used include (i) qualitative isochron map analysis, (ii) quantitative syn-kinematic deposit thickness difference across fault & expansion index calculations, and (iii) along fault throw-depth & backstripped displacement-length analyses. In contrast to established models, we demonstrate that the initiation, growth, and cessation of individual fault segments and

  18. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2016-11-30

    Using a geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 13 million barrels of oil and 2,643 billion cubic feet of natural gas in the Dnieper-Donets Basin and North Carpathian Basin Provinces of Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, and Poland.

  19. Geochemistry evidence for depositional settings and provenance of Jurassic argillaceous rocks of Jiyuan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yao; Zheng, Deshun; Li, Minglong

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to discuss the depositional settings and provenances for the Jurassic in Jiyuan basin, North China, based on the rare earth element (REE) and trace element features of 16 Jurassic argillaceous rock samples from the Anyao, Yangshuzhuang and Ma'ao Formations, respectively. Generally, geochemical analysis results show that chondrite-normalised REE distribution patterns of all the three formations are characterised by light-REE (LREE) enrichment, moderately negative Eu anomalies, slightly negative Ce anomalies, and strong fractionation between LREE and heavy-REE (HREE). Trace element proxies V/(V + Ni), Ce anom index, Ce/La, Sr/Ba, and Sr/Cu indicate a weak oxidation-reduction environment, progressively decreasing reducibility and water depth from the bottom up during Jurassic in Jiyuan basin. Palaeoclimate varied from humid in the Early Jurassic to arid in the Middle Jurassic, corresponding with the variations of palaeoredox and palaeosalinity. The provenances of Jurassic rocks in Jiyuan basin are mainly from felsic sources related to active continental margin and continental island arc. The Early-Middle Jurassic (Anyao and Yangshuzhuang Formations) provenances are mainly derived from North Qinling and partially from the eroded recycled felsic sedimentary covers of Taihang Mountain. In the late stage of Middle Jurassic (Ma'ao Formation), Taihang Mountain has been the primary source to Jiyuan basin. We conclude that the Jurassic rocks of Jiyuan basin reveal the progressive uplift and denudation processes of the Taihang Mountain.

  20. Development and hydrocarbon potential of Mesozoic sedimentary basins around margins of North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, D.G.; Miles, P.R.

    1986-06-01

    The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic rift basins of Iberia, offshore eastern Canada, and the continental shelf of western Europe are fragments of a formerly coherent northeast-trending rift system that probably formed as a result of tensional stress between Europe, Africa, and North America. The separation of Europe, North America, and Iberia was preceded by a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting phase that is clearly distinct from the earlier Mesozoic rifting episode and was little influenced by it. The two periods of rifting are separated by a Middle Jurassic relatively tectonically quiet period. The distribution of hydrocarbon finds within the rift basin suggests that the best prospects are in areas where the two rifting episodes are superimposed. Lack of mature source rocks in the later Mesozoic rift basins and an unfavorable temporal relationship between hydrocarbon generation and tectonic activity in the early Mesozoic basins are proposed as explanations for the apparently poor hydrocarbon prospectivity of large areas of the Mesozoic basins.

  1. Reconstruction of North American drainage basins and river discharge since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Over the last glacial cycle, ice sheets and the resultant glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) rearranged river systems. As these riverine threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea were stretched, severed, and restructured, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and time-varying drainage basin areas, and sometimes delivered enough meltwater to the oceans in the right places to influence global climate. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges, by combining models of past ice sheets, glacial isostatic adjustment, and climate. The result is a time series of synthetic paleohydrographs and drainage basin maps from the Last Glacial Maximum to present for nine major drainage basins - the Mississippi, Rio Grande, Colorado, Columbia, Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence, Hudson, and Susquehanna/Chesapeake Bay. These are based on five published reconstructions of the North American ice sheets. I compare these maps with drainage reconstructions and discharge histories based on a review of observational evidence, including river deposits and terraces, isotopic records, mineral provenance markers, glacial moraine histories, and evidence of ice stream and tunnel valley flow directions. The sharp boundaries of the reconstructed past drainage basins complement the flexurally smoothed GIA signal that is more often used to validate ice-sheet reconstructions, and provide a complementary framework to reduce nonuniqueness in model reconstructions of the North American ice-sheet complex.

  2. Diachronous Growth of Normal Fault Systems in Multiphase Rift Basins: Structural Evolution of the East Shetland Basin, Northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claringbould, Johan S.; Bell, Rebecca E.; A-L. Jackson, Christopher; Gawthorpe, Robert L.; Odinsen, Tore

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to determine the structural evolution and interaction of fault systems (kinematically linked group of faults that are in the km to 10s of km scale) within a rift basin is typically limited by the spatial extent and temporal resolution of the available data and methods used. Physical and numerical models provide predictions on how fault systems nucleate, grow and interact, but these models need to be tested with natural examples. Although field studies and individual 3D seismic surveys can provide a detailed structural evolution of individual fault systems, they are often spatially limited and cannot be used examine the interaction of fault systems throughout the entire basin. In contrast, regional subsurface studies, commonly conducted on widely spaced 2D seismic surveys, are able to capture the general structural evolution of a rift basin, but lack the spatial and temporal detail. Moreover, these studies typically describe the structural evolution of rifts as comprising multiple discrete tectonic stages (i.e. pre-, syn- and post-rift). This simplified approach does not, however, consider that the timing of activity can be strongly diachronous along and between faults that form part of a kinematically linked system within a rift basin. This study focuses on the East Shetland Basin (ESB), a multiphase rift basin located on the western margin of the North Viking Graben, northern North Sea. Most previous studies suggest the basin evolved in response to two discrete phases of extension in the Permian-Triassic and Middle-Late Jurassic, with the overall geometry of the latter rift to be the result of selective reactivation of faults associated with the former rift. Gradually eastwards thickening intra-rift strata (deposited between two rift phases) that form wedges between and within fault blocks have led to two strongly contrasting tectonic interpretations: (i) Early-Middle Jurassic differential thermal subsidence after Permian-Triassic rifting; or (ii

  3. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution and crustal architecture of the Orphan Basin during North Atlantic rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouiza, Mohamed; Hall, Jeremy; Welford, J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    The Orphan Basin is located in the deep offshore of the Newfoundland margin, and it is bounded by the continental shelf to the west, the Grand Banks to the south, and the continental blocks of Orphan Knoll and Flemish Cap to the east. The Orphan Basin formed in Mesozoic time during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean between eastern Canada and western Iberia-Europe. This work, based on well data and regional seismic reflection profiles across the basin, indicates that the continental crust was affected by several extensional episodes between the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, separated by events of uplift and erosion. The preserved tectono-stratigraphic sequences in the basin reveal that deformation initiated in the eastern part of the Orphan Basin in the Jurassic and spread towards the west in the Early Cretaceous, resulting in numerous rift structures filled with a Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous syn-rift succession and overlain by thick Upper Cretaceous to Cenozoic post-rift sediments. The seismic data show an extremely thinned crust (4-16 km thick) underneath the eastern and western parts of the Orphan Basin, forming two sub-basins separated by a wide structural high with a relatively thick crust (17 km thick). Quantifying the crustal architecture in the basin highlights the large discrepancy between brittle extension localized in the upper crust and the overall crustal thinning. This suggests that continental deformation in the Orphan Basin involved, in addition to the documented Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rifting, an earlier brittle rift phase which is unidentifiable in seismic data and a depth-dependent thinning of the crust driven by localized lower crust ductile flow.

  4. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The North Caspian basin is a petroleum-rich but lightly explored basin located in Kazakhstan and Russia. It occupies the shallow northern portion of the Caspian Sea and a large plain to the north of the sea between the Volga and Ural Rivers and farther east to the Mugodzhary Highland, which is the southern continuation of the Ural foldbelt. The basin is bounded by the Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Volga-Ural province to the north and west and by the Ural, South Emba, and Karpinsky Hercynian foldbelts to the east and south. The basin was originated by pre-Late Devonian rifting and subsequent spreading that opened the oceanic crust, but the precise time of these tectonic events is not known. The sedimentary succession of the basin is more than 20 km thick in the central areas. The drilled Upper Devonian to Tertiary part of this succession includes a prominent thick Kungurian (uppermost Lower Permian) salt formation that separates strata into the subsalt and suprasalt sequences and played an important role in the formation of oil and gas fields. Shallow-shelf carbonate formations that contain various reefs and alternate with clastic wedges compose the subsalt sequence on the 1 basin margins. Basinward, these rocks grade into deep-water anoxic black shales and turbidites. The Kungurian salt formation is strongly deformed into domes and intervening depressions. The most active halokinesis occurred during Late Permian?Triassic time, but growth of salt domes continued later and some of them are exposed on the present-day surface. The suprasalt sequence is mostly composed of clastic rocks that are several kilometers thick in depressions between salt domes. A single total petroleum system is defined in the North Caspian basin. Discovered reserves are about 19.7 billion barrels of oil and natural gas liquids and 157 trillion cubic feet of gas. Much of the reserves are concentrated in the supergiant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Astrakhan fields. A recent new oil discovery

  5. The subsidence evolution of the Fort Worth Basin in north central Texas, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Salem, Ohood Bader

    Although the Fort Worth Basin in north--central Texas has become a major shale--gas production system in recent years, its subsidence history and dynamic relationship to the Ouachita fold--and--thrust belt have not been well understood. Here I study the sedimentation patterns ' model the basin subsidence and thermal maturation histories to understand the evolution of the Fort Worth Basin . Depositional patterns show that the tectonic loading of both the Muenster Arch and the Ouachita fold--and--thrust belt influenced the subsidence of the basin as early as the middle--late Mississippian. Rapid subsidence of the basin initiated in the earliest Pennsylvanian in response to the propagation of the Ouachita fold--and--thrust belt. The rapid subsidence lasted into the Permian based on 2D flexure subsidence and thermal maturation modeling. The Pennsylvanian source rocks in the northeast part of the basin entered the gas maturation window with ˜ 7 km of burial during the late Pennsylvanian--Permian .

  6. Paleoproterozoic basin development and sedimentation in the Lake Superior region, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Southwick, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The peneplaned Archean craton in the Lake Superior region was the platform upon which a continental margin assemblage was deposited. Extension resulted in localized rifts that received thicker accumulations of sediments and volcanic rocks than did adjacent parts of the platform. Seas transgressed onto the continent several times and an ocean basin opened south of the present-day Lake Superior. Island arcs that formed during subduction collided with the craton margin as the ocean basin closed; oceanic crust is poorly preserved as a dismembered ophiolite sequence. The arc volcanics are preserved as the Wisconsin magmatic terranes. The collision resulted in a fold-and-thrust belt known as the Penokean orogen. To the north of the fold-and-thrust belt, a northward-migrating foreland basin - the Animikie basin - developed. Thick turbidite successions were deposited along the basin axis, and terrigenous clastics and Lake Superior-type iron-formation were deposited on the shelf along the northern margin of the basin. The primary paleoclimatic indicators are: (1) glaciogenic rocks at the base of the Paleoproterozoic succession in Michigan indicating ice-house conditions; 2) remnants of a paleosol on the glaciogenic rocks indicative of deep weathering, probably under subtropical conditions and therefore of greenhouse conditions; and (3) carbonate minerals after gypsum, halite, and anhydrite in stromatolitic dolomite, indicative of aridity. Three second-order depositional sequences are bounded by major unconformities, and can be correlated throughout the Lake Superior region. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Joseph A.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Repetski, John E.; Hayba, Daniel O.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the oil and gas in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of eastern North America is thought to be derived from Devonian shale that is within these basins (for example, Milici and others, 2003; Swezey, 2002, 2008, 2009; Swezey and others, 2005, 2007). As the Devonian strata were buried by younger sediments, the Devonian shale was subjected to great temperature and pressure, and in some areas the shale crossed a thermal maturity threshold and began to generate oil. With increasing burial (increasing temperature and pressure), some of this oil-generating shale crossed another thermal maturity threshold and began to generate natural gas. Knowledge of the thermal maturity of the Devonian shale is therefore useful for predicting the occurrence and the spatial distribution of oil and gas within these three basins. This publication presents a thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins. The map shows outlines of the three basins (dashed black lines) and an outline of Devonian shale (solid black lines). The basin outlines are compiled from Thomas and others (1989) and Swezey (2008, 2009). The outline of Devonian shale is a compilation from Freeman (1978), Thomas and others (1989), de Witt and others (1993), Dart (1995), Nicholson and others (2004), Dicken and others (2005a,b), and Stoeser and others (2005).

  8. The Norwegian Danish Basin: A key to understanding the Cenozoic in the eastern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Thomas L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Andresen, Katrine J.; Goledowski, Bartosz

    2015-04-01

    The Danish part of Norwegian-Danish Basin, which constitutes the eastern part of the North Sea Basin, has been the key area for sequence stratigraphic subdivision and analysis of the Cenozoic succession since the mid 1990's. Widespread 3D seismic data, in the central parts of the North Sea Basin, as well as more scattered 3D seismic data in the Danish part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, have given a more detailed understanding of the sequences and indicate that climate is tenable for the origin of Cenozoic sequence boundaries. The previous sequence stratigraphic interpretations have been an integrated part of an ongoing debate concerning vertical movements of the Fennoscandian shield versus the impact of climate and erosion. A newly accessed coherent regional 2D and reprocessed 3D seismic data set, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, constitute the database for a new sequence stratigraphic analysis of the entire area. The objective of the new study is to test previous subdivisions and introduce a coherent 3D sequence stratigraphic analysis and depositional model for the entire Norwegian-Danish Basin. This analysis is necessary to get out of the stalemate with the uplift discussion. The study shows that the original subdivision by Michelsen et al. (1995, 1998) stands. However, revision of few a sequence boundaries may have to be adjusted due to new biostratigraphic information published. Furthermore, high-angle clinoforms and geomorphological transport complexes observed in the Danish North Sea Basin can be traced into the Norwegian sector. This together with the recognition of several other high-angle clinoform complexes, and their associated seismic facies distribution maps and thickness-maps, enhances the level of detail and constrains the previous published paleogeographic reconstructions of the Cenozoic. The geometry of the Cenozoic infill, in the Norwegian part of the Norwegian-Danish Basin, is here interpreted to be controlled by relative sea

  9. Head scarp boundary for the landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Polygons represent head scarps and flank scarps associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  10. Location of photographs showing landslide features in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Data points represent locations of photographs taken of landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Photos were taken in spring of 2010 during field verification of landslide locations (deposits previously mapped using LiDAR-derived imagery). The photographs depict various landslide features, such as scarps, pistol-butt trees, or colluvium deposits. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  11. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Blue Earth River Basin, south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data describing the physical characteristics of stream basins upstream from selected points on streams in the Blue Earth River basin, located in south-central Minnesota and north-central Iowa. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the basin, the percentage area of the basin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the basin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the mainchannel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least five square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations.

  12. Tectonic and depositional model of the North Louisiana-South Arkansas basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.M. ); Lowrie, A. ); Krotzer, C.J.; Carter, J.; Lerche, I.; Petersen, K. )

    1993-09-01

    A tectonic and depositional model is presented for the North Louisiana-South Arkansas (NL-SA) basin. This area is defined as extending from the updip sedimentary outcrop limit of the Mississippi Embayment, to the Sabine uplift and its possible eastward extension to the Wiggens arch in the south, and lying between the Sabine and Monroe uplifts. Included in this designation is the North Louisiana Salt basin. Geohistory modeling of basin subsidence with time has been correlated to sediment deposition, as well as to regional climatic and oceanographic information. In each instance, quantification and/or ranges of the natural processes are provided. The objective is to develop a dynamic model framework accurate enough to underpin individual prospects with regional understanding. The tectonic chronology begins with (1) subduction in the lower Paleozoic, followed by (2) incipient and interrupted rifting that is possibly part of mantle plume rising in the upper Paleozoic. A second episode of magmatic intrusion associated with Upper Jurassic sea-floor spreading south of the Sabine uplift. Regional subsidence occurred from the edge of the Mississippi Embayment through the North Louisiana Salt basin, including the proto-Sabine uplift. Lower Cretaceous cessation of the central Gulf of Mexico spreading was accompanied by initiation of tectonic subsidence and the beginning of the South Louisiana Salt basin. A continued regional downdip existed from the edge of the Mississippi Embayment through the proto-Sabine uplift region. Middle Cretaceous subsidence rate in the NL-SA area, also impacted the evolution of sedimentary fill and associated structural evolution.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  14. Appraisal report, water resources appraisal for hydroelectric licensing: Pigeon River Basin, North Carolina, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The water resources of the Pigeon River Basin which covers approximately 666 square mile in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina are evaluated. Data are presented on existing and potential water resource development, on water uses, e.g., for irrigation, municipal water supplies, or flood control and on the status of hydro plant licensing. Past and current planning studies are summarized. The information presented is current as of September 1981. (LCL)

  15. Hydrologic and chemical-quality data from four rural basins in Guilford County, North Carolina, 1985-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was begun in 1984 in Guilford County, North Carolina, to monitor water quality and soil erosion in basins with various land-management practices. Hydrologic and chemical-quality data were collected from four rural drainage basins, including two agricultural basins (7.4 and 4.8 acres) cultivated in tobacco and small grains, a mixed rural land-use basin (665 acres) currently under standard land-management practices, and a forested control basin (44 acres) characterizing background conditions. Mean concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate were 1.0 milligrams per liter from the agricultural basin under standard land-management practices. This was nearly 10 times greater than concentrations from the forested basin. Records of streamflow discharge, chemical quality, ground-water levels, precipitation, and farming activities collected from October 1984 through September 1988 at one or more of the basins are also presented in this report.

  16. Modeling the Response of Glaciers to Climate Change in the Upper North Saskatchewan River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, E.; Byrne, J. M.; Jiskoot, H.; MacDonald, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    This research will quantify the historical and future impacts of climate change on the glacial contribution to stream flow in the Upper North Saskatchewan River basin, Alberta, Canada. The physically based Generate Earth SYstems Science (GENESYS) hydromet model will be used to analyze the regional impact of historical data, and to forecast future trends in the hydrology and climatology of selected watersheds within the basin. This model has recently been successfully applied to the St. Mary River watershed, Montana, as well as the Upper North Saskatchewan River basin (MacDonald et al. 2009; MacDonald et al. in press; Byrne et al. in review). Hydro-meteorological processes were simulated at a high temporal and spatial resolution over complex terrain, focusing on modeling snow water equivalent and the timing of spring melt. A mass-balance glacier model will be developed and incorporated into GENESYS to more accurately gauge the effects of climate change on glacial decline and the effects of these changes on stream runoff. Global Climate Model (GCM) scenarios will be applied through GENESYS to develop meaningful projections of the range of possible future hydrologic change under reduced glacial cover in the basin through 2100.

  17. Sensitivity of the North Atlantic Basin to cyclic climatic forcing during the early Cretaceous

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Arthur, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Striking cyclic interbeds of laminated dark-olive to black marlstone and bioturbated white to light-gray limestone of Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) age have been recovered at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) sites in the North Atlantic. These Neocomian sequences are equivalent to the Maiolica Formation that outcrops in the Tethyan regions of the Mediterranean and to thick limestone sequences of the Vocontian Trough of France. This lithologic unit marks the widespread deposition of biogenic carbonate over much of the North Atlantic and Tethyan seafloor during a time of overall low sealevel and a deep carbonate compensation depth. The dark clay-rich interbeds typically are rich in organic carbon (OC) with up to 5.5% OC in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic. These eastern North Atlantic sequences off northwest Africa, contain more abundant and better preserved hydrogen-rich, algal organic matter (type II kerogen) relative to the western North Atlantic, probably in response to coastal upwelling induced by an eastern boundary current in the young North Atlantic Ocean. The more abundant algal organic matter in sequences in the eastern North Atlantic is also expressed in the isotopic composition of the carbon in that organic matter. In contrast, organic matter in Neocomian sequences in the western North Atlantic along the continental margin of North America has geochemical and optical characteristics of herbaceous, woody, hydrogen-poor, humic, type III kerogen. The inorganic geochemical characteristics of the dark clay-rich (80% CaCO3) interbeds in both the eastern and western basins of the North Atlantic suggest that they contain minor amounts of relatively unweathered eolian dust derived from northwest Africa during dry intervals.

  18. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit and vicinity, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents accomplishments made in completing Task 3 of this project which involves development of criteria for recognizing reservoir heterogeneity in the Black Warrior basin. The report focuses on characterization of the Upper Mississippian Carter sandstone reservoir in North Blowhorn Creek and adjacent oil units in Lamar County, Alabama. This oil unit has produced more than 60 percent of total oil extracted from the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The Carter sandstone in North Blowhorn Creek oil unit is typical of the most productive Carter oil reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report synthesizes data derived from geophysical well logs and cores from North Blowhorn Creek oil unit to develop a depositional model for the Carter sandstone reservoir. The second part of the report describes the detrital and diagenetic character of Carter sandstone utilizing data from petrographic and scanning electron microscopes and the electron microprobe. The third part synthesizes porosity and pore-throat-size-distribution data determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and commercial core analyses with results of the sedimentologic and petrographic studies. The final section of the report discusses reservoir heterogeneity within the context of the five-fold classification of Moore and Kugler (1990).

  19. Reexamination of the geological structure of the North German Basin in Lower Saxony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienäcker, Julia; Sattler, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The North German Basin (NGB), as part of the Southern Permian Basin in Europe, extends from the North Sea, across Denmark, the Netherlands through Northern Germany, to Poland. It contains sediments from the Lower Permian to the Quaternary, and experienced a minimum subsidence of 2000 m from the Permian to the Mesozoic. This was followed by uplift during Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic inversion. The hundreds of meters thick and mobile Zechstein salt of Late Permian was remobilized in several phases to form complex salt structures. The salt moved laterally and vertically thus creating salt pillows and tall asymmetrical salt diapirs, some of which broke through the overburden until they were exposed at the paleo-surface. Salt structures influenced both the sedimentation and structural style throughout the NGB. Within the joint project TUNB (Deeper Underground North German Basin), 2-D/3-D seismic datasets, borehole data, structural maps and the existing 3-D geological model of Lower Saxony, will be used to create a new, detailed, geological 3-D model of the Lower Saxony part of the NGB. This allows new insights into the interplay between salt tectonics, sedimentation and tectonic movement, and in particular may help to resolve issues regarding the influence of the Zechstein salt on the sediment distribution. We show the different structural styles of important reservoir formations for, e.g., hydrocarbons, geothermal energy and gas storage, such as the Middle Buntsandstein, Rhaetkeuper, Middle Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous, especially related to salt structures.

  20. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming

    2013-03-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  1. River Gain and Loss Studies for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in North Dakota and of possible options to meet those water needs. To obtain the river gain and loss information needed to properly account for available streamflow within the basin, available river gain and loss studies for the Sheyenne, Turtle, Forest, and Park Rivers in North Dakota and the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, Clearwater, South Branch Buffalo, and Otter Tail Rivers in Minnesota were reviewed. Ground-water discharges for the Sheyenne River in a reach between Lisbon and Kindred, N. Dak., were about 28.8 cubic feet per second in 1963 and about 45.0 cubic feet per second in 1986. Estimated monthly net evaporation losses for additional flows to the Sheyenne River from the Missouri River ranged from 1.4 cubic feet per second in 1963 to 51.0 cubic feet per second in 1976. Maximum water losses for a reach between Harvey and West Fargo, N. Dak., for 1956-96 ranged from about 161 cubic feet per second for 1976 to about 248 cubic feet per second for 1977. Streamflow gains of 1 to 1.5 cubic feet per second per mile were estimated for the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, and Clearwater Rivers in Minnesota. The average ground-water discharge for a 5.2-mile reach of the Otter Tail River in Minnesota was about 14.1 cubic feet per second in August 1994. The same reach lost about 14.1 cubic feet per second between February 1994 and June 1994 and about 21.2 cubic feet per second between August 1994 and August 1995.

  2. Magnetic anomalies and tectonic fabric of marginal basins North of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Malahoff, A.; Feden, R.H.; Fleming, H.S.

    1982-05-10

    Detailed airborne magnetic studies conducted over the region of the S. W. Pacific marginal basins extending from the Solomon Islands to New Zealand suggest that three major phases of basin formation and island arc development have occurred in this region. Development of the Tasman Sea took place during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. Development of the basins to the east of the Tasman Sea occurred predominantly during the Oligocene as well as during the Upper Miocene to Recent. The South Fuji Basin, consisting of the Kupe and Minerva Abyssal Plains, is marked by the presence of possibly two RRR triple junction spreading centers that were active between the times of anomalies 13 to 7 (36--25.5 m.y.). The Kupe Abyssal Plain shows the presence of residual magnetic anomalies 7 to 13 of the eastern limb of the proposed spreading center. The western limb appears to have been subducted beneath the present site of the Three Kings Rise. This seafloor spreading phase (calculated half-spreading rate of 35 mm/yr) was coincident with the overthrusting phase of the New Caledonia ultramafic rocks. During that period, active volcanism along the then continuous Solomons-New Hebrides-Fiji-Lau Island arc was taking place. Magnetic anomalies from 1 to 4 (0--8 m.y. B. P.) are seen to extend along a clearly defined lineation pattern over the North Fuji Basin.

  3. Estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in rural basins of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Benjamin F.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1999-01-01

    A statewide study was conducted to develop two methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in rural ungaged basins in North Carolina. Flood-frequency estimates for gaged sites in North Carolina were computed by fitting the annual peak flows for each site to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. As part of the computation of flood-frequency estimates for gaged sites, new values for generalized skew coefficients were developed. Basin characteristics for these gaged sites were computed by using a geographic information system and automated computer algorithms. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 317 gaged sites were combined to form the data base that was used for this analysis. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least-squares regression, was used to develop a set of predictive equations that can be used to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval discharges for rural ungaged basins in the Blue Ridge-Piedmont, Coastal Plain, and Sand Hills hydrologic areas. The predictive equations are all functions of drainage area. Average errors of prediction for these regression equations range from 36 to 65 percent. A region-of-influence method also was developed that interactively estimates recurrence interval discharges for rural ungaged basins in the Blue Ridge-Piedmont and Coastal Plain hydrologic areas of North Carolina. Regression techniques are used to develop a unique relation between flood discharge and basin characteristics for a subset of gaged sites with similar basin characteristics. This, then, can be used to estimate flood discharges at ungaged sites. Because the computations required for this method are somewhat complex, a computer application was developed that performs the computations and compares the predictive errors for this method. The computer application also includes the option of using the regression equations to compute estimated flood discharges and errors of

  4. Estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in rural basins of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Benjamin F.; Tasker, Gary D.; Robbins, Jeanne C.

    2001-01-01

    A statewide study was conducted to develop two methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods in rural ungaged basins in North Carolina. Flood-frequency estimates for gaged sites in North Carolina were computed by fitting the annual peak flows for each site to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. As part of the computation of flood-frequency estimates for gaged sites, new values for generalized skew coefficients were developed. Basin characteristics for these gaged sites were computed by using a geographic information system and automated computer algorithms. Flood-frequency estimates and basin characteristics for 317 gaged sites were combined to form the data base that was used for this analysis. Regional regression analysis, using generalized least-squares regression, was used to develop a set of predictive equations that can be used to estimate the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval discharges for rural ungaged basins in the Blue Ridge-Piedmont, Coastal Plain, and Sand Hills hydrologic areas. The predictive equations are all functions of drainage area. Average errors of prediction for these regression equations range from 36 to 65 percent. A region-of-influence method also was developed that interactively estimates recurrence interval discharges for rural ungaged basins in the Blue Ridge-Piedmont and Coastal Plain hydrologic areas of North Carolina. Regression techniques are used to develop a unique relation between flood discharge and basin characteristics for a subset of gaged sites with similar basin characteristics. This, then, can be used to estimate flood discharges at ungaged sites. Because the computations required for this method are somewhat complex, a computer application was developed that performs the computations and compares the predictive errors for this method. The computer application also includes the option of using the regression equations to compute estimated flood discharges and errors of

  5. Mesozoic tectonic setting of rift basins in eastern North China and implications for destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guo-wei; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic due to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate has attracted a lot of recent interest, with numerous studies focusing on regional tectonics and associated magmatism. Although the peak ages for this event have been established, the timing of its initiation remains poorly understood. In this paper, two rift basins in the northern Hebei Province of China, the Diaoe Basin (DB) and Houcheng Basin (HB), are studied in order to constrain the timing of destruction of the northern margin of the NCC. Both NNE-striking basins developed on Proterozoic basement. The DB is a graben controlled by normal faults on its two margins, and the HB is a half-graben bounded by normal faults on its eastern side. Basin fills include detrital sediments and volcanic rocks, which are (from bottom to top) the Houcheng Formation (Fh), the Zhangjiakou Formation (Fzh), the Shijiayao Formation (Fs), and the Huajiying Formation (Fhj). The Fh is composed mainly of detrital sediments interlayered with andesite in its lower section, and interlayered with felsic volcanics (rhyolite) in its upper section. There exists a transitional change from the Fh to the thick felsic volcanic strata of the Fzh. Geochemically, the andesite layers in the lower Fh were most likely derived from mixing of crust and mantle melts, whereas the felsic rocks were derived from melting of the lower crust. U-Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded ages for the lower Fh andesites of ca. 165.7 Ma in the HB and ca. 157.4 Ma in the DB. The felsic rocks at the base of the Fzh yielded ages of ca. 155.1 Ma in the HB and ca. 149.2-143.4 Ma in the DB. The Fs and Fhj in the DB both yielded similar ages of ca. 136 Ma. The development of rift basins, together with the occurrence of massive felsic volcanic rocks, indicates a period of significant extension and thinning of the NCC. The ca. 165.7-155.1 Ma age for andesites not only represents the initial timing of crustal extension

  6. Temperature and zooplankton size structure: climate control and basin-scale comparison in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Sanae; Batten, Sonia D; Yoshiki, Tomoko; Sasaki, Yuka; Sasaoka, Kosei; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Ichikawa, Tadafumi

    2015-02-01

    The global distribution of zooplankton community structure is known to follow latitudinal temperature gradients: larger species in cooler, higher latitudinal regions. However, interspecific relationships between temperature and size in zooplankton communities have not been fully examined in terms of temporal variation. To re-examine the relationship on a temporal scale and the effects of climate control thereon, we investigated the variation in copepod size structure in the eastern and western subarctic North Pacific in 2000-2011. This report presents the first basin-scale comparison of zooplankton community changes in the North Pacific based on a fully standardized data set obtained from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey. We found an increase in copepod community size (CCS) after 2006-2007 in the both regions because of the increased dominance of large cold-water species. Sea surface temperature varied in an east-west dipole manner, showing the typical Pacific Decadal Oscillation pattern: cooling in the east and warming in the west after 2006-2007. The observed positive correlation between CCS and sea surface temperature in the western North Pacific was inconsistent with the conventional interspecific temperature-size relationship. We explained this discrepancy by the geographical shift of the upper boundary of the thermal niche, the 9°C isotherm, of large cold-water species. In the eastern North Pacific, the boundary stretched northeast, to cover a large part of the sampling area after 2006-2007. In contrast, in the western North Pacific, the isotherm location hardly changed and the sampling area remained within its thermal niche throughout the study period, despite the warming that occurred. Our study suggests that while a climate-induced basin-scale cool-warm cycle can alter copepod community size and might subsequently impact the functions of the marine ecosystem in the North Pacific, the interspecific temperature-size relationship is not

  7. Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the

  8. Pleistocene deformations in the contexte of the Rharb foredeep basin (north western Atlantic Moroccan margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maad, N.; Le Roy, P.; Sahabi, M.; Gutscher, M. A.; Dakki, M.; Hssain, M.; van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Brahim, L. Ait; M'hammdi, N.; Trenteseaux, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study relates to the Cenozoic post rift deformations of Rharb foredeep basin in response to the Europe-Africa convergence. Here we are going to retail the tectonic structures of the Rharb basin, in particular the active front of the Prerifaine nappe in the area of Lalla Zahra. The method is based on the interpretations of the high resolution seismic reflection data acquired during the Protit2 (2003) and the Nomads cruises (2007). The surveys were conducted by the University of Brest in France and the Faculté des Sciences d'El Jadida in Morocco. They allowed to record more than 2000 km of seismic lines through the Rharb continental shelf. The integration of new data with industrial seismic lines provided by ONHYM and field observations collected along the coastline allows us to identify the formation and the recent evolution of the western termination of the Southern Rif Corridor. This coastal basin corresponds to the foredeep basin linked to the Rif Cordillera and extends southwards through the northern Moroccan Meseta that defines the foreland region of the Western Rif (Flinch,93). The integrated study clarifies the post-nappe evolution of the offshore Rharb basin during Neogene and quaternary times. A succession of deformations affect the Rharb basin with separating episodes of relaxation and quiescence. Their ages are based on chronostratigraphical attribution of mean unconformities. A Lower Pliocene episode is characterized by reactivation of faults affecting the Nappe. The uplift of the basin and the individualization of the Lallah Zarah ridge increases and controls the terrigenous fluxes. A Middle Pleistocene still active episode and corresponds to a new uplift of the two margins of the basin. Faulting remains more active in the North along the Lallah Zarah ridge and offshore Larache where large active listric faults are observed. The progressive segmentation of the basin determinates the sedimentary filling with cyclic sequences extending progressively

  9. Mesozoic tectonically driven climatic partitioning of the south Junggar and north Tarim basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Graham, S.A.; Brassell, S.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed basin analysis of Mesozoic strata exposed in the south Junggar and north Tarim foreland basin Mesozoic depocenters, northwest China, has documented periodic structural reactivation of the intervening Tian Shan during that era. Coarse alluvial pulses, contained in an otherwise relatively fine-grained section of fluvial lacustrine sediments, were shed off both the north and south flanks of the Tian Shan during the Late Triassic, Latest Jurassic, and late Cretaceous. The lofty modern Tian Shan and associated rain shadow cast over the Tarim basin to the south reflect deformation associated with the early Cenozoic Himalayan collision; so too were the two basins climatically partitioned during the Mesozoic in response to relief produced by orogenesis. During prolonged episodes of relative tectonic quiescence, it appears that Tian Shan relief was too low to confine moisture to the windward side of the range. Most notable is the Middle Jurassic section that is dominated in both basins by a relatively fine-grained series of organic-rich, meandering fluvial, and lacustrine sediments. Pyrolytic analyses of organic-rich mudstones associated with these sediments document high H.I. kerogens, suggesting algal-dominated organic matter typical of anoxic lacustrine settings. However, detailed GC-MS biomarker analysis of the alipaphatic fraction also suggests substantial input from higher land plants in addition to algal sources. Not only are n-alkane distributions typically dominated by high molecular weight compounds with an odd-over-even preference typical of higher land plants, but the abundance of specific diterpenoid biomarker compounds strongly suggests the development of widespread coniferous forests on either side of the range during the Middle Jurassic.

  10. Water use and availability in the Woonasquatucket and Moshassuck River basins, north-central Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2005-01-01

    The Woonasquatucket River Basin includes 51.0 square miles, and the Moshassuck River Basin includes 23.8 square miles in north-central Rhode Island. The study area comprises these two basins. The two basins border each other with the Moshassuck River Basin to the northeast of the Woonasquatucket River Basin. Seven towns are in the Woonasquatucket River Basin, and six towns are in the Moshassuck River Basin. To determine the water use and availability in the study area, water supply and discharge data were collected for these river basins for the 1995–99 period, and compared to estimated long-term water available. The study area is unique in the State of Rhode Island, because no withdrawals from major public suppliers were made during the study period. Withdrawals were, therefore, limited to self-supplied domestic use, two minor suppliers, and one self-supplied industrial user. Because no metered data were available, the summer water withdrawals were assumed to be the same as the estimates for the rest of the year. Seven major water suppliers distribute an average of 17.564 million gallons per day for use in the study area from sources outside of the study area. The withdrawals from minor water suppliers were 0.017 million gallons per day in the study area, all in the town of Smithfield in the Woonasquatucket River Basin. The remaining withdrawals in the study area were estimated to be 0.731 million gallons per day by self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows in the study area included self-disposed water and disposal from permitted dischargers, including the Smithfield Sewage Treatment Plant. Return flows accounted for 4.116 million gallons per day in the study area. Most public-disposed water (15.195 million gallons per day) is collected by the Narragansett Bay Commission and is disposed outside of the basin in Narragansett Bay. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at one index

  11. Low-flow characteristics and profiles for selected streams in the Roanoke River basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    An understanding of the magnitude and frequency of low-flow discharges is an important part of protecting surface-water resources and planning for municipal and industrial economic expansion. Low-flow characteristics are summarized for 22 continuous-record gaging stations in North Carolina (19 sites) and Virginia (3 sites) and 60 partial-record gaging stations in the North Carolina Roanoke River Basin. Records of discharge collected through the 1994 water year are used. Flow characteristics included in the summary are (1) average annual unit flow, (2) 7Q10 low-flow discharge, the minimum average discharge for a 7-consecutive-day period occurring, on average, once in 10 years; (3) 30Q2 low-flow discharge; (4) W7Q10 low-flow discharge, similar to 7Q10 discharge except that flow during November through March only is considered; and (5) 7Q2 low-flow discharge. The potential for sustaining base flows is moderate to high in the western part of the basin as well as in the eastern and western fringes of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, respectively. Areas of low potential for sustaining base flow exist in the central part of the basin (between eastern Caswell County and western Warren County), where soils have low infiltration rates, and in lower regions of the Coastal Plain, where small streams tend to have zero flow during prolonged drought. Drainage area and low-flow discharge profiles are presented for 10 streams in the Roanoke River Basin in North Carolina and reflect a wide range in basin size, characteristics, and streamflow conditions. The selected streams are Town Fork Creek, Hogans Creek, Mayo River, Buffalo Creek, Smith River, Country Line Creek, Dan River, Marlow Creek, Hyco River, and Roanoke River. The drainage-area profiles show the increases in drainage areas as streams travel their course in the basin. At the mouths of streams profiles, the drainage areas range from 22 miles to about 9,700 miles. Low-flow discharges for each stream

  12. Development and distribution of Rival reservoirs in central Williston basin, western North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Mississippian Rival (Nesson) beds in the central Williston basin, North Dakota, are a limestone to evaporite regressive sequence. Progradation of the depositional system produced several distinct shallowing-upward genetic units. Cyclicity in Rival beds was produced by periodic fluctuations in sea level. Rival oil reservoirs are porous and permeable packstones and grainstones. The dominant allochems in these reservoir rocks are peloids and skeletal and algal fragments. These sediments were deposited along carbonate shorelines and within algal banks that developed basinward of shorelines. The trapping mechanism along shorelines is a lithofacies change from limestone to anhydride. Algal banks are locally productive along paleostructural trends where bathymetric shallowing produced shoals dominated by the Codiacean alga Ortonella. Algal banks are flanked by impermeable carbonate mudstones and wackestones deposited in interbank and protected shelf environments. Two distinct Rival bank trends occur in the central basin: a northwest-southeast trend in McKenzie and Williams Counties, North Dakota, parallel with the Cedar Creek anticline, and a northeast-southwest trend along the Nesson anticline and the northeast flank of the basin, parallel with the Weldon-Brockton fault trend.

  13. The Sulfur content and origin of the North Thrace Basin coals, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erarslan, Cemile; Örgün, Yüksel; Çelik Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur (S) is one of the major and hazardous components of the coal, and it may be originated from different sources depending on coal formation. The defined main sulfur types in the coal are pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur and sulfate sulfur. Thrace basin which have approximately 2 billion tons coal reserves is one of the most important coal basins of Turkey and Edirkoy (Saray-Tekirdaǧ) is the largest coal production site in north of Thrace basin. The obtained results show that the total S contents in the Edirköy coal samples vary from 3.21 to 14.1%. According to this result, the coal in Edirköy field is in the form of high -sulfur coal and the sulfur types analysis indicate that the ratio of pyritic sulfur vary from 0.78 to 5.25%, the organic sulfur vary from 1.1 to 7.47 % and the sulfate sulfur vary from 0.54 to 1.38% in the field. It was revealed that the ratio of organic sulfur in the coal increase towards the north of the field. In this study, the sulfur content and origin of the coal in Edirköy field will be discussed with sulfur isotope data.

  14. Salt distribution in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, Central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, Caroline; Jarsve, Erlend; Heeremans, Michel; Mansour Abdelmalak, Mohamed; Faleide, Jan Inge; Helge Gabrielsen, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Salt tectonics have extensively been studied in most parts of the Central North Sea. However, few studies have been done in the Norwegian side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. In this contribution, we report a new regional analysis of the salt patterns across the offshore Norwegian-Danish Basin. We have mapped the regional distribution of salt structures in the Norwegian-Danish Basin using both old and recent 2D seismic reflection profiles tied to wells. The salt-thickness map shows three distinct salt structures patterns: (1) NW-SE trending salt walls in the northern part of the basin; the spacing between the walls vary between 7 to 12 km; (2) a dense and irregular distribution of salt diapirs in the southern part of the studied area; (3) an irregular pattern of sparse but big salt diapirs in the eastern part of the basin. This domain is characterized by numerous turtle structures associated with salt diapirs. Reflection seismic cross-sections show that most salt structures only pierce the Triassic sedimentary strata whereas only few salt structures reach the seabed. Rotated fault blocks indicate a gliding vergence towards the South in the eastern part of the basin and towards the SE in the western side of the Norwegian-Danish Basin. No mature or compressive salt structures, except some squeezed salt diapirs, are observed in the topographic lows of the basin. The initiation of salt tectonics started during the early Middle Triassic in the entire basin; salt tectonics reactivations were recorded during the Middle Jurassic, Paleogene, and prior to the Quaternary but are not homogeneous across the basin. Salt movements inferred from our study are in good agreement with previous studies. The trend of salt walls (domain 1) indicates a NE-SW extension which is not compatible with N-S trending pre-salt faults. Instead, the strong Triassic subsidence towards the SW has most likely controlled the formation of the salt walls. The salt was initially thicker in domain 2 that

  15. U-series disequilibria in volcanic rocks from the Futuna spreading centre (North Fiji Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Faouder, A.; Hemond, C.; Benoit, M.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Guivel, C.; Pelletier, B.; Bollinger, C.

    2005-05-01

    The North Fiji basin is the largest active back arc basin of the SW Pacific. It is 12 m.y. old and characterised by a regional upper mantle thermal anomaly (Garel, 2001). The 200Km long Futuna spreading centre (Pelletier et al., 2001) is located west of Futuna and Alofi islands at the border between Lau and North Fijian Basins. This ridge is composed of an axial valley spotted with numerous seamounts. It starts from the north of the Fiji platform (15° 40'S) and ends in the north Fiji transform zone, northwest of the Futuna and Alofi islands (13° 35'S). New U series measurements were performed by TIMS on fresh dredged glassy samples. As the topography of this spreading centre exhibits a peculiar structure, the geochemical signature is also unusual. U and Th concentrations range between 0,0930%, six have a 230Th excess within 25 ± 5% and three have 230Th excess of about 15%. These 230Th excesses are typical of MORB or OIB source melting and not a back arc volcanic processes. It is also symptomatic of a melting in presence of garnet. In the equiline diagram, samples fall on a linear correlation indicating a mixing between two end-members with different Th/Usources ratios. The trend observed in this diagram requires the involvement of an enriched component, likely an EMII component, as defined by the trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions (Benoit et al., in prep). This trend falls within the OIB field and plots close to Samoan samples analysed by Newman et al. (1984). This trend demonstrates the influence of a melt may be even more enriched than the samples of Savai'i volcano. This EMII melt mixes, within the upper mantle, with the Indian ocean like component as it was already established that

  16. A study of in-situ stress magnitudes in the North Sea basin from borehole measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Stephen Tean

    The stress field in the crust is a fundamental first order geophysical property that is intimately linked to the dynamic behavior of the Earth. This project has concentrated on crustal stress magnitudes as these are generally less well understood than stress orientations. Leak-off tests have been evaluated as a potential method of stress magnitude estimation, and the most suitable uses of leak-off data to estimate stress magnitudes have been defined. Vertical stresses have been estimated using geophysical logs. The variations of stress with depth, geographic domain, lithology and pore pressure have been has been studied in order to investigate the origins of crustal stress in the North Sea basin. The most reliable method of stress magnitude determination is the hydraulic fracturing (hydro-frac) method, however, hydro-frac data is rare. By contrast the leak-off test is performed routinely by the oil industry, with several tests in each hole drilled. An extensive 3-dimensional dataset of leak-off pressures therefore exists for the North Sea. Datasets have been obtained for the southern North Sea, and also from onshore boreholes drilled by UK Nirex, where leak-off tests and hydro-fracs have been performed in the same holes. This has enabled the leak-off test to be evaluated as a possible stress determination method. From these datasets, it is concluded that the trends of leak-off pressure with depth reflect changes in the minimum horizontal stress magnitude (Oh) with depth. Where leak-off test pressure records are available, it is seen that the shape of many leak-off test pressure/volume plots resemble those of hydro-frac re-opening plots, and that in these leak-off tests, the leak-off pressure is very close to the hydro-frac determined Oh. Furthermore, when leak-off tests are conducted carefully, a slightly extended test procedure can yield even better estimates of Oh. Over 3,000 leak-off test results have been obtained from throughout the North Sea. The trends of

  17. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Meixner, T.; De La Cruz, L.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is the primary source of aquifer replenishment, an important source of freshwater for human consumption and riparian area sustainability in semi-arid regions. It is critical to understand the current groundwater recharge regimes in groundwater basins throughout the Western U.S. and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change, land use change and management manipulations that impact the availability and composition of groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters, and variable summer precipitation. The horst-graben structure of these basins lends itself to orographic and continental precipitation effects that make mountain block and mountain front recharge critical components of annual recharge. The current assumption is that the relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation dominating in the northern parts of the region, and summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon extends its influence. To test this hypothesis, stable water isotope data of groundwater and precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to characterize and compare groundwater recharge regimes throughout the region. Preliminary stable water isotope results from the southernmost Rio San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico indicate that groundwater is composed of 64%±14% summer monsoon precipitation, in contrast to more northern basins where winter precipitation is the source of 79-90% of basin groundwater.

  18. Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, Jeffrey D.; Lorenz, David L.; Wiche, Gregg J.; Goldstein, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the physical, chemical, and aquatic-biological characteristics that could affect regional water quality in the Red River of the North study unit. These characteristics define the overall environmental setting of the study unit. This report provides base line and historical information for future reports that will address specific water-quality issues and processes controlling and affecting water quality in the study unit, and for reports for the national-synthesis component of the NAWQA program that will integrate the results of the study-unit investigations.

  19. Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

    1994-12-01

    The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

  20. Volatile abundances in submarine glasses from the North Fiji and Lau back-arc basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aggrey, K.E.; Muenow, D.W.; Sinton, J.M. )

    1988-10-01

    Glasses from submarine lavas of the North Fiji and lau back-arc basins were analyzed by high-temperature mass spectrometry for volatiles. Abundances for H{sub 2}O, Cl, F, S and CO{sub 2} in glasses ranging in composition from depleted, primitive MORB to enriched, transitional tholeiites are reported. The samples divide into three groups based on K{sub 2}O vs. H{sub 2}O, Ba/Zr vs. H{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O vs. P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/H{sub 2}O variation diagrams. At similar Mg No., the least evolved samples studied are nearly identical to N-type MORB in H{sub 2}O abundances but show Cl contents enriched by a factor of 5. More enriched samples, classified as back-arc basin basalts (BABB) on the basis of major/trace elements and isotopes, are not as hydrous (at similar Mg No.) as those from the Mariana and East Scotia Sea back-arc basins. The data indicate that not all back-arc basins erupt lavas with the distinct volatile and other elemental characteristics of lavas from the Mariana Trough and Scotia Sea.

  1. Petrographically deduced triassic climate for the Deep River Basin, eastern piedmont of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    McCarn, S.T.; Mansfield, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A petrographic comparison of Triassic, fluvial sandstones from the Deep River Basin in the eastern piedmont of North Carolina with nearby Holocene stream sands (1) indicates that he Triassic climate was more arid than today's and (2) distinguishes an eastern, more plutonic terrane from a western, more metamorphic source terrane. The paleoclimatic interpretation is based on differences in framework composition between modern and ancient sands of the same grain size, derived from the same rock type, transported similar distances and deposited in similar settings. The Triassic sandstones contain more lithic-fragments but less quartz than otherwise equivalent, modern sand in the Deep River Basin. Feldspar content is more complex, controlled by both source-rock composition and climate. Sand from the more plutonic terrane contains more feldspar and plutonic lithic-fragments than sand from the more metamorphic terrane, which contains more quartz and metamorphic lithic-fragments. This petrographic interpretation of the Triassic sandstones along with the presence of coal, limestone, chert and caliche in the middle of the section suggests that the Triassic climate was cyclic, changing from arid to humid and back to arid. Plate-tectonic reconstructions place the Deep River Basin between the Triassic equator and Tropic of cancer, where the easterly trade winds would predominate. Therefore, the arid portions of the cycle could have been due to a periodic, orographic, rain shadow formed as the result of intermittent movement along the Jonesboro Fault, creating a highland area east of the Deep River Basin.

  2. The Relation between the North Atlantic Oscillation and SSTs in the North Atlantic Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weile; Anderson, Bruce T.; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2004-12-01

    The authors use the notion of Granger causality to investigate the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Northern Hemisphere. The Granger causality analysis ensures that any apparent oceanic influence upon the atmosphere (as measured by the NAO) is provided by the ocean and is not related to preexisting conditions within the NAO itself (and vice versa when looking at the atmospheric influence upon the ocean). Although this statistical technique does not imply physical forcing of one field on the other, it is generally more reliable compared to the simple lead/lagged correlation. Using this technique, the authors find that on seasonal time scales, the preceding NAO anomalies' influence on the wintertime SST field is rather restricted. Conversely, preceding SST anomalies have a statistically significant causal effect on the wintertime NAO. However, the causal relation between preceding SSTs and the wintertime NAO is limited to the Gulf Stream extension; in contrast to the canonical tripole SST pattern typically associated with the NAO, the authors do not find that SST anomalies in either the Greenland or subtropical regions have a significant causal effect on the NAO. These results suggest that the Gulf Stream SSTs have an important influence in initiating disturbances of the atmospheric circulation over the wintertime North Atlantic.


  3. Shelf sheet-sand reservoir of the lower Cretaceous Greensand, North Celtic Sea Basin, offshore Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.D. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Core and log data show that the marine, early to middle Albian {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand of the Aptian to lower Cenomanian Greensand-Gault interval, North Celtic Sea Basin, offshore Ireland, was deposited as an approximately tabular sand body in shelf water depths. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand is the major reservoir interval at Kinsale Head and Ballycotton gas fields. The reservoir sandstone is bioturbated, variably glauconitic, shell rich, and least muddy toward its provenance in a local area of the Irish massif and finer grained southeastward into the basin. Thickness and coarseness of the {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand are related, in part, to distance from a narrow area of the paleoshore. Bathymetric control of sand thickness was superimposed on proximal-distal trends. Specifically, thick intervals are inferred to have been deposited in shelf lows, and thin zones were deposited over bathymetric highs. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand was not deposited as a ridge sand, and positive relief on the depositional sand body appears to have been minor. Deposition of the Greensand occurred during thermal subsidence of the North Celtic Sea Basin following Early Cretaceous rifting. Overall late Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous transgression was interrupted by progradation of the {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand, probably caused by a relative drop in sea level (forced regression). The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand sheet consists of several units within the central depositional basin. Three slightly coarsening-upward units up to 15 m thick probably are the consequence of high-frequency fluctuations in sea level during progradation. The top of the {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand consists of a several-meter-thick, very glauconitic, muddy sandstone to sandy mudstone. The upper unit accumulated in deepening water following the maximum lowstand.

  4. The spreading of the Chernobyl signature from the North Aegean waters to the Eastern Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papucci, C.; Delfanti, R.; Lorenzelli, R.; Zervakis, V.; Georgopoulos, D.

    2003-04-01

    The Chernobyl accident (26 April 1986) produced a patchy deposition of radionuclides over the Eastern and Northern basins of the Mediterranean Sea, that was superimposed over the previous fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. The deposition of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs was particularly heavy onto the Black Sea (3000 TBq) and the Aegean -- Ionian Seas along the Greek coasts (800 TBq). Moreover, as the Black Sea still receives a delayed input of Chernobyl 137Cs from the rivers Danube and Dniepr, the output of surface water through the Dardanelles Straits constitutes a "permanent" point source of this conservative radionuclide into the North Aegean Sea. The water exiting the Dardanelles undergoes mixing with North Aegean surface water. Due to its low salinity this water acts as an insulation layer and, consequently, deep-water formation is rather infrequent in the North Aegean, taking place only at periods of reduced Black Sea outflow and/or exceptionally cold and dry winters. In the last 20 years there have been two major deep-water formation events in the North Aegean: in winter 1987 (just after the Chernobyl accident), and in winter 1993. Actually, these two episodes have deeply modified the vertical profiles of 137Cs with respect to 1984, before the Chernobyl accident. In 1999--2001, in the (isolated from advection) Lemnos and N-Skyros Basins, the 137Cs concentration increased from the surface to the bottom; in the deep waters it was about 5 Bq m-3, five times higher than in 1984. These deep waters formed in 1993, are characterised by high salinity and density and their major contributor was water of Levantine/Cretan origin. The Chernobyl input also caused a considerable increase in 137Cs concentrations in the Cretan Deep Waters flowing through the Antikythera Strait: the typical concentration in this water mass was, in 1999, 2.5 -- 2.8 Bq m-3, almost three times higher than that in the deep Cretan basin in 1984. This strong signal is spreading in the

  5. Structure and dynamics in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Qi, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Study of structural geology in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay has achieved great breakthroughs in recent years. However the studies of structure and dynamics still remain much controversy. Based on the 3D and partial 2D seismic data, combined with regional geology and well data, the characteristics of structures in the north Jizhong Deprssion are analyzed, the dynamics is discussed. Our analyses show that the Cenozoic structures in the north Jizhong Depression can be subdivided into extensional system and strike-slip system. Extensional system concludes series of normal faults and transfer faults. Normal faults are mainly trend NNE and NE. They control the Paleogene sediments in sub-depressions of hanging-wall, and bottom out into a sub-horizontal detachment zone in deep level shaped like listric. Transfer faults mainly adjust displacement of normal faults, yet some like Tongbozhen and Niutuozhen are transfer faults in Paleocene and Eocene but change to normal faults in Oligocene. Strike-slip system is predominantly consisted by sub-vertical right-lateral strike-slip faults such as Xin`anzhen and Maxi. From seismic profiles, Xin`anzhen and Maxi cut into basement but only influence the sediments of Ed of Paleogene and Lower Neogene. Based on the relation of sedimentary sequence and faults, the extensional system mainly develops from Paleocene to Late Oligocene, but strike-slip system predominantly develops from Late Oligocene to Miocene. From the superposed section of crustal structure and basin structure in Jizhong Depression, the Cenozoic sub-basin is just located on the thinner zones of crustal, corresponding with the location of mantle uplift. It indicates that the Paleogene development of Jizhong Depression is related to the horizontal tension caused by uplift of magma in mantle. The results illustrate that extensional deformation in Jizhong depression is caused by the uplift of magma. The right-lateral strike-slip deformation, same with Tancheng

  6. Finding the lost segment of the North Anatolian Fault in the Bursa Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutoglu, S. H.; Deguchi, T.; Gundogdu, O.; Seker, D. Z.; Kuscu, S.

    2011-12-01

    After the 1999 Golcuk Mw=7.4, the seismic stress of the North Anatolian Fault has been transferred onto the segments in the Marmara Sea. The NAF is separated to three branches around the Marmara region; one branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Yalova-Cinarcik location in the north, the second branch runs into the Marmara Sea from the Gemlik location in the south, and the last one goes toward the Bursa basin from the Sakarya-Pamukova location in the lower south. Some researchers consider that the south branch, which experienced the last major earthquake in the year 1064, poses a danger as much as the north branch.For that reason, this study has been conducted for monitoring the fault activities around the Bursa basin. In this respect, the four Palsar data having the best baseline condition have been obtained between the years 2007-2010. The processing of these data have been resulted in significant deformation interferograms for the data pairs of 31st Oct 2007-8th May 2010 and 31st Jan. 2008-24th Dec. 2010. There are seen deformation anomalies in the Bursa basin along 33 km long in E-W direction and 4.5 km long in N-S direction. The shape of the deformation fringes points out that there is a right lateral strike slip fault line passing through the Bursa basin. The geomorphologic characteristics in the region make us think this fault line may connect to the Sakarya-Geyve branch of the North Anatolian Fault system. The maximum amount of the deformation around the fault line has been determined 18 cm in three years. This amount is too much in comparison to 2.2 cm/yr slip rate of the NAF. As the deformation anomalies are investigated in detail a contraction draws attention, overlapping with a right lateral strike slip motion. Consequently, it can precociously be sad that there exits an uplifting combining with the lateral motion. In addition, significant deformation anomalies have been detected on the Gemlik location where the Iznik fault segment reaches the

  7. Statistical Aspects of Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin, 1945-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Examined are statistical aspects of the 715 tropical cyclones that formed in the North Atlantic basin during the interval 1945-2010. These 715 tropical cyclones include 306 storms that attained only tropical storm strength, 409 hurricanes, 179 major or intense hurricanes, and 108 storms that struck the US coastline as hurricanes. Comparisons made using 10-year moving average (10-yma) values between tropical cyclone parametric values and surface air and ENSO-related parametric values indicate strong correlations to exist, in particular, against the Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) surface air temperature, the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) index, the Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM) index, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, in addition to the Oceanic Ni o index (ONI) and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) indices. Also examined are the decadal variations of the tropical cyclone parametric values and a look ahead towards the 2012 hurricane season and beyond.

  8. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data

  9. Progress report: chemical character of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota was at one time the most popular summer resort in the state. With decline in lake level the lake has become a shallow body pf vary saline water, which scenic value and recreational appeal completely destroyed. Under the Missouri River development program, it is proposed to restore the lake level to an altitude of 1,425 feet by diversion of Missouri River water. The chemical character of the water in Devils Lake and in other surface bodies in Devils Lake Basin is determined from the analyses of 95 samples. The physical and chemical properties of lake bed deposits are also shown. Lake water in the basin vary considerable in both concentration and composition, ranging from fresh bicarbonate waters of 300 parts per million dissolved solids to sulfate waters of over 100,000 parts per million of soluble salts. Twenty-four samples indicates the chemical character of water in the Red River of the North and its tributaries. The probable concentration of dissolved solids in water of Devils Lake at altitude 1,425 feet has been estimated as ranging from 3,000 to 7,600 parts per million. Final concentration will largely depend upon the percentage of deposited salts reentering solution and the quality of the inflow water. The possible effects of lake effluents on downstream developments, with particular reference to sanitation and pollution problems, are also discussed in this report.

  10. Reconnaissance of ground-water resources in the North Fork Gunnison River basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.; Brooks, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Aquifers of large areal extent in the North Fork Gunnison River basin are found in the alluvium and bedrock. Alluvial aquifers yielded water with dissolved solids concentrations ranging from 43 to 2,300 mg/L. Dissolved solids concentrations of water samples from the Mesaverde Formation of Late Cretaceous age and the Dakota Sandstone and Burro Canyon Formations of Late and Early Cretaceous age ranged from 56 to 3,200 mg/L. Dissolved solids concentrations of water samples from Mancos Shale ranged from 1,800 to 8,200 mg/L. Most wells in the North Fork Gunnison River basin are at altitudes below 7,500 ft, yield from 2 to 40 gal/min and are completed in alluvial sand and gravel, sandstone , or fractured bedrock. Springs generally are at altitudes above 7,000 ft, discharge from perched water tables at geologic contacts, have calcium magnesium bicarbonate water types, and are much less saline than water from wells. (Author 's abstract)

  11. An Estimate of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity for the 2011 Hurricane Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates are presented for the expected level of tropical cyclone activity for the 2011 North Atlantic Basin hurricane season. It is anticipated that the frequency of tropical cyclones for the North Atlantic Basin during the 2011 hurricane season will be near to above the post-1995 means. Based on the Poisson distribution of tropical cyclone frequencies for the current more active interval 1995-2010, one computes P(r) = 63.7% for the expected frequency of the number of tropical cyclones during the 2011 hurricane season to be 14 plus or minus 3; P(r) = 62.4% for the expected frequency of the number of hurricanes to be 8 plus or minus 2; P(r) = 79.3% for the expected frequency of the number of major hurricanes to be 3 plus or minus 2; and P(r) = 72.5% for the expected frequency of the number of strikes by a hurricane along the coastline of the United States to be 1 plus or minus 1. Because El Nino is not expected to recur during the 2011 hurricane season, clearly, the possibility exists that these seasonal frequencies could easily be exceeded. Also examined are the effects of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phase and climatic change (global warming) on tropical cyclone seasonal frequencies, the variation of the seasonal centroid (latitude and longitude) location of tropical cyclone onsets, and the variation of the seasonal peak wind speed and lowest pressure for tropical cyclones.

  12. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  13. Chemostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences in Norwegian-Danish basin and North Sea Central Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.O.

    1987-05-01

    Geochemical studies of subsurface sections and outcrops in the Upper Cretaceous chalk sequences from the Norwegian-Danish basin and the North Sea Central Trough have resulted in a detailed chemostratigraphy for these strata. The most applicable chemostratigraphic markers are based on the distribution of strontium, magnesium, manganese, the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratio, and the variations in the carbonate contents. It is demonstrated that the chemostratigraphic approach is valid at two levels: (1) a superior chemostratigraphy in which deep-sea cores from the Atlantic Ocean and sections from western Europe are correlated on the basis of significant geochemical anomalies and long-term variations most likely induced by oceanic geochemical cycles and sea level fluctuations; (2) a subordinate but detailed intrabasinal chemostratigraphic correlation which primarily reflects the physicochemical conditions in the depositional environment. The Upper Cretaceous chemostratigraphy established in the Danish area allows a detailed correlation between relatively continuous chalk sequences in the Norwegian-Danish basin and the rather condensed and hiati-influenced sections in the oil fields of the North Sea. The results emphasize the applicability of chemostratigraphy in the subsurface exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk.

  14. Landslide deposit boundaries for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This layer is an inventory of existing landslides deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide deposit shown on this map has been classified according to a number of specific characteristics identified at the time recorded in the GIS database. The classification scheme was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009). Several significant landslide characteristics recorded in the database are portrayed with symbology on this map. The specific characteristics shown for each landslide are the activity of landsliding, landslide features, deep or shallow failure, type of landslide movement, and confidence of landslide interpretation. These landslide characteristics are determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features, or landforms, observed for each landslide. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey.Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  15. An Extended Forecast of the Frequencies of North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity for 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    An extended forecast of the frequencies for the 2009 North Atlantic basin hurricane season is presented. Continued increased activity during the 2009 season with numbers of tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes exceeding long-term averages are indicated. Poisson statistics for the combined high-activity intervals (1950-1965 and 1995-2008) give the central 50% intervals to be 9-14, 5-8, and 2-4, respectively, for the number of tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes, with a 23.4% chance of exceeding 14 tropical cyclones, a 28% chance of exceeding 8 hurricanes, and a 31.9% chance of exceeding 4 major hurricanes. Based strictly on the statistics of the current high-activity interval (1995-2008), the central 50% intervals for the numbers of tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and major hurricanes are 12-18, 6-10, and 3-5, respectively, with only a 5% chance of exceeding 23, 13, or 7 storms, respectively. Also examined are the first differences in 10-yr moving averages and the effects of global warming and decadal-length oscillations on the frequencies of occurrence for North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones. In particular, temperature now appears to be the principal driver of increased activity and storm strength during the current high-activity interval, with near-record values possible during the 2009 season.

  16. An Estimate of North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity for 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    The statistics of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones for the interval 1945-2007 are examined and estimates are given for the frequencies of occurrence of the number of tropical cyclones, number of hurricanes, number of major hurricanes, number of category 4/5 hurricanes, and number of U.S. land-falling hurricanes for the 2008 hurricane season. Also examined are the variations of peak wind speed, average peak wind speed per storm, lowest pressure, average lowest pressure per storm, recurrence rate and duration of extreme events (El Nino and La Nina), the variation of 10-yr moving averages of parametric first differences, and the association of decadal averages of frequencies of occurrence of North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones against decadal averages of Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, annual mean temperature (found to be extremely important for number of tropical cyclones and number of hurricanes). Because the 2008 hurricane season seems destined to be one that is non-El Nino-related and is a post-1995 season, estimates of the frequencies of occurrence for the various subsets of storms should be above long-term averages.

  17. Circumpolar oil-and-gas-bearing basins of the arctic part of the North American continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.; Lobkovsky, L. I.

    2015-09-01

    Major geotectonic elements of the reviewed territory of the Arctic part of the North American continent are the Hyperborean Precambrian Platform, the Franklin folding belt, the northern part of the Precambrian Canadian platform, and the Mesozoic folding belt of Canada and Alaska. The rise of the Arctic slope of Alaska, the Beaufort Sea, and the Sverdrup basin are located in the southern margins of the Hyperborean Platform. The structure and peculiarities of development of these structural elements are genetically related to the evolution of this platform, as well as the current state of petroleum potential of the most promising exploration region of Arctic in the 21st century. The forced exploration of the Arctic regions of the United States and Canada has become an important milestone in the current development of the world energetics. Up to 100 oil, gas, and gas condensate fields have been discovered as a result of violent studies, and the potential oil and gas reserves in the Arctic part of the North American continent have been estimated to 30 billiion t and 50 trillion cubic meters, respectively. Many prospects are related to the continental slopes of all three above-mentioned basins; the total potential reserves of slopes are estimated as 10-12 billion t of oil and 20-25 trillion cubic meters of gas.

  18. Bowser basin, northern British Columbia: Constraints on the timing of initial subsidence and Stikinia-North America terrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Brian D.; Evenchick, Carol A.; Anderson, Robert G.; Murphy, Donald C.

    1992-12-01

    Clastic strata composing the northern Bowser basin record the accretion of Stikinia to the composite western edge of the North American plate (Cache Creek-Quesnellia-Slide Mountain-Kootenay North America) in early Middle Jurassic time and the concomitant demise of the intervening Cache Creek ocean. Initial flexural subsidence of the northern Bowser basin, resulting from thrust loading of Cache Creek terrane on Stikinia, is represented by an organic-rich shale of Aalenian age (the Abou Formation of the Spatsizi Group). Coarse-grained sediment first appeared in early Bajocian time following uplift and subaerial exposure of Cache Creek rocks in the upper plate. Thus, the inception of the Bowser basin was Aalenian, rather than Bajocian, as believed by earlier workers. Aalenian southwest-vergent thrusting at the composite western edge of North America is also known from southern British Columbia, a coincidence that implicates collision with Stikinia in the south as a cause of that deformation.

  19. Heterogeneities of mechanical properties in potential geothermal reservoir rocks of the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, D.; Philipp, S. L.

    2012-04-01

    Heterogeneous rock properties in terms of layering and complex infrastructure of fault zones are typical phenomena in sedimentary basins such as the North German Basin. To be able to model reservoir stimulation in layered stratifications and to better adapt the drilling strategy to the rock mechanical conditions it is important to have knowledge about the effects of heterogeneous rock properties on fracture propagation and fault zone infrastructure for typical sedimentary reservoir rocks in the North German Basin. Therefore we aim at quantifying these properties by performing structural geological field studies in outcrop analogues combined with laboratory analyses. The field studies in Rotliegend sandstones (Lower Permian), the sandstones of the Middle Bunter (Lower Triassic) and the sandstones of the Upper Keuper (Upper Triassic) focus on 1) host rock fracture systems and 2) fault zone infrastructure. We analyse quantitatively the dimension, geometry, persistence and connectivity of fracture systems separately for host rocks and fault damage zones. The results show that in rocks with distinctive layering (sandstones and shales) natural fractures are often restricted to individual layers, that is, they are stratabound. The probability of fracture arrest seems to depend on the stiffness contrast between the two layers and on the thickness of the softer layer. The field studies are complemented by systematic sampling to obtain mechanical property variations caused by the layering. For the samples we measure the parameters Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths, elastic strain energy, density and porosity. The results show that the mechanical properties vary considerably and many samples are clearly anisotropic. That is, samples taken perpendicular to layering commonly have higher strengths but lower stiffnesses than those taken parallel to layering. We combine the results of laboratory analyses and field measurements to specify the mechanical

  20. Structural controls on a geothermal system in the Tarutung Basin, north central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukman, Mochamad; Moeck, Inga

    2013-09-01

    The Sumatra Fault System provides a unique geologic setting to evaluate the influence of structural controls on geothermal activity. Whereas most of the geothermal systems in Indonesia are controlled by volcanic activity, geothermal systems at the Sumatra Fault System might be controlled by faults and fractures. Exploration strategies for these geothermal systems need to be verified because the typical pattern of heat source and alteration clays are missing so that conventional exploration with magnetotelluric surveys might not provide sufficient data to delineate favorable settings for drilling. We present field geological, structural and geomorphological evidence combined with mapping of geothermal manifestations to allow constraints between fault dynamics and geothermal activity in the Tarutung Basin in north central Sumatra. Our results indicate that the fault pattern in the Tarutung Basin is generated by a compressional stress direction acting at a high angle to the right-lateral Sumatra Fault System. NW-SE striking normal faults possibly related to negative flower structures and NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW oriented dilative Riedel shears are preferential fluid pathways whereas ENE-WSW striking faults act as barriers in this system. The dominant of geothermal manifestations at the eastern part of the basin indicates local extension due to clockwise block rotation in the Sumatra Fault System. Our results support the effort to integrate detailed field geological surveys to refined exploration strategies even in tropical areas where outcrops are limited.

  1. MMI attenuation and historical earthquakes in the basin and range province of western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes in central Nevada (1932-1959) were used to develop a modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) attenuation model for estimating moment magnitude M for earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of interior western North America. M is 7.4-7.5 for the 26 March 1872 Owens Valley, California, earthquake, in agreement with Beanland and Clark's (1994) M 7.6 that was estimated from geologic field observations. M is 7.5 for the 3 May 1887 Sonora, Mexico, earthquake, in agreement with Natali and Sbar's (1982) M 7.4 and Suter's (2006) M 7.5, both estimated from geologic field observations. MMI at sites in California for earthquakes in the Nevada Basin and Range apparently are not much affected by the Sierra Nevada except at sites near the Sierra Nevada where MMI is reduced. This reduction in MMI is consistent with a shadow zone produced by the root of the Sierra Nevada. In contrast, MMI assignments for earthquakes located in the eastern Sierra Nevada near the west margin of the Basin and Range are greater than predicted at sites in California. These higher MMI values may result from critical reflections due to layering near the base of the Sierra Nevada.

  2. Seasonality of Groundwater Recharge in the Basin and Range Province, Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K. L.; Meixner, T.; Ajami, H.; De La Cruz, L.

    2015-12-01

    For water-scarce communities in the western U.S., it is critical to understand groundwater recharge regimes and how those regimes might shift in the face of climate change and impact groundwater resources. Watersheds in the Basin and Range Geological Province are characterized by a variable precipitation regime of wet winters and variable summer precipitation. The relative contributions to groundwater recharge by summer and winter precipitation vary throughout the province, with winter precipitation recharge dominant in the northern parts of the region, and recharge from summer monsoonal precipitation playing a more significant role in the south, where the North American Monsoon (NAM) extends its influence. Stable water isotope data of groundwater and seasonal precipitation from sites in Sonora, Mexico and the U.S. states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were examined to estimate and compare groundwater recharge seasonality throughout the region. Contributions of winter precipitation to annual recharge vary from 69% ± 41% in the southernmost Río San Miguel Basin in Sonora, Mexico, to 100% ± 36% in the westernmost Mojave Desert of California. The Normalized Seasonal Wetness Index (NSWI), a simple water budget method for estimating recharge seasonality from climatic data, was shown to approximate recharge seasonality well in several winter precipitation-dominated systems, but less well in basins with significant summer precipitation.

  3. The Lithic Assemblages of Xiaochangliang, Nihewan Basin: Implications for Early Pleistocene Hominin Behaviour in North China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Xia; Hou, Ya-Mei; Yue, Jian-Ping; Petraglia, Michael D.; Deng, Cheng-Long; Zhu, Ri-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Xiaochangliang (XCL), located in the Nihewan Basin of North China, is a key archaeological locality for understanding the behavioural evolution of early humans. XCL dates to ca. 1.36 Ma, making it one of the earliest sites in Northeast Asia. Although XCL represents the first excavation of an Early Pleistocene site in the Nihewan Basin, identified and excavated in the 1970’s, the lithic assemblages have never been published in full detail. Here we describe the lithic assemblages from XCL, providing information on stone tool reduction techniques and the influence of raw materials on artefact manufacture. The XCL hominins used both bipolar and freehand reduction techniques to manufacture small flakes, some of which show retouch. Bipolar reduction methods at XCL were used more frequently than previously recognized. Comparison of XCL with other Early Pleistocene sites in the Nihewan Basin indicates the variable use of bipolar and freehand reduction methods, thereby indicating a flexible approach in the utilization of raw materials. The stone tools from XCL and the Nihewan sites are classifiable as Mode I lithic assemblages, readily distinguished from bifacial industries manufactured by hominins in Eastern Asia by ca. 800 ka. PMID:27205881

  4. Response of North American Great Basin Lakes to Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Lund, S.; Negrini, R.; Linsley, B.; Zic, M.

    2003-01-01

    We correlate oscillations in the hydrologic and/or cryologic balances of four Great Basin surface-water systems with Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events 2-12. This correlation is relatively strong at the location of the magnetic signature used to link the lake records, but becomes less well constrained with distance/time from the signature. Comparison of proxy glacial and hydrologic records from Owens and Pyramid lakes indicates that Sierran glacial advances occurred during times of relative dryness. If our hypothesized correlation between the lake-based records and the GISP2 ??18O record is correct, it suggests that North Atlantic D-O stades were associated with relatively cold and dry conditions and that interstades were associated with relatively warm and wet conditions throughout the Great Basin between 50,500 and 27,000 GISP2yr B.P. The Great Basin lacustrine climate records reinforce the hypothesis that D-O events affected the climate throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere during marine isotope stages 2 and 3. However, the absolute phasing between lake-size and ice-core ??18O records remains difficult to determine.

  5. An Archaeological Survey of Selected Portions of the Lower and Middle Sheyenne River Basin in North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    upland game, and mammals for the Lake Ashtabula area south of Cooperstown, North Dakota. Scoby et.’al. (1973: 40-43) provide an inventory of modern... mammals found in the lower Sheyenne basin area which include most importantly waterfowl, deer, rabbits, and squirrels. A more recent listing of...vertebrates occur in the Sheyenne River basin: nine species of amphibians, eight species of reptiles, 262 species of birds, and 52 species of mammals . It may

  6. Trace elements and organic contaminants in stream sediments from the Red River of the North Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, M.E.; Tornes, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the presence and distribution of a variety of hydro-phobic chemicals in streams in the Red River of the North Basin, bottom sediments were analyzed for trace elements, organochlorines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Glaciolacustrine clays and carbonate minerals are common in fine sediments of the region, and can help explain the distribution of many elements. Aluminum (Al), an indicator of glaciolacustrine clay minerals, correlates strongly (r>0.75, p<0.05) with Cr, Co, Fe, La, Li, K, Sc, and Ti; and moderately (0.55Basin, Eu, Nb, Ce, La, Nd, and Ni also have strong correlations with Al. Al correlates negatively with major elements associated with carbonate minerals (Ca, Mg, and inorganic carbon). No significant correlations with Al, Ca, or Mg were observed for As, Pb, Mn, Hg, Se, or Ag, which implies that these elements have different environmental sources or behaviors than glaciolacustrine clays or carbonate minerals. Reduction-oxidation processes may influence Mn distribution. Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are known to be anthropogenically enriched in the environment--their distribution may indicate environmental enrichment in Red River of the North Basin streams. Organochlorines detected are limited to traces of DDT and its metabolites (mostlyp,p'-DDE). Fourteen PAHs, which are constituents of fossil fuels and of combustion byproducts, were detected in at least halfthe sediment samples; pyrene and fluoranthene were detected in about 90 percent of samples. The contaminants detected in this study were present at low levels, likely indicative of diffuse or remote sources; they occur widely in the environment. 

  7. New sedimentological, structural and paleo-thermicity data in the Boucheville Basin (eastern North Pyrenean Zone, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelalou, Roman; Nalpas, Thierry; Bousquet, Romain; Prevost, Maxime; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Poujol, Marc; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ballard, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    The Boucheville Basin is one of the easternmost Mesozoic basins of the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) that was opened during the Albian extension between the Iberian and European plates. During the extension, a HT/LP metamorphism event affected the Albian basins near the North Pyrenean Fault (NPF). Our aim is to better understand the evolution of the Boucheville Basin during the Albian-Cenomanian lithospheric thinning, which occurred under high thermal conditions. Sedimentological and structural data were collected in the basin and are used to produce synthetic stratigraphic columns of different portions of the basin and to restore selected cross-sections. North-south cross-sections show that the Boucheville Basin is a large and asymmetrical deformed syncline with inverted borders. Synthetic stratigraphic columns show that the sedimentation of the Boucheville Basin starts with carbonate platforms deposited under low bathymetric conditions showing slope deposits and evolves to deep bathymetric conditions of marls deposited without evidence of slopes. Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (RSCM) was made on samples used to construct the sedimentological stratigraphic columns in order to obtain a temperature map of the Albian metamorphism. They reveal homogeneity in the temperatures between 500 and 600 °C. In situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of titanite grains found in a syn-deformation located in the Albian calcschists provided an age of ca. 97 Ma that gives a time constraint for both the deformation and metamorphism. These data are used collectively to propose a model for the tectono-sedimentary and metamorphic evolution of the Boucheville Basin during the Albian extension.

  8. Neogene transpressional foreland basin development on the north side of the central alaska range, usibelli group and nenana gravel, tanana basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgway, K.D.; Thoms, E.E.; Layer, P.W.; Lesh, M.E.; White, J.M.; Smith, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Neogene strata of the Tanana basin provide a long-term record of a northwardpropagating, transpressional foreland-basin system related to regional shortening of the central Alaska Range and strike-slip displacement on the Denali fault system. These strata are ???2 km thick and have been deformed and exhumed in thrust faults that form the foothills on the north side of the Alaska Range. The lower part of the sedimentary package, the Usibelli Group, consists of 800 m of mainly Miocene strata that were deposited in fluvial, lacustrine, and peat bog environments of the foredeep depozone of the foreland-basin system. Compositional data from conglomerate and sandstone, as well as recycled Upper Cretaceous palynomorphs, indicate that the Miocene foreland-basin system was supplied increasing amounts of sediment from lithologies currently exposed in thrust sheets located south of the basin. The upper part of the sedimentary package, the Nenana Gravel, consists of 1200 m of mainly Pliocene strata that were deposited in alluvial-fan and braidplain environments in the wedge-top depozone of the foreland-basin system. Compositional data from conglomerate and sandstone, as well as 40Ar/39Ar dating of detrital feldspars in sandstone and from granitic clasts in conglomerate, indicate that lithologies exposed in the central Alaska Range provided most of the detritus to the Pliocene foreland-basin system. 40Ar/39Ar dates from detrital feldspar grains also show that two main suites of plutons contributed sediment to the Nenana Gravel. Detrital feldspars with an average age of 56 Ma are interpreted to have been derived from the McKinley sequence of plutons located south of the Denali fault. Detrital feldspars with an average age of 34 Ma are interpreted to have been derived from plutons located north of the Denali fault. Plutons located south of the Denali fault provided detritus for the lower part of the Nenana Gravel, whereas plutons located north of the Denali fault began to

  9. Palaeohydrology of the Fazzan Basin, Libyan Sahara: Evidence for multiple phases of North African humidity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, S. J.; White, K.; Drake, N.

    2008-12-01

    The Fazzan is a large closed basin with an area of 450,000 km2, located in south-western Libya. The present-day climate is hyper-arid. Modern human occupation is restricted to oases, notably at the foot of the Messak Sattafat, a Nubian Sandstone escarpment which divides the Fazzan into two sub-basins. However widespread lithic scatters with varying inferred ages, and numerous Holocene hearth fields, indicate that the Fazzan has a long history of human occupation. In addition, regionally extensive lake deposits attest to the presence of a large palaeolake, here termed Lake Mega-Fazzan, at various periods in the past. Although the Sahara contains evidence for several other large palaeolakes, Lake Mega-Fazzan is the only one fed exclusively by rivers draining the Sahara proper. Thus, the Lake Mega-Fazzan sediments and archaeological remains provide an important resource for advancing our understanding of climate change in this part of the Sahara. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques have been applied to a range of lacustrine deposits, and more experimentally to the Holocene hearth fields, to provide an internally consistent chronology for the Fazzan record. Results indicate that sediments within the Fazzan Basin record a very long history of palaeohydrological change. The oldest lacustrine sediments are beyond the range of conventional OSL dating techniques, but younger humid periods during oxygen isotope stages 11, 5 and 1 are recognised. Initial results from one hearth field also indicate that OSL has the potential to reveal human responses to changes in hydrology during the Holocene. These results, when compared with similar studies of adjacent closed basins, indicate that the Sahara may not always have provided as formidable a barrier to faunal migration as it does at present. The implications of this finding for our understanding of North African palaeoclimate and biogeography will be discussed.

  10. Ordovician platform, slope, and basin facies in subsurface of southern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Alberstadt, L.P.; Colvin, G.; Sauve, J.

    1986-05-01

    Ordovician carbonates of the Nashville dome and Ozark dome regions have long been considered typical shelf deposits. In the subsurface to the south, in the Black Warrior basin, Mississippi Embayment, and Arkoma basin, these shelf carbonate units changed facies. The most significant change is the occurrence of a thick limestone unit characterized by a faunal and floral assemblage of Nuia, Girvanella (isolated long strands), Sphaerocodium, a delicate stacked-chambered organism (.algal), and sponge spicules and sponge mudstone clumps. In ascending order, the complete Ordovician sequence consists of: a lower dolostone, the Nuia-sponge limestone, a dolostone, and a limestone. The upper part of this four-fold sequence changes character westward into the Arkoma basin. The lower two units maintain their character for long distances along depositional strike and occur in parts of the Appalachians as far north as Newfoundland, and on the opposite side of the continent in Nevada. The Nuia-sponge assemblage is a distinctive petrographic marker and seems to be a persistent Ordovician rock and fossil assemblage of widespread occurrence. In Nevada, it occurs on the surface where it is associated with slump and slide features that suggest that it is an outer shelf or upper slope deposit. Coeval carbonates in the Ouachita Mountains are different and show indications of being deep water (basinal). Biostratigraphic evidence indicates that the succession in the subsurface is continuous; the regional Lower Ordovician-Middle Ordovician unconformity is absent. The Lower Ordovician-Middle Ordovician boundary falls near the top of the Nuia-sponge mudstone unit and not at the top of the underlying thick dolostone unit.

  11. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous in Aer Sag, Erlian Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; De Batist, Marc; Wu, Chonglong

    2014-05-01

    The concepts of sequence stratigraphy, initially developed for the study of marine depositional systems, are increasingly also being applied to sequences deposited in lacustrine basins, particularly in the context of petroleum exploration. However, lacustrine basins differ from marine basins. They are typically smaller, exhibit a strong diversification in sedimentary facies, generally contain thinner sequences and are characterized by multiple sedimentary source regions. These characteristics should be taken into account when analyzing sequence stratigraphy in lacustrine basins. Aer Sag is a balanced-fill sag in Erlian basin, North China. During the Early Cretaceous tectonic subsidence is the main controlling factor for sequence development. Based on the unconformities observed at the top of different inversion-induced depositional cycles, the 2nd-order sequence of the Lower Cretaceous can be sub-divided into six 3rd-order sequences of which the lower four, which bear most of the hydrocarbon reservoirs, are the focus of this study. Generally, a complete 3rd-order sequence can be partitioned into four systems tracts: i.e. lowstand systems tract (LST), transgressive systems tract (TST), highstand systems tract (HST) and forced regression systems tract (FRST). In LSTs, tectonic activity is weak and there is a slow subsidence rate. Thus, the rate of creation of accommodation space is so slow that coarsening-upward prograding sedimentary units develop. In TSTs, tectonic activity becomes stronger and the rate of creation of accommodation space outpaces the rate of sediment supply. TSTs are characterized by fining-upward retrograding sedimentary units and by onlaps on seismic profiles that are caused by the expansion of the lake. In HSTs, tectonic activity slows down again and the rate of creation of accommodation space becomes lower than the rate of sediment supply, which causes the lake to shrink and the development of coarsening-upward prograding sedimentary units. In

  12. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  13. Major Turbidity Events in the North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Water Years 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven; Uhrich, Mark A.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple high-turbidity events with values greater than 250 Formazin Nephelometric Units occurred in streams of the North Santiam River basin during water years 1999-2004. By using a combination of field reconnaissance, aerial photography, and geographic information systems, eight of these high-turbidity events were investigated and linked to at least one likely source area and became known as 'major turbidity events.' Sediment source type and location, the amount of material transported, and the results of any follow-up investigation of the source area were recorded for each event. Significant findings from this study include: * Although heavy precipitation caused basinwide erosion that increased turbidity in streams, a major turbidity event often required at least one landslide or similar type of contributing source to introduce enough sediment to raise the turbidity value to greater than 250 Formazin Nephelometric Units. * Different processes drove sediment loading at different times. In general, precipitation eroded sediment from source areas or induced landslides. However, in two cases, warm temperatures caused rapid snowmelt, which supplied the water necessary to erode unconsolidated glacial soils or other sediment material and increase turbidity. * Some source areas, such as existing earthflows, repeatedly supplied a large volume of sediment to streams, whereas other sources, such as landslides or debris flows, were unpredictable and sporadically supplied large volumes of sediment to streams. * Major turbidity events were well distributed throughout the North Santiam River basin; discrete events were observed in each of the five subbasins along unregulated streams. * Suspended-sediment loads and clay-water (persistently turbid water) volume estimates were event-specific and varied greatly between major turbidity events, even though, in some cases, the source area was the same; however, high yields generally were observed for events in the Blowout Creek

  14. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  15. Patterns of genetic diversity in Hepatozoon spp. infecting snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P; Salvi, Daniele; Brito, José C; Carretero, Miguel A; Perera, Ana; Meimberg, Harald; Harris, David James

    2014-03-01

    Species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 are blood parasites most commonly found in snakes but some have been described from all tetrapod groups and a wide variety of hematophagous invertebrates. Previous studies have suggested possible associations between Hepatozoon spp. found in predators and prey. Particularly, some saurophagous snakes from North Africa and the Mediterranean region have been found to be infected with Hepatozoon spp. similar to those of various sympatric lizard hosts. In this study, we have screened tissue samples of 111 North African and Mediterranean snakes, using specific primers for the 18S rRNA gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, the newly-generated Hepatozoon spp. sequences grouped separately into five main clusters. Three of these clusters were composed by Hepatozoon spp. also found in snakes and other reptiles from the Mediterranean Basin and North Africa. In the other two clusters, the new sequences were not closely related to geographically proximate known sequences. The phylogeny of Hepatozoon spp. inferred here was not associated with intermediate host taxonomy or geographical distribution. From the other factors that could explain these evolutionary patterns, the most likely seems series of intermediate hosts providing similar ribotypes of Hepatozoon and a high prevalence of host shifts for Hepatozoon spp. This is indicated by ribotypes of high similarity found in different reptile families, as well as by divergent ribotypes found in the same host species. This potentially low host specificity has profound implications for the systematics of Hepatozoon spp.

  16. Estimation of evapotranspiration in the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins in North-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Leel

    1996-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) for the Rainbow and Silver Springs ground-water basins in north-central Florida were determined using a regional water-~budget approach and compared to estimates computed using a modified Priestley-Taylor (PT) model calibrated with eddy-correlation data. Eddy-correlation measurements of latent 0~E) and sensible (H) heat flux were made monthly for a few days at a time, and the PT model was used to estimate 3,E between times of measurement during the 1994 water year. A water-budget analysis for the two-basin area indicated that over a 30-year period (196594) annual rainfall was 51.7 inches. Of the annual rainfall, ET accounted for about 37.9 inches; springflow accounted for 13.1 inches; and the remaining 0.7 inch was accounted for by stream-flow, by ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, and by net change in storage. For the same 30-year period, the annual estimate of ET for the Silver Springs basin was 37.6 inches and was 38.5 inches for the Rainbow Springs basin. Wet- and dry-season estimates of ET for each basin averaged between nearly 19 inches and 20 inches, indicating that like rainfall, ET rates during the 4-month wet season were about twice the ET rates during the 8-month dry season. Wet-season estimates of ET for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins decreased 2.7 inches, and 3.4 inches, respectively, over the 30-year period; whereas, dry-season estimates for the basins decreased about 0.4 inch and1.0 inch, respectively, over the 30-year period. This decrease probably is related to the general decrease in annual rainfall and reduction in net radiation over the basins during the 30-year period. ET rates computed using the modified PT model were compared to rates computed from the water budget for the 1994 water year. Annual ET, computed using the PT model, was 32.0 inches, nearly equal to the ET water-budget estimate of 31.7 inches computed for the Rainbow Springs and Silver Springs basins

  17. Tropical Cyclone Activity in the North Atlantic Basin During the Weather Satellite Era, 1960-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) represents an extension of previous work concerning the tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic basin during the weather satellite era, 1960-2014, in particular, that of an article published in The Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science. With the launch of the TIROS-1 polar-orbiting satellite in April 1960, a new era of global weather observation and monitoring began. Prior to this, the conditions of the North Atlantic basin were determined only from ship reports, island reports, and long-range aircraft reconnaissance. Consequently, storms that formed far from land, away from shipping lanes, and beyond the reach of aircraft possibly could be missed altogether, thereby leading to an underestimate of the true number of tropical cyclones forming in the basin. Additionally, new analysis techniques have come into use which sometimes has led to the inclusion of one or more storms at the end of a nominal hurricane season that otherwise would not have been included. In this TP, examined are the yearly (or seasonal) and 10-year moving average (10-year moving average) values of the (1) first storm day (FSD), last storm day (LSD), and length of season (LOS); (2) frequencies of tropical cyclones (by class); (3) average peak 1-minute sustained wind speed () and average lowest pressure (); (4) average genesis location in terms of north latitudinal () and west longitudinal () positions; (5) sum and average power dissipation index (); (6) sum and average accumulated cyclone energy (); (7) sum and average number of storm days (); (8) sum of the number of hurricane days (NHD) and number of major hurricane days (NMHD); (9) net tropical cyclone activity index (NTCA); (10) largest individual storm (LIS) PWS, LP, PDI, ACE, NSD, NHD, NMHD; and (11) number of category 4 and 5 hurricanes (N4/5). Also examined are the December-May (D-M) and June-November (J-N) averages and 10-year moving average values of

  18. Estimation of hydrothermal deposits location from magnetization distribution and magnetic properties in the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.; Kim, C.; Park, C.; Kim, H.

    2013-12-01

    The North Fiji Basin is belong to one of the youngest basins of back-arc basins in the southwest Pacific (from 12 Ma ago). We performed the marine magnetic and the bathymetry survey in the North Fiji Basin for finding the submarine hydrothermal deposits in April 2012. We acquired magnetic and bathymetry datasets by using Multi-Beam Echo Sounder EM120 (Kongsberg Co.) and Overhouser Proton Magnetometer SeaSPY (Marine Magnetics Co.). We conducted the data processing to obtain detailed seabed topography, magnetic anomaly, reduce to the pole(RTP), analytic signal and magnetization. The study areas composed of the two areas(KF-1(longitude : 173.5 ~ 173.7 and latitude : -16.2 ~ -16.5) and KF-3(longitude : 173.4 ~ 173.6 and latitude : -18.7 ~ -19.1)) in Central Spreading Ridge(CSR) and one area(KF-2(longitude : 173.7 ~ 174 and latitude : -16.8 ~ -17.2)) in Triple Junction(TJ). The seabed topography of KF-1 existed thin horst in two grabens that trends NW-SE direction. The magnetic properties of KF-1 showed high magnetic anomalies in center part and magnetic lineament structure of trending E-W direction. In the magnetization distribution of KF-1, the low magnetization zone matches well with a strong analytic signal in the northeastern part. KF-2 area has TJ. The seabed topography formed like Y-shape and showed a high feature in the center of TJ. The magnetic properties of KF-2 displayed high magnetic anomalies in N-S spreading ridge center and northwestern part. In the magnetization distribution of KF-2, the low magnetization zone matches well with a strong analytic signal in the northeastern part. The seabed topography of KF-3 presented a flat and high topography like dome structure at center axis and some seamounts scattered around the axis. The magnetic properties of KF-3 showed high magnetic anomalies in N-S spreading ridge center part. In the magnetization of KF-2, the low magnetization zone mismatches to strong analytic signal in this area. The difference of KF-3

  19. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Min H.

    1991-09-10

    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  20. Late Cenozoic crustal deformation of the north-central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Eyal, Y. . Dept. of Geology); Ron, H. )

    1993-04-01

    Late Cenozoic deformation of Basin and Range in north-central Nevada is examined by small fault analysis. Consistency between fault types, fault trends and sense of displacement was found for this area in which normal faults strike N-S, and right-lateral and left-lateral faults strike NNW and NNE respectively. The existence of strike-slip faulting, mainly right-lateral, is consistent with horizontal counter clockwise rotation suggested by paleomagnetic declination data. The results of this analysis indicate that crustal deformation of this area did not occur by only simple E-W uniaxial extension but also by N-S compression and shortening, and that the contribution of strike slip faulting to the extension of this area is substantial almost similar to that of normal faulting.

  1. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  2. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronal R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.65 billion barrels of oil, 1.85 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota.

  3. RELATION OF LANDSCAPE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS TO FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN THE UPPER FRENCH BROAD RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages at 16 sites in the upper French Broad river basin in North Carolina were related to environmental characteristics at the landscape scale, the scale at which management activities and decisions are most likely to occur. Indirect gradient analysis and subsequent re...

  4. MODELING THE DISTRIBUTION OF NONPOINT NITROGEN SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN OF NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study quantified nonpoint nitrogen (N) sources and sinks across the 14,582 km2 Neuse River Basin (NRB) located in North Carolina, to provide a tabular database to initialize in-stream N decay models and graphic overlay products for the development of management approaches to...

  5. Geodynamical Nature of the Formation of Large Plates of Platforms, Jointed in North Caspian Oil and Gas Basin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitov, Nassipkali; Tulegenova, Gulmira P.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problems of tectonic zoning and determination of geodynamical nature of the formation of jointed tectonic structures within the North Caspian oil and gas basin, represented by Caspian Depression of Russian platform of East European Pre-Cambrian Craton and plate ancient Precambrian Platform stabilization and Turan…

  6. A new age model for the early-middle Miocene in the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbacher, Bettina; Krijgsman, Wout; Pippèrr, Martina; Sant, Karin; Kirscher, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of high-resolution age models for sedimentary successions is crucial for numerous research questions in the geosciences and related disciplines. Such models provide an absolute chronology that permits precise dating of depositional episodes and related processes such as mountain uplift or climate change. Recently, our work in the Miocene sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) has revealed a significantly younger age (16.6 Myr) for sediments that were thought to have been deposited 18 Myr ago. This implies that a fundamentally revised new age model is needed for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB (20 to 15-Myr). Our new data also indicate that previously published reconstructions of early-middle Miocene palaeogeography, sedimentation dynamics, mountain uplift and climate change in the NAFB all require a critical review and revision. Further, the time-span addressed is of special interest, since it encompasses the onset of a global warming phase. However, it appears that a fundamentally revised new age model for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB can only be achieved based on a 500 m deep drilling in the NAFB for which we currently seek collaboration partners to develop a grant application to the International Continental Deep Drilling Program (ICDP). Reference: Reichenbacher, B., W. Krijgsman, Y. Lataster, M. Pippèrr, C. G. C. Van Baak, L. Chang, D. Kälin, J. Jost, G. Doppler, D. Jung, J. Prieto, H. Abdul Aziz, M. Böhme, J. Garnish, U. Kirscher, and V. Bachtadse. 2013. A new magnetostratigraphic framework for the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian/Ottnangian, Karpatian) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 106:309-334.

  7. Imaging the plate boundary between Greenland and North America within the Kane Basin by means of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Axel; Schnabel, Michael; Damm, Volkmar; Piepjohn, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    The Nares Strait is a waterway separating NW Greenland and North America. The nature of the Nares Strait has been subject of discussion for decades, especially if it represents a transform fault that compensated the opening of the Baffin Bay in the Paleogene as Alfred Wegener supposed in 1912. The Kane Basin in the central part of Nares Strait provides an opportunity to cross the proposed fault. Geophysical data were acquired in 2001 and 2010, including among others multichannel and wide-angle seismic data. The eastern part of the Kane Basin is characterized by a solid platform most likely representing a continuation of the Paleoproterozoic Inglefield-Mobile-Belt (Greenland). In the western part, a sedimentary basin with northwestward tilted and eroded layers of Cretaceous age can be resolved. The transition between those two units shows the plate boundary between Greenland and North America and can be considered as a relic of the Wegener Fault.

  8. Revision of the biostratigraphy of the Chatham Group (Upper Triassic), Deep River basin, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litwin, R.J.; Ash, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    Paleontological evidence from the Upper Triassic Chatham Group in the three subbasins of the Deep River basin (North Carolina, USA) supports a significant revision of the ages assigned to most of this non-marine continental sedimentary sequence. This study confirms an early(?) or mid-Carnian age in the Sanford subbasin for the base of the Pekin Formation, the lowest unit of the Chatham Group. However, diagnostic late Carnian palynomorphs have been recovered from coals in the lower part of the Cumnock Formation in the Sanford subbasin, and from a sample of the Cumnock Formation equivalent in the Wadesboro subbasin. Plant megafossils and fossil verebrates from rocks in the Sanford subbasin also support a late Carnian age for the Cumnock Formation and its equivalents. The overlying Sanford Formation, which has not yet been dated paleontologically, probably includes beds of Norian age, as over 1000 m of strata may be present between the Cumnock Formation coals (dated here as late Carnian) and the top of the Sanford Formation. This chronostratigraphic interval appears similar to, but slightly longer than, that preserved in the Dan River-Danville and Davie County basins 100 km to the northwest. Our evidence, therefore, indicates that the Chatham Group was deposited over a much longer time interval [early(?) to mid-Carnian through early Norian] than previously was believed. ?? 1993.

  9. Use of Remote Sensed Imagery to Evaluate Land Cover Change: North Platte River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G.; Piburn, J.; Rudolph, J.; Tootle, G.; Marks, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution remote sensed data for land cover classification, such as LiDAR, is often times not readily available in rural areas. For basin-wide and other small-scale projects, proprietary LiDAR collection may not be cost effective and an alternative is found with the use of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP imagery provides 1-meter resolution aerial imagery for the entire United States, temporally updated on a state by state basis at no charge to the user. NAIP imagery was used to classify forest cover change due to beetle infestation in the roughly 4,000 square-mile North Platte River Basin (NPRB). Using an interactive classification method with an underlying maximum likelihood classification algorithm, it was found that forest cover in the NPRB decreased by approximately 25% from 2005-2006 to 2009. Using focal histograms to refine the classifications to large-scale USGS 7.5 minute quadrangles, the land cover results will be used as parameters in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Macroscale Hydrologic Model to estimate how this physical change in land cover affects the riparian system of the NPRB, specifically streamflow response.

  10. Traveltime and reaeration of selected streams in the North Platte and Yampa River basins, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruddy, B.C.; Britton, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Traveltime characteristics were measured using rhodamine WT dye as a tracer in the Canadian and Michigan Rivers in the North Platte river basin and in the Yampa, Elk, and Williams Fork Rivers, and Trout and Fish Creeks in the Yampa River basin of Colorado. Reaeration coefficients were determined by use of the modified-tracer techniques using ethylene and propane gas for selected stream reaches during low-flow conditions. Stream reach velocities determined during traveltime and reaeration measurements ranged from 0.09 mi/hour at 5.1 cu ft/sec on the Canadian River to 4.04 mi/hour at 746 cu ft/sec on the Williams Fork. A modified longitudinal dispersion model or results from cumulative traveltime curves were used to estimate traveltimes in the measured streams for streamflow conditions other than those measured. Traveltime-discharge curves were developed by using the estimated and measured traveltimes. Reaeration coefficients were determined for 20 different subreaches in the study area. Rearation coefficients were determined for 20 different subreaches in the study area. Reaeration coefficients ranged from 1.6/day in a pooled subreach of the Yampa River Craig, Colorado, to 98/day in a turbulent subreach of Trout Creek near Oak Creek, Colorado. (USGS)

  11. Pesticides in streams in the Tar-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina, 1992-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodside, Michael D.; Ruhl, Kelly E.

    2001-01-01

    From 1992 to 1994, 147 water samples were collected at 5 sites in the Tar-Pamlico drainage basin in North Carolina and analyzed for 46 herbicides, insecticides, and pesticide metabolites as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Based on a common adjusted detection limit of 0.01 microgram per liter, the most frequently detected herbicides were metolachlor (84 percent), atrazine (78 percent), alachlor (72 percent), and prometon (57 percent). The insecticides detected most frequently were carbaryl (12 percent), carbofuran (7 percent), and diazinon (4 percent). Although the pesticides with the highest estimated uses generally were the compounds detected most frequently, there was not a strong correlation between estimated use and detection frequency. The development of statistical correlations between pesticide use and detection frequency was limited by the lack of information on pesticides commonly applied in urban and agricultural areas, such as prometon, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon, and the small number of basins included in this study. For example, prometon had the fourth highest detection frequency, but use information was not available. Nevertheless, the high detection frequency of prometon indicates that nonagricultural uses also contribute to pesticide levels in streams in the Tar-Pamlico drainage basin. Concentrations of the herbicides atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin varied seasonally, with elevated concentrations generally occurring in the spring, during and immediately following application periods, and in the summer. Seasonal concentration patterns were less evident for prometon, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos. Alachlor is the only pesticide detected in concentrations that exceeded current (2000) drinking-water standards.

  12. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  13. Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin: A new structural model of Kilen (eastern North Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars

    2016-12-01

    The seminunatak Kilen in eastern North Greenland, with its complexly deformed Carboniferous-Cretaceous strata, is a key area to understand the tectonic history of the transform plate boundary between eastern North Greenland and Svalbard. Detailed 3-D geological mapping from oblique photogrammetry along with limited ground fieldwork and interpretation of previously published data forms the basis for a new structural model of Kilen. Previous structural models interpreted rhombic-shaped fault patterns as the evidence for strike-slip tectonics. These structures are here interpreted to be the result of a post-Coniacian NE-SW extension with NW-SE trending normal faults followed by later, N-S compression of presumable Paleocene-Eocene age, folding the faults passively and suggesting the presence of a basal detachment. Furthermore, two thrust sheets have been distinguished on Kilen: a lower Kilen Thrust Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor status. This indicates that the Greenland margin as exposed on Kilen and the conjugate Svalbard margin in the West Spitsbergen fold-and-thrust belt are more similar than previously anticipated.

  14. Macrofossils of Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, L.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Results of this study of the macrofossils of the Bakken Formation in North Dakota have reinforced the suggestion, based on previous paleontological work in Saskatchewan, that the Bakken is of both Devonian and Mississippian age, rather than being entirely of Lower Mississippian age as originally considered. Increased drilling and coring activity in the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin has provided the opportunity for acquiring a larger fauna that was previously available. Based on lithologic character, the Bakken has been divided into three informal members. These consist of a calcareous siltstone unit between two lithologically similar units of carbonaceous shale. These black shales contain similar faunas distinct from that of the middle member. The black shales contain inarticulate brachiopods, conchostracans, and rare cephalopods and fish remains as well as more abundant conodonts, ostracods, and palynomorphs. The middle siltstone unit contains a more abundant and diverse fauna consisting of inarticulate and articulate brachiopods together with corals, gastropods, cephalopods, ostracods, echinoderm remains, and trace fossils. This is the first report of cephalopods, conchostracans, ostracods, corals, trace fossils, and some of the brachiopods in the Bakken, although all, except the gastropods, have been reported from stratigraphic equivalents (Exshaw Formation of south-central Montana, the Leatham Formation of northeastern Utah, and the middle member of the Pilot Shale in western Utah and eastern Nevada).

  15. Megascopic lithologic studies of coals in the Powder River basin in Wyoming and in adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stanton, Ronald W.; Chiehowsky, Lora A.; Moore, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated coalbed methane (CBM) resources in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin. The study also included the CBM resources in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin of North Dakota and the Wyoming portion of the Green River Basin of Wyoming. This project involved the cooperation of the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper, Wyo., and 16 independent gas operators in the Powder River, Williston, and Green River Basins. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with these CBM operators to supply samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, timely results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high-pressure methane adsorption isotherm data. This program resulted in the collection of 963 cored coal samples from 37 core holes. This report presents megascopic lithologic descriptive data collected from canister samples extracted from the 37 wells cored for this project.

  16. Cretaceous stratigraphic sequences of north-central California suggest a discontinuity in the Late Cretaceous forearc basin

    SciTech Connect

    Haggart, J.W.

    1986-10-01

    The Cretaceous sedimentary succession preserved east of Redding, at the northern end of California's Great Valley, indicates that marine deposition was widespread in the region for only two periods during the Late Cretaceous. If it is assumed that there was minimal Cenozoic offset between the northern Sierra Nevada and eastern Klamath Mountains terranes, Cretaceous sedimentation in this region was most likely restricted to a narrow trough and was not a continuation of the wide, Cretaceous forearc basin of central California. The dissimilar depositional histories of the Redding basin and the Hornbrook basin of north-central California suggest that the basins were not linked continuously during the Late Cretaceous. A thick section of Cretaceous strata beneath the southwestern Modoc Plateau is considered unlikely.

  17. Track-pattern-based seasonal prediction model for intense tropical cyclone activities over the North Atlantic and the western North Pacific basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, W.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Intense tropical cyclones (TCs) accompanying heavy rainfall and destructive wind gusts sometimes cause incredible socio-economic damages in the regions near their landfall. This study aims to analyze intense TC activities in the North Atlantic (NA) and the western North Pacific (WNP) basins and develop their track propensity seasonal prediction model. Considering that the number of TCs in the NA basin is much smaller than that in the WNP basin, different intensity criteria are used; category 1 and above for NA and category 3 and above for WNP based on Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. By using a fuzzy clustering method, intense TC tracks in the NA and the WNP basins are classified into two and three representative patterns, respectively. Each pattern shows empirical relationships with climate variabilities such as sea surface temperature distribution associated with El Niño/La Niña or Atlantic Meridional Mode, Pacific decadal oscillation, upper and low level zonal wind, and strength of subtropical high. The hybrid statistical-dynamical method has been used to develop the seasonal prediction model for each pattern based on statistical relationships between the intense TC activity and seasonal averaged key predictors. The model performance is statistically assessed by cross validation for the training period (1982-2013) and has been applied for the 2014 and 2015 prediction. This study suggests applicability of this model to real prediction work and provide bridgehead of attempt for intense TC prediction.

  18. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Chaka basin and its implications for mountain building processes in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, H.-P.; Craddock, W.H.; Lease, R.O.; Wang, W.-T.; Yuan, D.-Y.; Zhang, P.-Z.; Molnar, P.; Zheng, D.-W.; Zheng, W.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary rock deposited in the Chaka basin (north-eastern Tibetan Plateau) indicates a late Miocene onset of basin formation and subsequent development of the adjacent Qinghai Nan Shan. Sedimentation in the basin initiated at ~11Ma. In the lower part of the basin fill, a coarsening-upward sequence starting at ~9Ma, as well as rapid sedimentation rates, and northward paleocurrents, are consistent with continued growth of the Ela Shan to the south. In the upper section, several lines of evidence suggest that thrust faulting and topographic development of the Qinghai Nan Shan began at ~6.1Ma. Paleocurrent indicators, preserved in the basin in the proximal footwall of the Qinghai Nan Shan, show a change from northward to southward flow between 6.5 and 3.8Ma. At the same location, sediment derived from the Qinghai Nan Shan appears at 6.1Ma. Finally, the initiation of progressively shallowing dips observed in deformed basin strata and a change to pebbly, fluvial deposits at 6.1Ma provide a minimum age for the onset of slip on the thrust fault that dips north-east beneath the Qinghai Nan Shan. We interpret a decrease in sediment accumulation rates since ~6Ma to indicate a reduction in Chaka basin accommodation space due to active faulting and folding along the Qinghai Nan Shan and incorporation of the basin into the wedge-top depozone. Declination anomalies indicate the beginning of counter-clockwise rotation since 6.1Ma, which we associate with local deformation, not regional block rotation. The emergence of the Qinghai Nan Shan near the end of the Miocene Epoch partitioned the once contiguous Chaka-Gonghe and Qinghai basin complex. In a regional framework, our study adds to a growing body of evidence that points to widespread initiation and/or reactivation of fault networks during the late Miocene across the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. ?? 2011 The Authors. Basin Research ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists

  19. Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.; Farrar, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) North San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in northern California in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA North San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 89 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the North San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the North San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or

  1. Water Quality and Algal Data for the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    The upper North Umpqua River Basin has experienced a variety of water-quality problems since at least the early 1990's. Several reaches of the North Umpqua River are listed as water-quality limited under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Diamond Lake, a eutrophic lake that is an important source of water and nutrients to the upper North Umpqua River, is also listed as a water-quality limited waterbody (pH, nuisance algae). A draft Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) was proposed for various parameters and is expected to be adopted in full in 2006. Diamond Lake has supported potentially toxic blue-green algae blooms since 2001 that have resulted in closures to recreational water contact and impacts to the local economy. Increased populations of the invasive tui chub fish are reportedly responsible, because they feed on zooplankton that would otherwise control the algal blooms. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Diamond Lake Restoration Project advocates reduced fish biomass in Diamond Lake in 2006 as the preferred alternative. A restoration project scheduled to reduce fish biomass for the lake includes a significant water-level drawdown that began in January 2006. After the drawdown of Diamond Lake, the fish toxicant rotenone was applied to eradicate the tui chub. The lake will be refilled and restocked with game fish in 2007. Winter exports of nutrients from Diamond Lake during the restoration project could affect the summer trophic status of the North Umpqua River if retention and recycling in Lemolo Lake are significant. The FEIS includes comprehensive monitoring to assess the water quality of the restored Diamond Lake and the effects of that restoration downstream. One component of the monitoring is the collection of baseline data, in order to observe changes in the river's water quality and algal conditions resulting from the restoration of Diamond Lake. During July 2005, the USGS, in cooperation with Douglas County, performed a synoptic

  2. Vesta's north pole quadrangle Av-1 (Albana): Geologic map and the nature of the south polar basin antipodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, David T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Scully, Jennifer E.; O'Brien, David P.; Gaskell, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Bowling, Timothy J.; Ermakov, Anton; Hiesinger, Harald; Williams, David A.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2014-12-01

    As part of systematic global mapping of Vesta using data returned by the Dawn spacecraft, we have produced a geologic map of the north pole quadrangle, Av-1 Albana. Extensive seasonal shadows were present in the north polar region at the time of the Dawn observations, limiting the ability to map morphological features and employ color or spectral data for determination of composition. The major recognizable units present include ancient cratered highlands and younger crater-related units (undivided ejecta, and mass-wasting material on crater floors). The antipode of Vesta's large southern impact basins, Rheasilvia and Veneneia, lie within or near the Av-1 quadrangle. Therefore it is of particular interest to search for evidence of features of the kind that are found at basin antipodes on other planetary bodies. Albedo markings known as lunar swirls are correlated with basin antipodes and the presence of crustal magnetic anomalies on the Moon, but lighting conditions preclude recognition of such albedo features in images of the antipode of Vesta's Rheasilvia basin. “Hilly and lineated terrain,” found at the antipodes of large basins on the Moon and Mercury, is not present at the Rheasilvia or Veneneia antipodes. We have identified small-scale linear depressions that may be related to increased fracturing in the Rheasilvia and Veneneia antipodal areas, consistent with impact-induced stresses (Buczkowski, D. et al. [2012b]. Analysis of the large scale troughs on Vesta and correlation to a model of giant impact into a differentiated asteroid. Geol. Soc. of America Annual Meeting. Abstract 152-4; Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre.20123). The general high elevation of much of the north polar region could, in part, be a result of uplift caused by the Rheasilvia basin-forming impact, as predicted by numerical modeling (Bowling, T.J. et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgre

  3. Water-Quality Trends in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina, 1974-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harned, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    Data from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sites in the Neuse River basin were reviewed for trends in major ions, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides during the period 1974-2003. In 1997, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality implemented management rules to reduce nitrogen loading to the Neuse River by 30 percent by 2003. Therefore, the 1997-2003 period was reviewed for trends associated with the management changes. The Neuse River at Kinston basin (2,695 square miles) includes much of Raleigh, N.C., with 8-percent urban and 30-percent agricultural land use (1992 data). The Contentnea Creek basin (734 square miles), a Neuse River tributary, is 42-percent agricultural and 3-percent urban. Agricultural land uses in the Contentnea Creek basin have changed over the last decade from predominantly corn, soybean, and tobacco row crops to corn, soybeans, and cotton, with reduced tobacco acreages, and development of the hog industry. Data for this analysis were collected by the USGS for the National Stream Quality Accounting Network and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data were examined for trends using the Seasonal Kendall trend test or Tobit regression. The Seasonal Kendall test, which accounts for seasonal variability and adjusts for effects of streamflow on concentration with residuals from LOWESS (LOcally Weighted Sum of Squares) curves, was used to analyze trends in major ions, nutrients, and sediment. The Tobit test, appropriate for examining values with reporting limits, was used for the pesticide analysis. Monotonic trends are considered significant at the alpha < 0.05 probability level. Long-term (1974-2003) decreasing trends in the Neuse River at Kinston were detected for dissolved oxygen, silica, and sediment concentrations; increasing trends were detected for potassium, alkalinity, and chloride. Decreasing trends in Contentnea Creek were detected for silica, sulfate, and sediment concentrations during 1979-2003; increasing trends were

  4. Long-term geochemical connections between the Samoan hotspot and the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A. A.; Jackson, M. G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Hall, P. S.; Sinton, J. M.; Kurz, M. D.; Blusztajn, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Lau and North Fiji Basins provide a unique environment for the study of upper mantle flow around a subducting slab due to the juxtaposition of the Tonga Trench and the Samoan hotspot (Hart et al., 2004). Both geochemical and geophysical data suggest that material from the Samoan hotspot is leaking southward into the adjacent Lau Basin, but the direction and rate of mantle flow are difficult to constrain.Spatial variations in the isotope geochemistry of igneous rocks from the Lau Basin can provide a useful window on flow in the upper mantle. For example, some lavas from the Samoan hotspot exhibit high 3He/4He, and the observation of elevated 3He/4He at Rochambeau Bank in the nearby northern Lau Basin has been interpreted as the result of a 'finger-like' intrusion of Samoan-plume mantle into the region. However, high 3He/4He is rare even in Samoan lavas, so other geochemical signatures including radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr and Pb-isotopic compositions unique to the Samoan hotspot are useful for characterizing the spatial distribution of the Samoan component within the northern Lau and North Fiji Basins. We present analyses of a combination of geochemical tracers (He-Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes, major, and trace elements) measured on glasses from the northern Lau Basin and the North Fiji Basin. The samples have 3He/4He ratios that vary between 6 and 10.5 times atmospheric. The samples also show arange in isotopic values from extremely depleted (87Sr/86Sr=0.702892, 143Nd/144Nd=0.513218 and 176Hf/177Hf=0.283510 on a ridge 100km North of Fiji) to moderately enriched (87Sr/86Sr=0.703598, 143Nd/144Nd=0.512884 and 176Hf/177Hf=0.283082 in lavas fromPandora Ridge). Notably, moderately enriched isotopic compositions in Pandora Ridge lavas plot near Samoa's Upolu Island in isotope space, but are slightly shifted isotopically towards a depleted MORB mantle component. The new data suggestthat the western extent of the Samoan plume's influence in the region extends into both the

  5. Evaluation of Progress in Achieving TMDL Mandated Nitrogen Reductions in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebo, Martin E.; Paerl, Hans W.; Peierls, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Management efforts to control excess algal growth in the Neuse River and Estuary, North Carolina began in the 1980s, with an initial focus on phosphorus (P) input reduction. However, continued water quality problems in the 1990s led to development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nitrogen (N) in 1999 to improve conditions in N-sensitive estuarine waters. Evaluation of the effectiveness of management actions implemented in the Neuse River basin is a challenging endeavor due to natural variations in N export associated with climate. A simplified approach is presented that allows evaluation of trends in flow-normalized nutrient loading to provide feedback on effectiveness of implemented actions to reduce N loading to estuarine waters. The approach is applied to five watershed locations, including the headwaters of the Neuse Estuary. Decreases in nitrate + nitrite (NO3-N) concentrations occurred throughout the basin and were largest just downstream of the Raleigh metropolitan area. Conversely, concentrations of total Kjeldahl N (TKN) increased at many stations, particularly under high flow conditions. This indicates a relative increase in organic N (Org-N) inputs since the mid-1990s. Overall, patterns in different N fractions at watershed stations indicate both partial success in reducing N inputs and ongoing challenges for N loading under high flow conditions. In downstream waters, NO3-N concentrations decreased concurrent with TMDL implementation in the upper portion of the estuary but not in the middle and lower reaches. The lack of progress in the middle and lower reaches of the estuary may, at least in part, be affected by remineralization of settled particle-bound N deposited under high river flows.

  6. Mid-Cretaceous unconformity in the Methow basin, north-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Haugerud, R.A.; Hurlow, H.A. ); Tabor, R.W. ); Snee, L.W. )

    1993-04-01

    New mapping in the Methow basin demonstrates a significant unconformity beneath mid-Cretaceous strata of the Pasayten Group and may explain stratigraphic contrasts puzzling to earlier workers. The Pasayten Group, defined along regional strike to the north in Manning Park, includes Virginia Ridge Fm. (shallow-marine argillite and chert-clast-rich sandstone and conglomerate), Winthrop Sandstone (fluvial arkose), and Midnight Peak Fm. (redbeds and andesitic volcanic rocks) in ascending stratigraphic order. Local unconformities and lateral gradations amongst Pasayten Group units result in no one unit lying above the unconformity. Hornblende from Midnight Peak andesite on Isabella Ridge yields an [sup 40]Ar-[sup 39]Ar age of 87.0 [+-] 0.4 (1[sigma]) Ma, though Pasayten Group strata elsewhere are intruded by 88--90 Ma plutons and thus much of the unit is older. From west to east the Pasayten Group lies on progressively older strata. In upper Three Fools Creek, west of the Cascade crest, it lies on unnamed marine strata, more than 1 km thick, which conformably overlie 3 km of sand-rich turbidites of the Albian Harts Pass Fm. In the Osceola Peak-Harts Pass area it lies on upper Harts Pass turbidites. Southwest of Monument 85 and west of Hidden Lakes it lies on probable Early Cretaceous (pre-Harts Pass-age) lithic marine sandstone and siltstone. On Isabella Ridge it lies on [approximately]150 Ma tonalite and older volcanic rocks. This unconformity predates most of the conspicuous thrusts and related folds that characterize the Methow basin. Adjacent to the Pasayten fault, pre- and intra-Pasayten Group unconformities have reduced the stratigraphic section to scraps of Winthrop Sandstone and probable lower Cretaceous conglomerate locally preserved between Midnight Peak andesite and older volcanic rocks, suggesting continued early and mid-Cretaceous movement along the Pasayten fault.

  7. Evaluation of progress in achieving TMDL mandated nitrogen reductions in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lebo, Martin E; Paerl, Hans W; Peierls, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Management efforts to control excess algal growth in the Neuse River and Estuary, North Carolina began in the 1980s, with an initial focus on phosphorus (P) input reduction. However, continued water quality problems in the 1990s led to development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nitrogen (N) in 1999 to improve conditions in N-sensitive estuarine waters. Evaluation of the effectiveness of management actions implemented in the Neuse River basin is a challenging endeavor due to natural variations in N export associated with climate. A simplified approach is presented that allows evaluation of trends in flow-normalized nutrient loading to provide feedback on effectiveness of implemented actions to reduce N loading to estuarine waters. The approach is applied to five watershed locations, including the headwaters of the Neuse Estuary. Decreases in nitrate + nitrite (NO(3)-N) concentrations occurred throughout the basin and were largest just downstream of the Raleigh metropolitan area. Conversely, concentrations of total Kjeldahl N (TKN) increased at many stations, particularly under high flow conditions. This indicates a relative increase in organic N (Org-N) inputs since the mid-1990s. Overall, patterns in different N fractions at watershed stations indicate both partial success in reducing N inputs and ongoing challenges for N loading under high flow conditions. In downstream waters, NO(3)-N concentrations decreased concurrent with TMDL implementation in the upper portion of the estuary but not in the middle and lower reaches. The lack of progress in the middle and lower reaches of the estuary may, at least in part, be affected by remineralization of settled particle-bound N deposited under high river flows.

  8. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  9. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  10. Modeling the Nd isotopic composition in the North Atlantic basin using an eddy-permitting model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsouze, T.; Treguier, A. M.; Peronne, S.; Dutay, J.-C.; Lacan, F.; Jeandel, C.

    2010-09-01

    Boundary Exchange (BE - exchange of elements between continental margins and the open ocean) has been emphasized as a key process in the oceanic cycle of neodymium (Nd) (Lacan and Jeandel, 2005a). Here, we use a regional eddy-permitting resolution Ocean General Circulation Model (1/4°) of the North Atlantic basin to simulate the distribution of the Nd isotopic composition, considering BE as the only source. Results show good agreement with the data, confirming previous results obtained using the same parameterization of the source in a coarse resolution global model (Arsouze et al., 2007), and therefore the major control played by the BE processes in the Nd cycle on the regional scale. We quantified the exchange rate of the BE, and found that the time needed for the continental margins to significantly imprint the chemical composition of the surrounding seawater (further referred as characteristic exchange time) is of the order of 0.2 years. However, the timescale of the BE may be subject to large variations as a very short exchange time (a few days) is needed to reproduce the highly negative values of surface waters in the Labrador Sea, whereas a longer one (up to 0.5 years) is required to simulate the radiogenic influence of basaltic margins and distinguish the negative isotopic signatures of North Atlantic Deep Water from the more radiogenic southern origin water masses. This likely represents geographical variations in erosion fluxes and the subsequent particle load onto the continental margins. Although the parameterization of the BE is the same in both configurations of the model, the characteristic exchange time in the eddy-permitting configuration is significantly lower than the previous evaluations using a low resolution configuration (6 months to 10 years), but however in agreement with the available seawater Nd isotope data. This results highlights the importance of the model dynamics in simulating the BE process.

  11. Thin and layered subcontinental crust of the great Basin western north America inherited from Paleozoic marginal ocean basins?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.; McKee, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    The seismic profile of the crust of the northern part of the Basin and Range province by its thinness and layering is intermediate between typical continental and oceanic crust and resembles that of marginal ocean basins, especially those with thick sedimentary fill. The geologic history of the Great Basin indicates that it was the site of a succession of marginal ocean basins opening and closing behind volcanic arcs during much of Paleozoic time. A long process of sedimentation and deformation followed throughout the Mesozoic modifying, but possibly not completely transforming the originally oceanic crust to continental crust. In the Cenozoic, after at least 40 m.y. of quiescence and stable conditions, substantial crustal and upper-mantle changes are recorded by elevation of the entire region in isostatic equilibrium, crustal extension resulting in Basin and Range faulting, extensive volcanism, high heat flow and a low-velocity mantle. These phenomena, apparently the result of plate tectonics, are superimposed on the inherited subcontinental crust that developed from an oceanic origin in Paleozoic time and possibly retained some of its thin and layered characteristics. The present anomalous crust in the Great Basin represents an accretion of oceanic geosynclinal material to a Precambrian continental nucleus apparently as an intermediate step in the process of conversion of oceanic crust into a stable continental landmass or craton. ?? 1974.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  13. Top of head scarp and internal scarps for landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Data points represent head scarps, flank scarps, and minor internal scarps (linear) associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  14. Insights into mantle heterogeneities: mid-ocean ridge basalt tapping an ocean island magma source in the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brens, R., Jr.; Jenner, F. E.; Bullock, E. S.; Hauri, E. H.; Turner, S.; Rushmer, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The North Fiji Basin (NFB), and connected Lau Basin, is located in a complex area of volcanism. The NFB is a back-arc basin (BAB) that is a result of an extinct subduction zone, incorporating the complicated geodynamics of two rotating landmasses: Fiji and the Vanuatu island arc. Collectively this makes the spreading centers of the NFB the highest producing spreading centers recorded. Here we present volatile concentrations, major, and trace element data for a previously undiscovered triple junction spreading center in the NFB. We show our enrichment samples contain some of the highest water contents yet reported from (MORB). The samples from the NFB exhibit a combination of MORB-like major chemical signatures along with high water content similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). This peculiarity in geochemistry is unlike other studied MORB or back-arc basin (to our knowledge) that is not attributed to subduction related signatures. Our results employ the use of volatiles (carbon dioxide and water) and their constraints (Nb and Ce) combined with trace element ratios to indicate a potential source for the enrichment in the North Fiji Basin. The North Fiji Basin lavas are tholeiitic with similar major element composition as averaged primitive normal MORB; with the exception of averaged K2O and P2O5, which are still within range for observed normal MORB. For a mid-ocean ridge basalt, the lavas in the NFB exhibit a large range in volatiles: H2O (0.16-0.9 wt%) and CO2 (80-359 ppm). The NFB lavas have volatile levels that exceed the range of MORB and trend toward a more enriched source. In addition, when compared to MORB, the NFB lavas are all enriched in H2O/Ce. La/Sm values in the NFB lavas range from 0.9 to 3.8 while, Gd/Yb values range from 1.2 to 2.5. The NFB lavas overlap the MORB range for both La/Sm (~1.1) and Gd/Yb (~1.3). However, they span a larger range outside of the MORB array. High La/Sm and Gd/Yb ratios (>1) are indications of deeper melting within the

  15. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  16. An Estimate of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity for the 2010 Hurricane Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Estimates are presented for the tropical cyclone activity expected for the 2010 North Atlantic basin hurricane season. It is anticipated that the 2010 season will be more active than the 2009 season, reflecting increased frequencies more akin to that of the current more active phase that has been in vogue since 1995. Averages (+/- 1 sd) during the current more active phase are 14.5+/-4.7, 7.8+/-3.2, 3.7+/-1.8, and 2+/- 2, respectively, for the number of tropical cyclones (NTC), the number of hurricanes (NH), the number of major hurricanes (NMH), and the number of United States (U.S.) land-falling hurricanes (NUSLFH). Based on the "usual" behavior of the 10-yma parametric first differences, one expects NTC = 19+/-2, NH = 14+/-2, NMH = 7+/-2, and NUSLFH = 4+/-2 for the 2010 hurricane season; however, based on the "best guess" 10-yma values of surface-air temperature at the Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland) and the Oceanic Nino Index, one expects NTC > or equals 16, NH > or equals 14, NMH > or equals 7, and NUSLFH > or equals 6.

  17. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  18. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of cores and well log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger, Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities. Sea level rise during the early Eifelian caused southeastward onlap of the Ashern Formation onto Middle Silurian carbonates of the Interlake Formation. Maximum flooding, expressed by deepest marine facies and a hardground surface, suggests the existence of a condensed section at the top of the Ashern Formation. This was developed during the maximum rate of sea level rise. A decrease in the rate of sea level rise resulted in aggradation of lower Winnipegosis units on a gently dipping ramp. These are represented by nodular and burrowed open marine limestones with scattered stromatoporoid patch reefs and grainstone shoals. During the subsequent sea level fall, represented by Temple units, a shelf margin with pronounced depositional topography and adjacent starved basin were developed. Temple strata include coral-brachiopod-stromatoporoid reefs and productive fore-reef talus deposits along the shelf margin rim.

  19. Geomechanical Characteristics of Gas Shales: A Case Study in the North Perth Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Vamegh; Sutherland, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Gas shales are one type of unconventional reservoirs which have attracted significant attention for gas production in recent years. Gas production from very tight shales requires employment of hydraulic fracturing as a stimulation technique. To design hydraulic fracture operation the mechanical properties of the targeted and surrounding formations should be estimated. Also, the magnitude and orientation of in situ stresses in the field need to be known to estimate the fracture initiation and propagation pressures. This study focuses on gas shale characteristics in the North Perth Basin and uses data corresponding to well Arrowsmith-2 (AS-2) which is the first dedicated shale gas well drilled in Western Australia. A log-based analysis was used to build the rock mechanical model (RMM). The RMM results were used to set up a hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiment. The test was done in the presence of three principal stresses to mimic the real field stress conditions. The test results include the pressure-time curve which was used to estimate the initiation and propagation pressure at that depth. The results were used to draw some practical conclusions related to hydraulic fracturing operation in the field.

  20. Diagenetic Evolution and Reservoir Quality of Sandstones in the North Alpine Foreland Basin: A Microscale Approach.

    PubMed

    Gross, Doris; Grundtner, Marie-Louise; Misch, David; Riedl, Martin; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F; Scheucher, Lorenz

    2015-10-01

    Siliciclastic reservoir rocks of the North Alpine Foreland Basin were studied focusing on investigations of pore fillings. Conventional oil and gas production requires certain thresholds of porosity and permeability. These parameters are controlled by the size and shape of grains and diagenetic processes like compaction, dissolution, and precipitation of mineral phases. In an attempt to estimate the impact of these factors, conventional microscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and wavelength dispersive element mapping were applied. Rock types were established accordingly, considering Poro/Perm data. Reservoir properties in shallow marine Cenomanian sandstones are mainly controlled by the degree of diagenetic calcite precipitation, Turonian rocks are characterized by reduced permeability, even for weakly cemented layers, due to higher matrix content as a result of lower depositional energy. Eocene subarkoses tend to be coarse-grained with minor matrix content as a result of their fluvio-deltaic and coastal deposition. Reservoir quality is therefore controlled by diagenetic clay and minor calcite cementation.Although Eocene rocks are often matrix free, occasionally a clay mineral matrix may be present and influence cementation of pores during early diagenesis. Oligo-/Miocene deep marine rocks exhibit excellent quality in cases when early cement is dissolved and not replaced by secondary calcite, mainly bound to the gas-water contact within hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  1. Direct observations of basin-wide acidification of the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Mecking, Sabine; Feely, Richard A.; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Global ocean acidification is a prominent, inexorable change associated with rising levels of atmospheric CO2. Here we present the first basin-wide direct observations of recently declining pH, along with estimates of anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contributions to that signal. Along 152°W in the North Pacific Ocean (22-56°N), pH changes between 1991 and 2006 were essentially zero below about 800 m depth. However, in the upper 500 m, significant pH changes, as large as -0.06, were observed. Anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contributions over the upper 800 m are estimated to be of similar magnitude. In the surface mixed layer (depths to ˜100 m), the extent of pH change is consistent with that expected under conditions of seawater/atmosphere equilibration, with an average rate of change of -0.0017/yr. Future mixed layer changes can be expected to closely mirror changes in atmospheric CO2, with surface seawater pH continuing to fall as atmospheric CO2 rises.

  2. Using runoff slope-break to determine dominate factors of runoff decline in Hutuo River Basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shumin

    2009-01-01

    Water resources in North China have declined sharply in recent years. Low runoff (especially in the mountain areas) has been identified as the main factor. Hutuo River Basin (HRB), a typical up-stream basin in North China with two subcatchments (Ye and Hutuo River Catchments), was investigated in this study. Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the general trend of precipitation and runoff for 1960-1999. Then Sequential Mann-Kendall test was used to establish runoff slope-break from which the beginning point of sharp decline in runoff was determined. Finally, regression analysis was done to illustrate runoff decline via comparison of precipitation-runoff correlation for the period prior to and after sharp runoff decline. This was further verified by analysis of rainy season peak runoff flows. The results are as follows: (1) annual runoff decline in the basin is significant while that of precipitation is insignificant at alpha=0.05 confidence level; (2) sharp decline in runoff in Ye River Catchment (YRC) occurred in 1968 while that in Hutuo River Catchment (HRC) occurred in 1978; (3) based on the regression analysis, human activity has the highest impact on runoff decline in the basin. As runoff slope-breaks in both Catchments strongly coincided with increase in agricultural activity, agricultural water use is considered the dominate factor of runoff decline in the study area.

  3. Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rock studies of north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, northwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Xiao, Z.; Liang, Y.; Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, C.

    1989-03-01

    Ongoing outcrop and accompanying pyrolysis studies of Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan retroarc foreland basins, northwestern China, have demonstrated the existence of potential oil-prone and gas-prone petroleum source rocks. Lithologies include Jurassic coals from all three basins and Triassic coals from Tarim. Jurassic coals collected from the Mesozoic depocenters of the Junggar and Tarim basins are oil prone, yielding S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values that range from 0.80 to 0.99 and average 0.96, hydrogen index (HI) values that range from 117.9 to 213.4 and average 150.8, and oxygen index (OI) values that range from 1.1 to 31.6 and average 7.67. In contrast, Triassic coals of Tarim and Jurassic coals of Turpan contain more conventional type III gas-prone kerogens and yield S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values ranging from 0.04 to 0.52 and averaging 0.22, HI values ranging from 3.2 to 130.2 with a mean of 33.6, and OI values ranging from 30.9 to 223.7 and averaging 115.9. Coals of all three basins are slightly immature to mature with respect to oil generation, as indicated by T/sub max/ values ranging from 425/degrees/ to 449/degrees/C (average = 343/degrees/C) and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.51 to 0.64 (average = 0.57). Thus, given the widespread abundance and significant thicknesses of Mesozoic and especially Jurassic coals in all three basins, it is very likely that Mesozoic contributions to Xinjiang's oil and gas reserves are significant. This is particularly important in the north Tarim basin, where recent Chinese oil and gas discoveries have been made and the existence of significant pre-Mesozoic source beds remains unproven.

  4. Phylogeographic Analysis of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii Reveals an Association with North American Freshwater Drainage Basins

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Lisa R.; Brown, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii are dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause serious pulmonary and systemic infections in humans. Although their natural habitat is in the environment, little is known about their specific ecologic niche(s). Here, we analyzed 25 microsatellite loci from 169 strains collected from various regions throughout their known endemic range in North America, representing the largest and most geographically diverse collection of isolates studied to date. Genetic analysis of multilocus microsatellite data divided the strains into four populations of B. dermatitidis and four populations of B. gilchristii. B. dermatitidis isolates were recovered from areas throughout North America, while the B. gilchristii strains were restricted to Canada and some northern US states. Furthermore, the populations of both species were associated with major freshwater drainage basins. The four B. dermatitidis populations were partitioned among (1) the Nelson River drainage basin, (2) the St. Lawrence River and northeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins, (3) the Mississippi River System drainage basin, and (4) the Gulf of Mexico Seaboard and southeast Atlantic Ocean Seaboard drainage basins. A similar partitioning of the B. gilchristii populations was observed among the more northerly drainage basins only. These associations suggest that the ecologic niche where the sexual reproduction, growth, and dispersal of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii occur is intimately linked to freshwater systems. For most populations, sexual reproduction was rare enough to produce significant linkage disequilibrium among loci but frequent enough that mating-type idiomorphic ratios were not skewed from 1:1. Furthermore, the evolutionary divergence of B. dermatitidis and B. gilchristii was estimated at 1.9 MYA during the Pleistocene epoch. We suggest that repeated glaciations during the Pleistocene period and resulting biotic refugia may have provided the

  5. Sedimentary record and climatic implications of recurrent deformation in the Tian Shan: Evidence from Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Graham, S.A.; Sobel, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed stratigraphic, sedimentologic, paleocurrent, and subsidence analyses were conducted on Mesozoic nonmarine sedimentary sections of the south Junggar, north Tarim, and Turpan basins, Xinjang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwest China. These three basins have been foreland basins throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, as demonstrated by asymmetrically distributed basinwide sediment accumulations, foreland-style subsidence profiles, and a variety of outcrop and subsurface facies data. Mesozoic paleocurrent indicators measured in the south Junggar and north Tarim basins, as well as Mesozoic sandstone compositions from both basins, indicate that the intervening Tian Shan has existed as a positive physiographic feature partitioning the two basins throughout Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Paleocurrent, facies, and subsurface isopach data suggest that the Turpan basin was established as a discrete feature by the Early Jurassic period. The timing and style of depositional systems within the north Tarim Mesozoic depocenter, the south Junggar Mesozoic depocenter, and the central Turpan basin are remarkably similar. Upper Triassic strata of each basin consist of alluvial conglomerate and associated braided-fluvial sandstone and siltstone which fine upward into lower through Middle Jurassic, locally organic-rich, meandering-fluvial, and lacustrine strata. Upper Jurassic braided-fluvial red beds in each basin are overlain by a distinct pulse of uppermost Jurassic alluvial conglomerate. Lower Cretaceous exposures consist of fine-grained red beds in north Tarim and Turpan and interbedded red and gray shale with local silty carbonates in south Junggar. Upper Cretaceous strata of the north Tarim and south Junggar basins are composed of alluvial conglomerate with associated braided-fluvial sandstone and siltstone. 94 refs., 17 figs.

  6. Recharge history and controls on groundwater quality in the Yuncheng Basin, north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currell, Matthew J.; Cartwright, Ian; Bradley, Dean C.; Han, Dongmei

    2010-05-01

    SummaryEnvironmental isotopes and water quality indicators (e.g. TDS and NO 3 contents) were used to characterize the age, recharge history and controls on the quality of groundwater resources in the Yuncheng Basin, north China, where extensive extraction occurs for agriculture and domestic supply. δ 18O and δ 2H values as low as -10.6‰ and -73‰, respectively, together with low radiocarbon activities (<20 pmC) show that deep groundwater comprises palaeowaters largely recharged in the late Pleistocene (˜10 to 22 ka B.P.) under a cooler climate than the present. Shallow groundwater has higher radiocarbon activities (>70 pmC), indicating a significant component of modern (post-1950s) recharge. The shallow groundwater has higher δ 18O and δ 2H values (up to -8.1‰ and -54‰) that are similar to those in modern summer monsoon rainfall, indicating that current recharge is via direct infiltration and/or leakage of ephemeral streams during heavy rain events. Historic recharge rates estimated using radiocarbon ages are between 1 and 10 mm/year, corresponding to <2% of local rainfall, which is lower than estimates of modern recharge nearby based on tritium data. The relationship between groundwater δ 18O values and 14C ages is similar to that observed in groundwater from other basins in northern China, confirming that much deep groundwater in the region is palaeowater, and suggesting that a broad scale assessment of groundwater residence times may be made from δ 18O and δ 2H values. Most deep groundwater has low TDS and nitrate concentrations (median 1090 mg/L and 1.8 mg/L, respectively), while shallow groundwater has TDS contents of up to 8450 mg/L (median 2010 mg/L) and NO 3 concentrations up to 630 mg/L (median 31 mg/L). A lack of enrichment in δ 18O values in the high salinity shallow groundwater indicates that transpiration by crops and possibly minor mineral dissolution are the major salinisation processes, rather than evaporation or leakage from salt

  7. Chapter 44: Geology and petroleum potential of the Lincoln Sea Basin, offshore North Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, K.; Gautier, D.; Pitman, J.; Ruth, Jackson H.; Dahl-Jensen, T.

    2011-01-01

    A seismic refraction line crossing the Lincoln Sea was acquired in 2006. It proves the existence of a deep sedimentary basin underlying the Lincoln Sea. This basin appears to be comparable in width and depth to the Sverdrup Basin of the Canadian Arctic Islands. The stratigraphy of the Lincoln Sea Basin is modelled in analogy to the Sverdrup Basin and the Central Spitsbergen Basin, two basins between which the Lincoln Sea intervened before the onset of seafloor spreading in the Eurasian Basin. The refraction data indicates that the Lincoln Sea Basin is capped by a kilometre-thick, low-velocity layer, which is taken to indicate an uplift history similar to, or even more favourable than, the fairway part of the Sverdrup Basin. Tectonic activity in the Palaeogene is likely to constitute the major basin scale risk. We conclude that the Lincoln Sea Basin is likely to be petroliferous and contains risked resources on the order of 1 ?? 109 barrels of oil, to which comes an equivalent amount of (associated and nonassociated) gas. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  8. Waulsortian-type buildups in the lower carboniferous of the Bechar basin, northwestern Sahara of Algeria, North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Setra, A. )

    1994-03-01

    The carboniferous strata in the Bechar basin can be subdivided into three major groups. The lower group is composed of bioclastic and perireefal carbonates. The middle group is exemplified by carbonate platform deposits that were eroded during episodes of emergence by channels of continental derived sediments. The upper group is represented by terrigenous deposits composed mainly of deltaic, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits, with the sporadic presence of coal seams. The carboniferous Waulsortian-type buildups within the Bechar basin occur in the lower group. They are exposed above the desert floor along a south to north-northwest-trending axis, with the younger buildups located to the south and the older ones to the north. These bioherms are apparently younger than those recognized in Europe and North America. These Algerian bioherms were initiated and persisted during the time interval represented by the conodont gnathodus bilineatus zone (lower Visean-upper Visean boundary). Although they are younger than their European and North American counterparts that are of Tournaisian-lower Visean age, these mounds appear to have formed in similar environmental and tectono-sedimentary conditions. Their areal extent, geometry, and facies relationships suggest that they were limited to a shelf edge. Their deposition environments range from shallow marine to deep sea.

  9. The bly creek ecosystem study: Phosphorus transport within a euhaline salt marsh basin, North Inlet, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Richard F.; Wolaver, Thomas G.; Williams, Thomas M.; Spurrier, John D.; Miller, Anne B.

    Phosphorus transport through the tidal creek linking the Bly Creek basin (North Inlet, South Carolina) and the surrounding water body was studied on 34 tidal cycles between 20 June 1983 and 19 June 1984. Annual estimates of phosphorus input to the basin via streamwater, groundwater, and via streamwater, groundwater, and rain totalled 19.6 kg P·y -1; PO 4 export from the basin was not significant. Within the basin, the salt marsh was shown to be an important sink for PO 4 (207 kg P·y -1) while the oyster reef community exported a statistically insignificant 7.7 kg P·y -1. The data suggest that the source of the PO 4 to the salt marsh is the water column or benthic sediments of the tidal creek. The salt marsh was a significant sink for particulate phosphorus, but those uptakes were less than the error on the insignificant fluxes into the basin via the water column. The oyster reef community was a statistically significant sink for total phosphorus (98 kg P·y -1).

  10. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the North Shore and Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins of the North Shore and Boston Bay include streams draining the Parker River (60.4 square miles), Rowley River (9.9 square miles), Ipswich River (156 miles), Mystic River (66.0 square miles), Charles River (311 square miles), Neponset River (117 square miles), Weymouth Fore and Weymouth Back Rivers (about 63 square miles) and Weir River (about 20 square miles) basins. The study area in eastern and northeastern Massachusetts also includes the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay, Ipswich Bay, or the Atlantic Ocean. Drainage areas using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were recomputed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics at 15 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 95 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for 15 gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  11. Nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in water of the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1990-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient, suspended sediment, and pesticide data from 1990 through 2004 in the Red River of the North Basin were compiled, summarized, and compared to historical data. Streamflow varied widely throughout the basin during the 1990-2004 study period. For 19 of 22 streamflow sites, median annual streamflow during the study period exceeded the long-term average streamflow. High streamflow can have a substantial effect on water quality. In water samples from selected surface-water sites, nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.005 to 7.7 milligrams per liter; total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus concentrations ranged from less than 0.005 to 4.14 milligrams per liter; and dissolved phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 4.13 milligrams per liter. Surface-water samples from the Pembina River basin generally had higher nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment concentrations compared to samples from other Red River Basin sites. Historical data from 1970 through 1990 showed relatively high nitrite plus nitrate and suspended sediment concentrations in samples from some Pembina River sites; in contrast to the 1990-2004 period, total phosphorus concentrations from the 1970-90 period generally were highest at Red River of the North sites. Nitrate concentrations in ground-water samples for the 1990-2004 period were highest in Sheridan County, North Dakota and Marshall and Otter Tail Counties in Minnesota. Concentrations of nitrate in ground water in Marshall and Otter Tail Counties corresponded to relatively high reported fertilizer applications during 2002; however, Sheridan County did not have the high fertilizer applications in 2002 compared to other North Dakota and Minnesota counties. The most frequently detected pesticides or pesticide metabolites were 2, 4-D, bentazon, de-ethylatrazine, metolachlor, picloram, and triallate in surface water and alachlor

  12. Strategic development plan for integrated water resources management in Lake Manyara sub-basin, North-Eastern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngana, J. O.; Mwalyosi, R. B. B.; Yanda, P.; Madulu, N. F.

    This paper reports that the core problem in the water resources management of the Lake Manyara sub-basin in north-eastern Tanzania is unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources. The subsequent effects observed in the sub-basin are natural resource use conflicts, poverty, low productivity, overcrowding, high siltation in rivers and lakes, degraded environment, decreased river flows, polluted water sources, etc. In order to establish strategies to arrest this situation, a strategic planning process has been used as a tool involving key stakeholders in the basin at various levels. Policy making officials at the district level i.e. planning officers, agricultural officers, water engineers and natural resources officers and grass root level experiences of respective wards in the basin were established through involving Ward executive officers. Water users of the key sectors in the basin were equally involved which included hotels, tented camps, irrigators and livestock keepers. Institutions working in natural resources management in the areas also participated including NGOs. The main causes leading to unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources were established as poverty, environment degradation, poor governance, weak enforcement of conservation laws, conflicting policies, inadequate experts at all levels, inadequate information on natural resources, high natural population growth rate, high immigration rates, high livestock population in comparison to land carrying capacity, political interference in implementation, limited water resources and lack of basin wide institution managing the natural resources in the basin. Various strategic objectives were identified by stakeholders and respective strategies, activities and verifiable indicators mapped for implementation. Stakeholders having owned the process and articulated the strategies themselves showed commitment and readiness to cooperate in the implementation of the plan.

  13. Variety, State and Origin of Drained Thaw Lake Basins in West-Siberian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpotin, S.; Polishchuk, Y.; Bryksina, N.; Sugaipova, A.; Pokrovsky, O.; Shirokova, L.; Kouraev, A.; Zakharova, E.; Kolmakova, M.; Dupre, B.

    2009-04-01

    Drained thaw lake basins in Western Siberia have a local name "khasyreis" [1]. Khasyreis as well as lakes, ponds and frozen mounds are invariable element of sub-arctic frozen peat bogs - palsas and tundra landscapes. In some areas of West-Siberian sub-arctic khasyreis occupy up to 40-50% of total lake area. Sometimes their concentration is so high that we call such places ‘khasyrei's fields". Khasyreis are part of the natural cycle of palsa complex development [1], but their origin is not continuous and uniform in time and, according to our opinion, there were periods of more intensive lake drainage and khasyrei development accordingly. These times were corresponding with epochs of climatic warming and today we have faced with one of them. So, last years this process was sufficiently activated in the south part of West-Siberian sub-arctic [2]. It was discovered that in the zone of continuous permafrost thermokarst lakes have expanded their areas by about 10-12%, but in the zone of discontinuous permafrost the process of their drainage prevails. These features are connected with the thickness of peat layers which gradually decreases to the North, and thus have reduced the opportunity for lake drainage in northern areas. The most typical way of khasyrei origin is their drainage to the bigger lakes which are always situated on the lower levels and works as a collecting funnels providing drainage of smaller lakes. The lower level of the big lake appeared when the lake takes a critical mass of water enough for subsidence of the lake bottom due to the melting of underlaying rocks [2]. Another one way of lake drainage is the lake intercept by any river. Lake drainage to the subsurface (underlaying rocks) as some authors think [3, 4] is not possible in Western Siberia, because the thickness of permafrost is at list 500 m here being safe confining bed. We mark out few stages of khasyrei development: freshly drained, young, mature and old. This row reflects stages of

  14. Variations of deep western boundary currents in the Melanesian Basin in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Masaki; Yanagimoto, Daigo; Kitagawa, Shoji

    2006-06-01

    Five moorings ML1-ML5 were deployed on the slope of the Solomon Rise in the Melanesian Basin in the western North Pacific, northeastward at increasing water depths. We measured the velocities of the western branch current of the deep western boundary current (DWBC) and the upper deep current carrying the Lower and Upper Circumpolar Waters (LCPW, UCPW), respectively. The daily mean velocity data from 1-3 February 1999 to 24-26 February 2000 were analyzed, and variability of the DWBCs was clarified. Although the current meters did not entirely cover the western branch current of the DWBC composed of two or three streams, a stream of the western branch current was observed at a depth of 4700 m at ML4 or 4260 m at ML5 for more than half of the observation period. The stream had a mean velocity of 3.7 cm s -1 and alternated between ML4 and ML5 at 20- to 40-day intervals without occupying both of ML4 and ML5 simultaneously. This shows that the width of the stream is less than 120 km (distance between ML4 and ML5), and the position changes in a similar range. In contrast to the velocity of the eastern branch current of the DWBC, that of the western branch current did not decrease with decreasing depths to 4000 m. This reflects the vertical division into the branch currents by the bifurcation of the DWBC. The western branch current of the DWBC is located at the deep side of the countercurrent which was almost always observed at depths of 3880 and 4080 m at ML3. The countercurrent was thought to be the return flow of the western branch current that is partly reversed in the East Mariana Basin. The previous estimate of geostrophic transport of LCPW at the time of the mooring deployment was corrected to 1.4 Sv (10 6 m 3 s -1) in the western branch current, 1.7 Sv in the countercurrent, and 1.1 Sv in the inflow to the East Caroline Basin. The upper deep current was located over the slope of the Solomon Rise with water depth less than 4500 m including ML1-ML3. It flowed at

  15. Widespread effects of middle Mississippian deformation in the Great Basin of western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trexler, J.H.; Cashman, P.H.; Cole, J.C.; Snyder, W.S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Davydov, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses in central and eastern Nevada reveal the importance of a deformation event in middle Mississippian time that caused widespread deformation, uplift, and erosion. It occurred between middle Osagean and late Meramecian time and resulted in deposition of both synorogenic and postorogenic sediments. The deformation resulted in east-west shortening, expressed as east-vergent folding and east-directed thrusting; it involved sedimentary rocks of the Antler foredeep as well as strata associated with the Roberts Mountains allochthon. A latest Meramecian to early Chesterian unconformity, with correlative conformable lithofacies changes, postdates this deformation and occurs throughout Nevada. A tectonic highland-created in the middle Mississippian and lasting into the Pennsylvanian and centered in the area west and southwest of Carlin, Nevada- shed sediments eastward across the Antler foreland, burying the unconformity. Postorogenic strata are late Meramecian to early Chesterian at the base and are widespread throughout the Great Basin. The tectonism therefore occurred 20 to 30 m.y. after inception of the Late Devonian Antler orogeny, significantly extending the time span of this orogeny or representing a generally unrecognized orogenic event in the Paleozoic evolution of western North America. We propose a revised stratigraphic nomenclature for Mississippian strata in Nevada, based on detailed age control and the recognition of unconformities. This approach resolves the ambiguity of some stratigraphic names and emphasizes genetic relationships within the upper Paleozoic section. We take advantage of better stratigraphic understanding to propose two new stratigraphic units for southern and eastern Nevada: the middle Mississippian Gap Wash and Late Mississippian Captain Jack Formations.

  16. Modeling the Response of Glaciers to Climate Change in the Upper North Saskatchewan River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, E.; Byrne, J. M.; Jiskoot, H.; MacDonald, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Alpine glaciers act as barometers of climatic change, responding directly to longterm changes in temperature and precipitation with changes in mass balance, resulting in volume and length modifications. The heavily glaciated Upper North Saskatchewan River Basin (UNSRB), Alberta, Canada, represents a crucial portion of the headwaters for the Saskatchewan-Nelson watershed that spans the northern interior of the continent and drains into Hudson's Bay over 1500 km away. Historically, glacier melt runoff provides a significant percentage of late-summer streamflow in the UNSRB. Evidence suggests that recent warming has caused a change in glacier mass balance in the UNSRB that is unprecedented during the Holocene. Analysis of projected climate indices shows that the longterm negative mass balance of glaciers in the region will likely continue to decline over the next century. The effect of recent historical climate change on the glaciers in UNSRB is simulated using a modified version of the physically based Generate Earth SYstems Science (GENESYS) hydromet model. GENESYS has previously been employed to watersheds on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains to simulate daily hydro-met processes at a high resolution over complex terrain, focusing on modeling snow water equivalent and the timing of the spring melt. A mass balance glacier routine is incorporated into GENESYS to more accurately gauge the effects of climate change on the glaciers located in the UNSRB. GENESYS daily micrometeorological data is used to drive a series of glacial ice and snow algorithms that include accumulation, ablation and ice redistribution over the glacier. GCM future ensembles were downscaled and applied to the model to predict changes in the mass balance of glaciers in the UNSRB under a range of likely climate scenarios. Results include time series of changes in glacier mass balance, length, and hydrologic response to changing ice volumes up to the year 2100.

  17. Characterisation of the bacterial populations in a saline heat storage aquifer in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-04-01

    The colonization and the ecology of microorganisms in the deep biosphere arouse increasing interest of scientists because of utilizing the subsurface for e.g. energy storage and recovery. The research project AquiScreen investigates the operational reliability of eight geothermally used groundwater systems in Germany under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical, and petrological aspects. This study shows the results of the heat storage in Neubrandenburg (depth: 1250 m), a typical site for saline fluids in the North German Basin. The seasonal alternation in charge and discharge mode enabled sampling the warm (75˚ C) and the cold (45˚ C) side of the geothermal doublet. The analyses focus on microbially induced corrosion on plant components and scaling resulting in filter and/or formation clogging. Microbiological analyses were carried out with fluid and solid phase samples by 16S rDNA based Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprinting. The analyses are utilized to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on such systems. The genetic fingerprinting revealed significant differences in the bacterial community structure between the warm and cold side of the heat storage. Since the geochemical analyses revealed no remarkable differences, the temperature might be crucial for the different community structures. At the warm side of the aquifer the identified bacteria are closely related to Variovorax and Sphingomonas. At the cold side of the heat storage sulphate reducing and fermentative bacteria were detected. These results correspond with locally observed iron sulphide precipitation and corrosion processes on plant components. Particularly the bacterial population of the cold side was studied over a period of two years. Thereby seasonal changes in the abundance of the identified bacteria, depending on the operational mode of the geothermal plant, were observed. After a malfunction in the pump system of the cold side of the heat storage changes in

  18. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of .southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, ,adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  19. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, Southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    Examination of cores and well-log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities. Sea level rise during the early Eifelian caused southeastward onlap of the Ashern Formation onto Middle Silurian carbonates of the Interlake Formation. Maximum flooding, expressed by deepest marine facies and a hardground surface, suggests the existence of a condensed section at the top of the Ashern Formation. This section was developed during the maximum rate of sea level rise. A decrease in the rate of sea level rise resulted in aggradation of lower Winnipegosis units on a gently dipping ramp. These units are presented by nodular and burrowed open-marine limestones with scattered stromatoporoid patch reefs and grainstone shoals. During the subsequent sea level fall, represented by Temple units, a shelf margin with pronounced depositional topography and adjacent starved basin were developed. Temple strata include coral-brachiopod-stromatoporoid reefs and productive fore-reef talus deposits along the shelf-margin rim. With increased rates of sea level fall, the platform interior and shelf margin were subaerially exposed, slope carbonates were dolomitized, and the E-shale was deposited as a lowstand wedge.

  20. Chemostratigraphic Constraints on Late Jurassic Paleoceanography of the East Texas Basin, Southern Margin of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainali, P.; Rowe, H. D.

    2010-12-01

    Late Jurassic deposition of organic-rich muds occurred in the East Texas Basin of modern-day Texas and Louisiana in a ramp-style marine setting during the early formation of the Gulf of Mexico. These mudrocks are regional known as the Haynesville and Bossier Formations. The goals of the current project are to 1) develop a better understanding of the paleoceanographic conditions and the depositional environment, and 2) develop linkages between the record from the southern margin of North America and other well-documented paleoceanographic records of Kimmeridgian age. Ten drill cores from the study area have been studied for their geochemistry. Each core was scanned at a 1-foot interval using a handheld x-ray fluorescence instrument, providing rapid, quantitative analysis of the following elemental concentrations: Mg, Al, S, Si, P, K, Ti, Ca, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Rb, U, Sr, Zr, and V. In addition, preliminary interpretations for total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (%N), and bulk rock TOC and N isotopic composition of core samples reveal distinct differences between the Bossier and Haynesville formations. Results from previous geochemical studies suggest that the siliciclastic-dominated Bossier formation has less TOC than the underlying Haynesville formation. Furthermore, the Haynesville is much more carbonate-rich (calcite) than the overlying Bossier. An upwardly increasing trend in Si/Al in some cores suggests increasing detrital quartz influx. A linear relationship between Fe and Al suggest that iron is primarily in clay mineral phases in the Haynesville. Enrichments in Mo concentrations and Cr/V ratios reveal periods of anoxic conditions.

  1. Habitat of oil in the Lindsborg field, Salina basin, north-central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lindsborg field was discovered in 1938, and is now 14 mi in length and 1-2 mi in width. It has a projected ultimate recovery of 16 MMBO. Three pay zones (5-20 ft thick) produce in the field. The Simpson pay zone (Middle Ordovician) is a well-rounded, quartzitic sandstone that is interpreted to be a paralic, high-energy shelf deposit. The Viola pay (Middle Ordovician) appears to be a dolomitic, lime grainstone but no cores are available to confirm this. The uppermost pay zone, the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa, is a finely laminated, vuggy, cherry dolomite interpreted to have been deposited as a subtidal lime mudstone in a restricted lagoon. The Simpson and Viola pays are structurally trapped in culminations along the crest of the Lindsborg anticline. Although the Maquoketa pay is structurally trapped with the other pay zones in the southern half of the field, its locus of production in the north half of the fields extends 100 ft vertically down the western flank of the anticline. The trapping mechanism is unclear due to lack of core control and modern logging suites, but it may be subtle updip diagenetic change from vuggy to nonvuggy dolomite. The Simpson and Maquoketa oils are geochemically distinct. Both may reflect efficient local source-to-reservoir migration from originally rich but marginally mature Ordovician and Devonian shales that contact each pay zone. If oil in the Lindsborg field is locally generated, the prospectivity of the relatively unproductive and underexplored Salina basin may be enhanced.

  2. Magnetostratigraphical dating of the Majuangou Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R.; Xie, F.; Deng, C.; Shi, C.; Wang, H.; Pan, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Two adjacent sections named Haojiatai (HJT, 130.8 m thick) and Majuangou (MJG, 128.8 m thick) in the Nihewan Basin, North China were paleomagnetically examined. Field observations revealed that an artifact layer occurs in the MJG section at 65 m. Stratigraphy patterns between these two sections were correlated by variations in susceptibility as well as two distinctive marker beds, including a conglomerate layer (45-m-depth at MJG and 105-m-depth at HJT) and a greyish-yellow clay layer with mollusc fossils (66-m-depth at MJG and 122.4-m-depth at HJT). Four magnetozones were recognized at the HJT section: two normal, N1 (0-49 m) and N2 (78.8-80.2 m); and two reversed, R1 (49-75.8 m) and R2 (80.2-128.8 m), and six magnetozones were identified at the MJG section: three normal, N2 (17.2-22.2 m), N3 (85-89 m), and N4 (126.6-130.8 m); and three reversed, R1 (0-17.2 m), R2 (22-85 m), and R3 (89-126.6 m), respectively. Among these magnetozones, N1, N2, N3 and N4 correspond to the Brunhes chron, the Jaramillo subchron, the Olduvai subchron, and the Gauss chron, respectively. The stone tool layer at MJG is located at 43 m below the bottom of magnetozone N2. Assuming a constant accumulation rate R2, the age of this artifact layer is estimated to be about 1.55 Myr. This new age provided a confident evidence that humans appeared in ~1.55Ma at the studied area, which is oldest humans site with confident age control.

  3. Geology of Republic graben and implications for Eocene sedimentation in north-central portion of the Columbia basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord D.R.; Thiessen, R.L.; Mohl, G.B.

    1987-08-01

    A sequence of potential hydrocarbon-producing volcaniclastic and siliciclastic Cenozoic sedimentary rocks is preserved in the Republic graben, the largest of a series of en echelon structural depressions that adjoin the Columbia River Basalt in north-central Washington. Gravity and structural trends suggest that the Republic graben and other analogous extensional basins may exist beneath the Columbia basin, thus making analysis of Republic graben sedimentary and stratigraphic trends of paramount importance. Sedimentary and volcanic fill in the 10-16 km by 80 km Republic graben exceeds 3000 m and includes deposits of the Eocene O'Brien Creek Formation, Sanpoil Volcanics, and the Klondike Mountain Formation. Organic-rich sedimentary rocks are concentrated in the upper Sanpoil Volcanics and Klondike Mountain Formation and include thick, highly fossiliferous, and rapidly deposited fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine deposits interbedded with debris flows and pyroclastic flows and falls. Sedimentary facies in the Sanpoil Volcanics and Klondike Mountain Formation are difficult to trace laterally owing to pervasive intragraben faulting. However, available stratigraphic data suggest that filling was dominantly from the north and west. Organic-rich sedimentary rock in the Klondike Mountain Formation are 300-400 m thick and have total organic carbon values (1-4%) and production induces (0.14) that suggest their promise as hydrocarbon sources. Availability of suitable hydrocarbon reservoir rocks is problematic but such sediments may intertongue with Klondike Mountain Formation equivalent strata in the basin.

  4. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  5. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  6. Late Permian to Late Triassic basin evolution of North Vietnam: geodynamic implications for the South China and Indochina blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignol, Camille; Bourquin, Sylvie; Hallot, Erwan; Poujol, Marc; Roger, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The core of South East Asia is composed of a mosaic of continental blocks, among which the Indochina and the South China blocks (present day northern Vietnam), amalgamated during the Permian and/or the Triassic. Late Permian to Late Triassic geodynamic evolution of these two blocks remains controversial. The main discussion points concern the existence and the closure of an oceanic domain separating the Indochina and the South China blocks during this period. Especially, the polarity and the timing of the subduction zone that led to the collision between the blocks as well as the present location of the suture delimiting them are a matter of debate. Despite the valuable information they can provide, the sedimentary basins from northern Vietnam have been neglected in the previous studies dealing with the geodynamic evolution of South East Asia. To determine the geodynamic evolution of the area, the basins of Sam Nua and Song Da, presently located in North Vietnam, have been investigated using a combined approach involving sedimentology, geochronology (U-Pb/zircon) and geochemistry (whole-rock major and trace elements composition of both volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks). The palaeoenvironment evolution, the main unconformities, their age and the tectonic affinities of the interbedded volcanic and volcaniclastics series have been characterized for these two basins. Our results demonstrate (i) that the Song Da Basin exhibits a palaeogeographic affinity with the South China block, (ii) the occurrence of extensive calk-alkaline volcanism and associated volcaniclastic deposits in the Sam Nua Basin, related to the existence of an active magmatic arc during the Early and the lower Middle Triassic, (iii) a South dipping (present day coordinate) oceanic lithosphere beneath the Indochina block, deduced from the location of the magmatic arc south of the potential suture zones, (iv) that an angular unconformity postdates the lower Middle Triassic volcaniclastic deposits in the

  7. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  8. Gene lineages and eastern North American palaeodrainage basins: phylogeography and speciation in salamanders of the Eurycea bislineata species complex.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Blaine, Russell A; Larson, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary North American drainage basins are composites of formerly isolated drainages, suggesting that fragmentation and fusion of palaeodrainage systems may have been an important factor generating current patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream-associated organisms. Here, we combine traditional molecular-phylogenetic, multiple-regression, nested clade, and molecular-demographic analyses to investigate the relationship between phylogeographic variation and the hydrogeological history of eastern North American drainage basins in semiaquatic plethodontid salamanders of the Eurycea bislineata species complex. Four hundred forty-two sequences representing 1108 aligned bases from the mitochondrial genome are reported for the five formally recognized species of the E. bislineata complex and three outgroup taxa. Within the in-group, 270 haplotypes are recovered from 144 sampling locations. Geographic patterns of mtDNA-haplotype coalescence identify 13 putatively independent population-level lineages, suggesting that the current taxonomy of the group underestimates species-level diversity. Spatial and temporal patterns of phylogeographic divergence are strongly associated with historical rather than modern drainage connections, indicating that shifts in major drainage patterns played a pivotal role in the allopatric fragmentation of populations and build-up of lineage diversity in these stream-associated salamanders. More generally, our molecular genetic results corroborate geological and faunistic evidence suggesting that palaeodrainage connections altered by glacial advances and headwater erosion occurring between the mid-Miocene and Pleistocene epochs explain regional patterns of biodiversity in eastern North American streams.

  9. BASINS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) is a multipurpose environmental analysis system designed to help regional, state, and local agencies perform watershed- and water quality-based studies.

  10. Participatory and decentralized water resources management: challenges and perspectives for the North Paraíba River Basin committee - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M A F M; Vieira, Z M C L; Ribeiro, M M R

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Water Resources Policy (Law 9433/1997) establishes participatory and decentralized management, involving civil society, water users and governmental bodies, with the basin committees as the basis of this process. Fifteen years after its implementation, it is possible to perceive accomplishments, but, at the same time, there are some difficulties in regards to the operation of the basin committees in the country. Considering the North Paraíba River Basin - which is completely included in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and presents great social and economic importance for the state - this article analyzes the process of formation, installation and functioning of its Basin Committee (CBH-PB), focusing on its composition, the reasons for the mobilization and demobilization of its members, the intra-relations between segments, and the inter-relations between the CBH-PB and other entities of the State Water Management System (the Water Executive Agency and the State Water Resources Council). The level of decentralization and the quality of participatory management (as it is being performed at the CBH-PB) are discussed and guidelines are suggested in order to allow greater effectiveness to the committee.

  11. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary-tectonic development in the Chengde Basin, Yanshan fold-thrust belt, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Ankun; Ye, Hao

    2015-12-01

    The Chengde Basin is located in the central part of the Yanshan fold-thrust belt in the northern North China Craton. The sediments in the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Tuchengzi Formation in the Chengde Basin provide a detrital record of basin dynamics and uplift of the basin margins during that time. We analyzed the sedimentary facies, paleocurrents, and provenance of the Tuchengzi Formation in the Chengde Basin for the period of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous shortening in the Yanshan fold-thrust belt. Four sedimentary facies associations have been identified in the Tuchengzi Formation, corresponding to proximal fan, mid-fan, distal alluvial fan, and fluvial facies. The transport and distribution of the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sediments in the Chengde Basin was controlled by the faults bounding the basin. Paleocurrent indicators and provenance data of conglomerate clasts reveal that the sediments of the Tuchengzi Formation in the northern part of the Chengde Basin were delivered from source regions to the north of the basin. The early sediments of the Tuchengzi Formation in the southern part of the basin comprise a suite of fluvial deposits, similar to the fluvial sediments in the northern part of the basin, and their paleocurrent data and the compositions of conglomerate clasts also suggest a northern source. However, the subsequent sedimentation in the Tuchengzi Formation in the southern part of the basin changed markedly to proximal fan facies, with sediments being derived from the south of the basin, according to the paleocurrent data and conglomerate clast lithology. The Sandaohe sheet, which is located in the southeast limb of the Chengde syncline, is not a klippe formed as a result of long-distance northward thrusting, but an autochthonous pop-up tectonic wedge generated by N-S shortening during the Early Cretaceous sedimentation of the Tuchengzi Formation. The sedimentation ended before the onset of the Early Cretaceous volcanic

  12. Modeling and analysis of direct-current electrical resistivity in the Durham Triassic basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Erwin

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-two Schlumberger electrical soundings were made in the Durham Triassic basin in an effort to determine basin structural geometry, depth of the sedimentary layers, and spatial distribution of individual rock facies. A digital computer program was used to invert the sounding curves of apparent resistivity versus distance to apparent resistivity versus depth. The apparent-resistivity-versus-depth data from the computer-modeling program were used to construct a geoelectric model of the basin that is believed to accurately represent the subsurface geology of the basin. The largest depth to basement in the basin along a resistivity profile (geoelectric section) was determined to be 1,800 m. A resistivity decrease was observed on certain soundings from depths of 100 to 1,000 m; below a 1,000-m depth, apparent resistivity increased to the bottom of the basin. Resistivity values for basement rocks were greater than 1,000 ohm-m and less than 350 ohm-m for the sedimentary layers in the basin. The data suggest that the basin contains a system of step faults near its eastern boundary. ?? 1987.

  13. Detailed geochemical study of the Dan River-Danville Triassic Basin, North Carolina and Virginia. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, P. A.; Cook, J. R.

    1982-08-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of surface geochemical reconnaissance in the Dan River-Danville Triassic Basin of north-central North Carolina and south-central Virginia. Unweathered rock samples were collected at 380 sites within the basin at a nominal sampling density of one site per square mile. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site; analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. A detailed four-channel spectrometric survey was conducted, and the results are presented as a series of symbol plot maps for eU, eTh, and eU/eTh. Data from rock sample sites (on microfiche in pocket) include rock type and color and elemental analyses for U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti, V, and Yb. Elemental uranium in 362 sedimentary rock samples from the Dan River-Danville Basin ranges from a low of 0.1 to a maximum of 13.3 parts per million (ppM). The log mean uranium concentration for these same samples is 0.37 ppM, and the log standard deviation is 0.24 ppM. Elemental uranium in 10 diabase dike samples from within the basin is in the range 0.1 to 0.7 ppM. The log mean uranium concentration for diabase samples is -.65 ppM, and the log standard deviation is 0.27. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  14. Phylogeography of the dark kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops megacephalus: cryptic lineages and dispersal routes in North America's Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S

    2011-06-01

    AIM: The rodent genus Microdipodops (kangaroo mice) includes two sand-obligate endemics of the Great Basin Desert: M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. The dark kangaroo mouse, M. megacephalus, is distributed throughout the Great Basin and our principal aims were to formulate phylogenetic hypotheses for this taxon and make phylogeographical comparisons with its congener. LOCATION: The Great Basin Desert of western North America. METHODS: DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes were examined from 186 individuals of M. megacephalus, representing 47 general localities. Phylogenetic inference was used to analyse the sequence data. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns was used to examine haplotype sharing patterns and recover routes of gene exchange. Haplotype-area curves were constructed to evaluate the relationship between genetic variation and distributional island size for M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. RESULTS: Microdipodops megacephalus is a rare desert rodent (trapping success was 2.67%). Temporal comparison of trapping data shows that kangaroo mice are becoming less abundant in the study area. The distribution has changed slightly since the 1930s but many northern populations now appear to be small, fragmented, or locally extinct. Four principal phylogroups (the Idaho isolate and the western, central and eastern clades) are evident; mean sequence divergence between phylogroups for cytochrome b is c. 8%. Data from haplotype sharing show two trends: a north-south trend and a web-shaped trend. Analyses of haplotype-area curves reveal significant positive relationships. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The four phylogroups of M. megacephalus appear to represent morphologically cryptic species; in comparison, a companion study revealed two cryptic lineages in M. pallidus. Estimated divergence times of the principal clades of M. megacephalus (c. 2-4 Ma) indicate that these kangaroo mice were Pleistocene invaders into the Great Basin coincident with the formation

  15. Post-Eocene evolution of the North Alpine Foreland Basin and its response to Alpine tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlemann, Joachim; Kempf, Oliver

    2002-09-01

    The post-flysch (Oligocene-Miocene) palaeogeographic evolution of the entire North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) between Savoy (France) and Lower Austria is presented in eight sketch maps. The compilation considers the palinspastic evolution of the Alps. It includes intramontane deposits, which represent a continuous marginal facies of the NAFB during Rupelian to Early Burdigalian times. The facies distribution in the NAFB was driven by two major types of processes, which are related to the tectonic evolution of the Alpine orogen. The first type, representing tectonic processes at the thrust front of the Alps, directly influenced the facies distribution of the narrowing NAFB. The second type represents an indirect impact of Alpine uplift and tectonics to the NAFB, transformed by varying sediment discharge. A strong increase in sediment discharge due to uplift of the Alps is the major reason for the generally regressive coarsening- and shallowing-upward cycle from the Lower Marine to the Lower Freshwater Molasse (UMM, USM) between 33 and 21 Ma. The development of the "Burdigalian Seaway" at ˜20 Ma was coeval with a reduction of thrust advance rates in the western and central part of the NAFB. Shallow marine conditions (Upper Marine Molasse, OMM) prevailed for ˜3 million years. In the Eastern Alps, reduction of relief due to lateral (east-west-oriented) extension caused a strong reduction in sediment discharge. Closure of the "Burdigalian Seaway" around 17 Ma occurred during a phase of tectonic reorganisation in the Alpine orogen and is coeval with a short-term increase in sediment discharge. Between 17 and 12 Ma, the NAFB was constantly overfilled (Upper Freshwater Molasse, OSM), despite strongly decreasing sediment discharge. Termination of sedimentation in the (unfolded) NAFB occurred diachronously in an undramatic process. It started in the western NAFB in the course of uplift of the Swiss Jura Mountains after 11 Ma and reached Lower Austria around 6-5 Ma

  16. Electromagnetic monitoring of CO2 dissemination: a case study in the North Eastern German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, G.; Ritter, O.

    2012-04-01

    Storage of CO2 in saline aquifers is a topic which is recently gaining a lot of interest. The BRINE project, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) has the double objective of investigating the endangerment of freshwater reservoirs by upward migration of brine from saline aquifers as a result of the pressure increase subsequent to a CO2 injection into a target storage formation and the synergetic utilization of geothermal heat production and CO2 storage by implementation of pressure discharge wells. The success of geological CO2 storage projects depends largely on the ability to monitor the state of the reservoir during and after CO2 injection, particularly in terms of fluid saturation and pressure. This is essential from the reservoir engineering as well as for risk assessment perspectives. Electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks depends strongly on the presence of fluids, their temperature and salinity. Therefore, electromagnetic (EM) methods, such as magnetotellurics (MT) and controlled source magnetotellurics (CSMT) are promising exploration techniques for characterizing and monitoring deep aquifer systems, such as CO2 storage sites or geothermal reservoirs. In order to develop an electromagnetic monitoring system it is necessary to have a good understanding of the electrical conductivity distribution and the changes produced by the dissemination of the CO2 in the deep saline aquifer. Based on the geological model of the study area and using conductivity values of similar structures in the North Eastern German Basin we have created a vast collection of models simulating different scenarios of CO2 migration, whose responses have been then computed using different forward modelling codes. The synthetic model responses have been calculated both for passive MT (with natural source) and CSMT (with active sources), in 1D, 2D and 3D scenarios. These synthetic model studies represent the basis for the development of a monitoring concept

  17. Hydrocarbon seep-carbonates of a Miocene forearc (East Coast Basin), North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Kathleen A.; Francis, David A.; Collins, Mike; Gregory, Murray R.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Greinert, Jens; Aharon, Paul

    2008-02-01

    An ancient hydrocarbon seep province of 14 isolated, authigenic carbonate deposits has been identified in fine-grained, deep-marine siliciclastic strata of the Miocene East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand. These forearc sediments have been uplifted and complexly deformed into accretionary ridges, adjacent to the still-active Hikurangi convergent margin. Older active and passive margin strata (mid-Cretaceous to Oligocene in age) underlie the Neogene sequence, and contain oil- and gas-prone source rocks. Older Mesozoic meta-sedimentary rocks constitute the backstop against which the current phase of subduction-related sedimentation has accumulated (~ 24 Ma-present). The seep-carbonates (up to 10 m thick, 200 m across) archive methane signatures in their depleted carbon isotopes (to δ13C -51.7‰ PDB), and contain chemosynthesis-based paleocommunities (e.g. worm tubes, bathymodioline mussels, and vesicomyid, lucinid and thyasirid bivalves) typical of other Cenozoic and modern seeps. Northern and southern sites are geographically separated, and exhibit distinct lithological and faunal differences. Structural settings are variable. Seep-associated lithologies also are varied, and suggest carbonate development in sub-seafloor, seafloor and physically reworked (diapiric expansion, gas explosion, gravity slide or debris flow) settings, similar to Italian Apennine seep deposits of overlapping ages. Peculiar attributes of the New Zealand Miocene seep deposits are several, including digitate thrombolites of clotted microbial micrite encased in thick, isopachous horizons and botryoids of aragonite. Seep plumbing features are also well-exposed at some sites, displaying probable gas-explosion breccias filled with aragonite, tubular concretions (fluid conduits), and carbonate-cemented, thin sandstone beds and burrows within otherwise impermeable mudstones. A few seeps were large enough to develop talus-debris piles on their flanks, which were populated by lucinid bivalves

  18. Drainage and Landscape Evolution in the Bighorn Basin Accompanying Advection of the Yellowstone Hotspot Swell Through North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, E. F.; Meigs, A.

    2012-12-01

    Mantle plumes have been recognized to express themselves on the surface as long wavelength and low amplitude topographic swells. These swells are measured as positive geoid anomalies and include shorter wavelength topographic features such as volcanic edifices and pre-exisitng topography. Advection of the topographic swell is expected as the lithosphere passes over the plume uplift source. The hot spot swell occurs in the landscape as transient signal that is expressed with waxing and waning topography. Waxing topography occurs at the leading edge of the swell and is expressed as an increase in rock uplift that is preserved by rivers and landscapes. Advection of topography predicts a shift in a basin from deposition to incision, an increase in convexity of a transverse river's long profile and a lateral river migration in the direction of advection. The Yellowstone region has a strong positive geoid anomaly and the volcanic signal, which have been interpreted as the longer and shorter wavelength topographic expressions of the hot spot. These expressions of the hot spot developed in a part of North America with a compounded deformation and topographic history. Previous studies of the Yellowstone topographic swell have concentrated on the waning or trailing signal preserved in the Snake River Plain. Our project revisits the classic geomorphology study area in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, which is in leading edge of the swell. Present models identify the swell as having a 400 km in diameter and that it is centered on the Yellowstone caldera. If we assume advection to occur in concert with the caldera eruptive track, the Yellowstone swell has migrated to the northeast at a rate of 3 cm yr-1 and began acting on the Bighorn Basin's landscape between 3 and 2 Ma. The Bighorn Basin has an established history of a basin-wide switch from deposition to incision during the late Pliocene, yet the age control on the erosional evolution of the region is relative. This

  19. Living on the edge: The oxygen isotope record of Eocene Basins at the margin of the Cenozoic North American plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Chamberlain, Page

    2013-04-01

    Topography has a strong impact on atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns and is a key element in reconstructing the dynamics of mountain building processes. The topographic evolution of the world's major orogens remains one of the most important questions when discussing the interactions among tectonics, climate, and Earth surface processes. Here, we focus on the spatial and temporal development of topography and relief in the western North American Cordillera and how changes in the topography may have affected precipitation patterns and vice versa. In this context, we sampled more than 20 sections in Eocene to Oligocene terrestrial (intermontane?) basins (Chumstick, Swauk, and Chuckanut) in western and central Washington (USA) to the W and E of the modern Cascades. Oxygen isotope analysis of pedogenic carbonate in these sections allows us to reconstruct the isotopic composition of ancient soilwater or groundwater, and ultimately precipitation. Oxygen isotope measurements of pedogenic concretions and calcic horizons interestingly yield uniformly low δ18O values of 10 to 13‰ SMOW despite the proximity of all sections to the Pacific moisture source. These extremely low oxygen isotope values can result from (1) highly 18O-depleted meteoric waters (soil- or groundwater), (2) burial diagenesis at moderate temperatures and interaction with 18O-depleted (ground)water, and (3) high burial temperatures and and exchange with basins brines. Vitrinite reflectance data and preservation of primary soil structures such as rootlets, root casts, burrows, or even preserved wood fragments clearly show that some of the low-d18O sections were not affected by high degrees of burial diagenesis. Thus, we believe that the primary isotopic signal of ancient soil- or groundwater is preserved at least in parts (if not in all) of these basins. Low δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate require highly 18O-depleted meteoric water, which in turn, would require high elevation either at

  20. Investigaton of ÇINARCIK Basin and North Anatolian Fault Within the Sea of Marmara with Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atgın, O.; Çifçi, G.; Sorlien, C.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M.; Sillington, D.; Kurt, H.; Dondurur, D.; Okay, S.; Gürçay, S.; Sarıtaş, H.; Küçük, H. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sea of Marmara is becoming a natural laboratory for structure, sedimentation, and fluid flow within the North Anatolian fault (NAF) system. Much marine geological and geophysical data has been collected there since the deadly 1999 M=7.2. Izmit earthquake. The Sea of Marmara occupies 3 major basins, with the study area located in the eastern Cinarcik basin near Istanbul. These basins are the results of an extensional component in releasing segments between bends in this right-lateral tranmsform. It is controversial whether the extensional component is taken up by partitioned normal slip on separate faults, or instead by oblique right-normal slip on the non-vertical main northern branch of the NAF. High resolution multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) and multibeam bathymetry data collected by R/V K.Piri Reis and R/V Le-Suroit as part of two different projects respectively entitled "SeisMarmara", "TAMAM" and "ESONET". 3000 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were collected in 2008 and 2010 using 72, 111, and 240 channels of streamer with a 6.25 m group interval. The generator-injector airgun was fired every 12.5 or 18.75 m and the resulting MCS data has 10-230 Hz frequency band. The aim of the study is to investigate continuation of North Anatolian Fault along the Sea of Marmara, in order to investigate migration of depo-centers past a fault bend. We also test and extend a recently-published age model, quantify extension across short normal faults, and investigate whether a major surface fault exists along the southern edge of Çınarcık Basin. MCS profiles indicate that main NAF strand is located at the northern boundary of Çınarcık Basin and has a large vertical component of slip. The geometry of the eastern (Tuzla) bend and estimated right-lateral slip rates from GPS data requires as much of ten mm/yr of extension across Çınarcık Basin. Based on the published age model, we calculate about 2 mm/yr of extension on short normal faults in the

  1. Nutrient Loads and Ground-Water Residence Times in an Agricultural Basin in North-Central Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient loads from ground-water discharge were studied in Broad Brook Basin, a 15.8-square mile basin in north-central Connecticut, dominated by agricultural activity. Loads were calculated, along with the travel times of ground water from recharge to discharge areas, to estimate the time required for the effects of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to be observed. Most concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in Broad Brook exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecoregion XIV nutrient criteria for streams. During the study period (1993-2004), annual loads of nitrogen from Broad Brook Basin ranged from 117,000 to 270,000 pounds (lb), and yields were about 10 times larger than those from forested basins in Connecticut. Ground-water discharge from the aquifer to the streams (base flow) during the study period was estimated with hydrograph separation and accounted for 82 percent of the total runoff from the basin. Nitrate nitrogen in base flow averaged 71 percent of the annual load of total nitrogen discharged from the basin, indicating that the largest source of nitrogen was likely from ground-water discharge. Annual loads of total phosphorus from the basin ranged from 2,330 to 14,400 lb, and yields were about five times higher than those from forested basins in Connecticut. Dissolved phosphorus averaged about 71 percent of the total phosphorus load, and ground-water discharge accounted for only as much as 40 percent of the annual load of dissolved phosphorus; therefore, phosphorus loads are dominated by stormwater-runoff events. Ground-water samples collected from 11 wells in the basin contained elevated concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen. Dissolved gas analyses indicated that little denitrification was occurring in the aquifer. Apparent ages of the ground-water samples ranged from greater than 2 to more than 50 years based on sulfur hexafluoride, tritium, and tritium/helium-3 analyses. A three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was used in

  2. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which

  3. Extension structural records in the Qinshui basin (North China) since the Late Mesozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qinglong; Zhu, Wenbin; Wang, Liangshu; Xie, Guoai; Liu, Chao; Zou, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Qinshui basin has abundant coal-bed methane resources and has been undergoing intensive intracontinental rifting and extensional tectonics since the Late Mesozoic. Some fractures, which were previously considered as conjugate shear fractures, are interpreted as joint sets with extension characteristics, for the first time in the Qinshui basin. The widely distributed joint sets with stable attitudes can be divided into four sets. This paper presents updated results of fault-slip datasets collected in different zones of the Qinshui basin and addresses the changes in the direction of extensional stresses since the Late Mesozoic. Based on the analysis results of the slickenline of normal faults, joint sets in the field, and focal mechanism solutions data from the Shanxi Province, we identified four main directions of extension since the Late Mesozoic in the Qinshui basin: (1) Early Cenozoic ENE-WSW (85 ± 15°) extension; (2) Palaeogene NNE-SSW (30 ± 5°) extension; (3) Miocene NW-SE (135 ± 15°) extension; and (4) Late Pliocene-quaternary NNW-SSE (170 ± 5°) extension. The principal extension directions in the Qinshui basin seem to have undergone a counterclockwise rotation from the Early Cenozoic to the Miocene. We prefer that the extension deformation events in the Qinshui basin since the Late Mesozoic were mainly related to the back-arc spreading induced by westward subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate under the Eurasian continent.

  4. Solutions for North American Water Security Challenge: Colorado and Bravo transboundary basins cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Pérez, M.

    2013-12-01

    The transboundary basins of Colorado (Baja California) and Rio Bravo (Grande) have low water availability figures and water will be appreciated as a highly valued good. In the Rio Grande basin, the strategies and actions have been developed with the River Basin Council: a new surface water management, new water allocation rules for different rainfall and runoff scenarios (climate change included), new sources of water and establishment of water reserves for human consumption and for environmental purposes. In the Colorado River, with an integrated watershed management vision, Mexican and US federal, state and non-governmental organizations representatives signed Minute 319 for 5 years without changing the 1944 Water Treaty. Concepts and rules for surplus, shortage, Intentionally Created Mexican Water (ICMA), salinity, water for the environment and international projects were included and are been implemented. Parallel drinking water and sanitation services in both sides of the border through the Joint Investment Program, EPA-CONAGUA invested 979.2 million dollars from grants to improve the quality of the environment and the inhabitants. Accomplishments are high and the reduction in river health is a good indicator. The implementation of this binational cooperation actions under the framework of the 1944 Water Treaty are considered global solutions in the field of integrated water management in transboundary basins and for creating water security in highly pressured basins. Keywords: Colorado River, Rio Grande or Bravo River, water security, Transboundary basins, environmental water reserves

  5. Occurrence and source apportionment of Per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs) in North Canal Basin, Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Zhe; Wang, Bin; Wang, Wei; Li, Wen-Chao; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shu-Bo; Wang, Yu-Jue; Yu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Various per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs) were first systematically investigated in North Canal Basin, Beijing, China. A total of 68 surface water samples were collected from North Canal Basin, Beijing, at high spatial resolution. The seasonal disparity was compared and associated with source variation. PFCs concentrations in low-water period ranged from 26 to 207 ng/L, and significantly declined levels were found in high-water period. The individual component proportions among different sites varied less in high-water period, when runoff played a role in mixing and diluting PFCs. A methodology combined with principal component analysis (PCA), heat map-hierarchical cluster analysis (HM-HCA), and correlation analysis were introduced to discriminate sources of PFCs in surface water. The statistical results agreed with each other, and daily domestic consumption, fire-fighting products and related industries were identified as sources of PFCs in this region. In addition, two composition ratios were proposed through the methodology to distinguish the impact of nonpoint source, and the outcome demonstrates that great disparities exist in compositional profiles between nonpoint source and others. Overall, the results showed that this comprehensive analysis method has great potential for source apportionment in surface water and other environmental compartments.

  6. Concave slab out board of the Tonga subduction zone caused by opposite toroidal flows under the North Fiji Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. K.

    2014-05-01

    An alternative scenario is proposed for the origin of a concave NE-facing slab under the North Fiji Basin between the Tonga subduction slab and Vanuatu Arc. During rollback of the Australian Plate, Vanuatu Arc rotated clockwise, whereas Fiji Platform rotated counterclockwise from 12/10 Ma until 1.5 Ma ago. Thereafter, only Vanuatu Arc rotated until the present. During the period of opposite rotations, toroidal flows entered the mantle around the northwest slab edge of Vanuatu Arc and from the northeast slab edge of Fiji Platform. The latter lies close to the northern end of the Tonga slab where arc-parallel flows are shown by volcanic geochemistry and mantle anisotropy. Opposite toroidal flows with upwelling and downwelling components generate the concave form of the combined Vanuatu/Fiji Platform slab, match its extent to mapped deep seismicity, explain its position overlying the Tonga slab, provide a mechanism for high heat flow in the North Fiji Basin as well as enriched MORB and OIB basalts in the northern NFB, and obviate slab collisions invoked to produce slab curvature.

  7. Suspended-Sediment Loads and Yields in the North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Water Years 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bragg, Heather M.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Uhrich, Mark A.; Piatt, David R.

    2007-01-01

    The North Santiam River provides drinking water to the residents and businesses of the city of Salem, Oregon, and many surrounding communities. Since 1998, water-quality data, including turbidity, were collected continuously at monitoring stations throughout the basin as part of the North Santiam River Basin Turbidity and Suspended Sediment Study. In addition, sediment samples have been collected over a range of turbidity and streamflow values. Regression models were developed between the instream turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration from the samples collected from each monitoring station. The models were then used to estimate the daily and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields. For water years 1999-2004, suspended-sediment loads and yields were estimated for each station. Annual suspended-sediment loads and yields were highest during water years 1999 and 2000. A drought during water year 2001 resulted in the lowest suspended-sediment loads and yields for all monitoring stations. High-turbidity events that were unrelated or disproportional to increased streamflow occurred at several of the monitoring stations during the period of study. These events highlight the advantage of estimating suspended-sediment loads and yields from instream turbidity rather than from streamflow alone.

  8. Occurrence and source apportionment of Per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs) in North Canal Basin, Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Zhe; Wang, Bin; Wang, Wei; Li, Wen-Chao; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shu-Bo; Wang, Yu-Jue; Yu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Various per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs) were first systematically investigated in North Canal Basin, Beijing, China. A total of 68 surface water samples were collected from North Canal Basin, Beijing, at high spatial resolution. The seasonal disparity was compared and associated with source variation. PFCs concentrations in low-water period ranged from 26 to 207 ng/L, and significantly declined levels were found in high-water period. The individual component proportions among different sites varied less in high-water period, when runoff played a role in mixing and diluting PFCs. A methodology combined with principal component analysis (PCA), heat map-hierarchical cluster analysis (HM-HCA), and correlation analysis were introduced to discriminate sources of PFCs in surface water. The statistical results agreed with each other, and daily domestic consumption, fire-fighting products and related industries were identified as sources of PFCs in this region. In addition, two composition ratios were proposed through the methodology to distinguish the impact of nonpoint source, and the outcome demonstrates that great disparities exist in compositional profiles between nonpoint source and others. Overall, the results showed that this comprehensive analysis method has great potential for source apportionment in surface water and other environmental compartments. PMID:27845351

  9. Streamflow characteristics of streams in the Upper Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, G.J.; Williams-Sether, Tara

    1997-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for all active and inactive gaging stations for the Red River Basin upstream of and including Halstad, Minnesota, are presented in this report. The summaries for each streamflow-gaging station include (1) manuscript (station description), (2) graph of the annual mean discharge for the period of record, (3) statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, (4) graph of the annual flow duration, (5) monthly and annual flow duration, (6) probability of annual high discharges, (7) probability of annual low discharges, (8) probability of seasonal low discharges, (9) annual peak discharge and corresponding gage height for the period of record, and (10) monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  10. Mineral-magnetic signal of long-term climatic variation in Pleistocene fluvio-lacustrine sediments, Nihewan Basin (North China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    The Nihewan Basin (around 40°N, North China) is a major focus of investigations into hominid occupation in the eastern Asia during the early Pleistocene, thus the paleoenvironmental evolution in this area is crucial for understanding of early human habitation at high northern latitudes of East Asia. To retrieve reliable long-term paleoenvironmental signals from the Nihewan fluvio-lacustrine sequences, I conduct an environmental magnetic investigation on the Pleistocene Xiantai fluvio-lacustrine sequence at the eastern margin of the Nihewan Basin. Results suggest that there exist an up-section decreasing trend in magnetic mineral concentration and grain size, which is attributed to a long-term decrease in abundance of magnetic minerals in the catchments and in transportation of detrital magnetic minerals into the Nihewan paleolake. I further reveal that these long-timescale variations are related to a long-term decrease in East Asian monsoon precipitation and humidity in the Nihewan Basin during the Pleistocene. This paleoclimate inference is consistent with the increasing aridification in Asian mainland during the Pleistocene, an important climate response to increasing global ice volume.

  11. Low-Flow Characteristics and Discharge Profiles for Selected Streams in the Cape Fear River Basin, North Carolina, Through 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.C.; Pope, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    An understanding of the magnitude and frequency of low-flow discharges is an important part of evaluating surface-water resources and planning for municipal and industrial economic expansion. Low-flow characteristics are summarized in this report for 67 continuous-record gaging stations and 121 partial-record measuring sites in the Cape Fear River Basin of North Carolina. Records of discharge collected through the 1998 water year were used in the analyses. Flow characteristics included in the summary are (1) average annual unit flow; (2) 7Q10 low-flow discharge, the minimum average discharge for a 7-consecutive-day period occurring, on average, once in 10 years; (3) 30Q2 low-flow discharge; (4) W7Q10 low-flow discharge, similar to 7Q10 discharge except that only flow during November through March is considered; and (5) 7Q2 low-flow discharge. Low-flow characteristics in the Cape Fear River Basin vary widely in response to changes in geology and soil types. The area of the basin with the lowest potentials for sustained base flows is underlain by the Triassic basin in parts of Durham, Wake, and Chatham Counties. Typically, these soils are derived from basalt and fine-grained sedimentary rocks that allow very little infiltration of water into the shallow aquifers for storage and later release to streams during periods of base flow. The area of the basin with the highest base flows is the Sand Hills region in parts of Moore, Harnett, Hoke, and Cumberland Counties. Streams in the Sand Hills have the highest unit low flows in the study area as well as in much of North Carolina. Well-drained sandy soils in combination with higher topographic relief relative to other areas in the Coastal Plain contribute to the occurrence of high potentials for sustained base flows. A number of sites in the upper part of the Cape Fear River Basin underlain by the Carolina Slate Belt and Triassic basin, as well many sites in lower areas of the Coastal Plain (particularly the Northeast Cape

  12. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  13. Remote Sensing Observations of Snow and Soil Moisture for Snowmelt Flood Predictions in the Red River of the North Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, S. E.; Jacobs, J. M.; Vuyovich, C.; Cho, E.; Restrepo, P. J.; Jia, X.; Cosh, M. H.; Deweese, M. M.; Connelly, B.; Buan, S.

    2015-12-01

    The northward-flowing Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota, is vulnerable to frequent floods due to its flat terrain and low permeability soil. A vast majority of floods in the basin occur during the snowmelt season, when the winter snowpack thaws and spring rains fall onto saturated soils. This causes the Red River to spill over shallow banks and across the floodplain. The region has sparse in situ observations of snow and soil moisture, making flood prediction in the RRB difficult. Remote sensing data can help to capture magnitude, timing, and spatial distribution of watershed scale snow, soil moisture, and snowmelt parameters in the RRB, which will allow for better characterization of the watershed's hydrologic state. This research examines snow water equivalent (SWE; from the AMSR-E, AMSR2, and SSM/I satellite instruments), soil moisture (from AMSR-E, SMOS, and SMAP), and snow covered area (SCA; from MODIS), along with modeled SWE and snow depth from NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). These data are compared with observations from local and federal snow surveys, NOHRSC Airborne Gamma Radiation Snow Survey Program flights, NOAA National Climate Data Center (NCDC) cooperative network sites, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) sites, and the North Central River Forecast Center's (NCRFC) model states, in order to determine data quality as well as strengths and weaknesses of satellite observations for RRB flood forecasting. Future analyses will include evaluation of freeze/thaw state information from the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) satellite, and explore the potential for flood forecasting improvement by updating state variables of the NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) operational forecasting models with remotely sensed fields.

  14. Aminostratigraphy of Middle and Late Pleistocene deposits in The Netherlands and the southern part of the North Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, T.; Cleveringa, P.

    2009-09-01

    A review of all available amino acid racemization D (alloisoleucine)/L (isoleucine) data from the whole shell of four molluscan species from Late and late Middle Pleistocene deposits of the Netherlands is presented. The data allow the distinction of 5 aminostratigraphical units, NAZ (Netherlands Amino Zone) A-E, each representing a temperate stage. The zones are correlated with marine isotope stages 1, 5e, 7, 9, and 11 respectively. Apart from NAZ-D (MIS 9), in all aminozones the marine transgression reached the present-day onshore area of the Netherlands. The transgression during NAZ-C (Oostermeer Interglacial: MIS 7) seems to be at least as widespread as its counterpart during NAZ-B (Eemian: MIS 5e) in the southern bight of the North Sea Basin. The stratigraphic position of the Oostermeer Interglacial is just below deposits of the Drente phase of the Saalian and because of this position the interglacial marine deposits have formerly erroneously considered to be of Holsteinian age. Neede, the 'classic' Dutch Holsteinian site, is dated in NAZ-E (MIS 11), like Noordbergum. Although the validity of these zones has been checked with independent data, some overlap between succeeding zones may occur. The relation between amino acid data from elsewhere in the North Sea Basin and the Netherlands amino zonation is discussed. The deposits at the Holsteinian stratotype Hummelsbüttel in North West Germany are dated in NAZ-D. This interglacial correlates with MIS 9. The Belvédère Interglacial, which is of importance for its archaeology, is in NAZ-D (MIS 9) and therefore of Holsteinian age as well. The lacustroglacial 'pottery clays' in the Noordbergum area are deposits from two glacial stages, which can be correlated with MIS 8 and 10 (the Elsterian). The pottery clay that is considered equivalent to the German 'Lauenburger Ton' correlates with MIS 10.

  15. Landscape Based Modeling of Nonpoint Source Nitrogen Loading in the Neuse River Basin, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T.

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this research was to arrive at a quantitative and qualitative assessment of nonpoint sources of potential excess N under different land use/land cover (LULC) categories in the Neuse River Basin on a seasonal time scale. This assessment is being supplied to EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, for inclusion in a hydrologic model to predict seasonal fluxes of N from the terrestrial landscape to surface receiving waters and groundwater in the Neuse River Basin. The analysis was performed in the following five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model to predict potential excess N on land, (2) a literature review to parameterize N fluxes under LULC categories found in the Neuse River Basin, (3) acquisition of high resolution (15-m pixel) LULC data from EPA's Landscape Characterization Branch, National Exposure Research Laboratory, in Research Triangle Park, NC, (4) acquisition of a soil N inventory map for the Neuse River Basin, (5) calculations of potential excess N on a seasonal basis for the entire Neuse River Basin.

  16. An experimental peri-urban basin in North-western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancibault, K.; Rodriguez, F.; Mosini, M.-L.; Furusho, C.; Bocher, E.; Palaccio, M.; Palma-Lopes, S.; Letellier, L.; Benot, R.; Andrieu, H.

    2009-04-01

    Basins located in the suburbs, known as peri-urban basins, face a quick land-use change, increasing pollution and flood risks. Being neither urban nor rural basins, they have been left apart by hydrologists. Improving hydrological models taking into account both natural and anthropogenic surfaces and pathways is the objective of the French project AVuPUR. One of the two peri-urban basins chosen for this project is the Chézine basin, located in northwestern France, in the suburbs of Nantes. The Chézine basin is subject to an oceanic climate and has a quite flat topography. Whereas the upstream part of the catchment remains essentially rural, the urbanization is dense in the downstream part and under development in the medium part. The mean urbanization over the basin is about 18%. A first part of the project consists of collecting geographical and hydrological data, followed by a first hydrological data analysis. Then different spatial segmentation methods are tested based on a geomorphological analysis and ultimately hydrological models well adapted for these particular basins will be developed. Nantes Metropole supplies geographical data as roads, buildings, land-use, sewer networks, Digital Elevation Model, etc. They also have monitored Chézine basin since 2001, with a water level recorder and a rain gauge. The outlet, at the water level recorder, defines a 29 km² basin with a 15km long river. During summer 2008, additional recorders were installed, in the medium part of the basin, at the outlet of the rural subcatchment : a rain gauge and a flow meter. This will help to analyse the hydrological behaviour of the catchment, by characterizing the rainfall spatial variability over the basin and by pointing out the rural surface contribution. In autumn 2008, a geophysical experimental study was carried out, using different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar, DC-electrical resistivity tomography and EM31 electromagnetic profiling method. The aim of this

  17. Analysis of trends in streamflow and its linkages with rainfall and anthropogenic factors in Gomti River basin of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysingha, N. S.; Singh, Man; Sehgal, V. K.; Khanna, Manoj; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-02-01

    Trend analysis of hydro-climatic variables such as streamflow, rainfall, and temperature provides useful information for effective water resources planning, designing, and management. Trends in observed streamflow at four gauging stations in the Gomti River basin of North India were assessed using the Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope for the 1982 to 2012 period. The relationships between trends in streamflow and rainfall were studied by correlation analyses. There was a gradual decreasing trend of annual, monsoonal, and winter seasonal streamflow ( p < 0.05) from the midstream to the downstream of the river and also a decreasing trend of annual streamflow for the 5-year moving averaged standardized anomalies of streamflow for the entire basin. The declining trend in the streamflow was attributed partly to the increased water withdrawal, to increased air temperature, to higher population, and partly to significant reducing trend of post monsoon rainfall especially at downstream. Upstream gauging station showed a significant increasing trend of streamflow (1.6 m3/s/year) at annual scale, and this trend was attributed to the significant increasing trend of catchment rainfall (9.54 mm/year). It was further evident in the significant coefficient of positive correlation ( ρ = 0.8) between streamflow and catchment rainfall. The decreasing trend in streamflow and post-monsoon rainfall especially towards downstream area with concurrent increasing trend of temperature indicates a drying tendency of the Gomti River basin over the study period. The results of this study may help stakeholders to design streamflow restoration strategies for sustainable water management planning of the Gomti River basin.

  18. Vitrinite reflectance data for Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 square miles in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected from Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin to better characterize the thermal maturity and petroleum potential of these rocks. Ninety-eight samples from Lower Cretaceous and lowermost Upper Cretaceous strata were collected from well cuttings from wells stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Core Research Center in Lakewood, Colorado.

  19. Preliminary study of the uranium potential of the northern part of the Durham Triassic Basin, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.B.; Thayer, P.A.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of a four-channel spectrometric survey of the northern part of the Durham Triassic basin and adjacent Piedmont, North Carolina. Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were obtained at 112 localities from 136 different lithologies. The nominal sampling density in the Durham Basin is one site per 2 mi/sup 2/. Surface radiometric surveys reveal no anomalous radioactivity in the northern part of the Durham Basin. Uranium concentrations in Triassic rocks are from 0.6 to 9.7 ppM and average 2.9 ppM. Mudrocks contain from 1.3 to 9.7 ppM, and the average is 4.5 ppM. Sandstones contain from 0.6 to 8.8 ppM, and the average is 2.5 ppM. Fanglomerates contain the lowest concentrations of uranium, from 1.4 to 2.0 ppM, for an average of 1.8 ppM. Uranium/thorium ratios average 0.27 for Triassic rocks and are from 0.04 to 1.85. The mean log uranium/log thorium for Triassic rocks is 0.37. Mudrock has the highest average uranium/thorium ratio (0.32), and the range is 0.09 to 0.66. Sandstones have an average uranium/thorium ratio of 0.26, and the range is 0.04 to 1.85. Fanglomerates have the lowest range uranium/thorium ratio (0.19), and the range is 0.12 to 0.19. On the basis of surface radiometric surveys and geologic studies, it is believed that sedimentary strata in the northern part of the Durham Basin are poor targets for further uranium exploration. This conclusion is based on the lack of favorable characteristics commonly present in fluvial uranium deposits. Among these are: (1) carbonaceous material is absent in Triassic rocks of the northern basin, (2) indicators of a reduzate facies in sandstones are not present, and (3) no tuffaceous beds are associated with sediments in the northern Durham Basin.

  20. Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G.K.; Miller, K.A.; Mason, J.P.; Gianakos, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

  1. Dissolved organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic realms of the North Atlantic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Craig A.; Hansell, Dennis A.; Nelson, Norman B.; Siegel, David A.; Smethie, William M.; Khatiwala, Samar; Meyers, Meredith M.; Halewood, Elisa

    2010-08-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data are presented from three meridional transects conducted in the North Atlantic as part of the US Climate Variability (CLIVAR) Repeat Hydrography program in 2003. The hydrographic sections covered a latitudinal range of 6°S to 63°N along longitudes 20°W (CLIVAR line A16), 52°W (A20) and 66°W (A22). Over 3700 individual measurements reveal unprecedented detail in the DOC distribution and systematic variations in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the North Atlantic basin. Latitudinal gradients in DOC concentrations combined with published estimates of ventilation rates for the main thermocline and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) indicate a net DOC export rate of 0.081 Pg C yr -1 from the epipelagic zone into the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones. Model II regression and multiple linear regression models applied to pairwise measures of DOC and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-12) ventilation age, retrieved from major water masses within the main thermocline and NADW, indicate decay rates for exported DOC ranging from 0.13 to 0.94 μmol kg -1 yr -1, with higher DOC concentrations driving higher rates. The contribution of DOC oxidation to oxygen consumption ranged from 5 to 29% while mineralization of sinking biogenic particles drove the balance of the apparent oxygen utilization.

  2. Dissolved Organic Carbon Distribution, Export and Subsequent Remineralization in the Mesopelagic and Bathypelagic Realms of the North Atlantic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, C. A.; Hansell, D. A.; Nelson, N. B.; Siegel, D. A.; Smethie, W. M.; Khatiwala, S.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured for three meridional transects in the North Atlantic as part of the US CLIVAR Repeat Hydrography program in 2003.The hydrographic sections covered a latitudinal range of 6°S to 63° N along longitudes 20°W (CLIVAR line A16), 52°W (A20) and 66°W (A22). Over 3700 individual measurements reveal unprecedented detail in the DOC distribution and systematic variations in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the North Atlantic basin. Latitudinal gradients in DOC concentrations combined with published estimates of ventilation rates for the main thermocline and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) indicate a net DOC export rate of 0.081 Pg C yr-1 from of the epipelagic zone into the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones. Model II regression and multiple linear regression models applied to pairwise measures of DOC and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-12) ventilation age, retrieved from major water masses within the main thermocline and NADW, indicate decay rates for exported DOC ranging from 0.13 to 0.94 µmol kg-1 yr-1, with higher DOC concentrations driving higher rates. The contribution of DOC oxidation to oxygen consumption ranged from 5 to 29% while mineralization of sinking biogenic particles drove the balance of the apparent oxygen utilization.

  3. The Holocene palaeogeography and relative sea level for two tidal basins of the German North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungenstock, Friederike; Wartenberg, Wolfram; Mauz, Barbara; Freund, Holger; Frechen, Manfred; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Berner, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    The response of coasts to global sea-level rise is highly variable. Knowledge of driving coastal parameters alongside the regional sea-level history is therefore indispensable when the response to global sea-level rise is to be assessed. Here, we study the Holocene relative sea-level of the south coast of the North Sea which is controlled by a number of very local parameters, as well as by regional glacio-isostatic adjustments. It is therefore crucial to restrict the data acquisition and evaluation to small coastal sections, ideally to single tidal basins, to minimize the sources of uncertainties (Bungenstock & Weerts 2010, 2012). We present data from two tidal basins, Langeoog and Jade Bay. For Langeoog a database derived from 600 cores, 68 km of Boomer seismic data, 33 radiocarbon ages and 8 OSL dates is available. (Bungenstock & Schäfer 2009, Mauz & Bungenstock 2007). For the Jade bay, the database comprises sedimentary markers, pollen and macro remains derived from 68 cores. The sedentary chronology is based on 54 radiocarbon ages and pollen constraints (Wartenberg & Freund 2011, Wartenberg et al. 2013). For both tidal basins the sedimentological record was interpreted in terms of the local paleogeographical development since about 7000 cal BP and its influence on the local relative sea-level curve. While the trend of the relative sea level is similar for both tidal basins, it shows a different altitude. The timing of the main marine transgression within the Langeoog area takes place ~3000 cal. BP whereas the sedimentological record of the Jade Bay shows two prominent transgressions, one for ~5000 cal. BP and one for ~3000 cal. BP. The Langeoog palaeo-environment is continuously characterised by marine influence. Within the Jade Bay two different palaeo-environments could be identified, documenting that from the West to the centre the landscape development in the Jade Bay was drainage driven feeding the associated fen peat with minerogenic water but being

  4. Water quality of streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, Lan H.

    2005-01-01

    Data for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota were analyzed to determine whether the water quality of streams in the basin is adequate to meet future needs. For the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, site, pH values, water temperatures, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were within the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 245 to 1,100 milligrams per liter. Maximum sulfate and chloride concentrations were near, but did not exceed, the established secondary maximum contaminant level. The trace elements considered potentially harmful generally were at concentrations that were less than the established guidelines, standards, and criteria. The concentrations of lead that were detected may have occurred as a result of sample contamination. For the Red River upstream from Emerson, Manitoba, sites, pH and other field values rarely exceeded the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Many constituent concentrations for the Red River below Fargo, N. site exceeded water-quality guidelines, standards, and criteria. However, the trace-element exceedances could be natural or could be related to pollution or sample contamination. Many of the tributaries in the western part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter. Sulfate concentrations occasionally exceeded the established drinking-water standard. Median arsenic concentrations were 6 micrograms per liter or less, and maximum concentrations rarely exceeded the 10-microgram-per-liter drinking-water standard that is scheduled to take effect in 2006. The small concentrations of lead, mercury, and selenium that occasionally were detected may have been a result of sample contamination or other factors. The tributaries in the eastern part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were less than

  5. Integrated well log and 2-D seismic data interpretation to image the subsurface stratigraphy and structure in north-eastern Bornu (Chad) basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isyaku, Aminu A.; Rust, Derek; Teeuw, Richard; Whitworth, Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    Structural and stratigraphic mapping within the Bornu Basin in north east Nigeria was commonly carried out using traditional field geological methods. However, such traditional approaches remain inadequate in the semi-arid region characterised by topographically flat areas and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops that are mostly concealed beneath sand cover. Previous studies in the north-eastern part of the basin carried out using ditch cuttings from few wells and disconnected seismic data were largely inadequate and the resulting stratigraphic analyses were more often generalised. This paper presents an integrated structural and stratigraphic study of the basin using combined subsurface geophysical datasets. A Combined Log Pattern (CLP) method is a well log analysis, which utilises various well log data including gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and sonic logs to identify lithology and stratigraphic boundaries of subsurface formations. This method is applied to constrain the subsurface stratigraphy of the north-eastern part of the Bornu Basin bordering the Lake Chad. In addition to qualitative combined well log analysis, the time-depth relationship of the sonic log and seismic data was quantitatively determined by tying a well with an intersecting seismic section to validate the stratigraphic facies horizons identified. Four well log facies and their environments of deposition were characterised from the combined well log analysis of the different log types. It is discovered that the Cretaceous basement structural features controlled the deposition of overlying formations in the basin. Without intact core data, the shallower wells were discovered to have bottomed over subsurface horst features while deeper wells penetrated into the basal facies contained mainly within the grabens. Main subsurface structural lineaments in the area include NW-SE, NE-SW and NNW-SSE trending faults, which mainly formed the horst and graben features. Some stratigraphic formations

  6. Pesticides detected in surface waters and fish of the Red River of the North drainage basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Pesticide data have been collected in the Red River Basin by various Federal, State, and local agencies. Tornes and Brigham (1994) recently summarized many of these historical data. This paper summarizes selected data collected as part of the NAWQA program during 1992-93, and briefly compares these data to historical data and to pesticide usage.

  7. Magma genesis during early stages of lithospheric extension: Great Basin of western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Leeman, W.P.; Harry, D.L. . Dept. of Geology Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Models for extension-related magmatism based on decompression melting of asthenosphere mantle are in conflict with geological and geochemical observations in the Great Basin. First, assuming a dry'' peridotite source, a substantial lag time (ca. 20 Ma) between onset of extension and first manifestations of magmatism is predicted, whereas magmatism was syn-extensional over a large part of the eastern Great Basin. Second, a gradual increase in magmatic intensity with time is predicted, whereas the observed pattern is characterized by voluminous early volcanism and diminishing melt production with time. Third, the models predict initially deep magma production ([approximately] 80 km) followed by progressive shoaling of the magma production zone. In contrast, compositions of the magmas suggest significant involvement of shallower lithospheric sources (incl. crust) in the earliest magmas, and dominance of deeper asthenospheric sources only in the latest Cenozoic, particularly in the southern portion of the Great Basin -- i.e. a duality of mantle sources. The authors suggest that melting of mafic lithologies within lithospheric mantle is physically plausible and can account for many aspects of early extensional magmatism. Only after lithospheric stretching nears [approximately] 100% does asthenospheric mantle become a dominant source of Great Basin basaltic magmas. There is no need to invoke a plume heat source. This model is tested by comparing the thermo-mechanical behavior of extending lithosphere with phase equilibria results for mafic compositions.

  8. Nutrient mass balance for the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Woodside, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    A 1990 nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance calculated for eight National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) basins in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin indicated the importance of agricultural nonpoint sources of nitrogen and phosphorus and watershed nitrogen retention and processing capabilities. Basin total nitrogen and phosphorus input estimates were calculated for atmospheric deposition (which averaged 27 percent of total nitrogen inputs and 22 percent of total phosphorus inputs); crop fertilizer (27 and 25 percent); animal-waste (22 and 50 percent, respectively); point sources (3 percent each of total nitrogen and total phosphorus inputs); and biological nitrogen fixation (21 percent of total nitrogen inputs). Highest in-stream nitrogen and phosphorus loads were measured in predominantly agricultural drainage areas. Intermediate loads were observed in mixed agricultural/urban drainage areas; the lowest loads were measured in mixed agricultural/forested drainage areas. The difference between the sum of the nutrient input categories and the sum of the instream nutrient loads and crop-harvest nutrient removal was assigned to a residual category for the basin. The residual category averaged 51 percent of total nitrogen inputs and 54 percent of total phosphorus inputs.

  9. Contemporary stress and structural permeability in the Carnarvon Basin, North West Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, A. H.; King, R.; Holford, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Carnarvon Basin in Western Australia is Australia's pre-eminent hydrocarbon province, yet the in-situ stress regime in this basin is poorly defined and there is little to no understanding of the contribution that naturally occurring fractures make to structural permeability. In this study a large dataset of recent geophysical data from petroleum wells is analysed from the offshore Carnarvon Basin in order to remedy this deficiency. Borehole failure features are known to be caused as a result of the in-situ stress regime, and be used to reliably identify the orientation of principle stresses. Over 290 borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures were identified from resistivity image logs from 15 wells in the Carnarvon Basin, giving a maximum horizontal stress orientation of approximately 100°N. This orientation shows little variation across the basin. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the three principle stresses are calculated from geophysical well data. The resulting strike-slip faulting regime can be used to predict the reactivation potential of faults and fractures as well as to assess trap integrity. We also identified a total of 550 naturally occurring fractures using the same resistivity image logs. Fractures strike approximately NE-SE, with fractures that are aligned in the in-situ stress field optimally oriented for reactivation, and hence, likely to be open to fluid flow. Fractures are identifiable as being either resistive or conductive sinusoids on the resistivity image logs used in this study. Resistive fractures, of which 350 were identified, are considered to be cemented with electrically resistive cements (such as quartz or calcite) and thus closed to fluid flow. Conductive fractures, of which 200 were identified, are considered to be uncemented and open to fluid flow, and thus important for their possible contributions to permeability. Two 3D seismic datasets are scrutinised using 3D seismic attributes, notably complex multi

  10. Water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Clark, Melanie L.; Miller, Kirk A.; Porter, Stephen D.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report also is for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://wy.water.usgs.gov/YELL/index.htm. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report, in addition to reports in this series from other basins, can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  11. Phylogeography of the dark kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops megacephalus: cryptic lineages and dispersal routes in North America's Great Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S

    2011-01-01

    Aim The rodent genus Microdipodops (kangaroo mice) includes two sand-obligate endemics of the Great Basin Desert: M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. The dark kangaroo mouse, M. megacephalus, is distributed throughout the Great Basin and our principal aims were to formulate phylogenetic hypotheses for this taxon and make phylogeographical comparisons with its congener. Location The Great Basin Desert of western North America. Methods DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes were examined from 186 individuals of M. megacephalus, representing 47 general localities. Phylogenetic inference was used to analyse the sequence data. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns was used to examine haplotype sharing patterns and recover routes of gene exchange. Haplotype–area curves were constructed to evaluate the relationship between genetic variation and distributional island size for M. megacephalus and M. pallidus. Results Microdipodops megacephalus is a rare desert rodent (trapping success was 2.67%). Temporal comparison of trapping data shows that kangaroo mice are becoming less abundant in the study area. The distribution has changed slightly since the 1930s but many northern populations now appear to be small, fragmented, or locally extinct. Four principal phylogroups (the Idaho isolate and the western, central and eastern clades) are evident; mean sequence divergence between phylogroups for cytochrome b is c. 8%. Data from haplotype sharing show two trends: a north–south trend and a web-shaped trend. Analyses of haplotype–area curves reveal significant positive relationships. Main conclusions The four phylogroups of M. megacephalus appear to represent morphologically cryptic species; in comparison, a companion study revealed two cryptic lineages in M. pallidus. Estimated divergence times of the principal clades of M. megacephalus (c. 2–4 Ma) indicate that these kangaroo mice were Pleistocene invaders into the Great Basin coincident with the

  12. Monitoring the runoff response of an ephemeral rocky basin: a case study in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, M.; Trevisani, S.; Marchi, L.; Penna, D.; Borga, M.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    In high elevation alpine catchments, first-order streams are often constituted by steep and narrow channels bound by cliffs. These channels frequently have a structural control imposed by fractures and faults in bedrock and typically constitute temporary streams where snowmelt processes strongly influence runoff. Rocky headwater basins show a different hydrological response with respect to soil-mantled basins and their hydrology is poorly known due to the lack of widespread monitoring sites. Herein we present the preliminary results achieved through an experimental hydro-meteorological monitoring network setup in a 0.1 km2 rocky headwater basin located on the southern flank of the Sella Group in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Italy). Elevation ranges between 2700 m, at the outlet, and 3174 m, with an average value of 2950 m. Geology is constituted mainly by the Norian "Dolomia Principale" (Dolomite) featuring a complex structural setting. The monitoring network, active since 2009, is designed with three rain gauges with a time rate of 5 minutes. Two are located at 2609 and 2597 m (close to the outlet), and the third is located on the divide in the central part of the basin (2911 m). Runoff at the outlet is monitored by a pressure transducer. The time interval was set at 5 minutes in the summer months in order to capture the stream response due to intense and spatially-concentrated rainfall events. In winter the pressure transducer is maintained active with a time rate of 30 minutes so as to be ready to register in spring the stream response due to snowmelt. In the summer 2011, some precipitation, runoff, snow and spring water samples for isotopic analysis (δ18O and δ2H) were collected aiming to better characterize the origin of subsurface water and the main sources to runoff. Preliminary results show ephemeral presence of runoff, mostly occurring during snowmelt (from May to early July) and after intense summer rainstorms. The lag-time from precipitation centroid

  13. New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Fox and Dolton, 1989, 1996a, b; De Bruin, 1993). In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs (Johnson and Finn, 1998; Johnson and others, 1999). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey's assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Bighorn Basin. These new data supplement previously published data by Nuccio and Finn (1998), and Yin (1997), and lead to a better understanding and characterization of the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Eighty-nine samples of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (fig. 2) were collected and analyzed - 15 samples were from outcrops around the margins of the basin and 74 samples were well cuttings (fig. 1). Forty-one of the samples were shale, two were carbonaceous shale, and the remainder from coal. All samples were analyzed by vitrinite reflectance to determine levels of thermal maturation. Preparation of samples for reflectance analysis required (1) crushing the larger pieces into 0.25-to 1-mm pieces, (2) casting the pieces with epoxy in pre-cut and drilled plugs, and (3) curing the samples overnight. Subsequently, a four-step grinding and polishing process was implemented that included sanding with progressively finer sandpaper (60 and 600 grit) followed with a two-step polishing process (0.3 and 0.05 micron). Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined at 500 X magnification using plane-polarized incident white light and a 546-nm monochromatic filter in immersion oil. For samples containing

  14. Ecological data collected in the Santee River basin and coastal drainages, North and South Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ecological investigations were conducted in 23 reaches of 16 streams in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages study unit in North and South Carolina during 1996-98. Habitat characteristics, such as stream width and depth, bank composition, bank vegetative cover, stream shading by overhanging vegetation, and streambed composition were recorded. Algal and benthic invertebrate communities were sampled using quantitative and qualitative techniques. These data will provide information needed to: (1) support findings of the effects of human landuse activities on water quality by augmenting or enhancing physical and chemical water-quality data, (2) provide a basic overview of aquatic community structure in selected stream reaches in the study unit, and (3) provide a means for comparing aquatic communities in subsequent years of the assessment program.

  15. Alaska OCS socioeconomic studies program: St. George basin and North Aleutian Shelf commercial fishing industry analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tobolski, J.; Guluka, L.; Trefethen, D.; Im, K.

    1981-10-01

    This report consists of an update of the data base and analysis of the potential impacts to commercial fishing of proposed Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales in the St. George Basin and North Aleutian Shelf, situated in the Bering Sea off Alaska. Impacts on the Bristol Bay fishery are also discussed. Competition for labor between the fishing and oil industries is examined, as well as an analysis of risk of collision among vessels in the OCS areas. A description of the fisheries resources of the area is followed by an analysis of loss of access to fishing grounds, and loss of or damage to gear. Impacts on the recreational fishery are also discussed.

  16. Low-flow characteristics and discharge profiles for selected streams in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the magnitude and frequency of low-flow discharges is an important part of evaluating surface-water resources and planning for municipal and industrial economic expansion. Low-flow characteristics are summarized in this report for 50 continuous-record gaging stations and 113 partial-record measuring sites in the Neuse River Basin in North Carolina. Records of discharge collected through the 1996 water year were used in the analyses. Flow characteristics included in the summary are (1) average annual unit flow; (2) 7Q10 low-flow discharge, the minimum average discharge for a 7-consecutive-day period occurring, on average, once in 10 years; (3) 30Q2 low-flow discharge; (4) W7Q10 low-flow discharge, similar to 7Q10 discharge except that only flow during November through March is considered; and (5) 7Q2 low-flow discharge.

  17. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries.

  18. A QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF A COMBINED SPECTRAL AND GIS RULE-BASED LAND-COVER CLASSIFICATION IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN OF NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 14,582 km2 Neuse River Basin in North Carolina was characterized based on a user defined land-cover (LC) classification system developed specifically to support spatially explicit, non-point source nitrogen allocation modeling studies. Data processing incorporated both spect...

  19. ESR dating of the Majuangou and Banshan Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Ru; Yin, Gong-Ming; Deng, Cheng-Long; Han, Fei; Song, Wei-Juan

    2014-08-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sequences in the Nihewan Basin, northern China provide an important source of Paleolithic settlements and therefore early human occupation in the eastern Old World. Here we present electron spin resonance (ESR) chronology for the Majuangou (MJG-III, MJG-II and MJG-I) and Banshan (BS) Paleolithic sites in this basin by the quartz Ti-Li center ESR dating. Results show that the ages of MJG-III and MJG-II could be estimated to be ∼1.70 Ma (millions of years ago); of MJG-I, ∼1.40 Ma; and BS, ∼1.35 Ma. This ESR chronology is consistent with the previous magnetochronology, thus providing strong support for the earliest human presence at the high northern latitudes of Northeast Asia.

  20. Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Cook, T.A.; Lewan, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the U.S. portion of the Williston Basin of Montana and North Dakota and within the Williston Basin Province. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system (TPS), which include (1) source-rock distribution, thickness, organic richness, maturation, petroleum generation, and migration; (2) reservoir-rock type (conventional or continuous), distribution, and quality; and (3) character of traps and time of formation with respect to petroleum generation and migration. Framework studies in stratigraphy and structural geology and modeling of petroleum geochemistry, combined with historical exploration and production analyses, were used to estimate the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource of the Bakken Formation. Using this framework, the USGS defined a Bakken-Lodgepole TPS and seven assessment units (AU) within the system. For the Bakken Formation, the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources were quantitatively estimated for six of these AUs.

  1. Selected water-quality and biological characteristics of streams in some forested basins of North Carolina, 1985-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Selected physical, chemical and biological components of streams draining undeveloped, forested basins in North Carolina were characterized on the basis of samples collected at nine sites on streams in basins that ranged in size from 0.67 to 11.2 sq mi. Water analysis included specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, suspended sediment, pH, major dissolved constituents, nutrients, minor constituents, organochlorine insecticides, and biochemical oxygen demand. Biological characteristics included fish tissue analysis for minor constituents and synthetic organic compounds, fish community structure, and benthic macroinvertebrates. Precipitation is the source of 10 to 40% of the chloride concentration and 20 to 30% of the sulfate concentration in stormflow. Mean total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.16 mg/L during low-flow conditions to 1.2 mg/L during stormflow. Organic nitrogen was 60 to 85% of the total nitrogen concentration. Stream water was free of organochlorine insecticides. DDD, DDE, DDT, Lindane, and Mirex were detected in 18 of 60 samples of streambed material. About 35% of fish tissue analyses showed detectable concentrations of copper, lead, mercury and nickel. Synthetic organic chemicals were not detected in fish tissue. Fish community structure data were rated using Karr's Index of Biotic Integrity. Streams rated poor to good because of natural stresses on fish communities. Five streams in the Piedmont and mountains received excellent bioclassification ratings based on benthic macroinvertebrtate data. Two streams in the Coastal Plain rated good to fair because of natural stresses.

  2. Velocity-depth model estimation for a subsalt target from the Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, O.; Rutledge, J.; Sandvin, O.; Godfrey, B. )

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea has been subjected to extensional tectonics, primarily in the east-west direction. Subsequent occurrence of the salt diapirism gave rise to the presence of complex structures. By doing a depth-domain analysis of a 3-D seismic survey data from an area in the Southern Gas Basin, we delineated the structural geometry of the top Rotliegendes formation beneath the complex Zechstein diapiric formation. This required an accurate estimate of the velocity-depth model above the Zechstein diapiric formation and removal of its deleterious effect on the underlying Permian sands of Rotliegendes and deeper targets. We conducted a layer-by-layer depth-domain analysis, and used coherency inversion to estimate layer velocities and 3-D poststack depth migration to delineate reflector geometries down to top Zechstein. We verified the accuracy of the velocity-depth model for the overburden above Zechstein by analyzing image gathers from prestack depth migration. We then analyzed constant-half-space image-gather stacks to estimate velocities for the substratum including Zechstein and the underlying Carboniferous sequence. Finally, we performed 3-D prestack depth migration to delineate the base Zechstein - top Rotliegendes geometry. This study demonstrates the need for depth-domain analysis of seismic data to derive accurate structure maps for targets beneath complex structures associated with salt and overthrust tectonics. The final output from depth-domain analysis -- a velocity-depth model, can then be used as a canvas for a reservoir model.

  3. Velocity-depth model estimation for a subsalt target from the Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, O.; Rutledge, J.; Sandvin, O.; Godfrey, B.

    1996-12-31

    The Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea has been subjected to extensional tectonics, primarily in the east-west direction. Subsequent occurrence of the salt diapirism gave rise to the presence of complex structures. By doing a depth-domain analysis of a 3-D seismic survey data from an area in the Southern Gas Basin, we delineated the structural geometry of the top Rotliegendes formation beneath the complex Zechstein diapiric formation. This required an accurate estimate of the velocity-depth model above the Zechstein diapiric formation and removal of its deleterious effect on the underlying Permian sands of Rotliegendes and deeper targets. We conducted a layer-by-layer depth-domain analysis, and used coherency inversion to estimate layer velocities and 3-D poststack depth migration to delineate reflector geometries down to top Zechstein. We verified the accuracy of the velocity-depth model for the overburden above Zechstein by analyzing image gathers from prestack depth migration. We then analyzed constant-half-space image-gather stacks to estimate velocities for the substratum including Zechstein and the underlying Carboniferous sequence. Finally, we performed 3-D prestack depth migration to delineate the base Zechstein - top Rotliegendes geometry. This study demonstrates the need for depth-domain analysis of seismic data to derive accurate structure maps for targets beneath complex structures associated with salt and overthrust tectonics. The final output from depth-domain analysis -- a velocity-depth model, can then be used as a canvas for a reservoir model.

  4. A record of astronomically forced climate change in a late Ordovician (Sandbian) deep marine sequence, Ordos Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qiang; Wu, Huaichun; Hinnov, Linda A.; Wang, Xunlian; Yang, Tianshui; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Shihong

    2016-07-01

    The late Ordovician Pingliang Formation on the southwestern margin of the Ordos Basin, North China, consists of rhythmic alternations of shale, limestone, and siliceous beds. To explore the possible astronomical forcing preserved in this lithological record, continuous lithological rank and magnetic susceptibility (MS) stratigraphic series were obtained from a ~ 34 m thick section of the Pingliang Formation at Guanzhuang. Power spectral analysis of the MS and rank series reveal 85.5 cm to 124 cm, 23 cm to 38 cm, and 15 cm to 27 cm thick sedimentary cycles that in ratio match that of late Ordovician short eccentricity, obliquity and precession astronomical cycles. The power spectrum of the MS time series, calibrated to interpreted short orbital eccentricity cycles, aligns with spectral peaks to astronomical parameters, including 95 kyr short orbital eccentricity, 35.3 kyr and 30.6 kyr obliquity, and 19.6 kyr and 16.3 kyr precession cycles. The 15 cm to 27 cm thick limestone-shale couplets mainly represent precession cycles, and siliceous bed deposition may be related to both precession and obliquity forcing. We propose that precession-forced sea-level fluctuations mainly controlled production of lime mud in a shallow marine environment, and transport to the basin. Precession and obliquity controlled biogenic silica productivity, and temperature-dependent preservation of silica may have been influenced by obliquity forcing.

  5. Predicting River Discharge Rates in California Watersheds of the Russian River and Other North Coast River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, J.; Potter, C. S.; Gross, P. M.; Genovese, V. B.; Klooster, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study describes applications of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model coupled with a surface hydrologic routing scheme previously called the Hydrological Routing Algorithm (HYDRA) to model river discharge rates across selected California watersheds in the North Coast region of the state. For mountainous areas, CASA-HYDRA snowmelt algorithms have been modified with equations from the USDA Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM), which has been refined to predict daily stream flow in mountain basins where snowmelt is a notable runoff factor. Results show that, based on CASA-HYDRA model predictions of monthly flow rates across the ten complete stream gauges in the Russian River basin from 2000 to 2007, the typical model-to-measurement correlation between monthly river flow rates was R squared = 0.76 (with E = 0.61). Similar validation results for seasonal and annual flow predictions have been developed for numerous coastal redwood forest watersheds where streams support critical wild fisheries habitat. Future model applications for land cover and climate change in northern California’s coastal watersheds are outlined, with emphasis on impacts of municipal and agricultural water demands.

  6. Pre-Variscan back-arc extension of Avalonia: The genesis of the Southern North Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2016-04-01

    The Devonian-Early Carboniferous was a period of intense rifting in the Avalonia microplate in between the Caledonian and the Hercynian-Alleghanian collision phases. This rifting phase created the typical horst-and-graben structure of much of East Avalonia's crust that is best known from the UK and Ireland where the horsts and the graben infill are located at or near the surface. In the Southern North Sea, the Netherlands and northwest Germany, the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous rift structure and units are obliterated by the thick cover of Late Carboniferous-to-Recent basin fill and by the recurrent fault reactivation. Although this rifting created the basis for 350 Ma of lithospheric memory, its dynamics remains relatively unknown. Major open questions include the mode and total amount of extension as well as the age and origin of the Central Graben and the relation between structures located east and west of it. This study addresses these issues by integrating existing data from lithosphere to basin scales and a map-view restoration. We have revised the crustal map of the Thor Suture Zone. The newly defined northern margin of Avalonia and the Thor Suture Zone are key elements in the reconstruction of Devonian-Carboniferous rifting of Avalonian lithosphere. We present a revised map of Devonian-Carboniferous basin structures including the main horsts and grabens and the governing faults east of the Central Graben. Based on these maps, we present a new paleotectonic reconstruction and a novel geodynamic scenario for the Devonian- Carboniferous rifting. These findings are key for better understanding of long-lived tectonic compartmentalisation and post-rifting deformation phases.

  7. Deposition of selenium and other constituents in reservoir bottom sediment of the Solomon River Basin, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.

    1999-01-01

    The Solomon River drains approximately 6,840 square miles of mainly agricultural land in north-central Kansas. The Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Department of the Interior, has begun a Resource Management Assessment (RMA) of the Solomon River Basin to provide the necessary data for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance before renewal of long-term water-service contracts with irrigation districts in the basin. In May 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected bottom-sediment cores from Kirwin and Webster Reservoirs, which are not affected by Bureau irrigation, and Waconda Lake, which receives water from both Bureau and non-Bureau irrigated lands. The cores were analyzed for selected physical properties, total recoverable metals, nutrients, cesium-137, and total organic carbon. Spearman's rho correlations and Kendall's tau trend tests were done for sediment concentrations in cores from each reservoir. Selenium, arsenic, and strontium were the only constituents that showed an increasing trend in concentrations for core samples from more than one reservoir. Concentrations and trends for these three constituents were compared to information on historical irrigation to determine any causal effect. Increases in selenium, arsenic, and strontium concentrations can not be completely explained by Bureau irrigation. However, mean selenium, arsenic, and strontium concentrations in sediment from all three reservoirs may be related to total irrigated acres (Bureau and non-Bureau irrigation) in the basin. Selenium, arsenic, and strontium loads were calculated for Webster Reservoir to determine if annual loads deposited in the reservoir were increasing along with constituent concentrations. Background selenium, arsenic, and strontium loads in Webster Reservoir are significantly larger than post-background loads.

  8. Hydrologic analysis of the Rio Grande Basin north of Embudo, New Mexico; Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearne, G.A.; Dewey, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Water yield was estimated for each of the five regions that represent contrasting hydrologic regimes in the 10,400 square miles of the Rio Grande basin above Embudo, New Mexico. Water yield was estimated as 2,800 cubic feet per second for the San Juan Mountains, and 28 cubic feet per second for the Taos Plateau. Evapotranspiration exceeded precipitation by 150 cubic feet per second on the Costilla Plains and 2,400 cubic feet per second on the Alamosa Basin. A three-dimensional model was constructed to represent the aquifer system in the Alamosa Basin. A preliminary analysis concluded that: (1) a seven-layer model representing 3,200 feet of saturated thickness could accurately simulate the behavior of the flow equation; and (2) the 1950 condition was approximately stable and would be a satisfactory initial condition. Reasonable modifications to groundwater withdrawals simulated 1950-79 water-level declines close to measured value. Sensitivity tests indicated that evapotranspiration salvage was the major source, 69 to 82 percent, of groundwater withdrawals. Evapotranspiration salvage was projected to be the source of most withdrawals. (USGS)

  9. Hydrology of the Chicod Creek basin, North Carolina, prior to channel improvements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Clyde E.; Aldridge, Mary C.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive modification and excavation of stream channels in the 6-square mile Chicod Creek basin began in mid-1979 to reduce flooding and improve stream runoff conditions. The effects of channel improvements on this Coastal Pain basin 's hydrology will be determined from data collected prior to, during, and for several years following channel alternations. This report summarizes the findings of data collected prior to these improvements. During the 3-year study period, flow data collected from four stream gaging stations in the basin show that streams are dry approximately 10 percent of the time. Chemical analyses of water samples from the streams and from eight shallow groundwater observation wells indicate that water discharge from the surficial aquifer is the primary source of streamflow during rainless periods. Concentrations of Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were often 5 to 10 times greater at Chicod Creek sites than those at nearby baseline sites. It is probable that runoff from farming and livestock operations contributes significantly to these elevated concentrations in Chicod Creek. The only pesticides detected in stream water were low levels of DDT and dieldrin, which occurred during storm runoff. A much wider range of pesticides, however, are found associated with streambed materials. The ratio of fecal coliform counts to those of fecal streptococcus indicate that the streams receive fecal wastes from livestock and poultry operations.

  10. Simulation of Constituent Transport in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota, During Unsteady-Flow Conditions, 1977 and 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation identified eight water-supply alternatives for the Red River Valley Water Supply Project. Of those alternatives, six were considered for this study. Those six alternatives include a no-action alternative, two in-basin alternatives, and three interbasin alternatives. To address concerns of stakeholders and to provide information for an environmental impact statement, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, developed and applied a water-quality model to simulate the transport of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, sodium, and total phosphorus during unsteady-flow conditions and to simulate the effects of the water-supply alternatives on water quality in the Red River and the Sheyenne River. The physical domain of the model, hereinafter referred to as the Red River model, includes the Red River from Wahpeton, North Dakota, to Emerson, Manitoba, and the Sheyenne River from below Baldhill Dam, North Dakota, to the confluence with the Red River. Boundary conditions were specified for May 15 through October 31, 2003, and January 15 through June 30, 2004. Measured streamflow data were available for August 1 through October 31, 2003, and April 1 through June 30, 2004, but water-quality data were available only for September 15 through 16, 2003, and May 10 through 13, 2004. The water-quality boundary conditions were assumed to be time invariant for the entire calibration period and to be equal to the measured value. The average difference between the measured and simulated streamflows was less than 4 percent for both calibration periods, and most differences were less than 2 percent. The average differences are considered to be acceptable because the differences are less than 5 percent, or the same as the error that would be expected in a typical streamflow measurement. Simulated total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations generally were less than measured concentrations for both

  11. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both

  12. Water resources of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River Basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, Robert Eugene; LeGrand, H.E.; Billingsley, G.A.

    1957-01-01

    Sufficient water is available in the basin of the Yadkin and Pee Dee Rivers to meet present requirements and those for many years to come if water use increases at about the present rate. Data presented in this report show that the average annual streamflow from approximately 82 percent of the basin area during the 25-year period, 1929-53, was about 6,200 mgd, representing essentially the total available water supply. Comparison of the available water supply to the estimated withdrawal use (excluding water power) of both surface and ground water of 600 mgd indicates the relative utilization of the water resources of the basin at present. If proper pollution controls are observed and practiced so that water in the various streams may be reused several times, the potential water available is even greater than indicated by the above comparison. Preliminary studies indicate that the quantity of water now being withdrawn from ground-water reservoirs in the basin is only a fraction of the total that may be obtained from this source. Twenty-eight of the 64 municipalities having public water-supply systems use surface water; however, as the largest cities in the area use surface supplies, about 85 percent of the water used for public supplies is from surface sources. Of the 20 complete-record stream-gaging stations now in operation in this area 7 have been in operation for 24 years or longer. Periodic measurements of the rate of flow have been made at 31 additional sites on streams scattered widely over the basin. All available streamflow data including those for 1953 are summarized in either graphic or tabular form, or both. Because of the critically low flows occurring during the drought of 1954, several illustrations include data for 1954 and the early months of 1955 for comparison with the minima of previous years. Adequate water for domestic use is available from wells throughout the basin. The consolidated rocks of the Piedmont furnish water for small industries and

  13. Mercury accumulation in Devils Lake, North Dakota effects of environmental variation in closed-basin lakes on mercury chronologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lent, R.M.; Alexander, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from lakes in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota to determine if mercury (Hg) accumulation chronologies from sediment-core data are good indicators of variations in Hg accumulation rates in saline lakes. Sediment cores from Creel Bay and Main Bay, Devils Lake were selected for detailed analysis and interpretation. The maximum Hg concentration in the Creel Bay core was 0.15 micrograms per gram at 8 to 9 centimeters. The maximum Hg concentration in the Main Bay core was 0.07 micrograms per gram at 5 to 7 centimeters. The general decreases in Hg concentrations with depth are attributed to historic variations in atmospheric Hg deposition rate. Hg stratigraphies combined with 210Pb and 137Cs dating analyses yield Hg chronologies that indicate a general increase in Hg accumulation rates in Devils Lake since the middle of the 19th century. Mean modern Hg accumulation rates in Creel Bay were 4.9 nanograms per square centimeter per year, and rates in Main Bay were 1.8 nanograms per square centimeter per year. Mean preindustrial Hg accumulation rates in Creel Bay were 1.2 nanograms per square centimeter per year, and rates in Main Bay were 1.6 nanograms per square centimeter per year. Relatively low Hg concentrations in recent sediments in the Devils Lake Basin, along with similarities in Hg accumulation rates between lakes in the Devils Lake Basin and other lakes in the northern interior of North America, indicate that local sources of Hg are not important sources of Hg. Results of the study indicate that accurate Hg chronologies are discernible in sediment cores collected from saline lakes. However, spatial and temporal variations in lake level and water chemistry common to saline lakes make interpretation of radioisotopic and geochemical chronologies difficult. Hg geochemistry in Devils Lake, and presumably in other saline lakes, is dynamic. The results of this study indicate that the absolute amount of sediment transported to Devils Lake

  14. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013–June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml−1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml−1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d−1 to a maximum of 1.13 d−1 for EC and from 0.17 d−1 to 1.33 d−1 for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system. PMID:26869451

  15. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J; Janeau, J-L; Rochelle-Newall, E

    2016-02-12

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml(-1) and 15300 colonies 100 ml(-1), respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d(-1) to a maximum of 1.13 d(-1) for EC and from 0.17 d(-1) to 1.33 d(-1) for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  16. Using LiDAR datasets to improve HSPF water quality modeling in the Red River of the North Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Foreman, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Red River of the North Basin (RRB), located in the lakebed of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, comprises one of the flattest landscapes in North America. The topography of the basin, coupled with the Red River's direction of flow from south to north results in a system that is highly susceptible to flooding. The magnitude and frequency of flood events in the RRB has prompted several multijurisdictional projects and mitigation efforts. In response to the devastating 1997 flood, an International Joint Commission sponsored task force established the need for accurate elevation data to help improve flood forecasting and better understand risks. This led to the International Water Institute's Red River Basin Mapping Initiative, and the acquisition LiDAR Data for the entire US portion of the RRB. The resulting 1 meter bare earth digital elevation models have been used to improve hydraulic and hydrologic modeling within the RRB, with focus on flood prediction and mitigation. More recently, these LiDAR datasets have been incorporated into Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model applications to improve water quality predictions in the MN portion of the RRB. RESPEC is currently building HSPF model applications for five of MN's 8-digit HUC watersheds draining to the Red River, including: the Red Lake River, Clearwater River, Sandhill River, Two Rivers, and Tamarac River watersheds. This work is being conducted for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) as part of MN's statewide watershed approach to restoring and protecting water. The HSPF model applications simulate hydrology (discharge, stage), as well as a number of water quality constituents (sediment, temperature, organic and inorganic nitrogen, total ammonia, organic and inorganic phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, and algae) continuously for the period 1995-2009 and are formulated to provide predictions at points of interest within the watersheds, such as observation gages

  17. Multiple Magmatic Events Over 40 Ma in the Fish Creek Mountains, North-central Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B.; Henry, C. D.; Stevens, C.; Varve, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Fish Creek Mountains, located in north-central Nevada south of Battle Mountain, is a site of multiple igneous events ranging from ca. 35 Ma to 1 Ma, covering most of the igneous history of the Great Basin of the western United States. Such extended volcanic activity allows for documentation of mantle sources and petrogenetic processes over time. Beginning approximately 50 Ma, the Great Basin experienced a magmatic front that began migrating southwestward across southern Idaho, central Oregon and into northern Nevada and Utah. Intermediate, "arc-like" andesite and dacite dominated volcanic activity in northeastern Nevada between about 45 and 36 Ma. By 34 Ma, a northwest-trending belt of rhyolitic ash-flow calderas began to develop through central Nevada, the "ignimbrite flare-up". Volcanism then migrated westwards towards the Sierra Nevada. In north-central Nevada, the oldest lavas are ca. 35 Ma basaltic andesites through rhyolites that are exposed in the western Shoshone Range, the eastern Tobin Range, and the northern and eastern Fish Creek Mountains. Plagioclase-rich andesites, dacite intrusions, and volcanic breccias occur in a belt along the western side of the Fish Creek Mountains. The bulk of the Fish Creek Mountains is composed of the 24.7 Ma Fish Creek Mountains rhyolitic tuff that is largely confined to an undeformed caldera structure. The caldera and tuff are anomalously young compared to nearby felsic centers such as the Caetano caldera (33.8Ma) and Shoshone Range (39-35 Ma) and relative to the southwest to west magmatic migration. The basal tuff is unwelded, with abundant pumice and lithic (primarily volcanic) fragments but only rare crystals. Sanidine and smoky quartz phenocrysts become more abundant upsection and glassy fiamme (hydrated to devitrified) are common, but the abundance of lithic fragments diminishes. 16-15 Ma volcanic rocks of the Northern Nevada Rift are exposed in the Battle Mountain area, ranging in composition from subalkaine

  18. From the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin: A lithosphere geo-transect across the Iberian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, A.; Fernandez, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.; Torne, M.; Vergés, J.; Melchiorre, M.; Pedreira, D.; Afonso, J. C.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Díaz, J.; Villaseñor, A.; Pulgar, J. A.; Quintana, L.

    2015-11-01

    A ~ 1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin (W-Mediterranean) is investigated. The main goal is to image the changes in the crustal and upper mantle structure occurring in: i) the North-Iberian margin, whose deformation in Alpine times gave rise to the uplift of the Cantabrian Mountains related to Iberia-Eurasia incipient subduction; ii) the Spanish Meseta, characterized by the presence of Cenozoic basins on top of a Variscan basement with weak Alpine deformation in the Central System, and localized Neogene-Quaternary deep volcanism; and iii) the Betic-Alboran system related to Africa-Iberia collision and the roll-back of the Ligurian-Tethyan domain. The modeling approach, combines potential fields, elevation, thermal, seismic, and petrological data under a self-consistent scheme. The crustal structure is mainly constrained by seismic data whereas the upper mantle is constrained by tomographic models. The results highlight the lateral variations in the topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), suggesting a strong lithospheric mantle strain below the Cantabrian and Betic mountain belts. The LAB depth ranges from 180 km beneath the Cantabrian Mountains to 135-110 km beneath Iberia Meseta deepening again to values of 160 km beneath the Betic Cordillera. The Central System, with a mean elevation of 1300 m, has a negligible signature on the LAB depth. We have considered four lithospheric mantle compositions: a predominantly average Phanerozoic in the continental mainland, two more fertile compositions in the Alboran Sea and in the Calatrava Volcanic Province, and a hydrated uppermost mantle in the North-Iberian Margin. These compositional differences allowed us to reproduce the main trends of the geophysical observables as well as the inferred P- and S-wave seismic velocities from tomography models and seismic experiments available in the study transect. The high mean topography of Iberia can be

  19. A New Troodontid Theropod, Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America

    PubMed Central

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Varricchio, David J.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Titus, Alan L.; Knell, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species—Troodon formosus—presently known from substantial skeletal remains. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod—Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov.—from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of Talos was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus Troodon. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Talos as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing Troodon, Saurornithoides, and Zanabazar. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological remodeling on pedal phalanx II-1 of the holotype specimen likely resulting from physical trauma and subsequent infectious processes. Conclusion/Significance Talos sampsoni adds to the singularity of the Kaiparowits Formation dinosaur fauna, which is represented by at least 10 previously unrecognized species including the recently named ceratopsids Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops, the hadrosaurine Gryposaurus monumentensis, the tyrannosaurid Teratophoneus, and the oviraptorosaurian Hagryphus. The presence of a distinct troodontid taxon in the Kaiparowits Formation supports the hypothesis that late Campanian dinosaurs of the Western Interior Basin exhibited restricted geographic ranges and suggests that the taxonomic diversity of Late Cretaceous troodontids from North America is currently underestimated. An apparent traumatic injury to the foot of Talos with evidence of subsequent healing sheds new light on the paleobiology of deinonychosaurians by bolstering

  20. Water-Quality Trend Analysis and Sampling Design for the Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota, January 1965 Through September 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission, the Devils Lake Basin Joint Water Resource Board, and the Red River Joint Water Resource District, to analyze historical water-quality trends in three dissolved major ions, three nutrients, and one dissolved trace element for eight stations in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota and to develop an efficient sampling design to monitor the future trends. A multiple-regression model was used to detect and remove streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. To separate the natural variability in concentration as a result of variability in streamflow from the variability in concentration as a result of other factors, the base-10 logarithm of daily streamflow was divided into four components-a 5-year streamflow anomaly, an annual streamflow anomaly, a seasonal streamflow anomaly, and a daily streamflow anomaly. The constituent concentrations then were adjusted for streamflow-related variability by removing the 5-year, annual, seasonal, and daily variability. Constituents used for the water-quality trend analysis were evaluated for a step trend to examine the effect of Channel A on water quality in the basin and a linear trend to detect gradual changes with time from January 1980 through September 2003. The fitted upward linear trends for dissolved calcium concentrations during 1980-2003 for two stations were significant. The fitted step trends for dissolved sulfate concentrations for three stations were positive and similar in magnitude. Of the three upward trends, one was significant. The fitted step trends for dissolved chloride concentrations were positive but insignificant. The fitted linear trends for the upstream stations were small and insignificant, but three of the downward trends that occurred during 1980-2003 for the remaining stations were significant. The fitted upward linear trends for dissolved

  1. Relation of physical and chemical characteristics of streams to fish communities in the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; Stauffer, J.C.; Larson, P.R.; Lorenz, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the instream habitat data set, measures of habitat volume (channel width and depth) and habitat diversity were most significant in explaining the variability of the fish communities. The amount of nonagricultural land and riparian zone integrity from the terrestrial habitat data set were also useful in explaining fish community composition. Variability of mean monthly discharge and the frequency of high and low discharge events during the three years prior to fish sampling were the most influential of the hydrologic variables.The first two axes of the canonical correspondence analysis accounted for 43.3 percent of the variation in the fish community and 52.5 percent of the variation in the environmental-species relation. Water-quality indicators such as the percent of fine material in suspended sediment, minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations, minimum concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the range of concentrations of major ions and nutrients were the variables that were most important in the canonical correspondence analysis of water-quality data with fish. No single environmental variable or data set appeared to be more important than another in explaining variation in the fish community. The environmental factors affecting the fish communities of the Red River of the North are interrelated. For the most part, instream environmental conditions (instream habitat, hydrology, and water chemistry) appear to be more important in explaining variability in fish community composition than factors related to the agricultural nature of the basin.

  2. New Constraints on Buried Triassic Basins of the Eastern North American Margin and Implications for Regional Tectonics from Reanalysis of SeisData6 Seismic Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. C.; Akintunde, O. M.; Knapp, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) is most significant due to the complexity and regional extent of this mature Mesozoic passive margin rift system encompassing: (1) a large volume and regional extent of related magmatism, (2) a preserved complete stratigraphic column that records the post-rift evolution in several basins, (3) preserved lithospheric-scale pre-rift structures including Paleozoic sutures, and (4) a wide-range of geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies both onshore and offshore. The short-lived but most voluminous magmatic event associated with the initiation of rifting, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), is one of the most significant magmatic events in North America. The South Georgia Rift (SGR) basin is believed to be the largest and probably the most geologically complex Mesozoic graben of the ENAM formed during crustal extension associated with the breakup of Pangea and later opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The separation of the African and North American plates, the formation of the Atlantic Ocean and the associated zones of weakness in eastern North America have been stated as the initial events in the breakup of Pangea. At least four major unanswered questions of regional tectonic significance derive from a previous study of the USGS SeisData6 seismic profile across the Coastal Plain of South East Georgia and are now addressed through reprocessing. These issues are: (1) the stratigraphy, structural composition, extent and thickness of this buried basin which have remained unknown, (2) whether or not the SGR basin is connected with the Riddleville and Dunbarton basins in Georgia and South Carolina, (3) whether or not the Augusta fault, an inferred crustal scale thrust fault which approximately represents the Piedmont-Coastal Plain boundary in Georgia and South Carolina, extends underneath the Coastal Plain sediments, and (4) weather there is evidence of CAMP basalt flows or sills within the SGR basin along this

  3. Optimum interpolation analysis of basin-scale ¹³⁷Cs transport in surface seawater in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Y; Aoyama, M; Tsumune, D; Motoi, T; Nakano, H

    2012-12-01

    ¹³⁷Cs is one of the conservative tracers applied to the study of oceanic circulation processes on decadal time scales. To investigate the spatial distribution and the temporal variation of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in surface seawater in the North Pacific Ocean after 1957, a technique for optimum interpolation (OI) was applied to understand the behaviour of ¹³⁷Cs that revealed the basin-scale circulation of Cs ¹³⁷Cs in surface seawater in the North Pacific Ocean: ¹³⁷Cs deposited in the western North Pacific Ocean from global fallout (late 1950s and early 1960s) and from local fallout (transported from the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during the late 1950s) was further transported eastward with the Kuroshio and North Pacific Currents within several years of deposition and was accumulated in the eastern North Pacific Ocean until 1967. Subsequently, ¹³⁷Cs concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean decreased due to southward transport. Less radioactively contaminated seawater was also transported northward, upstream of the North Equatorial Current in the western North Pacific Ocean in the 1970s, indicating seawater re-circulation in the North Pacific Gyre.

  4. Quaternary geology of Vacherie salt dome, north Louisiana salt dome basin. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C.R.; Holmes, J.C.; Alford, J.J.

    1983-07-01

    This volume comprises 14 appendices: lineations on Vacherie and Rayburn's domes (1977); possible geomorphic influence of Vacherie salt dome on the Quaternary fluvial geomorphology of Bashaway Creek (1980); remote sensing and analysis of radar imagery (1978); uphole seismic survey at Vacherie salt dome (1977); electrical resistivity survey at Vacherie salt dome (1978); pedologic investigations (1977); ionium-thorium dating of ironstones from terrace deposits, Vacherie salt dome, North Louisiana (1978); grain-shape and grain-surface studies (1981); the terrace concept - Gulf Coastal Plain (1981); interpretation of Quaternary sediments along lines of seismic shot hole (1976); topographic lows above domes (1977); structural significance of topographic lows above North Louisiana salt domes (1981); diagnostic microfossils - Vacherie dome (1978); and development of stratigraphy above Vacherie dome from Cretaceous to Sparta times (1982).

  5. Forest River Basin, North Dakota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control and Related Purposes. Phase I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    birds and some song birds also depend on the wetlands for reproduction habitat. One of the most extensive waterfowl habitat areas within the subbasin...Mourning Dove Black-billed Cuckoo Great Horned Owl Snowy Owl Pectoral Sandpiper White-rumped Sandpiper Least Sandpiper Short-billed Dowitcher Long...Sparrow White-throated Sparrow Fox Sperrow Swamp Sparrow Song Sparrow Snow Bunting A-4 FIGUREA-2 MAMMALS FOUND IN NORTHEASTERN NORTH DAKOTA AND THE

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Pembilier Lake and Dam, Pembina River Basin, North Dakota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    through local weather wire and telephone to newspapers, radio and television stations , and the St. Paul District Corps of Engineers. 6.026 In general...and Character- istics, Canadian and U.S. Gagipg Stations 21 7 Data on Floods of Record on the Pembina River Near Walhalla, North Dakota, 1940-71 23 8...and are generally from the northwest. Records of temperature and precipitation are available from 30 meteorological stations within and adjacent to the

  7. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    compound growth rate of 0.94% as compared to a predicted compound growth rate of 0.875% for North Carolina and 0.69% for South Carolina. Projected Series E...utilization rates , food habits, age and growth , and relative abundance of selected streams and rivers. Their findings indicate the potential damage...by the nearly level topography, moderate soil infiltration rates , and seasonal high water tables. All major tributaries are broad, heavily timbered

  8. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  9. Stratigraphy and diagenesis of the Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, P.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Stratigraphic correlation of the Lodgepole Limestone (Bottineau Interval) indicates a sequence of three clinoform-shaped wedges that filled in the early Williston Basin. To date four productive 100m thick mounds have been discovered in the Lodgepole Limestone at Dickinson Field. The mounds seem to have nucleated at the toe of slope of the first highstand system tract and were subsequently buried by the second highstand systems tract. By isopaching each of the systems tracts one can predict were other mounds might have nucleated. Burial depth of the Bakken Shale-Lodgepole Limestone contact grade from 0.6 km at the edge of the Williston Basin to 3.4 km in the center. With increased depth the basal Lodgepole Limestone shows three phases of dolomitization, which are: small clear early dolomite; later iron rich fracture filling saddle dolomite and a later iron rich dolomite that seems to follow stylolites. Pre-oil migration mineralization of the overlying limestone include minor amounts of: anhydrite, pyrite, iron poor sphalerite, late iron rich sphalerite, chalcopyrite and celestite.

  10. Stratigraphy and diagenesis of the Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    Stratigraphic correlation of the Lodgepole Limestone (Bottineau Interval) indicates a sequence of three clinoform-shaped wedges that filled in the early Williston Basin. To date four productive 100m thick mounds have been discovered in the Lodgepole Limestone at Dickinson Field. The mounds seem to have nucleated at the toe of slope of the first highstand system tract and were subsequently buried by the second highstand systems tract. By isopaching each of the systems tracts one can predict were other mounds might have nucleated. Burial depth of the Bakken Shale-Lodgepole Limestone contact grade from 0.6 km at the edge of the Williston Basin to 3.4 km in the center. With increased depth the basal Lodgepole Limestone shows three phases of dolomitization, which are: small clear early dolomite; later iron rich fracture filling saddle dolomite and a later iron rich dolomite that seems to follow stylolites. Pre-oil migration mineralization of the overlying limestone include minor amounts of: anhydrite, pyrite, iron poor sphalerite, late iron rich sphalerite, chalcopyrite and celestite.

  11. Antiphasing Between Rainfall in Africa's Rift Valley and North America's Great Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, Wallace S.; Pettet, Dorothy; Hajdas, Irena; Lin, Jo; Clark, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    The beginning of the Bolling-Allerod warm period is marked in Greenland ice by an abrupt rise in (Delta)O-18, an abrupt drop in dust rain, and an abrupt increase in atmospheric methane content. The surface waters in the Norwegian Sea underwent a simultaneous abrupt warming. At about this time, a major change in the pattern of global rainfall occurred. Lake Victoria (latitude 0deg), which prior to this time was dry, was rejuvenated. The Red Sea, which prior to this time was hypersaline, freshened. Lake Lahontan, which prior to this time had achieved its largest size, desiccated. Whereas the chronologic support for the abruptness of the hydrologic changes is firm only for the Red Sea, in keeping with evidence obtained well away from the nor-them Atlantic in the Santa Barbara basin and the Cariaco Trench, the onset and end of the millennial-duration climate events were globally abrupt. If so, the proposed linkage between the size of African closed basin lakes and insolation cycles must be reexamined.

  12. Deformation History of the Haymana Basin: Structural Records of Closure-Collision and Subsequent Convergence (Indentation) Events at the North-Central Neotethys (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin

    2016-04-01

    Gondwana- (Tauride Platfrom and Kırşehir Block) and Eurasia (Pontides) - derived continental blocks bound the Haymana basin, in the south and north, respectively. Boundaries between these blocks are signed by İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan and debatable Intra-Tauride Suture zones which are straddled by the Haymana Basin in the region. In this regard, deformation recorded in the upper Cretaceous to middle Eocene deposits of the basin is mainly controlled by the relative movements of these blocks. Therefore, understanding the structural evolution of the Haymana Basin in a spatio-temporal concept is crucial to shed some light on some debatable issues such as ; (1) timing of late stage subduction histories of various branches of Neotethys and subsequent collision events, (2) effects of post-collisional tectonic activity in the Haymana region. Fault kinematic analyses (based on 623 fault-slip data from 73 stations) indicate that the basin was subjected to initially N-S to NNE-SSW extension until middle Paleocene and then N-S- to NNE-SSW- directed continuous compression and coeval E-W to ESE-WNW extension up to middle Miocene. These different deformation phases correspond to the fore-arc (closure) and foreland (collision and further convergence) stages of the basin. Additionally, fold analyses (based on 1017 bedding attitudes) and structural mapping studies show that development of folds and major faults are coeval and they can be explained by principle stress orientations of the second deformation phase. The Haymana basin is, based on the trends of E-W- and WNW-ESE- directed structures at the south-eastern and the north-western parts of the basin, respectively, divided into two structural segments. The balanced cross-sections also indicate ~4% and ~25% shortening at the north-western and south-eastern segments, respectively. The differences in amounts of shortenings are explained by reduce in effectiveness zone of basin-bounding thrust faults towards west. On the other hand

  13. Regression Equations for Estimating Concentrations of Selected Water-Quality Constituents for Selected Gaging Stations in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act, passed by the U.S. Congress on December 15, 2000, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and quality needs of the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and possible options to meet those water needs. Previous Red River of the North Basin studies conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation used streamflow and water-quality data bases developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that included data for 1931-84. As a result of the recent congressional authorization and results of previous studies by the Bureau of Reclamation, redevelopment of the streamflow and water-quality data bases with current data through 1999 are needed in order to evaluate and predict the water-quantity and quality effects within the Red River of the North Basin. This report provides updated statistical summaries of selected water-quality constituents and streamflow and the regression relations between them. Available data for 1931-99 were used to develop regression equations between 5 selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for 38 gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin. The water-quality constituents that were regressed against streamflow were hardness (as CaCO3), sodium, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids. Statistical summaries of the selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for the gaging stations used in the regression equations development and the applications and limitations of the regression equations are presented in this report.

  14. The genetic impact of the lake chad basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Podgorná, Eliška; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    The presence of sub-Saharan L-type mtDNA sequences in North Africa has traditionally been explained by the recent slave trade. However, gene flow between sub-Saharan and northern African populations would also have been made possible earlier through the greening of the Sahara resulting from Early Holocene climatic improvement. In this article, we examine human dispersals across the Sahara through the analysis of the sub-Saharan mtDNA haplogroup L3e5, which is not only commonly found in the Lake Chad Basin (∼17%), but which also attains nonnegligible frequencies (∼10%) in some Northwestern African populations. Age estimates point to its origin ∼10 ka, probably directly in the Lake Chad Basin, where the clade occurs across linguistic boundaries. The virtual absence of this specific haplogroup in Daza from Northern Chad and all West African populations suggests that its migration took place elsewhere, perhaps through Northern Niger. Interestingly, independent confirmation of Early Holocene contacts between North Africa and the Lake Chad Basin have been provided by craniofacial data from Central Niger, supporting our suggestion that the Early Holocene offered a suitable climatic window for genetic exchanges between North and sub-Saharan Africa. In view of its younger founder age in North Africa, the discontinuous distribution of L3e5 was probably caused by the Middle Holocene re-expansion of the Sahara desert, disrupting the clade's original continuous spread.

  15. Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide with Enhanced Gas Recovery-CaseStudy Altmark, North German Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Rebscher, Dorothee; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-10-12

    Geologic carbon dioxide storage is one strategy for reducingCO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Depleted natural gas reservoirs are anobvious target for CO2 storage due to their proven record of gascontainment. Germany has both large industrial sources of CO2 anddepleting gas reservoirs. The purpose of this report is to describe theanalysis and modeling performed to investigate the feasibility ofinjecting CO2 into nearly depleted gas reservoirs in the Altmark area inNorth Germany for geologic CO2 storage with enhanced gasrecovery.

  16. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  17. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003–2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes. PMID:26506230

  18. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003-2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes.

  19. Export of dissolved organic carbon from the Penobscot River basin in north-central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Aiken, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux from the Penobscot River and its major tributaries in Maine was determined using continuous discharge measurements, discrete water sampling, and the LOADEST regression software. The average daily flux during 2004–2007 was 71 kg C ha−1 yr−1 (392 Mt C d−1), an amount larger than measured in most northern temperate and boreal rivers. Distinct seasonal variation was observed in the relation between concentration and discharge (C–Q). During June through December (summer/fall), there was a relatively steep positive C–Q relation where concentration increased by a factor of 2–3 over the approximately 20-fold range of observed stream discharge for the Penobscot River near Eddington, Maine. In contrast, during January through May (winter/spring), DOC concentration did not increase with increasing discharge. In addition, we observed a major shift in the C–Q between 2004–2005 and 2006–2007, apparently resulting from unprecedented rainfall, runoff, and soil flushing beginning in late fall 2005. The relative contribution to the total Penobscot River basin DOC flux from each tributary varied dramatically by season, reflecting the role of large regulated reservoirs in certain basins. DOC concentration and flux per unit watershed area were highest in tributaries containing the largest areas in palustrine wetlands. Tributary DOC concentration and flux was positively correlated to percentage wetland area. Climatic or environmental changes that influence the magnitude or timing of river discharge or the abundance of wetlands will likely affect the export of DOC to the near-coastal ocean.

  20. Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous facies relationships in a passive margin basin, western North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, B.E.

    1988-02-01

    Correlation of facies from hydrocarbon-bearing continental and transitional marine sandstones to time-equivalent high-energy shelf-margin carbonates provide insight into hydrocarbon habitats of the Baltimore Canyon basin. These facies occur within a thick (> 10,000 ft) prograded wedge of shelf sediments in this passive margin basin. Wells drilled to test structural closures in shallow-water (< 600 ft) areas of Baltimore Canyon penetrate clastic facies which are time-equivalent to the downdip carbonate facies tested in deep-water wells. Numerous hydrocarbon shows, including a noncommercial gas and gas-condensate accumulation, occur with sandstone units that were deposited in prograding continental/fluvial and transitional marine environments located updip of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian carbonate shelf edge. The continental and transitional facies are overlain by a fine-grained deltaic complex which forms a regionally extensive top seal unit. The deltaic complex was deposited during aggradation of the Kimmeridgian through Berriasian shelf-margin carbonates penetrated by the deep-water wells. Deep-water wells (> 5000 ft) drilled off the continental shelf edge to test large structural closures along the downdip termination of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous carbonate shelf edge encountered no significant hydrocarbon shows. Reservoir rocks in these wells consist of (1) oolite grainstone which was deposited within a shoal-water complex located at the Aptian shelf edge, and (2) coral-stromatoporoid grainstone and boundstone which formed an aggraded shelf-margin complex located at the Kimmeridgian through Berriasian shelf edge. Structural closures with reservoir and top seals are present in both updip and downdip trends. The absence of hydrocarbon shows in downdip carbonate reservoirs suggests a lack of source rocks available to charge objectives at the shelf margin.

  1. Water-quality in the North Santiam River basin, Oregon-Comparison of water-quality data for water year 2007 with the preceding period of record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, David R.; Johnston, Matthew W.; Bragg, Heather M.; Brooks, Amy M.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Water-quality data have been collected in the North Santiam River basin since 1998. During water year 2007, eight monitoring stations were operated throughout the basin. Streamflow data were collected at all but one of these sites. This report presents a comparison of the water-quality and streamflow data collected at each monitoring station from monitor installation through water year 2006 with the data for water year 2007. Data were compiled monthly and annually to identify extreme values by season and for entire periods of study.

  2. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  3. Phylogeography of the pallid kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops pallidus: a sand-obligate endemic of the Great Basin, western North America

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, John C; Upham, Nathan S; Reddington, Emily; Torres, Candice W

    2008-01-01

    Aim Kangaroo mice, genus Microdipodops Merriam, are endemic to the Great Basin and include two species: M. pallidus Merriam and M. megacephalus Merriam. The pallid kangaroo mouse, M. pallidus, is a sand-obligate desert rodent. Our principal intent is to identify its current geographical distribution and to formulate a phylogeographical hypothesis for this taxon. In addition, we test for orientation patterns in haplotype sharing for evidence of past episodes of movement and gene flow. Location The Great Basin Desert region of western North America, especially the sandy habitats of the Lahontan Trough and those in south-central Nevada. Methods Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from portions of three genes (16S ribosomal RNA, cytochrome b, and transfer RNA for glutamic acid) were obtained from 98 individuals of M. pallidus representing 27 general localities sampled throughout its geographical range. Molecular sequence data were analysed using neighbour-joining, maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference. Directional analysis of phylogeographical patterns, a novel method, was used to examine angular measurements of haplotype sharing between pairs of localities to detect and quantify historical events pertaining to movement patterns and gene flow. Results Collecting activities showed that M. pallidus is a rather rare rodent (mean trapping success was 2.88%), and its distribution has changed little from that determined three-quarters of a century ago. Two principal phylogroups, distributed as eastern and western moieties, are evident from the phylogenetic analyses (mean sequence divergence for cytochrome b is c. 8%). The western clade shows little phylogenetic structure and seems to represent a large polytomy. In the eastern clade, however, three subgroups are recognized. Nine of the 42 unique composite haplotypes are present at two or more localities and are used for the orientation analyses. Axial data from haplotype sharing

  4. Water budget estimates for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River Basin of north-central Nevada. The water budgets include estimates of average annual precipitation, runoff, water yield, ground-water recharge and subsurface flow, and evapotranspiration (ET) determined from recently developed or revised methods. Ground-water pumping is not included in the budget estimates. The estimated budgets represent average annual volumes over a 30-year reference period ( 1961-90) and are compared to water budgets developed more than 30 years ago. Annual inflow to the middle Humboldt River basin is about 5 million acre-feet. An estimated 4.6 million is from precipitation in the 14 hydrographic areas and about 350,000 acre-feet is inflow from the Humboldt River. Annual outflow is about 5.1 million acre-feet, of which ET accounts for 4.8 million acre-feet, and outflow of the Humboldt River is about 300,000 acre-feet. Average annual precipitation in the hydrographic areas for 1961-90 ranged from 105 to 128 percent of that for the 1912-63 period. The annual volume ofET in the 14 areas was 102 to almost 134 percent of that previously estimated, although the percentage of annual precipitation lost to ET is similar. About 15 percent of the annual precipitation in mountain-block areas becomes water yield (either ground water or runoff) as compared to previous estimates of 11 percent. On the basis of mass-balance calculations, ground-water recharge on average is about 145 percent of previous estimates.

  5. Major Crustal Fault Zone Trends and Their Relation to Mineral Belts in the North-Central Great Basin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2007-01-01

    The Great Basin physiographic province covers a large part of the western United States and contains one of the world's leading gold-producing areas, the Carlin Trend. In the Great Basin, many sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits occur along such linear mineral-occurrence trends. The distribution and genesis of these deposits is not fully understood, but most models indicate that regional tectonic structures play an important role in their spatial distribution. Over 100 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were acquired between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate crustal structures that may underlie the linear trends in north-central Nevada. MT sounding data were used to map changes in electrical resistivity as a function of depth that are related to subsurface lithologic and structural variations. Two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity modeling of the MT data reveals primarily northerly and northeasterly trending narrow 2-D conductors (1 to 30 ohm-m) extending to mid-crustal depths (5-20 km) that are interpreted to be major crustal fault zones. There are also a few westerly and northwesterly trending 2-D conductors. However, the great majority of the inferred crustal fault zones mapped using MT are perpendicular or oblique to the generally accepted trends. The correlation of strike of three crustal fault zones with the strike of the Carlin and Getchell trends and the Alligator Ridge district suggests they may have been the root fluid flow pathways that fed faults and fracture networks at shallower levels where gold precipitated in favorable host rocks. The abundant northeasterly crustal structures that do not correlate with the major trends may be structures that are open to fluid flow at the present time.

  6. Many objective optimization and impact assessment of water management options in the Jaguaribe Basin of North East Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, A. P.; Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E.; Harou, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Jaguaribe river basin in the north east of Brazil lies in the country's driest state, Ceará. Rainfall is concentrated in six months of the year, evapotranspiration can reach 2000 mm per year and a high proportion of the population relies on irrigated agriculture for their subsistence or livelihood. The current water management strategy involves negotiating monthly release rates from each of the basin's three major reservoirs twice a year. The state water management company leads these negotiations with representatives of various water user groups; releases are decided based on the currently stored volume and limited modelling of release scenarios. Presently reservoirs are managed such that municipal demands are guaranteed for 30 months from the date of negotiation. We use multi-objective optimization to search for the pareto-optimal number of months of municipal demand to be guaranteed, and the shape of release rules (based on stored volume). System performance is assessed by comparing flow-duration curves and livelihood factors, such as riparian farm land availability and fishery quality , in addition to the satisfaction of demands in the region supplied by each reservoir. Historical monthly flows are used to simulate the system over 90 years. Results shows the trade-offs between different performance measures and the effects of management option combinations on different water users. A few climate change projections of reservoir inflows are used to assess how a selection of the resulting release rules might perform against the same measures under altered future hydrological conditions. The proposed approach helps planners evaluate the impacts of management options and allows finding balanced stakeholder-backed ways to reduce negative impacts on the environment and the region's vulnerable groups while maintaining overall system performance.

  7. Cenozoic lithospheric evolution of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton: Constraint from tectono-thermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiongying; He, Lijuan; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Linyou

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) had been thinned before the Cenozoic. A 2D multi-phase extension model, in which the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses are variable, is presented to reconstruct the initial thicknesses of the crust and lithosphere in the early Cenozoic and to further investigate the lithospheric evolution beneath the eastern NCC through the Cenozoic. We conduct thermal modeling along three profiles from east to west in the Bohai Bay Basin, which is the center of the lithospheric destruction and thinning of the NCC. Using multiple constraints, such as tectonic subsidence, the present-day heat flow and the Moho depth, we determine the initial crustal and lithospheric thicknesses of the Bohai Bay Basin before the Cenozoic rift to be 33-36 km and 80-105 km, respectively. The model results show that the most rapid lithospheric thinning during the Cenozoic occurred in the middle Eocene for most depressions, and the thinning activity ceased at the end of the Oligocene, reaching a minimum lithospheric thickness of 53-74 km, followed by a thermal relaxation phase. Combined with previous studies, we infer that the lithosphere beneath the eastern NCC experienced two stages of alternating thinning and thickening: notable thinning in the Early Cretaceous and Paleogene, and thickening in the Late Cretaceous and late Cenozoic. We believe that thermo-chemical erosion, together with extension, was probably the major mechanism of the significant lithospheric removal during the Mesozoic, whereas the Cenozoic lithospheric thinning was mainly dominated by tectonic extension in the eastern NCC; lithospheric thickening was generally a result of thermal cooling.

  8. Trans-Atlantic responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to basin-scale forcing associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C. H.; Pershing, A. J.; Conversi, A.; Planque, B.; Hannah, C.; Sameoto, D.; Head, E.; Smith, P. C.; Reid, P. C.; Jossi, J.; Mountain, D.; Benfield, M. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Durbin, E.

    2003-08-01

    Populations of the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus often dominate the springtime biomass and secondary production of shelf ecosystems throughout the North Atlantic Ocean. Recently, it has been hypothesised that interannual to interdecadal fluctuations observed in such populations are driven primarily by climate-associated changes in ocean circulation. Here, we compare evidence from the North Sea and Gulf of Maine/Western Scotian Shelf (GoM/WSS) linking fluctuations in C. finmarchicus abundance to changes in ocean circulation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A particularly striking contrast emerges from this Trans-Atlantic comparison: whereas the North Sea C. finmarchicus population exhibits a negative correlation with the NAO index, the GoM/WSS population exhibits a more complex, positive association with the index. The physical processes underlying these contrasting population responses are discussed in the context of regional- to basin-scale circulation changes associated with the NAO.

  9. Statistical Aspects of North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones During the Weather Satellite Era, 1960-2013: Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    A tropical cyclone is described as a warm-core, nonfrontal, synoptic-scale system that originates over tropical or subtropical waters, having organized deep convection and closed surface wind circulation (counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere) about a well defined center. When its sustained wind speed equals 34-63 kt, it is called a tropical (or subtropical) storm and is given a name (i.e., alternating male and female names, beginning in 1979); when its sustained wind speed equals 64-95 kt, it is called a hurricane (at least in the Eastern Pacific and North Atlantic basin); and when its sustained wind speed equals 96 kt or higher, it is called an intense or major hurricane (i.e., categories 3-5 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale). Although tropical cyclones have been reported and described since the voyages of Columbus, a detailed record of their occurrences extends only from 1851 to the present, with the most reliable portion extending only from about 1945 to the present, owing to the use of near-continuous routine reconnaissance aircraft monitoring flights and the use of satellite imagery (beginning in 1960; see Davis). Even so, the record may still be incomplete, possibly missing at least one tropical cyclone per yearly hurricane season, especially prior to the use of continuous satellite monitoring. In fact, often an unnamed tropical cyclone is included in the year-end listing of events at the conclusion of the season, following post-season analysis (e.g., as happened in 2011 and 2013, each having one unnamed event). In this two-part Technical Publication (TP), statistical aspects of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones are examined for the interval 1960-2013, the weather satellite era. Part 1 examines some 25 parameters of tropical cyclones (e.g., frequencies, peak wind speed (PWS), accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), etc.), while part 2 examines the relationship of these parameters against specific climate-related factors. These studies are

  10. Geology and physiography of the continental margin north of Alaska and implications for the origin of the Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Eittreim, Stephen L.; Whitney, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska is of Atlantic type. It began to form probably in Early Jurassic time but possibly in middle Early Cretaceous time, when the oceanic Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is thought to have opened by rifting about a pole of rotation near the Mackenzie Delta. Offsets of the rift along two fracture zones are thought to have divided the Alaskan margin into three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. In the Barter Island sector on the east and the Chukchi sector on the west the rift was closer to the present northern Alaska mainland than in the Barrow sector, which lies between them. In the Barter Island and Chukchi sectors the continental shelf is underlain by prisms of clastic sedimentary rocks that are inferred to include thick sections of Jurassic and Neocomian (lower Lower Cretaceous) strata of southern provenance. In the intervening Barrow sector the shelf is underlain by relatively thin sections of Jurassic and Neocomian strata derived from northern sources that now lie beneath the outer continental shelf. The rifted continental margin is overlain by a prograded prism of Albian (upper Lower Cretaceous) to Tertiary clastic sedimentary rocks that comprises the continental terrace of the western Beaufort and northern Chukchi Seas. On the south the prism is bounded by Barrow arch, which is a hingeline between the northward-tilted basement surface beneath the continental shelf of the western Beaufort Sea and the southward-tilted Arctic Platform of northern Alaska. The Arctic platform is overlain by shelf clastic and carbonate strata of Mississippian to Cretaceous age, and by Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic strata of the Colville foredeep. Both the Arctic platform and Colville foredeep sequences extend from northern Alaska beneath the northern Chukchi Sea. At Herald fault zone in the central Chukchi Sea they are overthrust by more strongly deformed Cretaceous to Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Herald arch, which trends

  11. Identifying hydrological pathways in the north basin of Lake Kivu using stable isotope ratios of meteoric recharge and surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagizi, Charles M.; Kasereka, Marcellin M.; Terzerand, Stefan; Cuoco, Emilio; Liotta, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    A rain-gauge network of 12 stations was installed at different altitudes at Nyiragongo volcano (DR Congo) and surroundings and sampled on monthly basis between December 2013 and June 2015 to evaluate the isotopic signature of the meteoric recharge. Additional samples were collected on monthly basis from 5 rivers, 7 springs, 3 profiles in Kabuno bay and 2 others in the Main Basin of Lake Kivu to determine their water isotope compositions (δ18O and δ2H). The precipitation, surface and groundwater δ18O and δ2H values were thereafter used to estimate the groundwater recharge area, surface and groundwater inflow level to Lake Kivu, and for modeling water circulation in the north basin of Lake Kivu. The monthly precipitation isotope composition varied in a large range, whereas mean precipitation-weighed values ranged between -12.39‰ and 6.52‰ for δ2H, and from -4.02‰ to -0.91‰ for δ18O. Monthly values allowed to define a Local Meteoric Water Line of equation δ2H=7.96δ18O + 16.96. Our dataset, the first time series in the Virunga, implies that the δ18O and δ2H of precipitation are predominantly determined by the recycled moisture source area, while their clearly defined seasonality is driven by wind direction and precipitation amount changes. The δ18O, δ2H and deuterium-excess values revealed a convergence zone around Nyiragongo where the N-NE and S-SW trade winds come together. Moisture from the Nile River basin brought by the N-NE originating winds yielded depleted precipitation at local highlands, while that from the Congo River basin brought by the S-SW wind yielded enriched precipitation at lowlands. Rivers and springs monthly are included in the range of monthly precipitation values, and are thus indicative of lack of significant evaporation during aquifer recharge. The mean rivers and springs δ2H and δ18O, and the mean precipitation-weighed values revealed the presence of shallow groundwater recharged between 2100 and 2700m a.s.l., and deep

  12. Alluvial deposits from the strike-slip fault Lo River Basin (Oligocene/Miocene), Red River Fault Zone, north-western Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka, Anna; Swierczewska, Anna

    2003-08-01

    The Lo River Basin (LRB) is one of several narrow sedimentary basins associated with the main faults of the Red River Fault Zone separating the South China and Indochina microplates. The basin is located on the NE boundary of the high-grade metamorphic Con Voi Massif and the sedimentary and metasedimentary Viet Bac fold zone in north-eastern Vietnam. The LRB is filled with over 6000 m of Oligocene/Miocene alluvial deposits. The source area was probably located on the NE margin of the basin and was composed mostly of low-grade metamorphic rocks with a minor component of sedimentary rocks. Three alluvial systems are recognised. The oldest system was a proximal braided river system, with the minor occurrence of alluvial fans. The younger systems record changes in clast composition and lithofacies, which suggests a transition from a distal braided river to a distal braidplain system. The LRB fill shows a range of features characteristic of strike-slip fault basins. The origin of the LRB is correlated with the left-lateral transtensional regime. The present shape of the basin is a result of post-sedimentation tectonic activity.

  13. Geodetic constraints on areal changes in the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone: What controls Basin and Range extension?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Hammond, William C.

    2007-10-01

    Using ˜1500 geodetic velocities we model the present-day spatial patterns of areal changes inside the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone. From this model we show that between the central Gulf of California and the Queen Charlotte Islands there is no significant net change in surface area. This zero net areal-change result allows us to relate regions of areal growth to areas of equivalent contraction elsewhere within the plate boundary zone. We find that areal growth of the Basin and Range province (BRP) and its eastern margin (˜5.2 ± 0.1 × 103 m2/yr) is balanced by areal reduction near northwestern California between 38°N and 42°N. The San Andreas fault system south of 38°N and the plate boundary zone north of ˜42°N (including the Juan de Fuca and Gorda Ridge systems) each have no significant net areal change. Our results suggest a kinematic relationship between extension in the BRP and contraction near the northern California Coast Ranges and Klamath Mountains. From these observations we propose that, although BRP extension may be caused by internal forces, the southernmost Cascadia subduction zone provides a “window of escape” that acts as a stress guide to BRP extension as well as northwestward Sierra Nevada motion. Such a dynamic model is consistent with independent findings that (1) the least principal horizontal stress orientations in the BRP are toward northern California, (2) extension directions in the BRP have changed orientation to track the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, and (3) the southernmost Cascadia subduction zone is a relatively weak plate boundary.

  14. Spatial assessment of water quality in the vicinity of Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Vandeberg, Gregory S; Dixon, Cami S; Vose, Brian; Fisher, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations and croplands in the Upper Devils Lake Basin (Towner and Ramsey Counties), North Dakota, has the potential to impact the water quality and wildlife of the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge. Water samples were collected at eight locations upstream and downstream of the refuge, beginning in June 2007 through March 2011, to identify the spatial distribution of water quality parameters and assess the potential impacts from the upstream land use practices. Geographic Information Systems, statistical analysis, and regulatory standards were used to differentiate between sample locations, and identify potential impacts to water quality for the refuge based on 20 chemical constituents. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between sample locations based on boron, calcium, Escherichia coli, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and nickel. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of these constituents identified four distinct water quality groupings in the study area. Furthermore, this study found a significant positive correlation between the nutrient measures of nitrate-nitrite and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the percentage of concentrated animal feeding operation nutrient management areas using the non-parametric Spearman rho method. Significant correlations were also noted between total organic carbon and nearness to concentrated animal feeding operations. Finally, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfate, E. coli, total phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and aluminum exceeded state of North Dakota and/or US Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards and/or guidelines. Elevated concentrations of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and E. coli from upstream sources likely have the greatest potential impact on the Lake Alice Refuge.

  15. Statistical Aspects of North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones During the Weather Satellite Era, 1960-2013. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) is part 2 of a two-part study of the North Atlantic basin tropical cyclones that occurred during the weather satellite era, 1960-2013. In particular, this TP examines the inferred statistical relationships between 25 tropical cyclone parameters and 9 specific climate-related factors, including the (1) Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), (2) Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), (3) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, (4) Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) index, (5) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), (6) NAO index of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), (7) Armagh surface air temperature (ASAT), (8) Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI), and (9) Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) (MLCO2) index. Part 1 of this two-part study examined the statistical aspects of the 25 tropical cyclone parameters (e.g., frequencies, peak wind speed (PWS), accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), etc.) and provided the results of statistical testing (i.e., runs-testing, the t-statistic for independent samples, and Poisson distributions). Also, the study gave predictions for the frequencies of the number of tropical cyclones (NTC), number of hurricanes (NH), number of major hurricanes (NMH), and number of United States land-falling hurricanes (NUSLFH) expected for the 2014 season, based on the statistics of the overall interval 1960-2013, the subinterval 1995-2013, and whether the year 2014 would be either an El Niño year (ENY) or a non-El Niño year (NENY).

  16. Trace elements and organic chemicals in stream-bottom sediments and fish tissues, Red River of the North basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, M.E.; Goldstein, R.M.; Tornes, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    Stream-bottom sediment and fish-tissue samples from the Red River of the North Basin, were analyzed for a large suite of chemical elements and organic chemicals. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were widespread in sediments, at concentrations not indicative of acute contamination. Mercury, the element of greatest health concern in the region, was detected at low concentrations in 38 of 43 sediment samples (<0.02-0.13 micrograms per gram) and all of eleven fish-liver samples (0.03-0.6 micrograms per gram dry weight, or 0.0066-0.13 micrograms per gram wet weight). Concentrations of many elements appeared to be controlled by mineral rather than anthropogenic sources. DDT and its metabolites were the most frequently detected synthetic organochlorines: p,p'-DDE was detected in 9 of 38 sediment samples (concentration range: <1-16 nanograms per gram) and also frequently in whole-fish samples. Total DDT (the sum of DDT and its metabolites) concentrations ranged from <5 to 217 nanograms per gram, and at least one component of total DDT was detected in 19 of 23 fish samples. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in stream sediments were significantly higher in the intensively cropped Red River Valley Lake Plain, compared to upland areas, probably because of greater historical DDT usage in the lake plain. Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in stream-bottom sediments. Although the potentially toxic chemicals measured in this study were at low levels, relative to more contaminated areas of the Nation, maximum concentrations of some chemicals are of concern because of their possible effects on aquatic biota and human health.

  17. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-02-01

    Examination of cores and well log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger, Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities.

  18. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit (Middle Devonian), Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, W.

    1988-07-01

    The Middle Devonian Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit is present in the subsurface of North Dakota except where truncated by postdepositional erosion. The carbonate unit thickens from the erosional limit to a maximum thickness of 47.5 m (156 ft) in Renville County and reaches a maximum depth of 3798 m (12,460 ft) below the surface in McKenzie County. In North Dakota, a submarine hardground separates the carbonate unit from the underlying second red bed member of the Dawson Bay Formation. The upper contact with the Souris River Formation is conformable except in those areas where the Dawson Bay Formation was exposed to subaerial erosion prior to deposition of the Souris River sediments. The Dawson Bay carbonate unit is predominantly dolomitic and fossiliferous limestone or fossiliferous dolostone. The carbonate unit can be subdivided into five lithofacies on the basis of characteristic fossil fauna, flora, and other lithologic features. Lithofacies analysis of the Dawson Bay carbonates suggests a shallowing-upward succession of depositional environments and associated energy zones as follows: shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), stromatoporoid biostrome/bioherm (low energy), very shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), restricted shallow epeiric sea (extremely low energy), and shallow epeiric sea shoreline (variable energy). Eogenetic diagenesis includes color-mottling, dolomitization of micrite to microcrystalline dolomite with penecontemporaneous anhydrite replacement of cryptalgal mudstones and boundstones, cementation by sparry calcite, and vuggy porosity development. Mesogenetic diagenesis includes formation of mosaic dolomites, cementation by blocky equant calcite, neomorphism, pressure-solution, fracturing, halite cementation, and hydrocarbon emplacement.

  19. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and recharge zones in Suki river basin, north Maharashtra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Patil, S. N.; Padmane, S. T.; Erram, Vinit C.; Mahajan, S. H.

    2015-10-01

    Suki river basin of Raver sub-division is located towards the northeastern part of Jalgaon district in Maharashtra State. The existing land use pattern of the region clearly shows that more than 60% of the area is utilized for agricultural sector. Groundwater is the major source of irrigation and domestic purposes. To assess the overall water resources development of Raver area for better environment in future, investigation was carried out with the help of geophysical indicators. Vertical electrical sounding studies were conducted at 17 stations in the study area using Wenner configuration. The study was aimed at characterizing the aquifer in the area as well as assessing its potential risk to contaminant seepage in terms of protective capacity of the overburden rock materials using Dar- Zarrouk (D-Z) parameters, viz., the transverse resistance ( T), longitudinal conductance ( S), transverse resistivity ( ρ t ) and longitudinal resistivity ( ρ l ). These were computed to generate the resistivity regime of freshwater-bearing formations and its movement. The central-western part of the study area reflects very good to good protective capacity rating as can be seen from the high longitudinal conductance values. The low value of the protective capacity in the eastern part is making the aquifer system in the area highly vulnerable to surface contamination. This indicates that the ground water quality may have been deteriorated in the area and borehole water samples should be randomly sampled for contaminant loads based on this analysis.

  20. Spatial and temporal changes of water quality, and SWAT modeling of Vosvozis river basin, North Greece.

    PubMed

    Boskidis, Ioannis; Gikas, Georgios D; Pisinaras, Vassilios; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2010-09-01

    The results of an investigation of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Vosvozis river in Northern Greece is presented. For the purposes of this study, three gaging stations were installed along Vosvozis river, where water quantity and quality measurements were conducted for the period August 2005 to November 2006. Water discharge, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured in situ using appropriate equipment. The collected water samples were analyzed in the laboratory for the determination of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium nitrogen, total Kjeldalh nitrogen (TKN), orthophosphate (OP), total phosphorus (TP), COD, and BOD. Agricultural diffuse sources provided the major source of nitrate nitrogen loads during the wet period. During the dry period (from June to October), the major nutrient (N, P) and COD, BOD sources were point sources. The trophic status of Vosvozis river during the monitoring period was determined as eutrophic, based on Dodds classification scheme. Moreover, the SWAT model was used to simulate hydrographs and nutrient loads. SWAT was validated with the measured data. Predicted hydrographs and pollutographs were plotted against observed values and showed good agreement. The validated model was used to test eight alternative scenarios concerning different cropping management approaches. The results of these scenarios indicate that nonpoint source pollution is the prevailing type of pollution in the study area. The SWAT model was found to satisfactorily simulate processes in ephemeral river basins and is an effective tool in water resources management.

  1. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  2. Provenance of bentonite layers in the Palaeocene strata of the Central Basin, Svalbard: implications for magmatism and rifting events around the onset of the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Eliassen, Gauti T.; Shephard, Grace E.; Svensen, Henrik H.; Jochmann, Malte; Friis, Bjarki; Augland, Lars E.; Jerram, Dougal A.; Planke, Sverre

    2016-11-01

    A fold-and-thrust belt developed between Greenland and Svalbard during the Palaeogene, with an associated foreland basin forming in what is now Spitsbergen. This Central Basin is comprised of the Van Mijenfjorden Group, a 2.3 km thick sandstone-shale dominated succession that contains prominent and laterally continuous bentonite layers in the lower formations. These altered tephra layers can be used as stratigraphic markers that connect the basin development with regional explosive volcanism and changes to relative plate motions. We sampled and analysed bentonites from nine borehole cores across the Central Basin. Each layer shows evidence of alteration, with mobile elements such as alkali and alkali earth metals particularly disrupted. However, immobile elements including rare earth elements (REE) and preserved igneous minerals retain a magmatic signature, allowing for comparisons with potential volcanic sources to be made. The majority of bentonites are both evolved and strongly alkaline, with chemical signatures that are much closer to the continental rift events around Ellesmere Island and North Greenland than to the early activity of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). There is a clear difference between tephra layers in the mid Palaeocene versus late Palaeocene strata. The early bentonites have a REE signature comparable to the volcanics of the Kap Washington Group exposed in North Greenland. The later bentonites have likely come from volcanic centres in the Nares Strait that are also the source of abundant volcaniclastic sediments in the Judge Daly Promontory, Ellesmere Island. These findings suggest that a mid to late Palaeocene change in locus of volcanic provenance may reflect changes in relative plate motions related to the formation of the West Spitsbergen fold-and-thrust belt and the emplacement of the NAIP. However, the lack of bentonites matching NAIP sources suggests that explosive volcanism was of insufficient magnitude to lead to

  3. High Prevalence of Gammaproteobacteria in the Sediments of Admiralty Bay and North Bransfield Basin, Northwestern Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Franco, Diego C; Signori, Camila N; Duarte, Rubens T D; Nakayama, Cristina R; Campos, Lúcia S; Pellizari, Vivian H

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms dominate most Antarctic marine ecosystems, in terms of biomass and taxonomic diversity, and play crucial role in ecosystem functioning due to their high metabolic plasticity. Admiralty Bay is the largest bay on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula) and a combination of hydro-oceanographic characteristics (bathymetry, sea ice and glacier melting, seasonal entrance of water masses, turbidity, vertical fluxes) create conditions favoring organic carbon deposition on the seafloor and microbial activities. We sampled surface sediments from 15 sites across Admiralty Bay (100-502 m total depth) and the adjacent North Bransfield Basin (693-1147 m), and used the amplicon 454-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags to compare the bacterial composition, diversity, and microbial community structure across environmental parameters (sediment grain size, pigments and organic nutrients) between the two areas. Marine sediments had a high abundance of heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria (92.4% and 83.8% inside and outside the bay, respectively), followed by Alphaproteobacteria (2.5 and 5.5%), Firmicutes (1.5 and 1.6%), Bacteroidetes (1.1 and 1.7%), Deltaproteobacteria (0.8 and 2.5%) and Actinobacteria (0.7 and 1.3%). Differences in alpha-diversity and bacterial community structure were found between the two areas, reflecting the physical and chemical differences in the sediments, and the organic matter input.

  4. Uncertainty analysis of a spatially explicit annual water-balance model: case study of the Cape Fear basin, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, P.; Guswa, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    There is an increasing demand for assessment of water provisioning ecosystem services. While simple models with low data and expertise requirements are attractive, their use as decision-aid tools should be supported by uncertainty characterization. We assessed the performance of the InVEST annual water yield model, a popular tool for ecosystem service assessment based on the Budyko hydrological framework. Our study involved the comparison of 10 subcatchments ranging in size and land-use configuration, in the Cape Fear basin, North Carolina. We analyzed the model sensitivity to climate variables and input parameters, and the structural error associated with the use of the Budyko framework, a lumped (catchment-scale) model theory, in a spatially explicit way. Comparison of model predictions with observations and with the lumped model predictions confirmed that the InVEST model is able to represent differences in land uses and therefore in the spatial distribution of water provisioning services. Our results emphasize the effect of climate input errors, especially annual precipitation, and errors in the ecohydrological parameter Z, which are both comparable to the model structure uncertainties. Our case study supports the use of the model for predicting land-use change effect on water provisioning, although its use for identifying areas of high water yield will be influenced by precipitation errors. While some results are context-specific, our study provides general insights and methods to help identify the regions and decision contexts where the model predictions may be used with confidence.

  5. Development and application of a pollen-based paleohydrologic reconstruction from the lower Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willard, D.; Bernhardt, C.; Brown, R.; Landacre, B.; Townsend, P.

    2011-01-01

    We used pollen assemblages to reconstruct late-Holocene paleohydrologic patterns in floodplain deposits from the lower Roanoke River basin (North Carolina, southeastern USA). Using 120 surface samples from 38 transects, we documented statistical relationships between pollen assemblages, vegetation, and landforms. Backswamp pollen assemblages (long hydroperiods) are dominated by Nyssa (tupelo) and Taxodium (cypress) and have high pollen concentrations. Sediments from elevated levees and seasonally flooded forests (shorter hydroperiods) are characterized by dominant Pinus (pine) pollen, variable abundance of hardwood taxa, and low pollen concentrations. We apply the calibration data set to interpret past vegetation and paleohydrology. Pollen from a radiocarbon-dated sediment core collected in a tupelo-cypress backswamp indicates centennial-scale fluctuations in forest composition during the last 2400 years. Backswamp vegetation has occupied the site since land clearance began ~300 years ago. Recent dam emplacement affected sedimentation rates, but vegetation changes are small compared with those caused by pre-Colonial climate variability. The occurrence of wetter conditions from ~2200 to 1800 cal. yr BP, ~1100 to 750 cal. yr BP, and ~400 to 250 cal. yr BP may indicate changes in cyclonic circulation patterns related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High and jet stream.

  6. High Prevalence of Gammaproteobacteria in the Sediments of Admiralty Bay and North Bransfield Basin, Northwestern Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Diego C.; Signori, Camila N.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Campos, Lúcia S.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms dominate most Antarctic marine ecosystems, in terms of biomass and taxonomic diversity, and play crucial role in ecosystem functioning due to their high metabolic plasticity. Admiralty Bay is the largest bay on King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula) and a combination of hydro-oceanographic characteristics (bathymetry, sea ice and glacier melting, seasonal entrance of water masses, turbidity, vertical fluxes) create conditions favoring organic carbon deposition on the seafloor and microbial activities. We sampled surface sediments from 15 sites across Admiralty Bay (100–502 m total depth) and the adjacent North Bransfield Basin (693–1147 m), and used the amplicon 454-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags to compare the bacterial composition, diversity, and microbial community structure across environmental parameters (sediment grain size, pigments and organic nutrients) between the two areas. Marine sediments had a high abundance of heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria (92.4% and 83.8% inside and outside the bay, respectively), followed by Alphaproteobacteria (2.5 and 5.5%), Firmicutes (1.5 and 1.6%), Bacteroidetes (1.1 and 1.7%), Deltaproteobacteria (0.8 and 2.5%) and Actinobacteria (0.7 and 1.3%). Differences in alpha-diversity and bacterial community structure were found between the two areas, reflecting the physical and chemical differences in the sediments, and the organic matter input. PMID:28210255

  7. Governing Change: Land-Use Change and the Prevention of Nonpoint Source Pollution in the North Coastal Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Anne G.

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  8. Late Cretaceous to Miocene phosphatic sediments in the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Manheim, F. T.; Popenoe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Phosphorite and phosphatic sediments are present in the Georges Bank Basin in marine, Late Cretaceous to Miocene strata equivalent to the Dawson Canyon Formation and Banquereau Formation of offshore Nova Scotia. The Late Cretaceous to Paleocene phosphorite occurs predominantely as sand- and gravel-sized pellets and as cement in conglomeratic aggregates. The Eocene and Miocene phosphate occurs mainly as fine-very fine sand-size spheroidal-avoidal pellets in unconsolidated clayey silts. The older phosphorites form intraformational conglomerates that are the result of a winnowed finer-grained matrix, leaving lag deposits of phosphorite. We present evidence that most of the Eocene and Miocene phosphate is primary and formed during marine trangressions. Our observations extend the geographic and temporal limits of the major phosphogenic system of the Western North Atlantic northward and through time. However, compared to the well-known phosphorite deposits along the southeastern margin of the U.S.A., these northern deposits are not of commercial scale due to a high terrigenous input and the lack of a mechanism capable of driving persistant upwelling. ?? 1992.

  9. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    PubMed

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  10. Heat flow and subsurface temperature as evidence for basin-scale ground-water flow, North Slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deming, D.; Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.; De Rito, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Several high-resolution temperature logs were made in each of 21 drillholes and a total of 601 thermal conductivity measurements were made on drill cuttings and cores. Near-surface heat flow (??20%) is inversely correlated with elevation and ranges from a low of 27 mW/m2 in the foothills of the Brooks Range in the south, to a high of 90 mW/m2 near the north coast. Subsurface temperatures and thermal gradients estimated from corrected BHTs are similarly much higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills province to the south. Significant east-west variation in heat flow and subsurface temperature is also observed; higher heat flow and temperature coincide with higher basement topography. The observed thermal pattern is consistent with forced convection by a topographically driven ground-water flow system. Average ground-water (Darcy) velocity in the postulated flow system is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 m/yr; the effective basin-scale permeability is estimated to be of the order of 10-14 m2. -from Authors

  11. Lithospheric rheology and Moho upheaval control the generation mechanism of the intraplate earthquakes in the North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Zhu, Bojing; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-05-01

    Many devastating intraplate earthquakes, such as the 1966 Xingtai earthquake (Ms 7.2) and the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (Ms 7.8), occurred in the North China Basin (NCB). This study aims to investigate the generation mechanism of the large intraplate earthquakes in the NCB and the spatial distribution of earthquake activity through numerical experiments. In order to simulate the interseismic stress accumulation process in the NCB, we set up several 3D finite element models based on different lithospheric rheological structure and apply boundary conditions of horizontal compression. We find that stress concentration with high rate in the regions where Moho upheaves is responsible for the large earthquakes in the NCB. During the interseismic period large stress rate is located nearly around the bottom of the brittle upper crust, where stress accumulates fast to reach fault strength and active the main shocks. Aftershocks in the seismogenic layers could be triggered by the main shocks. Two factors are critical to the crustal stress accumulation process. (1) The first is Moho upheaval in the seismic zones. (2) The second is viscosity contrast among the crustal layers. Our results support the lithospheric rheological structure in the NCB as following: the brittle upper crust, brittle-ductile transition in the middle crust, the ductile lower crust, and the ductile lithospheric upper mantle.

  12. Magnitude and frequency of floods in the United States, Part 1-B, North Atlantic slope basins, New York to York River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tice, Richard H.

    1968-01-01

    Flood magnitude-frequency relation applicable to streams in the North Atlantic slope basins, New York to York River, Va., are presented in this report.  The relations are based on flood data collected at 487 gaging stations having 5 or more years of record not materially affected by regulation. For sites on most streams, the magnitude of a flood of any given frequency between 1.1 and 50 years can be determined from two curves - one expressing the relation between the mean annual flood and size of draining basin and the other expressing the ratio to the mean annual flood of floods of other recurrence intervals. For New Jersey streams, an adjustment to the mean annual flood is based on the percentage of surface area covered by lakes and swamps in the basin.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  14. Changes in flow in the Beaver-North Canadian River basin upstream from Canton Lake, western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, Kenneth L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of hydrologic data for the Beaver-North Canadian River basin upstream from Canton Lake in western Oklahoma. It examines the climatic and hydrologic data for evidence of trends. The hydrologic data examined includes total annual flow, base flow, and annual peak discharges. This study was conducted to determine if there is evidence of trends present in hydrologic and climatic data. All available streamflow-gaging station data, with at least 10 or more years of record, were examined for trends. In addition, the data were divided into an 'early' period (ending in 1971), representing conditions before ground-water levels had declined appreciably, and a 'recent' period (1978-1994), reflecting the condition of declining ground-water levels, including the effects of storage reservoirs. Tests for trend, moving averages, and comparisons of median and average flows for an early period (ending in 1971) with those for the recent period (1978-1994) show that the total annual volume of flow and the magnitudes of instantaneous annual peak discharges measured at most gaging stations in the Beaver- North Canadian River basin have decreased in recent years. Precipitation records for the panhandle, however, show no corresponding changes. The changes in flow are most pronounced in the headwaters upstream from Woodward, but also are evident at Woodward and near Seiling, which represents the inflow to Canton Lake. The average annual discharge decreased between the early period and the recent period by the following amounts: near Guymon, 18,000 acre-feet; at Beaver, 68,000 acre-feet; at Woodward, 72,000 acre-feet; and near Seiling, 63,000 acre-feet. These decreases, expressed as a percentage of the average flows for the early period, were 91 percent near Guymon, 82 percent at Beaver, 49 percent at Woodward, and 37 percent near Seiling. The medians of the annual peak discharges decreased from the early period to the recent period by the

  15. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  16. Climatic impacts of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project over the Haihe River basin in North China simulated by a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jing; Zhan, Chesheng; Xie, Zhenghui; Qin, Peihua; Jiang, Shanshan

    2016-08-01

    The Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MSWTP) was constructed to ease the water crisis over the North China Plain. In this study, we incorporated a water transfer scheme into the regional climate model RegCM4 and investigated the climatic impacts of the MSWTP over the Haihe River Basin in North China. Four 10 year simulation tests were conducted from 2001 to 2010 where different volumes of water were transferred. The results demonstrated that before the MSWTP was conducted the original groundwater exploitation and consumption over the Haihe River Basin led to wetting and cooling at the land surface with rapidly falling groundwater depth. The extra water input from the MSWTP slightly enhanced the wetting and cooling effects over the basin, as well as reduced the falling rate in the groundwater depth along the conveyance line. However, the weak climatic effects of the MSWTP were limited at a local scale and had no obvious interannual trends, because the transfer volume of the MSWTP was far lower than the total demand which has been conventionally satisfied through local water exploitation. In terms of seasonal variations, the greatest changes due to the MSWTP occurred in the summer for precipitation and soil moisture and in the spring for energy-related variables (heat fluxes and 2 m air temperature).

  17. Water quality in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.; Harned, Douglas A.; Ruhl, Peter M.; Eimers, Jo Leslie; McMahon, Gerard; Smith, Kelly E.; Galeone, David R.; Woodside, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The NAWQA Program is assessing the water-quality conditions of more than 50 of the Nation's largest river basins and aquifers, known as Study Units. Collectively, these Study Units cover about one-half of the United States and include sources of drinking water used by about 70 percent of the U.S. population. Comprehensive assessments of about one-third of the Study Units are ongoing at a given time. Each Study Unit is scheduled to be revisited every decade to evaluate changes in water-quality conditions. NAWQA assessments rely heavily on existing information collected by the USGS and many other agencies as well as the use of nationally consistent study designs and methods of sampling and analysis. Such consistency simultaneously provides information about the status and trends in water-quality conditions in a particular stream or aquifer and, more importantly, provides the basis to make comparisons among watersheds and improve our understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions regionally and nationally. This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1992 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Study Unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. The information is primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Indeed, this report addresses many of the concerns raised by regulators, water-utility managers, industry representatives, and other scientists, engineers, public officials, and members of stakeholder groups who provided advice and input to the USGS during this NAWQA Study-Unit investigation. Yet, the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  18. Patterns of geochemical change in north Basin and Range volcanic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, K.R.; Hawkesworth, C.J. . Earth Sciences Dept.); Hooper, P.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    In the NW US backarc region three tectomagmatic provinces are recognized: 17--14 Ma plume-related Columbia River Basalts (CRB); Basin Range (B R) bimodal rocks related to mid-Miocene E-W extension; and Olivine Basalts related to late Miocene-Pliocene, NW-SE, dextral strike-slip extension. The Vale study area is situated at the head of the NW Snake River Plain (SRP) where these provinces overlap. Their stratigraphic relationships, relative volumes and compositional differences demonstrate that the onset of each new tectonic phase produces a distinct magmatic suite. The CRB-type '' basalts are voluminous ([approximately] 400 km[sup 3]) and their early flows show flat spidergram patterns and low Ce/Nb ratios (< 2.75) similar to asthenospheric melts derived from a plume. Subsequent flows (basaltic andesites) have higher incompatible element contents and negative Nb anomalies, indicating that they were largely derived from mantle lithosphere sources. Voluminous tuffs and rhyolites ([approximately] 500 km[sup 3]) appear to mark the onset of B R extension-related magmatism at 15 Ma. The associated basalts'' are small volume occurrences ([approximately] 10 km[sup 3]) of basalts to high-alumina andesites (14.5--8 Ma), which also have geochemical signatures consistent with source regions in the continental mantle lithosphere. The observed chemical changes from asthenosphere to lithosphere, then back to asthenosphere with time, are interpreted in a model where early magmatism is plume-related, but all post-15 Ma magmatism is simply related to lithospheric extension.

  19. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  20. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  1. Bathymetric patterns of morphological disparity in deep-sea gastropods from the western North Atlantic basin.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R

    2005-07-01

    Understanding patterns of species richness requires knowledge of the individual roles species play in community structure. Here, I use gastropod shells as a source of information about both their ecological and their evolutionary functions in generating bathymetric gradients of diversity. Specifically, morphological disparity of shell architecture in deep-sea gastropods is evaluated over a depth gradient in the western North Atlantic by constructing an empirical morphospace based on an eigenshape analysis. Morphological disparity is quantified by calculating the centroid, total range, and dispersion of the morphospace at each station along the depth gradient. The results indicate that local faunas are drawn from a regional pool with the same variance but that average dissimilarity in forms reflects the number of species in the sample. The range of the morphospace at local scales is also less than at regional scales, resulting from the variability of the morphospace centroid over depth. Although the position of the morphospace changes with depth, morphological disparity remains unaffected. Despite the lack of bathymetric patterns in variance, patterns in nearest neighbor distance persist. The findings suggest the importance of interacting ecological and evolutionary processes at varying spatiotemporal scales for both morphological disparity and species richness.

  2. A space-time statistical climate model for hurricane intensification in the North Atlantic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraza, Erik; Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2016-08-01

    Climate influences on hurricane intensification are investigated by averaging hourly intensification rates over the period 1975-2014 in 8° × 8° latitude-longitude grid cells. The statistical effects of hurricane intensity and sea-surface temperature (SST), along with the climatic effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), are quantified using a Bayesian hierarchical model fit to the averaged data. As expected, stronger hurricanes tend to have higher intensification rates, especially over the warmest waters. Of the three climate variables considered, the NAO has the largest effect on intensification rates after controlling for intensity and SST. The model shows an average increase in intensification rates of 0.18 [0.06, 0.31] m s-1 h-1 (95 % credible interval) for every 1 standard deviation decrease in the NAO index. Weak trade winds associated with the negative phase of the NAO might result in less vertical wind shear and thus higher mean intensification rates.

  3. Final monitoring plan for the Utica aquifer-North Lake Basin restoration project at Utica, Nebraska.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2005-10-05

    On March 9, 2001, representatives of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) and Argonne National Laboratory met with representatives from a number of federal and Nebraska state agencies (the wetlands agencies; see Table 1.1) to discuss the CCC/USDA's proposed aquifer remediation and wetlands restoration project at Utica, Nebraska. As part of those discussions, Argonne outlined preliminary recommendations for a long-term monitoring program to verify and document (1) the performance of the spray irrigation treatment process for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from extracted groundwater, (2) the geochemical quality of the extracted and treated groundwater delivered to the wetlands, and (3) the hydrogeologic and inorganic geochemical impacts of the groundwater delivery. General activities recommended included the following: (1) Periodic sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater extracted at each pumping well and in water discharged from the spray irrigation treatment units. (2) Periodic sampling of groundwater from each pumping well and directly from the sprinkler discharge, for analysis for selected inorganic water quality parameters. The CCC/USDA and Argonne also requested at the March 2001 meeting that the wetlands agencies accept responsibility for developing the ecological and biological monitoring programs needed to meet environmental requirements for the wetlands restoration program. The preliminary recommendations for monitoring outlined above were generally accepted by the wetlands agencies. Since the March 2001, meeting, however, no further discussions have taken place (to Argonne's knowledge) regarding potential monitoring at this site. As the design of the Utica project has evolved, more detailed technical information has become available regarding the specific restoration activities to be performed in association with the aquifer and the wetlands basin. The scope of the aquifer

  4. High-resolution records of Bonneville Basin paleohydrology offer new insights into changing atmospheric circulation patterns over North America from 26 ka through the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steponaitis, E.; McGee, D.; Quade, J.; Andrews, A.; Edwards, R.; Hsieh, Y.; Broecker, W. S.; Cheng, H.

    2013-12-01

    The tremendous lateral extent of the Bonneville Basin, which covers much of western Utah, makes paleoclimate records from this region highly sensitive to global-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and hydrology. New paleoclimate records from speleothems and lacustrine carbonates offer insight into the hydrology the Bonneville Basin spanning from 26 ka through the Holocene. Anchored by high-precision U-Th dates, Sr records from crystalline lacustrine carbonates from throughout the basin provide a mechanism for constraining zonal variations in precipitation over time. To accomplish this, we exploit spatial variations in the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of fluvial inputs to Lake Bonneville (Hart et al. 2004). Paired with stable isotope records, these Sr records give a spatially detailed view of the response of Great Basin to global climate change, and by extension, insight into atmospheric circulation patterns over North America during abrupt climate changes. Stable isotope and trace metal records from Lehman Cave speleothems provide a high-resolution extension of these Great Basin hydrological records into the Holocene. Here we provide an overview of these unique paired records, focusing particular attention on the region's response to the Younger Dryas and Heinrich events 1 and 2. Hart, W.S. et al., The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of lacustrine carbonates and lake-level history of the Bonneville paleolake system. GSA Bulletin. 2004; 116: 1107-1119.

  5. Land use and nutrient concentrations and yields in selected streams in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodside, M.D.; Simerl, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Because nutrients can cause water-quaiity degradation, a major focus of NAWQA is to investigate effects of nutrients on surface- and ground-water quality. This report summarizes surface-water quality study design and land uses in the NAWQA Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin study unit, one of 60 study units nationwide, and shows how nutrient concentrations are related to land uses at selected basins in the study unit. The study area encompasses about 28,000 square miles (mi2) in central and eastern North Carolina and southern Virginia. The major river basins in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin are the Chowan, Roanoke, Tar, and Neuse. The barrier islands, estuaries, and the AlbemarIe, Pamlico, and associated sounds are not included in the study-unit area. The Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin covers four physiographic provinces:Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain. About 50 percent of the land in the study areais forested, 30 percent is cropland, 15 percent is wetland, and 5 percent is developed. The population--of the study unit is about 3 million people.

  6. Upper-tropospheric precursors associated with subtropical cyclone formation in the North Atlantic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Alicia M.

    Oceanic cyclones exhibiting properties of both tropical and extratropical systems have been categorized as subtropical cyclones (STCs) since the early 1950s. The opportunity to investigate the roles of baroclinic and diabatic processes during the evolution of STCs from a potential vorticity (PV) perspective motivates this study. This study investigates the roles of baroclinic and diabatic processes during the evolution of STCs by calculating three PV metrics from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis 0.5° gridded dataset. The three PV metrics quantify the relative contributions of lower-tropospheric baroclinic processes, midtropospheric diabatic heating, and upper-tropospheric dynamical processes during the evolution of individual cyclones. Quantification of these three contributions reveals the changing PV structure of an individual cyclone, indicates fluctuations in the dominant energy source of the cyclone, and aids in categorizing the cyclone. A cyclone-relative composite analysis performed on subjectively constructed clusters of North Atlantic STCs identified from a 1979--2010 climatology is presented to document the structure, motion, and evolution of upper-tropospheric features linked to STC formation. The STCs included in the climatology are separated into five clusters representing the most common upper-tropospheric features linked to STC formation: PV Streamers, Cutoffs, Midlatitude Troughs, Subtropical Disturbances, and PV Debris. STCs forming in association with PV streamers and cutoffs have a well-defined midlatitude connection, developing near a region of upper-tropospheric PV injected into the subtropics during an upstream anticyclonic wave breaking (AWB) event. STCs forming in association with midlatitude troughs also have a well-defined midlatitude connection, but are not associated with an upstream AWB event. In contrast, STCs forming in association with subtropical disturbances do not have a well

  7. Eocene lake basins in Wyoming and Nevada record rollback of the Farallon flat-slab beneath western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Cassel, E. J.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.; Carroll, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical and conceptual models of flat-slab rollback predict broad initial dynamic subsidence above the slab hinge then uplift and volcanism triggered by the advection of asthenosphere beneath the overriding plate. These predicted surface effects provide a viable but largely untested explanation for lake basin formation in Cordilleran-type orogenies. We argue that the hydrologic closure of both the foreland (early Eocene) and hinterland (late Eocene) of the North American Cordillera were caused by a trenchward-migrating wave of dynamic and thermal topography resulting from progressive removal of the Farallon flat-slab. Two major episodes of hydrologic drainage closure are recorded by Eocene terrestrial strata in the western United States. The first occurred in the retroarc foreland during the early Eocene, and resulted in the deposition of the Green River Fm. The second occurred in the hinterland during the late Eocene and resulted in accumulation of the Elko Fm. In both regions, lake strata overlie fluvial strata and become progressively more evaporative up-section, and are overlain by volcaniclastic strata. Both successions were then truncated by regional unconformities that extend until the Oligocene. We interpret these stratigraphic successions to record trenchward propagation of a regional topographic wave, caused by slab rollback. Migration of the slab-hinge initially caused dynamic subsidence and initiation of lacustrine deposition. Regional surface uplift followed, and was associated with scattered volcanism. Uplift promoted formation of endorheic basins and ultimately the development of regional unconformities. The height of the uplift can be roughly approximated by the preserved thickness of lacustrine and other nonmarine deposits at both locations (0.2-1.0 km). The 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb geochronology of Green River Fm ash beds indicate that this surface topographic wave migrated trenchward (SW) across the foreland from 53 to 47 Ma at a velocity of ~6 cm

  8. Forecasting database for the tsunami warning center for the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Hebert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2011-12-01

    Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for tsunami warnings to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. A first generation model-based tsunami prediction system is being developed as part of the French Tsunami Warning Center that will be operational by mid 2012. It involves a pre-computed unit source functions database (i.e., a number of tsunami model runs that are calculated ahead of time and stored) corresponding to tsunami scenarios generated by a source of seismic moment 1.75E+19 N.m with a rectangular fault 25 km by 20 km in size and 1 m in slip. The faults of the unit functions are placed adjacent to each other, following the discretization of the main seismogenic faults bounding the western Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic basins. An authomatized composite scenarios calculation tool is implemented to allow the simulation of any tsunami propagation scenario (i.e., of any seismic moment). The strategy is based on linear combinations and scaling of a finite number of pre-computed unit source functions. The number of unit functions involved varies with the magnitude of the wanted composite solution and the combined wave heights are multiplied by a given scaling factor to produce the new arbitrary scenario. Uncertainty on the magnitude of the detected event and inaccuracy on the epicenter location are taken into account in the composite scenarios calculation. For one tsunamigenic event, the tool produces finally 3 warning maps (i.e., most likely, minimum and maximum scenarios) together with the rough decision matrix representation. A no-dimension code representation is chosen to show zones in the main axis of energy at the basin

  9. Benthic invertebrate communities and their responses to selected environmental factors in the Kanawha River basin, West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Messinger, Terence

    2001-01-01

    The effects of selected environmental factors on the composition and structure of benthic invertebrate communities in the Kanawha River Basin of West Virginia, Virginia and North Carolina were investigated in 1997 and 1998. Environmental factors investigated include physiography, land-use pattern, streamwater chemistry, streambed- sediment chemistry, and habitat characteristics. Land-use patterns investigated include coal mining, agriculture, and low intensity rural-residential patterns, at four main stem and seven tributary sites throughout the basin. Of the 37 sites sampled, basin size and physiography most strongly affected benthic invertebrate-community structure. Land-use practices also affected invertebrate community structure in these basins. The basins that differed most from the minimally affected reference condition were those basins in which coal mining was the dominant nonforest land use, as determined by comparing invertebrate- community metric values among sites. Basins in which agriculture was important were more similar to the reference condition. The effect of coal mining upon benthic invertebrate communities was further studied at 29 sites and the relations among invertebrate communities and the selected environmental factors of land use, streamwater chemistry, streambed- sediment chemistry, and habitat characteristics analyzed. Division of coal-mining synoptic-survey sites based on invertebrate-community composition resulted in two groups?one with more than an average production of 9,000 tons of coal per square mile per year since 1980, and one with lesser or no recent coal production. The group with significant recent coal production showed higher levels of community impairment than the group with little or no recent coal production. Median particle size of streambed sediment, and specific conductance and sulfate concentration of streamwater were most strongly correlated with effects on invertebrate communities. These characteristics were

  10. Investigation of dioxin concentrations in the lower Roanoke River basin, North Carolina, February 26-March 7, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Walters, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dioxin is a toxic chemical that, when present in the environment, can cause cancer and birth defects in humans. Dioxin is of particular concern because concentrations of dioxin that were released into the environment many years ago remain a contributing factor to current exposure. Dioxin exposure often occurs in surface-water systems downstream from contaminated sites and is detrimental to aquatic life. For these reasons and because the U.S. Geological Survey has expertise in conducting high-volume dioxin sampling, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of North Carolina asked the U.S. Geological Survey to collect water samples in the lower Roanoke River to be analyzed for the presence of dioxin. Water quality of the lower Roanoke River Basin in North Carolina was assessed at eight sites during February 26-March 7, 2001. Water- quality samples were collected for analysis of suspended-sediment and dioxin concentrations; high-volume (750-liter) water samples were collected for dioxin analysis. Discharge measurements were made at or near the high-volume sampling sites. Suspended-sediment sampling and water-quality measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations made at each sampling site included multidepth measurements at two cross-section transects and hourly measurements at the point of high-volume sampling. Multidepth measurements were made near the surface, mid-depth, and near the bottom of the water column. These values were averaged for each cross section. During the sampling period, all sites sampled had dioxin concentrations above detection limits (1 part per quintillion) for both suspended and dissolved dioxin. Suspended dioxin ranged from 5.1 to 900 femtograms per liter, and dissolved dioxin values ranged from 0.31 to 41 femtograms per liter. Suspended-sediment concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 14 milligrams per liter. Specific conductance values ranges from 111 to 340 microsiemens per

  11. Geology and undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Madison Group, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Anna, Lawrence O.

    2010-01-01

    Two of the total petroleum systems (TPS) defined as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the Williston Basin contain Mississippian Madison Group strata: 1) the Bakken-Lodgepole TPS, which includes the Lodgepole Formation; and 2) the Madison TPS, which includes the Mission Canyon, Charles, and Spearfish formations. The Bakken-Lodgepole TPS is defined as the area in which oil generated from the upper and lower shales of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation has accumulated in reservoirs in the Three Forks, Bakken, and Lodgepole formations. Two conventional assessment units (AU) have been identified within the Bakken-Lodgepole TPS, including one in the Bakken Formation and another in the Waulsortian mound reservoirs of the lower Lodgepole Formation. Lodgepole Formation Waulsortian mound oil production has been restricted to a small part of Stark County, North Dakota. Reservoirs are sealed by middle and upper Lodgepole Formation tight argillaceous limestones. Several nonproductive mounds and mound-like structures have also been identified in the Lodgepole Formation. Productivity correlates closely with the oil window of the Bakken Formation shales, and also indicates the likelihood of limited lateral migration of Bakken Formation oil into Lodgepole Formation reservoirs in North Dakota and Montana. Such considerations limit the estimated mean of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources to 8 million barrels of oil (MMBO) for the Lodgepole Formation conventional reservoirs. The Madison TPS is defined as the area where oil generated from Mission Canyon and Charles formation source rocks has accumulated in reservoirs of the Mission Canyon and Charles formations and in reservoirs within the Triassic Spearfish Formation. One continuous reservoir AU, the Mission Canyon-Charles AU, was defined within the Madison TPS; its boundary coincides with the TPS boundary. There is extensive conventional production throughout the AU on major

  12. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  13. Cenomanian Turonian organic sedimentation in North-West Africa: A comparison between the Tarfaya (Morocco) and Senegal Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nzoussi-Mbassani, P.; Khamli, N.; Disnar, J. R.; Laggoun-Défarge, F.; Boussafir, M.

    2005-06-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event was recognised in North Western Africa in various depositional settings from abyssal areas to continental shelves. To derive information on environmental conditions in these different settings and define a depositional model, a petrographical and geochemical study of the organic matter was performed on sediments from the Tarfaya (Morocco) and Senegal Basins. The results obtained for these two locations were compared to those of previous studies, namely from DSDP wells. Petrographic and geochemical data allow the differentiation of two main organofacies: a shallow depositional facies (continental shelf) is characterised by low total organic carbon (TOC) contents (< 4%). As attested by low hydrogen index (HI) values (100 to 400 mg HC/g TOC), the organic matter (OM) is moderately preserved. Petrographically, this facies is composed of mixed OM with high proportions of reworked vitrinite indicating detrital material influence. The depositional environment is typical of dysoxic conditions (S/C < 0.36) exposed to high mineral inputs and oxygenated water currents. The second organofacies deposited in the deep marine environment (slope and abyssal) shows a high TOC content (> 7%). The predominance of fluorescing amorphous OM combined with high HI values suggests good preservation conditions. The S/C ratio (> 0.36) and abundance of organic-sulphur compounds support this interpretation and indicate a development of anoxic conditions. To explain the organic contrast between both environments a depositional model has been developed which is based on limited water exchange between both depositional settings. The main factor which has determined black shale sedimentation is the restricted water circulation related to the presence of isolated depositional environment during Atlantic Ocean opening. Compared to present upwelling zones, the palaeoproductivity in the studied area was relatively moderate during Cenomanian-Turonian and seems

  14. Using of Spatial multi criteria evaluation for landslide zoning Case study Malach Aram basin -north of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimi-Nezamabad, A.; Hoseini Sarrafi, N.; Sadat Mousavi, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Land slide is one of the major disasters which usually happens in specific area and causes different kinds of financial damage and loss of lives. Different places in IRAN are susceptible for occurring landslide. The study area, Malach Aram basin in Ramian County which is located in north part of Iran, is extended about 3500 hectare. Ever different methods are using for zoning and evaluation this natural disaster. Spatial multi criteria evaluation (SMCE) is a structure that implements statistical analysis of multi criteria evaluation on the Georefrence data. This model can be implemented on the GIS software, Ilwis and ArcGIS are major software for running this study. With defining criterion and sub criteria that are effective in occurring landslide and also specifying in groups and inter groups weight of values on the data layers and defining objectives in this classification and with using different effective criteria that are related to this issue, landslide zoning in the case study area has been prepared. The most important criteria that have been used for running this model are Topography, Slope, Aspect, Hillshade,landuse, climate (mouthy, seasonal and annual precipitation during 15 years ago from 2001 until 2007), state of earth dynamic ( earthquake density, distance of faults and others factors), state of existing flora ( density and percentage flora, kind of specious) geomorphology (geomorphology unit , landforms and fancies geomorphologic). After running the this model, output of this model is classification and part of area defined with height potential of landslide occurring. Output of classification landslide zoning with survey GPS pointes that defined real position landslide used in artificial neural network with supervised learning (Multi-Layer Perceptions) . Recently have defined that 5 area of total of suitable area with height potential landslide occurring are important areas with highly positional landslide occurring. Key words: Land slide- Natural

  15. Absolute probability estimates of lethal vessel strikes to North Atlantic right whales in Roseway Basin, Scotian Shelf.

    PubMed

    van der Hoop, Julie M; Vanderlaan, Angelia S M; Taggart, Christopher T

    2012-10-01

    Vessel strikes are the primary source of known mortality for the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Multi-institutional efforts to reduce mortality associated with vessel strikes include vessel-routing amendments such as the International Maritime Organization voluntary "area to be avoided" (ATBA) in the Roseway Basin right whale feeding habitat on the southwestern Scotian Shelf. Though relative probabilities of lethal vessel strikes have been estimated and published, absolute probabilities remain unknown. We used a modeling approach to determine the regional effect of the ATBA, by estimating reductions in the expected number of lethal vessel strikes. This analysis differs from others in that it explicitly includes a spatiotemporal analysis of real-time transits of vessels through a population of simulated, swimming right whales. Combining automatic identification system (AIS) vessel navigation data and an observationally based whale movement model allowed us to determine the spatial and temporal intersection of vessels and whales, from which various probability estimates of lethal vessel strikes are derived. We estimate one lethal vessel strike every 0.775-2.07 years prior to ATBA implementation, consistent with and more constrained than previous estimates of every 2-16 years. Following implementation, a lethal vessel strike is expected every 41 years. When whale abundance is held constant across years, we estimate that voluntary vessel compliance with the ATBA results in an 82% reduction in the per capita rate of lethal strikes; very similar to a previously published estimate of 82% reduction in the relative risk of a lethal vessel strike. The models we developed can inform decision-making and policy design, based on their ability to provide absolute, population-corrected, time-varying estimates of lethal vessel strikes, and they are easily transported to other regions and situations.

  16. Plant-water relationships in the Great Basin Desert of North America derived from Pinus monophylla hourly dendrometer records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    Water is the main limiting resource for natural and human systems, but the effect of hydroclimatic variability on woody species in water-limited environments at sub-monthly time scales is not fully understood. Plant-water relationships of single-leaf pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla) were investigated using hourly dendrometer and environmental data from May 2006 to October 2011 in the Great Basin Desert, one of the driest regions of North America. Average radial stem increments showed an annual range of variation below 1.0 mm, with a monotonic steep increase from May to July that yielded a stem enlargement of about 0.5 mm. Stem shrinkage up to 0.2 mm occurred in late summer, followed by an abrupt expansion of up to 0.5 mm in the fall, at the arrival of the new water year precipitation. Subsequent winter shrinkage and enlargement were less than 0.3 mm each. Based on 4 years with continuous data, diel cycles varied in both timing and amplitude between months and years. Phase shifts in circadian stem changes were observed between the growing season and the dormant one, with stem size being linked to precipitation more than to other water-related indices, such as relative humidity or soil moisture. During May-October, the amplitude of the phases of stem contraction, expansion, and increment was positively related to their duration in a nonlinear fashion. Changes in precipitation regime, which affected the diel phases especially when lasting more than 5-6 h, could substantially influence the dynamics of water depletion and replenishment in single-leaf pinyon pine.

  17. The Early Miocene-Early Pliocene Vegetation and Climate Changes at the north to northwest Çankırı -Çorum Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalar, Müge; Kováčová, Marianna; Sezgül Kayseri Ozer, Mine; Utescher, Torsten; Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The ALErT project targets on climate and tectonic hazards in the densely populated regions in the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP), within the framework of the Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN program, The CAP extends in a wide area in between zone the Aegean extensional zone and Bitlis /Zagros compressional zone. Çankırı Basin (in the middle CAP) is a key to understand aridification plateau interior and it was a deep pelagic Basin from Late Cretaceous -Early Tertiary as a result of the closure of Neo- Tethyan till the Middle Eocene. North to south of the Çankırı Basin; the Plio - Quaternary Deǧim formation (fluvial deposits) consist of massive mudstones and sandstones and it unconformable overlies the Bozkır formation (lacustrine deposits). That is a Messinian succession mainly by a 200 m-thick cyclic sequence of continental gypsum layers, clays and sandy clays in gypsum with different thicknesses crops. Bozkır formation, the lower being the contact with the Süleymanlı formation. It is overlay the Tuǧlu formation with uncomformably, which is an Upper Miocene succession mainly composed of dark grey silty and organic rich clays. Following formation, which outcrops in the northwest of Çankırı basin, is Hançili formation. The unit is covered by grey sediments of the Hançili Formation, showing alternations of channel sandstones and clay stones over 100 m thick in Early - Middle Miocene in the Çankırı basin. In this study, samples were analyzed for biotic proxy data (palynology) to figure the paleo-environmental and paleoclimate changes. Additionally only for Bozkir formation (longest section in the study area) were sampled for geochemical (δ18O - δ13C isotopes analyses and CaCO3) analysis and the rest of the formations were interpreted using the previous study. In the most pollen spectra the herbs and shrubs prevail: in Deǧim formation (50%), in Bozkır formation (75%), in Süleymanlı formation (47%), in Tuǧlu formation (60%) and in Han

  18. From the North American Great Basin to the planet Mars: Taking Lacustrine Geomorphology into the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1997-09-01

    Introduction. The entire planet Mars is presently a desert more arid than any on Earth. The planet appears to have had more water in the past, and some of this water affected the surface geology and geomorphology by carving a variety of channels. Despite the evidence for running water in the martian past, the presence of sanding bodies of water (lakes, oceans) has been a topic of considerable controversy in the past two decades. The issue is still not settled, but evidence has mounted to suggest that lakes and oceans were indeed a major factor in shaping the present geomorphology of the martian surface. Although there remains uncertainty as to whether lakes were present on Mars, major efforts to seek evidence for fossil martian organisms are focused on the search for lake sediments and tufa deposits [1]. In 2001 and 2003, the NASA Mars Surveyor Program will launch mobile rovers designed to explore the surface and collect samples for return to Earth. The first set of samples will reach Earth in 2008. The types of landing sites being considered for the '01 and '03 missions include areas interpreted as ancient lacustrine deposits. Knowledge and experience with the geomorphology of lacustrine features in the North American Great Basin is crucial for identifying lake features on Mars. Martian Lakes and Oceans: Prior to spacecraft exploration of Mars, many early astronomers though that the low-albedo surfaces of Mars could be seas or lakes, others considered these to be vast tracts of vegetation [2]. The low-albedo surfaces are now known to be the result of aeolian action on the distribution of sand and dust. The Mariner 4, 6, and 7 spacecraft in 1965 and 1969 stunned the world by showing a cratered, lunar-like martian surface. In 1972, Mariner 9 showed a more Earth-like surface - indeed, there were numerous channels, some carved by massive floods, others perhaps by fluvial run-off or sapping. The Viking orbiters (1976-1980) provided additional images; these formed the

  19. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  20. Use of a watershed-modeling approach to assess hydrologic effects of urbanization, North Fork Pheasant Branch basin near Middleton, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.; Hunt, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The North Fork Pheasant Branch Basin in Dane County, Wisconsin is expected to undergo development. There are concerns that development will adversely affect water resources with increased flood peaks, increased runoff volumes, and increased pollutant loads. To provide a scientific basis for evaluating the hydrologic system response to development the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) was used to model the upper Pheasant Branch Creek watershed with an emphasis on the North Fork Basin. The upper Pheasant Branch Creek (18.3 mi2; 11,700 acres) Basin was represented with 21 Hydrologic Response Units (daily time step) and 50 flow planes (5-minute time steps). Precipitation data from the basin outlet streamflow-gaging station located at Highway 12 and temperature data from a nearby airport were used to drive the model. Continuous discharge records at three gaging stations were used for model calibration. To qualitatively assess model representation of small subbasins, periodic reconnaissance, often including a depth measurement, was made after precipitation to determine the occurrence of flow in ditches and channels from small subbasins. As a further effort to verify the model on a small subbasin scale, continuous-stage sensors (15-minute intervals) measured depth at the outlets of three small subbasins (500 to 1,200 acres). Average annual precipitation for the simulation period from 1993 to 1998 was 35.2 inches. The model simulations showed that, on average, 23.9 inches were intercepted by vegetation, or lost to evapotranspiration, 6.0 inches were infiltrated and moved to the regional ground-water system, and 4.8 inches contributed to the upper Pheasant Branch streamflow. The largest runoff event during the calibration interval was in July 1993 (746 ft3/sec; with a recurrence interval of approximately 25 years). Resulting recharge rates from the calibrated model were subsequently used as input into a ground-water-flow model. Average annual recharge varied

  1. Flow path of the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake seismoturbidite, suthern margin of the Japan sea north basin, inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abdeldayem, A.L.; Ikehara, K.; Yamazaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic fabric analysis has been carried out on standard cube samples from one gravity and three multiple cores extracted from the Shiribeshi trough and Okushiri basin in the southern margin of the Japan sea north basin. It is aimed at tracing the flow path of turbidites that are assumed to have deposited in response to the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake. Magnetic remanence was used for reorientation to the geographic coordinates. Magnetomineralogical investigations including low-temperature magnetometry, magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiments indicate that pseudosingle domain to multidomain magnetite is the principal magnetic carrier and is, therefore, capable of providing reliable anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) palaeocurrent direction estimates. A well-developed near-horizontal magnetic foliation and minimum susceptibility axes lying close to vertical are recorded at all sites reflecting an original depositional fabric. Clearly defined magnetic lineation was observed at all sites and is considered to reflect the palaeocurrent direction. Down-core changes of susceptibility and key AMS parameters show good correspondence to occurrences of turbidite layers marking the increase of input of influx materials. In agreement with results from recent marine surveys and IZANAGI side-scan sonar images, an NNE transportation trend has been estimated for sediments at sites from the Shiribeshi trough with a possible depositing path initiating from the slope bounding the south and southeastern margin down to the trough floor. Similarly, a SSE palaeocurrent direction has been estimated for sediments from the Okushiri basin with evidence for a relatively strong transporting current flowing through the canyons along the steep slope bounding the north and northeastern margins of the basin. The present results agree with the view that slope failure is the most probable mechanism for the down-slope transport

  2. Flow path of the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake seismoturbidite, southern margin of the Japan sea north basin, inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeldayem, A. L.; Ikehara, K.; Yamazaki, T.

    2004-04-01

    A magnetic fabric analysis has been carried out on standard cube samples from one gravity and three multiple cores extracted from the Shiribeshi trough and Okushiri basin in the southern margin of the Japan sea north basin. It is aimed at tracing the flow path of turbidites that are assumed to have deposited in response to the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake. Magnetic remanence was used for reorientation to the geographic coordinates. Magnetomineralogical investigations including low-temperature magnetometry, magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiments indicate that pseudo-single domain to multidomain magnetite is the principal magnetic carrier and is, therefore, capable of providing reliable anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) palaeocurrent direction estimates. A well-developed near-horizontal magnetic foliation and minimum susceptibility axes lying close to vertical are recorded at all sites reflecting an original depositional fabric. Clearly defined magnetic lineation was observed at all sites and is considered to reflect the palaeocurrent direction. Down-core changes of susceptibility and key AMS parameters show good correspondence to occurrences of turbidite layers marking the increase of input of influx materials. In agreement with results from recent marine surveys and IZANAGI side-scan sonar images, an NNE transportation trend has been estimated for sediments at sites from the Shiribeshi trough with a possible depositing path initiating from the slope bounding the south and southeastern margin down to the trough floor. Similarly, a SSE palaeocurrent direction has been estimated for sediments from the Okushiri basin with evidence for a relatively strong transporting current flowing through the canyons along the steep slope bounding the north and northeastern margins of the basin. The present results agree with the view that slope failure is the most probable mechanism for the down-slope transport

  3. A giant submarine slope failure on the insular slope north of Puerto Rico: A response of Arecibo basin strata to tectonic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, W.C.; Danforth, W.W.; Scanlon, K.M. )

    1990-06-01

    An amphitheater-shaped scarp, approximately 55 km across in water depths from about 3,000 m to 6,700 m was imaged on the northern insular slope of Puerto Rico (southern slope of the Puerto Rico Trench) using the GLORIA side-scan sonar system. This scarp represents the removal of more than 1,500 m{sup 3} of Tertiary Arecibo basin strata. The head of the scarp coincides with the location of a fault zone observed on nearby seismic-reflection profiles. Interpretation of the GLORIA imagery, and a review of available bathymetric, geophysical, and stratigraphic data and tectonic-framework models suggest that the scarp formed as a consequence of slope failure induced by tectonic oversteepening of the insular slope. The oversteepening may be a result of the most recent episode of convergence of the Caribbean and North American plates, which began approximately 4 million years ago. The Arecibo basin strata have been tilted approximately 4{degree} to the north and are apparently gravitationally unstable under the present seismic regime. The volume of material involved in this slope failure is comparable to the material displaced in tsunamogenic submarine landslides along the Peru Trench and Hawaiian Ridge. Therefore, if the slope failure north of Puerto Rico was catastrophic, it was large enough to have generated a tsunami that would have flooded the low ground of northern Puerto Rico.

  4. Magnetostratigraphic evidence of a mid-Pliocene onset of the Nihewan Formation - implications for early fauna and hominid occupation in the Nihewan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; An, Zhisheng; Xiao, Guoqiao; Li, Yongxiang; Zhao, Hui; Qiang, Xiaoke; Chang, Hong; Chang, Qiufang; Wu, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    The fluvio-lacustrine sediments in the Nihewan Basin of North China, known as the Nihewan Formation, are well-known for an abundance of Early Pleistocene mammalian fossils (known as the Nihewan Fauna sensu lato) and Paleolithic sites. The age at which the sedimentation started is thus crucial for our understanding of early fauna and hominid occupation and infilling history of the basin, but it is poorly constrained to date. Here we report on a detailed paleomagnetic investigation of the Yangshuizhan section that crops out in the northeastern Nihewan Basin, supplemented by rock magnetic analyses into the carriers of the natural remanent magnetization. Magnetite and hematite are shown to be the main carriers of the characteristic remanent magnetization. Magnetostratigraphic correlation to the geomagnetic polarity timescale indicates that the onset of the Nihewan Formation in this section occurs at ˜3.7 Ma, just below the Gilbert-Gauss boundary and ca 1-Myr earlier than previously established evidence. This pushes the lower limit of the Nihewan Formation back in time from very late Pliocene (<2.8 Ma) to (at least) the mid-Pliocene. Combining the previously established magnetostratigraphic data with the present study, we arrive at a better understanding of the chronological framework and spatio-temporal history of the deposition of the terrestrial Nihewan Formation. Furthermore, it provides new perspectives of early fauna and hominid occupation in the Nihewan Basin.

  5. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  6. Water quality in the Santee River basin and coastal drainages, North and South Carolina, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W. Brian; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.; Maluk, Terry L.; Reuber, Eric J.; Wilhelm, Lance J.

    2000-01-01

    Surface water sampled in the Santee River basin and coastal drainages generally meets existing Federal and State guidelines for drinking-water quality and protection of aquatic life. However, urban and agricultural land uses have affected water quality, as indicated by elevated concentrations of bacteria, pesticides, and nutrients in basins dominated by these land uses.

  7. Paleomagnetism of baked sedimentary rocks in the Newark and Culpeper basins: Evidence for the J1 cusp and significant Late Triassic apparent polar wander from the Mesozoic basins of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kenneth P.; Cioppa, Maria T.; Sherwood, Elizabeth; Warnock, Andrew C.

    1994-08-01

    and sills. In this comparison the in situ Culpeper poles agreed with the prefolding Newark poles significantly better than the prefolding Culpeper poles. This result indicates that Culpeper intrusives erupted into already tilted sedimentary rocks. The paleomagnetic pole determined from the combined Culpeper baked sediments, dikes, and sills (in situ coordinates) and the Newark basin baked sediments (tilt-corrected coordinates) lies at 60°N, 69°E and is of 201 Ma age. This latest Triassic/earliest Jurassic pole, when combined with the Newark basin Carnian results (Witte and Kent, 1989) and Norian results (Witte et al., 1991) corrected for a counterclockwise block rotation (Kodama et al., 1994), provides a record of significant polar wander from eastern North America's Mesozoic basins for the Late Triassic. This is consistent with observations made for a similar time period from rocks on the Colorado Plateau (Bazard and Butler, 1991). Comparison of the Newark/Culpeper pole to similar age poles from the Kayenta (Bazard and Butler, 1991) and Moenave Formations (Ekstrand and Butler, 1989) only requires small amounts (5°) of Colorado Plateau rotation. The pole also provides the first well-dated evidence of the Jl cusp in North American apparent polar wander from rocks not located on the Colorado Plateau, thus giving strong support for the usefulness of paleomagnetic Euler pole analysis of apparent polar wander.

  8. A Backarc Basin Origin for the Eocene Volcanic Rocks North of Abbas Abad, East of Shahrud, Northeast Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Mobasher, K.; Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H.; La Tour, T.

    2008-12-01

    The region in northeastern Iran, bordered by the Miami fault and the Doruneh fault, mainly exposes the Eocene volcanic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks and sporadic outcrops of pre- Jurassic metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and mica-schist. We have divided the volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks into six main units: E1 through the youngest E6. North of Abbas Abad, the Lower Eocene is conglomerate, sandstone, and red shale with lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone at the base, and dacitic lava (E1) at the top. The nummulites give an Early Eocene age for the limestone lenses. The E2 unit includes vesicular basalt, intercalated, intraformational conglomerate, and lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone. E3 is volcanic- sedimentary, and is made of green tuff, tuffite, shale, and nummulite bearing limestone. E4 includes basalt and vesicular trachy-basalt, and E5 is mostly sedimentary, made of tan marl, sandstone, shale, and lenses of Middle Eocene nummulite-bearing limestone. The E6 unit is the most extensive, with at least three levels of nummulite-bearing limestone lenses which give a Middle to Early Eocene age. The volcanic rocks of the E6 unit include few hundred meters of epiclastic to hyaloclastic breccia, with intercalations of lava at the base. These are overlain by four horizons of aphyric olivine basalt and basalt, and phyric trachy-andesite and trachy-basalt. The volume of the aphyric lavas decreases, and that of the phyric lavas increases upsection. The Eocene volcanic sequence is covered by turbidite; the marl washings give an Eocene-Oligocene age range. Chondrite-normalized multi-element plots indicate enrichment of the Eocene Abbas Abad volcanic rocks in the LILE elements, with variable ratios of La/Yb (4.36-19.33) and La/Sm (3.10-7.91). These plots show a gentle slope, and the volcanic rocks in the E1 to E4 units are less enriched than those in the E6 unit, probably reflecting the difference in the original source for the melt. The multi-element plots

  9. An offshore-onland transect across the north-eastern Black Sea basin (Crimean margin): Evidence of Paleocene to Pliocene two-stage compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, Yevgeniya; Sosson, Marc; Ratzov, Gueorgui; Sydorenko, Grigoriy; Voitsitskiy, Zinoviy; Yegorova, Tamara; Gintov, Oleg; Murovskaya, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Black Sea (BS) is a subject of debate, there are several unsolved questions: 1) the timing and the spatial progression of the BS basin opening and 2) the timing of Cenozoic shortening along the northern margin of the Eastern BS basin. The timing of the main compressional deformations, related to the inversion of the Greater Caucasus (GC) basin, is assumed to be Oligo-Miocene. However, Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene shortening, linked to the final closure of the northern branch of the Neotethys, is also suggested. The Crimean Mountains (CM), to the north of the Eastern BS, is one of the key areas to investigate in order to fix the tectonic evolution of the BS. To precise the timing of the Cenozoic shortening of the Eastern BS, we focus on an integrated onshore/offshore transect from the Eastern CM to the Sorokin Trough (north of Eastern BS). We use newly collected stratigraphic and structural data from the Eastern CM, and a new interpretation of multichannel seismic lines. We define 1) the offshore seismic stratigraphy and constrain the relative chronology of deformations, 2) the age of seismic units by correlation of the seismic data with the Subbotina-403 well log, and 3) we construct an on-to-off shore transect of Eastern CM - northern Eastern BS region. Our results evidence a polyphased Cenozoic compression in the northern part of the Eastern BS: 1) Paleocene-Earliest Eocene and 2) Oligocene-Miocene (Maikopian). Normal faults appear to be related to a formation of the foreland basin, instead of evidencing the Eastern BS Cretaceous rifting. Finally, this study allows precising the shortening phases within Eastern CM and Eastern BS since the Early Paleocene, linking them to the Neotethys closure and the GC tectonic evolution.

  10. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the North

  11. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Cozzarelli, I M; Skalak, K J; Kent, D B; Engle, M A; Benthem, A; Mumford, A C; Haase, K; Farag, A; Harper, D; Nagel, S C; Iwanowicz, L R; Orem, W H; Akob, D M; Jaeschke, J B; Galloway, J; Kohler, M; Stoliker, D L; Jolly, G D

    2017-02-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7.8mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11mg/L and <0.4mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25mg/L), boron (1.75mg/L) and strontium (7.1mg/L) were present downstream at 5-10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures

  12. Holocene Paleoenvironment of the North-central Great Basin: Preliminary Results from Favre Lake, Northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Wan, E.; Anderson, L.; Wanket, J.; Olson, H.; Lloyd-Davies, T.; Kusler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about Holocene climate variability in north-central Nevada. This study aims to assess changes in watershed vegetation, fire history, lake levels and limnological conditions in order to understand secular to millennial-scale changes in regional climate. Favre Lake (2,899 m a.s.l.; 12 m deep; 7.7 hectares) is a flow-through lake in the northern Ruby Mountains. The primary sources of influent, both of which appear to be intermittent, are Castle Lake (2,989 m a.s.l.) and Liberty Lake (3,077 m a.s.l.). The bedrock of the three lake basins is early Paleozoic marble and Mesozoic granite and metamorphic rocks. Bathymetric maps and temperature, pH, salinity, and conductivity profiles have been generated for Favre Lake. Surface samples and a series of cores were also collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7,700 cal yr B.P. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and loss-on-ignition data indicate that the sediments in the lowest part of the core contain primary and reworked Mazama ash. About 2,000 years ago CaCO3 increased from 2 to 3% of the inorganic sediment. The upper 25 cm of the core are marked by an increase in MS which may indicate increased erosion due to grazing. Between about 7,700 and 6,000 cal yr B.P. the diatom flora is dominated by a diverse assemblage of benthic species. The remainder of the core is dominated by Fragilaria, suggesting that lake level rose and flooded the shelf that surrounds the depocenter of the lake. This is supported by changes in the abundance of the aquatic fern Isoetes. Pinus and Artemisia dominate the pollen record, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. The late early Holocene (7,700-6,000 cal yr B.P.) is dominated by Pinus which is present in reduced amounts during the middle Holocene (6,000-3,000 cal yr B.P.) and then returns to dominance in

  13. Investigation of fluvial landforms in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, using cartographic materials from the XIX-XXI Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robu, Delia; Niga, Bogdan; Perşoiu, Ioana

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, and covers approximately 3700 km2. Using cartographic materials for the last 155 years, we analyzed and defined river network and relict fluvial morphologies created by the rivers Tur, Someş, Homorod and Crasna. Database extraction from each set of historical maps was performed by field verification and validation, associated to GIS techniques. Relict fluvial morphologies on the Someş alluvial cone comprise a wide variety of channel typologies and sizes, drainage directions and their consequent typology, which indicates a complex fluvial evolution. The dominant category of relict fluvial morphology is represented by the meander loop. Following the quantitative analysis on the successive sets of maps we identified and delimited meander loops and meandering paths formed prior to the reference year 1860. Generally, the post-1860 relict fluvial morphologies are secondary morphologies, as the keynote is given by those formed previous to the reference moment 1860. An analysis of the share of the relict fluvial morphologies on the three sets of reference cartographic materials (the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, Google Earth and orthophotoplans) highlights that most relict fluvial morphologies were identified on the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, followed by those identified in Google Earth and orthophotoplans. The map of fluvial morphologies constructed in this study enables a discussion on drainage directions, based on the observation that a series of abandoned meander loops and segments follow clear directions. We applied several quantitative indices in assessing the relict fluvial morphology (radius of curvature, paleochannel width). Consequently, we identified underfit stream sectors with meander loops larger than the modern ones Someş meanders (on the Racta River), uncharacteristic features such as braided riverbed reaches, a high frequency of meander scrolls present on the

  14. Basin-scale population genetic structure of the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Ebru; Bucklin, Ann

    2010-10-01

    Pelagic marine invertebrates have extensive potential for gene flow, although barriers to gene flow and entrainment in ocean currents may lead to reproductive isolation or drift, and thus to genetic differentiation of populations. The planktonic calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus shows significant geographic variation in life history traits across subarctic zones of the N. Atlantic Ocean. Population genetic analysis of C. finmarchicus examined allelic variation at 24 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) sites in three nuclear protein-coding genes: citrate synthase, heat-shock protein-70, and AMP-activated protein kinase. Samples were collected during 2005 from 10 areas representing the Northwest (NW), North Central (NC), and Northeast (NE) Atlantic gyres. Hypotheses of two or more distinct populations of C. finmarchicus were examined based on SNP variation within the three genes analyzed both separately and together using AMOVA ( Arlequin Ver. 3.11), CLUMPP (Ver. 1.1), GENALEX (Ver. 6.2), Genepop (Ver. 4.0.10), and Structure (Ver. 2.3). All analyses revealed evidence of small but significant differentiation among areas within gyres (e.g., FSC = 0.0306, p < 0.0001 for two populations; FSC = 0.0344, p < 0.0001 for three populations; pairwise FST values for all 10 areas ranged from 0.0000 to 0.2400), which may reflect ecologically-important, short-term (on the order of months) variation driven by geographic variation in life history traits. Support for underlying large-scale differentiation, which may reflect persistent barriers to gene flow associated with entrainment in ocean gyres, was provided by various analyses, with numbers of distinct C. finmarchicus populations ranging from two to four. Analysis of molecular variation supported two populations, while clustering and population assignment supported two, three, or four populations. The Barents Sea sample was especially distinctive: one test using AMOVA was non-significant among gyres without this sample and

  15. Opaque minerals as keys for distinguishing oxidising and reducing diagenetic conditions in the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone, North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibel, R.; Friis, H.

    2004-07-01

    The diagenetic evolution in red and white/drab parts of the Bunter Sandstone from outcrops and wells in the North German Basin was unraveled by a detailed petrographical, mineralogical, and chemical study. The diagenetic sequences for the red and white/drab parts differ in the degree of alteration of iron-bearing detrital minerals and in the authigenic opaque minerals. In the white/drab parts, one typically sees reduction of red mica, dissolution of hematite and magnetite, and alteration of ilmenite and titanomagnetite to leucoxene. In contrast, the red parts commonly display oxidation of glauconite; red zonation in ooids; hematisation of magnetite, biotite, and magnetite host in titanomagnetite; and leucoxene replacement of the ilmenite lamellae in titanomagnetite. The red colour of the red bed host is due to red coatings of goethite needles and/or hematite needles. Goethite needles precipitated in the prevailing oxidising conditions, present shortly after deposition, whereas pseudomorphous replacement by hematite occurred during the burial process. The white/drab colour of the reduced areas is the original colour of the sediment. The black core in reduction spots is due to mineralization. Uranium and vanadium minerals (coffinite, montroseite, and V-illite) in reduction spots are located close to carbonate fragments, which probably contained organic matter. Isolated reduction spots may have formed immediately after deposition; inside these were clasts eroded from algal mats formed in the sabkha environment. The copper minerals typically occur in areas with high porosity, reflecting the importance of access to chloride-rich brines, which transported dissolved copper. When these brines reached reducing environments, chalcocite and chalcopyrite were precipitated, possibly by replacement of pyrite. In the red areas, these saline brines may also have promoted the second-stage alteration of ilmenite, in which leucoxene, the first-stage alteration product, was

  16. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent

  17. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and < 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25 mg/L), boron (1.75 mg/L) and strontium (7.1 mg/L) were present downstream at 5–10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that

  18. The lithospheric-scale 3D structural configuration of the North Alpine Foreland Basin constrained by gravity modelling and the calculation of the 3D load distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Schneider, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The North Alpine Foreland Basin is situated in the northern front of the European Alps and extends over parts of France, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. It formed as a wedge shaped depression since the Tertiary in consequence of the Euro - Adriatic continental collision and the Alpine orogeny. The basin is filled with clastic sediments, the Molasse, originating from erosional processes of the Alps and underlain by Mesozoic sedimentary successions and a Paleozoic crystalline crust. For our study we have focused on the German part of the basin. To investigate the deep structure, the isostatic state and the load distribution of this region we have constructed a 3D structural model of the basin and the Alpine area using available depth and thickness maps, regional scale 3D structural models as well as seismic and well data for the sedimentary part. The crust (from the top Paleozoic down to the Moho (Grad et al. 2008)) has been considered as two-parted with a lighter upper crust and a denser lower crust; the partition has been calculated following the approach of isostatic equilibrium of Pratt (1855). By implementing a seismic Lithosphere-Asthenosphere-Boundary (LAB) (Tesauro 2009) the crustal scale model has been extended to the lithospheric-scale. The layer geometry and the assigned bulk densities of this starting model have been constrained by means of 3D gravity modelling (BGI, 2012). Afterwards the 3D load distribution has been calculated using a 3D finite element method. Our results show that the North Alpine Foreland Basin is not isostatically balanced and that the configuration of the crystalline crust strongly controls the gravity field in this area. Furthermore, our results show that the basin area is influenced by varying lateral load differences down to a depth of more than 150 km what allows a first order statement of the required compensating horizontal stress needed to prevent gravitational collapse of the system. BGI (2012). The International

  19. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the upper Minnesota River basin, west-central Minnesota, northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Upper Minnesota River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, north-eastern South Dakota, and southeastern North Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both laker and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, highflow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  20. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochemistry of an underfilled lake basin in the Puna (north-west Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Kowler, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Depositional models of ancient lakes in thin-skinned retroarc foreland basins rarely benefit from appropriate Quaternary analogues. To address this, we present new stratigraphic, sedimentological and geochemical analyses of four radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Pozuelos Basin (PB; northwest Argentina) that capture the evolution of this low-accommodation Puna basin over the past ca. 43 cal kyr. Strata from the PB are interpreted as accumulations of a highly variable, underfilled lake system represented by lake-plain/littoral, profundal, palustrine, saline lake and playa facies associations. The vertical stacking of facies is asymmetric, with transgressive and thin organic-rich highstand deposits underlying thicker, organic-poor regressive deposits. The major controls on depositional architecture and basin palaeogeography are tectonics and climate. Accommodation space was derived from piggyback basin-forming flexural subsidence and Miocene-Quaternary normal faulting associated with incorporation of the basin into the Andean hinterland. Sediment and water supply was modulated by variability in the South American summer monsoon, and perennial lake deposits correlate in time with several well-known late Pleistocene wet periods on the Altiplano/Puna plateau. Our results shed new light on lake expansion–contraction dynamics in the PB in particular and provide a deeper understanding of Puna basin lakes in general.

  1. North Atlantic Ocean deep-water processes and depositional environments: A study of the Cenozoic Norway Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oline Hjelstuen, Berit; Andreassen, Elin V.

    2015-04-01

    Despite the enormous areas deep-water basins occupy in modern oceans, our knowledge about them remains poor. At depths of greater than 2000 m, the Cenozoic Norway Basin in the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, is one such basin. Interpretation of 2D multichannel seismic data suggests a three-stage evolution for the Norway Basin. (1) Eocene-Pliocene. This time period is characterised by deposition of ooze-rich sediments in a widening and deepening basin. (2) Early-Middle Pleistocene. A significant shift in sedimentary processes and depositional environments took place in the Early Pleistocene. Mass failures initiated on the Norwegian continental slope, and three Early and Middle Pleistocene slide debrites, with maximum thicknesses of 600 m and sediment volumes of up to 25000 km3, were deposited. With ages estimated at c. 2.7-1.7 Ma, 1.7-1.1 Ma and 0.5 Ma, these slide deposits are among the largest identified worldwide, and among the oldest mapped along the entire NE Atlantic continental margin. (3) Late Pleistocene-Present. Since c. 0.5 Ma the Norway Basin has been effected by glacigenic debris flows, the Storegga Slide and hemipelagic-glacimarine sedimentation. These sedimentary processes were active during a time of repeated shelf-edge ice advances along the NE Atlantic continental margin. This study shows that deep-water basins represent dynamic depositional environments reflecting regional tectonic and climatic changes trough time.

  2. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  3. Relating seasonal dynamics of enhanced vegetation index to the recycling of water in two endorheic river basins in north-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, M. A.; Bourque, C. P.-A.

    2015-08-01

    This study associates the dynamics of enhanced vegetation index in lowland desert oases to the recycling of water in two endorheic (hydrologically closed) river basins in Gansu Province, north-west China, along a gradient of elevation zones and land cover types. Each river basin was subdivided into four elevation zones representative of (i) oasis plains and foothills, and (ii) low-, (iii) mid-, and (iv) high-mountain elevations. Comparison of monthly vegetation phenology with precipitation and snowmelt dynamics within the same basins over a 10-year period (2000-2009) suggested that the onset of the precipitation season (cumulative % precipitation > 7-8 %) in the mountains, typically in late April to early May, was triggered by the greening of vegetation and increased production of water vapour at the base of the mountains. Seasonal evolution of in-mountain precipitation correlated fairly well with the temporal variation in oasis-vegetation coverage and phenology characterised by monthly enhanced vegetation index, yielding coefficients of determination of 0.65 and 0.85 for the two basins. Convergent cross-mapping of related time series indicated bi-directional causality (feedback) between the two variables. Comparisons between same-zone monthly precipitation amounts and enhanced vegetation index provided weaker correlations. Start of the growing season in the oases was shown to coincide with favourable spring warming and discharge of meltwater from low- to mid-elevations of the Qilian Mountains (zones 1 and 2) in mid-to-late March. In terms of plant requirement for water, mid-seasonal development of oasis vegetation was seen to be controlled to a greater extent by the production of rain in the mountains. Comparison of water volumes associated with in-basin production of rainfall and snowmelt with that associated with evaporation seemed to suggest that about 90 % of the available liquid water (i.e. mostly in the form of direct rainfall and snowmelt in the mountains

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; characterization of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas; McMahon, Gerard; Spruill, T.B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The 28,000-square-mile Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin includes the Roanoke, Dan, Chowan Tar, and Neuse Rivers. The basin extends through four physiographic provinces in North Carolina and Virginia-Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, Piedmont and Coastal Plain. The spatial and temporal trends in ground-water and riverine water quality in the study area were characterized by using readily available data sources The primary data sources that were used included the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) database, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval System (STORET) database, and results of a few investigations of pesticide occurrence. The principal water-quality constituents examined were suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides. The data examined generally spanned the period from 1950 to 1993. The only significant trends in suspended sediment were detected at three Chowan River tributary sites which showed long-term decreases. Suspended- and total-solids concentrations have decreased throughout the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The decreases are probably a result of (1) construction of new lakes and ponds in the basin, which trap solids, (2) improved agricultural soil management, and (3) improved wastewater treatment. Nutrient point sources are much less than nonpoint nutrient sources at the eight NASQAN basins examined for nutrient loads. The greatest nitrogen inputs are associated with crop fertilizer and biological nitrogen fixation by soybeans and peanuts, whereas atmospheric and animal-related nitrogen inputs are comparable in magnitude. The largest phosphorus inputs are associated with animal wastes. The most commonly detected pesticides in surface water in the STORET database were atrazine and aldrin.Intensive organonitrogen herbicide sampling of Chicod Creek in 1992 showed seasonal variations in pesticide concentration. The most commonly detected herbicides were atrazine, alachlor

  5. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF FISH HEALTH: A PROTOTYPE METHODOLOGY AND CASE STUDY FOR THE ALBEMARLE-PAMLICO RIVER BASIN, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASE (Basin-Scale Assessments for Sustainable Ecosystems) is a research program developed by the Ecosystems Research Division of the National Exposure Research Laboratory to explore and formulate approaches for assessing the sustainability of ecological resources within watershed...

  6. Volcanic activities in the Southern part of East African rift initiation: Melilitites and nephelinites from the Manyara Basin (North Tanzania rift axis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudouin, Celine; Parat, Fleurice; Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Peyrat, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift exposes different stages of plate boundary extension, from the initiation of the rift (North (N) Tanzania) to oceanic accretion (Afar). The N Tanzania rift-axis (north-south (S) trend) is divided into 2 different volcanic and seismic activities: (1) the Natron basin (N) with shallow seismicity and intense volcanism and (2) the Manyara basin (S) with deep crustal earthquakes and sparse volcanism. The Natron basin is characterized by extinct volcanoes (2 Ma-0.75 Ma) and active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai) and a link between seismicity and volcanism has been observed during the Oldoinyo Lengai crisis in 2007. In the S part of the N Tanzanian rift, volcanoes erupted in the Manyara basin between 0.4 and 0.9 Ma. In this study, we used geochemical signature of magmas and deep fluids that percolate into the lithosphere beneath Manyara basin, to define the compositions of magmas and fluids at depth beneath the S part of the N Tanzania rift, compare to the Natron basin and place constrain on the volcanic and seismic activities. The Manyara basin has distinct volcanic activities with mafic magmas as melilitites (Labait) and Mg-nephelinites (carbonatite, Kwaraha), and more differentiated magmas as Mg-poor nephelinites (Hanang). Melilitites and Mg-nephelinites are primary magmas with olivine, clinopyroxene (cpx), and phlogopite recording high-pressure crystallization environment, (melilitites >4 GPa and Mg-nephelinites>1 GPa) with high volatile contents (whole rock: 0.7-4.6 wt% CO2, 0.1-0.3 wt% F and 0.1 wt% Cl). FTIR analyses of olivine constrained the water content of Labait and Kwaraha magmas at 0.1 and 0.4 wt% H2O, respectively. Geochemical modelling suggests that mafic magmas result from a low degree of partial melting (1-2%) of a peridotitic source with garnet and phlogopite (high Tb/Yb (>0.6) and Rb/Sr (0.03-0.12) ratio). Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang volcano crystallized cpx, Ti-garnet, and nepheline as phenocrysts. Magmas result from fractional

  7. High-resolution record of geomagnetic excursions in the Matuyama chron constrains the ages of the Feiliang and Lanpo Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; An, Zhisheng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Wei, Qi; Pei, Shuwen; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Hongli; Xiao, Guoqiao; Qiang, Xiaoke; Wu, Dacheng; Chang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    The Nihewan Basin (40°N) in North China is a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites and thus a key area for studying early human evolution in high-latitude (from an early human perspective) East Asia. Here a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic investigation is carried out on a fluvio-lacustrine section in the northeastern Nihewan Basin, which contains the Feiliang and Lanpo Paleolithic sites. Paleomagnetic results suggest that this section records the lower portion of the Brunhes polarity chron and the upper Matuyama polarity chron. Furthermore, the Jaramillo polarity subchron and seven of the nine validated geomagnetic excursions within the Matuyama polarity chron are identified, including the Kamikatsura, Santa Rosa, Intra-Jaramillo, Cobb Mountain, Bjorn, Gardar and Gilsa excursions. The Feiliang artifact layer is located just at the bottom of the Cobb Mountain excursion, thus its age is estimated to be ˜1.2 Ma. The Lanpo artifact layer appears to be coeval with the Gilsa excursion, yielding an estimated age of ˜1.6 Ma. This study provides new evidence for the presence of early humans in North China before 1.5 Ma and documents the powerful role of geomagnetic excursions: they provide valuable age control points for ongoing efforts to date the early Paleolithic sites.

  8. New insights into the origin of late Neogene sediments in the Umatilla Basin, north-central Oregon and south-central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A. ); Tolan, T.L. . Dept. of Geology); Reidel, S.P. )

    1993-04-01

    The study of late Miocene-aged terrigenous clastic sediments in the Umatilla Basin of north-central Oregon and adjacent Klickitat Valley of southern Washington reveal important, previously unrecognized stratigraphic and lithologic trends. These sediments, comprising the upper Ellensburg and the Alkali Canyon Formations (14 to 8.5 Ma) previously have been characterized as basaltic gravels deposited in localized alluvial fans and minor air fall tuffs produced by Cascade volcanism. A minor extrabasinal (exotic) component to these sediments has been noted in some previous studies. The authors' data challenges these interpretations. Pebble counts reveal a variety of exotic clast types, including metavolcanics, laminated metasediments, quartzites, and intermediate to silicic volcanics. This assemblage of lithologies is different than those that characterize the ancestral Columbia and Salmon-Clearwater Rivers. Sedimentologic trends suggest fluvial rather than alluvial fan deposition dominated. They interpret that a major fluvial system flowed from SE to NW across the western third of the Umatilla Basin. This river exited the Umatilla Basin via the Rock Creek water gap in the Columbia Hills, flowed across the Klickitat Valley and the Horse Heaven Hills, and then intersected the ancestral Columbia River. The abundance and stratigraphic distribution of exotic clast types suggests that this river drained terranes south and east of the Blue Mountains and persisted for a significant period of time, from approximately 14.5 to 8.5 Ma.

  9. Taxonomic challenges in freshwater fishes: a mismatch between morphology and DNA barcoding in fish of the north-eastern part of the Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Decru, Eva; Moelants, Tuur; De Gelas, Koen; Vreven, Emmanuel; Verheyen, Erik; Snoeks, Jos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the utility of DNA barcoding to traditional morphology-based species identifications for the fish fauna of the north-eastern Congo basin. We compared DNA sequences (COI) of 821 samples from 206 morphologically identified species. Best match, best close match and all species barcoding analyses resulted in a rather low identification success of 87.5%, 84.5% and 64.1%, respectively. The ratio 'nearest-neighbour distance/maximum intraspecific divergence' was lower than 1 for 26.1% of the samples, indicating possible taxonomic problems. In ten genera, belonging to six families, the number of species inferred from mtDNA data exceeded the number of species identified using morphological features; and in four cases indications of possible synonymy were detected. Finally, the DNA barcodes confirmed previously known identification problems within certain genera of the Clariidae, Cyprinidae and Mormyridae. Our results underscore the large number of taxonomic problems lingering in the taxonomy of the fish fauna of the Congo basin and illustrate why DNA barcodes will contribute to future efforts to compile a reliable taxonomic inventory of the Congo basin fish fauna. Therefore, the obtained barcodes were deposited in the reference barcode library of the Barcode of Life Initiative.

  10. Streamflow Simulations and Percolation Estimates Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool for Selected Basins in North-Central Nebraska, 1940-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strauch, Kellan R.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool to simulate streamflow and estimate percolation in north-central Nebraska to aid development of long-term strategies for management of hydrologically connected ground and surface water. Although groundwater models adequately simulate subsurface hydrologic processes, they often are not designed to simulate the hydrologically complex processes occurring at or near the land surface. The use of watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, which are designed specifically to simulate surface and near-subsurface processes, can provide helpful insight into the effects of surface-water hydrology on the groundwater system. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was calibrated for five stream basins in the Elkhorn-Loup Groundwater Model study area in north-central Nebraska to obtain spatially variable estimates of percolation. Six watershed models were calibrated to recorded streamflow in each subbasin by modifying the adjustment parameters. The calibrated parameter sets were then used to simulate a validation period; the validation period was half of the total streamflow period of record with a minimum requirement of 10 years. If the statistical and water-balance results for the validation period were similar to those for the calibration period, a model was considered satisfactory. Statistical measures of each watershed model's performance were variable. These objective measures included the Nash-Sutcliffe measure of efficiency, the ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of the measured data, and an estimate of bias. The model met performance criteria for the bias statistic, but failed to meet statistical adequacy criteria for the other two performance measures when evaluated at a monthly time

  11. Guiana's Basin, A Unique Setting with Two Break-up and Drift Unconformities and a Feature Hypothesized to be a Southern North Atlantic, Iceland Equivalent Atlantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    In the Guiana's Basin, two distinct Break-up/Drift Unconformities associated with thermal doming, rifting, cooling, compressing and drifting of plates were identified and mapped. The earliest unconformity 1) Mid-Jurassic-aged separation of North/Central America from Western Europe/North Western Africa and the latest unconformity 2) Albian-aged separation of Central West Africa from Central Northern South America, exist here. What complicates the interpretation of the plate motion is the amount of overburden deposited post Albian time on both sides of the ridge separating the African and the South American plates. To the east, the Niger River pushed out 5-20 km of sediments on top of the drift unconformity. In the Guiana's Basin the sedimentation is only about 5-10 km of sedimentation therefore it is easier to image and interpret the geologic history. Through a synthetic well to seismic tie, a correlation of new biostratigraphic data from a well spud in Nov. 1977 and TD'ed in June of 1978 by Esso, was incorporated into the regional geologic interpretation. The interpretation based on this data was that the timing of the opening of the South Atlantic was synchronous with that of the North Atlantic. The feature of interest closely resembles a buried volcanic landmass. It just happens to be located in the area hypothesized as the Mid Jurassic spreading center related to a hotspot, after Pindell and Kendall, March 2005. Interpretation and conclusions for this study are based on 1999 and 2004 vintages of 2D seismic data and a new interpretation of the biostratigraphy. Additionally, gravity and magnetic data along with regional subsidence modeling and a tectonic evaluation study supports these conclusions. On several 2D seismic lines from the area, a deep volcanic feature can be seen and interpreted to exist in Mid Jurassic time. This feature is similar in portion to Iceland the volcanic island currently residing in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Today in the

  12. An integrated framework to assess adaptation options to climate change impacts in an irrigated basin in Central North Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicuna, S.; Melo, O.; Meza, F. J.; Alvarez, P.; Maureira, F.; Sanchez, A.; Tapia, A.; Cortes, M.; Dale, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate conditions could potentially affect water supply and demand on water basins throughout the world but especially on snowmelt-driven agriculture oriented basins that can be found throughout central Chile. Increasing temperature and reducing precipitation will affect both the magnitude and timing of water supply this part of the world. Different adaptation strategies could be implemented to reduce the impacts of such scenarios. Some could be incorporated as planned policies decided at the basin or Water Use Organization levels. Examples include changing large scale irrigation infrastructure (reservoirs and main channels) either physically or its operation. Complementing these strategies it is reasonable to think that at a disaggregated level, farmers would also react (adapt) to these new conditions using a mix of options to either modify their patterns of consumption (irrigation efficiency, crop mix, crop area reduction), increase their ability to access new sources of water (groundwater, water markets) or finally compensate their expected losses (insurance). We present a modeling framework developed to represent these issues using as a case study the Limarí basin located in Central Chile. This basin is a renowned example of how the development of reservoirs and irrigation infrastructure can reduce climate vulnerabilities allowing the economic development of a basin. Farmers in this basin tackle climate variability by adopting different strategies that depend first on the reservoir water volume allocation rule, on the type and size of investment they have at their farms and finally their potential access to water markets and other water supplies options. The framework developed can be used to study these strategies under current and future climate scenarios. The cornerstone of the framework is an hydrology and water resources model developed on the WEAP platform. This model is able to reproduce the large scale hydrologic features of the basin such as

  13. Assessment of erosion hazard with the USLE and GIS: A case study of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro North basin of Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mati, Bancy M.; Morgan, Royston PC; Gichuki, Francis N.; Quinton, John N.; Brewer, Tim R.; Liniger, Hans P.

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used to predict soil erosion hazard in the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro North basin of Kenya using data from erosion plots and reconnaissance surveys. The R-factor (rainfall erosivity) was determined by extrapolation from the rainfall amount-erosivity relationship, using data from autographic records. The K-factor (soil erodibility) was determined using data obtained by laboratory analysis of soil samples collected from 83 test sites in the basin. The LS-factors (slope length and steepness) were determined from a digital elevation model (DEM) of the basin, while the C-factor (crop and management) was determined from vegetation cover data, obtained from SPOT imagery and field surveys. The P-factor (conservation practice) was estimated from maps of soil conservation, obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture. A raster-based Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to interactively calculate soil loss and map erosion hazard. The results obtained were comparable to measured soil loss values from erosion plots. About 36 percent of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro basin was predicted to have high risk of erosion, most of this land being in the overgrazed rangelands. Land use and management were the major factors associated with soil erosion, and — to a lesser extent — the topography. Due to the reconnaissance scale of this study there were limitations in determining reliable LS, C and P factors for the USLE. In addition, there is a need for research to determine appropriate P-factors for local soil conservation practices, such as trash lines, fanya-juu terraces and stone lines.

  14. Illite/Smectite diagenesis in the NanXiang, Yitong, and North China Permian-carboniferous basins: Application to petroleum exploration in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xinhua Deng; Youngchuan Sun; Xinrong Lei

    1996-02-01

    The NanXiang basin in Henan Province and the Yitong basin in Jilin Province, located in the eastern part of China, are composed mainly of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sequences that thicken to more than 4000-5000 m. The North China Permian-Carboniferous basin consists of Permian-Carboniferous systems composed of marine and nonmarine coal-bearing sequences. Clay diagenesis in these basins was studied by systematic x-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineralogy consists of illite, smectite, mixed-layered illite/smectite (I/S), kaolinite, and chlorite. The major clay reaction is the illitization of smectite with depth and temperature. The reactions generally involve discrete smectite stage to smectite, plus the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0 in the Reichweite nomenclature), followed by the first rapid change (1) to the ordered I/S of short-range stacking (R = 1) and the second rapid change (11) to the metastable stage (with the ordered I/S of long-range stacking-R {ge}3). The first rapid change leads to the appearance of I/S-ordered I/S and disappearance of discrete smectite. The proportion of smectite layers (Ps) in the I/S in the metastable stage remained unchanged (15-20%) over a thick burial interval. The discrete illite stage finally occurs in highly mature areas. Potassium-feldspar (K-feldspar) in rocks and K ions in present formation waters are available for the I/S reactions; I/S reactions in these areas responded mainly to temperature. The I/S transition from the randomly interstratified I/S (R = 0) to the ordered I/S occurred at 80-95{degrees}C and coincided with the onset of the oil window in source rocks and with secondary porosity enhancement of sand-stones. Integrating the I/S reactions with thermal histories, hydrological regimes, structure, sedimentation, and sandstone diagenesis of each basin allows formulation of clay diagenetic models for each specific basin.

  15. Detailed north-south cross section showing environments of deposition, organic richness, and thermal maturities of lower Tertiary rocks in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    , and North Horn Formations since 1970. Datum for the cross section is sea level so that hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoir rocks could be integrated into the structural framework of the basin.

  16. Depositional and diagenetic processes involved in the development of mudstone successions: a multi proxy study of the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Basin (The North Yorkshire coast, England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadeer, S.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hughes, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    Mud and mudstones are the most abundant (>60%) sediment and sedimentary rock type preserved at and close to the surface of the Earth. They have formed commonly throughout the Phanerozoic and are found in many environments including present-day soils, lake basins, continental shelves, and ocean basins. Mudstones deposited in ancient shelf seas are particularly important as they are very common and significant components of many petroleum systems as sources and seals. In spite of their importance the variability that they exhibit is usually not incorporated into basin-scale facies models as they are assumed to contain little information that is useful in predicting the distribution of reservoir facies. The fundamental mechanisms (physical, chemical and biological) that control the origin of fine-grained sediments in ancient shelf seas is less studied in comparison with other sediments types (e.g. limestones and sandstones). The Middle Jurassic aged succession from the Staithes Sandstone through to the Mulgrave Shale Member (Jet Rock), which is largely continuous and very well-exposed in two locations in the Cleveland Basin, North Yorkshire Coast, England is an ideal natural laboratory to investigate how marginal marine processes evolve into deep marine processes. In the literature, the fundamental controls on lithofacies variability in mudstone-dominated successions preserved in distal shelf environments have been mainly interpreted in terms of varying bottom water oxygen concentrations, primary production and suspension settling. In proximal muddy environments researchers have broadly interpreted lithofacies variability in terms of storm events, tidal currents, etc. These are very different mechanisms. Moreover, these rocks are rarely studied as a whole system; the basinal mudstones are rarely connected up-dip to muddy sandstones and mudstones deposited in the offshore transition and offshore zones. In order to determine the processes responsible for the formation

  17. Neutralization of atmospheric acidity by chemical weathering in an alpine drainage basin in the North Cascade mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Drever, J.I.; Hurcomb, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    The most important weathering reaction that neutralizes incoming atmospheric acidity in the South Cascade Lake basin is weathering of calcite, which occurs in trace amounts in veins, on joint surfaces, and as a subglacial surficial deposit. Although the basin is underlain by igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, weathering of plagioclase is quantitatively negligible; the principal silicate weathering reaction is alteration of biotite to vermiculite. These conclusions are based on mass-balance calculations involving runoff compositions and on mineralogical observations. For predictive modeling of the effects of increased acid deposition, it is essential to identify the relevant weathering reactions. Feldspar weathering is commonly not an important source of solutes in alpine basins underlain by granitic rocks. 30 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. A new species of Ischyodus (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Callorhynchidae) from Upper Maastrichtian Shallow marine facies of the Fox Hills and Hell Creek Formations, Williston basin, North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of chimaeroid, Ischyodus rayhaasi sp. nov., is described based primarily upon the number and configuration of tritors on palatine and mandibular tooth plates. This new species is named in honour of Mr Raymond Haas. Fossils of I. rayhaasi have been recovered from the Upper Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation and the Breien Member and an unnamed member of the Hell Creek Formation at sites in south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota, USA. Ischyodus rayhaasi inhabited shallow marine waters in the central part of the Western Interior Seaway during the latest Cretaceous. Apparently it was also present in similar habitats at that time in the Volga region of Russia. Ischyodus rayhaasi is the youngest Cretaceous species Ischyodus known to exist before the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction, and the species apparently did not survive that event. It was replaced by Ischyodus dolloi, which is found in the Paleocene Cannonball Formation of the Williston Basin region of North Dakota and is widely distributed elsewhere. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  19. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the thick regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system of Indian Creek basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, Charles C.; Smith, Douglas G.; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    1997-01-01

    The Indian Creek Basin in the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina is one of five type areas studied as part of the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System analysis. Detailed studies of selected type areas were used to quantify ground-water flow characteristics in various conceptual hydrogeologic terranes. The conceptual hydrogeologic terranes are considered representative of ground-water conditions beneath large areas of the three physiographic provinces--Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont--that compose the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis area. The Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study area extends over approximately 142,000 square miles in 11 states and the District of Columbia in the Appalachian highlands of the Eastern United States. The Indian Creek type area is typical of ground-water conditions in a single hydrogeologic terrane that underlies perhaps as much as 40 percent of the Piedmont physiographic province. The hydrogeologic terrane of the Indian Creek model area is one of massive and foliated crystalline rocks mantled by thick regolith. The area lies almost entirely within the Inner Piedmont geologic belt. Five hydrogeologic units occupy major portions of the model area, but statistical tests on well yields, specific capacities, and other hydrologic characteristics show that the five hydrogeologic units can be treated as one unit for purposes of modeling ground-water flow. The 146-square-mile Indian Creek model area includes the Indian Creek Basin, which has a surface drainage area of about 69 square miles. The Indian Creek Basin lies in parts of Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties, North Carolina. The larger model area is based on boundary conditions established for digital simulation of ground-water flow within the smaller Indian Creek Basin. The ground-water flow model of the Indian Creek Basin is based on the U.S. Geological Survey?s modular finite

  20. Nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in streams in the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, L.H.; Brigham, M.E.; Lorenz, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The most heavily used herbicides, 2,4-D and MCPA, were infrequently detected in stream-water samples. Of the estimated applications of atrazine, triallate, and 2,4-D, about 0.9, 0.06, and 0.02 percent of each of these compounds, respectively, was carried out of the study unit by the Red River of the North during 1993-95.

  1. North African dust transport toward the western Mediterranean basin: atmospheric controls on dust source activation and transport pathways during June-July 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, Kerstin; Mallet, Marc; Heinold, Bernd; Ulrich, Max

    2016-11-01

    Dust transported from north African source region toward the Mediterranean basin and Europe is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the Mediterranean region. Winds formed by large-scale pressure gradients foster dust entrainment into the atmosphere over north African dust source regions and advection of dust downwind. The constellation of centers of high and low pressure determines wind speed and direction, and thus the chance for dust emission over northern Africa and transport toward the Mediterranean. We present characteristics of the atmospheric dust life cycle determining dust transport toward the Mediterranean basin with focus on the ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) special observation period in June and July 2013 using the atmosphere-dust model COSMO-MUSCAT (COSMO: COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling; MUSCAT: MUltiScale Chemistry Aerosol Transport Model). Modes of atmospheric circulation are identified from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of the geopotential height at 850 hPa and compared to EOFs calculated from 1979-2015 ERA-Interim reanalysis. Two different phases are identified from the first EOF, which in total explain 45 % of the variance. They are characterized by the propagation of the subtropical ridge into the Mediterranean basin, the position of the Saharan heat low and the predominant Iberian heat low, and discussed illustrating a dipole pattern for enhanced (reduced) dust emission fluxes, stronger (weaker) meridional dust transport, and consequent increased (decreased) atmospheric dust concentrations and deposition fluxes. In the event of a predominant high-pressure zone over the western and central Mediterranean (positive phase), a hot spot in dust emission flux is evident over the Grand Erg Occidental, and a reduced level of atmospheric dust loading occurs over the western Mediterranean basin. The meridional transport in northward direction is reduced due to prevailing northerly winds. In case of a predominant heat low

  2. Hydrologic conditions in the Chicod Creek basin, North Carolina, before and during channel modifications, 1975-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, S.A.; Simmons, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Beginning in late 1978, stream channels throughout the 60-square mile Chicod Creek basin underwent extensive modification to increase drainage efficiency and reduce flooding potential. Drainage modifications in this Coastal Plain basin, consisting primarily of channel excavation and clearing of channel blockages, were completed in December 1981. The hydrologic condition of the basin before and during modification was determined from observed data. Observed data indicate hydrologic changes occurred in selected basin characteristics. For example, water levels in the surficial aquifer within 250 feet of Juniper Branch declined as much as 0.4 feet during modifications; at distances greater than 250 feet from the stream, ground-water levels did not change. Base flows increased, and suspended-sediment concentrations for high flows were several times greater than before channel modifications. Increases in selected chemical constituent concentrations in stream water during modifications were as follows: calcium, 12 percent; sodium, 18 percent; bicarbonate, 84 percent; and phosphorous, 80 percent. Significant changes were not found in either pesticide concentrations or coliform bacteria counts.

  3. Low-flow characteristics and profiles for the Rocky River in the Yadkin-Pee Dee River basin, North Carolina, through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis; Fine, Jason M.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the magnitude and frequency of low-flow discharges is an important part of protecting surface-water resources and planning for municipal and industrial economic expansion. Low-flow characteristics are summarized for 12 continuous-record gaging stations and 44 partial-record measuring sites in the Rocky River basin in North Carolina. Records of discharge collected through the 2002 water year at continuous-record gaging stations and through the 2001 water year at partial-record measuring sites were used. Flow characteristics included in the summary are (1) average annual unit flow; (2) 7Q10 low-flow discharge, the minimum average discharge for a 7-consecutive-day period occurring, on average, once in 10 years; (3) 30Q2 low-flow discharge; (4) W7Q10 low-flow discharge, which is similar to 7Q10 discharge but is based only on flow during the winter months of November through March; and (5) 7Q2 low-flow discharge. The Rocky River basin drains 1,413 square miles (mi2) of the southern Piedmont Province in North Carolina. The Rocky River is about 91 miles long and merges with the Yadkin River in eastern Stanly County to form the Pee Dee River, which discharges into the Atlantic Ocean in South Carolina. Low-flow characteristics compiled for selected sites in the Rocky River basin indicated that the potential for sustained base flows in the upper half of the basin is relatively higher than for streams in the lower half of the basin. The upper half of the basin is underlain by the Charlotte Belt, where streams have been identified as having moderate potentials for sustained base flows. In the lower half of the basin, many streams were noted as having little to no potential for sustained base flows. Much of the decrease in base-flow potential is attributed to the underlying rock types of the Carolina Slate Belt. Of the 19 sites in the basin having minimal (defined as less than 0.05 cubic foot per second) or zero 7Q10 discharges, 18 sites are located in the

  4. Mississippian Barnett Shale, Fort Worth basin, north-central Texas: Gas-shale play with multi-trillion cubic foot potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Jarvie, D.M.; Bowker, K.A.; Pollastro, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Mississippian Barnett Shale serves as source, seal, and reservoir to a world-class unconventional natural-gas accumulation in the Fort Worth basin of north-central Texas. The formation is a lithologically complex interval of low permeability that requires artificial stimulation to produce. At present, production is mainly confined to a limited portion of the northern basin where the Barnett Shale is relatively thick (>300 ft; >92 m), organic rich (present-day total organic carbon > 3.0%), thermally mature (vitrinite reflectance > 1.1%), and enclosed by dense limestone units able to contain induced fractures. The most actively drilled area is Newark East field, currently the largest gas field in Texas. Newark East is 400 mi2 (1036 km2) in extent, with more than 2340 producing wells and about 2.7 tcf of booked gas reserves. Cumulative gas production from Barnett Shale wells through 2003 was about 0.8 tcf. Wells in Newark East field typically produce from depths of 7500 ft (2285 m) at rates ranging from 0.5 to more than 4 mmcf/day. Estimated ultimate recoveries per well range from 0.75 to as high as 7.0 bcf. Efforts to extend the current Barnett play beyond the field limits have encountered several challenges, including westward and northward increases in oil saturation and the absence of lithologic barriers to induced fracture growth. Patterns of oil and gas occurrence in the Barnett, in conjunction with maturation and burial-history data, indicate a complex, multiphased thermal evolution, with episodic expulsion of hydrocarbons and secondary cracking of primary oils to gas in portions of the basin where paleotemperatures were especially elevated. These and other data imply a large-potential Barnett resource for the basin as a whole (possibly > 200 tcf gas in place). Recent assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey suggests a mean volume of 26.2 tcf of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas in the central Fort Worth basin. Recovery of a significant portion of

  5. High Resolution Multichannel Imaging of Basin Growth Along a Continental Transform: The Marmara Sea Along the North Anatolian Fault in NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Çifçi, G.; Demirbağ, E.; Akhun, S. D.; Büyükaşik, E.; Cevatoglu, M.; Coşkun, S.; Diebold, J.; Dondurur, D.; Gürçay, S.; Imren, C.; Kücük, H. M.; Kurt, H.; Özer, P. G.; Perinçek, E.; Seeber, L.; Shillington, D.; Sorlien, C.; Timur, D.

    2008-12-01

    The 1500-km-long North Anatolian continental transform (NAF) accommodates the westward motion of the Anatolian platelet relative to Asia. The Marmara Trough in western Turkey is a large composite Quaternary structure that includes three main extensional basins with water depths reaching ~1200m separated by shallower ridges. Syntectonic sedimentation in the basins with highly variable sea-level-related changes in accumulation rates provide valuable time-space markers for reconstructing structural growth and basin development in the Marmara Sea. The TAMAM (Turkish-American MArmara Multichannel) Project is a collaboration between several US and Turkish research institutes. During July 2008, TAMAM collected ~2700 km of multichannel profiles in the Marmara Sea using the R/V K. Piri Reis. MCS data were sampled with a 1-ms interval on the first 72 channels with 6.25m group spacing in a 600m streamer. The source was a 45/45 cu. in. GI air gun, which was fired every 12.5 or18.75m. The gun-streamer offset was 40 or 100 m depending on water depth. Both the gun and streamer were towed at a depth of 3 or 4m. This configuration yielded high-resolution images of the stratigraphy in the Marmara Sea. TAMAM follows a recent series of impressive seismotectonic studies of the NAF in the Marmara Sea area. Previous seismic cruises focused on deep penetration MCS imaging of the overall basin structure and faulting or very high-resolution imaging of the near-surface faulting. TAMAM fills a gap in resolution imaging the stratigraphy that records the history of deformation in the basins and linkages between faults. We will present preliminary high-resolution images of the stratigraphy and tectonics beneath the Marmara Sea highlighting the following exciting observations and initial results from this experiment: 1) Improved stratigraphic correlations between the major basins, a primary goal of the experiment; 2) Clearer imaging of active faults, including the NAF, the less studied southern

  6. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model system for studies of interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin and precipitation over the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chung-Chieng A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.

  7. A resource evaluation of the Bakken Formation (Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian) continuous oil accumulation, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the United States portion of the Williston Basin is both the source and the reservoir for a continuous oil accumulation - in effect a single very large field - underlying approximately 17,800 mi2 (46,100 km2) of North Dakota and Montana. Within this area, the Bakken Formation continuous oil accumulation is not significantly influenced by the water column and cannot be analyzed in terms of conventional, discrete fields. Rather, the continuous accumulation can be envisioned as a collection of oil-charged cells, virtually all of which are capable of producing some oil, but which vary significantly in their production characteristics. Better wellperformance statistics are linked regionally to higher levels of thermal maturity and to lower levels of reservoir heterogeneity. Although portions of the Bakken Formation continuous oil accumulation have reached a mature stage of development, the accumulation as a whole is far from depleted.

  8. Extending the life of mature basins in the North Sea and imaging sub-basalt and sub-intrusive structures using seismic intensity monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Siena, Luca; Rawlinson, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Non-standard seismic imaging (velocity, attenuation, and scattering tomography) of the North Sea basins by using unexploited seismic intensities from previous passive and active surveys are key for better imaging and monitoring fluid under the subsurface. These intensities provide unique solutions to the problem of locating/tracking gas/fluid movements in the crust and depicting sub-basalt and sub-intrusives in volcanic reservoirs. The proposed techniques have been tested in volcanic Islands (Deception Island) and have been proved effective at monitoring fracture opening, imaging buried fluid-filled bodies, and tracking water/gas interfaces. These novel seismic attributes are modelled in space and time and connected with the lithology of the sampled medium, specifically density and permeability with as key output a novel computational code with strong commercial potential.

  9. Early Jurassic paleopoles from the Hartford continental rift basin (eastern North America): Was an abrupt change in polar wander associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, D. V.; Olsen, P. E.

    2007-12-01

    The recent recognition of what may be the largest igneous province on Earth, the ~200 Ma Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP), with its close temporal proximity to major biotic turnover at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, adds impetus for seeking confirmation of possibly related geodynamic phenomena. For example, CAMP emplacement seems to coincide temporally with an abrupt change in North American apparent polar wander at the so-called J1 cusp, which has been suggested to reflect a major plate reorganization or an episode of true polar wander. However, early Jurassic paleopoles from the Moenave and Wingate Formations from the Colorado Plateau that virtually define the J1 cusp have few reliable counterparts from elsewhere in North America. The thick section of cyclical Lower Jurassic continental sediments with interbedded CAMP lava flows in the Hartford basin of Connecticut and Massachusetts provides an opportunity to test the reality of the J1 cusp. We collected about 400 oriented samples distributed over 80 outcrop sites that represent a ~2500 meter-thick composite section of the Shuttle Meadow and East Berlin sedimentary formations, which are interbedded with CAMP lava units, and the lower Portland Formation, which consists of cyclical lacustrine to fluvial sediments of Early Jurassic age that conformably overlie the CAMP extrusive zone in the Hartford basin. Normal and reverse polarity ChRM directions define a coherent magnetostratigraphy and are supported by a reversal test and a positive fold test. The distribution of ChRM direction from the sediments is flattened and the mean is significantly shallower than from the coeval CAMP lavas. E/I analysis of the Hartford sedimentary ChRM data produces a result consistent with the geomagnetic field model at a mean flattening factor of 0.54; the corrected mean direction is steeper and not significantly different from the mean inclination of the Newark and Hartford CAMP volcanic units.

  10. On the Sizes of the North Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclones Based on 34- and 64-kt Wind Radii Data, 2004-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    At end of the 2012 hurricane season the National Hurricane Center retired the original HURDAT dataset and replaced it with the newer version HURDAT2, which reformatted the original data and included additional information, in particular, estimates of the 34-, 50, and 64-kt wind radii for the interval 2004-2013. During the brief 10-year interval, some 164 tropical cyclones are noted to have formed in the North Atlantic basin, with 77 becoming hurricanes. Hurricane Sandy (2012) stands out as being the largest individual storm that occurred in the North Atlantic basin during the 2004 -2013 timeframe, both in terms of its 34- and 64-kt wind radii and wind areas, having maximum 34- and 64-kt wind radii, maximum wind areas, and average wind areas each more than 2 standard deviations larger than the corresponding means. In terms of the largest yearly total 34-kt wind area (i.e., the sum of all individual storm 34-kt wind areas during the year), the year 2010 stands out as being the largest (about 423 × 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)), compared to the mean of about 174 × 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)), surpassing the year 2005 (353 x 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)) that had the largest number of individual storms (28). However, in terms of the largest yearly total 64-kt wind area, the year 2005 was the largest (about 9 × 10(exp 6) nmi(exp 2)), compared to the mean of about 3 × 106 nmi(exp 2)). Interesting is that the ratio of total 64-kt wind area to total 34-kt wind area has decreased over time, from 0.034 in 2004 to 0.008 in 2013.

  11. Geochemical study (major, trace elements and Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes) of mantle material obducted onto the North African margin (Edough Massif, North Eastern Algeria): Tethys fragments or lost remnants of the Liguro-Provençal basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Delphine; Hammor, Dalila; Mechati, Mehdi; Fernandez, Laure; Bruguier, Olivier; Caby, Renaud; Verdoux, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The Maghrebides, Betics and some parts of the Calabrian, NE Sicilian and Tuscan allochtons constitute dismembered fragments of the Alpine belt that resulted from the Cenozoic collision between Africa and Eurasia and the opening of the Western Mediterranean basin. Mineral and whole-rock geochemical analyses have been performed on three distinct outcrops of mantle material from the Edough Massif of NE Algeria, namely the Bou Maiza (BM) gabbros, the La Voile Noire (LVN) amphibolites and the Sidi Mohamed (SM) peridotites. In all samples, Sr isotopes are largely affected by seawater alteration (87Sr/86Sract. > 0.70384 and up to 0.70888) and cannot be used to evaluate the nature of the source reservoirs. SM peridotites display variable depleted mantle Nd isotopic signatures (εNdact. from + 7.0 to + 12.2) and geochemical features suggesting no significant chemical depletion as a result of partial melting and melt extraction (Mg# < 90; slightly LREE-depleted patterns with La/YbN = 0.33-0.39). These rocks are interpreted as parts of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle incorporated into the crustal units of the Edough Massif during the early stages of opening of the Algerian basin. BM gabbros and LVN amphibolites show geochemical signatures indicating derivation from a common depleted mantle reservoir (εNd > + 7.9) and are likely cogenetic, but without filiation with the SM peridotites. Pb isotopes indicate a contribution of sediments in the source reservoir, which is attributed to contamination solely by hydrous fluids released from a sedimentary component. This observation, together with a LILE-enrichment, suggests a back-arc basin environment. These results indicate that BM and LVN units were obducted onto the North African margin and subsequently fragmented, probably during doming and exhumation of the lower continental crust of the Edough massif. Doming resulted in opposite movements of the overlying oceanic units, southward for the BM units and northward for LVN

  12. Seventy-five years of vegetation treatments on public rangelands in the Great Basin of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin; Toevs, Gordon R.

    2017-01-01

    On the Ground Land treatments occurring over millions of hectares of public rangelands in the Great Basin over the last 75 years represent one of the largest vegetation manipulation and restoration efforts in the world.The ability to use legacy data from land treatments in adaptive management and ecological research has improved with the creation of the Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL), a spatially explicit database of land treatments conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The LTDL contains information on over 9,000 confirmed land treatments in the Great Basin, composed of seedings (58%), vegetation control treatments (24%), and other types of vegetation or soil manipulations (18%).The potential application of land treatment legacy data for adaptive management or as natural experiments for retrospective analyses of effects of land management actions on physical, hydrologic, and ecologic patterns and processes is considerable and just beginning to be realized.

  13. Low-flow characteristics and profiles for the Deep River in the Cape Fear River basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Drainage area and low-flow discharge profiles are presented for the Deep River. The drainage-area profile shows downstream increases in basin size. At the mouth, the drainage area for the Deep River is 1,441 square miles. Low-flow discharge profiles for the Deep River include 7Q10, 30Q2, W7Q10, and 7Q2 discharges in a continuous profile with contributions from major tributaries included.

  14. Water-quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1992-95, and indications for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality in the Wild and Scenic reach is dominated by water released from the hydroelectric project area during summer. Effects of the hydroelectric project include seasonal control of streamflow, water temperature, and phosphorus concentrations, and the possible release of low but ecologically important concentrations of organic nitrogen. A review of available data and literature suggests that the reservoirs can increase the interception of sediments and large organic debris, and promote their conversion into fine-grained particulate and dissolved organic matter for downstream transport. These effects could be compounded by the effects of forestry in the basin, including alteration of hydrologic cycles, changes in sediment and nutrient runoff, reductions of the transport of large woody debris, and degradation of habitat quality. It is hypothesized that, in the North Umpqua River, these processes have induced a fundamental shift in the river’s food web, from a detritus-based system to a system with a 2 higher emphasis on algal production. Confirmation of these changes and their effects on higher trophic levels are needed to properly manage the aquatic resources for all designated beneficial uses in the basin.

  15. Petrology and diagenetic history of the upper shale member of the Late Devonian–Early Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil S. Fishman,; Sven O. Egenhoff,; Boehlke, Adam; Lowers, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The organic-rich upper shale member of the upper Devonian–lower Mississippian Bakken Formation (Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA) has undergone significant diagenetic alteration, irrespective of catagenesis related to hydrocarbon generation. Alteration includes precipitation of numerous cements, replacement of both detrital and authigenic minerals, multiple episodes of fracturing, and compaction. Quartz authigenesis occurred throughout much of the member, and is represented by multiple generations of microcrystalline quartz. Chalcedonic quartz fills radiolarian microfossils and is present in the matrix. Sulfide minerals include pyrite and sphalerite. Carbonate diagenesis is volumetrically minor and includes thin dolomite overgrowths and calcite cement. At least two generations of fractures are observed. Based on the authigenic minerals and their relative timing of formation, the evolution of pore waters can be postulated. Dolomite and calcite resulted from early postdepositional aerobic oxidation of some of the abundant organic material in the formation. Following aerobic oxidation, conditions became anoxic and sulfide minerals precipitated. Transformation of the originally opaline tests of radiolaria resulted in precipitation of quartz, and quartz authigenesis is most common in more distal parts of the depositional basin where radiolaria were abundant. Because quartz authigenesis is related to the distribution of radiolaria, there is a link between diagenesis and depositional environment. Furthermore, much of the diagenesis in the upper shale member preceded hydrocarbon generation, so early postdepositional processes were responsible for occlusion of significant original porosity in the member. Thus, diagenetic mineral precipitation was at least partly responsible for the limited ability of these mudstones to provide porosity for storage of hydrocarbons.

  16. Petrology and diagenetic history of the upper shale member of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil S. Fishman,; Sven O. Egenhoff,; Boehlke, Adam; Lowers, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    The organic-rich upper shale member of the upper Devonian–lower Mississippian Bakken Formation (Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA) has undergone significant diagenetic alteration, irrespective of catagenesis related to hydrocarbon generation. Alteration includes precipitation of numerous cements, replacement of both detrital and authigenic minerals, multiple episodes of fracturing, and compaction. Quartz authigenesis occurred throughout much of the member, and is represented by multiple generations of microcrystalline quartz. Chalcedonic quartz fills radiolarian microfossils and is present in the matrix. Sulfide minerals include pyrite and sphalerite. Carbonate diagenesis is volumetrically minor and includes thin dolomite overgrowths and calcite cement. At least two generations of fractures are observed. Based on the authigenic minerals and their relative timing of formation, the evolution of pore waters can be postulated. Dolomite and calcite resulted from early postdepositional aerobic oxidation of some of the abundant organic material in the formation. Following aerobic oxidation, conditions became anoxic and sulfide minerals precipitated. Transformation of the originally opaline tests of radiolaria resulted in precipitation of quartz, and quartz authigenesis is most common in more distal parts of the depositional basin where radiolaria were abundant. Because quartz authigenesis is related to the distribution of radiolaria, there is a link between diagenesis and depositional environment. Furthermore, much of the diagenesis in the upper shale member preceded hydrocarbon generation, so early postdepositional processes were responsible for occlusion of significant original porosity in the member. Thus, diagenetic mineral precipitation was at least partly responsible for the limited ability of these mudstones to provide porosity for storage of hydrocarbons.

  17. Tectonic development of the North Patagonian Andes and their related Miocene foreland basin (41°30‧-43°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orts, DaríO. Leandro; Folguera, AndréS.; Encinas, Alfonso; Ramos, Miguel; Tobal, Jonathan; Ramos, VíCtor A.

    2012-06-01

    The Northern Patagonian Andes have been constructed through multiple mechanisms that range from tectonic inversion of extensional structures of Early to Middle Jurassic age in the Main Andes to Oligocene in the Precordilleran region. These have acted during two distinctive orogenic stages, first in late Early Cretaceous and later in Miocene times Late Oligocene extension separates these two contractional periods and is recorded by half-grabens developed in the retroarc region. The last contractional stage coexists with an eastward foreland expansion of the late Miocene arc whose roots are presently exposed as minor granitic stocks and volcanic piles subordinately in the Main Andes, east of the present arc. As a consequence of this orogenic stage a foreland basin has developed, having progressed from 18 Ma in the main North Patagonian Andes, where the mountain front was flooded by a marine transgression corresponding to the base of the Ñirihuau Formation, to 11 Ma in the foreland area. Cannibalization of this foreland basin occurred initially in the hinterland and then progressed to the foreland zone. Blind structures formed a broken foreland at the frontal zone inferred from growth strata geometries. During Pliocene to Quaternary times most of the contractional deformation was dissipated in the orogenic wedge at the time when the arc front retracted to its present position.

  18. The India-Asia collision in north Pakistan: Insight from the U-Pb detrital zircon provenance of Cenozoic foreland basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lin; Qasim, Muhammad; Jadoon, Ishtiaq A. K.; Khan, Muhammad Asif; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Baral, Upendra; Yue, Yahui

    2016-12-01

    The northernmost exposures of sub-Himalayan Cenozoic strata in the Hazara-Kashmir syntaxial region of north Pakistan comprises the Paleocene-Eocene marine strata in the lower part and Oligocene-Miocene nonmarine strata in the upper part. This study provides the detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Cenozoic strata in this area. The strong resemblance of U-Pb age spectra of Paleocene Hangu, Lockhart and Patala formations with those of Himalayan strata indicate an Indian plate provenance. The first appearance of <100 Ma detrital zircon U-Pb ages within the lower most part of the Early Eocene Margalla Hill Limestone indicates a shift from an Indian to Asian provenance. Geologic mapping shows the existence of a disconformity between the lower and upper most part of the Patala Formation, which is interpreted to have been formed by the migration of a flexural forebulge through this region. We consider the upper most part of the Patala Formation to have been deposited within the distal foredeep of the foreland basin. The Indian to Asian provenance shift and the presence of a possible foreland basin forebulge provide strong evidence that India-Asia collision was underway in northern Pakistan at ca. 56-55 Ma.

  19. Assessing Future Water Resources: The Influence of Climate Change, Population Growth and Land Use Change in the Lower Cape Fear Basin, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. T.; Arrigo, J.; Montz, B.

    2011-12-01

    With the possibility of future fresh water shortages increasing, a methodology for predicting future water availability conditions is needed. This research outlines a methodology to estimate these conditions based on the influence of climate change, land use change, and population growth. The method is based on the USGS Thornthwaite monthly water balance model and can incorporate estimates of climate change and land use change parameters to assess future water resources based on predicted monthly fluxes of the water balance. The methodology is demonstrated by analyzing watersheds in the lower Cape Fear River basin located in southeast North Carolina. The southern United States is a rapidly growing region. Trends present in the population data are used to produce future estimates of population for the basin. Precipitation and temperature estimates based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions and current climatology are inputs to the model. Projected increases in impervious surface cover due to population growth and urbanization are incorporated through the model runoff factor. Water stress indicators are used to categorize the region as water rich, water stressed, or water scarce. Scenarios incorporating regional predictions of climate change indicate a decrease in summer soil moisture minima and increases in summer water deficits. The impact of impervious surface cover enhances these deficits. Ensemble runs indicate a shift toward water stress in the lower Cape Fear River basin in the future, due to a warming climate as well as increased demand. While climate change has a significant impact on water resources in the region, counties with the highest population growth were more likely to be water stressed as population growth not only impacts demand, but climate and land use as well.

  20. Regional and Local Trends in helium isotopes, basin and rangeprovince, western North America: Evidence for deep permeablepathways

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-07-15

    Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as {approx}6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to ''background'' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of {approx}0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and Range. Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and local geology indicate that these ''He-spikes'' are not related to current or recent magmatic activity, suggesting that the spikes may reflect either localized zones deep mantle melting or deep permeable pathways (faults) with high vertical fluid flowrates. A detailed study of one of the He-spikes (Dixie Valley and the Stillwater Range Front Fault system), indicates that features with high 3He/4He ratios are confined to the range front normal faults characteristic of the extensional regime in the Basin and Range, suggesting that these faults are deep permeable pathways. However, not all range front fault systems transmit fluids with a mantle signature, implying that not all have deep permeable pathways.

  1. Geophysical anomalies and quartz microstructures, Eastern Warburton Basin, North-east South Australia: Tectonic or impact shock metamorphic origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew Y.; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Saygin, Erdinc

    2013-03-01

    The Eastern Warburton Basin, Northeast South Australia, features major geophysical anomalies, including a magnetic high of near-200 nT centred on a 25 km-wide magnetic low (< 100 nT), interpreted in terms of a magmatic body below 6 km depth. A distinct seismic tomographic low velocity anomaly may reflect its thick (9.5 km) sedimentary section, high temperatures and possible deep fracturing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of granites resolves microbreccia veins consisting of micron-scale particles injected into resorbed quartz grains. Planar and sub-planar elements in quartz grains (Qz/PE) occur in granites, volcanics and sediments of the > 30,000 km-large Eastern Warburton Basin. The Qz/PE include multiple intersecting planar to curved sub-planar elements with relic lamellae less than 2 μm wide with spacing of 4-5 μm. Qz/PE are commonly re-deformed, displaying bent and wavy patterns accompanied with fluid inclusions. U-stage measurements of a total of 243 planar sets in 157 quartz grains indicate dominance of ∏{10-12}, ω{10-13} and subsidiary §{11-22}, {22-41}, m{10-11} and x{51-61} planes. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis displays relic narrow ≤ 1 μm-wide lamellae and relic non-sub grain boundaries where crystal segments maintain optical continuity. Extensive sericite alteration of feldspar suggests hydrothermal alteration to a depth of 500 m below the unconformity which overlies the Qz/PE-bearing Warburton Basin terrain. The data are discussed in terms of (A) Tectonic-metamorphic deformation and (B) impact shock metamorphism producing planar deformation features (Qz/PDF). Deformed Qz/PE are compared to re-deformed Qz/PDFs in the Sudbury, Vredefort, Manicouagan and Charlevoix impact structures. A 4-5 km uplift of the Big Lake Granite Suite during 298-295 Ma is consistent with missing of upper Ordovician to Devonian strata and possible impact rebound. The occurrence of circular seismic tomography anomalies below the east

  2. Dynamical Downscaling over the Great Lakes Basin of North America using the WRF Regional Climate Model: The impact of the Great Lakes system on regional greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gula, J.; Peltier, W. R.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we investigate the regional climate changes to be expected over the Great Lakes Basin of North America during the next century. Large freshwater systems, such as the Great Lakes, play a key role in determining the climate of their basins and adjacent regions by air mass modification through the exchange of heat and moisture with the atmosphere. Even systems as extensive as the Great Lakes are unresolved in coarse resolution global climate simulations but may be accurately captured in finer-mesh regional simulations by dynamical downscaling. Historical (1979-2001) and future (2050-2060 and 2090-2100) conditions are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) forced by CCSM3 global simulations. Our analyses are based upon the IPCC SRES A2 and A1B emissions scenarios. A two-step nesting procedure is employed for the purpose of downscaling, in which the first nested WRF model is of North American continental scale at 30 km resolution, whereas the innermost domain at 10 km resolution covers the Great Lakes Basin and the Canadian Province of Ontario. The differences in extreme temperature and precipitation events delivered by the different scales of simulation are discussed. As the WRF model does not currently have an explicit lake component, lake ice and lake surface temperature need to be prescribed in the model. A first set of simulations is performed using climatological 1979-2001) data for lake ice and lake surface temperature. A second set is performed using outputs from the freshwater lake model "FLake" (Mironov, D. V., 2008, COSMO Technical Report, No. 11, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany) forced by atmospheric fields from the global simulations. A third set is performed using an interactive coupling of the lake model FLake with the regional model WRF. Changes in surface temperatures and ice cover, and especially ice-out dates, for the Great Lakes under future atmospheric conditions are discussed. The trends in

  3. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in the Horgos River Watershed in the NorthWestern Ili Basin in Sinkiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S. H.; Jiang, J. Y.; Rao, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, hydrogeochemical and stable environmental isotopic (oxygen-18 and deuterium) data of groundwater in the Horgos River watershed in the north-western Ili Basin were examined to determine the groundwater chemical characteristics, as well as the origins of the groundwater and surface water. The quaternary aquifer's structure and spatial distribution is complex. Hydrogeochemical data shows that the groundwater is alkaline due to the presence of bicarbonate as the dominant anion. In the north, the dominant groundwater cation was Ca2+ while Mg2+ ions were highest in the south. In addition, water types varied from HCO3-SO4-Ca and HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg to HCO3-SO4-Mg-Ca and SO4-HCO3-Mg-Ca. Overall, the groundwater in this study showed high total hardness. The dissolving and evaporation inspissation were considered the main controlling factors. Isotopic data (oxygen-18 and deuterium) indicated that the Horgos River was the main recharge source for the groundwater, which rapidly infiltrated across sandstone macropores. Furthermore, surface water and shallow groundwater were significantly affected by evaporation.

  4. Environmental survey in the Tuul and Orkhon River basins of north-central Mongolia, 2010: metals and other elements in streambed sediment and floodplain soi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.; May, Thomas W.; Choijil, J.; Komov, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Streambed sediment and subsurface floodplain soil were sampled for elemental analyses from 15 locations in river basins of north-central Mongolia during August 2010. Our primary objective was to conduct a reconnaissance-level assessment of potential inputs of toxicologically important metals and metalloids to Lake Baikal, Russia, that might originate from mining and urban activities within tributaries of the Selenga River in Mongolia. Samples were collected in triplicate from all sites, then dried, and sieved to <2 mm for analysis by portable X-ray florescence spectroscopy and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after digestion with concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. Arsenic, copper, and mercury were greatly elevated in sediment and floodplain soil collected from tributary streams located near two major mining operations. Lead and zinc were moderately elevated in streambed sediment and in floodplain soil obtained from a small tributary in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar, but those concentrations were considerably less than probable effects benchmarks. Historical and possibly present mining activities have led to considerable metal contamination in certain tributaries of the Orkhon River in north-central Mongolia; however, metals originating from those sources did not appear to be accumulating in sediments at our downstream-most sampling sites located near the border between Mongolia and Russia.

  5. Environmental survey in the Tuul and Orkhon River basins of north-central Mongolia, 2010: metals and other elements in streambed sediment and floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Brumbaugh, W G; Tillitt, D E; May, T W; Javzan, Ch; Komov, V T

    2013-11-01

    Streambed sediment and subsurface floodplain soil were sampled for elemental analyses from 15 locations in river basins of north-central Mongolia during August 2010. Our primary objective was