Science.gov

Sample records for north brazilian coast

  1. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  2. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area are...

  3. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area are...

  4. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area are...

  5. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area are...

  6. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area are...

  7. [Brazilian migration to North America].

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1992-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analyses of recently collected data, in Toronto, Ontario, as well as in a medium sized U.S. community permit this study to examine the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group, and its rapid expansion. Next, this study focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the U.S. and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Brazilian immigration to North America.

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1994-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analysis of recently collected data in Toronto, Ontario and in a medium-size U.S. community facilitated the examination of the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group and its rapid expansion. Next, it focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the United States and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions. This article closes with a section on the future aspirations of these immigrants."

  9. 3. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF NORTH PART OF COAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF NORTH PART OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING PAN AMERICAN WORLD AIRWAYS HANGAR IN BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th District, File No. 62751-21 A.S. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Jailson F.; Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Tavares, Davi C.; Meirelles, Ana C. O.; Silva, Cristine P. N.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Santos, Roberta A.; Wickert, Janaína C.; Machado, Rodrigo; Siciliano, Salvatore; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution) have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST), water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast. PMID:26730951

  11. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    PubMed

    Moura, Jailson F; Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Tavares, Davi C; Meirelles, Ana C O; Silva, Cristine P N; Oliveira, Larissa R; Santos, Roberta A; Wickert, Janaína C; Machado, Rodrigo; Siciliano, Salvatore; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution) have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST), water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  12. Modeling sensitive parrotfish (Labridae: Scarini) habitats along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Roos, Natalia C; Carvalho, Adriana R; Lopes, Priscila F M; Pennino, M Grazia

    2015-09-01

    In coral reef environments, there is an increasing concern over parrotfish (Labridae: Scarini) due to their rising exploitation by commercial small-scale fisheries, which is leading to significant changes in the reefs' community structure. Three species, Scarus trispinosus (Valenciennes, 1840), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831) and Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878), currently labeled as threatened, have been intensively targeted in Brazil, mostly on the northeastern coast. Despite their economic importance, ecological interest and worrisome conservation status, not much is known about which variables determine their occurrence. In this study, we adopted a hierarchical Bayesian spatial-temporal approach to map the distribution of these three species along the Brazilian coast, using landing data from three different gears (gillnets, spear guns, and handlines) and environmental variables (bathymetry, shore distance, seabed slope, Sea Surface Temperature and Net Primary Productivity). Our results identify sensitive habitats for parrotfish along the Brazilian coast that would be more suitable to the implementation of spatial-temporal closure measures, which along with the social component fishers could benefit the management and conservation of these species.

  13. INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING NORTH. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING NORTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  14. INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE, LOOKING NORTH. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE, LOOKING NORTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  15. North Atlantic coast of Canada from Skylab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-139-4072 (February 1974) --- A high oblique view of the North Atlantic coast of Canada as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewman used a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera to take this picture. The Strait of Belle Isle, near the center of the picture, separates the Island of Newfoundland from the Canadian mainland. The Strait also connects the Gulf of St. Lawrence with North Atlantic Ocean. The elongated land mass (lower center) is the northern-most peninsula of the Island of Newfoundland. The large land mass at left center is mainland Newfoundland and Quebec. Note the sea ice in the Atlantic. Snow and some ice intermittently cover the land masses, and ice plumes of brash ice or pancake ice can be seen in various shapes and formations. General terrain and ice conditions can be distinguished and evaluated up to at least 55 degrees north latitude in this north looking view. Dr. William Campbell, sea and ice expert with the U.S. Geological Survey, will use this photograph in the study of ice dynamics. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Metal bioaccumulation in consumed marine bivalves in Southeast Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lino, A S; Galvão, P M A; Longo, R T L; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Dorneles, P R; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate metal bioaccumulation by mussels (Perna perna) and Lion's Scallop (Nodipecten nodosus) farmed in tropical bays, in order to estimate spatial and temporal variation in the exposure to these elements, as well as human health risk. The concentration of each measured element was considered for this evaluation, using maximum residue level (MRL) in foods established by the Brazilian (ANVISA), American (USFDA) and European Communities (EC) legislations. Values for estimated daily ingestion (EDI) were determined for metals intake through mussel and scallop consumption. These estimates were compared with the reference value of (PTDI) proposed by World Health Organization (WHO). Trace elements concentration was measured on ninety mussels P. perna (tissue) and ninety Lion's Scallop N. nodosus (muscle and gonad) reared in four different tropical areas of the Southeast Brazilian coast, between 2009 and 2010. Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Chrome (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after acid mineralization. Cd and Mn were more efficiently bioaccumulated by scallops than mussels and the opposite was found for Fe, Cu and Ni. Guanabara Bay and Sepetiba Bay were considered the most impacted between ecosystems studied. Higher Cd values in Arraial do Cabo in the other sites studied were associated with upwelling that occurs in the region. Consumption of both species cannot be considered safe, because the Cu and Cr concentrations, in accordance with the limits established by the Brazilian Agency (ANVISA). On the other hand, any EDI value exceeded the corresponding value of the PTDI, proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  17. 22. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING BUILDING H AT LEFT AND BUILDING F AT UPPER LEFT. 30X24 inch black and white silver gelatin print. Photographers unknown. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 6. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF NORTH PART OF COAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF NORTH PART OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. Photographer unknown. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 20. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF NORTH PART OF COAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF NORTH PART OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 30X20 inch black and white silver gelatin print. Photographers unknown. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Evaluation of Absolute Dynamic Ocean Topography Profiles along the Brazilian Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, R. T.; Bosch, W.; Freitas, S. R. C.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    Based on a new approach, which consistently filters GRACE-based geoid undulations and altimetry-derived sea surface heights along the tracks of altimeter satellites, absolute dynamic ocean topography (DOT) profiles are estimated along the Brazilian coast. Such DOT profiles can be used to perform levelling over the sea. Connecting these profiles with Brazilian Geodetic Tide Gauge Network (RMPG) stations it would be possible to validate the current studies on the modernization of the Brazilian height system, extended over many thousand kilometers on land. The link with coastal reference sites would also allow to connect isolated height systems, e.g. north of the Amazonas River mouth. We perform long-term mean DOT-profiles of cross-calibrated altimeter satellites which operated for many years over repeated ground tracks (TOPEX, Jason-1, ERS-2). Moreover, we analyze the consistency among crossing profiles (single- and dual-satellite) in particular in areas with strong mesoscale currents. The extrapolation of DOT profiles towards selected RMPG stations is investigated. For this connection strategies are considered to overcome the degradation of coastal altimetry due to errors in ocean tide models and the land contamination of the radiometer observations.

  1. North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District: PSD Delegation Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agreements for Partial Delegation of the Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Program Set Forth in 40 CPR 52.21 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 to the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District.

  2. Surgical morbidity in the North Coast Health Region.

    PubMed

    Brand, N; Clarke, Q; Eather, L; Garbutt, M; Leedow, M; Perry, J; Spencer, O; Spillane, P

    1994-06-01

    A comparison of morbidity following 20 selected surgical procedures was conducted in the North Coast Health Region of NSW in 1988. Morbidity rates between procedures, hospitals and hospital levels were compared and the effects of age, gender and the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating on morbidity were examined. The respective perceptions of doctors and patients regarding complications were also compared. The study gives conditional support to the continuation of a surgical programme in Level 3 hospitals in the North Coast Health Region.

  3. Spring plankton community structure and distribution in the north and south coasts of Sfax (Tunisia) after north coast restoration.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Aleya, Lotfi; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2013-02-15

    The first phase of the Taparura Project aimed at restoring the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia), highly polluted by phosphate industry and uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumping. Before restoration of the north coast of Sfax, we investigated the state of the ecosystem in related coastal waters. To establish the impact of the Taparura Project, we conducted a similar study both after restoration. To discriminate natural changes over time, we extended the study to the south coast of Sfax, submitted to the same industrial pressure but not yet restored. The present study, conducted in May 2010 at 36 stations (18 on each coast, north and south), covered the spatial distribution of the microbial assemblage, nutrients, and abiotic parameters by collecting seawater samples at the surface and the water-sediment interface. Results revealed a striking difference between the two coasts regarding pH, with strong acidification of seawater in the south, likely generated by industrial activity. Suspended matter was higher in the north than in the south. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the south coast. Heterotrophic prokaryotes were resolved into three groups, labelled LNA (low nucleic acid content), HNA1 and HNA2 (high nucleic acid content). Prochloroccocus, pico-nano-microphytoplankton, heterotrophic prokaryotes and ciliates were more abundant in the north, whereas Synechococcus and unknown species were more abundant in the south where chl a concentration was also higher. The results show that restoration had positive effects on the microbial assemblage of the north coast; they also highlight the strong acidification still prevalent in the south that may be responsible for the lower development of most phytoplankton groups and the occurrence of unknown species. The

  4. European cretaceous flints on the coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emery, K.O.; Kaye, C.A.; Loring, D.H.; Nota, D.J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Flint pebbles and nodules from the Upper Cretaceous chalks of Europe occur offshore and at many seaports along the Atlantic coast of North America, where they were brought as ship's ballast. Isolated pieces imported from Europe as gunflints also are present.

  5. Modified Mercalli intensities for some California north-coast earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) data are used by Bakun (in preparation) to estimate the location and moment magnitude M of California north-coast earthquakes from MMI observations only. The MMI data and site corrections used by Bakun (in preparation) are listed in this Open-file Report. This report is also accessible at http://quake.wr.usgs.gov/~bakun/.

  6. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  7. 78 FR 61844 - North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Comprehensive Study AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... in the preparation of the North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (Hurricane Sandy). The USACE is... Comprehensive Study authorized under the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act, Public Law 113-2 are to (1) provide...

  8. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  9. North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District, California; Final Limited Federal Implementation Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is finalizing a limited Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act) to apply to the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District (North Coast Unified AQMD or District) in California.

  10. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  11. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  12. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  13. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  14. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  15. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  16. 40 CFR 81.161 - North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.161 Section 81.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.161 North Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Coast...

  17. Storm surge along the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, Peter D.; Flick, Reinhard E.; Miller, Arthur J.

    2017-01-01

    Storm surge is an important factor that contributes to coastal flooding and erosion. Storm surge magnitude along eastern North Pacific coasts results primarily from low sea level pressure (SLP). Thus, coastal regions where high surge occurs identify the dominant locations where intense storms make landfall, controlled by storm track across the North Pacific. Here storm surge variability along the Pacific coast of North America is characterized by positive nontide residuals at a network of tide gauge stations from southern California to Alaska. The magnitudes of mean and extreme storm surge generally increase from south to north, with typically high amplitude surge north of Cape Mendocino and lower surge to the south. Correlation of mode 1 nontide principal component (PC1) during winter months (December-February) with anomalous SLP over the northeast Pacific indicates that the dominant storm landfall region is along the Cascadia/British Columbia coast. Although empirical orthogonal function spatial patterns show substantial interannual variability, similar correlation patterns of nontide PC1 over the 1948-1975 and 1983-2014 epochs with anomalous SLP suggest that, when considering decadal-scale time periods, storm surge and associated tracks have generally not changed appreciably since 1948. Nontide PC1 is well correlated with PC1 of both anomalous SLP and modeled wave height near the tide gauge stations, reflecting the interrelationship between storms, surge, and waves. Weaker surge south of Cape Mendocino during the 2015-2016 El Niño compared with 1982-1983 may result from changes in Hadley circulation. Importantly from a coastal impacts perspective, extreme storm surge events are often accompanied by high waves.

  18. INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING NORTH. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING NORTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  19. Ecosystem Approach Studying Development of North Coast Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahardjo, P.

    2017-07-01

    The Inhabitant population of the city of Jakarta continues to increase, the extent of land is limited, and the increasing demand for housing and support facilities, to encourage the conversion of land in Jakarta, for example, the conversion of mangrove forests and reclamation on the north coast of Jakarta in a bid to increase the area of land for the construction of housing and business and commercial centre. Changes in land cover caused by changes in the ecosystem affect the North Beach neighbourhood of Jakarta. The purpose of this paper examines the impact of changes in land cover and environmental development of coastal areas of Jakarta. The qualitative research approach used. Analysis of changes in land uses the space, temporal analysis instruments, to study the change of land use in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015. The scope of the study is limited to environmental issues, which include the natural and built environment of the Environment. The study results get, the development of the north coast city of Jakarta ignores ecosystems, such as coastal ecosystems, open green spaces, river ecosystems, resulting in a puddle of water at high tide.

  20. Levels of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) stranded on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Vega, Claudia M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Hacon, Sandra S; Campos, Reinaldo C; do Couto Jacob, Silvana; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of liver and breast muscles of first-year Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), from two different areas on the Brazilian coast, 35 on the Rio de Janeiro coast and 12 on the Rio Grande do Sul coast. In both areas, Cd concentrations in muscle samples were <0.025 microg/g. However, the Cd and Hg concentrations found in liver and Hg concentrations found in muscle showed a significant difference between the two regions. The geometric mean of the concentrations was higher in the specimens from Rio de Janeiro (Cd--6.8 microg/g; Hg--liver, 1.6 microg/g, and muscle, 0.4 microg/g wet weight) than in those from Rio Grande do Sul (Cd--2.3 microg/g; Hg--liver, 0.9 microg/g, and muscle, 0.1 microg/g wet weight). The site differences could be related to differences in diet influenced by geographic factors. Brazil's southeastern coast is highly urbanized, and its coastal waters are contaminated by the waste of agricultural and industrial activities. There is a lack of information on the levels of heavy metals in S. magellanicus, however, their wide distribution and top position in the trophic chain make the use of stranded specimens an attractive source of information for monitoring heavy metals in the South Atlantic coast.

  1. Rogue run-up events at the North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Blossier, Brice; Daly, Christopher; Herbst, Gabriel; Senichev, Dmitry; Winter, Christian

    2015-04-01

    On the 1st of January, 1995, the Statoil-operated "Draupner" platform located in the North Sea recorded the so-called "New Year wave". Since then, rogue waves have been the topic of active scientific discussions and investigations. Waves of extreme height appearing randomly at the sea surface have been measured in both deep and shallow waters and have been involved in a number of ship accidents. Nowadays rogue waves are frequently recorded all over the world with several different instruments (range finders installed on offshore platforms, deployed buoys, radars including SAR, etc.). Rogue wave also occur at the coast, where they appear as either sudden flooding of coastal areas or high splashes over steep banks or sea walls. These waves are especially dangerous for beach users and lead regularly to human injuries and fatalities. Despite numerous reports of human accidents, coastal rogue waves have not yet been recorded experimentally. In this paper we discuss the recording of rogue wave events at German North Sea coasts by using high-resolution beach cameras. The recorded rogue waves are observed during different tide levels and different weather conditions. Possible mechanisms of their generation are discussed.

  2. First report of Perkinsus sp. infecting mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Rachel Costa; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel Magenta; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2009-12-22

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Perkinsus are considered important pathogens responsible for mass mortalities in several mollusk species worldwide. In the present study we describe for the first time a parasite of the genus Perkinsus infecting the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Brazilian coast. Prevalence of this parasite was low in the Pacoti River estuary (Ceará, northeast Brazil) and absent in oysters from southern Brazil. Oyster gill and rectum tissues incubated in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM) revealed the presence of spherical hypnospores (5 to 55 microm diam.). Histological analysis showed the occurrence of typical signet-ring trophozoites and schizonts (3 to 6 microm diam.) infecting connective tissues of several organs and digestive epithelia. PCR assays specific to the genus Perkinsus, followed by cloning and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene complex, confirmed a close phylogenetic relationship between Brazilian Perkinsus sp. and P. beihaiensis infecting Chinese oysters.

  3. Introduced marine species of the North Sea coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, K.; Gollasch, S.; Wolff, W. J.

    1998-09-01

    About 80 non-indigenous species are assumed to have been introduced into the North Sea by transoceanic shipping and aquaculture. The number is certainly underestimated as most small organisms received insufficient attention at the species level. Also, the seafaring tradition of the North Sea countries is much longer than our biological surveys are. Most exotic invertebrates originate from the western Atlantic and were introduced by shipping, while most algae stem from the Pacific and came with the introduced oysters. A peak of newcomers was observed in the 1970s. Most of the arrivals became established in brackish environments, at harbor sites and in the vicinity of oyster farms, fouling on hard substrates or living as epibionts. A few live in sediments, are holoplanktonic or are parasites. At the open coast, approximately 6% of the macrobenthic species are exotics, while in estuaries their share is up to 20%. Most exotics have been encountered in the southern North Sea first, and many did not spread further north. About 25% of the established non-natives are widespread and attain locally high abundances. As a consequence, some inshore habitats are entirely dominated by exotics. The overall effect on the ecosystem seems to be more additive than one of displacement. This suggests that the coastal biota of the North Sea are quite capable of accommodating newcomers. However, this is no guarantee that the next introduced species may not cause severe ecological change or economic harm. There is a need to minimize the risk of unintentional introductions by ballast water treatment and by adhering to quarantine procedures in aquaculture. Current research on exotics in the North Sea is regarded as inadequate for proper evaluation and management requirements.

  4. Winter extreme precipitation along the North American west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael D.

    Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with winter atmospheric river (AR) events, causing flooding, landslides, extensive property damage, and loss of life. The studies contained within this dissertation use a combination of NCDC precipitation observations, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, a 10-model ensemble of historical and future CMIP5 climate model simulations, and an NCEP-NCAR reanalysis driven regionally downscaled WRF model simulation to characterize the synoptic evolution of AR events along the North American west coast, the spatial variability of precipitation along the coast and inland, and changes in AR intensity and frequency that are expected by the end of the 21st century. Most regional flooding events are associated with precipitation periods of 24 hours or less, and two-day precipitation totals identify nearly all major events. Precipitation areas of major events are generally narrow, roughly 200 km in width, and most are associated with ARs. Composite evolutions indicate negative anomalies in sea-level pressure and upper-level height in the central Pacific, high-pressure anomalies over the southwest U.S., large positive 850-hPa temperature anomalies along the coast and offshore, and enhanced precipitable water and integrated water vapor fluxes in southwest- to northeast-oriented swaths. A small subset of extreme precipitation events over the southern portion of the domain is associated with a very different synoptic evolution: a sharp trough in northwesterly flow and post-cold-frontal convection. High precipitable water values are more frequent during the summer but are not associated with heavy precipitation because of upper-level ridging over the eastern Pacific and weak onshore flow that limits upward vertical velocities. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT

  5. Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; De Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-05-01

    The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast.

  6. Marine debris ingestion by sea turtles (Testudines) on the Brazilian coast: an underestimated threat?

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Robson Henrique; Lacerda, Pedro Dutra; da Silva Mendes, Sarah; Barbosa, Bruno Corrêa; Paschoalini, Mariana; Prezoto, Fabio; de Sousa, Bernadete Maria

    2015-12-30

    Assessment of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles is important, especially to ensure their survival. From January to December 2011, 23 specimens of five species of sea turtles were found dead or dying after being rehabilitated, along the coast of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To detect the presence of marine debris in the digestive tract of these turtles, we conducted a postmortem examination from the esophagus until the distal portion of the large intestine for each specimen. Of the total number of turtles, 39% had ingested marine debris such as soft plastic, hard plastic, metal, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle caps, human hair, tampons, and latex condoms. Five of the seven sea turtles species are found along the Brazilian coast, where they feed and breed. A large number of animals are exposed to various kinds of threats, including debris ingestion.

  7. Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949) at Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, SP: ecological characterization and distribution on the Brazilian coast (Teleostei: Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Mattox, G M T; Gondolo, G F; Cunningham, P T M

    2008-05-01

    Atherinella blackburni is a silverside species whose occurrence on the Brazilian coast was not properly registered until recently. So far, records of its distribution along the Brazilian shore were limited to Itaparica Island, Bahia State, and Porto Inhaúma, Rio de Janeiro State. In a recent survey of the ichthyofauna of Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, 100 specimens of this species were collected, yielding a considerable source of information regarding its ecology and a new southern limit of its distribution. A detailed survey of an ichthyological collection revealed lots of this species from regions of the Brazilian Northeast, resulting in a northward expansion of the occurrence of A. blackburni in Brazilian waters. Besides the populations found on the Brazilian coast, the species also occurs discontinuously in the Atlantic coasts of Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela. Meristic and morphometric analysis showed overlapped values between Brazilian populations and the ones closer to the Caribbean. An ecological study of A. blackburni at Itamambuca Beach revealed that it is a predominantly diurnal species with preference for warm and salty waters, often occurring in sandy-bottom environments. It was more abundant in Summer and Winter, when individuals with smaller values of length and weight also occurred.

  8. Magnetotactic bacteria in marine sediments: clues from recent cores from Brazilian Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovane, L.; Pellizari, V. H.; Brandini, F. P.; Braga, E. D. S.; Freitas, G. R.; Benites, M.; Rodelli, D.; Giorgioni, M.; Iacoviello, F.; Ruffato, D. G.; Lins, U.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic properties (first order reversal curves, ferromagnetic resonance and decomposition of saturation remanent magnetization acquisition) of marine magnetotactic bacteria, in conjunction with geophysical, geochemical and oceanographic data from the Brazilian Coast, provide interesting insights regarding the primary productivity distribution in oceans. This finding suggests that magnetite produced by some magnetotactic bacteria retains magnetic properties in relation to the crystallographic structure of the magnetic phase produced and thus might represent a "magnetic fingerprint" for the presence of magnetotactic bacteria. The use of those magnetic properties is a non-destructive, new technology that might allow for the identification and presence of specific species or types of magnetotactic bacteria in certain environments such as sediment. We will also show some preliminary results on the biogeochemical factors that control magnetotactic bacterial populations, documenting the environment and the preservation of bacterial magnetite, which dominates the palaeomagnetic signal throughout recent sediments from Brazilian Coast. We searched for magnetotactic bacteria in order to understand the ecosystems and environmental change related to their presence in sediments. We studied magnetotactic bacterial concentration and geophysical, geochemical and oceanographic results in marine settings measuring crucially nutrients availability in the water column and in sediments, on particulate delivery to the seafloor, to understand the environmental condition that allow the presence of magnetotactic bacteria and magnetosomes in sediments.

  9. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae) from the Brazilian coast

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça Dantas, Gisele Pires; Meyer, Diogo; Godinho, Raquel; Ferrand, Nuno; Morgante, João Stenghel

    2012-01-01

    Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull populations on the Brazilian coast and compared this variability with that of sub-Antarctic island populations of this species. Kelp Gulls showed extremely low genetic variability for mitochondrial markers (cytb and ATPase) and high diversity for a nuclear locus (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen). The intraspecific evolutionary history of Kelp Gulls showed that the variability found in intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene was compatible with the variability expected under neutral evolution but suggested an increase in population size during the last 10,000 years. However, none of the markers revealed evidence of a bottleneck population. These findings indicate that the recent origin of Kelp Gulls is the main explanation for their nuclear diversity, although selective pressure on the mtDNA of this species cannot be discarded. PMID:23271950

  10. Long-term erosional hot spots in the southern Brazilian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Albano Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    The southern Brazilian coast is a sandy barrier adorned by subtle shoreline perturbations widespread in a rhythmical pattern. Previous works indicated that short- and long-term shoreline changes are not alongshore uniform. They are based on coastline position monitoring, geomorphological evidences, historical cartographic documents, and aerial photography. Moreover, these studies associated the main observed erosional sites with high rates of sediment drift and energy focusing due to wave refraction. Nevertheless, the role of the highly oblique incident waves in driving shoreline changes was not considered. A recently derived sediment diffusion equation showed the possibility of coastal instability induced by incident waves with high obliqueness, as opposed to the traditional approach. Therefore, this paper applied these concepts to wave climate and performed coastal instability analysis to explain shoreline changes at an undulating littoral. Calculations showed wave climate yielding a negative instability index (-0.13) when using a 42-month-long time series of wave parameters obtained from a forecasting numerical model. Also, the calculated direction asymmetry on wave climate revealed a net littoral drift. Consequently, the sites between troughs and updrift flanks of shoreline undulations are expected to exhibit erosive processes. This is the case in the most conspicuous long-term erosional hot spots at the southern Brazilian coast, which was pointed out in earlier studies. Therefore, coastal instability and littoral sediment drift analysis explained the main morphodynamic processes governing shoreline changes at the study area.

  11. Genetic diversity and origin of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sarah M; Araújo, Flávia C F; Monteiro, Danielle S; Estima, Sérgio C; Almeida, Antônio P; Soares, Luciano S; Santos, Fabrício R

    2008-01-01

    The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) population that nests in Brazil is restricted to a few individuals, but high densities of pelagic individuals are observed along the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. We investigated the diversity of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in order to understand the relationship between nesting and pelagic leatherbacks from Brazil and elsewhere. High-quality 711-bp sequences were generated, analyzed, and compared with published data from worldwide populations. We detected the presence of shared haplotypes between nesting and pelagic aggregates from Brazil, as well as haplotypes shared with other nesting areas from the Atlantic and Pacific. Furthermore, the use of longer control region sequences allowed the subdivision of the common Atlantic haplotype A into 3 different haplotypes (A1, A3, and A4), thus improving the resolution of mtDNA-based leatherback phylogeography. The use of longer sequences partially supported a closer association between nesting and pelagic individuals from Brazil and pointed to a complex origin for the pelagic individuals in the Brazilian coast.

  12. Linking North Atlantic Teleconnections to Latitudinal Variability of Wave Climate Along the North American Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provancha, C.; Adams, P. N.; Hegermiller, C.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Shoreline change via coastal erosion and accretion is largely influenced by variations in ocean wave climate. Identifying the sources of these variations is challenging because the timing of wave energy delivery varies over multiple timescales within ocean basins. We present the results of an investigation of USACE Wave Information Studies hindcast hourly wave heights, periods, and directions along the North American Atlantic coast from 1980-2012, designed to explore links between wave climate and teleconnection patterns. Trends in median and extreme significant wave heights (SWHs) demonstrate that mean monthly SWHs increased from 1 to 5 cm/yr along the roughly 3000 km reach of study area, with changes in hurricane season waves appearing to be most influential in producing the overall trends. Distributions of SWHs categorized by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase, show that positive-period NAO SWHs are greater than negative-period NAO SWHs along the entire eastern seaboard (25°N to 45°N). The most prominent wave direction off Cape Cod, MA during positive-period NAO is approximately 105°, as compared to approximately 75° during negative-period NAO. Prominent wave directions between Cape Canaveral, FL, and Savannah, GA exhibit a similar shift but during opposite phases of the NAO. The results of this analysis suggest that the atmosphere-ocean interactions associated with contrasting NAO phases can significantly change the wave climate observed offshore along the North American Atlantic coast, altering alongshore wave energy fluxes and sediment transport patterns along the coast.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in liver of Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) from southeastern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cascaes, M J; Oliveira, R T; Ubarana, M M; Sato, R M; Baldassin, P; Colabuono, F I; Leonel, J; Taniguchi, S; Weber, R R

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 14 livers from specimens of the Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii), which is an important economic resource for small-scale fisheries on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The following concentrations (lipid weight) of POPs were found: ∑PCBs: 1019±267 ng g(-1); ∑DDTs: 111±40 ng g(-1) and ∑PBDEs: 10.4±4.78. PCB 153 made the greatest contribution to ∑PCB (21.4%), followed by PCB 138 (14.6%) and PCB 180 (9.94%). Among chlorinated pesticides, only the p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD isomers had concentrations above the detection limit. Moreover, levels above the detection limit were found only for PBDE congeners 47 and 100 (BDEs 47>99). On average, BDE 47 accounted for 88% of the total PBDE load. The feeding habits of the Brazilian sharpnose shark close to the Brazilian coastline are likely the most important difference regarding the accumulation of POPs in comparison to oceanic species that feed in deeper waters. Thus, this species may be used to evaluate the pollution of coastal areas as well as human exposure to contaminants, as the Brazilian sharpnose shark is a frequently used for human consumption. Further studies in other areas of Brazil and involving other species are needed to clarify the mechanisms and potential impact of POPs, which can affect the biology of different organisms and cause population declines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Minor Rivers of Black Sea North-Western Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyukaeva, Alevtina

    2017-04-01

    The generalisations and conclusions have been done based on the expeditional monitoring of minor rivers of the Russian Federation Black Sea Coast for summer-autumn mean water in 2011-2015. The length of coastal line under monitoring was 300 km with 78 rivers with length no longer, then 50 km. The monitoring task was to establish the natural background of river effluent for the region under study. The observation parameters are physical measures (temperature, pH, Eh), solution (salts) and suspension forms of effluent (feculence, suspension chemical composition). 1. The tendency to decrease minor river water temperature at isthmus correspondent to movement from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. The causes are the growing length of the rivers and steepness of the relief along the Black Sea Caucasus. 2. The dependence between the size of coagulated suspension and water temperature is established. Moreover the intensive mix is not able to compensate the negative influence of the low temperature. 3. The value of hydrogen index, mineralization and specific electric conductivity for minor river are growing from north-west to south-east along the coastal line. 4. By the main ionic composition of the minor rivers of Black Sea north-eastern coast can be classified as hydrocarbonate. The main characteristic (marker) of colt composition for the region is the sensible concentrations of potassium and sodium. 5. The amount of suspension substance in the river water and its feculence changes between 50 mg/dm3 дo 280 mg/dm3. In particle size distribution composition of river suspensions the politic fractions (up to 70%) are prevailed, sand and silt fractions are presented less (25%). 6. Suspension form content of microelements depends on general amount of suspension in river water. The suspension form migration is significant for lead, cobalt, tin and silver. Other metals "prefer" the solution forms and can be arranged approximately in the following: vanadium

  15. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Carlos E. L.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Lucena, Marcos B.; Barbosa, Moysés C.; Rocha, Claudia R.; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion. PMID:25901361

  16. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carlos E L; Luiz, Osmar J; Floeter, Sergio R; Lucena, Marcos B; Barbosa, Moysés C; Rocha, Claudia R; Rocha, Luiz A

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion.

  17. Sea Level Budget along the East Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, A. M.; Davis, J. L.; Vinogradova, N. T.

    2016-12-01

    We analyzed tide gauge data, taken from 1955 to 2015, from 29 locations along the east coast of North America. A well-documented period of sea-level acceleration began around 1990. The sea level rate (referenced to epoch 1985.0) and acceleration (post-1990) are spatially and temporally variable, due to various physical processes, each of which is also spatially and temporally variable. To determine the sea-level budgets for rate and acceleration, we considered a number of major contributors to sea level change: ocean density and dynamics, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), the inverted barometer effect, and mass change associated with the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The geographic variability in the budgets for sea-level rate is dominated by GIA. At some sites, GIA is the largest contributor to the rate. The geographic variability in the budgets for sea-level acceleration is dominated by ocean dynamics and density and GIS mass loss. The figure below shows budgets for sea-level rate (left) and acceleration (right) for Key West, Fla., (top) and The Battery in New York City (bottom). The blue represents values (with error bar shown) estimated from tide gauge observations, and the yellow represents the total values estimated from the individual model contributions (each in red, green, cyan, pink, and black). The estimated totals for rate and acceleration are good matches to the tide-gauge inferences. To achieve a reasonable fit, a scaling factor (admittance) for the combined contribution of ocean dynamics and density was estimated; this admittance may reflect the low spatial sampling of the GECCO2 model we used, or other problems in modeling coastal sea-level. The significant contributions of mass loss to the acceleration enable us to predict that, if such mass-loss continues or increases, the character of sea-level change on the North American east coast will change in the next 50-100 years. In particular, whereas GIA presently

  18. Underwater soundscape of marine protected areas in the south Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gendriz, I; Padovese, L R

    2016-04-15

    The Laje de Santos Marine State Park (LSMSP) and Xixová-Japuí State Park (XJSP) are two protected areas (PA), close to the Santos Bay in the south Brazilian coast. The region encompasses both important biodiversity and anthropogenic activities. This study aims to serve as a first reference survey of the underwater soundscape of these PAs. Additionally it evaluates the presence of the anthropogenic and biological sound in these areas. One month of continuous recorded underwater sound, at selected locations in XJSP and LSMSP, is used in this study. The data were characterized by its spectral content and by the temporal evolution of Sound Pressure Levels (SPL). Both locations showed sound events with daily periodicities, mainly related with boats and fish chorus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cascadia Earthquake and Tsunami Scenario for California's North Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L.

    2006-12-01

    In 1995 the California Division of Mines and Geology (now the California Geological Survey) released a planning scenario for an earthquake on the southern portion of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ). This scenario was the 8th and last of the Earthquake Planning Scenarios published by CDMG. It was the largest magnitude CDMG scenario, an 8.4 earthquake rupturing the southern 200 km of the CSZ, and it was the only scenario to include tsunami impacts. This scenario event has not occurred in historic times and depicts impacts far more severe than any recent earthquake. The local tsunami hazard is new; there is no written record of significant local tsunami impact in the region. The north coast scenario received considerable attention in Humboldt and Del Norte Counties and contributed to a number of mitigation efforts. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of scientists, emergency managers, government agencies, and businesses from Humboldt, Mendocino, and Del Norte Counties, was formed in 1996 to assist local jurisdictions in understanding the implications of the scenario and to promote a coordinated, consistent mitigation program. The group has produced print and video materials and promoted response and evacuation planning. Since 1997 the RCTWG has sponsored an Earthquake Tsunami Education Room at county fairs featuring preparedness information, hands-on exhibits and regional tsunami hazard maps. Since the development of the TsunamiReady Program in 2001, the RCTWG facilitates community TsunamiReady certification. To assess the effectiveness of mitigation efforts, five telephone surveys between 1993 and 2001 were conducted by the Humboldt Earthquake Education Center. A sixth survey is planned for this fall. Each survey includes between 400 and 600 respondents. Over the nine year period covered by the surveys, the percent with houses secured to foundations has increased from 58 to 80 percent, respondents aware of a local tsunami hazard increased

  20. Demystifying the Capitella capitata complex (Annelida, Capitellidae) diversity by morphological and molecular data along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila F; Seixas, Victor C; Barroso, Rômulo; Di Domenico, Maikon; Amaral, Antonia C Z; Paiva, Paulo C

    2017-01-01

    The sibling species of Capitella capitata are globally known for their tolerance to disturbed habitats and the C. capitata complex is often used as an ecological indicator. A recent re-description proposed that C. capitata, originally described in Greenland is restricted to the Artic and Subarctic regions. Given their ecological relevance, we conducted a morphological and molecular analyses based on mtDNA sequences to investigate the diversity and distribution of the C. capitata complex along the Brazilian coast. Our morphological and molecular data were congruent and revealed the existence of four new species distinct from C. capitata, collected from the type locality. This study is the first characterization of the biodiversity and distribution of Capitella species made along the Brazilian coast and yielded a set of morphological characters corroborated by the mtDNA sequences for species identification. Our results increase the biodiversity of the genus along the Brazilian coast by describing four new species (Capitella aracaensis sp. n., Capitella biota sp. n., Capitella neoaciculata sp. n. and Capitella nonatoi sp. n.). One species was collected from only one sampling site, while the others are distributed along the coast.

  1. View north, showing western docking structure U.S. Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, showing western docking structure - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  2. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  3. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  4. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Kiefer, M C; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A F; Hatano, F H; Galdino, C A B; Bergallo, H G; Van Sluys, M

    2014-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia) and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the "Nestedness Temperature Calculator" to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species) whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island). Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P <0.00001; 5000 randomisations; randomisation temperature = 51.45° ± 7.18° SD), indicating that lizard assemblages in the coastal restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  5. Mixing Waters and Moving Ships off the North Carolina Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The estuarine and marine environments of the United States' eastern seaboard provide the setting for a variety of natural and human activities associated with the flow of water. This set of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer images from October 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 4344) captures the intricate system of barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries comprising the coastal environments of North Carolina and southern Virginia. On the right-hand side of the images, a thin line of land provides a tenuous separation between the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and the Atlantic Ocean. The wetland communities of this area are vital to productive fisheries and water quality.

    The top image covers an area of about 350 kilometers x 260 kilometers and is a true-color view from MISR's 46-degree backward-looking camera. Looking away from the Sun suppresses glint from the reflective water surface and enables mapping the color of suspended sediments and plant life near the coast. Out in the open sea, the dark blue waters indicate the Gulf Stream. As it flows toward the northeast, this ocean current presses close to Cape Hatteras (the pointed cape in the lower portion of the images), and brings warm, nutrient-poor waters northward from equatorial latitudes. North Carolina's Outer Banks are often subjected to powerful currents and storms which cause erosion along the east-facing shorelines. In an effort to save the historic Cape Hatteras lighthouse from the encroaching sea, it was jacked out of the ground and moved about 350 meters in 1999.

    The bottom image was created with red band data from the 46-degree backward, 70-degree forward, and 26-degree forward cameras displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. The color variations in this multi-angle composite indicate different angular (rather than spectral) signatures. Here, the increased reflection of land vegetation at the angle viewing away from the Sun causes a reddish tint. Water, on the other hand, appears

  6. Mixing Waters and Moving Ships off the North Carolina Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The estuarine and marine environments of the United States' eastern seaboard provide the setting for a variety of natural and human activities associated with the flow of water. This set of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer images from October 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 4344) captures the intricate system of barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries comprising the coastal environments of North Carolina and southern Virginia. On the right-hand side of the images, a thin line of land provides a tenuous separation between the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and the Atlantic Ocean. The wetland communities of this area are vital to productive fisheries and water quality.

    The top image covers an area of about 350 kilometers x 260 kilometers and is a true-color view from MISR's 46-degree backward-looking camera. Looking away from the Sun suppresses glint from the reflective water surface and enables mapping the color of suspended sediments and plant life near the coast. Out in the open sea, the dark blue waters indicate the Gulf Stream. As it flows toward the northeast, this ocean current presses close to Cape Hatteras (the pointed cape in the lower portion of the images), and brings warm, nutrient-poor waters northward from equatorial latitudes. North Carolina's Outer Banks are often subjected to powerful currents and storms which cause erosion along the east-facing shorelines. In an effort to save the historic Cape Hatteras lighthouse from the encroaching sea, it was jacked out of the ground and moved about 350 meters in 1999.

    The bottom image was created with red band data from the 46-degree backward, 70-degree forward, and 26-degree forward cameras displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. The color variations in this multi-angle composite indicate different angular (rather than spectral) signatures. Here, the increased reflection of land vegetation at the angle viewing away from the Sun causes a reddish tint. Water, on the other hand, appears

  7. Mercury content in shark species from the South-Eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Paraquetti, H H; Marins, R V; Rezende, C E; Zalmon, I R; Gomes, M P; Farias, V

    2000-11-01

    We present here the first results of Hg concentrations in three small shark species (Rhizoprionodon lalandei, R. porosus and Mustelus higmani) from the SE Brazilian coast. Mercury concentrations in R. lalandei ranged from 21.5 to 280.0 ng.g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (average 74.6 ng.g-1 d.w.; 17.9 ng.g-1 wet weight). In R. porosus, concentrations ranged from 7.6 to 90.5 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 42.2 ng.g-1 d.w., 9.4 ng.g-1 wet weight), whereas in M. higmani, concentrations ranged from 13.0 to 162.8 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 54.9 ng.g-1 d.w., 13.4 ng.g-1 wet weight). These concentration ranges are very low compared with values reported for other large shark species of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There was a significant positive correlation between Hg concentrations and individual size, suggesting that biomagnification is occurring in these animals.

  8. Three new Batillipes species (Arthrotardigrada: Batillipedidae) from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika; Rocha, Clélia M C DA; Gomes, Edivaldo Jr; Fontoura, Paulo

    2017-03-16

    Three new tardigrade species, Batillipes brasiliensis sp. nov., Batillipes dandarae sp. nov. and Batillipes potiguarensis sp. nov., are described from shallow subtidal sediments of the Brazilian coast. B. brasiliensis sp. nov. and B. dandarae sp. nov. have toes 3 and 4 on leg IV different in length, so they can be included in the D group of species, while B. potiguarensis sp. nov., with toes 3 and 4 on leg IV equal in length belong to the A group. Batillipes brasiliensis sp. nov. is characterized by having an ala-like caudal expansion; cuticular projections on the coxal region of legs I-III, and lateral projections. The lateral projection located between the third and fourth legs is fringed with digit-shaped expansions. Batillipes dandarae sp. nov. has a dorsal blunt enlargement in the scapular region; a pointed triangular caudal appendage, and no lateral projections. The new species exhibits a sensorial spine on legs I inserted posteriorly and turning forward, and anus surrounded by a peculiar cuticular structure constituted by six platelets. Batillipes potiguarensis sp. nov. is characterized by a unique combination of characters: scapular region well developed, protruding laterally at the level of the first pair of legs; lateral blunt processes between legs, and prominent roundish caudal protrusion. In addition, the new species exhibits cephalic appendages with swollen tips, evident secondary clavae, and very short sense organs on the legs IV.

  9. Nuclear markers reveal a complex introgression pattern among marine turtle species on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Vilaça, Sibelle T; Vargas, Sarah M; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Molfetti, Érica; Reis, Estéfane C; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele; Soares, Luciano S; Santos, Fabrício R

    2012-09-01

    Surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the Brazilian coast. Mitochondrial DNA data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as Eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (Bahia State of Brazil). It is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern Brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare Caribbean sites present no more than 2% of hybrids. Thus, a detailed understanding of the hybridization process is needed to evaluate natural or anthropogenic causes of this regional phenomenon in Brazil, which could be an important factor affecting the conservation of this population. We analysed a set of 12 nuclear markers to investigate the pattern of hybridization involving three species of sea turtles: hawksbill (E. imbricata), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Our data indicate that most of the individuals in the crossings L. olivacea × E. imbricata and L. olivacea × C. caretta are F1 hybrids, whereas C. caretta × E. imbricata crossings present F1 and backcrosses with both parental species. In addition, the C. caretta × E. imbricata hybridization seems to be gender and species biased, and we also found one individual with evidence of multispecies hybridization among C. caretta × E. imbricata × Chelonia mydas. The overall results also indicate that hybridization in this area is a recent phenomenon, spanning at least two generations or ~40 years.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo e Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Azeredo, Antonio; Lailson-Brito, José; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2007-04-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT may bioaccumulate in the aquatic food web and have been of great concern due to their toxic effects on wildlife and human health. There is evidence showing that fish in the human diet contributes at a significant proportion to the total intake of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat levels. This study investigated the concentration of PCBs and DDTs in muscle tissues of samples of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) and a swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from east Brazilian coast and estimate the human exposure to total DDTs through the consumption of both the species. Samples of the each species were caught between August and September 2001. The mean concentration for summation operator PCBs in P. glauca was 3.15 ng/g w.w. and the summation operator DDTs was 0.93 ng/g w.w. The mean concentration of summation operator PCBs in X. gladius was 6.50 ng/g and the mean of summation operator DDTs was 2.47 ng/g. The estimated daily intake of summation operator DDT through X. gladius or P. glauca consumption can be considered safe since it contributes to less than 0.1% of the limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) of summation operator DDT proposed by WHO.

  11. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  12. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  13. Fishers' knowledge about fish trophic interactions in the southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Ramires, Milena; Clauzet, Mariana; Barrella, Walter; Rotundo, Matheus M; Silvano, Renato Am; Begossi, Alpina

    2015-03-05

    Data derived from studies of fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) can be invaluable to the proposal of new studies and more appropriate management strategies. This study analyzed the fisher's LEK about trophic relationships of fishes in the southeastern Brazilian coast, comparing fishers' LEK with scientific knowledge to provide new hypotheses. The initial contacts with fishers were made through informal visits in their residences, to explain the research goals, meet fishers and their families, check the number of resident fishers and ask for fishers' consent to participate in the research. After this initial contact, fishers were selected to be included in the interviews through the technique of snowball sampling. The fishers indicated by others who attended the criteria to be included in the research were interviewed by using a semi-structured standard questionnaire. There were interviewed 26 artisanal fishers from three communities of the Ilhabela: Jabaquara, Fome and Serraria. The interviewed fishers showed a detailed knowledge about the trophic interactions of the studied coastal fishes, as fishers mentioned 17 food items for these fishes and six fish and three mammals as fish predators. The most mentioned food items were small fish, shrimps and crabs, while the most mentioned predators were large reef fishes. Fishers also mentioned some predators, such as sea otters, that have not been reported by the biological literature and are poorly known. The LEK of the studied fishers showed a high degree of concordance with the scientific literature regarding fish diet. This study evidenced the value of fishers' LEK to improve fisheries research and management, as well as the needy to increase the collaboration among managers, biologists and fishers.

  14. Shoreline responses to storm impacts: North Norfolk coast, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Sue; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Recent phases of enhanced mid-latitude storminess (e.g. NW European winter of 2013 - 14) have led to a growing awareness of the considerable impacts of storms on coastal landscapes and their communities. Using aerial photography, bi-annual cross-shore profiles, detailed alongshore ground survey, and offshore/inshore wave buoy and regional tide gauge datasets, this paper considers storm impacts on the barrier coastline of North Norfolk, UK. Firstly, at Scolt Head Island, we show that the barrier dune crest has been progressively set back landwards since 2006 in three storm-related phases, with each shoreline translation being of the order of 5-8 m. However, a fourth storm produced no significant shoreline change, demonstrating that the threshold for morphological change is a function of the combined effects of still water level and wave height at the shore, the magnitude and duration of these components, and the timing of their interaction. Secondly, we consider recovery times in the system against periods of quiescence and heightened storm activity on this coast. Thirdly, it has been argued that future changes in extreme water level will be governed by mean sea level rise. Long-term rates of North Norfolk barrier retreat (1.15 m a-1, 1891-2013) have occurred under a regional rate of relative sea level rise over the 20th century of 2.7 ± 0.4 mm a-1 (Lowestoft tide gauge, 1900-2014). If there is a broad correlation between rates of barrier retreat and sea level rise, then recent increases in the rate of regional sea level rise (4.4 ± 1.1 mm a-1, 1993-2011) imply a considerable acceleration in the rate of barrier migration over the remainder of the 21st century.

  15. Calcareous algae bioclast contribution to sediment enrichment by arsenic on the Brazilian subtropical coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Baisch, Paulo; Travassos, Marcelo P.; Nassar, Cristina

    2011-02-01

    Arsenic levels (up to 130 mg kg-1) substantially exceeding the official threshold have recently been documented in beach and nearshore sediments along more than 50 km of coastline in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo between 19°50' and 20°12'S. In an attempt to assess the sources of this enrichment, we performed a study on arsenic distribution in the main mineral substances and living organisms in the beach environment. Laboratory tests on arsenic retention by beach carbonate debris have also been carried out. The data suggest that sedimentary arsenic occurs largely bound to particles of the calcareous red alga Corallina panizzoi, whereby live specimens contained much smaller amounts of this metalloid than was the case for nonliving material (2.4 and 20.3 mg kg-1, respectively). Experimental tests confirmed the ability of C. panizzoi detritus to retain arsenic at pH intervals and ionic strength characteristic of seawater. There are two potential sources of that metalloid for calcareous debris in sediments: brown macroalgae, which were found to contain high levels of As (up to 66.3 mg kg-1), and ferruginized sandstones (up to 23.0 mg kg-1). We argue that any contribution of brown algae to beach sediment enrichment by As would be minor, and consider the ferrous sandstones from coastal sedimentary rocks of the Barreiras Group as the principal large-scale source of arsenic in the marine environment of Espírito Santo. The experimental data, together with field studies, corroborate the interpretation that arsenic anomalies in sediments with calcareous debris can form when weathered continental rocks even only slightly enriched in As are leached by marine waters, and the As is at least partially retained by biogenic calcareous detritus in nearshore sediments. Considering that rocks of the Barreiras Group are exposed to marine erosion far to the north of Espírito Santo, we estimate that marine sediments containing calcareous material are "anomalously" enriched in

  16. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Anjos, R M; Macario, K D; Lima, T A; Veiga, R; Carvalho, C; Fernandes, P J F; Vezzone, M; Bastos, J

    2010-01-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  17. Tilt of Mean Sea Level Along the Pacific Coasts of North America and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Thompson, K. R.; Huang, J.; Veronneau, M.

    2016-02-01

    The tilt of coastal mean sea level with respect to an equipotential surface is estimated using two fundamentally different approaches. The geodetic approach is based on tide gauge and GPS observations, and a model of the geoid. The ocean approach uses a high resolution, dynamically-based ocean model to estimate mean dynamic topography. Along the Pacific coast of North America the two approaches give similar large scale profiles with a minimum at about 40°N and a maximum in the northern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Along the Pacific coast of Japan the geodetically determined coastal sea levels indicate an eastward drop of about 20 cm along the south coast and a further northward drop across Tsugaru Strait. Both of these features are reproduced by the ocean models. An analysis of the alongshore momentum balance suggests that alongshore wind stress acting over the inner shelf is the primary driver of the mean sea level profile along the coast of North America. Several large scale features are explained using arrested topographic wave theory. A similar momentum analysis, and an additional study of time variability of sea level and circulation, suggest that the Kuroshio is the main driver of the mean sea level tilt along the south coast of Japan. Discrepancies in the alongshore tilt of sea level estimated by the geodetic and ocean approaches along both coasts are discussed in terms of errors in the ocean and geoid models.

  18. Tilt of mean sea level along the Pacific coasts of North America and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hongyang; Thompson, Keith R.; Huang, Jianliang; Véronneau, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The tilt of coastal mean sea level with respect to an equipotential surface is estimated using two fundamentally different approaches. The geodetic approach is based on tide gauge and GPS observations, and a model of the geoid. The ocean approach uses a high-resolution, dynamically based ocean model to estimate mean dynamic topography. Along the Pacific coast of North America the two approaches give similar large-scale profiles with a minimum at about 40°N and a maximum in the northern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Along the Pacific coast of Japan the geodetically determined coastal sea levels indicate an eastward drop of about 20 cm along the south coast and a further northward drop across Tsugaru Strait. Both of these features are reproduced by the ocean models. An analysis of the alongshore momentum balance suggests that alongshore wind stress acting over the inner shelf is the primary driver of the mean sea level profile along the coast of North America. Several large-scale features are explained using arrested topographic wave theory. A similar momentum analysis, and an additional study of time variability of sea level and circulation, suggests that the Kuroshio is the main driver of the mean sea level tilt along the south coast of Japan. Discrepancies in the alongshore tilt of sea level estimated by the geodetic and ocean approaches along both coasts are discussed in terms of errors in the ocean and geoid models.

  19. Integrated Bird Conservation along the Pacific Coast of North America: An Action Agenda

    Treesearch

    Gregg Elliott; Bob Altman; Wendy Easton; Ricardo Estrella; Geoffrey Geupel; Mary Chase; Ellie Cohen; Ann Chrisney

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and managers representing the continental bird conservation plans explored the status of conservation planning and implementation for birds along the Pacific coast of North America. The theme of the session, "using common currencies to advance bird conservation," emphasized the components of bird conservation shared among the major initiatives,...

  20. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  1. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  2. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.160 Section 81.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  3. Timber resource statistics for the North Coast resource area of California 1994.

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National...

  4. Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) Applied to Watershed Assessment on California's North Coast

    Treesearch

    Rich Walker; Chris Keithley; Russ Henly; Scott Downie; Steve Cannata

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the state of California initiated the North Coast Watershed Assessment Program (2003a) to assemble information on the status of coastal watersheds that have historically supported anadromous fish. The five-agency consortium explored the use of Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) (Reynolds and others 1996) as a means to help assess overall watershed...

  5. Human and climatic influences on fire occurrence in California's north coast range

    Treesearch

    Carl Skinner; Celeste Abbott; Danny Fry; Scott Stephens; Alan Taylor; Valerie Trouet

    2009-01-01

    Outside of the immediate coastal environments, little is known of fire history in the North Coast Range of California. Fire scar specimens were collected from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Douglas), incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens [Torr] Florin), and...

  6. Total maximum daily loads, sediment budgets, and tracking restoration progress of the north coast watersheds

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Buffleben

    2012-01-01

    One of the predominate water quality problems for northern coastal California watersheds is the impairment of salmonid habitat. Most of the North Coast watersheds are listed as “impaired” under section 303(d) of Clean Water Act. The Clean Water Act requires states to address impaired waters by developing Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) or implementing...

  7. Status of the Marbled Murrelet in the inner north coast ranges of California

    Treesearch

    John E. Hunter; Kristin N. Schmidt; Howard B. Stauffer; Sherri L. Miller; C. John Ralph; Lynn Roberts

    1998-01-01

    We sought to determine the presence or absence of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) within the northern Inner North Coast Ranges of northwestern California. We conducted murrelet surveys and collected environmental data during 1995 and 1996 on national forest lands that were south of the Klamath Mountains Section and within B....

  8. Nearshore marine benthic invertebrates moving north along the U.S. Atlantic coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous species have shifted their ranges north in response to global warming. We examined 21 years (1990-2010) of marine benthic invertebrate data from the National Coastal Assessment’s monitoring of nearshore waters along the US Atlantic coast. Data came from three bioge...

  9. Timber resource statistics of the north coast resource area of California.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Lloyd; Joel Moen; Charles L. Bolsinger

    1986-01-01

    This report is one of five that provide timber resource statistics for 57 of the 58 counties in California (San Francisco is excluded). This report presents statistics from a 1981-84 inventory of the timber resources of Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality. The north coast...

  10. Lessons learned in historical mapping of conifer and oak in the North Coast

    Treesearch

    Melissa V. Eitzel; Maggi Kelly; Lenya N. Quinn-Davidson

    2015-01-01

    Conifer encroachment into oak woodlands is becoming a pressing concern for oak conservation, particularly in California's north coast. We use Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) with historical aerial imagery from 1948 and recent high-spatial-resolution images from 2009 to explore the potential for mapping encroachment using remote sensing. We find that pre-...

  11. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  12. Tectonic boundaries of the eastern Gulf Coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, C. Jr.; Phillips, R.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Two Precambrian extensional fault episodes, recorded in mapping from central Arkansas across Mississippi, central Alabama, southern Georgia, and into the Atlantic Ocean affected later Pennsylvanian and Triassic tectonics. This interpretation is from magnetic anomaly data and is supported by seismic, gravity, core, and well-log data. The fault system was first suspected from an anomalous magnetic high, representing a feature that affected tectonism during the Ouachita and the Alleghenian orogenies of the eastern Gulf Coast and southeastern United States. The northernmost upthrown block is considered part of an ancient passive continental margin developed during the late Precambrian. The southern downthrown block is deformed by left-lateral transverse faults active during the Ouachita Orogeny. The Ouachita Orogeny may have deformed terrain farther east than the Black Worrior basin. These transverse fault blocks were buttressed by the footwall of the extensional fault system. These left-lateral faults extending from Florida and Georgia into Alabama, Mississippi, and southern Arkansas.

  13. Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coast of Visakhapatnam, North-East Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, G.; Grinivasa Kumar, T.

    2016-08-01

    The current study area is coastal zone of Visakhapatnam, district of Andhra Pradesh along the coast of India. This area is mostly vulnerable to many disasters such as storms, cyclone, flood, tsunami and erosion. This area is considered as cyclone prone area because of frequently occurrence of the cyclones in this area. Recently the two tropical cyclones that formed in the Bay of Bengal are Hudhud (October 13, 2014) and Phylin (October 11, 2013), has caused devastating impacts on the eastern coast and shows that the country has lack of preparedness to cyclone, storm surge and related natural hazards. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared here are a blended and combined overlay of multiple hazards those affecting the coastal zone. The present study aims to develop a methodology for coastal multi-hazard vulnerability assessment. This study carried out using parameters like probability of coastal slope, tsunami arrival height, future sea level rise, coastal erosion and tidal range. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared by overlaying of multi hazards those affecting the coastal zone. Multi-hazard vulnerability maps further reproduced as risk maps with the land use information. The decision making tools presented here can provide a useful information during the disaster for the evacuation process and to evolve a management strategy.

  14. Assessment of total and organic mercury levels in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the south and southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Degaspari, Iracema Alves Manoel; Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; de Amorim, Alberto Ferreira; Kennedy, Valerie Helen; Ferreira, José Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mercury occurrence was evaluated in samples of edible muscle tissue of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) caught in the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the south and southeastern Brazilian coast, indicating a slight increase in comparison with previous data obtained for the same studied area and being higher than those fish caught at different sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 2.40 mg kg(-1) with the organic Hg fraction ranging between 0.44 and 2.37 mg kg(-1). A negative correlation between total Hg concentration in muscle tissue and blue shark size was obtained, and 40% of samples analyzed had Hg concentrations higher than 1.0 mg kg(-1) Hg, the maximum concentration permitted in Brazilian predator fish. Data obtained showed that total Hg can be used as a reliable predictor of organic Hg in blue shark muscle because 95 to 98% of the total Hg measured was found to be organic mercury. The wide range of Hg concentrations obtained for our set of samples can be explained by the heterogeneity of sampled population and the large size of the studied area. Given the adverse toxicological effects of Hg on animals and humans, a regular monitoring program of Hg contamination in Brazilian marine ecosystem can be recommended.

  15. Measuring Tsunami Current Velocities on California’s North Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, G. B.; Dengler, L. A.; Montoya, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern California coast is particularly susceptible to tsunami damage. Thirty-one tsunamis have been recorded since 1933 when the first tide gauge was installed at Citizen’s Dock in Crescent City, California and four have caused damage. In November 2006, a magnitude 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a tsunami that caused over $20 million in damages and replacement costs to the Crescent City small boat basin. The 2006 tsunami did not flood any areas above the normal high tide; very strong currents produced as the tsunami surged in and out of the small boat basin caused all of the damage. The Harbor Master and commercial fishermen in the area estimated the peak currents near the mouth of the small boat basin at 12 to 15 knots or 6 to 8 m/sec. MOST numerical modeling of the 2006 currents in Crescent City gives peak velocities in the 2-3 m/sec range. We have initiated a pilot project to directly measure current velocities produced by moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. In spring of 2009 we acquired a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz acoustic 2-D current profiler through a donation from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company to measure currents in Humboldt Bay, located 100 km south of Crescent City. The manufacturer specifies the current meter can measure currents up to 10 m/sec. In a preliminary deployment at the Fairhaven dock inside Humboldt Bay in May 2009, we measured current velocities of 1.5 m/sec caused by the daily tidal fluctuation with a 1 minute sampling rate. Our primary goal is to model control and data telemetry of this current meter after NOAA’s tsunami-ready tide gages, in collaboration with NOAA personnel at PMEL and CO-OPS. We also intend to make available real-time current measurements online for the local maritime community. In this poster, we present preliminary results from the current meter and discuss deployment and telecommunication considerations. While some interference is present in the closest range bins, the system

  16. Pacific Coast Hindcast Phase 3 North Wave Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    39.60N/123.80W 39.48N/123.BON 183. ABOUT 9 NAUTICAL MILES NORTH OF LAGUNA POINT, CA 83 𔄃.48N1I23.80N 39.35N123.8IW 185. FORT BRAGG, CA 84 39.35N...81 0-20; 170-180 9 0-20 82 0-30 10 0-20 83 0-30 11 0-10 84 170-180 12 160-180 85 160-180 13 160--i 86 0-10; 160-180 14 0-10 87 0-30 15 0-10 92 160-180...15.3 18.1 22.2 LO1GER 0. 0.49 2 2 1 5 - 9 53 246 304 84 712 . 49 121 387 766 365 201 62 11 215 . .99 78 228 378 441 374 226 31 3 1759 . 91 69 72 211

  17. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: Promoting Earthquake and Tsunami Resilience on California's North Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L. A.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

    2014-12-01

    In historic times, Northern California has suffered the greatest losses from tsunamis in the U.S. contiguous 48 states. 39 tsunamis have been recorded in the region since 1933, including five that caused damage. This paper describes the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization formed in 1996 to address the tsunami threat from both near and far sources. It includes representatives from government agencies, public, private and volunteer organizations, academic institutions, and individuals interested in working to reduce tsunami risk. The geographic isolation and absence of scientific agencies such as the USGS and CGS in the region, and relatively frequent occurrence of both earthquakes and tsunami events has created a unique role for the RCTWG, with activities ranging from basic research to policy and education and outreach programs. Regional interest in tsunami issues began in the early 1990s when there was relatively little interest in tsunamis elsewhere in the state. As a result, the group pioneered tsunami messaging and outreach programs. Beginning in 2008, the RCTWG has partnered with the National Weather Service and the California Office of Emergency Services in conducting the annual "live code" tsunami communications tests, the only area outside of Alaska to do so. In 2009, the RCTWG joined with the Southern California Earthquake Alliance and the Bay Area Earthquake Alliance to form the Earthquake Country Alliance to promote a coordinated and consistent approach to both earthquake and tsunami preparedness throughout the state. The RCTWG has produced and promoted a variety of preparedness projects including hazard mapping and sign placement, an annual "Earthquake - Tsunami Room" at County Fairs, public service announcements and print material, assisting in TsunamiReady community recognition, and facilitating numerous multi-agency, multidiscipline coordinated exercises, and community evacuation drills. Nine assessment surveys from 1993 to 2013

  18. Timber resource statistics for the north coast resource area of California, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of North Coast National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of volume and area on timber land are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  19. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  20. North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS) Coastal Storm Model Simulations: Waves and Water Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 14 North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS) Coastal Storm Model Simulations: Waves and Water Levels Co...geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense, civilian agencies, and our nation’s public good...Waves and Water Levels Mary A. Cialone, T. Chris Massey, Mary E. Anderson, Alison S. Grzegorzewski, Robert E. Jensen, Alan Cialone, David J. Mark

  1. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources.

  2. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  3. Mercury concentrations in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Condini, Mario V; Hoeinghaus, David J; Roberts, Aaron P; Soulen, Brianne K; Garcia, Alexandre M

    2017-02-15

    Our study incorporated a comprehensive suite of parameters (i.e., body size, age, diet and trophic position) to investigate mercury concentration in dusky groupers Epinephelus marginatus. This study was carried out in rocky bottoms in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast. We also determined spatial variation in mercury concentrations in individuals inhabiting both zones, which may provide insights into how dietary differences or potential pollution sources affect bioaccumulation. A total of 244 dusky groupers was analyzed to determine total mercury concentrations. Our study revealed that when considering similar body sizes, individuals inhabiting littoral rocky habitats had higher concentrations of mercury probably due to proximity to pollution sources associated with human activities in the estuary and its drainage basin. Furthermore, large individuals (>650mm and >8years old) showed mercury contamination levels that are potentially harmful for this endangered fish species and above the acceptable limits for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of television advertising in increasing pneumococcal vaccination coverage among the elderly, North Coast, New South Wales, 2006.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Cate; Corben, Paul; Turahui, John; Gilmour, Robin

    2008-10-01

    North Coast Area Health Service (NCAHS) conducted a seven week television advertising campaign to raise community awareness of the availability of free adult pneumococcal vaccination and to increase coverage among North Coast residents in high risk groups. Effectiveness of the campaign was evaluated by examining vaccine ordering patterns of North Coast vaccination providers from 2005/2006 as a proxy for vaccination coverage. In the months during and immediately following (June-September 2006) the advertising campaign, a significantly higher proportion of vaccines were despatched to North Coast immunisation service providers. The advertising campaign was an effective strategy to promote vaccination among NCAHS residents not immunised in the first year of the National Pneumococcal Program for Older Australians. This higher immunisation coverage is expected to contribute to the statewide trend of significant reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notifications.

  5. Description of free-living marine nematodes found in the intestine of fishes from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, Joaquín; Ruiz-Cuenca, Alba N; Fernandes, Berenice M M; Cohen, Simone C; Cárdenas, Melissa Q

    2015-04-22

    The marine nematodes usually comprise free-living species, although a few are parasitic. However, several cases of free-living nematodes found accidentally in the digestive tract of certain vertebrates, especially fishes, have sometimes been recorded and categorized as pseudoparasites. In the present work, two species of marine fishes, the rhomboid crappie, Diapterus rhombeus, and the silvered crappie, Eucinostomus argenteus (Perciformes: Gerreidae), from Angra dos Reis on the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were examined. Seven species of free-living marine nematodes were found in the digestive tract of these fish. Several of these species remain unknown as free-living forms in Brazil. The combination of the fish feeding strategies and the poor preservation of the body of the nematode specimens found could indicate that these nematodes are pseudoparasites, appearing in the fishes' digestive tracts through accidental ingestion and thereafter surviving for brief periods of time. Descriptions, illustrations and tables of measurements are provided for all species. Six of these species (Croconema torquens, Dorylaimopsis pellucida, Oncholaimellus labiatus, Parodontophora breviamphida, Prooncholaimus ornatus, Trissonchulus latus) have been reported for the first time from the Brazilian coast.

  6. Molecular sexing of unusually large numbers of Spheniscus magellanicus (Spheniscidae) washed ashore along the Brazilian coast in 2008.

    PubMed

    Reis, E C; Aires, R M; Moura, J F; Matias, C A R; Tavares, M; Ott, P H; Siciliano, S; Lôbo-Hajdu, G

    2011-12-05

    There have been few studies on Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). In 2008, these penguins washed ashore along the Brazilian coast in unusually high numbers, some reaching as far as northeast Brazil. As Magellanic penguins show little sexual dimorphism, sex determination by morphological features is not accurate. Here, we tested a molecular procedure for sexing specimens of S. magellanicus washed ashore along the coasts of Sergipe, Rio de Janeiro and Rio Grande do Sul in 2008, comparing the sex ratio between these localities. Tissue samples were collected from 135 dead, beached specimens. We carried out total genomic DNA extraction and CHD-Z/CHD-W gene amplification by PCR using P2 and P8 primers. Amplicons were separated by 12% acrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found a greater proportion of females (70%). Sex could be determined because females have two intronic regions of CHD gene of different size in the sex chromosomes, visualized as two bands on the gel (380 and 400 bp approximately), while males have only one (400 bp). Therefore, this method proved to be effective and sensitive for sex determination of S. magellanicus individuals. Data on sex ratios are useful for understanding the dynamics and ecology of Magellanic penguin populations.

  7. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Sea Level Change along the North American East Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. L.; Han, D.; Oh, B.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the nature of sea-level change (SLC) is of paramount importance to, and a significant aspect of the future well being of, coastal towns and ecosystems. The east coast of North America is particularly susceptible to the impacts of SLC because its high economic productivity and population density compound the possible damage that could occur to the region. Moreover, predictions regarding the near-term and long-term future effects of SLC in this region are inconclusive because there is uncertainty regarding its long-term causes. As a result, the findings of a study of the various components of sea-level change on the U.S. East Coast will be presented. A model for SLC on the East Coast will be developed consisting of SLC due to thermosteric changes, glacial isostatic adjustment, and gravitationally self-consistent calculations for SLC due to present-day melting from Greenland and other areas from GRACE data. Tide gauges along the coast will be used to provide observational constraints on SLC. The models will include scenarios for the time-dependence of SLC. The comparison between data and models will be used to assess the current level of understanding of SLC in this region on a wide range of timescales.

  8. The Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group: a unique organization promoting earthquake and tsunami resilience on California's North Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, L.; Henderson, C.; Larkin, D.; Nicolini, T.; Ozaki, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Northern California counties of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino account for over 30% of California's coastline and is one of the most seismically active areas of the contiguous 48 states. The region is at risk from earthquakes located on- and offshore and from tsunamis generated locally from faults associated with the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) and from distant sources elsewhere in the Pacific. In 1995 the California Geological Survey (CGS) published a scenario for a CSZ earthquake that included both strong ground shaking effects and a tsunami. As a result of the scenario, the Redwood Coast Tsunami Work Group (RCTWG), an organization of government agencies, tribes, service groups, academia and the private sector, was formed to coordinate and promote earthquake and tsunami hazard awareness and mitigation in the three-county region. The RCTWG and its member agencies projects include education/outreach products and programs, tsunami hazard mapping, signage and siren planning. Since 2008, RCTWG has worked with the California Emergency Management Agency (Cal EMA) in conducting tsunami warning communications tests on the North Coast. In 2007, RCTWG members helped develop and carry out the first tsunami training exercise at FEMA's Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The RCTWG has facilitated numerous multi-agency, multi-discipline coordinated exercises, and RCTWG county tsunami response plans have been a model for other regions of the state and country. Eight North Coast communities have been recognized as TsunamiReady by the National Weather Service, including the first National Park the first State Park and only tribe in California to be so recognized. Over 500 tsunami hazard zone signs have been posted in the RCTWG region since 2008. Eight assessment surveys from 1993 to 2010 have tracked preparedness actions and personal awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards in the county and additional surveys have tracked public awareness and tourist

  9. Spatio-temporal variations in storm surges along the North Atlantic coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Marta; Woodworth, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Extreme sea levels along the coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico have been investigated using hourly tide gauge records compiled in the recently released GESLA-2 data set (www.gesla.org). These regions are among the most densely monitored coasts worldwide, with more than 300 high frequency quality-controlled tide gauge time series available. Here we estimate the storm surge component of extreme sea levels using both tidal residuals and skew surges, for which we explore the spatial and temporal coherency of their intensities, duration and frequency. We quantify the relationship of extremes with dominant large scale climate patterns and discuss the impact of mean sea level changes. Finally, we test the assumption of stationarity of the probability of extreme occurrence and to which extent it holds when mean sea level changes are considered in combination with storm surges.

  10. Physical and optical aerosol properties at the Dutch North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; de Leeuw, G.; Moerman, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Sun photometer measurements at the AERONET station at the North Sea coast in The Hague (The Netherlands) provide a climatology of optical and physical aerosol properties for the area. Results are presented from the period January 2002 to July 2003. For the analysis and interpretation these data are coupled to chemical aerosol data from a nearby station of the Dutch National Air Quality Network. This network provides PM10 and black carbon concentrations. Meteorological conditions and air mass trajectories are also used. Due to the location close to the coast, the results are strongly dependent on wind direction, i.e.~air mass trajectory. In general the aerosol optical properties are governed by industrial aerosol emitted form various industrial, agricultural and urban areas surrounding the site in almost all directions over land. For maritime air masses industrial aerosols are transported from over the North Sea, whereas very clean air is transported from the NW in clean polar air masses from the North Atlantic. In the winter the effect of the production of sea salt aerosol at high wind speeds is visible in the optical and physical aerosol data. In these cases fine and coarse mode radii are similar to those reported in the literature for marine aerosol. Relations are derived between the Ångström coefficients with both the fine/coarse mode fraction and the ratio of black carbon and PM10.

  11. Physical and optical aerosol properties at the Dutch North Sea coast based on AERONET observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; de Leeuw, G.; Moerman, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    Sun photometer measurements at the AERONET station at the North Sea coast in The Hague (The Netherlands) provide a climatology of optical and physical aerosol properties for the area. Results are presented from the period January 2002 to July 2003. For the analysis and interpretation these data are coupled to chemical aerosol data from a nearby station of the Dutch National Air Quality Network. This network provides PM10 and black carbon concentrations. Meteorological conditions and air mass trajectories are also used. Due to the location close to the coast, the results are strongly dependent on wind direction, i.e. air mass trajectory. In general the aerosol optical properties are governed by industrial aerosol emitted form various industrial, agricultural and urban areas surrounding the site in almost all directions over land. For maritime air masses industrial aerosols are transported from over the North Sea, whereas very clean air is transported from the NW in clean polar air masses from the North Atlantic. In the winter the effect of the production of sea salt aerosol at high wind speeds is visible in the optical and physical aerosol data. In these cases fine and coarse mode radii are similar to those reported in the literature for marine aerosol. Relations are derived between the Ångström coefficients with both the fine/coarse mode fraction and the ratio of black carbon and PM10.

  12. a Relative Sea Level Database for the Pacific Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Vacchi, M.; Horton, B.; Nelson, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. Here we present a quality-controlled RSL database compiled using data from the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA). This dataset includes 446 sea level index points that estimate the position of former RSL in time and space, and 181 limiting dates that constrain whether RSL was above (marine limiting) or below (terrestrial limiting) the sample. This coastal area is characterized by significant tectonic activity due to the Cascadia Subduction Zone in the north from British Columbia to northern California, and the San Andreas Fault in northern and central California. However, the tectonic contribution to RSL change from the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the San Andreas Fault is unknown. Elastic dislocation models of the earthquake deformation cycle have commonly assumed that Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) in the Cascadia subduction zone is non-existent. However, our data indicate ongoing GIA-related subsidence along the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California of a similar magnitude observed along the Atlantic coast of the USA and other proglacial forebulge regions in Europe. This has implications for GPS observations of vertical land movement from Cascadia that assume all motion is due to subduction zone deformation. Using a late Holocene subset of our database, we estimated the land-level changes associated with the ongoing GIA. Comparing this value with long-term (>50 year) tide gauge records allows us to improve estimates of the ongoing vertical deformation at Cascadia due to the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate.

  13. Controlling Transport Processes in Groundwater Contamination in the North Coast Karst Aquifer of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Steele, K.

    2008-05-01

    The karst aquifer of the North Coast of Puerto Rico represents a significant source of water for drinking purposes, as well as ecosystem sustainability. The same characteristics making this aquifer the most productive in the island, fast infiltration and rapid flow in karst conduits, make the aquifers vulnerable highly vulnerable to contamination. Once in the ground water, organic contaminants move through the karst aquifers by complex pathways dictated by system characteristics and flow regimes. Ground water flow in karst aquifers is subscribed to two types of flow systems: conduit flow and diffuse flow. Transport in conduit-flow dominated systems tends to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge or point without much attenuation. Transport in diffuse- flow systems, on the other hand, causes significant solute retardation and serves as a long-term source of contamination. Although it is common to attribute one type of predominant flow regime, most carbonate aquifers are characterized by a mixture of both flow systems. The north coast aquifer of Puerto Rico has been impacted by a large number of contaminates sites. During the last 25 years, 10 Superfund sites have been declared in the zone and others are being evaluated for inclusion in the National Priority List. The work presented herein addresses the potential impact of these sites on the extent of contamination and discusses the transport mechanisms affecting the transport and persistence of organic contaminants in the north coast aquifer of Puerto Rico. Preliminary evaluation indicates that fate and transport of these contaminants is controlled by a combinations of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms, where conduits tend to concentrate water and contaminants and convey it rapidly or to "trapping" diffusive-flow zones of smaller pore-size zones.

  14. Detection of paramyxoviruses in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) on the Brazilian tropical coast.

    PubMed

    Fornells, Luz Alba M G; Silva, Tatiane F; Bianchi, Iliani; Travassos, Carlos E P F; Liberal, Maíra H T; Andrade, Claúdio M; Petrucci, Melissa P; Veiga, Venicio F; Vaslin, Maite F S; Couceiro, José Nelson S S

    2012-05-04

    Aquatic migratory birds are a major vectors by which influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses are spread in nature. Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are usually present on the southern shores of South America and can swim as far as the southern coast of Brazil in winter. In 2008, however, several Magellanic penguins were observed on the northeastern coast of Brazil. Paramyxoviruses were isolated from Magellanic penguins on the Espírito Santo state coast, approximately 4000 km from their breeding colonies, although influenza viruses were not detected. Among the paramyxoviruses, five Avulavirus isolates belonging to serotype APMV-2 and the serotype APMV-10, which was proposed by Miller et al. (2010), were identified. These results highlight the risks associated with the spread of paramyxoviruses between natural to non-natural habitats by birds exhibiting unusual migration patterns, and they document for the first time the presence of the APMV-2 and APMV-10 serotypes on penguins in Brazil. The local avifauna may become infected with these viruses through close contact between migratory and resident birds. Continued surveillance of virus incidence in these migratory populations of penguins is necessary to detect and prevent the potential risks associated with these unusual migration patterns.

  15. Geologic and environmental aspects of surface cementation, north coast, Yucatan, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, E.; Swift, J.; Reeve, A.; Sanborn, R.; Marin, L. ); Gamboa, J.; Villasuso, M. )

    1989-09-01

    The northernmost part of the fresh-water aquifer of Yucatan, Mexico, is confined near the coast by a thin, flat, nearly impermeable calcareous layer. The authors think it probable that this confining layer is now developing by a process of sedimentation and precipitation of pore-filling cement on and near the surface of older limestone at the landward margin of the swamp that extends virtually continuously along the north Yucatan coast. It is their interpretation that this CaCO{sub 3}-cemented layer, which is 0.5 to 1.4 m thick, developed in the zone of discharge of the fresh-water aquifer. The presence of {sup 14}C (6.0% {plus minus} 0.4% modern carbon in a sample of aquitard) supports the hypothesis that cementation is an ongoing process. Further support comes from the remarkable regularity between modern mean sea level and the elevation of the landward boundary between the confining zone and normal karst along 250 km of coast. Confinement of the aquifer produces an elevation of the piezometric surface to about 0.5 m above mean sea level and a concurrent depression of the fresh-water/salt-water interface to an estimated depth of about 18 m below mean sea level at the coast. Breaching of the confining layer, implicit in some development schemes for the region, could dramatically decrease the thickness of the fresh-water lens, a valuable water resource. The mixing zone beneath the confined part of the aquifer is a chemically active volume that may be vigorously pumped by tides (as evidenced by increased salinity of ground water near the coast), thus making this zone a likely place for rock-water interaction including, perhaps, dolomite formation.

  16. Dangers, delights, and destiny on the sea: fishers along the East coast of north sumatra, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Markkanen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative project between the International Labour Organization's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) and the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, in identifying work hazards of fishers along the east coast of North Sumatra, Indonesia, in July 2004. The study employed qualitative investigation techniques: participant observations at fishing villages and harbors; and interviews with local fishers and skippers. Fishers work long hours in life-threatening conditions, often with low pay. It would be synergistic to incorporate fishing safety and health policies and advocacy efforts into reconstruction undertakings of fisheries devastated by the 2004 tsunami.

  17. Protocol for Landsat-Based Monitoring of Landscape Dynamics at North Coast and Cascades Network Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Robert E.; Cohen, Warren B.; Kirschbaum, Alan A.; Haunreiter, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives As part of the National Park Service's larger goal of developing long-term monitoring programs in response to the Natural Resource Challenge of 2000, the parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) have determined that monitoring of landscape dynamics is necessary to track ecosystem health (Weber and others, 2005). Landscape dynamics refer to a broad suite of ecological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic processes occurring across broad spatial scales. The NCCN has sought protocols that would leverage remote-sensing technologies to aid in monitoring landscape dynamics.

  18. Deep Thermal Front (southeastern Brazilian coast) see through acoustics: a preliminary study from an operational oceanography perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsoni, L.; Hermand, J.-P.; da Silveira, I. C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The continental shelf region off the southeastern Brazilian coast (between 20°S and 28°S) is characterized by intrusions of the relatively cold and fertile South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) from the open ocean. Prediction and monitoring of this water mass are topics of great interest given its importance, for example, on climate, carbon cycle, fishing, mariculture, nutrients and pollutants dispersion, and for the oil industry. The intersection of the 18°C isotherm with the seafloor is appointed in the literature as a good tracer for SACW presence on the continental shelf and also to characterize the Deep Thermal Front (DTF) [Castro, 1996]. Among different factors that drive the SACW penetration on the continental shelf, one prominent mechanism is the water transport driven by the conditions of NE-E wind forcing. These winds varies seasonally, and they are prevalent during the spring and summer months. During these months, the water column is generally stratified due the combined effects of solar heating and DTF presence. In contrast, the reverse effect is characteristic in winter, when the water column is nearly homogeneous, relatively colder on the surface and relatively warm close to the bottom. Consequently, the sound speed field changes and thus the acoustic rays are propagated with different characteristics depending on presence, absence or DTF position. Considering this information, acoustics may provide an additional source of data that supplements the other conventional methods (e.g., hydrographic moorings and cruises, buoys, gliders, and others) for tracking and monitoring the front movement. In addition, it is worth emphasizing that acoustic methods present one interesting advantage in that they are able to sample the water column over large three-dimensional distances on an effectively synoptic scale. In this paper, a preliminary study of acoustic propagation modelling through one vertical section off the Brazilian southeastern coast at Canan

  19. Antifouling activities against colonizer marine bacteria of extracts from marine invertebrates collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina).

    PubMed

    Mora-Cristancho, Jennyfer A; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina; Ramos, Freddy A; Tello, Edisson; Duque, Carmenza; Lhullier, Cintia; Falkenberg, Miriam; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The growth inhibition of 12 native marine bacteria isolated from Aplysina sponge surfaces, the shell of a bivalve, and Phytagel immersed for 48 h in sea water were used as indicator of the antifouling activity of the extracts of 39 marine organisms (octocorals, sponges, algae, and zoanthid) collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina). Gram-negative bacteria represented 75% of the isolates; identified strains belonged to Oceanobacillus iheyensis, Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi, and Bacillus megaterium species and seven strains were classified at genus level by the 16S rRNA sequencing method. The extracts of the octocorals Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, four Eunicea octocorals, and the sponges Topsentia ophiraphidites, Agelas citrina, Neopetrosia carbonaria, Monanchora arbuscula, Cliona tenuis, Iotrochota imminuta, and Ptilocaulis walpersii were the most active, thus suggesting those species as antifoulant producers. This is the first study of natural antifoulants from marine organisms collected on the Colombian and Brazilian coasts.

  20. Causes of accelerating sea level on the East Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James L.; Vinogradova, Nadya T.

    2017-05-01

    The tide-gauge record from the North American East Coast reveals significant accelerations in sea level starting in the late twentieth century. The estimated post-1990 accelerations range from near zero to ˜0.3 mm yr-2. We find that the observed sea level acceleration is well modeled using several processes: mass change in Greenland and Antarctica as measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites; ocean dynamic and steric variability provided by the GECCO2 ocean synthesis; and the inverted barometer effect. However, to achieve this fit requires estimation of an admittance for the dynamical and steric contribution, possibly due to the coarse resolution of this analysis or to simplifications associated with parameterization of bottom friction in the shallow coastal areas. The acceleration from ice loss alone is equivalent to a regional sea level rise in one century of 0.2 m in the north and 0.75 m in the south of this region.

  1. Discrimination of Multiple Magmatic Episodes in a Dike Swarm Along the Brazilian Southeast Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, M.; Marques, L. S.; Piccirillo, E. M.; Bellieni, G.; de Min, A.

    2005-05-01

    Integrated paleomagnetic, geochemical and geochrological data allowed the identification of four magmatic episodes (Jurassic to Tertiary) within the NE-SW trending dike swarm that extends from Santos to Rio de Janeiro cities, along the southeast Brazilian border. The Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks were already known in literature and are discriminated by their tholeiitic (Early Cretaceous), and alkaline (Late Cretaceous and Tertiary) character, as well as by the magnetic polarities. The Jurassic dike group, however, has not yet been dated, and was recognized among the tholeiitic rocks by their distinct chemical signature and paleomagnetic characteristic magnetization. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole correlates with South American Early Jurassic poles putting some new constraints on the tectonic history of the South American margin before the Atlantic opening.

  2. Metal concentration in muscle of two species of flatfish from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, M. L. F.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Santos, C. E. I.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metals in muscles of two species of flatfish, using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Specimens were caught monthly throughout the year 2005. Sampling was done at six points in the Santos Bay under different anthropogenic influences. Analysis of 56 samples of muscle showed detectable amounts of Al, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Sr, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se and Zn. Except Cu, there were no correlations with the levels of sediment contamination by metals and those found in muscles. Moreover, there were significant differences between juveniles and adults concerning the concentration of Al, Mn and As. According to Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, some elements detected in the samples of muscle were above of permitted by law for consumption: Hg and Pb (in samples from the internal area), As (from the west side) and Se and Cr (from east side of the bay).

  3. Organochlorine insecticide residues in fish and birds from three river systems on the North Coast Region of New South Wales

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, K.W.; Harris, C.R. ); Ahmad, N.; Higginson, F.R. )

    1989-06-01

    In a study on the occurrence and management of organochlorine (OC) insecticide residues on the North Coast Region of New South Wales (NSW), the authors recorded the presence of dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and BHC residues in dairy pasture, sugar cane, or banana plantation soils. DDT residues were seldom present in these soils but others have detected relatively low levels of DDT residues in soils on the Cudgen-Duranbah plateau, an important vegetable and tropical fruit production area overlooking the Tweed, one of the major rivers on the North Coast Region. Although OC residues in these agricultural soils were all relatively low, they could be one source of contamination of North Coast river systems. The authors report results of further work done to assess the extent to which fish and birds collected from river systems in the NSW North Coast Region are contaminated with OC residues. Three of the major rivers - Clarence, Richmond, and Tweed - on the North Coast Region were selected for study. Fish were taken between October, 1983 and February, 1984.

  4. Post-glacial sea-level change along the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugar, Dan H.; Walker, Ian J.; Lian, Olav B.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Neudorf, Christina; McLaren, Duncan; Fedje, Daryl

    2014-08-01

    Sea-level history since the Last Glacial Maximum on the Pacific margin of North America is complex and heterogeneous owing to regional differences in crustal deformation (neotectonics), changes in global ocean volumes (eustasy) and the depression and rebound of the Earth's crust in response to ice sheets on land (isostasy). At the Last Glacial Maximum, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet depressed the crust over which it formed and created a raised forebulge along peripheral areas offshore. This, combined with different tectonic settings along the coast, resulted in divergent relative sea-level responses during the Holocene. For example, sea level was up to 200 m higher than present in the lower Fraser Valley region of southwest British Columbia, due largely to isostatic depression. At the same time, sea level was 150 m lower than present in Haida Gwaii, on the northern coast of British Columbia, due to the combined effects of the forebulge raising the land and lower eustatic sea level. A forebulge also developed in parts of southeast Alaska resulting in post-glacial sea levels at least 122 m lower than present and possibly as low as 165 m. On the coasts of Washington and Oregon, as well as south-central Alaska, neotectonics and eustasy seem to have played larger roles than isostatic adjustments in controlling relative sea-level changes.

  5. Vertical distribution of rocky subtidal assemblages along the exposed coast of north-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, Wolfgang B.; Aburto, Jaime; Caillaux, Luis M.; González, Sergio A.

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic study of a stretch of coast in north central Chile, the variety and vertical zonation patterns of the rocky subtidal communities are described, thereby revising apparent uniformity and lack of vertical zonation of the rocky subtidal of southeastern Pacific shores previously reported in the literature. Over the 600 km of coast studied, the following pattern of depth-zonation is described: an upper fringe (lower part of the sublittoral fringe) characterized by barren grounds dominated by calcareous encrusting algae and the sea urchin Tetrapygus niger; an intermediate fringe (upper Infralittoral sub-zone) characterized either by deep barren grounds similar to the former, or kelp beds of Lessonia trabeculata, or an assemblage of suspension feeding organisms, as the big barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus and/or the tunicate Pyura chilensis; and a deep fringe (Circalittoral sub-zone) dominated by small encrusting or mobile invertebrates. This basic vertical zonation pattern of the shallow rocky subtidal communities seems to be common to most of the temperate coasts of the world. The analysis, first of the occurrence of the general zonation pattern and second of the species composition within the assemblages corresponding to each sub-zone, offers a useful framework for the assessment of the eventual impacts and changes within the shallow rocky subtidal habitat, for example within environmental monitoring programs.

  6. Airborne thermal data reveal groundwater discharge at the north-western coast of the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallast, Ulf; Siebert, Christian; Schwonke, Friedhelm; Gloaguen, Richard; Rödiger, Tino; Geyer, Stefan; Sauter, Martin; Merz, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    The vicinity around the Dead Sea heavily relies on groundwater as water resource for the increasing population and agricultural demands. Exact locations and volume of groundwater discharge at the western Dead Sea coast are only partly known and concern terrestrial springs only. Yet, a complete picture of the discharge including increasingly mentioned but unlocalised submarine springs is essential for a sustainable groundwater management of that area. In order to fill this gap we conducted an airborne thermal campaign in 01/2011 over the north-western section of the Dead Sea coast. Based on the thermal contrasts between warmer groundwater and cooler Dead Sea water at that time we identified 72 discharge sites along the north-western coast where thermal data are currently available. We compared these high-resolution thermal data to previously derived thermal satellite-based results and concluded that both show the same discharge characteristics, encompassing two sections in which different spatio-temporal consisting processes occur (1. momentum force of discharging water, 2. local southward directed current or Coriolis force). The high spatial resolution of the airborne thermal data (0.5 m GSD) allowed refining the so far unknown abundance of submarine springs to 6 sites with varying diameters and distances to the coast. More striking were 24 sites, where the thermal data revealed seeping springs. We assumed groundwater discharge from this spring type to be higher than from submarine springs and hence imperative to account for. The main groundwater contribution to the Dead Sea stems from terrestrial springs that we identified at 42 sites. For this main spring type we were able to develop a linear ordinary least square model between in-situ measured spring discharge data and the resulting thermal discharge plume area. This quantitative approach explained 93 % of the observed spring discharge with a coefficient of determination of 0.88 underlining both parameters to

  7. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species.

  8. Primary State Formation in the Virú Valley, North Coast of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Millaire, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The origins of urban life and functioning states are two of the most fascinating research problems in anthropological archeology and a topic that has intrigued generations of scholars working on the Peruvian north coast. In this region, Andeanists have documented the rise of Moche as a dominant culture during the first millennium A.D., and the emergence of urban life and stately institutions at this society’s principal center. Although there is a broad consensus that Moche represents an archaic state, it is still unclear whether it is an example of primary state formation or a case of a second-generation state. To document this question, archaeological excavations were recently carried out at the Gallinazo Group site in the Virú Valley. Results from a radiocarbon dating program indicate that a functioning state probably emerged in this valley during the second century B.C., possibly preceding Moche by a few centuries. These results necessarily raise question regarding the nature of state development on the north coast of Peru and, in particular, whether there was a single center of state development in this region or multiple sites where similar conditions and processes led to the parallel emergence of functioning states. PMID:20308574

  9. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  10. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  11. Chemical and biological impacts of ocean acidification along the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Carter, Brendan; Bednaršek, Nina; Hales, Burke; Chan, Francis; Hill, Tessa M.; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric; Byrne, Robert H.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Greeley, Dana; Juranek, Lauren

    2016-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the west coast of North America is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) within the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we adapt the multiple linear regression approach to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast Ocean Acidification (WCOA) cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012, and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast, with the lowest values (37-55 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions off southern Oregon and northern California and higher values (51-63 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Coastal dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are also elevated due to a natural remineralized component (Cbio), which represents carbon accumulated through net respiration in the seawater that has not yet degassed to the atmosphere. Average surface Canth is almost twice the surface remineralized component. In contrast, Canth is only about one third and one fifth of the remineralized component at 50 m and 100 m depth, respectively. Uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since the preindustrial period so that undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the shell dissolution of living pteropods. Our data show that the most severe biological impacts occur in the nearshore waters, where corrosive waters are closest to the surface. Since the pre-industrial times, pteropod shell dissolution has, on average, increased approximately 19-26% in both nearshore and offshore waters.

  12. Feeding biology of a guild of benthivorous fishes in a sandy shore on south-eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Zahorcsak, P; Silvano, R A; Sazima, I

    2000-08-01

    The feeding biology of eight species of benthivorous fishes was studied in a sandy shore at Anchieta Island, south-eastern Brazilian coast. The fishes fed mainly on Amphipoda and Mysidacea crustaceans. The diet of the most abundant species, the drum Umbrina coroides, was analyzed in three standard length classes (20-55, 56-90 and 91-135 mm). This sciaenid showed an ontogenetic diet shift from Mysidacea to Amphipoda. The feeding behaviour of the sciaenid U. coroides and the gerreid Eucinostomus gula was recorded while snorkeling. During their foraging both species uncovered small organisms buried in the sand. Notwithstanding general similarities in diet, U. coroides and E. gula presented differences in feeding behaviour and morphology. Two carangid species of the genus Trachinotus differed in diet composition and consumed a larger array of food items than the remaining fish species. Differences in diet and feeding activity between the remaining benthivorous species were noted. These differences possibly reduce overlap in resource use and favour the coexistence of guilds of benthivorous fishes on sandy shores.

  13. Age and growth of the Scalloped Hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834), from the southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Kotas, J E; Mastrochirico, V; Petrere Junior, M

    2011-08-01

    Age and growth studies for the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834) caught along the southern Brazilian coast, were based on ring measurements of vertebrae sections of 115 males, 116 females and 14 unknown sexed sharks between 48 and 344 cm total length (TL). The von Bertalanffy growth models were best fit using back-calculated data. The growth parameters obtained for males, were L∞ = 266 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 47 cm. For females, L∞ = 300 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 51 cm. An adult female reached 217 cm TL and was 31.5 years old. On the other hand, an adult male was 29.5 years old and measured 234 cm TL. Longevity estimate for males and females was 55 years. Therefore, S. lewini is a long-lived fish. Ageing precision, based on the IAPE index, was 5.6%. Marginal Increment analysis based on MIR index from hammerheads smaller than 105 cm, compared with the percentual of opaque and hyaline bands found per month ageing whole vertebrae, showed an annual ring formation, i.e., in winter.

  14. Occurrence of Magellanic penguins along the Northeast Brazilian coast during 2008 Austral winter.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Renato Ramos; Pereira, Janini; Tanajura, Clemente A S; Lentini, Carlos A D; Cirano, Mauro; Boersma, P Dee; Rodrigues, Regina R

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  15. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Renato Ramos; Pereira, Janini; Tanajura, Clemente A. S.; Lentini, Carlos A. D.; Cirano, Mauro; Boersma, P. Dee; Rodrigues, Regina R.

    2012-01-01

    During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters. PMID:22649308

  16. Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Christiane S; Amorim, Simone D; Santos, André Felipe das M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreno, Ignacio B; Ott, Paulo Henrique; Rodrigues, Dalia Dos Prazeres

    2008-10-01

    The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ) and southern (RS) coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/ UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW) added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl), APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar) and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P. shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A. veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%), A. caviae (12.3%), A. hydrophila (9.6%) and P. shigelloides (7%). The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species.

  17. Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Christiane S.; Amorim, Simone D.; Santos, André Felipe das M.; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreno, Ignacio B.; Ott, Paulo Henrique; Rodrigues, Dalia dos Prazeres

    2008-01-01

    The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ) and southern (RS) coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/ UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW) added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl), APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37°C for 18–24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar) and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P. shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A. veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%), A. caviae (12.3%), A. hydrophila (9.6%) and P. shigelloides (7%). The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species. PMID:24031302

  18. Climatic Control of Upwelling Variability along the Western North-American Coast

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Diego; Landry, Michael R.; Gershunov, Alexander; Miller, Arthur J.; Franks, Peter J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The high biological production of the California Current System (CCS) results from the seasonal development of equatorward alongshore winds that drive coastal upwelling. While several climatic fluctuation patterns influence the dynamics and biological productivity of the CCS, including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), the mechanisms of interaction between climatic oscillations and the CCS upwelling dynamics have remained obscure. Here, we use Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA) to reveal, for the first time, low-frequency concordance between the time series of climatic indices and upwelling intensity along the coast of western North America. Based on energy distributions in annual, semiannual and low-frequency signals, we can divide the coast into three distinct regions. While the annual upwelling signal dominates the energy spectrum elsewhere, low-frequency variability is maximal in the regions south of 33°N. Non-structured variability associated with storms and turbulent mixing is enhanced at northerly locations. We found that the low-frequency signal is significantly correlated with different climatic indices such as PDO, NPGO and ENSO with the correlation patterns being latitude-dependent. We also analyzed the correlations between this upwelling variability and sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) throughout the North Pacific to visualize and interpret the large-scale teleconnection dynamics in the atmosphere that drive the low-frequency coastal winds. These results provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms connecting climatic patterns with upwelling dynamics, which could enhance our prediction and forecast capabilities of the effects of future oceanographic and climatic variability in the CCS. PMID:22276199

  19. Climatic control of upwelling variability along the western North-American coast.

    PubMed

    Macias, Diego; Landry, Michael R; Gershunov, Alexander; Miller, Arthur J; Franks, Peter J S

    2012-01-01

    The high biological production of the California Current System (CCS) results from the seasonal development of equatorward alongshore winds that drive coastal upwelling. While several climatic fluctuation patterns influence the dynamics and biological productivity of the CCS, including the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), the mechanisms of interaction between climatic oscillations and the CCS upwelling dynamics have remained obscure. Here, we use Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA) to reveal, for the first time, low-frequency concordance between the time series of climatic indices and upwelling intensity along the coast of western North America. Based on energy distributions in annual, semiannual and low-frequency signals, we can divide the coast into three distinct regions. While the annual upwelling signal dominates the energy spectrum elsewhere, low-frequency variability is maximal in the regions south of 33°N. Non-structured variability associated with storms and turbulent mixing is enhanced at northerly locations. We found that the low-frequency signal is significantly correlated with different climatic indices such as PDO, NPGO and ENSO with the correlation patterns being latitude-dependent. We also analyzed the correlations between this upwelling variability and sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) throughout the North Pacific to visualize and interpret the large-scale teleconnection dynamics in the atmosphere that drive the low-frequency coastal winds. These results provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms connecting climatic patterns with upwelling dynamics, which could enhance our prediction and forecast capabilities of the effects of future oceanographic and climatic variability in the CCS.

  20. A probabilistic storm surge risk model for the German North Sea and Baltic Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabbert, Jan-Henrik; Reiner, Andreas; Deepen, Jan; Rodda, Harvey; Mai, Stephan; Pfeifer, Dietmar

    2010-05-01

    The German North Sea coast is highly exposed to storm surges. Due to its concave bay-like shape mainly orientated to the North-West, cyclones from Western, North-Western and Northern directions together with astronomical tide cause storm surges accumulating the water in the German bight. Due to the existence of widespread low-lying areas (below 5m above mean sea level) behind the defenses, large areas including large economic values are exposed to coastal flooding including cities like Hamburg or Bremen. The occurrence of extreme storm surges in the past like e.g. in 1962 taking about 300 lives and causing widespread flooding and 1976 raised the awareness and led to a redesign of the coastal defenses which provide a good level of protection for today's conditions. Never the less the risk of flooding exists. Moreover an amplification of storm surge risk can be expected under the influence of climate change. The Baltic Sea coast is also exposed to storm surges, which are caused by other meteorological patterns. The influence of the astronomical tide is quite low instead high water levels are induced by strong winds only. Since the exceptional extreme event in 1872 storm surge hazard has been more or less forgotten. Although such an event is very unlikely to happen, it is not impossible. Storm surge risk is currently (almost) non-insurable in Germany. The potential risk is difficult to quantify as there are almost no historical losses available. Also premiums are difficult to assess. Therefore a new storm surge risk model is being developed to provide a basis for a probabilistic quantification of potential losses from coastal inundation. The model is funded by the GDV (German Insurance Association) and is planned to be used within the German insurance sector. Results might be used for a discussion of insurance cover for storm surge. The model consists of a probabilistic event driven hazard and a vulnerability module, furthermore an exposure interface and a financial

  1. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on historical heritage along the north Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, Preslav; Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Shtirkov, Ilko

    2014-05-01

    Bulgaria is rich in the remains of past human settlements and activity. For example, along northern part of the Bulgarian coast, numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). The most significant of them are: Durankulak archaeological complex with the largest Prehistoric necropolis in the world, Prehistoric necropolis at the area of Lake Shablenska Tuzla, Antique settlements Caron Limen and Bizone, archeological reserve Yalata, Antique and Medieval castle at Cape Kaliakra etc. As, this north part of Bulgarian coast has a huge archaeological potential there is a ground for thinking that the remains of other periods as well as a brand new, previously unknown sites can be discovered in the near future. This does not exclude the probability of being randomly found individual objects that largely can be prevented from archaeological contexts. Therefore it is important that these archeological sites are protected properly and preserved for future generations. In Bulgaria such sites and monuments are legally protected under the Law of cultural heritage and managed by the Ministry of culture and local authorities. However, today most objects and sites, as part of common European historical and cultural heritage are posed to a variety of potential impacts and treats, both natural and human-induced. This study discusses the implications of natural factors, (such as climate change, extreme waves, erosion and shoreline changes) and human contributions (coastal infrastructures, tourism and insufficient management by decision-makers) to coastal and underwater cultural heritage along the north portion of Bulgarian coast. Major natural processes that seriously affect on coastal and maritime heritage environment are direct physical impact by global climate changes, sea level rise and caused increase of waves and storms, acceleration

  2. Amazonia Introduced to General Relativity: The May 29, 1919, Solar Eclipse from a North-Brazilian Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Lima, Marcelo C.

    2016-12-01

    In 1919, A. C. D. Crommelin and C. R. Davidson, British astronomers from the Greenwich Observatory in England, passed by Amazonia on their Brazilian journey aiming to measure the bending of stars' light rays during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and thereby put the theory of general relativity to the test. In the context of Crommelin's and Davidson's visit, we discuss how Amazonia was introduced to Einstein's theory of gravitation, and also the observations and repercussions of the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse in Belém, capital city of the North-Brazilian Pará state.

  3. [Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast].

    PubMed

    Marques, Gisela R A M; Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo

    2009-04-01

    The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July 1999 312 immature forms of An. cruzii were captured, being that 8.6% of them were in bromelias in the urban environment, 40.1% in periurban bromelias and 51.3% in the forest. The average number of bromelias containing An. cruzii was 4.0% of the total investigated. The positive rate in the periurban and forested environments presented similar values. The presence of An. cruzii is probably due to their having been present previously in the forest, together with the frequent presence of these breeding places, food sources and appropriate shelter in the urban area. This set of factors makes it necessary to warn against the possibility of transferring infections from one environment to the other.

  4. Bioprospection of cytotoxic compounds in fungal strains recovered from sediments of the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Bárbara S F; Sahm, Bianca D B; Jimenez, Paula C; Pinto, Francisco C L; Mafezoli, Jair; Mattos, Marcos C; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Pfenning, Ludwig H; Abreu, Lucas M; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Oliveira, Maria C F

    2015-03-01

    The cytotoxic activities of extracts (50 μg/ml) from 48 fungal strains, recovered from sediments of Pecém's offshore port terminal (Northeast coast of Brazil), against HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines were investigated. The most promising extract was obtained from strain BRF082, identified as Dichotomomyces cejpii by phylogenetic analyses of partial RPB2 gene sequence. Thus, it was selected for bioassay-guided isolation of the cytotoxic compounds. Large-scale fermentation of BRF082 in potato dextrose broth, followed by chromatographic purification of the bioactive fractions from the liquid medium, yielded gliotoxin (4) and its derivatives acetylgliotoxin G (3), bis(dethio)bis(methylsulfanyl)gliotoxin (1), acetylgliotoxin (5), 6-acetylbis(dethio)bis(methylsulfanyl)gliotoxin (2), besides the quinazolinone alkaloid fiscalin B. All isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against the tumor cell lines HCT-116, revealing 4 and 3 as the most cytotoxic ones (IC50 0.41 and 1.06 μg/ml, resp.). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  6. Chemical and Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Carter, B.; Bednarsek, N.

    2015-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al. (2008) to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data set from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast with the lowest values (40-45 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Canth contributes an average of about 70 % of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface relative to what would be expected from physical circulation and exchange with a preindustrial atmosphere alone. In contrast, Canth contributes an average of about 31%, and 16% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon at 50 m depth, and at 100 m depth respectively. The remaining contributions are either due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or respiration processes that occurs locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the biological communities.

  7. Origin of Mineral Springs on the East Coast, North Island, NZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.M.; Glover, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Strongly mineralized waters emerge as warm and cold springs from parts of a Cenozoic accretionary prism which extends along the East Coast of the North Island. The chemistry of these waters is consistent with them having been derived from connate sea water in deeply-buried marine sediments and is distinct from springs in other parts of the prism and elsewhere in New Zealand. Most of these mineral springs are associated with three, long-wavelength, magnetic anomalies which modeling suggests are caused by deeply-buried ophiolite bodies within the prism or by seamounts on the top of the subducted Pacific Plate underlying the prism. It is postulated that these deep-seated bodies have facilitated the dewatering of marine sediments from deep within the prism or from the subducted plate. This ''devolved sea water'' has then risen, been modified by contact with overlying sediments and mixed with near-surface meteoric waters, before emerging at the mineral springs.

  8. Genetic variation in steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) from the north coast of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) collected from various sites in nine drainages in northwestern Washington were genetically characterized at 65 protein-coding loci by starch-gel electrophoresis. Genetic differentiation within and among drainages was not significant, and genetic variation among drainages was much less than that reported in British Columbia; these results may be the consequence of gene flow from hatchery stocks that have been released in Washington since the 1940's. Allele frequencies varied significantly among year-classes (hence, genetic characterization studies must include data from several year-classes), and also between hatchery fish (including a stock developed with local wild fish) and wild fish, indicating that few wild fish have been successfully and routinely included in hatchery brood stocks. Conservation of genetic diversity along the north coast of Washington should be facilitated by reducing the numbers of hatchery fish that spawn in streams and by including wild fish in hatchery brood stocks.

  9. Increasing background ozone during spring on the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Daniel; Price, Heather; Parrish, David; Goldstein, Allen; Harris, Joyce

    2003-06-01

    Using a 15-year record of O3 from Lassen Volcanic National Park, a rural elevated site in northern California, data from two aircraft campaigns conducted in 1984 and 2002 over the eastern North Pacific, and observations spanning 18 years from five U.S. west coast, marine boundary layer sites, we show that O3 in air arriving from the Eastern Pacific in spring has increased by approximately 10 ppbv, i.e. 30% from the mid 1980s to the present. This positive trend in O3 correlates with the increasing trend in global nitrogen oxide emissions, which is especially pronounced in Asia. As spring is the season of strongest transport of Asian emissions to the Pacific, we conclude that the emission trend is the most likely cause of the O3 trend.

  10. Mobile Digital Planetarium: Astronomical views of the North Coast Paulista teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, Edson Pereira; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-06-01

    This work deals with the survey of astronomical concepts of visiting teachers of the Digital Mobile Planetarium (DMP) from the Cruzeiro do Sul University, and was supported by the Módulo University and Educational Board Center of Caraguatatuba and its region. The goal is to find out misconceptions that teachers have on concepts they work with in Basic Education (BE), which includes previous research of the Graduate Program at the Cruzeiro do Sul University. Based on considerations about the importance of teachers' formation, as observed in this previous research, a direct intervention in the training of science teachers was carried out with teachers from São Paulo's north coast, covering the subject's areas of Science, Geography and Physics, in order to lead to a doctoral thesis. Rodolfo Langhi and Roberto Nardi (2004) idea of alternative conceptions was used here, considered to be of great importance to the continued training in education.

  11. Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

    2003-06-01

    The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; ...

    2014-08-08

    The North American east coast has experienced significant land-use and climate changes since the beginning of the 20th century. In this study, using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model 2.0 driven by time-series input data of land use, climate and atmospheric CO2, we examined how these driving forces have affected the spatiotemporal trends and variability of evapotranspiration (ET) in this region during 1901–2008. Annual ET in the North American east coast during this period was 648.3 ± 38.6 mm/year and demonstrated an increasing trend. Factorial model simulations indicated that climate variability explained 76% of the inter-annual ET variability. Although land-use changemore » only explained 16% of the ET temporal variability, afforestation induced the upward trend of ET and increased annual ET by 12.8 mm/year. Elevated atmospheric CO2 reduced annual ET by 0.84 mm, and its potential impacts under future atmospheric CO2 levels could be much larger than estimates for the historical 1901–2008 period. Climate change determined the spatial pattern of ET changes across the entire study area, whereas land-use changes dramatically affected ET in watersheds with significant land conversions. In spite of the multiple benefits from afforestation, its impacts on water resources should be considered in future land-use policy making. As a result, elevated ET may also affect fresh water availability for the increasing social and economic water demands.« less

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration along the North American east coast as influenced by multiple environmental changes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Chen, Guangsheng; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Banger, Kamaljit; Zhang, Bowen

    2014-08-08

    The North American east coast has experienced significant land-use and climate changes since the beginning of the 20th century. In this study, using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model 2.0 driven by time-series input data of land use, climate and atmospheric CO2, we examined how these driving forces have affected the spatiotemporal trends and variability of evapotranspiration (ET) in this region during 1901–2008. Annual ET in the North American east coast during this period was 648.3 ± 38.6 mm/year and demonstrated an increasing trend. Factorial model simulations indicated that climate variability explained 76% of the inter-annual ET variability. Although land-use change only explained 16% of the ET temporal variability, afforestation induced the upward trend of ET and increased annual ET by 12.8 mm/year. Elevated atmospheric CO2 reduced annual ET by 0.84 mm, and its potential impacts under future atmospheric CO2 levels could be much larger than estimates for the historical 1901–2008 period. Climate change determined the spatial pattern of ET changes across the entire study area, whereas land-use changes dramatically affected ET in watersheds with significant land conversions. In spite of the multiple benefits from afforestation, its impacts on water resources should be considered in future land-use policy making. As a result, elevated ET may also affect fresh water availability for the increasing social and economic water demands.

  14. Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksissou, M.

    2003-04-01

    The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal wetlands are generally close to Marina or fishing ports and to the residential areas. Cases of fish (Rays and other Chondrychtiens), tortoises (Caretta caretta) and dolphins dead have been noted in some of these beaches during spring and summer (2000-2001) most probably because of oil pollution. Increased dredging in beaches (Haouara, Martil...) involves the salinity of the ground water and the disturbance of the marine biodiversity. Some management (construction of Kabila marina and Smir dam) involved disturbance of hydrology (salinity increased) and biodiversity (migration of the Birds from Smir lake towards Smir dam) in Smir lake. This management, dredging, algae extraction and oil act on the coastal biodiversity and involve the deterioration of the natural environment. The beaches polluted by oil obstruct the tourism activity. Measurements of prevention (by prohibition to get rid of the motor oil and the washing of the boats on the open sea, construction of sewage stations and industrial water purification) are necessary for the conservation of biological diversity and the tourism development. The cleaning of the beaches polluted within the framework of the activities of the ONG or the local communities is also necessary. An integrated coastal zone management is necessary for the nature conservation and the sustainable development of the North Western of Morocco. Keywords: Oil pollution, Biodiversity, Coast, Morocco.

  15. Prevention educational program of human rabies transmitted by bats in rain forest preserved area of southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Kikuti, M; Paploski, I A D; Silva, M d C P; de Oliveira, E A; da Silva, A W C; Biondo, A W

    2011-12-01

    Guaraqueçaba city is a rain forest environmental protected area located on the southern coast of Brazil. Recently, the local Animal Health Service has noticed haematophagous bats feeding from humans and domestic animals, as well as bat colonies located in houses and public schools. In 2007, two non-haematophagous bats were tested positive by direct immunofluorescence for rabies in a nearby city. Native fauna and environmental laws protect non-haematophagous bats in Brazilian preserved areas such as Guaraqueçaba, making non-haematophagous bat population control almost impossible. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate a simple and feasible educational protocol applied by a multi-institutional task force in local elementary schools to prevent rabies transmitted by bats. Information was transmitted to children by video, lectures and oral question-answer section; evaluation was made by written questionnaires to teachers and students. Interinstitutional task force included public and animal health public services, a federal university and the city secretary of environment, of education, of agriculture and of animal health, and also participation of local community. Information was effectively absorbed by children when evaluated just after being given. As important, questionnaires showed that handling and playing with bats at day time was common in several elementary school students, exposing themselves to what may represent higher risk of rabies transmission than haematophagous bat feeding directly from humans. Training of teachers and students may effectively prevent rabies by bats in such communities. Insertion of this subject into science content of local elementary school educational programme was proposed in order to establish a continuing education programme on rabies transmitted by bats in environmental preserved areas.

  16. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  20. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  1. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  2. Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Rodney B.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Boetsch, John R.; Schaberl, James P.; Happe, Patricia J.

    2007-01-01

    This protocol narrative outlines the rationale, sampling design and methods for monitoring landbirds in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) during the breeding season. The NCCN, one of 32 networks of parks in the National Park System, comprises seven national park units in the Pacific Northwest, including three large, mountainous, natural area parks (Mount Rainier [MORA] and Olympic [OLYM] National Parks, North Cascades National Park Service Complex [NOCA]), and four small historic cultural parks (Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve [EBLA], Lewis and Clark National Historical Park [LEWI], Fort Vancouver National Historical Park [FOVA], and San Juan Island National Historical Park [SAJH]). The protocol reflects decisions made by the NCCN avian monitoring group, which includes NPS representatives from each of the large parks in the Network as well as personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center (USGS-FRESC) Olympic Field Station, and The Institute for Bird Populations, at meetings held between 2000 (Siegel and Kuntz, 2000) and 2005. The protocol narrative describes the monitoring program in relatively broad terms, and its structure and content adhere to the outline and recommendations developed by Oakley and others (2003) and adopted by NPS. Finer details of the methodology are addressed in a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that accompany the protocol narrative. We also provide appendixes containing additional supporting materials that do not clearly belong in either the protocol narrative or the standard operating procedures.

  3. Causes of accelerating sea level on the East Coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Davis, James L; Vinogradova, Nadya T

    2017-05-28

    The tide-gauge record from the North American East Coast reveals significant accelerations in sea level starting in the late twentieth century. The estimated post-1990 accelerations range from near zero to ∼0.3 mm yr(-2). We find that the observed sea level acceleration is well modeled using several processes: mass change in Greenland and Antarctica as measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites; ocean dynamic and steric variability provided by the GECCO2 ocean synthesis; and the inverted barometer effect. However, to achieve this fit requires estimation of an admittance for the dynamical and steric contribution, possibly due to the coarse resolution of this analysis or to simplifications associated with parameterization of bottom friction in the shallow coastal areas. The acceleration from ice loss alone is equivalent to a regional sea level rise in one century of 0.2 m in the north and 0.75 m in the south of this region.

  4. Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Doran, Kara S.; Howd, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming does not force sea-level rise (SLR) at the same rate everywhere. Rather, there are spatial variations of SLR superimposed on a global average rise. These variations are forced by dynamic processes, arising from circulation and variations in temperature and/or salinity, and by static equilibrium processes, arising from mass redistributions changing gravity and the Earth's rotation and shape. These sea-level variations form unique spatial patterns, yet there are very few observations verifying predicted patterns or fingerprints. Here, we present evidence of recently accelerated SLR in a unique 1,000-km-long hotspot on the highly populated North American Atlantic coast north of Cape Hatteras and show that it is consistent with a modelled fingerprint of dynamic SLR. Between 1950–1979 and 1980–2009, SLR rate increases in this northeast hotspot were ~ 3–4 times higher than the global average. Modelled dynamic plus steric SLR by 2100 at New York City ranges with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenario from 36 to 51 cm (ref. 3); lower emission scenarios project 24–36 cm (ref. 7). Extrapolations from data herein range from 20 to 29 cm. SLR superimposed on storm surge, wave run-up and set-up will increase the vulnerability of coastal cities to flooding, and beaches and wetlands to deterioration.

  5. Hydrogeology of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús

    1995-01-01

    The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico is composed of three regional hydrogeologic units: an upper aquifer that contains an underlying saltwater zone near the coast, a middle confining unit, and a lower aquifer. The upper aquifer is unconfined, except in coastal areas where it is locally confined by fine-grained surficial deposits. The upper aquifer is mostly absent in the Rio Piedras area of northeastern Puerto Rico. The confining unit is composed of calcareous claystone, marl, chalky and silicified limestone, and locally clayey fine-grained sandstone. Test hole data indicate that the confining unit is locally leaky in the San Juan metropolitan area. An artesian zone of limited areal extent exists within the middle confining unit, in the central part of the study area. The lower aquifer mostly contains ground water under confined conditions except in the outcrop areas, where it is unconfined. The lower aquifer is thickest and most transmissive in the north-central part of the study area. Water in the lower aquifer is fresh throughout much of the area, but is brackish in some areas near San Juan and Guaynabo. West of the Rio Grande de Arecibo, the extent of the lower aquifer is uncertain. Data are insufficient to determine whether or not the existing multiple water-bearing units in this area are an extension of the more productive lower aquifer in the Manati to Arecibo area. Zones of moderate permeability exist within small lenses of volcanic conglomerate and sandstone of the San Sebastian Formation, but in general this formation is not a productive aquifer. Transmissivity values for the upper aquifer range from 200 to more than 280,000 feet squared per day. The transmissivity values for the upper aquifer generally are highest in the area between the Rio de la Plata and Rio Grande de Arecibo, where transmissivity values have been reported to exceed 100,000 feet squared per day in six locations. Transmissivity estimates for the lower aquifer are

  6. Sea-Level Acceleration Hotspot along the Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallenger, A. H.; Doran, K. J.; Howd, P.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial variations of sea level rise (SLR) can be forced by dynamic processes arising from circulation and variations in temperature and/or salinity, and by static equilibrium processes arising from mass re-distributions changing gravity and the earth's rotation and shape. The sea-level variations can form unique spatial patterns, yet there are very few field observations verifying predicted patterns, or fingerprints. We present evidence of SLR acceleration in a 1,000-km-long hotspot on the North American Atlantic coast north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to above Boston, Massachusetts. By using accelerations, or rate differences, sea level signals that are linear over sub-century records, like the relative sea level changes arising from vertical land movements of glacial isostatic adjustment, do not affect our results. For a 60-yr regression window (between 1950-1979 and 1980-2009), mean increase in the rate of SLR in the hotspot was 1.97 ± 0.64 mm/yr. (For a 40-yr window, the mean rate increase was 3.80 ± 1.06 mm/yr.) South of Cape Hatteras to Key West, Florida, rate differences for either 60 yr or 40 yr windows were not statistically different from zero (e.g. for 60 yr window: mean= 0.11 ± 0.92 mm/yr). This pattern is similar to a fingerprint of dynamic SLR established by sea-level projections in several climate model studies. Correlations were consistent with accelerated SLR associated with a slowdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Current.

  7. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the north-central Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2007-10-01

    A survey was undertaken to identify metazoan ectoparasite species on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), in 4 different locations off the north-central Portuguese coast. Parasites of 7 different taxa were found: Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae); Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae); Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae); Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymotholdae); and praniza larvae (Isopoda: Gnathiidae). Lernaeocera branchialis, a common European flounder parasite in the North and Baltic Seas, was not observed among the surveyed fish. Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Nerocila orbignyi are new host records. The high prevalence and intensity values recorded for L. pectoralis and A. cornuta suggest that both parasite species are common to the European flounder along the north-central Portuguese coast. In contrast, infection levels with respect to the other parasite taxa were, in most cases, comparatively lower, thereby indicating that they only occur occasionally among flounders in the surveyed area.

  8. Seasonal distribution of ultraphytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryotes in relation to abiotic variables on the north coast of Sfax after restoration.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Dugenne, Mathilde; Barani, Aude; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2014-07-15

    The Taparura project was set up to restore the north Sfax coast (Tunisia) by shutting down the northern phosphate plant responsible for chronic pollution and uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumping. The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and heterotrophic prokaryotes was investigated using conventional flow cytometry over four successive seasons during 2009-2010. Cell concentrations were generally higher than values reported for the open sea, both in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. One striking point was that chl a concentration on the north Sfax coast was unchanged after restoration but was still one order of magnitude higher than in the Gulf of Gabès. Restoration of pH, following the shutdown of the phosphate processing plants on the north coast, appeared to reach normal levels for seawater during the study, whereas seawater acidification persisted on the south coast where plants are still in operation. The largest ultraphytoplankton biomass was from an unknown cell group, whose identity and role needs to be established.

  9. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  10. Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.L.; Blake, M.C.; Bailey, E.H.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

  11. Sea-level response to atmospheric forcing along the north coast of Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, S.; Kiasatpour, A.; Hosseinibalam, F.

    2007-02-01

    Data from tide gauges (1990-1999) at Bandar Abbas and Bushehr combined with atmospheric data at both stations are utilized to investigate the mean sea-level (MSL) response to meteorological forcing functions along the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The relations between MSL and forces due to air pressure, air temperature and local wind are examined. The characteristics of variability of each field are analyzed using the spectral analysis method. The annual cycle is dominant in the sea-level, atmospheric pressure, air temperature and wind spectra. The influence of local meteorological functions are quantified using forward stepwise regression techniques. The results suggest that 71.5% and 71.2% variations in the MSL of Bandar Abbas and Bushehr stations are due to meteorological forces at each stations. The model indicates that the most significant influence on the observed variation of MSL at Bandar Abbas is air pressure, while at Bushehr is air temperature. The results of multivariate and simple regression show that these parameters are highly intercorrelated. The sea-level is not significantly correlated with the monthly and winter NAO and Monsoon in the Persian Gulf. The remaining variations are due to density of sea water (steric effect), which has considerable influence on the sea-level variations, and coastal upwelling.

  12. Impact of tourism on island freshwater lenses of the North German coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of tourism on the extraction of groundwater from fresh water lenses on some of the barrier island off the North German Coast were investigated. On the island of Langeoog, consumption steadily rose until the 1980s, parallel to increasing tourism. With the slow but steady implementation of water-saving household appliances and toilets in the 1990s, consumption has significantly decreased since. In 2011 extraction amounted to 333,000 m³/a. This is about a quarter less than the peak extraction of 452,000 m³/a recorded in 1983, although the number of overnight stays has increased in the same period! In 2011 around 1,540,000 overnight stays and 124,000 day visitors were counted. The permanent population on the island is about 2,000 inhabitants, with 150 additional seasonal workers present during the summer months. At least since 1990 the numbers for overnight stays and day visitors have remained relatively stable.The lowest water demand recorded during the off-season (winter) of 2011 was 238 m³/d while the maximum during the Easter holidays reached 1,894 m³/d, a factor of eight between maximum and minimum! The highest demand in summer corresponds to the season of lowest groundwater recharge. Consumption due to tourism is equivalent to about 72 % of all extraction. Water levels and chloride concentrations indicate stable conditions of the lens, though.

  13. HISTORICAL CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTH COAST KARST AQUIFERS OF PUERTO RICO

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Ingrid; Irizarry, Celys; Steele, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The North Coast Karst Aquifer System of Puerto Rico is the island’s most productive aquifer. The characteristics that make it highly productive also make it vulnerable to contamination. This research, which addresses the historical contamination of groundwater resources in the northern karst region was conducted through integration of spatial hydrogeologic and contaminant concentration data in the La Plata-Arecibo area. The study used GIS technologies and focused on phthalates and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) and phthalates due to their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as their presence in listed and potential superfund sites in Puerto Rico and U.S. and potential for exposure and health impacts. Results show an extensive historical contamination of the groundwater resources in the northern karst aquifers. Long-term contamination indicates the aquifers’ large capacity for storing and releasing contaminants and reflects a long-term potential for exposure. The degradation of this important water resource has resulted in a subsequent reduction of the extraction capacity and an increase in the cost of use. PMID:24772197

  14. To the North Coast of Devon: Collaborative Navigation While Exploring Unfamiliar Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Lee, Pascal; Cockell, Charles S.; Braham, Stephen; Shafto, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Navigation-knowing where one is and finding a safe route-is a fundamental aspect of all exploration. In unfamiliar terrain, one may use maps and instruments such as a compass or binoculars to assist, and people often collaborate in finding their way. This paper analyzes a group of people driving a humvee from a base camp to the north coast of Devon Island in the High Canadian Arctic. A complete audio recording and video during most stops allows a quantitative and semantic analysis of the conversations when the team stopped to take bearings and replan a route. Over a period of 2 hours, the humvee stopped 20 times, with an average duration of 3.15 min/pause and 3.85 min moving forward. The team failed to reach its goal due to difficult terrain causing mechanical problems. The analysis attempts to explain these facts by considering a variety of complicating factors, especially the navigation problem of relating maps and the world to locate the humvee and to plan a route. The analysis reveals patterns in topic structure and turn-taking, supporting the view that the collaboration was efficient, but the tools and information were inadequate for the task. This work is relevant for planning and training for planetary surface missions, as well as developing computer systems that could aid navigation.

  15. Effects of Hydrogeologic Conditions on Groundwater Contamination of CVOCs in the North Coast Karst Aquifer of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Torres, N. I.; Howard, J.; Padilla, I. Y.; Torres, P.; Cotto, I.; Irizarry, C.

    2012-12-01

    The karst system of northern Puerto Rico is the most productive aquifer of the island. It serves freshwater to industrial, domestic and agricultural purposes, and contributes to the ecological integrity of the region. The same characteristics that make this a highly productive aquifer, make it vulnerable to contamination of groundwater. Of particular importance is contamination with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), which have been related to preterm birth problems. A great extent of CVOC contamination has been seen in the North Coast of Puerto Rico since the 1970s. The main purposes of this study are (1) to relate the water quality of wells and springs with the hydrogeological conditions in the north coast limestone aquifer of Puerto Rico, and (2) to make a statistical analysis of the historical groundwater contamination in that area. To achieve these objectives, groundwater samples are collected from wells and springs during dry and wet seasons. Results show that trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and chloroform (TCM) are frequently detected in groundwater samples. A greater detection of CVOCs is detected during the wet season than the dry season. This is attributed to a greater capacity to flush stored contaminants during the wet season. Historical analysis of contamination in the north coast of Puerto Rico shows a high capacity of the aquifer to store and release contaminants. Future work will be focused the statistical analysis of the historical groundwater contamination data to understand the behavior of the contaminants in different hydrologic conditions.

  16. Mineral, Energy, and Fertilizer Resources of the North Coast of Peru: Perspective from the Santa Rita B Archaeological Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Willett, Jason C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Rita B archaeological site is in the Chao Valley, approximately 65 km southeast of Trujillo, northern Peru. Location of Santa Rita B at the emergence of several drainages from the Andean cordillera is an important factor in the almost continuous occupation of the site over the past 3,000 years. Mineral resources are abundant throughout the Andes; however, the north coast of Peru was an important center for pre-Columbian mining, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. Success of the Chavin, Moche, Chimu, and other north coast cultures is directly related to the availability and exploitation of mineral and energy resources that include: gold (?silver), as electrum, mainly from placers, and copper from local oxide and carbonate occurrences and from sulfides related to copper porphyry occurrences in the cordillera. An alloy of these three metals is referred to as tumbaga, which is the primary material for Andean metalcraft. Anthracite was used for mirrors by north coast cultures and is available near Rio Chicama, Rio Santa, and east of Santa Rita B. These outcrops are a part of the Alto Chicama, Peru's largest coalfield, which extends from Rio Chicama, in the north, for 200 km southward to Rio Santa. Charcoal from the algorrobo tree and llama dung are considered to be the common pre-Columbian energy sources for cooking and metalwork; however, availability and the higher heat content of anthracite indicate that it was used in metallurgical applications. Bitumen is available from petroleum seeps near Talara, north of the study area, and may have been used as glue or as cement. Hematite, goethite, limonite, and manganese oxides from clay-altered volcanic rock may have provided color and material for ceramics. Guano from the Islas Gua?apes, Chinchas, and Ballestas was used as fertilizer for cotton and other crops.

  17. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  18. Multichannel seismic-reflection profiles collected in 1975, between latitudes 34 and 38 North, off the California coast from Pt. Conception to Pt. Reyes

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, D.S.; McClellan, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented detailing the results of multichannel seismic-reflection profiles between latitudes 34 and 38 North, off the California coast from Pt. Conception and Pt. Reyes.

  19. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  20. Low prevalence of avian influenza virus in shorebirds on the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Schwarzbach, Steven; Cardona, Carol J.; Warnock, Nils; Bishop, Mary Anne; Schirato, Greg A.; Paroulek, Sara; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ip, Hon; Boyce, Walter M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has elevated concerns about wild birds as virus hosts; however, little is known about the ecological and epidemiological factors of transmission by shorebirds. Here we summarize results for 2,773 shorebirds that were live-trapped on the Pacific coast of the United States during 2006-2007 and tested for avian influenza virus using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation. As was the case throughout North America, HPAI H5N1 was not detected in shorebirds during this interval. Contrary to other wild bird groups, most notably waterfowl, the prevalence of even low pathogenicity virus among shorebirds in our study areas in California, Washington, and Alaska was extremely low (0.5%). Virus was detected by RT-PCR from four different species, including, Dunlin (Calidris alpina; N = 3), Western Sandpiper (C. mauri; N = 8), Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus; N = 1), and American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana; N = 1), with the detections in the latter three constituting the first published records for these birds. Based on studies in the eastern United States, we expected, but did not detect (H1 = 1.6, P = 0.21) elevated avian influenza prevalence among shorebirds during spring migration. Diagnostic tests, which were designed to evaluate testing and sampling methods, indicated poor functioning of traditional virus isolation methods and no improvement in detection likelihood by collecting oropharyngeal swabs in addition to cloacal swab samples for low pathogenicity viruses (Z1 = 0.7, P = 0.48).

  1. Integrated mercury monitoring program for temperate estuarine and marine ecosystems on the North American Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Evers, David C; Mason, Robert P; Kamman, Neil C; Chen, Celia Y; Bogomolni, Andrea L; Taylor, David L; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Jones, Stephen H; Burgess, Neil M; Munney, Kenneth; Parsons, Katharine C

    2008-12-01

    During the past century, anthropogenic activities have altered the distribution of mercury (Hg) on the earth's surface. The impacts of such alterations to the natural cycle of Hg can be minimized through coordinated management, policy decisions, and legislative regulations. An ability to quantitatively measure environmental Hg loadings and spatiotemporal trends of their fate in the environment is critical for science-based decision making. Here, we outline a Hg monitoring program for temperate estuarine and marine ecosystems on the Atlantic Coast of North America. This framework follows a similar, previously developed plan for freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems in the U.S. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the toxicologically relevant form of Hg, and its ability to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food webs depends on numerous biological and physicochemical factors that affect its production, transport, and fate. Therefore, multiple indicators are needed to fully characterize potential changes of Hg loadings in the environment and MeHg bioaccumulation through the different marine food webs. In addition to a description of how to monitor environmental Hg loads for air, sediment, and water, we outline a species-specific matrix of biotic indicators that include shellfish and other invertebrates, fish, birds and mammals. Such a Hg monitoring template is applicable to coastal areas across the Northern Hemisphere and is transferable to arctic and tropical marine ecosystems. We believe that a comprehensive approach provides an ability to best detect spatiotemporal Hg trends for both human and ecological health, and concurrently identify food webs and species at greatest risk to MeHg toxicity.

  2. Economic intensification and degenerative joint disease: life and labor on the postcontact north coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Haagen D; Spencer Larsen, Clark; Tam, Manuel E

    2009-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the colonial economy of the Lambayeque region of northern coastal Peru was associated with a mechanically strenuous lifestyle among the indigenous Mochica population. To test the hypothesis, we documented the changes in the prevalence of degenerative joint disease (or DJD) in human remains from the late pre-Hispanic and colonial Lambayeque Valley Complex. Comparisons were made using multivariate odds ratios calculated across four age classes and 11 principle joint systems corresponding to 113 late pre-Hispanic and 139 postcontact adult Mochica individuals. Statistically significant patterns of elevated postcontact DJD prevalence are observed in the joint systems of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and knee. More finely grained comparison between temporal phases indicates that increases in prevalence were focused immediately following contact in the Early/Middle Colonial period. Analysis of DJD by sex indicates postcontact males experienced greater DJD prevalence than females. Also, trends between pre- and postcontact females indicate nearly universally elevated DJD prevalence among native colonial women. Inferred altered behavioral uses of the upper body and knee are contextualized within ecological, ethnohistoric, and ethnoarchaeological frameworks and appear highly consistent with descriptions of the local postcontact economy. These patterns of DJD appear to stem from a synergism of broad, hemispheric level sociopolitical alterations, specific changes to Mochica activity and behavior, regional economic intensification, and local microenvironmental characteristics, which were all focused into these biological outcomes by the operation of a colonial Spanish political economy on the north coast of Peru from A.D. 1536 to 1751. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Water required, water used, and potential water sources for rice irrigation, north coast of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    A 3-yr investigation was conducted to determine the water required and used (both consumed and applied) for irrigation in the rice-growing areas of Vega Baja, Manati, and Arecibo along the north coast. In addition, the investigation evaluated the water resources of each area with regard to the full development of rice farming areas. Based on experiments conducted at selected test farms, water required ranged from 3.13 to 5.25 acre-ft/acre/crop. The amount of water required varies with the wet and dry seasons. Rainfall was capable of supplying from 31 to 70% of the water required for the measured crop cycles. Statistical analyses demonstrated that as much as 95% of rainfall is potentially usable for rice irrigation. The amount of water consumed differed from the quantity required at selected test farms. The difference between the amount of water consumed and that required was due to unaccounted losses or gains, seepage to and from the irrigation and drainage canals, and lateral leakage through levees. Due to poor water-management practices, the amount of water applied to the farms was considerably larger than the sum of the water requirement and the unaccounted losses or gains. Rivers within the rice growing areas constitute the major water supply for rice irrigation. Full development of these areas will require more water than the rivers can supply. Efficient use of rainfall can significantly reduce the water demand from streamflow. The resulting water demand, however, would still be in excess of the amount available from streamflow. Groundwater development in the area is limited because of seawater intrusion in the aquifers underlying the rice-growing areas. Capture of seepage to the aquifers using wells located near streams, artificial recharge, and development of the deep artesian system can provide additional water for rice irrigation. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Persistent landfalling atmospheric rivers over the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Ashley E.; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    Landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) are linked to heavy precipitation and extreme flooding, and are well known along the western coast of North America. The hydrological impacts of ARs upon landfall are correlated with their duration and magnitude. In order to improve the forecast of these hydrologically significant landfalling events, a better understanding of how they differ from other landfalling events must be established through an investigation of the mechanisms leading to their development prior to landfall. A subset of persistent landfalling AR events between 30°N and 50°N is identified in 3-hourly Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis and validated against existing data sets. These events are identified as features in the low troposphere with high moisture transport and extended geometry that persist over a limited region of the coastline for longer than 63 h (85th percentile of AR duration). A composite analysis shows that persistent events have distinct thermodynamical and dynamical characteristics compared to all AR events. They are characterized by greater moisture content, suggestive of Pineapple Express-type events, a perturbed upper level jet and anticyclonic overturning of potential vorticity contours associated with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking. Moreover, the location of the Rossby wave breaking is shifted inland compared to all AR events. Analogue analysis of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies is used to find nonpersistent events with similar dynamical characteristics to persistent events. Despite their similarity to persistent events, nonpersistent analogues show very little shift toward longer duration. A comparison of the development of persistent and nonpersistent analogues shows that persistent events have much greater moisture content.

  5. Saltmarsh soil evolution after land reclamation in Atlantic estuaries (Bay of Biscay, North coast of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Susana; Santín, Cristina; Marquínez, Jorge; Álvarez, Miguel A.

    2010-02-01

    Tidal wetland soils exhibit particular physical-chemical properties governed mainly by tidal dynamics. On the Atlantic seaboard of the Iberian Peninsula a great swath of tidal wetlands, which correspond to semi-confined estuaries, represents land reclaimed from the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century and used for urban development or agricultural production. These interventions led to the end of tidal flooding in extensive areas of salt marshes, causing a drop in the water table that triggered pyrite oxidization processes, leaching of cations and salts and soil acidification. In many cases, these transformations have given rise to environmental problems such as the development of acid sulphate soils, a resulting decrease in pH, and the leaching of carbonates. The organic carbon storage capacity has also been altered, and the release of metal cations from sediments has caused toxic waters to appear. In order to investigate the alterations caused by the historic reclamation of estuarine soils on the north coast of Spain, natural and reclaimed lands were mapped in two estuaries (Villaviciosa and San Vicente de la Barquera) and zoned in accordance with flood frequency. The different evolutionary paths of the two studied estuarine sites after reclamation can be assessed through the description and analysis of their soils despite reclamation, some parts (i.e. lower areas) of the reclaimed lands do not remain fully isolated from tidal dynamics, whose influence varies throughout the soil profiles that have developed since. The strength of the morphological (e.g. genetic horizons), chemical (pH, metal cation concentration) and functional (balance of the carbon budget) changes suffered by the original soils seem to depend strongly on the remaining tidal influence as well as the land use of the area.

  6. The potential effects of global climate change on the distribution of native and introduced Zostera seagrasses on the Pacific Coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass species in the genus Zostera occur on the Pacific coast of North America: the native species Zostera marina L., and an introduced species, Z. japonica Ascher. & Graeb. Z. marina occurs along the entire Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Zos...

  7. The potential effects of global climate change on the distribution of native and introduced Zostera seagrasses on the Pacific Coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass species in the genus Zostera occur on the Pacific coast of North America: the native species Zostera marina L., and an introduced species, Z. japonica Ascher. & Graeb. Z. marina occurs along the entire Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Zos...

  8. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  9. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  10. Landbird trends in national parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network, 2005-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saracco, James F.; Holmgren, Amanda L.; Wilkerson, Robert L.; Siegel, Rodney B.; Kuntz, Robert C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Boetsch, John R.; Huff, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    National parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) can fulfill vital roles as refuges for bird species dependent on late-successional forest conditions and as reference sites for assessing the effects of land-use and land-cover changes on bird populations throughout the larger Pacific Northwest region. Additionally, long-term monitoring of landbirds throughout the NCCN provides information that can inform decisions about important management issues in the parks, including visitor impacts, fire management, and the effects of introduced species. In 2005, the NCCN began implementing a network-wide Landbird Monitoring Project as part of the NPS Inventory and Monitoring Program. In this report, we discuss 8-year trends (2005–12) of bird populations in the NCCN, based on a sampling framework of point counts established in three large wilderness parks (Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks), 7-year trends at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (sampled in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012), and 5-year trends at San Juan Islands National Historical Park (sampled in 2007, 2009, and 2011). Our analysis encompasses a fairly short time span for this long-term monitoring program. The first 2 years of the time series (2005 and 2006) were implemented as part of a limited pilot study that included only a small subset of the transects. The subsequent 6 years (2007–12) represent just a single cycle through 5 years of alternating panels of transects in the large parks, with the first of five alternating panels revisited for the first time in 2012. Of 204 transects that comprise the six sampling panels in the large parks, only 68 (one-third) have thus been eligible for revisit surveys (34 during every year after 2005, and an additional 34 only in 2012) and can contribute to our current trend estimates. We therefore initiated the current analysis with a primary goal of testing our analytical procedures rather than detecting trends that might be strong

  11. An assessment of oceanic seabird abundance and distribution off the southern Brazilian coast using observations obtained during deep-water fishing operations.

    PubMed

    Branco, J O; Fracasso, H A A; Pérez, J A A; Rodrigues-Filho, J L

    2014-08-01

    The use of discarded fish over baited hooks used in longline fishery, and fish caught in gillnets, as a food source for gulls, albatrosses and petrels has been intensively studied in northern and southern oceans. This study describes the occurrence and abundance of seabirds observed from 20 foreign vessels which operated during the period between July 2001 and May 2005, off the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. A total of 353,557 seabirds were observed; comprising eight families and 28 species. The most abundant species was Procellaria conspicillata followed by Daption capense, Puffinus gravis, Thalassarche melanophrys and Oceanites oceanicus. Ten species of seabirds (392 individual birds) were incidentally captured in gillnets; and 122 birds (9 species) by longline hooks, with P. gravis, D. capense and Procellaria aequinoctialis having the largest capture rates.

  12. Evaluation of the possible adverse effects of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Cunha, L S T; Torres, J P M; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on Brazilian wildlife. The concentrations of certain POPs, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in the eggs of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) were measured. The eggs were collected from breeding colonies located on three archipelagos (Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Abrolhos and Cagarras Islands) in the Atlantic Ocean, which are located at different distances from the Brazilian coast (range 4-1010 km). In addition, possible alterations in eggshell characteristics were evaluated. The average values of POPs found in eggs from the archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (0.05μgg(-1) of ΣPCBs and 0.01 μg g(-1) of ΣDDT) and the archipelago of Abrolhos (0.19 μg g(-1) of ΣPCBs and 0.03 μg g(-1) of ΣDDT) were low compared to the reference values reported in the literature. In contrast, the concentrations measured in eggs from Cagarras (8.4 μg g(-1) of ΣPCBs and 1.8 μg g(-1) of ΣDDT) were the highest, and this total PCB level is close to the threshold values considered to be harmful to birds. Our findings indicate that the brown booby colony closest to the Rio de Janeiro coast has recently been exposed to DDT. Despite the high pollution levels found on the Cagarras Islands, no alterations in the eggshell weight or the thickness of the analyzed eggs were detected. Hence, more detailed studies are recommended to determine the actual effects of the selected POPs on the Cagarras breeding colony. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. VP7 and VP8* genetic characterization of group A rotavirus genotype G12P[8]: Emergence and spreading in the Eastern Brazilian coast in 2014.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Fumian, Tulio Machado; de Assis, Rosane Maria Santos; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal; da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Juliana; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi

    2017-01-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) genotype G12 is habitually associated with diarrhea disease (DD) in African children and recently its detection has increased worldwide. A total of 970 stool samples collected from individuals with DD in the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern Brazilian regions, Eastern coast, were analyzed and 321 (33%) were positive for RVA and of these, 241 (75%) genotyped as G12P[8]. The rate of RVA positivity was higher among children aged 5-10 years old (60%). All RVA infections observed in adults aged >21 years were G12P[8] (n = 27) showing that this genotype affected older age groups during the year of 2014 in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and VP8* G12P[8] strains demonstrated an elevated similarity among Brazilian and G12-III prototypes strains circulating worldwide recently, suggesting that this lineage is associated with the global spread of the G12 genotype, considered as the 6th most prevalent human RVA genotype nowadays; while other G12 lineages remain sporadically detected and usually detected in association with other P genotypes. VP8* analysis revealed that Brazilian strains belong to P[8]-3 lineage, the single P[8] lineage presently detected in the country. No major nucleotide/amino acid disparities were observed among strains recovered from children and adults for VP7 and VP8* genes. These data are essential to support the surveillance studies, particularly in countries where the RVA vaccine was introduced in their National Immunization Program enabling identification of potential alterations in the epidemiological profile that can impact its efficacy in vaccination programs. J. Med. Virol. 89:64-70, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  15. Paleoecological evaluation of Late Eocene biostratigraphic zonations of the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin

    1980-01-01

    The late Eocene zonal criteria of the west coast of North America are to a large extent controlled by paleoecology and, therefore, the correlation of coeval but environmentally different benthic foraminiferal faunas cannot be achieved before paleoecological control of the biostratigraphy is understood. The faunal trends, morphology, characteristic occurrences and estimated upper depth limits of the benthic foraminifers and associated microfossils in the Oregon and Washington study sections lead to the recognition of paleoecologic facies. The interpretation of these late Eocene facies as bathymetric and low-oxygen facies is based on analogous late Eocene and Holocene assemblages. The paleoecologic facies criteria are often identical to the stage and zonal criteria. In the California zonal schemes, the Narizian zones are identified by lower and middle bathyal faunas whereas the Refugian zones are identified by outer neritic and upper bathyal faunas. The Washington late Eocene zones are identified by middle bathyal and transported neritic faunas. Modifications of the existing zonal schemes such that time and not paleoecology is the controlling factor results in a zonation that synthesizes the existing zonal schemes, recognizes regional stratigraphic ranges of diagnostic species, and removes paleoecologically controlled species occurrences. The late Narizian encompasses a bathyal and a neritic facies. The bathyal facies is correlative with a modified Bulimina corrugata Zone of California and the Uvigerina cf. U. yazooensis Zone of Washington. The neritic late Narizian facies corresponds to a modified Bulimina schencki-Plectofrondicularia cf. P. jenkinsi Zone of Washington and a modified Amphimorphina jenkinsi Zone of California. The Refugian can also be divided into a neritic and a bathyal facies. Although the early and late subdivisions of this stage are tentative, the early Refugian is equivalent to the modified versions of the Cibicides haydoni and the Uvigerina

  16. Crustal Structure And Magmatism, Coast Mountains Orogen, Latitude 52-53 degrees North, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusmore, M. E.; Gehrels, G.; Woodsworth, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    New geologic data and U-Pb ages reveal complex history of arc accretion, crustal thickening and migration of magmatic fronts during deformation. Plutonic ages define distinct western and eastern Jurassic - mid Cretaceous arcs that share a common history after ~90 Ma. Juxtaposition of these arcs occurred during mid- Cretaceous crustal shortening in a dominantly SW-vergent crustal-scale thrust belt. Significant crustal thickening buried 151 Ma granitic clasts to pressures > 6 kb, and mid-Cretaceous plutons were emplaced at this depth along the axis of the orogen. Thrusting continued after establishment of the 90 Ma arc; a regional SW-verging thrust emplaced high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane and deep-seated plutons over low- grade rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes. The shear zone is coincident with the western boundary of 82-89 Ma plutons and a regionally extensive, late-kinematic, sill-like pluton. Dextral shear zones preserved on the flanks of the orogen suggest a component of Late Cretaceous transpression. By 75 Ma, metamorphism, deformation, and magmatism had migrated central portions of the orogen and there is no evidence of ductile deformation and syn-kinematic metarmorphism younger than ~70 - 65 along the western flank of the orogen. The Coast shear zone localized 62-58 Ma synkinematic plutons during NE-side up displacement, creating a sharp western magmatic front. Sparse cooling ages suggest plutons and metamorphic rocks adjacent to the CSZ cooled through 500-600 deg between 54-58 Ma during exhumation along the shear zone. Voluminous granitic plutons were emplaced from ~55-50 Ma, but significant crustal extension that affected the eastern side of the orogen farther north is not evident along this transect. This history supports previous models of crustal subcretion and the generation of arc magmas in thickened crust. Definition of two pre-90 Ma arcs negates models calling for simple Andean-style orogen prior to mid

  17. Hydrocarbon seep-carbonates of a Miocene forearc (East Coast Basin), North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Kathleen A.; Francis, David A.; Collins, Mike; Gregory, Murray R.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Greinert, Jens; Aharon, Paul

    2008-02-01

    An ancient hydrocarbon seep province of 14 isolated, authigenic carbonate deposits has been identified in fine-grained, deep-marine siliciclastic strata of the Miocene East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand. These forearc sediments have been uplifted and complexly deformed into accretionary ridges, adjacent to the still-active Hikurangi convergent margin. Older active and passive margin strata (mid-Cretaceous to Oligocene in age) underlie the Neogene sequence, and contain oil- and gas-prone source rocks. Older Mesozoic meta-sedimentary rocks constitute the backstop against which the current phase of subduction-related sedimentation has accumulated (~ 24 Ma-present). The seep-carbonates (up to 10 m thick, 200 m across) archive methane signatures in their depleted carbon isotopes (to δ13C -51.7‰ PDB), and contain chemosynthesis-based paleocommunities (e.g. worm tubes, bathymodioline mussels, and vesicomyid, lucinid and thyasirid bivalves) typical of other Cenozoic and modern seeps. Northern and southern sites are geographically separated, and exhibit distinct lithological and faunal differences. Structural settings are variable. Seep-associated lithologies also are varied, and suggest carbonate development in sub-seafloor, seafloor and physically reworked (diapiric expansion, gas explosion, gravity slide or debris flow) settings, similar to Italian Apennine seep deposits of overlapping ages. Peculiar attributes of the New Zealand Miocene seep deposits are several, including digitate thrombolites of clotted microbial micrite encased in thick, isopachous horizons and botryoids of aragonite. Seep plumbing features are also well-exposed at some sites, displaying probable gas-explosion breccias filled with aragonite, tubular concretions (fluid conduits), and carbonate-cemented, thin sandstone beds and burrows within otherwise impermeable mudstones. A few seeps were large enough to develop talus-debris piles on their flanks, which were populated by lucinid bivalves

  18. A biomarker approach to assessing xenobiotic exposure in Atlantic tomcod from the North American Atlantic coast.

    PubMed Central

    Wirgin, I I; Grunwald, C; Courtenay, S; Kreamer, G L; Reichert, W L; Stein, J E

    1994-01-01

    We determined levels of hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA, hepatic DNA adducts, and fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile, a measure of exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, in Atlantic tomcod from six river systems ranging from highly polluted to relatively pristine on the northeast North American coast (the Hudson River, New York; the St. Lawrence River, Quebec; the Miramichi River, New Brunswick; the Saco and Royal rivers, Maine; and the Margaree River, Nova Scotia). Hudson River tomcod showed the greatest response for all parameters, and tomcod from the Margaree River exhibited the least response. Tomcod from the Miramichi River exhibited marked induction of CYP1A mRNA but low levels of hepatic DNA adducts and biliary FACs, whereas fish from the St. Lawrence River showed no induction of CYP1A mRNA and moderately elevated levels of DNA adducts and biliary FACs. In tomcod from the Hudson and Miramichi rivers, the levels of CYP1A mRNA were 28 times and 14 times, respectively, as great as the levels in fish from the St. Lawrence, Saco/Royal, and Margaree rivers. Mean levels of DNA adducts varied from 120 nmol adducts/mol bases in Hudson River tomcod to < 3 nmol adducts/mol bases in fish from the Miramichi and Margaree rivers. Concentrations of FACs in the bile of tomcod from the Hudson and St. Lawrence rivers were 8 and 1.8 times, respectively, as great as the concentrations in tomcod from the Miramichi River and Margaree River. In tomcod from the Hudson River, all three biomarkers were markedly elevated; in the St. Lawrence River two biomarkers were elevated, in the Miramichi River one was elevated, but no biomarker was substantially elevated in fish from the Saco/Royal and Margaree rivers. Elevated levels of hepatic DNA adducts and biliary FACs in tomcod from the Hudson River suggest increased exposure to PAHs, consistent with previous studies. Images p764-a Figure 1. Figure 2. a Figure 2. b Figure 2. c Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. a Figure 5. b

  19. An extreme event of sea-level rise along the Northeast Coast of North America in 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Paul B; Yin, Jianjun; Griffies, Stephen M; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2015-02-24

    The coastal sea levels along the Northeast Coast of North America show significant year-to-year fluctuations in a general upward trend. The analysis of long-term tide gauge records identified an extreme sea-level rise (SLR) event during 2009-10. Within this 2-year period, the coastal sea level north of New York City jumped by 128 mm. This magnitude of interannual SLR is unprecedented (a 1-in-850 year event) during the entire history of the tide gauge records. Here we show that this extreme SLR event is a combined effect of two factors: an observed 30% downturn of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during 2009-10, and a significant negative North Atlantic Oscillation index. The extreme nature of the 2009-10 SLR event suggests that such a significant downturn of the Atlantic overturning circulation is very unusual. During the twenty-first century, climate models project an increase in magnitude and frequency of extreme interannual SLR events along this densely populated coast.

  20. Ancient individuals from the North American Northwest Coast reveal 10,000 years of regional genetic continuity.

    PubMed

    Lindo, John; Achilli, Alessandro; Perego, Ugo A; Archer, David; Valdiosera, Cristina; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Dixon, E James; Fifield, Terence E; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske; Cybulski, Jerome S; Kemp, Brian M; DeGiorgio, Michael; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-04-18

    Recent genomic studies of both ancient and modern indigenous people of the Americas have shed light on the demographic processes involved during the first peopling. The Pacific Northwest Coast proves an intriguing focus for these studies because of its association with coastal migration models and genetic ancestral patterns that are difficult to reconcile with modern DNA alone. Here, we report the low-coverage genome sequence of an ancient individual known as "Shuká Káa" ("Man Ahead of Us") recovered from the On Your Knees Cave (OYKC) in southeastern Alaska (archaeological site 49-PET-408). The human remains date to ∼10,300 calendar (cal) y B.P. We also analyze low-coverage genomes of three more recent individuals from the nearby coast of British Columbia dating from ∼6,075 to 1,750 cal y B.P. From the resulting time series of genetic data, we show that the Pacific Northwest Coast exhibits genetic continuity for at least the past 10,300 cal y B.P. We also infer that population structure existed in the late Pleistocene of North America with Shuká Káa on a different ancestral line compared with other North American individuals from the late Pleistocene or early Holocene (i.e., Anzick-1 and Kennewick Man). Despite regional shifts in mtDNA haplogroups, we conclude from individuals sampled through time that people of the northern Northwest Coast belong to an early genetic lineage that may stem from a late Pleistocene coastal migration into the Americas.

  1. The North Coast Cholesterol Check Campaign. Results of the first three years of a large-scale public screening programme.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, E K; James, R; Henrikson, D; Tyler, C; Christian, J

    1991-03-18

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has been declining, CVD is still the major cause of death in Australia and an elevated blood cholesterol level is considered a major contributor. Large-scale community-based screening programmes in other countries have demonstrated that a population approach can be effective in reducing cholesterol levels and the risk of CVD. The North Coast Cholesterol Check Campaign is the largest community-based cholesterol intervention programme in Australia. Since its inception in 1987, 13% of the Region's adult population (over 29,000 persons) have been screened. About half had elevated blood cholesterol levels (greater than or equal to 5.5 mmol/L) and were given dietary counselling to reduce fat intake. Mean blood cholesterol levels were significantly reduced between initial screening and follow-up in all three years. Reductions, after correction for regression, were 8%, 6% and 10%, respectively, in 1987, 1988 and 1989. There was also a consistent and significant 1.5% to 2% reduction in weight. All age/sex cohorts above age 35 were well represented each year although self-referral did bias both initial and follow-up samples towards women and the aged. Nevertheless, the proportion of men and men in their middle age increased during the three years. The proportion of participants with elevated cholesterol levels increased in each successive year while the proportion of participants who complied with referrals to visit their general practitioner and with requests to return for follow-up decreased. Over half of the North Coast adult population has now had a cholesterol test. The rate of increase in testing since the inception of the Campaign has been approximately four times the national rate. North Coast general practitioners have played a major role by catering for the increased community demand for cholesterol testing and by providing an effective referral service for the Campaign. Community-based screening programmes in

  2. Large amounts of marine debris found in sperm whales stranded along the North Sea coast in early 2016.

    PubMed

    Unger, Bianca; Rebolledo, Elisa L Bravo; Deaville, Rob; Gröne, Andrea; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Leopold, Mardik F; Siebert, Ursula; Spitz, Jérôme; Wohlsein, Peter; Herr, Helena

    2016-11-15

    30 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) stranded along the coasts of the North Sea between January and February 2016. The gastro-intestinal tracts of 22 of the carcasses were investigated. Marine debris including netting, ropes, foils, packaging material and a part of a car were found in nine of the 22 individuals. Here we provide details about the findings and consequences for the animals. While none of the items was responsible for the death of the animal, the findings demonstrate the high level of exposure to marine debris and associated risks for large predators, such as the sperm whale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological variation in the hydromedusa genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, John T.; Larson, R. J.

    1980-11-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  4. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Anne; Adams, Rachel I; Cross, Hugh B; Bruns, Thomas D

    2009-03-01

    The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and the question of whether A. phalloides is an invasive species remains unanswered. We developed four novel loci and used these in combination with the EF1α and IGS loci to explore the phylogeography of the species. The data provide strong evidence for a European origin of North American populations. Genetic diversity is generally greater in European vs. North American populations, suggestive of a genetic bottleneck; polymorphic sites of at least two loci are only polymorphic within Europe although the number of individuals sampled from Europe was half the number sampled from North America. Endemic alleles are not a feature of North American populations, although alleles unique to different parts of Europe were common and were discovered in Scandinavian, mainland French, and Corsican individuals. Many of these endemic European haplotypes were found together at single sites in California. Early collections of A. phalloides dated prior to 1963 and annotated using sequences of the ITS locus proved to be different species of Amanita. The first Californian collections that we confirmed as A. phalloides were made from the Del Monte Hotel (now the Naval Postgraduate School) in Monterey, and on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1938 and in 1945. These historical data are used in combination with data on A. phalloides' current distribution to estimate a rate of spread for A. phalloides in California. Many species of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have been introduced across and among continents, but with this evidence, the death cap becomes the only known invasive EM fungus in

  5. [Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific Coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Orrego, Carlos Mario; Hernández Gómez, Giovanna

    2006-03-01

    Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at Nancite nesting beach, in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacific) during July and August 2002. Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles. Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered. The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45) and Citrobacter freundi (6/45) from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp. (32/45), Staphylococcus aureus (6/45) and Corynebacterium spp. (5/45) from nasal ducts. The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of several potential human and animal microbe pathogens.

  6. North Sea coast levelling net: A model case for the determination of vertical movements in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augath, W.; Pelzer, H.

    In Northern Germany, permanent tide gauge records have been available for investigations since about 1850. As a result of such investigations it was found that in the North Sea the mean sea level (MSL) seems to increase by an amount of approximately 2 mm/year being nearly twice the amount of the eustatic change of the MSL recorded all over the world. This result suggested a coastal subsidence of about 1 mm/year. In order to study this effect in more detail a special precise leveling net (North Sea Coast Leveling Net, NKN) was established after 1910 and observed repeatedly. A tendency toward land subsidence was discovered, the amounts determined lying within their statistical confidence regions. The Hanover analysis was established for the computation of vertical crustal movements. The computation and results are detailed.

  7. Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. Kisutchnorth coast of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Phelps, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    We used starch-gel electrophoresis to genetically characterize the populations of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho salmon, O. kisutch, in the major drainages of the north coast of Washington (the Quillayute, Uoh, Queets, and Quinault Rivers). Of 55 loci examined for electrophoretically detectable variation. 6 were polymorphic (frequency of the common allele was less than 0.95) in chinook salmon and 3 in coho salmon. Statistical tests of interdrainage and intradrainage variation for coho salmon were tenuous because most of the fish examined were from a single year class so that we could not account for variation among year classes. Nevertheless, these tests suggested that distinct stocks ofcoho salmon exist within drainages. and that variation was not significantly greater among drainages than within drainages. Interdrainage variation for wild chinook salmon was not significant. The data suggested that summer chinook salmon were electrophoretically different from fall chinook salmon, and the hatchery populations of chinook salmon were distinct from wild fish. A hatchery population developed primarily from north coast fish was electrophoretically more similar to wild chinook salmon than were the others.

  8. Causes of accelerating sea level on the East Coast of North America: Implications for future sea-level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. L.; Vinogradova, N. T.

    2016-12-01

    The tide-gauge record from the North American east coast reveals significant accelerations in sea level starting in the late 20th century. We analyze the tide-gauge data using a model in which the accelerations are assumed to be zero prior to 1990. The estimated accelerations range from near zero to 0.3 mm yr-2 and exhibit a systematic spatial variability. (See figure, points with error bars.) We model this variability using several processes: ongoing mass change in Greenland and Antarctica as measured by the GRACE satellites; ocean dynamic and steric variability provided by the GECCO2 ocean synthesis; and the inverted barometer effect. We find that the spatial variability of observed sea-level acceleration is well modeled by the sum of these processes. (See figure, blue line.) However, to achieve this fit requires estimation of an admittance for the dynamical and steric contribution, possibly due to the coarse resolution of this analysis or to simplifications associated with parameterization of bottom friction in the shallow coastal areas. Although the ocean dynamic and pressure contributions to the acceleration may fluctuation in the future, other studies indicate that the ice-mass component will increase systematically with time. This component of sea-level acceleration is 0.1-0.15 mm yr-2, which if it continues is by itself capable of increasing sea level in a century by 0.5-0.75 m on the east coast of North America.

  9. Science For Decision-Makers: Climate Change Indicators For The North-Central California Coast And Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Higgason, K.; Suchanek, T.; Stachowicz, J.; Largier, J. L.; Cayan, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Resource managers and decision-makers in North-central California recognize a need for increased information about the impacts of climate change on the region's coast and ocean to ensure that adaptation and conservation decisions are grounded in sound science. To help meet this need, ocean climate indicators were developed in a project based at NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary for the North-central California coast and ocean, from Año Nuevo to Point Arena, including the Pacific coastline of the San Francisco Bay Area. These represent the first regional ocean climate indicators in the National Marine Sanctuary System. The indicators were developed in collaboration with over 50 regional research scientists and resource managers representing federal and state agencies, research universities and institutions, and non-governmental organizations. Following the indicator development process, an interdisciplinary working group incorporated the indicators into a regional indicators monitoring inventory and plan that will be used by scientists, natural resource managers, and state and municipal planners to monitor, track, and develop adaptation strategies for the impacts of climate change on the region. The working group collaborated extensively to co-identify key measurements and data sources for the indicators, and to ensure that the monitoring plan was accessible and convenient for decision-makers while still providing a valuable resource for research scientists.

  10. Numerical simulations of the North Gorringe Avalanche, Eastern Atlantic Ocean, and of the consequent tsunami impacting the Iberian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, F.; Lo Iacono, C.; Tinti, S.; Gracia, E.; Pagnoni, G.; Dañobeitia, J.; Lourenco, N.; Abreu, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Continental margins are commonly interested by mass movements caused by gravitational instability, usually triggered by sediment erosion and seismic shaking. Such events can involve considerable masses of sediments and rocks, that can reach high velocities due to the slope steepness and provoke huge tsunamis, even if their source is located in deep water and far from the coast. The continuous advances in bathymetric techniques allowed a detailed characterization of continental margin morphologies also in deep environments, thus unveiling mass failure features related to past events and improving the geohazard assessment of those areas most prone to sediment instability. An example of a huge mass failure in a seismically active area is the North Gorringe landslide. This landslide is located along the north-eastern flank of the Gorringe Bank, west of the Portuguese coasts in the Atlantic Ocean, where the convergent boundary between the European and African Plates occurs. Bathymetric data revealed the existence of a well defined headwall, 7 km large, at 2900 m sea depth, and of a depositional zone with massive rock blocks and debris avalanche material. The deposits cover a sub-horizontal area (average slope 1.5°) of almost 280 km2 at a depth of about 5100 m , for a maximum run-out of 27 km and a drop of 2200 m. The interpretation of multichannel seismic profiles and the reconstruction through bathymetric data lead us to estimate the volume of the mass failure to be around 70-80 km3. In order to assess the consequence of such event on the Iberian coasts, a scenario involving the North Gorringe landslide has been set up and explored by means of numerical simulation codes that study separately the slide dynamics and the tsunami generation and propagation. After reconstructing the initial slide geometry and position, the Lagrangian code UBO-BLOCK2, assuming the mass as partitioned into a matrix of interacting constant volume blocks, was applied to compute the time

  11. The Brachyura and Anomura fauna (Decapoda; Crustacea) in the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve on the southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Bouzon, J L; Freire, A S

    2007-05-01

    Eight species of Brachyura and two species of Anomura were registered for the first time on the Santa Catarina coast, in the waters around the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve. The animals were collected by scuba divers, between 3 and 22 meters depth, from September 2001 to February 2003. A total of 31 decapod species were collected, and most of the new occurrences had already been registered in the adjacent northern waters.

  12. Geomorphology and tectonics of uplifted coasts: New chronostratigraphical constraints for the Quaternary evolution of Tyrrhenian North Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filocamo, F.; Romano, P.; Di Donato, V.; Esposito, P.; Mattei, M.; Porreca, M.; Robustelli, G.; Russo Ermolli, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Tyrrhenian coastal sector of North Calabria, stretching between Torre S. Nicola and the Lao river, belongs to the inner extensional sector of the Neogene Apennines thrust belt. It is characterised by a stair of Quaternary marine and fluvial terraces representing the geomorphic response to the interaction between the Quaternary sea level fluctuations and the regional trend of tectonic uplift experienced by the margins of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. Since the last century, several authors studied the North Calabria coasts, where the flight of terraces preserves significant marine and continental successions, and proposed several paleo-geomorphological and tectonic reconstructions. In this paper we present a new stratigraphic and morphostructural setting of the North Calabria coasts based on both chronostratigraphical constraints obtained from marine deposits and detailed geomorphological analysis. A ten order stair of marine terraces, stepping between 240 and 0 m a.s.l., was recognized and time-constrained by the age of the Fornaci S. Nicola marine succession which was ascribed by integrated paleoecological, biostratigraphical and paleomagentic analyses to the early Middle Pleistocene (MIS 19-15). In particular, the 240, 200 and 160 m a.s.l. high strandlines were ascribed to the Early Pleistocene and the ones between 100 and 15 m a.s.l. to the Middle Pleistocene. The total amount of the vertical motion experienced by the studied area was estimated, and evaluation of the average rates of uplift for the Middle and Late Pleistocene times were also given. Considering the elevation a.s.l. of the oldest terraces, a tectonic uplift of at least 240 m was calculated for the North Calabria coasts since the Early Pleistocene times, 100 m of which gained from the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. On the other hand, the 8-m high Late Pleistocene strandlines display a negligible vertical displacement affecting the area during the last 130 ka. The entire staircase of

  13. Subaqueous Tsunami Deposits from Ohtsuchi Bay of Sanriku Coast, North Eastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, T.; Fujiwara, O.; Shimazaki, K.

    2005-12-01

    Holocene tsunami history was analyzed by using a drilling core obtained from the Ohtsuchi Bay on the Sanriku coast, Pacific side of NE Japan. The saw-tooth Sanriku coast line, facing the Japan Trench, is well known for repeated suffers from the historical great tsunamis. The worst tsunami damage in Japanese history, more than 20,000 fatalities, by the AD1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami (M 8 1/2) centered off Sanriku was recorded from this coast. However, the geological records of ancient tsunami such as tsunami deposits have been rarely reported from the Sanriku coast.Reconstruction of the pale-tsunami history including the recurrence interval is fundamental data for the tsunami disaster mitigation on the coast. The core, 24-meter long, obtained from a bay center of 10 m-deep is mainly composed of sandy mud excluding the basal gravel bed (core bottom reached SL-34 m). Sand and gravelly sand beds ranging from several to 200 cm-thick are intercalated in the core and denoted TS-22 to TS-1 in ascending order. Most of these coarse-grained beds have evidences of deposition from high-energy and density currents, basal erosion surface, rip-up clasts mixed mulluscan shells, inverse- and normal grading, and generally upward-fining sequence.Most likely origin of these event deposits is great tsunami, because the coring site is a deep and low energy bay floor isolated from major river mouth. Low sediment supply by river floods and small disturbance by wind waves at the drilling site are favorable for the preservation of tsunami deposits. Depositional ages of TS-1 to TS-22 were estimated from a depositional curve of the core based on ten 14C ages of marine shells. Recurrence interval of 13 sand and gravel beds in the lower part of the core, TS22 (ca. 7800 cal BP) to TS-10 (AD1660-1700), is 400 to 500 years.The number of event beds in the upper part of the core, deposited during the last 400 years (TS-9 to TS-1), approximates to that of historic large tsunamis recorded around the

  14. Summary of Second Regional Workshop on Dredging, Beach Nourishment, and Bids on the North Atlantic Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Hartley and Melanie Steinkamp ................................................................................ 3 National Audubon Society’s Program for...Engineers’ North Atlantic Division – Virginia to Maine – John S. Wright...Project Designs – James D. Fraser and Jonathon B. Cohen ..........................................................................49 7 Session VI

  15. Gulf Coast Deep Water Port Facilities study. Appendix B. North Central Gulf Hydrobiological Zones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-01

    alga flora of the Mississippi coast. Previous knowledge of the algal flora was limited primarily to the work of Taylor (1954). Eleuterius (1972...Rhodophyta, 7 of Chlorophyta, 5 of Phaeophyta, and 4 of Cyanophyta. In comparing the algal flora of the Chandeleur Islands to previous collections in...Changes in the Mississippi Sound," J. Mississippi A cad. Sci., 12. 1966. pp. 418-419. Mullahy, J.H., "Preliminary Survey of the Algal Flora of the Chandeleur

  16. Water quality and chemical evolution of ground water within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, Angel J.; Lee, Roger W.

    1985-01-01

    Waters within the north coastal limestoneaquifers are suitable for public supply, industrial and agricultural uses. For the artesian aquifer and the updip parts of the watertable aquifer, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ionic species with total dissolved solids and chloride concentrations below 500 and 250 mg/L, respectively. In coastal areas of thewater table aquifer, where a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone occurs, the calcium bicarbonate facie grade to a sodium-chloride facie. Within this zone, concentrations of total dissolved solids and chloride are greater than 250 and 500 mg/L respectively, affecting the suitability of the water for some uses. Geochemical models were constructed to determine the physical and chemicalreasons for the prevailing water quality patterns of the north coastlimestone aquifers. Models indicate that calcite and carbon dioxide dissolution, precipitation or degassing are the primary processes. The mixing of recharge water or saltwater with aquifer waters is an important feature within the water table aquifer. The models provide further evidence that support the circulation of groundwater within the north coast limestone.

  17. Wide-range genetic connectivity of Coney, Cephalopholis fulva (Epinephelidae), through oceanic islands and continental Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Allyson S; Dias Júnior, Eurico A; Galetti, Pedro M; Machado, Erik G; Pichorim, Mauro; Molina, Wagner F

    2015-03-01

    The Epinephelidae form a group of species of high biological and economical interests. It´s phylogeographic patterns are not well known especially the distributed populations in the western region of the Atlantic Ocean. Among the representatives is a small species called Cephalopholis fulva, Coney, which presents a wide geographical distribution, polychromia, hermaphroditism and is quickly becoming a large target for the exploration of commercial fishing. The genetic and historical demography were obtained through the partial sequence analysis of Control Region from six locations on the coastline of Brazil from the northeast coast to the southwest coast, including the oceanic islands of Rocas Atoll and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. The analyzed samples revealed a high genetic variability and a strong gene flow among the sampled locations. Additionally, the genetic data revealed that population expansions probably occurred due to the changes in the sea levels that occurred during the Pleistocene. The large population connectivity found in Coney constitutes relevant conditions for their biological conservation.

  18. Global Climate Change Consequences Changing the Middle Sea Level in the Brazilian Coast: Impacts on Ceará State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, E. G.; Pires, L. B. M.; Pinto, V. K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, man started to generate increasing amounts of waste and pollutants, which on a large scale in the long term is causing a series of climate change consequences, both globally as well as locally. One of the many effects of these changes has been reflected in the ocean levels, depending on various factors. Thus, the population living in coastal areas suffers from the negative effects of the advancement of ocean waters. The coast of northeastern Brazil is an example of this, especially the state of Ceará coast. The state of Ceará has 573 km of coastline, a region that has suffered extensive erosion, in which the Middle Sea Level (MSL) changes exert a significant influence. The coastal plain is a strip of land of small extent, with an average width of 2.5 km, formed depending on the availability of high sediment stocks provided through the action of wind, marine, or river processes, individually in combination with each other. In many beaches it is observed that the strip of beach is narrow due to the presence of topographic elevations carved into sharp cliffs. Between periods of high tide and low tide, often rocky beach features are observed that have recently formed. The waves control the stretches of beach which are mostly sandy. This paper presents a survey about the evidence already apparent on the rise in the MSL and correlates it with the advance of the sea on the coast of Ceará, as well as assesses the possible consequences of this process. Therefore, a literature search was conducted in relevant scientific publications. The data used are from the station "Global Sea Level Observing System - GLOSS" which maintains a tide gauge installed in Ceará in Fortaleza. The analyses show that the phenomenon has caused a lot of inconvenience to the people, streets have disappeared, as well as several buildings located along the coast. The sea advances destroyed beaches and have promoted an accelerated level of erosion, changing the

  19. A redescription of Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the florida pompano fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) off the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Alves, P V; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

    2015-05-01

    A redescription of the aspidogastrean trematode Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) is provided based on examination of type material, voucher specimens available at institutional collections and newly collected specimens from the type host, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766), off the Angra dos Reis, Brazil. Partial sequence of its 28S rDNA is given. Lobatostoma kemostoma can be distinguished from the other eight species of the genus by: (1) the hindbody being longer than the ventral disc; and (2) the cephalic lobes having the same shape and size. Features observed for the first time include the number and detailed arrangement of alveoli on the ventral disc, the terminal genitalia and the ovarian complex. New illustrations and morphometric data are given. In the present survey the host specificity in the genus, the validity of some morphological features and the occurrence of an Indian species of Lobatostoma from off the Brazilian coast are discussed. A lectotype of L. kemostoma from the type series deposited at United States National Parasite Collection is also designated.

  20. Application of Earth Sciencés Technology in Mapping the of Brazilian Coast: Localization, Analysis & Monitoring of the Archaeological Sites with Remote Sensing & LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson Alves de Souza, Carlos Eduardo

    Application of Earth Sciencés Technology in Mapping the of Brazilian Coast: Localization, Analysis & Monitoring of the Archaeological Sites with Remote Sensing & LiDAR Carlos Eduardo Thompson Alves de Souza cethompsoniii@hotmail.com Archaeologist Member of the European Association of Archaeologists B.A.Archaeology MA.Remote Sensing Abstract The Archaeological Research in Urban Environment with the Air Light Detection and Ranging is problematic for the Overlay Layers mixed with contexts concerning the Interpretation of Archaeological Data. However, in the Underwater Archaeology the results are excellent. This paper considers the application of Remote Sensing and Air Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) as separate things as well as Land Archaeology and the Underwater Archaeology. European Archaeologists know very little about Brazil and the article presents an Overview of Research in Brazil with Remote Sensing in Archaeology and Light Detection and Ranging in Land Archaeology and Underwater Archaeology, because Brazil has Continental Dimensions. Braziliańs Methodology for Location, Analysis and Monitoring of Archaeological Sites is necessarily more Complex and Innovative and therefore can serve as a New Paradigm for other archaeologists involved in the Advanced Management Heritage.

  1. Structural Characterization and Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Activity of Glycolipids from the Marine Algae Osmundaria obtusiloba Isolated from Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Lauro M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    Glycolipids were extracted from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba from Southeastern Brazilian coast. The acetone insoluble material was extracted with chloroform/methanol and the lipids, enriched in glycolipids, were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and then methanol. Three major orcinol-positive bands were found in the acetone and methanol fractions, being detected by thin layer chromatography. The structures of the corresponding glycolipids were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis, on the basis of their tandem-MS behavior and HSQC, TOCSY fingerprints. For the first time, the structure of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba was characterized. This molecule exhibited potent antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with EC50 values of 42 µg/mL to HSV-1 and 12 µg/mL to HSV-2, respectively. Two other glycolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, were also found in the alga, being characterized by ESI-MS/MS. The structural elucidation of algae glycolipids is a first step for a better understanding of the relation between these structures and their biological activities. PMID:22690151

  2. Late-Quaternary climatic change on the American North Pacific Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heusser, C. J.; Heusser, L. E.; Peteet, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The late Quaternary climate of the North Pacific, where according to modelling the solar radiation in the early Holocene at the time of the summer solstice is high and in the late Holocene is relatively low, is investigated. Quantitative temperature and precipitation estimates from southern Alaska are compared with estimates from western Washington and British Columbia. Data extending over more than 10,000 years show a broadly consistent pattern of climatic change in general agreement with predicted variations in solar radiation and their effect on atmospheric circulation and seasonal duration of pressure systems over the North Pacific Ocean. In the early Holocene, the subtropical North Pacific anticyclone annually regulated climate for a longer period at higher latitudes than at present, so that warmth and dryness increased in southern Alaska. The Aleutian low-pressure center intensified during the late Holocene, resulting in colder and more humid coastal climate and increased frequency of glacier growth in the cordillera.

  3. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  4. New Acotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from the east coast of the North Atlantic Ocean with special mention of the Iberian littoral.

    PubMed

    Noreña, Carolina; Rodríguez, Jorge; Pérez, Jacinto; Almon, Bruno

    2015-11-03

    Polyclad species diversity, although generally well known for European North Atlantic waters, is nearly unknown for the Iberian Peninsula. The "Ría de Arousa", located on the Atlantic coast of Galicia (Spain), is a place where many positive biological factors for species biodiversity converge. Therefore, it is an ideal location to study polyclad diversity. This research, which describes new records and new species, contributes to the knowledge of the distribution of Polycladida (Platyhelminthes), particularly of the suborder Acotylea, in the Atlantic waters of the Iberian Peninsula. The new records include the re-descriptions of Cryptocelis compacta Lang, 1884, Stylochus neapolitanus (Delle Chiaje, 1841-1844) and Discocelis tigrina (Blanchard, 1847), while the two newly described species are Hoploplana elisabelloi n. sp. and Armatoplana celta n. sp.

  5. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  6. Environmental magnetic and petroleum hydrocarbons records in sediment cores from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalapathy, R; Veerasingam, S; Basavaiah, N; Ramkumar, T; Deenadayalan, K

    2011-04-01

    In this study, mineral magnetic properties and petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analysed in four sediment cores (C1, A1, T1 and K1) from the north east coast of Tamilnadu, India to examine the feasibility of PHC concentrations assessment using magnetic susceptibility. The C1 and A1 cores reveal a clear horizon of increase in PHC above 35 and 50 cm respectively suggesting the excess anthropogenic loading occurred in the recent past. Magnetic properties which were enhanced in the upper part of the sediment cores were the result of ferrimagnetic minerals from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis confirmed that the input of magnetic minerals and petroleum hydrocarbons in Chennai coastal sediments are derived from the same sources. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments.

  7. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Batvari, B Prabhu Dass; Sivakumar, S; Shanthi, K; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Krishnamoorthy, R R; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) was examined in crab (Scylla serrata) and shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus monodon) collected from Pulicat lake that receives effluents from industries located in north Chennai, southeast coast of India. The results showed limited difference between crab and prawns as well as significant variations between the organs. Pb is the highly accumulated metal in both crab and shrimps, except P. monodon. The highest metal concentration was mostly found in the liver followed by other organs. The concentration of metals in edible parts (muscle) was within the permissible level and safe for consumption. However, the results of the study clearly indicate the biomagnification of metals in Pulicat lake.

  8. The Holocene palaeogeography and relative sea level for two tidal basins of the German North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bungenstock, Friederike; Wartenberg, Wolfram; Mauz, Barbara; Freund, Holger; Frechen, Manfred; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Berner, Heinrich

    2014-05-01

    The response of coasts to global sea-level rise is highly variable. Knowledge of driving coastal parameters alongside the regional sea-level history is therefore indispensable when the response to global sea-level rise is to be assessed. Here, we study the Holocene relative sea-level of the south coast of the North Sea which is controlled by a number of very local parameters, as well as by regional glacio-isostatic adjustments. It is therefore crucial to restrict the data acquisition and evaluation to small coastal sections, ideally to single tidal basins, to minimize the sources of uncertainties (Bungenstock & Weerts 2010, 2012). We present data from two tidal basins, Langeoog and Jade Bay. For Langeoog a database derived from 600 cores, 68 km of Boomer seismic data, 33 radiocarbon ages and 8 OSL dates is available. (Bungenstock & Schäfer 2009, Mauz & Bungenstock 2007). For the Jade bay, the database comprises sedimentary markers, pollen and macro remains derived from 68 cores. The sedentary chronology is based on 54 radiocarbon ages and pollen constraints (Wartenberg & Freund 2011, Wartenberg et al. 2013). For both tidal basins the sedimentological record was interpreted in terms of the local paleogeographical development since about 7000 cal BP and its influence on the local relative sea-level curve. While the trend of the relative sea level is similar for both tidal basins, it shows a different altitude. The timing of the main marine transgression within the Langeoog area takes place ~3000 cal. BP whereas the sedimentological record of the Jade Bay shows two prominent transgressions, one for ~5000 cal. BP and one for ~3000 cal. BP. The Langeoog palaeo-environment is continuously characterised by marine influence. Within the Jade Bay two different palaeo-environments could be identified, documenting that from the West to the centre the landscape development in the Jade Bay was drainage driven feeding the associated fen peat with minerogenic water but being

  9. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  10. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentrations and metabolism of PCBs in eggs of waterbirds on the German North Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Denker, E.; Buethe, A.; Heidmann, W.A.; Staats de Yanes, G. ); Becker, P.H. ); Beyerbach, M. )

    1994-02-01

    Among environmental chemicals found in top predators the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) often occur at high concentrations and are of toxicological relevance. Not only concentrations but also the composition of the PCB mixtures, which consist of many congeners of different degrees of chlorination, vary among species and sites. In this paper we show the interspecific variation in PCB concentrations and in the degree of metabolism of the PCB mixtures in eggs of 11 waterbird species breeding on the highly polluted German Wadden Sea coast, where the PCB contamination of birds has been increasing during the last decade. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Distribution of manganese along a section extending from the coast to offshore in the eastern North Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, P.; Blain, S.; Timmermans, K.; Debaar, H.

    2003-04-01

    In order to better understand and quantify the input of trace elements from the sediments in the water column, a detailed section from the coast to offshore has been studied in the eastern north Atlantic. The cruise took place in March 2002, on board R/V Pelagia, as part of the European Union project IRONAGES. This section, extended from a depth of 96 meter towards 4750 meter. Fifteen stations have been sampled intensively for several trace elements. The stations have been sampled for dissolved manganese, iron and major nutrients analyses. GoFlo bottles mounted on a kevlar cable were used for clean seawater sampling in the water column. Samples were filtered on-line through a 0.2 μm cartridge. The samples collected for the dissolved manganese analyses were acidified on board and stored for later analysis in the home laboratory. The dissolved manganese concentration were measured using FIA analysis with in-line preconcentration (onto 8 HQ resin) and colorimetric determination. Concentrations of dissolved manganese were elevated in surface waters and near the sediments. In addition, a gradient from coast to offshore was observed. Near shore dissolved manganese concentrations were higher than those offshore. These results corroborate previous surveys in which it was demonstrated that aelion input as well as benthic upwelling can cause elevated manganese concentrations. The results will be further discussed in the light of the dissolved iron and major nutrient analyses.

  13. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  14. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, Eric W.M.; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M.; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26877689

  15. A comparison of five flood rain events over the New South Wales north coast and a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Milton S.; Leslie, Lance M.

    2000-04-01

    One of the most significant forecasting problems facing meteorologists in the Sydney office of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology is the prediction of the heavy to extreme rainfall amounts that occur on the subtropical north coast of New South Wales (NSW). The significance of the problem lies in the great intensity of the rainfall, the difficulty in predicting the formation, location and duration of the rainfall, and the impacts of flooding on both cities and communities. The forecasting difficulties arise because of the small scales often involved, the range of physical mechanisms responsible and the challenge involved in forecasting events of such short duration. In the case of flash floods, the intense rainfall is typically less than 6 h in duration. Operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) has not shown much success, mainly because of the reasons mentioned above, especially given that computational limitations restrict its model resolutions.In this paper, the synoptic situation is presented for the most severe flash flood on record to affect Coffs Harbour, a city which is located on the NSW mid-north coast. The event, which occurred on the evening of 23 November 1996, is rated approximately as a 1 in a 100-year intensity/duration event. A 25-year climatology subset of flood-producing systems that have affected Coffs Harbour is then presented, and is correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Finally, details are given for a numerical modelling case study of the flash flood. The model results reveal that a very accurate prediction of the amount and the spatial distribution of rainfall amounts can be made for an event of this type. The rainfall totals of over 500 mm in 24 h were accurately forecast using coarse resolution archived operational initial analyses. The success of the predictions is most likely owing to the dominance of large-scale dynamical processes, which were further focused by the steep topography.

  16. Categorization of alternative astronomical and scientifical conceptions of the teachers from the north coast of São Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, E. P.

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the analysis of scientific and alternative astronomical concepts found in the responses of teachers who teach classes Science, Geography and Physic in Basic Education (BE) of the state of the North Coast of São Paulo and how to address the alternative astronomical concepts with students from students Fundamental Education (FE) and Medium Education (ME). Bringing the legal documents regarding the Astronomy in BE, within the national and the São Paulo regions curriculum level, also with rationed researches to the teacher's formation, conceptual errors in books, knowledge non-formal spaces, alternative concepts, Astronomical studies and content analysis for fundamental theoretical. The task executed with the teachers was done via Technical Orientations (TO), promoted by the Director of Education (DE) from Caraguatatuba and region, with the premise to threat the continuous formation giving moments of discussion, practical activities and using the Digital Mobile Planetarium (DMP) with non-formal spaces of knowledge to the Astronomical studies gathering data via questions. Within the analysis of the answers analysis by the teachers, tables were created with the categories that highlight actual situations on the astronomical studies in the North Coast of São Paulo, and demarked the possible paths where the continuous formation will be followed in the future. Aspects checked in the survey were highlighted; such as teachers understand that they need continuing education; teachers have scientific astronomical views on various aspects know to teach concepts of Astronomy at BE; TO is a viable option as continued training and the use of DMP as no formal teaching and learning.

  17. Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors.

  18. Seismic Images of the Gulf Stream Front off the Coast of North Carolina from the 2014 ENAM Community Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacic, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Eastern North America Margin (ENAM) Community Seismic Experiment (CSE) is scheduled to collect on- and offshore active source seismic data including more than 2500 km of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiles in the fall of 2014. The project was designed to address a wide array of questions related to the evolution and modification of the eastern North American rifted margin in conjunction with the arrival of the Earthscope transportable array on the US East Coast. The planned rifting-parallel profiles north and south of Cape Hatteras are expected to cross the front between the warm water of the Gulf Stream western boundary current and colder North Atlantic water providing the opportunity to image mesoscale features related to the front and their associated fine structure. Standard MCS data has been shown to be well-tuned to image ocean fine structure resulting from abrupt vertical changes in temperature and salinity in the ocean. Thus, the same seismic data that is collected to investigate the sub-seafloor geology can also be processed to image reflections in the water that reveal ocean processes with a horizontal resolution of ~10 m and vertical resolution of ~4 m. As an add-on to the ENAM CSE, 30 additional expendable bathythermographs and 3 conductivity temperature depth probes belonging to the University of Wyoming are planned for deployment during the collection of the MCS profiles resulting in an average hydrographic profile spacing of ~33 km. We present a first look at this new seismic oceanography data set providing 2-D images of ocean acoustic reflectivity correlated with closely spaced hydrographic measurements across the Gulf Stream front.

  19. The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  20. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    PubMed

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  1. Monitoring of heavy metals in wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Spanish North-Atlantic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besada, Victoria; Manuel Andrade, José; Schultze, Fernando; José González, Juan

    2011-04-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were determined in tissues of wild mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at 41 stations located on the Spanish Atlantic and Northern coasts to assess the levels and spatial distribution of metals in the environment. This study, performed in 2005, constituted a contribution to the last international OSPAR pollution monitoring survey. A pool of mussel soft tissue was prepared using 50 or more individuals, representing the size range present at the sampling points. Quantification was carried out after a nitric acid digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry, AAS (Cd and Pb by electrothermal AAS; Cu and Zn by flame AAS; and total mercury by the cold vapour technique). The quality of the chemical analyses was assessed by interlaboratory exercises carried out on a regular basis. In general, the levels of the metals were higher for the Northern region than for the Atlantic one (except for a sampling site close to Vigo, one of the main Galician industrial areas). Some Galician sampling points (Atlantic coast, NW of Spain) located far from human inputs showed high Cd concentrations, which were attributed to the annual upwelling processes in this region. The levels of Cu increased from Northwest to East, whereas Zn concentrations were very homogeneous throughout the two studied geographical regions. These results were confirmed using multivariate studies (PCA and cluster analysis), as well as international 'background assessment concentrations' criteria.

  2. Use of rocuronium for endotracheal intubation of North American Gulf Coast box turtles.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Gretchen E; Seymour, Rosemarie E; Bonner, Barbara B; Court, Michael H; Karas, Alicia Z

    2003-04-15

    To determine whether rocuronium, a reversible neuromuscular blocking agent, would provide safe, short-term immobilization to facilitate endotracheal intubation in turtles. Prospective study. 30 healthy adult Gulf Coast box turtles. Turtles were given rocuronium, and responses were recorded every 3 minutes. Times to onset of effects, intubation, and recovery were recorded and analyzed for associations with dose and patient characteristics to determine an optimal dose range. Neostigmine and glycopyrrolate were given to augment recovery from neuromuscular blockade. Rocuronium administered at a dose of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg (0.11 to 0.23 mg/lb), IM, permitted intubation; lower doses were not effective. Mean +/- SD time to loss of the palpebral reflex was 6.4 +/- 4.0 minutes, and mean time to intubation was 9.2 +/- 6.4 minutes. Mean time to return of the palpebral reflex was 44 +/- 13.2 minutes, and mean time to walking was 55 +/- 16.6 minutes. Time to onset of effects was not associated with dose, but recovery times were prolonged with higher doses of rocuronium. Cardiac arrhythmias were observed in 13 (43%) turtles. Administration of rocuronium at a dose of 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg is a safe and effective adjunct to general anesthesia in Gulf Coast box turtles. Because rocuronium does not provide any analgesic or sedative effects, the duration of neuromuscular blockade without anesthesia should be minimized to avoid undue distress.

  3. Environmental policy in the north-eastern sector of the Black sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, Ruben; Godin, Evgenii; Kosyan, Alisa

    2015-04-01

    Active economic development of the Black Sea East coastal zone has started in the beginning of 20-th century. Those days the pebble taken from beaches was used for construction of buildings, rail and motor roads. Active consumption of pebble from the beaches and river banks had caused a sharp increase of sea shores abrasion and washout rate, number of landslides had also increased. Contemporary Caucasian shores of Black Sea are being developed under increasing man-caused load. Favorable natural conditions, their variety and uniqueness determine the exceptional role of these shores as very important recreational zone of Russian South. Waste urbanized areas, agricultural territories and National Parks are located in immediate neighborhood with the sea. Important industrial facilities and federal and international communi- cations, including major seaports are located in the shore zone. At present time major gas and oil transportation facilities are commissioned and being constructed in the area. Due to the change of geopolitical situation the Russian shoreline had significantly reduced in comparison with Soviet period, especially in most developed regions. Large resort complexes in Georgia, Crimea and Baltic area were lost. Russia had also lost many major seaports that, under conditions of structural change of economy and export growth, had caused the necessity of building new industrial facilities in the Black Sea coastal zone, and, consequently, had stimulated active human invasion into natural coastal processes. At the time being, a major part (three hundred nine kilometers) of Black Sea coast within Russian sector is subject to abrasion and landslide processes. Abrasion process and beaches wash-out, landslides cause destruction of industrial and transport facilities, living and public buildings, resort complexes and valuable agricultural areas. In this light, the challenge of estimation of effective methods of shores protection against wave-induced erosion

  4. Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Serrano, Inês de Lima; Anzolin, Daiane Garcia; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Martins; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation. Biometrics data were collected from 1990 to 2010 from 38 calves, 29 of which still had the remnants of the umbilical cord and had been rescued from the Brazilian northeastern coastline (Group I), and nine individuals that were born in captivity and remained with their mothers (Group II). Among the measures obtained through biometry, the total length and weight of the animal were recorded. Given that the breastfeeding of calves occurs approximately until the age of 2 yr, data obtained until the 24th month of life of each individual were evaluated. An average increase in weight of 53.50 +/- 38.54 kg (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) was detected in Group I and a gain of 106.87 +/- 47.21 kg (mean +/- SD) in Group II. From months 13 to 24, no significant difference in the weight increment was observed. A similar pattern occurred with regard to the increase in the overall length during the first year, where animals from Group I grew 34.81 +/- 17.94 cm (mean +/- SD) and from Group II grew 83.83 +/- 28.21 cm, a statistically significant difference. The growth was not significantly different from 13 to 24 mo. The results found in this study identified the need for a review of the nutritional diet offered to orphaned calves rescued and kept in captivity. The results also support the need for a better adequacy of facilities for these animals as a way to encourage the management strategies adopted for manatee calves maintained in captivity.

  5. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  6. Cytotoxic compounds from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. recovered from the sediments of the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Natália N; Rodrigues, Bárbara S F; Jimenez, Paula C; Guimarães, Larissa A; Torres, Maria C M; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Pfenning, Ludwig H; Abreu, Lucas M; Mafezoli, Jair; de Mattos, Marcos C; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceição F

    2015-01-01

    A fungal strain of Aspergillus sp. (BRF 030) was isolated from the sediments collected in the northeast coast of Brazil, and the cytotoxic activity of its secondary metabolites was investigated against HCT-116 tumour cell line. The cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the extracts from this fungus cultured in potato-dextrose-sea water for 14 days at room temperature yielded the hetero-spirocyclic γ-lactams pseurotin A (1), pseurotin D (2) and pseurotin FD-838 (7), the alkaloids fumitremorgin C (5), 12,13-dihydroxy fumitremorgin C (6), methylsulochrin (4) and bis(dethio)bis(methylthio)gliotoxin (3). Among them, fumitremorgin C (5) and 12,13-dihydroxy fumitremorgin C (6) were the most active. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts from Aspergillus sp. grown from 7 to 28 days were investigated, and they were associated with the kinetic production of the compounds. The most active extracts (14 and 21 days) were those with the highest relative concentrations of the compounds fumitremorgin C (5) and 12,13-dihydroxy fumitremorgin C (6).

  7. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    PubMed Central

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ13C and δ15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ13C values. The highest δ15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ13C values, but similar δ15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  8. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  9. Annual Sea Level Changes on the North American Northeast Coast: Influence of Wind Forcing and Mass Redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piecuch, C. G.; Ponte, R. M.; Dangendorf, S.; Marcos, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how coastal sea level relates to the variableocean circulation, and parsing out the relative contributions of stericheight (ocean density) and bottom pressure (ocean mass), is crucial forinterpreting tide gauge records and projecting sea level rise. Here,annual sea level data from tide gauge records along the NorthAmerican northeast coast over 1980-2010 are considered. The data recordsare adjusted for the inverted barometer effect and compared to a set of data-assimilating "ocean reanalysis" products, whichsimulate both ocean mass and steric contributions to sea level changes, aswell as a global barotropic model solution, which simulates only the oceanmass contribution. North of Cape Hatteras, the barotropic model shows asmuch (if not more) skill than ocean reanalyses, explaining 50% of thevariance in the adjusted annual tide gauge sea level records,demonstrating the importance of local ocean mass changes. Additionalnumerical experiments show that the annual ocean mass changes along thiscoast from the barotropic model are driven by local wind stress over thecontinental shelf and slope. This result is interpreted in the light of asimple dynamic framework, wherein bottom friction balances surface windstress in the alongshore direction and geostrophy holds in theacross-shore direction. Results highlight the importance of barotropicocean dynamics and ocean mass redistribution on coastal sea level changeson interannual and decadal time scales. They also have implications fordiagnosing the uncertainties in current ocean reanalysis, using tide gaugerecords to infer past changes in ocean circulation, as well as identifyingthe physical mechanisms responsible for projected future regional sealevel rise.

  10. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  11. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  12. Marine radiocarbon reservoir corrections (∆R) for Chesapeake Bay and the Middle Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Henkes, Gregory A.; Lowery, Darrin L.; Colman, Steven M.; Culleton, Brendan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates from known age, pre-bomb eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells provide local marine reservoir corrections (∆R) for Chesapeake Bay and the Middle Atlantic coastal area of eastern North America. These data suggest subregional variability in ∆R, ranging from 148 ± 46 14C yr on the Potomac River to - 109 ± 38 14C yr at Swan Point, Maryland. The ∆R weighted mean for the Chesapeake's Western Shore (129 ± 22 14C yr) is substantially higher than the Eastern Shore (- 88 ± 23 14C yr), with outer Atlantic Coast samples falling between these values (106 ± 46 and 2 ± 46 14C yr). These differences may result from a combination of factors, including 14C-depleted freshwater that enters the bay from some if its drainages, 14C-depleted seawater that enters the bay at its mouth, and/or biological carbon recycling. We advocate using different subregional ∆R corrections when calibrating 14C dates on aquatic specimens from the Chesapeake Bay and coastal Middle Atlantic region of North America.

  13. Geological and operational summary, North Aleutian Shelf Coast No. 1 well, Bering Sea, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses the first continental offshore stratigraphic test well drilled in the North Aleutian Basin Planning Area, Bering Sea, Alaska. The well was drilled to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the area. The report covers drilling operations; lithology and core data; velocity analysis; geologic setting and tectonic framework; seismic stratigraphy; well-log interpretation and lithostratigraphy; paleontology and biostratigraphy; geothermal gradient; organic geochemistry; abnormal formation pressure; geologic hazards and shallow geology; and environmental considerations.

  14. Evidence for Younger Dryas-age cooling on the North Pacific coast of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathewes, Rolf W.

    A review of the palynological evidence from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State north to the Alaska Panhandle strongly supports the existence of a climatic oscillation similar in timing and effect to the Younger Dryas cooling (11-10 ka BP) of Europe and eastern North America. The evidence includes many late-glacial pollen peaks of mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana), an indicator of cool and moist climate, reversals from forest to non-arboreal vegetation, and paleoclimate analysis using pollen-climate transfer functions on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Evidence of cooler ocean waters, based on fossil foraminifera in cores from the continental shelf, also supports an interpretation of a Younger Dryas-age climatic reversal. On the other hand, geological evidence of glacier readvances during the Younger Dryas chronozone is weak and poorly dated. Although more and better-constrained (AMS) dates are needed to confirm the timing of the Pacific Northwest cold oscillation, results so far point to maximum cooling and increased moisture between ca. 10.7-10 ka BP, followed by rapid warming in the early Holocene. Additional late-glacial sites need to be investigated in detail to confirm the geographical pattern of vegetation and climate change during this interval, which is best expressed in hypermaritime and maritime climate regions, similar to the Younger Dryas event around the North Atlantic. These results suggest that the search for causal mechanisms to drive the Younger Dryas cooling cannot be limited to events in the North Atlantic region, but should focus on possible hemispheric or global processes.

  15. Estrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded on the North Sea Coast

    PubMed Central

    Brose, François; Jauniaux, Thierry; Das, Krishna; Muller, Marc; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000 ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p′-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen from the DDT group, inducing a response already at 80 ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only β-HCH (at 400 and 2000 ng/mL) and δ-HCH (at 2000 ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities. These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 102~4.2 × 104 μg/kg), p,p′-DDE (5.1 × 102~8.6 × 103 μg/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 101~1.5 × 103 μg/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations. The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts. PMID:26075240

  16. Mercury, selenium and stable isotopes in four small cetaceans from the Southeastern Brazilian coast: Influence of feeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Gilberto; Kehrig, Helena A; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Almeida, Marcelo G; Rezende, Carlos E; Siciliano, Salvatore; de Moura, Jailson F; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Dolphins are good bioindicators of the contamination status of marine ecosystems, since their dietary and habitat plasticity in both coastal and offshore ecotypes provide information on the trace elements levels originated from natural and anthropogenic sources. In this context, this study aimed to investigate provides mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) levels, trophic ecology and feeding environments of four small cetaceans (Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei) inhabiting the central-northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. For the latter, δ(15)N and δ(13)C stable isotopes were used as indicators in this regard. Stable isotope values indicate that the four studied species have distinctive foraging habitats, coastal and least coastal, and occupy different trophic positions. The significant relationship found between muscle Hg and δ(15)N suggests that individual foraging preference remains relatively constant for the studied dolphin species over extended periods. The individual prey size and species are probably responsible for the differences found in Hg and Se concentrations in muscle tissue among all dolphin species. The vulnerable small coastal cetacean, P. blainvillei, which feeds on small teleost fish and squid, presented the lowest muscular Hg concentrations (less than 3.5 μg g(-1) dry wt.). Meanwhile, S. bredanensis is more likely to uptake large amounts of trace elements among the four dolphin species, due to its feeding habits mainly being large offshore fish that accumulate high amounts of trace elements in organs and tissues. Differences found between Hg concentrations in fetus-mother pairs were much higher in S. guianensis than in P. blainvillei, suggesting that maternal contribution of Hg via placenta was more significant for the former.

  17. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded along the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, U; Stein, J E; Tilbury, K L; Meador, J P; Sloan, C A; Clark, R C; Chan, S L

    1994-05-02

    The concentrations of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, chlordanes) and essential (e.g. zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g. mercury, lead, arsenic) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991 at sites from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, AK, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, WA, and San Francisco Bay, CA. The majority of animals were stranded at sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. The gray whale has the unique feeding strategy among Mysticeti of filtering sediments to feed on benthic (bottom dwelling) invertebrates. Thus, the wide geographical distribution of the stranded whales allowed (1) an initial assessment of whether concentrations of chemical contaminants in these whales exhibited region specific differences and (2) whether toxic chemicals that accumulate in sediments may have contributed to the mortality and stranding of gray whales near the more polluted urban areas. Analyses for chlorinated hydrocarbons in blubber from 22 animals showed no apparent significant differences among stranding sites. The concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in blubber, for example, ranged from 120 to 10,000 and 9 to 2100 p.p.b. (ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Additionally, analyses of chlorinated hydrocarbons and selected elements in liver (n = 10) also showed no apparent significant differences between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at more pristine sites (Alaska, Washington outer coast and Strait of Juan de Fuca and Strait of Georgia). For example, the concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in liver ranged from 79 to 1600 and 7 to 280 p.p.b., respectively, and the concentrations of the toxic elements, mercury and lead ranged from 9 to 120 and 20 to 270 p.p.b., respectively. Analyses of stomach contents revealed low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, but high concentrations (wet

  18. Water Level and Current Prediction for the JLOTS III Exercise, Coast of North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico , and Caribbean Sea to develop a comprehen- sive data base of tidal constituents. The study included a systemr~iatic...0.1 U. • * * 0.0 : 5* A A A AA A: A! 41 r - SNP 7 - ---- 3PL 160D 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 360O Time (hour) a) Speed 400 . . v...Scheffner, N. W. (1993). "Develop- ment of a tidal constituent data base for the western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico ," Report 3, U.S. Army Engineer

  19. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species.

  20. THE GERMAN NORTH SEA COAST IN FOCUS OF AIRBORNE GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, A.; Siemon, B.; Schaumann, G.; Wiederhold, H.; Meyer, U.; Binot, F.; Kühne, K.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years airborne geophysical methods have turned out to have great potential in delineating subsurface information down to some hundred meters depth. This information is essential for planning purposes for manifold geoscientific, economic or environmental questions, like, e.g., utilization and protection of freshwater resources, land utilization or industrial planning. These data integrated into a three-dimensional geographical information system provide a perfect tool for spatial planning. Beside the geologic or geophysical basic information also changes of surface and subsurface data in time and space may be documented by repeated surveys. Especially electromagnetic induction is the most versatile of the airborne geophysical methods and widely applied in hydrogeological investigations because the measurements respond to both lithologic and water-chemistry variations. The applications include geologic mapping and aquifer structure, delineation of soil and groundwater salinization, salt-water intrusion into coastal aquifers etc. Building on previous results and knowledge a general airborne survey of the German North Sea coastal area started in 2008. Emphasis is placed on the mapping of fresh-/saltwater interfaces (e.g., North Sea island Borkum), saltwater intrusions and the evaluation of the coastal aquifers (e.g., Elbe estuary) as well as on the mapping of submarine freshwater occurrence (e.g., Langeoog, Wadden Sea). With the mapping a basis for monitoring should be set up.

  1. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  2. Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and

  3. Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incera, Mónica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; César, Javier; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2011-04-01

    Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

  4. Interannual Variation in Baseline Ozone on the Western Coast of North America and Its Influence on Urban Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigder, N. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Lin, M.; Fiore, A. M.; Macdonald, A.; Gong, S.

    2011-12-01

    Baseline ozone (O3) has been defined as the distribution of mixing ratios from a site when it is not influenced by locally emitted pollution (McDonald-Buller et al., 2011; NRC, 2009; TF HTAP, 2007). In this study, we set out to understand the interannual variation (IAV) in baseline O3 along the western coast of North America and its influence on surface air quality in urban environments. Baseline data for this study comes from Trinidad Head, CA, Mount Bachelor, OR, Cheeka Peak, WA, Jackson Visitor Center, WA and Whistler Mountain, BC. We address four key questions:

    1. Do baseline observations on the western coast of North America exhibit similar IAV?
    2. How well can satellites identify IAV in baseline O3 along the western coast of North America?
    3. How does the baseline IAV influence urban air quality and O3 regulatory exceedance days?
    4. How well can global chemical transport models capture the IAV in baseline O3?
    We examine the deseasonalized baseline data to identify IAV in boundary layer air and free tropospheric air separately, as well as the combination of these datasets. Preliminary results show that the IAV (one sigma) in monthly mean O3 at the baseline sites ranges from 2.3-4.0 ppbv, based on data available from 2002-2010. All sites show some degree of correlation in IAV, with Pearson's correlation values of r=0.3-0.6 (p≤0.05). Using level 3 monthly averaged Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) data, we find correlations in O3 IAV with the baseline sites (r=0.4, p≤0.01). This analysis is being repeated with level 2 TES data. An analysis of the O3 IAV in urban/suburban areas near the baseline sites shows a relationship between the IAV present in the baseline sites and the IAV of these urban/suburban regions (r=0.3-0.6, p≤0.05), which can contribute to air quality regulation exceedances. We will also examine the baseline IAV with two global chemical transport models, the Canadian GEM-MACH model and the GFDL AM3

  5. North American west coast summer low cloudiness: Broadscale variability associated with sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Iacobellis, S.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Six decades of observations at 20 coastal airports, from Alaska to southern California, reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of coastal low cloudiness (CLC) from summer to summer over this broad region. The leading mode of CLC variability represents coherent variation, accounting for nearly 40% of the total CLC variance spanning 1950-2012. This leading mode and the majority of individual airports exhibit decreased low cloudiness from the earlier to the later part of the record. Exploring climatic controls on CLC, we identify North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature anomalies, largely in the form of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as well correlated with, and evidently helping to organize, the coherent patterns of summer coastal cloud variability. Links from the PDO to summer CLC appear a few months in advance of the summer. These associations hold up consistently in interannual and interdecadal frequencies.

  6. North American west coast summer low cloudiness: Broadscale variability associated with sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rachel E.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2014-05-01

    Six decades of observations at 20 coastal airports, from Alaska to southern California, reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of coastal low cloudiness (CLC) from summer to summer over this broad region. The leading mode of CLC variability represents coherent variation, accounting for nearly 40% of the total CLC variance spanning 1950-2012. This leading mode and the majority of individual airports exhibit decreased low cloudiness from the earlier to the later part of the record. Exploring climatic controls on CLC, we identify North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature anomalies, largely in the form of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) as well correlated with, and evidently helping to organize, the coherent patterns of summer coastal cloud variability. Links from the PDO to summer CLC appear a few months in advance of the summer. These associations hold up consistently in interannual and interdecadal frequencies.

  7. A new anisakid species parasitizing the imperial cormorant Phalacrocorax atriceps from the North Patagonian Coast, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garbin, Lucas E; Diaz, Julia I; Cremonte, Florencia; Navone, Graciela T

    2008-08-01

    The anisakid species Contracaecum chubutensis n. sp. was found parasitizing the imperial cormorant Phalacrocorax atriceps at 2 different localities, Bahía Bustamante (45 degrees 11'S, 66 degrees 30'W) and Puerto Madryn (42 degrees 47'S, 65 degrees 02'W) on the Patagonian coast. Morphometrical analysis and further studies of adult specimens of C. chubutensis n. sp. and fourth-stage larvae of Contracaecum sp. were done using light and scanning electron microscopy. The possession and disposition of 7 pairs of tail papillae differentiate this new species from C. osculatum, C. radiatum, C. plagiaticium, and C. mirounga. Double-sized spicules separate it from C. variegatum and C. pelagicum. Moreover, the paracloacal papillae disposition and tail shape differentiate this new species from C. travassosi. The presence of bifurcated interlabia separate it from C. ogmorhini and C. margolisi. Three well-marked lip notches, a sharp tail shape, and the of the transversal paracloacal papillae disposition distinguishes C. chubutensis n. sp. from C. magnipapillatum and C. septentrionale. The species here described can be differentiated from C. caballeroi by its bifurcated interlabia, longer spicules, and for possessing more precloacal papillae pairs. It can be separated from C. rudolphii by a thinner interlabia at the base, deeper lip notches, a sharper tail, the disposition of transversal paracloacal papillae, and greater distance between both papillae of the first subventral distal papillae pair. In addition, fourth-stage larvae recovered from the same host and localities were identified and described as Contracaecum sp. Prevalence of adult parasites was 66.7 %, mean intensity was 4.0, and mean abundance was 7.1.

  8. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2010 Strainmeter Network Observations Along the Western Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Boskirk, E.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, B.; Gallaher, W.; Fox, O.; Jackson, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network contains 75 sites along the Western Coast of the United States of America and Southern Canada. Each site contains a Gladwin tensor strainmeter, Malin borehole geophone, and in some cases GPS, pore pressure and/or tilt meter. The strainmeters and geophones are at depths between 400 to 800 feet, which is free of most surface noise. There are four additional geophone only sites in Humboldt County, California at depths of 400 feet. All sites in Anza, California also have borehole accelerometers. Over the course of 2010 the PBO BSM network has observed several tectonic events throughout the network. Along the Juan de Fuca plate episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events have been observed in late March and late August. The January 9, 2010 magnitude 6.5 and the February 4, 2010 magnitude 5.9 earthquakes offshore on the Gorda plate, near the Mendocino Triple Junction, are clearly recorded by the Humboldt CA array. In Parkfield, California, along the San Andreas fault creep events are observed in the southern portion of the BSM network on August 20, 2010. On July 9, 2010 there was a magnitude 5.4 very near the Anza regional network, near the Coyote Creek segment of the San Jacinto fault. These regional strainmeter observations will be presented as well as the ongoing research highlights produced from these instruments. Large magnitude events, such as the February 27, 2010 Chile magnitude 8.8 earthquake, are observed across the entire BSM network. Smaller events, including the slow slip motions of ETS in the Northwest and creep events in Parkfield, are captured by focused regional arrays in these locations. Geophysical monitoring at depth over a large network of strainmeters provides a window to observe the variety of tectonic observations that accommodate plate boundary deformation.

  10. Relation Between Fog & Summer Stream Flow on the North Coast of California in Redwood National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavery, K.

    2012-12-01

    There are three common definitions of fog; visibility less than 800 meters (Dawson 1998), ceiling height less than 400 meters (Liepper 1995, Johnstone & Dawson 2010) or low level stratus that touches the ground. Regardless of the definition used the ecological importance of fog is evidenced by the commonly used term occult precipitation i.e. water that is not accounted for. Fog is most common on the coast of Northern California during summer, the time of least precipitation. The diurnal flux in stream flows is also most evident in the summer. Diurnal flux and seasonal trends in stream flow are thought to be controlled by precipitation and evapotranspiration. Fog impacts both precipitation and evapotranspiration. While changes in fog regimes are expected to occur as a result of climate change, the ability to measure fog and anticipate the implications are in nascent stages. Although, methods for detecting fog using satellite imagery have been developed they have not been perfected and they generally only give height info for the cloud deck (top of clouds). Although deck height is important for aviation and enables some inference of what is occurring on the ground the thickness and base height are important variables for developing a greater understanding of the impacts of fog. Fog harps will be used to detect fog on the ground. Fog harp data will be compared with the results of satellite imagery analysis for presence or absence of fog. After detrending, stream flow data will be divided into categories of fog and no fog. The two categories will be tested for a statistically significant difference. The results have the potential to help solve a piece of the climate change puzzle. The data will help with the anticipation of change in stream flows in areas with high levels of summer fog and Mediterranean climates as well as refine techniques for analyzing satellite imagery for presence or absence of fog.

  11. Migratory patterns of pelagic fishes and possible linkages between open ocean and coastal ecosystems off the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, R. J.; McFarlane, G. A.; King, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    We review studies relevant to the migration of pelagic fishes between the coastal and open-ocean ecosystems off the subarctic coast of North America. We review the life history strategies of these migratory fish and to compare to the life history strategies of major coastal migrants. The oceanography in this region is dominated by north and south currents that provide a boundary between the offshore and coastal waters. Commercial fisheries off the west coast of North America are virtually all inshore of this oceanographic separation. Migrations for some species in these major fisheries are also north and south rather than east and west. However, exceptions occur for Pacific salmon, species associated with seamounts, and for transitional pelagic species such as tuna, squid and sharks. Three species of Pacific salmon, sockeye, pink and chum salmon, migrate along the coast in their first marine year and move off shore in the fall and winter in their first marine year. Three other species, coho salmon, chinook salmon, and steelhead trout, also migrate offshore, although they are less abundant and some stocks remain within the coastal regions. Pacific salmon species are a dominant daytime biomass in the surface waters in the offshore areas. It is known that albacore tuna and some sharks migrate between the offshore and coastal areas, but more research is needed to assess the relative importance of these migrations. Although the biomass of species on seamounts is small relative to coastal areas, the similarity in fauna is evidence that there is recruitment from coastal ecosystems.

  12. Development of climate risk services under climate change scenarios in the North Adriatic coast (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Silvia, Torresan; Anna, Sperotto; Elisa, Furlan; Andrea, Critto; Antonio, Marcomini

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the challenge for coastal stakeholders and decision makers is to incorporate climate change in land and policy planning in order to ensure a sustainable integrated coastal zone management aimed at preserve coastal environments and socio-economic activities. Consequently, an increasing amount of information on climate variability and its impact on human and natural ecosystem is requested. Climate risk services allows to bridge the gap between climate experts and decision makers communicating timely science-based information about impacts and risks related to climate change that could be incorporated into land planning, policy and practice. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), a participatory Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was applied for the evaluation of water-related hazards in coastal areas (i.e. pluvial flood and sea-level rise inundation risks) taking into consideration future climate change scenarios in the case study of the North Adriatic Sea for the period 2040-2050. Specifically, through the analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk and the application of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the RRA methodology allowed to identify and prioritize targets (i.e. residential and commercial-industrial areas, beaches, infrastructures, wetlands, agricultural typology) and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood and sea-level rise impacts in the same region. From the early stages of the climate risk services development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the needs, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders dealing with the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), by means of questionnaires, workshops and focus groups organized within the project. Specifically, stakeholders were asked to provide their needs in terms of time scenarios, geographical scale and resolution, choice of receptors, vulnerability factors and thresholds that were considered in the

  13. Upwelling filaments and motion of a satellite-tracked drifter along the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard E.; Papadakis, John E.

    1987-06-01

    An Argos-tracked surface buoy deployed off Vancouver Island in July 1984 reached Hawaii in July 1985. We present an analysis of the drifter track with particular emphasis on the equatorward leg seaward of the North American coast for the period July-December 1984. A low-pass filter is used to separate motions into mean and fluctuating components. The mean track was consistently to the right of the direction expected according to the climatological geopotential topography relative to 1000 dbar, and the average southward drift speed of 0.20 m s-1 exceeded the mean geopotential flow speed by a factor of 2-3. On the basis of 1 year of drifter positions we estimate that surface waters complete one circuit of the North Pacific Gyre in 4-5 years. The amplitudes of the mesoscale buoy displacements about the mean path were approximately 43 ± 10 km, and the root-mean-square drift speed was 0.32 ± 0.18 m s-1. Motions at tidal and near-inertial frequencies were negligible. From August to October the buoy paralleled a major upwelling regime centered off northern California. During this period the track underwent five sinuous zonal perturbations with characteristic amplitudes of approximately 50 km. Two of the perturbations were associated with abrupt temperature drops of 3°C and maximum seaward currents of 0.70 m s-1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration advanced very high resolution radiometer thermal imagery for these times reveals that the buoy had encountered seaward protruding cold water filaments ("squirts") associated with 100-km-length upwelling zones that constitute the large-scale upwelling regime. Southward of the upwelling regime the equatorward drift speed of the buoy was only slightly greater than the equatorward advance of the surface isotherms, suggesting that advection rather than winter cooling might be mainly responsible for the shift in the temperature pattern.

  14. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in biological samples from the north coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Tao, Lin; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Guette-Fernández, Jorge; Baldiris-Avila, Rosa; O'byrne-Hoyos, Indira; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2006-07-01

    Perfluorinated compounds are widespread pollutants of toxicological importance that have been detected in environmental matrices. However, little is known on their distribution in South America. In this study, distribution of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) was determined in the bile of mullet, Mugil incilis, and in tissues of pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) collected from North Colombia. Analysis was performed by HPLC mass spectrometry after ion-pair extraction. PFOS was found in all bile samples and PFOA and PFHxS were detected at lower frequency. Average concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS in bile of fish from Cartagena Bay, an industrialized site, and Totumo marsh, a reference site, were 3673, 370, 489 and 713, 47.4, 1.27 ng/mL, respectively. PFOS concentrations in pelican organs decreased in the order of spleen>liver>lung>kidney>brain>heart>muscle. These results suggest, for the first time, that perfluorinated compounds are also found in wildlife from Latin American countries.

  15. Migration and stopover strategies of individual Dunlin along the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Takekawa, John Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We radio-marked 18 Dunlin, Calidris alpina (L., 1758), at San Francisco Bay, California, and 11 Dunlin at Grays Harbor, Washington, and relocated 90% of them along the 4200 km long coastline from north of San Francisco Bay to the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The Copper River Delta, Alaska, was the single most important stopover site, with 79% of the marked birds detected there. Our second most important site was the Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor complex of wetlands in Washington. The mean length of stay past banding sites ranged from 1.0 to 3.8 days. Controlling for date of departure, birds banded at San Francisco Bay had higher rates of travel to the Copper River Delta than those banded at Grays Harbor. The later a bird left a capture site, the faster it traveled to the Copper River Delta. Length of stay at the Copper River Delta was inversely related to arrival date. We did not find any effect of sex on travel rate or length of stay. Combining the results of this study with our previous work on Western Sandpipers, Calidris mauri (Cabanis, 1875), reveals variation of migration strategies used within and among shorebird species along the eastern Pacific Flyway. ?? 2004 NRC.

  16. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  17. [Variations of the infracommuity during the ontogeny of Chromis cyanea (Perciformes: Pomcentride) in the North coast of Havana, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Fernández Osorio, Ramón Alexis; Corrada Wong, Raúl Igor; Armenteros, Maickel

    2015-09-01

    The infracommunty or parasites or unromis cyanea (Pisces: Pomacentridae) was studied along the ontogenetic development in the North coast of Havana, Cuba. The objectives were: a- to prove that the core species appears before the strange and stochastic species and they are responsible for the structure in the infracommunity, b- to determine if there is a relationship among the ecological describers of the parasitic infracommunity with the total length. A total of 278 specimens of C. cyanea were captured during the dry season (April) of 2010. The body size range was from 1.5 to 11.5 cm including juvenile and adults. We collected 2 861 parasite specimens belonging to 20 taxa: Crustacea (5), Nematoda (5), Trematoda (4), Cestoda (2), Monogenea (2), Turbellaria (1) and Ciliophora (1). The taxa Tetraphyllidea and Anilocra chromis constituted the core of the parasitic infracommunity. The sequence of appearance and persistence of these taxa during the ontogenetic development, supported the hypothesis of the core species. The changes in the infracommunity, from 6 cm body size, could be the result of an accumulative effect combined with changes of the diet that caused the ingestion of new parasite infective stages. We concluded that the ontogenetic development of C. cyanea constitutes an important variable in the formation of the parasitic infracommunity.

  18. RCRA corrective measures using a permeable reactive iron wall US Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Schmithors, W.L.; Vardy, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    A chromic acid release was discovered at a former electroplating shop at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Initial investigative activities indicated that chromic acid had migrated into the subsurface soils and groundwater. In addition, trichloroethylene (TCE) was also discovered in groundwater during subsequent investigations of the hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) plume. Corrective measures were required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The in-situ remediation method, proposed under RCRA Interim Measures to passively treat the groundwater contaminants, uses reactive zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate the chlorinated compounds and to mineralize the hexavalent chromium. A 47 meter by 0.6 meter subsurface permeable iron wall was installed downgradient of the source area to a depth of 7 meters using a direct trenching machine. The iron filings were placed in the ground as the soils were excavated from the subsurface. This is the first time that direct trenching was used to install reactive zero-valent iron filings. Over 250 metric tons of iron filings were used as the reactive material in the barrier wall. Installation of the iron filings took one full day. Extensive negotiations with regulatory agencies were required to use this technology under the current facility Hazardous Waste Management Permit. All waste soils generated during the excavation activities were contained and treated on site. Once contaminant concentrations were reduced the waste soils were used as fill material.

  19. Predicting River Discharge Rates in California Watersheds of the Russian River and Other North Coast River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, J.; Potter, C. S.; Gross, P. M.; Genovese, V. B.; Klooster, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study describes applications of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model coupled with a surface hydrologic routing scheme previously called the Hydrological Routing Algorithm (HYDRA) to model river discharge rates across selected California watersheds in the North Coast region of the state. For mountainous areas, CASA-HYDRA snowmelt algorithms have been modified with equations from the USDA Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM), which has been refined to predict daily stream flow in mountain basins where snowmelt is a notable runoff factor. Results show that, based on CASA-HYDRA model predictions of monthly flow rates across the ten complete stream gauges in the Russian River basin from 2000 to 2007, the typical model-to-measurement correlation between monthly river flow rates was R squared = 0.76 (with E = 0.61). Similar validation results for seasonal and annual flow predictions have been developed for numerous coastal redwood forest watersheds where streams support critical wild fisheries habitat. Future model applications for land cover and climate change in northern California’s coastal watersheds are outlined, with emphasis on impacts of municipal and agricultural water demands.

  20. Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M; Mercer, James A

    2011-02-01

    Measurements (1994-2007) from four cabled-to-shore hydrophone systems located off the North American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traffic noise (25-50 Hz) collected in the past decade to measurements made over 1963-1965 with the same in-water equipment at the same sites. An increase of roughly 10 dB over the band 25-40 Hz at one site has already been reported [Andrew et al., Acoust. Res. Lett. Online 3(2), 65-70 (2002)]. Newly corrected data from the remaining three systems generally corroborate this increase. Simple linear trend lines of the contemporary traffic noise (duration 6 to 12+ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady, or decreasing. These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s.

  1. Subpolar Atlantic cooling and North American east coast warming linked to AMOC slowdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan; Caesar, Levke; Feulner, Georg; Saba, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructing the history of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is difficult due to the limited availability of data. One approach has been to use instrumental and proxy data for sea surface temperature (SST), taking multi-decadal and longer SST variations in the subpolar gyre region as indicator for AMOC changes [Rahmstorf et al., 2015]. Recent high-resolution global climate model results [Saba et al., 2016] as well as dynamical theory and conceptual modelling [Zhang and Vallis, 2007] suggest that an AMOC weakening will not only cool the subpolar Atlantic but simultaneously warm the Northwest Atlantic between Cape Hatteras and Nova Scotia, thus providing a characteristic SST pattern associated with AMOC variations. We analyse sea surface temperature (SST) observations from this region together with high-resolution climate model simulations to better understand the linkages of SST variations to AMOC variability and to provide further evidence for an ongoing AMOC slowdown. References Rahmstorf, S., J. E. Box, G. Feulner, M. E. Mann, A. Robinson, S. Rutherford, and E. J. Schaffernicht (2015), Exceptional twentieth-century slowdown in Atlantic Ocean overturning circulation, Nature Climate Change, 5(5), 475-480, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2554. Saba, V. S., et al. (2016), Enhanced warming of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean under climate change, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 121(1), 118-132, doi: 10.1002/2015JC011346. Zhang, R., and G. K. Vallis (2007), The Role of Bottom Vortex Stretching on the Path of the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current and on the Northern Recirculation Gyre, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 37(8), 2053-2080, doi: 10.1175/jpo3102.1.

  2. A Comparative Study of Performance in the Conners' Continuous Performance Test between Brazilian and North American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Monica Carolina; Sinnes, Elaine Girao; Pompeia, Sabine; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the performance of Brazilian children in the Continuous Performance Test, CPT-II, and compared results to those of the norms obtained in the United States. Method: The U.S. norms were compared to those of a Brazilian sample composed of 6- to 11-year-olds separated into 4 age-groups (half boys) that…

  3. A Comparative Study of Performance in the Conners' Continuous Performance Test between Brazilian and North American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Monica Carolina; Sinnes, Elaine Girao; Pompeia, Sabine; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the performance of Brazilian children in the Continuous Performance Test, CPT-II, and compared results to those of the norms obtained in the United States. Method: The U.S. norms were compared to those of a Brazilian sample composed of 6- to 11-year-olds separated into 4 age-groups (half boys) that…

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification and Statin Eligibility Based on the Brazilian vs. North American Guidelines on Blood Cholesterol Management.

    PubMed

    Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Laurinavicius, Antonio Gabriele; Valente, Viviane A; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Bittencourt, Marcio S

    2017-06-01

    The best way to select individuals for lipid-lowering treatment in the population is controversial. In healthy individuals in primary prevention: to assess the relationship between cardiovascular risk categorized according to the V Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and the risk calculated by the pooled cohort equations (PCE); to compare the proportion of individuals eligible for statins, according to different criteria. In individuals aged 40-75 years consecutively submitted to routine health assessment at one single center, four criteria of eligibility for statin were defined: BR-1, BR-2 (LDL-c above or at least 30 mg/dL above the goal recommended by the Brazilian Guideline, respectively), USA-1 and USA-2 (10-year risk estimated by the PCE ≥ 5.0% or ≥ 7.5%, respectively). The final sample consisted of 13,947 individuals (48 ± 6 years, 71% men). Most individuals at intermediate or high risk based on the V Brazilian Guideline had a low risk calculated by the PCE, and more than 70% of those who were considered at high risk had this categorization because of the presence of aggravating factors. Among women, 24%, 17%, 4% and 2% were eligible for statin use according to the BR-1, BR-2, USA-1 and USA-2 criteria, respectively (p < 0.01). The respective figures for men were 75%, 58%, 31% and 17% (p < 0.01). Eighty-five percent of women and 60% of men who were eligible for statin based on the BR-1 criterion would not be candidates for statin based on the USA-1 criterion. As compared to the North American Guideline, the V Brazilian Guideline considers a substantially higher proportion of the population as eligible for statin use in primary prevention. This results from discrepancies between the risk stratified by the Brazilian Guideline and that calculated by the PCE, particularly because of the risk reclassification based on aggravating factors. Existe controvérsia sobre a melhor forma de selecionar indivíduos para tratamento hipolipemiante na população. Em indiv

  5. Assessment of historical and future extreme flood characteristics for Novorossiysk city on the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, Olga; Kruchin, Maksim; Volkova, Nina; Lebedeva, Luidmila

    2014-05-01

    Several catastrophic floods have occurred in the North Caucasus region in recent years. One such, the dramatic flood in Krymsk in July, 2012 led to more than 160 deaths. Except for late warning, the main reason for damage and loss of lives is the unpreparedness of urban drainage systems and hydraulic structures to the increased intensity and volume of precipitation which has been observed in the region in recent years. This study aimed to assess flood characteristics and estimate possible inundation areas for Novorossiysk city, located at the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus. The Cemes River which flows through the city originates on the north-east slopes of the Gudzev Mountain (425 m) and has a basin area about 83 km2. The study is conducted for the purpose of improving the city drainage system. The task of flood characteristic estimation is complicated by the lack of both hydrological and meteorological data. The Cemes River is ungauged and there are no operative precipitation gauges on the mountain slopes where most of the precipitation occurs. There is only one station located in the city on the coast. The assessment was conducted using several approaches. One is that the recommendations which are used in hydrological engineering practice were applied. They include the use of basin-analogous data and the application of regional formulas and maps to estimate maximum discharge of required exceedance probability (1% in this study). In this case where the shortage of observation data is combined with considerable changes in rainfall and land-use, the methods estimating runoff characteristics using the statistical approach of observation data extrapolation may yield incorrect results. As a result, the deterministic-stochastic (DS) modeling approach used herein is suggested as an alternative. Here the deterministic model distinguishes between the processes within catchments, while the stochastic model provides stochastic meteorological input and a framework to

  6. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm) and microphytoplankton (<200 μm) was investigated using conventional flow cytometry and inverted microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis of ultraphytoplankton resolved six groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, nanoeukaryotes and three distinct subgroups within picoeukaryotes). In addition to these autotrophic groups, two unknown groups were characterised on the north coast. Picophytoplankton abundance shifted from a summer dominance of Synechococcus to a dominance of picoeukaryotes and Prochlorococcus during spring. Nanoeukaryotes were the most abundant in spring. Microphytoplankton was resolved into five groups, labelled Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanobacteriae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. A total of 90 microphytoplankton species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of large diatoms, a typical trait of benthic communities (Coscinodiscus sp., Grammatophora sp., Navicula sp., Pleurosigma sp., Striatella unipunctata …). Results collected in this study are favouring a beneficial impact on the ecosystem of the Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  7. Molecular Analysis of an Allozyme Cline: Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Drosophila Melanogaster on the East Coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Berry, A.; Kreitman, M.

    1993-01-01

    Clines may either be selectively maintained or be the by-product of nonadaptive processes related to population structure and history. Drosophila melanogaster populations on the east coast of North America show a latitudinal cline in the frequencies of two common electrophoretically distinguishable alleles at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus (Adh), designated Adh-S and Adh-F. This cline may either be adaptive or an artifact of a possible recent dual founding of North American D. melanogaster populations in which frequencies of Adh alleles differed between founder populations. By means of a high resolution restriction-mapping technique, we studied the distribution of 113 haplotypes derived from 44 polymorphic DNA markers within the Adh region in 1533 individuals from 25 populations throughout the cline. We found significant clinal differentiation at the polymorphisms determining the mobility-difference causing amino acid replacement between Adh-F and Adh-S alleles. Hitchhiking was limited, despite extensive linkage disequilibrium, and other sites did not vary clinally. Such a pattern of differentiation implies that selection is responsible for the cline. To investigate whether selection acts only on the Adh-F/S site, we performed a ``selective equivalence'' test under the assumption that all variability within the specified allelic class is selectively neutral. This revealed selective equivalence among Adh-S-bearing haplotypes, whose frequencies showed no differentiation throughout the cline, implying high levels of frequency-homogenizing gene flow. Geographical heterogeneity among Adh-F-bearing haplotypes implied the action of selection on one or more additional variants in linkage disequilibrium with Adh-F. In a further study of a subset of the data (n = 1076 from 18 populations), we found a combined insertion/deletion polymorphism, designated &1, located in the 5' adult intron and in linkage disequilibrium with Adh-F, to show more marked clinal variation than Adh

  8. An Integrated Mercury Monitoring Program for Temperate Estuarine and Marine Ecosystems on the North American Atlantic Coast

    PubMed Central

    Evers, David C.; Mason, Robert P.; Kamman, Neil C.; Chen, Celia Y.; Bogomolni, Andrea L.; Taylor, David L.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Jones, Stephen H.; Burgess, Neil M.; Munney, Kenneth; Parsons, Katharine C.

    2008-01-01

    During the past century, anthropogenic activities have altered the distribution of mercury (Hg) on the earth’s surface. The impacts of such alterations to the natural cycle of Hg can be minimized through coordinated management, policy decisions, and legislative regulations. An ability to quantitatively measure environmental Hg loadings and spatiotemporal trends of their fate in the environment is critical for science-based decision making. Here, we outline a Hg monitoring program for temperate estuarine and marine ecosystems on the Atlantic Coast of North America. This framework follows a similar, previously developed plan for freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems in the United States. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the toxicologically relevant form of Hg, and its ability to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food webs depends on numerous biological and physicochemical factors that affect its production, transport, and fate. Therefore, multiple indicators are needed to fully characterize potential changes of Hg loadings in the environment and MeHg bioaccumulation through the different marine food webs. In addition to a description of how to monitor environmental Hg loads for air, sediment, and water, we outline a species-specific matrix of biotic indicators that include shellfish and other invertebrates, fish, birds and mammals. Such a Hg monitoring template is applicable to coastal areas across the Northern Hemisphere and is transferable to arctic and tropical marine ecosystems. We believe that a comprehensive approach provides an ability to best detect spatiotemporal Hg trends for both human and ecological health, and concurrently identify food webs and species at greatest risk to MeHg toxicity. PMID:19294469

  9. Assessing the Age of Particulate Organic Matter Exported from a Temperate Rainforest Catchment of the North American Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Ingalls, A. E.; Santos, G.; Keil, R. G.; Wefferling, L.; Jones, A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although temperate rainforests of the North American Pacific Coast contain a small proportion of the world's forests, they contain some of the highest densities of biomass of any terrestrial system, and they store large quantities of carbon in soil. Understanding the residence time of organic carbon in these watersheds is of ecological significance. Given that rivers can mobilize sediment (and associated carbon) from across the catchment, carefully deciphering the organic signatures found within riverine particles can be a powerful tool to inform our understanding of carbon cycling catchment-wide. Here we examine the lignin phenol content (lignin is a biomarker unique to vascular plants) and the radiocarbon age (Δ14C) of fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC) exported by the Queets River of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula over the course of one year, targeting winter storm events. This mountainous catchment is one of the largest and most pristine found on the Olympic Peninsula. The Δ14C of FPOC was quantified for each of the twelve sampling events, whereas the Δ14C of the individual lignin phenols was determined during a late-winter storm event. Sediments were enriched in lignin phenols at the end of the summer dry season and into the first storm of the fall, suggesting that surface soils were transported early on. The Δ14C of individual lignin phenols ranged from -161 to 26‰, with biomarkers for non-woody vegetation being most depleted. These results suggest that particulate lignin exported from temperate catchments is considerably aged, especially relative to the tropics. These findings are consistent with cool temperatures and abundant moisture limiting microbial decomposition, increasing the residence time of plant-derived organic carbon in temperate rainforests. We will compare the Δ14C content of lignin phenols to that of bulk organic matter to partition riverine FPOC amongst possible organic matter sources.

  10. History and distribution of steepland gullies in response to land use change, East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marden, Michael; Arnold, Gregory; Seymour, Anne; Hambling, Randolph

    2012-06-01

    Following the clearance of indigenous forest (~ 1880s to 1920s) for pastoral use, actively eroding gullies had by the late 1950s become a pervasive form of erosion occupying 0.7% of the 7468 km2 of pastoral hill country within the East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand. Commencing in the early 1960s the primary strategy used to stabilise gully and other associated forms of erosion on degraded pastoral hill country was to establish exotic forest. We compare the status of gully erosion before reforestation commenced with that at the end of a ~ 40 year reforestation period (1957-1997) during which ~ 1350 km2 of exotic forest was planted. Trends in gully area and distribution by land cover (vegetation), but particularly in response to exotic reforestation, are examined for two contrasting geologic terrains. Over this ~ 40 year period, the incidence and extent of gully erosion in areas of hill country that have remained in pastoral use has declined. This was primarily due to the retirement and conversion of extensive areas of gully-prone farmland to exotic forest. Where implemented, the reforestation of this degraded pastoral hill country has proven to be efficient and successful in stabilising existing gullies. However, with the initiation of new gullies and growth of gullies that have remained untreated, the extent of land affected by gully erosion has increased by ~ 27% to ~ 0.9% of the regions' hill country area. To reverse this trend, further areas of severely eroding pastoral land will need to be retired with the aim of escalating the rate at which remaining gullies are treated and to prevent new ones developing, primarily through reforestation with exotic tree species or indigenous reversion.

  11. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  12. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  13. Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yinqiu; Lindo, John; Hughes, Cris E.; Johnson, Jesse W.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Kemp, Brian M.; Ma, Jian; Cunningham, Ryan; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycellyn; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome S.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2013-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of North American population history, complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) were generated from four ancient and three living individuals of the northern Northwest Coast of North America, specifically the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, current home to the indigenous Tsimshian, Haida, and Nisga’a. The mitogenomes of all individuals were previously unknown and assigned to new sub-haplogroup designations D4h3a7, A2ag and A2ah. The analysis of mitogenomes allows for more detailed analyses of presumed ancestor–descendant relationships than sequencing only the HVSI region of the mitochondrial genome, a more traditional approach in local population studies. The results of this study provide contrasting examples of the evolution of Native American mitogenomes. Those belonging to sub-haplogroups A2ag and A2ah exhibit temporal continuity in this region for 5000 years up until the present day. Of possible associative significance is that archaeologically identified house structures in this region maintain similar characteristics for this same period of time, demonstrating cultural continuity in residence patterns. The individual dated to 6000 years before present (BP) exhibited a mitogenome belonging to sub-haplogroup D4h3a. This sub-haplogroup was earlier identified in the same general area at 10300 years BP on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, and may have gone extinct, as it has not been observed in any living individuals of the Northwest Coast. The presented case studies demonstrate the different evolutionary paths of mitogenomes over time on the Northwest Coast. PMID:23843972

  14. Burrows of the Semi-Terrestrial Crab Ucides cordatus Enhance CO2 Release in a North Brazilian Mangrove Forest

    PubMed Central

    Pülmanns, Nathalie; Diele, Karen; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1) the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2) the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm) and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length) were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.7–1.3 µmol m−2 s−1 and 0.2–0.4 µmol burrows−1 s−1, respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows−1 m−2 yielded 1.0–1.7 µmol m−2 s−1, depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 20–60% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates. PMID:25313661

  15. Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

  16. Aerosol characterization over Sundarban mangrove forest at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Das, Sanat Kumar; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Singh, Soumendra; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on chemical characterization of size segregated and cumulative aerosols during winter, 2015 and summer 2016 over a remote mangrove forest at Sundarban at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal. Aerosols originated from the surf zone at the land-ocean boundary of Sundarban mangrove forest and aerosols advected from Kolkata and other metropolitan and urban cities at Indo-Gangetic Plain were characterized in terms of major water soluble inorganic species. Attempt was made to investigate the combined effect of locally generated sea-salt and advected anthropogenic aerosols could change the pristine marine character at this region during the above mentioned periods. Significant chloride depletion from sea-salt aerosols was observed in coarse and ultrafine mode compared to fine mode in winter whereas reverse trend was observed during summer. On an average the chloride to sodium ratio in PM10 aerosol was found to be around 0.6 which was much lower than that in sea-water. It was observed that non-sea-sulphate and nitrate aerosols were the major species depleting chloride from sea-salt aerosols. This supported the interaction between fresh marine and polluted anthropogenic aerosols. The average concentration of PM10 aerosols was 64 μg m-3 in winter and 89 μg m-3 in summer. Major water soluble ionic species were used for the source apportionment of aerosol during the two seasons. On an average it was observed that 60-70 % of total PM10 aerosols were constituted by the major water soluble ionic species. Emission flux and deposition flux of aerosols were also studied over this remote forest region. It was also observed that anthropogenic ionic species were mostly accumulated in the ultrafine and fine mode region both during winter and summer. On the other hand sea-salt species were mostly accumulated in the coarse mode region. Sulphate aerosol showed bimodal distribution with prominent peaks both at ultrafine/fine and coarse mode region

  17. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts

  18. Inter-annual to decadal sea level variability along the Norwegian coast and in the Siberian Seas; a link with the Eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafat, F. M.; Chambers, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Inter-annual to decadal sea level variations from tide gauge records along the Norwegian coast and in the Siberian Seas are examined for the period 1950 to present. A combination of observations and theory is used to explore the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed sea level variability. Tide gauge records are first grouped into 6 geographical regions: the Norwegian Coast, the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea, and the Chukchi Sea. Then an average of sea level at tide gauges is computed for each region. All regions exhibit large decadal sea level variations (up to 20 cm). Sea level corrected for the inverse barometer effect is significantly correlated with the Arctic Oscillation index in all regions except in the East Siberian and Chukchi Seas. There is a coherent sea level signal that affects a region extending from Southwest Norway to the Kara Sea. Previous studies have found that sea level variability at the Norwegian coast is related to variations in the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC), which are mainly driven by changes in the wind forcing over the region. Here we show that, apart from the contribution of the NwAC and the local wind, there is an additional contribution to the sea level variability at the Norwegian coast resulting from the poleward propagation of wind-driven sea level variations along the continental slope of the Northeast Atlantic. The fact that sea level variability in both the Barents and the Kara Seas is highly coherent with that in the Norwegian coast suggests propagation of sea level variations further north into these regions. Eastward of the Kara Sea, where the continental shelf is shallower, sea level variations are much larger than in the other regions and they are highly correlated (~0.75) with the local longshore wind.he average of sea level at 8 tide gauge stations on the Norwegian coast (black line) and a reconstruction of sea level (blue line) using a combination of the tide gauge at

  19. Simulation of flow in the upper North Coast Limestone Aquifer, Manati-Vega Baja area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer ground-water model was constructed of the Manati-Vega Baja area to improve the understanding of the unconfined upper aquifer within the North Coast Province of Puerto Rico. The modeled area covers approximately 79 square miles within the municipios of Manati and Vega Baja and small portions of Vega Alta and Barceloneta. Steady-state two-dimensional ground-water simulations were correlated to conditions prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1940 and calibrated to the observed potentiometric surface in March 1995. At the regional scale, the unconfined Upper North Coast Limestone aquifer is a diffuse ground-water flow system through the Aguada and Aymamon limestone units. The calibrated model input parameters for aquifer recharge varied from 2 inches per year in coastal areas to 18 inches per year in the upland areas south of Manati and Vega Baja. The calibrated transmissivity values ranged from less than 500 feet squared per day in the upland areas near the southern boundary to 70,000 feet squared per day in the areas west of Vega Baja. Increased ground-water withdrawals from 1.0 cubic foot per second for 1940 conditions to 26.3 cubic feet per second in 1995, has reduced the natural ground-water discharge to springs and wetland areas, and induced additional recharge from the rivers. The most important regional drainage feature is Laguna Tortuguero, which is the major ground-water discharge body for the upper aquifer, and has a drainage area of approximately 17 square miles. The discharge to the sea from Laguna Tortuguero through the outlet channel has been measured on a bi-monthly basis since 1974. The outflow represents a combination of ground- and surface-water discharge over the drainage area. Hydrologic conditions, prior to construction of the Laguna Tortuguero outlet channel in 1943, can be considered natural conditions with minimal ground-water pumpage (1.0 cubic foot per second), and heads in the lagoon

  20. Characterization of HIV-1 CRF90_BF1 and putative novel CRFs_BF1 in Central West, North and Northeast Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Reis, Mônica Nogueira da Guarda; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian AIDS epidemic has been characterized by an increasing rate of BF1 recombinants and so far eight circulating recombinant forms/CRFs_BF1 have been described countrywide. In this study, pol sequences (protease/PR, reverse transcriptase/RT) of 87 BF1 mosaic isolates identified among 828 patients living in six Brazilian States from three geographic regions (Central West, North, Northeast) were analyzed. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses were performed to investigate the evolutionary relationship and mosaic structure of BF1 isolates. Those analyses showed that 20.7% of mosaics (18 out of 87) were CRFs-like isolates, mostly represented by CRF28/CRF29_BF-like viruses (14 out of 18). We also identified five highly supported clusters that together comprise 42 out of 87 (48.3%) BF1 sequences, each cluster containing at least five sequences sharing a similar mosaic structure, suggesting possible new unidentified CRFs_BF1. The divergence time of these five potential new CRFs_BF1 clusters was estimated using a Bayesian approach and indicate that they probably originated between the middle 1980s and the middle 1990s. DNA was extracted from whole blood and four overlapping fragments were amplified by PCR providing full/near full length genomes (FLG/NFLG) and partial genomes. Eleven HIV-1 isolates from Cluster # 5 identified in epidemiologically unlinked individuals living in Central West and North regions provided FLG/NFLG/partial genome sequences with identical mosaic structure. These viruses differ from any known CRF_BF1 reported to date and were named CRF90_BF1 by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is the 9th CRF_BF1 described in Brazil and the first one identified in Central West and North regions. Our results highlight the importance of continued molecular screening and surveillance studies, especially of full genome sequences to understand the evolutionary dynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in a country of continental dimensions as Brazil.

  1. First record of the Lesser Snouted Treefrog Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862) in Brazilian coast and new species records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

    PubMed

    Dalmolin, D A; Rosa, F O; Freire, M D; Fonte, L F M; Machado, I F; Paula, C N; Loebmann, D; Périco, E

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we provide new occurrence records of Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. All new records here provide are located on Southern half of the state. Besides this, we provide the first record for species in Brazilian coastal zone. Those records improve considerably our knowledge regarding species distribution in Southern Brazil.

  2. Flat Slab Subduction, Trench Suction, and Craton Destruction: Comparison of the North China, Wyoming, and Brazilian Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, Timothy; Windley, Brian; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhensheng; Li, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Peimin

    2015-04-01

    We define and test a unifying plate tectonic driving mechanism that explains the characteristics of the destruction of cratonic lithospheric roots. We document and model the relationships between flat slab subduction, trench suction, and craton destruction, using examples from the North China and Wyoming cratons, each of which locally lost approximately 100 km of their lithospheric roots in the Cretaceous and which show spatio-temporal relationships with episodes of flat slab subduction in the mantle transition zone associated with deep mantle hydration, coupled with slab rollback and concomitant influx of fertile mantle material to accommodate the space created by slab rollback. A similar process has more recently operated along the western side of the Brazilian craton where it is thrust beneath the thickened crust of the Andes in an area of trench rollback. The importance of the mutual interaction between these processes for destruction of cratonic roots may be greater than currently perceived. Together with the other processes of subduction erosion and arc subduction, larger amounts of continental lithosphere may have been subducted or otherwise returned to the sub-lithospheric mantle than previously appreciated. When oceanic lithosphere subducts, it hydrates the upper mantle beneath an arc from well-known dehydration reactions. However, some hydrous phases (e.g., Phase A, Phase E, and -γt and β-phase olivine) are stable to much greater depths and dehydrate even when a slab is in the mantle transition zone. It is estimated that 40% of the water subducted in hydrated oceanic crust, mantle, sediments, and subducted continental material reaches the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 km. For instance lawsonite may contain up to 11% water, and is stable up to 11 GPa or about 300 km and serpentinites can contain up to 13% water and are stable up to 7 GPa, and after conversion to denser hydrous phases such as β-phase olivine they can be stable up to 50 GPa

  3. Estimation of the impact of prevailing weather conditions on the occurrence of oil-contaminated dead birds on the German North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Chrastansky, Alena; Callies, Ulrich; Fleet, David M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic oil pollution by illegal oil dumping in the North Sea is difficult to quantify. Beached, oil-contaminated sea birds, however, may be used as an indirect indicator. Reconstructing the drift of oil slicks and sea bird corpses in the southern North Sea for the period 1992-2003 by means of a two-dimensional numerical transport model driven by re-analysed weather data, we show with an example of two common sea bird species that the variability observed within the number of corpses registered during beached bird surveys for the German coast primarily reflects the inter-annual variability of prevailing weather conditions. This should be taken into account when interpreting the data. We propose normalisation of beached bird survey data based on numerical drift simulations to improve the recognition of trends in the level of chronic oil pollution.

  4. Linear mixed-effects models to describe length-weight relationships for yellow croaker (Larimichthys Polyactis) along the north coast of China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuyun; Jiao, Yan; Ren, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationships and relative condition factors were analyzed for Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) along the north coast of China. Data covered six regions from north to south: Yellow River Estuary, Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, Jiaozhou Bay, Coastal Waters of Qingdao, Haizhou Bay, and South Yellow Sea. In total 3,275 individuals were collected during six years (2008, 2011-2015). One generalized linear model, two simply linear models and nine linear mixed effect models that applied the effects from regions and/or years to coefficient a and/or the exponent b were studied and compared. Among these twelve models, the linear mixed effect model with random effects from both regions and years fit the data best, with lowest Akaike information criterion value and mean absolute error. In this model, the estimated a was 0.0192, with 95% confidence interval 0.0178~0.0308, and the estimated exponent b was 2.917 with 95% confidence interval 2.731~2.945. Estimates for a and b with the random effects in intercept and coefficient from Region and Year, ranged from 0.013 to 0.023 and from 2.835 to 3.017, respectively. Both regions and years had effects on parameters a and b, while the effects from years were shown to be much larger than those from regions. Except for Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, a decreased from north to south. Condition factors relative to reference years of 1960, 1986, 2005, 2007, 2008~2009 and 2010 revealed that the body shape of Yellow Croaker became thinner in recent years. Furthermore relative condition factors varied among months, years, regions and length. The values of a and relative condition factors decreased, when the environmental pollution became worse, therefore, length-weight relationships could be an indicator for the environment quality. Results from this study provided basic description of current condition of Yellow Croaker along the north coast of China.

  5. Interaction of the Marine Atmosphere, Coastal Topography and Sea Surface Temperature on Marine Fog Distribution Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Mejia, J.; Koracin, D. R.; McEvoy, D.

    2014-12-01

    ICOADS ship observations for 1950-2007 were used to examine the distribution of marine fog along the West Coast of North America between 20°N and 50°N. Quarterly (June-August, JJA; Sept-Nov, SON; Dec-Feb, DJF; March-May, MAM) long-term means were obtained and gridded using a 1°x 1° degree-arc mesh. The ship observation includes a subjective assessment of the weather that is codified into 100 categories. The most important and relevant are deep fog at the time of observation with the visibility less than or equal to 1 km. The most frequent deep fog is during JJA, with the highest values in the grid points closest to shore. There is a general fog frequency maximum along the coast between 34°N - 44°N that decreases offshore. More frequent occurrences tend to occur at major capes. The maximum JJA occurrences are at Cape Blanco and Pt Arena. In contrast, deep fog is infrequent along Baja California. In SON, deep fog occurrences are lowest with a narrower coastal maximum. In DJF, there is a broad, uneven fog maximum along the coast between 35°N-39°N. The frequency of deep fog occurrence is intermediate in MAM, with a weak, broad area north of 35°N. The distribution of the occurrence of deep fog in JJA is determined by a three way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean. The southbound marine layer is channeled by the coastal mountains and interacts with land topography via hydraulic dynamics. The marine layer flow accelerates on the downwind side of major capes, forces greater wind driven upwelling and colder sea surface temperatures along the coast of Southern Oregon and Northern California. However, the fast southbound winds are largely free of marine fog. Marine fog tends to occur along the inner coast when the southbound winds decay or reverse direction for 1-3 days, with the densest fog downwind of a major cape where the sea surface temperatures are lowest.

  6. Model-based long-term reconstruction of weather-driven variations in chronic oil pollution along the German North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Chrastansky, Alena; Callies, Ulrich

    2009-07-01

    Lagrangian passive tracer transport simulations covering the 46-year period 1958-2003 were utilized to compare the exposures of different parts of the German North Sea coast to ship-related chronic oil pollution. Assuming the spatial distribution of oil releases to be proportional to estimated ship traffic density, detailed drift reconstructions allowed for the reconstruction of wind-induced inter-annual variations in coastal pollution. For the winter months, a statistical relationship between simulated advective transports and prevailing sea surface pressure fields was established via Canonical Correlation Analysis. Wind effects were found to be more important for the northern (Schleswig-Holstein) than for the southern (Lower Saxony) part of the German North Sea coast. For Schleswig-Holstein, simulations showed consensus with beached bird survey data from this region. Proper identification of weather-driven inter-annual and spatial variations in monitoring data helps to avert misjudgments with regard to trends in the general level of chronic oil pollution.

  7. Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America.

    PubMed

    Mantooth, Kristie; Hadziabdic, Denita; Boggess, Sarah; Windham, Mark; Miller, Stephen; Cai, Guohong; Spatafora, Joseph; Zhang, Ning; Staton, Meg; Ownley, Bonnie; Trigiano, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C. florida and C. nuttalli. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 93 D. destructiva isolates using 47 microsatellite loci developed from the sequenced genome of the type strain of D. destructiva. Clone-corrected data indicated low genetic diversity and the presence of four genetic clusters that corresponded to two major geographic areas, the eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest, and to the two collection time periods when the isolates were collected (pre- and post-1993). Linkage disequilibrium was present in five out of six subpopulations, suggesting that the fungus only reproduced asexually. Evidence of population bottlenecks was indicated across four identified genetic clusters, and was probably the result of the limited number of founding individuals on both coasts. These results support the hypothesis that D. destructiva is an exotic pathogen with independent introductions on the east and west coasts of North America. We also tested the cross-amplification of these microsatellite primers to other Discula species. Genomic DNA from 17 isolates of four other Discula species and two isolates of Juglanconis species (formerly Melanconis species) were amplified by 17 of 47 primer pairs. These primers may be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of these Discula species.

  8. Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Sarah; Windham, Mark; Miller, Stephen; Cai, Guohong; Spatafora, Joseph; Zhang, Ning; Staton, Meg; Ownley, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and by 1991 had quickly spread throughout most of the native ranges of C. florida and C. nuttalli. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 93 D. destructiva isolates using 47 microsatellite loci developed from the sequenced genome of the type strain of D. destructiva. Clone-corrected data indicated low genetic diversity and the presence of four genetic clusters that corresponded to two major geographic areas, the eastern United States and the Pacific Northwest, and to the two collection time periods when the isolates were collected (pre- and post-1993). Linkage disequilibrium was present in five out of six subpopulations, suggesting that the fungus only reproduced asexually. Evidence of population bottlenecks was indicated across four identified genetic clusters, and was probably the result of the limited number of founding individuals on both coasts. These results support the hypothesis that D. destructiva is an exotic pathogen with independent introductions on the east and west coasts of North America. We also tested the cross-amplification of these microsatellite primers to other Discula species. Genomic DNA from 17 isolates of four other Discula species and two isolates of Juglanconis species (formerly Melanconis species) were amplified by 17 of 47 primer pairs. These primers may be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and population structure of these Discula species. PMID:28746379

  9. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2017-05-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  10. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  11. The coast between Cabo de Santa Maria (Portugal) and Rabat (Morocco): a mega-size headland-bay shoreline under control of the North Atlantic swell?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttisheim, Johannes; Flemming, Burg W.

    2013-04-01

    Equilibrium headland-bay beach systems have been mathematically described by logarithmic, parabolic and hyperbolic curve functions. The largest system of this type reported to date has a shoreline length of about 62 km. In the present study, an apparent headland-bay system is presented which has a shoreline length of about 500 km. It was discovered on satellite images, and is located between Cabo de Santa Maria in Portugal and the coastal city of Rabat in Morocco. It appears to be controlled by long-period North Atlantic swells diffracting around Cabo São Vicente at the south-western tip of Portugal, in combination with SW-SE wind wave climates impinging on the northern shoreline of Cádiz Bay. The coast shows two marked departures from the equilibrium shoreline along its central section north and south of the Strait of Gibraltar, which are easily explained. Thus, the promontories to the north of the strait still exist because there has not been sufficient time to erode these back to the equilibrium shoreline since postglacial sea-level recovery. The coastal indentation to the south is explained by an insufficient sediment supply from terrestrial sources to facilitate the required beach accretion. Perfectly adjusted planimetric headland-bay shoreline shapes represent situations where wave orthogonals approach the coast at right angles everywhere, i.e. there is no longer any alongshore sediment transport. Equilibrium shorelines form independently of the grain size of the beach sediment, whereas morphodynamic beach states are indirectly affected by the shoreline shapes because the latter are modulated by wave period and breaker height which also control the morphodynamic response of the beach in combination with the local grain size.

  12. National assessment of shoreline change: a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Karen A. Ohman,; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    There is no widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change. Existing shoreline data measurements and rate calculation methods vary from study to study and prevent combining results into state-wide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the National Assessment project was to develop a standardized method of measuring changes in shoreline position that is consistent from coast to coast. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the results in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for the north coast of Alaska that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in section, "Geospatial Data."

  13. Large-Scale Antecedent Conditions Associated with 2014-2015 Winter Onset over North America and mid-Winter Storminess Along the North Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosart, L. F.; Papin, P. P.; Bentley, A. M.; Benjamin, M.; Winters, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Winter 2014-2015 was marked by the coldest November weather in 35 years east of the Rockies and record-breaking snowstorms and cold from the eastern Great Lakes to Atlantic Canada in January and February 2015. Record-breaking warmth prevailed across the Intermountain West and Rockies beneath a persistent upper-level ridge. Winter began with a series of arctic air mass surges that culminated in an epic lake-effect snowstorm occurred over western New York before Thanksgiving and was followed by a series of snow and ice storms that disrupted Thanksgiving holiday travel widely. Winter briefly abated in part of December, but returned with a vengeance between mid-January and mid-February 2015 when multiple extreme weather events that featured record-breaking monthly and seasonal snowfalls and record-breaking daily minimum temperatures were observed. This presentation will show how: (1) the recurvature and extratropical transition (ET) of Supertyphoon (STY) Nuri in the western Pacific in early November 2014, and its subsequent explosive reintensification as an extratropical cyclone (EC), disrupted the North Pacific jet stream and downstream Northern Hemisphere (NH) circulation, produced high-latitude ridging and the formation of an omega block over western North America, triggered downstream baroclinic development and the formation of a deep trough over eastern North America, and ushered in winter 2014-2015, (2) the ET/EC of STY Nuri increased subsequent week two predictability over the North Pacific and North America in association with diabatically influenced high-latitude ridge building, and (3) the amplification of the large-scale NH flow pattern beginning in January 2015 resulted in the formation of persistent high-amplitude ridges over northeastern Russia, Alaska, western North America, and the North Atlantic while deep troughs formed over the eastern North Pacific and eastern North America. This persistent amplified flow pattern supported the occurrence of frequent

  14. The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Ochrophyta) along the north coast of Portugal: distribution model versus field observations.

    PubMed

    Veiga, P; Torres, A C; Rubal, M; Troncoso, J; Sousa-Pinto, I

    2014-07-15

    After the first report of Undaria pinnatifida in north Portugal (between 1999 and 2007), a rapid spread of this species could be expected due to the presence of a stable population and the favourable environmental conditions proposed by distribution models. However, field surveys showed that U. pinnatifida was not present in most of the rocky shores in north Portugal. It seems that U. pinnatifida cannot outcompete native species outside of marinas in north Portugal. The only population in natural rocky shores was found in Buarcos, where this species was frequent. This study provides density data of U. pinnatifida that will be useful in the future to monitor changes on its abundance and distribution in the centre and south of Portugal.

  15. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Kennedy, George L.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1994-07-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ˜80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ˜125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ˜80,000 and the ˜125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ˜105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ˜125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ˜80,000 and ˜105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  16. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  17. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination. PMID:23645996

  18. Long-term changes in Prosobranchia (Gastropoda) abundances on the German North Sea coast: the role of the anti-fouling biocide tributyltin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehring, S.

    2000-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been used as a biocide in marine anti-fouling paints since the early 1970s. Due to its strong ecotoxicity and the relatively high levels in the water column as well as in port sediments on the German North Sea coast, it probably has negative ecological effects on organisms other than those targeted. An analysis of the long-term development of prosobranch stocks in the inner German Bight reveals a decrease in abundance of many species. For most species the decline cannot be attributed to TBT, but in four prosobranch species ( Buccinum undatum, Hydrobia ulvae, Littorina littorea and Nucella lapillus) significant ecological effects by TBT pollution are very probable. Although research for alternative non-TBT anti-fouling paints (e.g. biocide-free types on the basis of silicone) has been intensified, the potential threats to ecosystems and the ecotoxicological profiles of these alternatives have to be carefully evaluated.

  19. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2012-12-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination.

  20. Linear mixed-effects models to describe length-weight relationships for yellow croaker (Larimichthys Polyactis) along the north coast of China

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yan; Ren, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationships and relative condition factors were analyzed for Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) along the north coast of China. Data covered six regions from north to south: Yellow River Estuary, Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, Jiaozhou Bay, Coastal Waters of Qingdao, Haizhou Bay, and South Yellow Sea. In total 3,275 individuals were collected during six years (2008, 2011–2015). One generalized linear model, two simply linear models and nine linear mixed effect models that applied the effects from regions and/or years to coefficient a and/or the exponent b were studied and compared. Among these twelve models, the linear mixed effect model with random effects from both regions and years fit the data best, with lowest Akaike information criterion value and mean absolute error. In this model, the estimated a was 0.0192, with 95% confidence interval 0.0178~0.0308, and the estimated exponent b was 2.917 with 95% confidence interval 2.731~2.945. Estimates for a and b with the random effects in intercept and coefficient from Region and Year, ranged from 0.013 to 0.023 and from 2.835 to 3.017, respectively. Both regions and years had effects on parameters a and b, while the effects from years were shown to be much larger than those from regions. Except for Coastal Waters of Northern Shandong, a decreased from north to south. Condition factors relative to reference years of 1960, 1986, 2005, 2007, 2008~2009 and 2010 revealed that the body shape of Yellow Croaker became thinner in recent years. Furthermore relative condition factors varied among months, years, regions and length. The values of a and relative condition factors decreased, when the environmental pollution became worse, therefore, length-weight relationships could be an indicator for the environment quality. Results from this study provided basic description of current condition of Yellow Croaker along the north coast of China. PMID:28225777

  1. Extreme coastal storms along the north coast of Ireland: hydrodynamic forcing and beach response during the winter seasons of 2013/14 and 2014/15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Carlos; Marianne, O'Connor; Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The increase in storminess (frequency, duration and magnitude) and the occurrence of extreme coastal storms partly associated with climate change, represent pressing concerns for coastal communities in many regions globally. The Atlantic seaboard of Europe has recently experienced record-breaking winter seasons, particularly in Ireland and the UK, where the 2013/14 winter was characterised as the stormiest on record according to measured levels of total precipitation, extreme wind speeds, and particularly the frequency and intensity of cyclone activity. The enhanced cyclone activity during 2013/14 has resulted in unprecedented sequences of extreme water levels and energetic waves and gave rise to widespread coastal erosion and flooding, setting new benchmarks for coastal analysis and offered a glimpse of future storm impact scenarios. A regional analysis of hydrodynamic forcing along the north coast of Ireland over the last two extended winter seasons (October to March) has revealed that, although 2013/14 was indeed characterised by an exceptional frequency and intensity of coastal storms, the 2014/15 extended winter was significantly stormier. Not only was the number of individual storm events higher, but also the duration and intensity was greater, including record values of offshore significant wave height. The geomorphic response along the sandy coastal stretches of the north coast of Ireland, evaluated from morphological change at a diverse group of beach sites, revealed considerable differences in beach erosion and actual shoreline response. Variability in beach changes during these two extreme winter seasons is attributed to a variety of factors. These include localised coastal orientation relative to particular storm tracks, the embayed and highly compartmentalised setting of most of the beaches, as well as site-specific morphodynamic mechanisms such as large rip-current cells forcing the onset and/or reactivation of erosional hotspots. Such heterogeneous

  2. Environmental Relationship of Benthic Fauna in the Near Shore Waters off Gulf of Kutch, North West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Bhat, U. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken for a period of two years from December 2010 to May 2012.Studying the benthos of Gulf of Kutch near shore waters is also useful in understanding changes in biological diversity of Gujarat coast. The use of benthos in aquatic ecological research is especially effective in assessing long term changes and detecting input from diffuse sources. The benthos reflects the effects organic enrichment by responding through detectable changes in population dynamics on a time scale of months to years. This is in contrast to plankton which shows a more immediate change to point sources with no long term consequences to the populations (Gray et al 1992). Benthoses were collected from 6 stations on regular basis and were identified. Altogether 60 species belonging to 39 families were identified and placed taxonomically during the course of investigation with sediment samples. Benthic environmental relationship species were observed and recorded. Our studies of monthly comparisons have become an interesting and popular approach in ecology and environmental relationships in the past a number of studies have been conducted on the ecology of macro benthic populations of Gulf of Kutch near shore. My research helps in Gulf of Kutch of the west coast of India has become an important economic asset of the country serving commercial navigation and the fishing sector with environmental relation of benthos in the Gulf of Kutch Gujarat. India.

  3. Redistribution and growth of the Caspian Tern population in the Pacific Coast region of north America, 1981-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, R.M.; Craig, D.P.; Roby, D.D.; Chelgren, N.D.; Collis, K.; Shuford, W.D.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    We examined nesting distribution and demography of the Pacific Coast population of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) using breeding records and band recoveries spanning two decades since the first population assessment. Since 1980, population size has more than doubled to about 12 900 pairs, yet the proportion of the population nesting at inland (18%) versus coastal sites (82%) has remained constant. Although the breeding range of the Pacific Coast population has expanded northward into Alaska and farther south in Mexico, there was no net latitudinal shift in the distribution of breeding pairs or new colonies. The distribution of breeding birds among areas changed dramatically, however, with 69% of breeding terns now nesting in Oregon (primarily in the Columbia River estuary) versus 4% during the late 1970s. During the past 20 years, there has continued to be a greater proportion of Caspian Terns breeding at anthropogenic sites compared to natural sites. Estimated annual survival rates for hatch-year and after-third-year birds during 1981-1998 were greater than during 1955-1980, consistent with the higher rate of population increase in recent decades. Fecundity required to maintain a stable population (?? = 1) was estimated at 0.32-0.74 fledglings pair-1, depending on band recovery probabilities for sub-adults. Caspian Terns readily moved among breeding sites and rapidly colonized new areas; however, a greater concentration of breeding Caspian Terns among fewer colonies in response to anthropogenic factors is an important conservation concern for this species.

  4. A remote-sensing/GIS application for analysis of sea surface temperature off the western coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work reports a warming trend in Pacific Ocean temperatures over the last 50 years. Coastal regions along western North America are particularly sensitive to climatic change, an important indicator of which is sea surface temperature (SST). In situ SST measurements (typica...

  5. A remote-sensing/GIS application for analysis of sea surface temperature off the western coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work reports a warming trend in Pacific Ocean temperatures over the last 50 years. Coastal regions along western North America are particularly sensitive to climatic change, an important indicator of which is sea surface temperature (SST). In situ SST measurements (typica...

  6. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  7. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  8. The contribution of glacial isostatic adjustment to projections of sea-level change along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Ryan; Milne, Glenn A.; Tarasov, Lev; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hijma, Marc P.; Latychev, Konstantin; Horton, Benjamin P.; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    2016-10-01

    We determine the contribution of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) to future relative sea-level change for the North American coastline between Newfoundland and Texas. We infer GIA model parameters using recently compiled and quality-assessed databases of past sea-level changes, including new databases for the United States Gulf Coast and Atlantic Canada. At 13 cities along this coastline, we estimate the GIA contribution to range from a few centimeters (e.g., 3 [-1 to 9] cm Miami) to a few decimeters (e.g., 18 [12-22] cm, Halifax) for the period 2085-2100 relative to 2006-2015 (1-σ ranges given). We provide estimates of uncertainty in the GIA component using two different methods; the more conservative approach produces total ranges (1-σ confidence) that vary from 3 to 16 cm for the cities considered. Contributions from ocean steric and dynamic changes as well as those from changes in land ice are also estimated to provide context for the GIA projections. When summing the contributions from all three processes at the 13 cities considered along this coastline, using median or best-estimate values, the GIA signal comprises 5-38% of the total depending on the adopted climate forcing and location. The contributions from ocean dynamic/steric changes and ice mass loss are similar in amplitude but with spatial variation that approximately cancels, resulting in GIA dominating the net spatial variability north of 35°N.

  9. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  10. Sea to land transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides to the North Wales coast, Part I: external gamma radiation and radionuclide concentrations in intertidal sediments, soil and air.

    PubMed

    Bryan, S E; McDonald, P; Hill, R; Wilson, R C

    2008-01-01

    Previous projects specifically aimed at performing radiological assessments in the vicinity of North Wales, investigating the presence and transfer of radionuclides from sea to land, were in 1986 and 1989. Since then, changes have occurred in the radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Group Sellafield site. Annual discharges of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am have decreased markedly whereas, up until recent years, discharges of (99)Tc have increased. It is therefore desirable to quantify current transfer processes of radionuclides in the North Wales region and thus provide an update on 15-year-old studies. A field campaign was conducted collecting soil samples from 10 inland transects and air particulates on air filters from three High Volume Air Samplers, along the northern coast of Wales at Amlwch, Bangor Pier and Flint. Complementary field data relating to external gamma dose rates were collected at the soil sites. The field data generated for (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am were consistent with what had been reported 15 years previously. Therefore, there has been no increase in the supply of these Sellafield-derived radionuclides to the terrestrial environment of the North Wales coast. The (99)Tc data in sediments were consistent with reported values within annual monitoring programmes, however, a relatively high activity concentration was measured in one sediment sample. This site was further investigated to determine the reason why such a high value was found. At present there is no clear evidence as to why this elevated concentration should be present, but the role of seaweed and its capacity in accumulating (99)Tc and transferring it to sediment is of interest. The analysis of the field samples for (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am has provided a data set that can be used for the modelling of the transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides from sea to land and its subsequent radiological implications and is reported

  11. Hemagglutinating/Hemolytic activities in extracts of marine invertebrates from the Brazilian coast and isolation of two lectins from the marine sponge Cliona varians and the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea.

    PubMed

    Moura, Raniere M; Melo, Arthur A; Carneiro, Rômulo F; Rodrigues, Cícera R F; Delatorre, Plínio; Nascimento, Kyria S; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Nagano, Celso S; Cavada, Benildo S; Sampaio, Alexandre H

    2015-01-01

    Twenty species of marine invertebrates from the Brazilian coast were screened for hemagglutinating/hemolytic activity. In at least twelve tested species, hemagglutinating activity was different for different blood types, suggesting the presence of lectins. Extracts from four species showed hemolytic activity. Two new lectins were purified from the marine sponge Cliona varians (CvL-2) and sea cucumber Holothuria grisea (HGL). CvL-2 was able to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by galactosides. The hemagglutinating activity was optimal in pH neutral and temperatures below 70 °C. CvL-2 is a trimeric protein with subunits of 175 kDa. On the other hand, HGL showed both hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity in human and rabbit erythrocytes, but hemolysis could be inhibited by osmotic protection, and agglutination was inhibited by mucin. HGL was stable in pH values ranging from 4 to 10 and temperatures up to 90 °C. In electrophoresis and gel filtration, HGL was a monomeric protein with 15 kDa. CvL-2 and HGL showed different levels of toxicity to Artemia naplii. CvL-2 showed LC50 of 850.1 μg/mL, whereas HGL showed LC50 of 9.5 µg/mL.

  12. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Amazônia XXI. Descriptions of Elephantotus gen. n. and E. tracuateuensis sp. n. (Diachlorini) from the Brazilian coast

    PubMed Central

    Gorayeb, Inocêncio de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elephantotus, a new genus of Tabanidae from the Amazon coast, Brazil, is described based on a new species E. tracuateuensis. Five females were collected in Pará State, and a male in Maranhão State. Arguments are presented for separating the new genus from Dasybasis, as well as the possibility of its occurrence being related to the nesting sites of coastal birds. The new species is characterized by its large size (x = 2.15 cm, n = 5 females), glabrous eyes, reddish-brown tegument, light brown frontal callus not touching the edges of the eyes, extending up to the vertex that has traces of ocelli, basal plate of the antennal flagellum with obtuse angle, without a tooth or spine, wings hyaline, with brown basal cells, without appendix in the fork of vein R4+5, and genital furca wide with extended flaps. PMID:24715787

  13. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Amazônia XXI. Descriptions of Elephantotus gen. n. and E. tracuateuensis sp. n. (Diachlorini) from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Gorayeb, Inocêncio de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Elephantotus, a new genus of Tabanidae from the Amazon coast, Brazil, is described based on a new species E. tracuateuensis. Five females were collected in Pará State, and a male in Maranhão State. Arguments are presented for separating the new genus from Dasybasis, as well as the possibility of its occurrence being related to the nesting sites of coastal birds. The new species is characterized by its large size (x = 2.15 cm, n = 5 females), glabrous eyes, reddish-brown tegument, light brown frontal callus not touching the edges of the eyes, extending up to the vertex that has traces of ocelli, basal plate of the antennal flagellum with obtuse angle, without a tooth or spine, wings hyaline, with brown basal cells, without appendix in the fork of vein R4+5, and genital furca wide with extended flaps.

  14. A new species of Haliclona (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida: Chalinidae) from southeastern Brazil and the first record of Haliclona vansoesti from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Muricy, Guilherme; Esteves, Eduardo L; Monteiro, Leandro C; Rodrigues, Beatriz Roma; Albano, Rodolpho M

    2015-03-03

    In this paper we describe two species of the cosmopolitan sponge genus Haliclona from Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil, one of which is new to science and the other a new record to Brazil. Haliclona (Rhizoniera) fugidia sp. nov. is brownish-pink, salmon or cream, thickly encrusting, without oscular tubes and tangential ectosomal reticulation. Choanosomal skeleton is a mostly unispicular ladder-like reticulation of oxeas, very organized near the sponge surface and denser and more disorganized in the interior of the sponge. Haliclona (Halichoclona) vansoesti de Weerdt et al., 1999 was originally described from the Caribbean. It has a very loose connection between ectosome and choanosome, a whitish translucent ectosome combined with a purplish choanosome, a cavernous structure and a friable or crispy consistency. The conspecificity of SE Brazilian and Caribbean populations of H. (Halich.) vansoesti was verified through phylogenetic analysis of small subunit 18S rRNA (18S) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree constructed with 18S sequences indicates that specimens of H. (Halich.) vansoesti from Rio de Janeiro were phylogenetically closer to the same species from the Caribbean than to other species of Haliclona. Although not available for H. (Halich.) vansoesti from the Caribbean, COI sequences of our specimens were also quite distinct from those of other Haliclona species. Molecular identification based on DNA sequences is a useful complement to traditional morphology-based taxonomy, especially in highly plastic sponges such as Haliclona spp. and other haplosclerids.

  15. Suitability of Parkinson's patients for surgery in the north East coast of peninsular malaysia: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, J; Abdullah, M R

    2003-01-01

    There is no report in the English literature on the criteria for neuroablation or neuroaugmentation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in a developing country like Malaysia. A prospective study of patients with Parkinson's disease from the north-eastern peninsular Malaysia was done to assess their suitability of surgery. Age, race, duration of illness and dementia were considered important factors towards the success of such surgical procedures. A mathematical model is suggested for future cases deemed to be suitable for neuroaugmentative or ablative surgery.

  16. Longitudinal variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of a typical North coast Jamaican river.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, Eric J; Hunte-Brown, Meshagae

    2012-03-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate fauna plays a major role in river ecosystems, especially those of tropical islands. Since there is no information on the distribution of benthic invertebrates along a Jamaican river, we report here on the composition of the benthic fauna of the Buff Bay river, on the Northern coast of Jamaica. A total of 14 samples were collected from five sites, using kick nets and a Surber sampler, between May 1997 and October 1998. We also examined the applicability of the rhithron/potamon model, and some of the premises of the River Continuum Concept (RCC) in relation to the distribution of invertebrate taxa. The results showed a total of 38 taxa of identified invertebrates. A group of dominant taxa, composed mainly of immature stages of insects, occurred at all sites. Two notable characteristics of the river were the absence of a true potamonic fauna and the low representation of the shredder functional feeding group in the community We conclude that, while there was minor variation in the composition of the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna among the sites, this was a response to local conditions within the river system. The characteristics of the community did not conform to either of the models.

  17. Confirmation by LC-MS/MS of azaspiracids in shellfish from the Portuguese north-western coast.

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo; Bire, Ronel; Hess, Philipp

    2008-06-15

    The search for azaspiracids (AZAs) in shellfish on the Portuguese coast started in 2002, but the presence of these toxins could not be demonstrated until the summer of 2006. Analysis by liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the confirmation of AZA2 as a dominant compound, followed by AZA1, in blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), common cockle (Cerastoderma edule), clams (Venerupis senegalensis, Ruditapes decussatus), razor clam (Solen marginatus) and oyster (Crassostrea spp). Traces of AZA3 were found only in blue mussel. Total levels of AZA1-3 determined in the whole flesh by LC-MS/MS ranged from 1.6 to 6.1 microg/kg. The finding of low levels of AZAs since 2002 suggests a low risk level when compared with the highest risks posed by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. However, the limited number of years studied might generate a misleading conclusion. The contamination with PSP is an example, as no contamination occurred for an extended period of time between 1996 and 2004, despite high levels having occurred outside this period. Thus, there appears overall a moderate likelihood of occurrence of AZAs in the range that may be relevant to consumers.

  18. Comparative assessment of reproductive impairment in the gastropod mollusc Littorina littorea along the Belgian North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Heidi; De Wolf, Hans; Backeljau, Thierry; Blust, Ronny

    2009-04-01

    In this study we present the results of an intersex survey of Littorina littorea along the Belgian coast. Levels of female intersex and sterility were determined to assess TBT related adverse effects. In addition, we determined the levels of male penis shedding and trematode infestation and investigated the morphology of the shell. Significant differences were found for all these variables which clearly differentiated periwinkles from Zeebrugge (B2) from those at other locations. Intersex index (ISI) values were relatively low (i.e. 0.00-0.39), except at B2 where they ranged up to 3.52, the highest value ever reported in literature. Consequently, female reproductive impairment at B2 was severe. Indeed, up to 95% of female periwinkles were sterile at B2. In addition, 61% of the male periwinkles had shed their penis. Furthermore, no trematode infestation could be detected at B2 and specimens from this location had the largest and heaviest shells, which may be related to population demography and/or a different use of energy budgets.

  19. Determination of Biological Carbon Uptake on the North American West Coast Using Dissolved Oxygen Isotopes and the O2/Ar Gas Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juranek, L. W.; Feely, R. A.; Sabine, C. L.; Quay, P. D.; Ianson, D.; Alin, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal margins are regularly cited to contribute to the global carbon budget disproportionately to their area because their air-sea CO2 and organic carbon sinking fluxes are often orders of magnitude higher than in the open ocean. Unfortunately, the spatially and temporally dynamic nature of these environments and a lack of extensive field observations have prevented an assessment of the source/sink status of most coastal regimes and a comprehensive evaluation of the environmental factors that influence these fluxes. We evaluate the biological modulation of inorganic carbon inventories for 13 cross-shelf transects occupied during a May/June 2007 hydrographic survey cruise along the western North American coast, from Queen Charlotte Sound, Canada, to Southern Baja California, Mexico. In situ mixed layer gross primary production (GPP) and net community production (NCP) rates were determined from measured oxygen isotopes and dissolved O2/Ar gas ratios at over 100 locations during the cruise. Our GPP and NCP observations at some locations (e.g., Queen Charlotte Sound, Canada) were only slightly elevated from adjacent open ocean values (GPP: 40-80 mmol C m-2 d-1 and NCP: 15-35 mmol C m-2 d-1) . In other locations the rates were >10 times open ocean values (N. California coast, GPP up to 1000 mmol C m- 2 d-1 and NCP up to 500 mmol C m-2 d-1). We will show how biological rates relate to local wind and circulation forcing and how they compare to changes in inventories of dissolved inorganic carbon. We will also compare our results to historical observations and concurrent satellite chlorophyll observations and remotely-sensed PP estimates.

  20. Ocean climate indicators: A monitoring inventory and plan for tracking climate change in the north-central California coast and ocean region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, Benet; Higgason, Kelley; Suchanek, Tom; Largier, John; Stachowicz, Jay; Allen, Sarah; Bograd, Steven; Breen, R.; Gellerman, Holly; Hill, Tessa; Jahncke, Jaime; Johnosn, Rebecca; Lonhart, Steve I.; Morgan, Steven; Wilkerson, Frances; Roletto, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change, defined as increasing atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide and associated increases in average global temperature and oceanic acidity, have been observed both globally and on regional scales, such as in the North-central California coast and ocean, a region that extends from Point Arena to Point Año Nuevo and includes the Pacific coastline of the San Francisco Bay Area. Because of the high economic and ecological value of the region’s marine environment, the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) and other agencies and organizations have recognized the need to evaluate and plan for climate change impacts. Climate change indicators can be developed on global, regional, and site-specific spatial scales, and they provide information about the presence and potential impacts of climate change. While indicators exist for the nation and for the state of California as a whole, no system of ocean climate indicators exist that specifically consider the unique characteristics of the California coast and ocean region. To that end, GFNMS collaborated with over 50 regional, federal, and state natural resource managers, research scientists, and other partners to develop a set of 2 ocean climate indicators specific to this region. A smaller working group of 13 regional partners developed monitoring goals, objectives, strategies, and activities for the indicators and recommended selected species for biological indicators, resulting in the Ocean Climate Indicators Monitoring Inventory and Plan. The working group considered current knowledge of ongoing monitoring, feasibility of monitoring, costs, and logistics in selecting monitoring activities and selected species.

  1. Structure and functional characteristics of the meiofauna community in highly unstable intertidal mudbanks in Suriname and French Guiana (North Atlantic coast of South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christine, Dupuy; Hien, Nguyen Thanh; David, Mizrahi; Jérôme, Jourde; Martine, Bréret; Hélène, Agogué; Laureen, Beaugeard; Pierrick, Bocher

    2015-11-01

    The North Atlantic coast of South America is influenced by the Amazon River. This coast is considered the muddiest in the world due to the enormous suspended sediment input from the Amazon River. The mobility of the sediment imposes a geomorphological dynamic with a rapid change of shoreline and fast alternation of facies types of the sediment. This study first describes the spatial and functional structure of meiofauna communities of highly unstable intertidal flats along coasts of French Guiana and Suriname in relation to environmental variables. Six sampling sites, composed mainly of muddy sediment, were located 700 km (Kourou) to 1200 km (Nickerie) from the mouth of the Amazon River. The granulometry, chlorophyll a biomass, prokaryote abundance, percentage of organic matter, meiofauna abundance and feeding guilds of nematodes in sediment stations were independent of the distance of the Amazon River mouth and likely were more influenced by the local dynamism of migration of mudbanks. Meiofauna was not more abundant when the sediment was dominated by the finest sediment particles and also when chlorophyll a and prokaryotes, potential prey of meiofauna, were greater. However, as a percentage, small nematodes (biomass of 0.07±0.001 μg ind-1), which are mainly epigrowth-feeders, were more abundant in very fluid mud. Local granulometry and organic matter content appeared to be driving factors of the size structure and functional characteristics of nematodes. Despite the high instability of mudflats, chlorophyll a biomass and meiofauna abundance always tended to be higher toward other world areas. No foraminifera among the six stations of the study were found. Very fluid mud with physical instability of sediment caused a large perturbation to the settlement of meiofauna; the least amounts of chlorophyll a biomass and prokaryotic and meiofauna abundances were found there. Thus, the probable mobility of sediment may select for smaller meiobenthic organisms, mainly

  2. Fabric anisotropy induced by primary depositional variations in the silt: clay ratio in two fine-grained slope fan complexes: Texas Gulf Coast and northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, Ruarri J.; Dutton, Shirley P.; Milliken, Kitty L.; Loucks, Robert G.; Aplin, Andrew C.; Hillier, Stephen; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    2010-04-01

    High-resolution X-ray texture goniometry (HRXTG) has been used to quantify the alignment (anisotropy) of phyllosilicate minerals in a series of diagenetically altered mudstone samples from the deep subsurface of the Texas Gulf Coast and the northern North Sea. The sampled formations have undergone a simple burial history with no overprint of tectonic deformation that may have influenced the phyllosilicate orientation. Observations have been made in two constrained temperature windows 148-150 °C (North Sea data) and 169-210 °C (Texas Gulf Coast) wherein less than 20% smectite remains in the mixed layer phase illite-smectite. Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) shows quartz (which is dominantly detrital) and phyllosilicate content having an inverse relationship. Quantified illite-smectite fabric intensity (phyllosilicate alignments) ranges from low alignment values of 2.42 m.r.d. (multiples of a random distribution) to high alignment values 6.75 m.r.d. and chlorite + kaolinite ranges from 1.80 to 6.46 m.r.d. We propose that the broad range of phyllosilicate fabric intensity observed reflects the range of quartz/phyllosilicate ratios that are the imprint of depositional setting, bedform truncation, and initial grain size. Detrital quartz acts to disrupt fabric intensity by being non-platy, producing areas sheltered from effective stress ('pressure shadows'), and acting as a matrix support. There is no evidence that bioturbation is a significant control on phyllosilicate alignment in these quartz/phyllosilicate mixtures. These findings have important implications for the role of grain-scale alignment on seismic anisotropy in mudstone systems. Fabric intensity in post-diagenetic samples can be predicted from (1) quartz content and (2) total clay content where: y=-7.4x+64.8 x is fabric intensity (in m.r.d.) and y is total (wt.%) quartz a=4.2b+33.7 and a is total (wt.%) clay content and b is fabric intensity (in m.r.d.).

  3. High Angle Reverse Faulting Along the Southwestern Coast of the Gulf of Mexico: An Example of Intraplate Deformation of the North American Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, G.; López, A.

    2011-12-01

    The southwestern coast of the Gulf of Mexico shows a relatively high level of crustal seismicity compared to areas adjacent to it. Four relatively large earthquakes have occurred in this region for which an inversion of the focal mechanisms and hypocentral depths was possible. Suárez (2000) found two events for which a focal mechanism could be determined through the formal inversion of the P and S waves. The results showed that the earthquakes of 1959 in Jáltipan (M6.4) and 1973 near Veracruz (M5.3), share a similar focal mechanism: reverse faulting at a high angle with the axes of maximum compression oriented northwest to southeast. The focal depths are between 22 and 26 km deep. The focal mechanisms of two recent earthquakes were determined through the formal inversion of body waves. The 23 May 2007 event occurred beneath the coastal city of Alvarado and the 29 October 2009 took place offshore the north coast of the Gulf. The epicenter of the 2007 event (M5.4) is close to the 1973 Veracruz earthquake. The focal mechanism also shows high-angle reverse faulting and the focal depth is 26 km. This event has the same northeast to southwest direction of maximum compression as the other earthquakes in the area. The earthquake of 29 October 2007 (M5.2), offshore the city of Tuxpan, shows a strike slip focal mechanism with axes of maximum compression also oriented in a northeast to southwest direction, at a depth of 7 km. This shallow focal depth is in contrast with the deeper earthquakes to the south. These earthquakes reflect intraplate deformation of the North American plate. They do not seem to be caused by the extraction of oil in the Gulf of Mexico as they are far from the largest deposits now being exploited. The deformation appears to be related to a more regional compressional stress regime that induces faulting along the continental margin of the Gulf. We speculate that the deformation in the southwestern continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico may be caused

  4. Myxidium volitans sp. nov., a parasite of the gallbladder of the fish, Dactylopterus volitans (Teleostei: Triglidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic coast--morphology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Casal, Graça; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona; Lopes, Leila Maria Silva; Matos, Patrícia; Abdel-Baki, Abdel Azeem; Oliveira, Elsa; Matos, Edilson

    2011-08-01

    Myxidium volitans sp. nov. (Myxozoa: Myxidiidae) parasitizing the hypertrophied green-brownish gallbladder of the teleost Dactylopterus volitans, collected in the Atlantic coast near Niterói, Brazil was described based on ultrastructural studies. The spores were fusiform, sometimes slightly crescent-shaped on average 21.7 ± 0.3 µm (mean ± standard deviation) (n = 50) long and 5.6 ± 0.4 µm (n = 30) wide. The spore wall was thin and smooth, comprising two equally-sized valves joined by a hardly visible sutural ridge. Spores containing two pyriform polar capsules (PC) (5.0 ± 0.4 × 2.3 ± 0.3 µm) (n = 30) are situated in each extremity of the spore. The PC wall was composed of hyaline layer (0.20-0.29 µm thick) and by a thin external granular layer. Each PC contains a polar filament (PF) with irregular arrangements that was projected from its apical region to the bases of PC and coiled laterally from bases to the tip of PC. Some regular striations and S-like structures in the periphery of the PFs with four-five irregular sections were observed. Based on the spore morphology, ultrastructural differences and the specificity of the host we describe this parasite as a new myxosporidian, named M. volitans sp. nov.

  5. Evidence for an Extraterrestrial Impact Origin of the Carolina Bays on the Atlantic Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.; Kobres, R.

    2007-05-01

    The Carolina Bays, one of the most conspicuous geomorphic features on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, are a group of about 500,000, oriented, crater-like, elliptical lakes, wetlands, and depressions, ranging from a few dozen meters to about 11 km in length. Although long proposed as impact structures (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934), this origin for the Carolina Bays has remained controversial mainly because of an apparent absence of associated extraterrestrial materials. Analyses of Bay orientation showed that their long axes converge near the Great Lakes, suggesting that an impact or airburst over that region may have formed the Bays (Eyton and Parkhurst, 1975). However, Bays dates have been reported over a wide range, calling into question whether all Carolina Bays could have formed simultaneously, although this issue remains unresolved and controversial. Many Bay researchers, who subscribe to widely differing theories, agree that modern Carolina Bays have been subject to repeated modification and that they most likely evolved from some type of ancestral depressions. Now for the first time, we present conclusive geochemical and sedimentary evidence in support of an extraterrestrial connection for the Carolina Bays. Analyses of sediment from the rim sands and basins of fifteen Bays, widely distributed across North and South Carolina, reveal anomalously high abundances of microspherules, iridium, fullerenes with ET helium, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and other potential markers for extraterrestrial impact. No such markers were found in paleosols beneath the rim sands or basal sediments of the Bays examined. The assemblage of geochemical and sediment signatures of extraterrestrial impact found in Bay sediments are essentially the same as in the pan-North-American Younger Dryas impact boundary layer (the YDB), dated at 12.9 ka. We hypothesize that at least some Bays were formed by the YD impact during the last deglacial, and we

  6. Recent Shifts in Shoreline Orientation along a Cuspate Coast Potentially Linked to Climate Change, North Carolina Outer Banks, USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, L. J.; Brenner, O.; McNamara, D.; Murray, A. B.

    2009-12-01

    Recent modeling (e.g., Ashton and Murray, 2006a) and observations (Ashton and Murray 2006b) suggest that sandy coastlines self-organize into large-scale plan-view shapes that depend sensitively on the regional wave climate. Subsequent modeling (Slott et al., 2007) shows that even moderate changes in wave climate, likely to arise as storm behaviors shift, may cause coastlines to change shape rapidly. Such large-scale shape changes involve greatly accentuated rates of local erosion and highly variable erosion/accretion rates. A recent analysis of wave records from the Southeastern U.S. (Komar and Allen, 2007) indicates that wave climates have already been changing over the past three decades; the heights of waves attributable to tropical storms have been increasing, changing the angular distribution of wave influences. Changes in coastline shape resulting from changes in the regional wave climate identified by Komar and Allen (2007) will likely be difficult to detect along most coastlines due to short-term variability in shoreline position and limits to the resolution at which shoreline changes can be measured over a 30-year time period. However, adjustments in coastline shape are likely to occur most quickly, and therefore to be most pronounced, on cuspate shorelines along and adjacent to cape tips because rapid changes in shoreline orientation make these locations particularly sensitive to deep-water wave approach angles. To test for the presence of detectable climate-change related shifts in coastline shape along a cuspate shoreline we conduct an historical (1852 - 1974) and recent (1974 - 2004) shoreline change analysis for Cape Hatteras and Cape Lookout, North Carolina. Results indicate a recent shift in shoreline-change patterns, with trends toward more-erosional/less-accretional shoreline response and more-accretional/less-erosional response in roughly consistent locations (relative to cape tips) on the flanks of both capes. These changes in shoreline response

  7. Nutrient Inputs to Estuaries from Nine Scottish East Coast Rivers; Influence of Estuarine Processes on Inputs to the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balls, Philip W.

    1994-10-01

    Nutrient distributions (nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and silicate) have been determined in the surface waters of nine North Sea estuaries: Tweed, Forth, Tay, Dee, Don, Ythan, Beauly/Inverness Firth, Cromarty Firth and Dornoch Firth. Seasonal variability has been examined by conducting surveys in April, July and September 1991 and February 1992. On each occasion, surveys of all nine estuaries were normally completed in 3-5 days of each other, around high water on spring tides. This intensive and strictly controlled sampling regime ensures a realistic comparison between nutrient concentrations in individual estuaries. Nutrient concentrations in individual rivers and estuaries are demonstrated to be related to land use. River catchments with intensive agriculture and low freshwater input, such as the Don and Ythan, have enhanced nitrate (up to 600 μM) and phosphate (up to 5 μM) concentrations in their estuaries. By contrast, Highland river catchments with mineral-poor soils, low populations and low agricultural intensity (Inverness, Cromarty and Dornoch Firths) generally lead to nutrient concentrations being lower in river water than in coastal seawater. Conservative mixing of dissolved nutrients is demonstrated to be a function of estuarine flushing time which controls the extent to which internal processes (biological and abiological) can modify nutrient inputs. Nutrients tend to behave conservatively in short rapidly flushed estuaries such as the Tweed, Don and Ythan. In contrast, internal processes are shown to be important when estimating riverine nutrient fluxes to the coastal zone from large slowly flushed estuaries such as the Forth, Tay and Dornoch Firth. For these systems, estimates of riverine inputs to the estuary do not provide a good estimate of the load entering the coastal zone. This is primarily due to the cycling of nutrient elements between dissolved and particulate (including sediment) phases. On a regional basis, gross nutrient inputs are

  8. Contrasting styles of Hurricane Irene washover sedimentation on three east coast barrier islands: Cape Lookout, North Carolina; Assateague Island, Virginia; and Fire Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. F. L.

    2015-02-01

    Storm surge and wind-driven waves generated by Hurricane Irene, which made landfall on the U.S. east coast on August 27 2011, resulted in overwash of sandy barrier islands from North Carolina to New York State. Overwash has significant impacts on barrier island geomorphology: it represents a sediment pathway into island interiors, a component of island sediment budgets, and can cause considerable aggradation of backshore surfaces, important for potentially offsetting the effects of rising sea level. This study describes the morphology, texture and microfossil content of Hurricane Irene washover deposits at three contrasting barrier island sites: Cape Lookout, North Carolina, Assateague Island, Virginia and Fire Island, New York. At all three sites, run-up overwash occurred, wherein waves were sufficient to overtop parts of the beach system and transport sediment inland. However, at Fire Island, overwash was restricted by a higher elevational threshold to low spots in the beach system coinciding with pre-existing breaches in foredunes. The result was the formation of isolated, thinner, low-volume washover fans. At Assateague Island and Cape Lookout, lower elevational thresholds allowed waves to overtop longer continuous sections of beach systems, resulting in the formation of laterally-continuous, thicker, larger-volume washover terraces. Overall, the deposits lacked consistent trends in thickness and texture (such as thinning and fining inland, reflecting a progressive reduction in overwash competence). Thickness and texture of the deposits were both spatially variable and probably reflect infilling of low points on the former surface and the influence of beach and foredune sediment sources. All the washover deposits were essentially barren of foraminiferal microfossils, supporting the textural evidence that the adjacent beach and foredunes were the predominant sediment sources.

  9. Accelerated flooding along the U.S. East Coast: On the impact of sea-level rise, tides, storms, the Gulf Stream, and the North Atlantic Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezer, Tal; Atkinson, Larry P.

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies identified the U.S. East Coast north of Cape Hatteras as a "hotspot" for accelerated sea-level rise (SLR), and the analysis presented here shows that the area is also a "hotspot for accelerated flooding." The duration of minor tidal flooding [defined as 0.3 m above MHHW (mean higher high water)] has accelerated in recent years for most coastal locations from the Gulf of Maine to Florida. The average increase in annual minor flooding duration was ˜20 h from the period before 1970 to 1971-1990, and ˜50 h from 1971-1990 to 1991-2013; spatial variations in acceleration of flooding resemble the spatial variations of acceleration in sea level. The increase in minor flooding can be predicted from SLR and tidal range, but the frequency of extreme storm surge flooding events (0.9 m above MHHW) is less predictable, and affected by the North Atlantic Oscillations (NAO). The number of extreme storm surge events since 1960 oscillates with a period of ˜15 year and interannual variations in the number of storms are anticorrelated with the NAO index. With higher seas, there are also more flooding events that are unrelated to storm surges. For example, it is demonstrated that week-long flooding events in Norfolk, VA, are often related to periods of decrease in the Florida Current transport. The results indicate that previously reported connections between decadal variations in the Gulf Stream (GS) and coastal sea level may also apply to short-term variations, so flood predictions may be improved if the GS influence is considered.

  10. Morphodynamics of Holocene salt marshes: a review sketch from the Atlantic and Southern North Sea coasts of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. R. L.

    2000-07-01

    Salt marshes, most now embanked, together with genetically related wetlands and high intertidal flats, make a major environmental contribution to the lowland coasts of Northwest Europe. They occur in many different contexts, but chiefly on open and barrier coasts and in estuaries and embayments, and range greatly in scale, from a modest total that measure hundreds of square kilometres in individual extent, to an enormous number each of an area no greater than tens to a few hundred hectares. These marshes and associated environments are under complex natural controls and experienced from the mid-Holocene onward human exploitation and, increasingly, interference. The main external controls are the sea-level, tidal and sediment-supply regimes. Intrinsic infuences are provided by the halophytic vegetation and sediment autocompaction. Upward sea-level movements and autocompaction combine to provide accomodation space within which marshes build upward. Field data and simulation modelling show that youthful mineralogenic marshes grow up rapidly and can mature within a few hundred years of inception. They consist of a vegetated platform dissected typically by extensive networks of blind-ended, branching tidal creeks and gullies. The flow-resistant surface vegetation, shaping the combined wave-tide boundary layer on the platforms, both traps and binds tidally introduced mineral sediment, but also contributes an organic component of indigenous origin to the deposit. When sea-level becomes stable or falls, however, in response to century-millennial scale fluctuations, the organic sediment component becomes dominant and mineralogenic marshes are transformed into organogenic ones. Organogenic marshes normally display a considerable range of sub-environments which create much spatial variation in the peat facies which accumulate. At an advanced stage, domed raised bogs, rising significantly above the general landscape, may appear on the marshes. Because peat is such a porous and

  11. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  12. Evidence of MIS 5 sea-level highstands in Gebel Mousa coast (Strait of Gibraltar, North of Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, M.; Rodríguez-Vidal, J.; Aboumaria, K.; Zaghloul, M. N.; Cáceres, L. M.; Ruiz, F.; Martínez-Aguirre, A.; Izquierdo, T.; Chamorro, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Last Interglacial is considered the most suitable episode from which to infer patterns of rapid sea-level change since its climatic conditions were similar to those of the present interglacial. However, specifying the true position of its sea level with high accuracy is very troublesome in the absence of sedimentological, erosional or even palaeontological markers. This study investigates the morphosedimentary evidence (beach deposits, cliff, notch and shore platform) of two highstands registered and dated during MIS 5 stage by U-series dating in the North of Morocco (Strait of Gibraltar). Bioerosive notches and mixed siliciclastic and carbonate deposits, high energy beaches with algal bioherms, were formed in coastal environments during MIS 5a. A sea-level height of + 10 m asl can be inferred for this substage. The record of MIS 5e substage is less defined in the geomorphological record, consisting of backshore/foreshore deposits located at + 13 to + 15 m asl. A tectonic uplift rate of ~ 0.1 mm/yr has been estimated for the last 130 kyr. These data are consistent with models of coastal uplifting calculated for the Strait of Gibraltar.

  13. Statistical analyses of the results of 25 years of beach litter surveys on the south-eastern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Clemens, Thomas; Förster, Harald; Harder, Thorsten; Fleet, David; Gaus, Silvia; Grave, Christel; Flegel, Imme; Schrey, Eckart; Hartwig, Eike

    2015-08-01

    In the North Sea, the amount of litter present in the marine environment represents a severe environmental problem. In order to assess the magnitude of the problem and measure changes in abundance, the results of two beach litter monitoring programmes were compared and analysed for long-term trends applying multivariate techniques. Total beach litter pollution was persistently high. Spatial differences in litter abundance made it difficult to identify long-term trends: Partly more than 8000 litter items year(-1) were recorded on a 100 m long survey site on the island of Scharhörn, while the survey site on the beach on the island of Amrum revealed abundances lower by two orders of magnitude. Beach litter was dominated by plastic with mean proportions of 52%-91% of total beach litter. Non-parametric time series analyses detected many significant trends, which, however, did not show any systematic spatial patterns. Cluster analyses partly led to groupings of beaches according to their expositions to sources of litter, wind and currents. Surveys in short intervals of one to two weeks were found to give higher annual sums of beach litter than the quarterly surveys of the OSPAR method. Surveys at regular intervals of four weeks to five months would make monitoring results more reliable.

  14. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  15. Challenges in integrative approaches to modelling the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic: Physics to fish and coasts to ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason; Icarus Allen, J.; Anderson, Thomas R.; Brewin, Robert; Butenschön, Momme; Harle, James; Huse, Geir; Lehodey, Patrick; Lindemann, Christian; Memery, Laurent; Salihoglu, Baris; Senina, Inna; Yool, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    It has long been recognised that there are strong interactions and feedbacks between climate, upper ocean biogeochemistry and marine food webs, and also that food web structure and phytoplankton community distribution are important determinants of variability in carbon production and export from the euphotic zone. Numerical models provide a vital tool to explore these interactions, given their capability to investigate multiple connected components of the system and the sensitivity to multiple drivers, including potential future conditions. A major driver for ecosystem model development is the demand for quantitative tools to support ecosystem-based management initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to review approaches to the modelling of marine ecosystems with a focus on the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent shelf seas, and to highlight the challenges they face and suggest ways forward. We consider the state of the art in simulating oceans and shelf sea physics, planktonic and higher trophic level ecosystems, and look towards building an integrative approach with these existing tools. We note how the different approaches have evolved historically and that many of the previous obstacles to harmonisation may no longer be present. We illustrate this with examples from the on-going and planned modelling effort in the Integrative Modelling Work Package of the EURO-BASIN programme.

  16. Coasts in Motion: Preliminary Results of a Summer 2006 LIDAR survey of the Outer Banks, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Burroughs, S. M.; Murray, A.; Smigelski, J.

    2006-12-01

    The shoreline, part of the Earth's `Critical Zone,' (NRC, 2001) undergoes continuous change, primarily in response to wave action. New technologies are just beginning to reveal surprising shoreline behaviors over a range of space and time scales (e.g. List and Farris, 1999; Tebbens et al, 2002). This early stage of coastal physical science calls for further documentation and analysis of the range of phenomena involved. A recent NSF-sponsored workshop listed "quantifying coastal change" as the first of three areas where coastal research is needed. In summer of 2006, the first of a series of LIDAR surveys was collected along the Outer Banks, North Carolina. These new surveys, combined with previous surveys of the same coastline segments collected in 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000, will allow the analysis of patterns of shoreline change over time intervals ranging in length from six months to eight years. Preliminary analysis of the summer 2006 LIDAR survey, in the context of previous surveys, will be presented.

  17. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  18. Ichthyoplankton Time Series: A Potential Ocean Observing Network to Provide Indicators of Climate Impacts on Fish Communities along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslow, J. A.; Brodeur, R.; Duffy-Anderson, J. T.; Perry, I.; jimenez Rosenberg, S.; Aceves, G.

    2016-02-01

    Ichthyoplankton time series available from the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and California Current (Oregon to Baja California) provide a potential ocean observing network to assess climate impacts on fish communities along the west coast of North America. Larval fish abundance reflects spawning stock biomass, so these data sets provide indicators of the status of a broad range of exploited and unexploited fish populations. Analyses to date have focused on individual time series, which generally exhibit significant change in relation to climate. Off California, a suite of 24 midwater fish taxa have declined > 60%, correlated with declining midwater oxygen concentrations, and overall larval fish abundance has declined 72% since 1969, a trend based on the decline of predominantly cool-water affinity taxa in response to warming ocean temperatures. Off Oregon, there were dramatic differences in community structure and abundance of larval fishes between warm and cool ocean conditions. Midwater deoxygenation and warming sea surface temperature trends are predicted to continue as a result of global climate change. US, Canadian, and Mexican fishery scientists are now collaborating in a virtual ocean observing network to synthesize available ichthyoplankton time series and compare patterns of change in relation to climate. This will provide regional indicators of populations and groups of taxa sensitive to warming, deoxygenation and potentially other stressors, establish the relevant scales of coherence among sub-regions and across Large Marine Ecosystems, and provide the basis for predicting future climate change impacts on these ecosystems.

  19. Ecological aspects of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic forest area on the north coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Jáder da C; de Paula, Marcia Bicudo; Fernandes, Aristides; dos Santos, Edmilson; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-06-01

    Mosquito diversity was determined in an area located on the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest on the north coast of Rio Grande of Sul State. Our major objective was to verify the composition, diversity, and temporal distribution of the mosquito fauna, and the influence of temperature and rainfall. Samplings were performed monthly between December, 2006 and December, 2008, in three biotopes: forest, urban area, and transition area, using CDC light traps and a Nasci vacuum. A total of 2,376 specimens was collected, from which 1,766 (74.32%) were identified as 55 different species belonging to ten genera. Culex lygrus, Aedes serratus, and Aedes nubilus were dominant (eudominant) and constant throughout samplings. The forest environment presented the highest species dominance (D(S) =0.20), while the transition area showed the highest values of diversity (H'=2.55) and evenness (J'=0.85). These two environments were the most similar, according to the Morisita-Horn Index (I(M-H) =0.35). Bootstrap estimates showed that 87.3% of the species occurring in the region were detected. The seasonal pattern showed a greater abundance of mosquitoes between May and October, indicating the period to intensify entomological surveillance in that area. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Shallow water sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the northwestern coast of the Sea of Japan, north of Peter the Great Bay, Russia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Primorye region, north of Peter the Great Bay has been sparsely studied in regards to its molluscan fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around Kievka Bay to Oprichnik Bay, Russia. Thirty-nine species of sea slugs were found in this study and the new species Cadlina olgae sp. nov., described herein. Most (24) of the species occurring in the area have widespread ranges in the northern Pacific Ocean. The eight species are endemic for the Sea of Japan and adjacent part of the Sea of Okhotsk. Seven other occur also in northern Atlantic and Arctic waters. Thirteen found species are not known from Peter the Great Bay but known from adjacent northern Pacific waters. The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Primorye. PMID:27957399

  1. Contributions of growth and deformation to monthly variability in sea ice thickness north of the coasts of Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.

    2016-08-01

    Regional variability in monthly CryoSat-2 sea ice thickness is partitioned into contributions from dynamics and thermodynamics using ice deformation calculated from large-scale ice drift. For five winters (December to April, 2011-2015), over a region of persistent convergence north of the coasts of Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, deformation explains 34% of the overall variance (up to 69% in 2014/2015) in monthly thickness changes. Approximately 42-56% (or 0.6 m) of the seasonal changes in mean regional ice thickness can be attributed to divergence and shear. The estimated area-averaged growth of 0.12 ± 0.03 m/month compares favorably with measurements from ice mass balance buoys. Examination of the time-variable thickness distributions shows areas covered by ice < 3 m are reduced, while areas of thicker ice (>3 m) increased. Albeit at fairly coarse resolution, this coupled analysis of thickness changes and deformation offered a first look at the character of the regional thickness redistribution process.

  2. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also “bulldoze” insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems. PMID:26466536

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in diploid and triploid oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from three farms on the north-central coast of Sinaloa, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Sevilla, Norma Patricia; Villanueva-Fonseca, Brenda Paulina; Góngora-Gómez, Andrés Martin; García-Ulloa, Manuel; Domínguez-Orozco, Ana Laura; Ortega-Izaguirre, Rogelio; Campos Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth

    2017-10-03

    The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg in diploid and triploid oysters from three farms (Guasave, Ahome, and Navolato) on the north-central coast of Sinaloa, Mexico, were assessed based on samples recovered during a single culture cycle 2013-2014. Metal burdens were more strongly correlated (p < 0.05) with the location of the farm than with either the ploidy or the interaction of both variables. The metal concentration ranking for oysters of both ploidies from the three farms was Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Hg. For all three farms, the mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in Crassostrea gigas were high, ranging from 2.52 to 7.98 μg/g wet weight for Cd and from 0.91 to 2.83 μg/g wet weight for Pb. Diploid and triploid oysters from the Guasave farm contained high levels of Cu (76.41 and 68.97 μg/g wet weight, respectively). Cu, Cd, and Zn were highly correlated (p < 0.05), and their concentrations may be influenced by agrochemical inputs. The mean levels of Cu for the Guasave farm and of Cd and Pb for all three farms exceeded permissible limits and represented a threat to human health during the sampling period (July 2014 to July 2014).

  4. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S

    2012-04-10

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also "bulldoze" insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems.

  5. A three-year study of viable airborne fungi in the North Carolina Zoological Park R.J.R. Nabisco Rocky Coast Alcid Exhibit.

    PubMed

    Faucette, T G; Loomis, M; Reininger, K; Zombeck, D; Stout, H; Porter, C; Dykstra, M J

    1999-03-01

    Aspergillosis is a common cause of mortality in captive birds, particularly in recently imported birds or captive chicks and their parents. Use of the Andersen N-6 single-stage viable air sampler in the North Carolina Zoological Park (NCZP) R.J.R. Nabisco Rocky Coast Alcid Exhibit before and after the introduction of birds allowed a unique study of the mycological content of the air in a developing self-contained ecosystem. The Alcid Exhibit had a median count of 17 colony-forming-units (CFU)/m3 of air in comparison to 200-500 CFU/m3 and 1,000-3,500 CFU/m3 reported in human dwellings and the NCZP R.J. Reynolds Forest Aviary, respectively. Cladosporium and Penicillium represented 21.3% and Aspergillus 1.08% of the fungi collected. During the study, no respiratory mycoses were reported in any of the alcids. Continuous high-efficiency particulate air filtration, maintenance of low exhibit air temperatures, and an environment with little residual organic material capable of supporting fungal growth were important factors contributing to low colony counts. All colony counts >100 CFU/m3 in the exhibit were related to the apparent introduction of fungi from outside the facility. A reduction in the number of fungi transported from an external source into enclosed cool-temperature aviaries may be sufficient to avoid outbreaks of aspergillosis.

  6. Interannual variation of seasonal means and subseasonal variability of cloud streets off the east coast of North America 1984-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rademacher, Kurt R.; Collins, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Convection waves are a strong function of the original forcing by convection in the boundary layer. This convection can take the form of random or 2-D spatial structure. When clouds are formed as a result of 2-D boundary layer forcing, they are called cloud streets. Convective waves may be important in the global momentum balance. Global circulation models presently overestimate wind speeds in the middle and upper troposphere, and do not account for convective waves. If the hypothesis that convective waves significantly contribute to momentum transport in the troposphere is correct, then climatology of cloud streets will help understand convective waves' role in the global momentum balance. If the hypothesis is incorrect, then cloud street climatology is still useful because cloud streets show areas where large amounts of sensible and latent heat are transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere. Interannual variation of seasonal means and subseasonal variability of cloud street occurrence off the east coast of North America is examined and compared. The months of Dec., Jan., and Feb. during 1984-85, 1985-86, and 1986-87 are examined along with each season.

  7. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast: acclimatization potential to climate change.

    PubMed

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-02-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45° latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the warmer temperatures. The main objectives of this study were to identify whether the thermal tolerance of the canopy-forming seaweed Fucus serratus is population-specific and where temperatures are likely to exceed its tolerance limits in the next 200 years. We measured the stress response of seaweed samples from four populations (Norway, Denmark, Brittany and Spain) to common-garden heat stress (20 °C-36 °C) in both photosynthetic performance and transcriptomic upregulation of heat shock protein genes. The two stress indicators did not correlate and likely measured different cellular components of the stress response, but both indicators revealed population-specific differences, suggesting ecotypic differentiation. Our results confirmed that thermal extremes will regularly reach physiologically stressful levels in Brittany (France) and further south by the end of the 22nd century. Although heat stress resilience in photosynthetic performance was higher at the species' southern distributional edge in Spain, the hsp expression pattern suggested that this edge-population experienced reduced fitness and limited responsiveness to further stressors. Thus, F. serratus may be unable to mitigate its predicted northward shift and may be at high risk to lose its center of genetic diversity and adaptability in Brittany (France). As it is an important intertidal key species, the disappearance of this seaweed will likely trigger major ecological changes in the entire associated ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  9. Seabird population trends along the west coast of North America: causes and the extent of regional concordance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Wilson, U.W.

    1994-01-01

    We compared trends in breeding population size among cormorants, gulls, alcids, and others, among the Farallon Islands, and sites in northern California and Washington, Gulf of Alaska, and Bering Sea, but in most cases only during the last two decades. For a given species, trends were usually concordant within the same oceanographic domain, except for Rhinoceros Auklet, which increased across all domains in its northeastern Pacific range. Overall, humans and their domestic animals have had severe negative impacts to individual islands, but recent restoration efforts have had spectacular results. On the other hand, the California Current and the eastern Bering Sea now seem unable to support historic populations of natural, top-trophic predators. The major factor responsible appears to be overfishing by humans of important seabird prey, especially, in a period when climate has been unstable. Notable trends indicating these general patterns were as follows: 1) The Ashy Storm-Petrel on the Farallon Islands, where 80% of this species breeds, may have decreased in response to the increase of gulls in the storm-petrel breeding habitat. 2) Brandt's and Pelagic cormorants in the central California Current declined radically owing to El Nino and antropogenic factors in the early 1980s, and have since failed to recover, contrary to trends in the 1970s; farther north, populations fluctuated slightly but at low levels during this period. 3) Large Larus gulls have increased. 4) Common Murres in the central and northern portions of the California Current exhibited a marked decline during the early 1980s and have since failed to recover. 5) Most Common Murre populations in the Gulf of Alaska appear to be stable; whereas those in the eastern Bering Sea are decreasing. 6) Rhinoceros Auklet has increased throughout its range and has (re-)colonized new sites in the southern portion of it. 7) Tufted Puffin has ceased recovery in the California Current, but in Alaska it has continued to

  10. Introduction to ‘The 1997-8 El Niño Atlas of oceanographic conditions along the west coast of North America (23°N-50°N)’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. G.; Baumgartner, T. R.; Bograd, S.; Castro, R.; Chavez, F. P.; Collins, C. A.; Durazo, R.; García, J.; Gaxiola-Castro, G.; Hayward, T.; Huyer, A.; Lynn, R.; Mascarenhas, A. S.; Robert, M. R. D.; Smith, R. L.; Wheeler, P. A.; Whitney, F. A.

    2002-09-01

    Hydrographic data collected along the West Coast of North America between January 1997 and January 1999 have been compiled into a web-based Atlas of the 1997-8 El Niño event. This paper discusses the organization of the Atlas, describes the data that were incorporated into the Atlas and explains how vertical and horizontal distributions for the different properties were constructed. Examples of figures from the Atlas are shown.

  11. Contribution to the feeding ecology of the banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae) in north Brazilian mangrove creeks.

    PubMed

    Krumme, U; Keuthen, H; Saint-Paul, U; Villwock, W

    2007-08-01

    Stomach contents were examined from 102 banded puffer, Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae), caught from intertidal mangrove creeks at diurnal neap tides between June and September, 1997 (early dry season) near Bragança (north Brazil). The study found that C. psittacus were specialized predators of Cirripedia (Balanus spp.) and Brachyuran crabs (Uca spp., Pachygrapsus gracilis) (mean: 58 and 38% by dry weight, respectively), emphasizing a short food chain in the mangrove system. Cirripedia and Brachyura dominated the diet in all size classes, however, the prey spectrum narrowed with fish size. The mean daily consumption of Cirripedia and Brachyura was 6.2% body weight of C. psittacus. On average C. psittacus consumed 100.3 g x ha(-1) x d(-1) of Cirripedia and 178.7 g x ha(-1) x d(-1) of Brachyura (wet weight). The predation on Brachyuran crabs--a significant driver of fluxes of organic matter and energy in the system--provides C. psittacus with an important ecological function in the mangrove food web. A plant-animal interaction is proposed where C. psittacus exerts a mutually beneficial cleaning function on the Aufwuchs (Cirripedia and associated epibiota) of Rhizophora mangle stilt roots. Our results and those of other studies suggest that C. psittacus encounter optimum foraging conditions in the mangrove at high inundations at daylight (spring tide-day) whereas darkness and low inundations are linked to poor foraging conditions (neap tide-night). The C. psittacus resource could be used as an alternative income in the region in terms of i) sustainable catch and filet processing for exports to East Asia, ii) developing certified aquaculture methods for breeding puffers for the aquarium trade.

  12. Post-Hurricane Ike coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, September 14-15, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Guy, Kristy K.

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 14-15, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, aboard a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ike data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown on September 9-10, 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail

  13. Sedimentary and diatom evidence of the 2015 tsunami on the north-central coast of Chile in the absence of significant coastal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, T.; Horton, B.; MacInnes, B. T.; Brennan, N.; Fritz, H. M.; Ely, L. L.; Cisternas, M. A.; Wesson, R. L.; Pilarczyk, J.; Briggs, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    On September 16, 2015 a Mw 8.3 earthquake struck offshore north-central Chile. The Illapel earthquake triggered a tsunami that impacted the coastline from Huasco (28.5°S) to San Antonio (33.5°S), registering as much as 4.5 m on the tide gauge at Coquimbo (29.95°S) with runup heights >10 m at a few exposed locations between Limari and Lengua de Vaca. The 2015 Chile tsunami provides an opportunity to document geologic evidence of tsunami inundation in a semi-arid, siliciclastic environment, thereby improving our ability to identify paleotsunami deposits in the context of relatively small values ( 20 cm uplift and 40 cm subsidence) of coseismic coastal vertical motion. We employ field, laboratory, and modeling methods to document the stratigraphical, sedimentological, and diatom characteristics of the 2015 Chile tsunami deposit in marshes bordering the Limari River (30.73°S) and Tongoy Bay (30.30°S). We exposed the tsunami deposit in 34 trenches along two 400 m-long coast-perpendicular transects fringing the Limari River and in 15 trenches along a 400 m coast-perpendicular transect in Tongoy Bay. In marshes at both sites, the tsunami deposited a well-sorted, grey medium-to-fine-grained sand on a brown silty soil. The tsunami deposit thins (from 50 cm to <1 cm) and fines (from medium- to fine-grained) inland. Up to four fining-upward intervals are present, consistent with multiple waves recorded by tide gauges and coastal residents. The 2015 Chile tsunami deposit contains a mixed diatom assemblage, including anomalous marine and brackish diatoms not found in the underlying soil. The relative abundance of marine diatoms in the deposit decreases with distance inland. Given the small values of coseismic coastal deformation, this sand layer may be the only onshore geologic record of the Mw 8.3 Illapel earthquake. Similar sediment characteristics are observed in an older sand bed at the Tongoy Bay site, suggesting that an older, previously undocumented tsunami

  14. A new Holocene relative sea-level curve for western Brittany (France): Insights on isostatic dynamics along the Atlantic coasts of north-western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goslin, Jérôme; Van Vliet Lanoë, Brigitte; Spada, Giorgio; Bradley, Sarah; Tarasov, Lev; Neill, Simon; Suanez, Serge

    2015-12-01

    This study presents new Relative Sea Level (RSL) data that were obtained in the Finistère region (Western tip of Brittany, France) and the implications those data have for the understanding of the isostatic dynamics across north-western Europe, and more specifically along the Atlantic and Channel coasts. New stratigraphic sequences were obtained and analyzed to derive 24 new Sea-level Index Points, in which 6 are basal. These new data considerably increase the knowledge we have of the RSL evolution along the coasts of Western Brittany since the last 8 kyr B.P. From this new dataset, RSL was estimated to rise continuously over the last 8 kyr with a major inflection at ca. 6 kyr cal. BP. Our results show large vertical discrepancies between the RSL records of Brittany and South-Western UK, with the latter plotting several meters below the new data. From this comparison we suggest that the two regions underwent a very different pattern and/or amplitude of subsidence during the last 8 kyr which has implications for the spatial and temporal pattern of the peripheral bulge of the European ice sheets. We compared our data against predictions from Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment models (GIA models). There are large misfits between RSL observations and the predictions of the global (ICE-5G (VM2a) - Peltier, 2004, GLAC1-b - Tarasov and Peltier, 2002; Tarasov et al., 2012, Briggs et al., 2014) and regional UK models ("BIIS" - Bradley et al., 2009; Bradley et al., 2011; "Kuchar"- Kuchar et al., 2012), which can't be resolved through significant changes to the deglaciation history and size of the British-Irish Ice sheet. Paleo-tidal modelling corrections indicate regional changes in the tidal ranges played a negligible role in the data-model misfits. Hence, we propose that the misfits are due to some combination of: (i) unaccounted mass-loss of far-field ice-sheets (Antarctic ice-Sheet or Laurentide Ice-Sheet), (ii) unresolved differences in the deglaciation history and size of

  15. Water and Nutrient Fluxes from Land to Coast in North America Driven by Climate Change, Land Use, and Nitrogen Deposition During 1900-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Tian, H.; Yang, Q.; Song, X.; Yang, J.; Chen, G.; Xu, X.; Ren, W.

    2010-12-01

    exports to Gulf of Mexico, and east coast of North America? Totally 78 sites of observations from the Ameriflux Network have been used to validate DLEM simulation results on carbon and water fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. We validated the modeled water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes with the reconstructed historical observations on river discharge and water quality data in North America. The validations indicates our model can successfully catch the temporal and spatial patterns of water, carbon, and nitrogen fluxes from land ecosystems to the atmosphere and coastal regions when the model explicitly consider the individual and interactive effects of environmental change and human disturbances on the hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Our results also indicated that the empirical treatment of carbon and nitrogen processes in the aquatic systems will be the major limitations in quantifying the connections between land and coastal regions.

  16. Mid-Cretaceous strike-slip and contractional fault zones in the western intermontane terrane, Washington, and their relation to the North Cascades-Southeastern Coast Belt Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlow, Hugh A.

    1993-10-01

    Structural and geochronologic data from the 111-114 Ma Okanogan Range batholith in north central Washington are used to characterize the timing and style of deformation during the early stages of the mid-to Late Cretaceous North Cascades-southeastern Coast Belt (NC-SECB) orogen. The Pasayten fault zone bounds Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Methow basin to the west against predominantly Mesozoic igneous rocks of the Intermontane terrane to the east. The Pasayten fault zone accommodated intrusion of the western units of the Okanogan Range batholith during high-angle slip, then approximately 20 km of left-lateral strike-slip at 109-95 Ma. South of the Pasayten fault zone, the Red Shirt and Methow River thrust zones accommodated (1) west vergent contraction at amphibolite grade that began by 113 Ma and ended by 112 Ma, based on new U-Pb zircon dates for deformed and undeformed granitoids, and (2) northwest vergent contraction in the Methow River thrust zone followed by west vergent contraction in the Red Shirt thrust zone, both at greenschist grade prior to 104 Ma. These contractional displacements thrust the Methow basin 10-20 km southeastward beneath the western Okanogan Range batholith. Deformation in the NC-SECB thus began by earliest Albian time, earlier than previously thought, and was characterized by coeval sinistral transcurrent and west vergent contractional faulting. Sinistral strike-slip in the Pasayten fault zone may have reflected the pre-100 Ma sense of oblique plate convergence or relatively minor southward tectonic escape of the adjacent Methow basin during contractional deformation. The slip history of the Pasayten fault zone is undocumented between approximately 80 Ma and 60 Ma when, on the basis of paleomagnetic data, some workers have proposed that the Methow basin moved 1700 km northward to its present position relative to the Intermontane terrane. However, significant Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene dextral slip on the

  17. Development of a robust analytical framework for assessing landbird trends, dynamics and relationships with environmental covariates in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Chris; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Huff, Mark; Happe, Patricia J.; Ransom, Jason I.

    2017-01-01

    During 2015-2016, we completed development of a new analytical framework for landbird population monitoring data from the National Park Service (NPS) North Coast and Cascades Inventory and Monitoring Network (NCCN). This new tool for analysis combines several recent advances in modeling population status and trends using point-count data and is designed to supersede the approach previously slated for analysis of trends in the NCCN and other networks, including the Sierra Nevada Network (SIEN). Advances supported by the new model-based approach include 1) the use of combined data on distance and time of detection to estimate detection probability without assuming perfect detection at zero distance, 2) seamless accommodation of variation in sampling effort and missing data, and 3) straightforward estimation of the effects of downscaled climate and other local habitat characteristics on spatial and temporal trends in landbird populations. No changes in the current field protocol are necessary to facilitate the new analyses. We applied several versions of the new model to data from each of 39 species recorded in the three mountain parks of the NCCN, estimating trends and climate relationships for each species during 2005-2014. Our methods and results are also reported in a manuscript in revision for the journal Ecosphere (hereafter, Ray et al.). Here, we summarize the methods and results outlined in depth by Ray et al., discuss benefits of the new analytical framework, and provide recommendations for its application to synthetic analyses of long-term data from the NCCN and SIEN. All code necessary for implementing the new analyses is provided within the Appendices to this report, in the form of fully annotated scripts written in the open-access programming languages R and JAGS.

  18. Habitat traits and patterns of abundance of the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816), at multiple scales along the north Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Rula; Domínguez Godino, Jorge; Freitas, Cristiano; Machado, Inês; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2015-03-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and distribution of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) from intertidal rockpools of the north Portuguese coast were examined in relation to physical (surface, altitude, depth, topographic complexity and exposure) and biological (substrate cover by dominant organisms) habitat traits. The methodology was based on a multi-factorial design where the total number and the abundance of urchins in each of six size classes were sampled over a range of spatial scales, from 10s of cm to kms, and a temporal scale of five months. The results highlighted three main features of the studied system: (1) the largest proportion of variability of sea urchins occurred at the smallest scale examined; (2) urchins from different size classes showed different patterns of abundance in relation to habitat traits; (3) variables normally invoked as potential drivers of distribution of urchins at a range of scales, such as hydrodynamics and shore height, were relatively less important than other abiotic (i.e. pool area, pool mean depth calculated over five replicate measures and sand cover) and biological (i.e. space occupancy by the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata and mussels vs. availability of bare rock) variables to provide a considerable contribution to the variability of sea urchins. Intertidal populations of sea urchins are abundant on many rocky shores, where they are socially and economically important as food resource and ecologically key as habitat modelers. This study provides new clues on relatively unstudied populations, with relevant implications for possible management decisions, including the implementation of protection schemes able to preserve the main recruitment, settlement and development areas of P. lividus.

  19. Extreme events assessment methodology coupling rainfall and tidal levels in the coastal floodplain of the São Paulo North Coast (Brazil) for drainage purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredini, P.; Cartacho, D. L.; Arasaki, E.; Rosso, M.; Sousa, W. C., Jr.; Lanzieri, D. R.; Ferreira, J. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Caraguatatuba Coastal Plain is the wider in São Paulo State (Brazil) North Coastline. The Santo Antônio Torrent Catchmenth drains that region with high urban concentration (around 100,000 permanent inhabitants), which may quintuplicate with the turists in the summer period. In the last decade important oil and gas sea reserves were discovered and the facilities for their treatment were located in that region. For that great economic growth scenario it is mandatory to design mitigation risk measures to have the fluvial forcing processes well known, considering the natural hazards. The Santo Antônio catchment has a surface area of 40 km2, heavy rainfall rates (around 3000 mm/year), concentrated mainly in the summer period, producing high fluvial sediment transport capacity, floods and debris-flows. Due to the steep slopes and the altitude (~ 1000 m) of the mountains near the coast, the hydrological orographic effect rapidly condensates the sea humidity and recurrent and intense flood events cause extensive risks and damages to population and infrastructures. Strong debris-flows occur in that region, because rains higher than 300-400 mm per day occur in multi decadal periods. Due to the wind blowing landward the humidity from the sea, also meteorological tides occur in correspondence of high rainfall rates. The aim of this project is to present an extreme hydrological assessment methodology, coupling rainfall rates and tidal levels, to show the impact of climate changes during the last decades. It is also presented the magnitude of the rising meteorological tide coupled with the extreme rainfall events. The data base analysed comprised long term data of rainfall and tidal measurements from 1954 to 2003. The correlations of the two data were divided in five classes of rainfall in mm per day (> 0, > 25, > 50, > 75 and > 100) and estimated the tidal levels for different return periods in years (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75 and 100). The comparison of two distint periods

  20. Depositional and diagenetic processes involved in the development of mudstone successions: a multi proxy study of the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Basin (The North Yorkshire coast, England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadeer, S.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hughes, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    Mud and mudstones are the most abundant (>60%) sediment and sedimentary rock type preserved at and close to the surface of the Earth. They have formed commonly throughout the Phanerozoic and are found in many environments including present-day soils, lake basins, continental shelves, and ocean basins. Mudstones deposited in ancient shelf seas are particularly important as they are very common and significant components of many petroleum systems as sources and seals. In spite of their importance the variability that they exhibit is usually not incorporated into basin-scale facies models as they are assumed to contain little information that is useful in predicting the distribution of reservoir facies. The fundamental mechanisms (physical, chemical and biological) that control the origin of fine-grained sediments in ancient shelf seas is less studied in comparison with other sediments types (e.g. limestones and sandstones). The Middle Jurassic aged succession from the Staithes Sandstone through to the Mulgrave Shale Member (Jet Rock), which is largely continuous and very well-exposed in two locations in the Cleveland Basin, North Yorkshire Coast, England is an ideal natural laboratory to investigate how marginal marine processes evolve into deep marine processes. In the literature, the fundamental controls on lithofacies variability in mudstone-dominated successions preserved in distal shelf environments have been mainly interpreted in terms of varying bottom water oxygen concentrations, primary production and suspension settling. In proximal muddy environments researchers have broadly interpreted lithofacies variability in terms of storm events, tidal currents, etc. These are very different mechanisms. Moreover, these rocks are rarely studied as a whole system; the basinal mudstones are rarely connected up-dip to muddy sandstones and mudstones deposited in the offshore transition and offshore zones. In order to determine the processes responsible for the formation

  1. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  2. 5. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th Coast Guard District, San Francisco. 1960. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Gas hydrate as a proxy for contemporary climate change and shallow heat flow on the US east coast and north slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phrampus, Benjamin J.

    Methane hydrates, ice-like solids that sequester large quantities of methane in their crystal structure, are stable at moderate pressures and low temperature. The methane contained within these naturally occurring deposits is typically derived from organic matter that is broken down by thermogenic or biogenic activity. Methane hydrate is found world-wide on nearly every continental margin on Earth where the thermodynamic conditions and methane gas permit the formation of hydrate. Hydrate potentially represents the largest reservoir of hydrocarbon on the planet, yet their response to evolving thermodynamic conditions are poorly understood. This dissertation is a summary of several projects that investigate the unique properties of gas hydrate, and the information we can gain from detailed analysis of these natural deposits. Gas hydrate response to contemporary warming is currently poorly understood. Determining if current or past warming trends are having direct effects on the hydrate stability regime is a region of active interest. The observed zone of hydrate stability is deduced from the current distribution of hydrate. Using current geologic and hydrologic conditions, we can compare the model-predicted zone of hydrate stability and directly compare the data with the observed stability regime. Due to the low thermal diffusivity of sediments, heat conduction is slow, thus if the thermodynamic conditions changed recently, the observed zone of stability will not have time to reach equilibrium and will appear anomalous compared with the predicted stability zone. Using this technique, combined with observations of recent changes in ocean temperatures, I identify two regions currently experiencing ocean warming induced hydrate dissociation: The U.S. East Coast (N. Atlantic) and the North Slope of Alaska (Beaufort Sea). These regions are currently experiencing hydrate dissociation due to contemporary climate forcing. Hydrates also offer unique insights into the

  4. Long-term effects of climate change on the hydrological system of a lowland area at the German North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeff, Thomas; Baroni, Gabriele; Krause, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In particular for the winter season, global sea level rise is expected to be combined with increased precipitation and higher storm surge frequency. During summer, due to the increase of temperature, enhanced evapotranspiration with an increase of groundwater intrusion has been observed. It is expected that the salinization of the surface will rise under drier conditions by upward seeping groundwater. Coastal water resource management requires a better understanding and predictions of these dynamic systems. Therefore, a long-term monitoring programme has been established at the German North Sea coast, located at the estuary of the River Ems. The research area is dominated by a dense canal system that is regulated by pumping stations and tidal gates. Landuse of the area is mainly dairy farming with 30 % of the area below sea level. The underlying aquifer is confined and brackish, and it is connected to the surface water by geological faults of old paleo-channels. Observations in those areas indicate a high salinity with concentrations peaking during the summer period. This study investigates the effects of climate change on water balance and salt transport by applying regional climate models (RCMs) based on the IPCC emission scenarios for the period until 2100 as drivers for a hydrological and solute transport model. To investigate the impact of different meteorological scenarios, the RCM results for the climate scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 are used to cover an increase of future temperature between 1 and 3.5 K. As changes in water level and salinity are expected to influence vegetation patterns (and water management aims to guaranty agricultural use) two alternative landuse scenarios are considered. The first scenario assumes that the technological level of the management will be adapted to rainfall and sea level but without additional drainage from the hinterland to reduce salt water concentration

  5. Assessing the impacts induced by global climate change through a multi-risk approach: lessons learned from the North Adriatic coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torressan, Silvia; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Glade, Thomas; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    ), tailored case by case to different sets of natural hazards and elements at risk. Finally, the multi-risk assessment integrates the multi-hazard with the multi-vulnerability index of exposed receptors, providing a relative ranking of areas and targets potentially affected by multiple risks in the considered region. The methodology was applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy) producing a range of GIS-based multi-hazard, exposure, multi-vulnerability and multi-risk maps that can be used by policy-makers to define risk management and adaptation strategies. Results show that areas affected by higher multi-hazard scores are located close to the coastline where all the investigated hazards are present. Multi-vulnerability assumes relatively high scores in the whole case study, showing that beaches, wetlands, protected areas and river mouths are the more sensible targets. The final estimate of multi-risk for coastal municipalities provides useful information for local public authorities to set future priorities for adaptation and define future plans for shoreline and coastal management in view of climate change.

  6. A multivariate analytical method to characterize sediment attributes from high-frequency acoustic backscatter and ground-truthing data (Jade Bay, German North Sea coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondo, Manuela; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    One of the burning issues on the topic of acoustic seabed classification is the lack of solid, repeatable, statistical procedures that can support the verification of acoustic variability in relation to seabed properties. Acoustic sediment classification schemes often lead to biased and subjective interpretation, as they ultimately aim at an oversimplified categorization of the seabed based on conventionally defined sediment types. However, grain size variability alone cannot be accounted for acoustic diversity, which will be ultimately affected by multiple physical processes, scale of heterogeneity, instrument settings, data quality, image processing and segmentation performances. Understanding and assessing the weight of all of these factors on backscatter is a difficult task, due to the spatially limited and fragmentary knowledge of the seabed from of direct observations (e.g. grab samples, cores, videos). In particular, large-scale mapping requires an enormous availability of ground-truthing data that is often obtained from heterogeneous and multidisciplinary sources, resulting into a further chance of misclassification. Independently from all of these limitations, acoustic segments still contain signals for seabed changes that, if appropriate procedures are established, can be translated into meaningful knowledge. In this study we design a simple, repeatable method, based on multivariate procedures, with the scope to classify a 100 km2, high-frequency (450 kHz) sidescan sonar mosaic acquired in the year 2012 in the shallow upper-mesotidal inlet of the Jade Bay (German North Sea coast). The tool used for the automated classification of the backscatter mosaic is the QTC SWATHVIEWTMsoftware. The ground-truthing database included grab sample data from multiple sources (2009-2011). The method was designed to extrapolate quantitative descriptors for acoustic backscatter and model their spatial changes in relation to grain size distribution and morphology. The

  7. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  8. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  9. Substrate dependent talitrid amphipods from fragmented beaches on the north coast of Crete (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae), including a redefinition of the genus Orchestia and descriptions of Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Cryptorchestia gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Fanini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Four species of talitrid amphipods (Orchestia montagui Audouin, 1826, Orchestia stephenseni Cecchini, 1928, Orchestia xylino sp. nov. and Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808)) are reported from a set of fragmented pocket beaches to the east of Heraklion on the north coast of Crete. Aside from a previous record of O. stephenseni these are the first records of talitrid amphipods from the island of Crete. 2) Along a coastal segment of only 4.36 km, characterised by habitat fragmentation and substrate patchiness, a clear correlation between talitrid species and beach type is indicated. Talitrus saltator occurs only on sandy beaches. Orchestia montagui and O. xylino occur on banquette beaches and O. montagui, O. stephenseni and O. xylino occur on mixed sand/gravel and cobble beaches. 3) The genus Orchestia is redefined and confined to 15 marine supralittoral species from eastern North America, islands in the North-eastern Atlantic, and western-Europe, including the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas plus a perplexing group in New Zealand. 4) The new genus Cryptorchestia is described, based on nine terrestrial species previously included in the genus Orchestia and occurring in western Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and the Azores and Canary islands in the North-eastern Atlantic. 5) The new species Orchestia xylino sp. nov. is described. 6) An extensive bibliography for the species in this study is provided.

  10. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003-2012). Dietary tracers (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given.

  11. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOR A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER AT THE U.S. COAST GUARD SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A continuous hanging iron wall was installed in June, 1996, at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC, United States, to treat overlapping plumes of chromate and chlorinated solvent compounds. The wall was emplaced using a continuous trenching machine...

  12. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE MONITORING FOR A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER AT THE U.S. COAST GUARD SUPPORT CENTER, ELIZABETH CITY, NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A continuous hanging iron wall was installed in June, 1996, at the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC, United States, to treat overlapping plumes of chromate and chlorinated solvent compounds. The wall was emplaced using a continuous trenching machine...

  13. Regulatory considerations in assessing the potential for Phytophthora ramorum to cause environmental impact to ecozones outside the west coast "fog belt" in North America

    Treesearch

    John McDonald; Gary Kristjansson; Stephen Miller; Shane Sela

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) is a disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum that is characterized by lethal trunk lesions that affect tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), and a few oak species, principally coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia). It was first observed in Marin County, California, in 1994, and now has been...

  14. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, W.; Douglas, D.C.; Shirley, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997–2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7°C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska.

  15. Clay mineral provinces in tidal mud flats at Germany's North Sea coast with illite K-Ar ages potentially modified by biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockamp, Olaf; Clauer, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Mineralogical studies, chemical analyses and K-Ar dating were carried out on clay fractions from tidal mud flats along the Lower Saxony coast and its bays to identify material sources and sedimentary processes at this dynamic interface between air, land and sea. From the coast into the bays, sediments are enriched in fine-grained smectite relative to the coarser grained illite, chlorite and kaolinite, due to the weakening of the tidal current energy in the bays. In addition, the study area can be divided into two provinces on the basis of the illite K/Rb ratios and Mg contents. To the west [Schiermonnikoog, Dollart, Ley Bay up to Norderney island], longshore currents carry suspensions from the Belgian and Dutch coasts; to the east [from Langeoog island, Jade Bay to the Helgoland mud area] suspensions from the Elbe and Weser rivers are mixed with submarine reworked glacial sediments, whereas the portion of longshore current suspensions from the west decreases, becoming negligible in the Helgoland mud area off the Elbe and Weser estuaries. The illite K-Ar data vary considerably and fail as source indicators due to differential settling and mixing of the clay material and probably to Ar loss from illite by biodegradation during digestive processes. Only further offshore, outside the zone of dynamic sediment dispersion, do the K-Ar data fit provenance patterns.

  16. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  17. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  18. US Coast Guard Corrosion Program Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-19

    2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Coast Guard Corrosion Program Office 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Coast Guard ,North Carolina Sector...have two purposes. Coatings on Coast Guard Aircraft Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. U S

  19. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Monteiro, Danielle S; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  20. Genetic Structure and Natal Origins of Immature Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Maira C.; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations. PMID:24558419

  1. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the San Joaquin valley. Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands, warmed by the morning sun, are visible through the marine stratus ... bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; San Diego is at ...

  2. National assessment of shoreline change—Summary statistics for updated vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian Border to Icy Cape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2017-09-25

    Long-term rates of shoreline change for the north coast of Alaska, from the U.S.-Canadian border to the Icy Cape region of northern Alaska, have been updated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. Short-term shoreline change rates are reported for the first time. Additional shoreline position data were used to compute rates where the previous rate-of-change assessment only included two shoreline positions at a given location. The calculation of uncertainty associated with the long-term average rates has also been updated to match refined methods used in other study regions of the National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project. The average rates of this report have a reduced amount of uncertainty compared to those presented in the first assessment for this region.

  3. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  4. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  5. INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  6. INTERIOR GUEST BATH, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR GUEST BATH, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  7. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  8. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM A, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM A, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  9. INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  10. INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  11. INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  12. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  13. INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  14. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  15. INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE HALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE HALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  16. INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  17. A time-transgressive Holocene onset from Globorotalia menardii records on Brazilian continental margin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, F. S.; Costa, K. B.; Toledo, F. A. D. L.; Santarosa, A. C. A.; Chiessi, C. M.; Camillo, E., Jr.; Quadros, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The planktic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii presents a cyclic behavior within Pleistocene glacial cycles on Atlantic; it disappears during glacial periods and returns to this ocean after deglaciations. Therefore, G. menardii has been used to identify limits between those cycles and the last limit is recognized as the Holocene onset. The Holocene onset has been reported before as being more than 4 kyrs later than expected at the equatorial Atlantic Ocean based on a G. menardii record (Broecker & Pena, 2014). In this study, we explore the time-transgressive Holocene onset of G. menardii in the Atlantic from 21 piston cores collected along the Brazilian continental margin, between 7 ˚N and 33 ˚S. Radiocarbon dating was conducted on Globigerinoides ruber on samples prior to and after G. menardii reappearance in the cores. Reservoir-age corrected 14C dates vary between 17 and 6.5 cal kyrs; the older ages are found at ~14 ˚S and younger ages at 6 ˚N and 33 ˚S. From these ages and latitudes, we hypothesize that G. menardii's population has spread at higher rates southward. From the scenario observed on Brazilian coast it is possible to conclude that although ocean circulation has an important role on dispersion of planktonic foraminifera, it may be superimposed by ecological constraints of the species. G. menardii absence during glacials is linked to the Agulhas Leakage activity, which is prevented from getting to the Atlantic due the northern position of the Subtropical Convergence Zone during glacials. On interglacials, warm and saline waters carrying G. menardii are transported into the Subtropical Gyre currents, achieving Brazil's coast through the South Equatorial Current and spreading south and northward through Brazil Current and North Brazil Current, respectively. Nonetheless, from velocity and volume registered for this currents, we would expect a higher G. menardii dispersion rate northward. A faster southward dispersal during the deglaciation suggests

  18. On the genus Elasmopus Costa, 1853 from the Northeastern Coast of Brazil with five new species and new records.

    PubMed

    Alves, Jessika; Johnsson, Rodrigo; Senna, André R

    2016-11-02

    The genus Elasmopus is the most diverse in the Family Maeridae. Five new species and new records of Elasmopus from the Brazilian coast are herein described. The specimens were collected in intertidal and subtidal zones along the Northeastern Brazilian coast between 2010 and 2014. The distribution of Elasmopus longipropodus along the coast is extended. Eighteen species of Elasmopus are known from Brazil, not including these five new species. An identification key to the species of Elasmopus is provided.

  19. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  20. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  1. 2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 4. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th District, File No. 62751-22 A.S. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  5. [Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in area of transmission of american tegumentar leishmaniasis in the north coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Brito, Marylene; Casanova, Cláudio; Mascarini, Luciene Maura; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Corrêa, Fernando Motta de Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen, 30 and 104 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis were recorded respectively, in 1993, 1994 and 1995, in the coast region of São Paulo State. Aiming to characterize the fauna and seasonal and hourly distributions of the phlebotominic species, adult specimens were captured fortnightly between November/95 and December/96. CDC light traps were used as of dusk intradomiciliarly, peridomiciliarly and in the forest for 12 hours. From the same moment on but only during 6 hours Shannon traps were set in the peridomicile 100 meters from the house. Quarterly this trap was used for 12 hours. The population density fluctuation as well as the occurrence of intra and extradomiciliarly predominant species were observed. In the different traps used and environments investigated Lutzomyia intermedia was the most abundant species.

  6. Efficiency of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) spat collectors in highly dynamic tidal environments of the Lower Saxonian coast (southern North Sea).

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Liebezeit, Gerd

    2003-07-01

    Traditional mussel culture in the Wadden Sea, southern North Sea, is carried out by taking seed mussels of about 1-4 cm shell length from natural beds and transplanting them to permanently water covered sites. Besides the damage done to the natural beds, the ratio of seeded to harvested mussels is only about 1:1-1.3, i.e. about the same tonnage of mussels seeded is recovered. In addition, this technique relies exclusively on natural spat falls, which do not occur regularly. In order to overcome these difficulties spat collectors have been deployed in the Jade Bay, southern North Sea. These provided suitable settlement grounds for mussel larvae. Blue mussel weights reached weights of about 8-9 kg/m collector rope with maximum shell lengths of 4-5 cm within one growing season.

  7. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper and Lower Aquifers of the North Coast Limestone Aquifer System and Hydrologic Conditions in the Arecibo-Manati Area, Puerto Rico, November 27-December 1, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    A ground-water level synoptic survey of the limestone aquifer in the Arecibo to Manati area, Puerto Rico, was conducted from November 27 through December 1, 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources. The purpose of the study was to define the spatial distribution of the potentiometric surface of the upper and lower aquifers of the North Coast limestone aquifer system. A potentiometric surface is defined as an areal representation of the levels to which water would rise in tightly cased wells open to an aquifer (Fetter, 1988). These potentiometric surface maps can be used by water-resources planners to understand the general direction of ground-water flow and to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource protection. The study was conducted during a period of rising ground-water levels resulting from above-normal rainfall during October and November 2006 when rainfall amount was about 30 percent above normal. The study area encompassed 125 square miles and was bounded to the north by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the southern extension of the limestone units, to the west by the Rio Grande de Arecibo, and to the east by the Rio Grande de Manati (pls. 1 and 2; inset).

  8. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  9. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, The Basin, Bay Minette North, and Creola NE quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on The Basin-Bay Minette North-Creola NE, Ala., topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers from Salco and Stockton southward to Creola and Upper Hall Landing, Ala. Minor flooding occurred in this region. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  10. Process-Based Evidence of Coastal Accretion Adjacent to a Natural Inlet and Ebb-Tidal Delta on the North Florida Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, P. N.; Olabarrieta, M.; Keough, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical mechanisms of tidal inlet accretion are difficult to document because of the episodic nature of sediment delivery to the coast from fluvial sources and the complex patterns of current magnitudes and directions arising from the interaction of nearshore waves with ebb-tidal delta bathymetry. Using monthly RTK-GPS field measurements of beach topography adjacent to a natural inlet, we document a shoreline change time series that illustrates a bi-directional, alongshore spreading pattern of accretion following an exceptionally high rainfall-discharge event in May 2009. Numerical modeling of wave set-up and nearshore currents in the vicinity of the inlet and ebb tidal delta produces depth-averaged flow velocity patterns consistent with our field observations of coastal accretion. Our results are in agreement with an accretion mechanism, proposed by other researchers, that involves sediment delivery to the margins of the ebb tidal delta during high velocity ebb flows that accompany large rainfall-discharge events, followed by onshore migration of swash bars during subsequent days to months, at a rate dependent upon the timing of nearshore wave energy delivery to the site.

  11. Geochemical evolution of waters within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico; a conceptualization based on a flow path in the Barceloneta area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, A. J.; Lee, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water samples along a groundwater flow path in the Barceloneta area, Puerto Rico, were collected from wells screened in the Montebello Limestone Member of the Cibao Formation (artesian aquifer) and in the overlying Aguada and Aymamon Limestones (water table aquifer). The groundwater chemistry changes as water migrates from recharge areas to downgradient zones in the aquifers. Dissolved magnesium, dissolved sulfate, pH, and carbon-13 isotope generally increase down-gradient. Total inorganic carbon and calcium decrease within the freshwater parts of the aquifer. Mass transfer calculations show that the likely reaction model is carbon dioxide incorporation as water infiltrates through the soil zone, followed by calcite dissolution as water recharges the aquifer. As water moves downgradient within the artesian aquifer, carbon dioxide may degas as a result of calcite precipitation while gypsum and dolomite are dissolved. Within the water table aquifer, continuous recharge of waters rich in carbonic acid maintains the dissolution of the carbonate minerals. Near the coast the mixing of fresh groundwater with saltwater is the primary process affecting water chemistry within the water table aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Geochemical evolution of waters within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico: A conceptualization based on a flow path in the Barceloneta area

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Mas, A.; Lee, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water samples along a groundwater flow path in the Barceloneta area, Puerto Rico, were collected from wells screened in the Montebello Limestone Member of the Cibao Formation and in the overlying Aguada and Aymamon Limestones. The groundwater chemistry changes as water migrates from recharge areas to downgradient zones in the aquifers. Dissolved magnesium, dissolved sulfate, Ph, and carbon-13 isotope generally increase down-gradient. Total inorganic carbon and calcium decrease within the freshwater parts of the aquifer. Mass transfer calculations show that the likely reaction model is carbon dioxide incorporation as water infiltrates through the soil zone, followed by calcite dissolution as water recharges the aquifer. As water moves downgradient within the artesian aquifer, carbon dioxide may degas as a result of calcite precipitation while gypsum and dolomite are dissolved. Within the water table aquifer, continuous recharge of waters rich in carbonic acid maintains the dissolution of the carbonate minerals. Near the coast the mixing of fresh groundwater with saltwater is the primary process affecting water chemistry within the water table aquifer. 19 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Decapoda, Diogenidae) from the north Coast of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frameschi, I F; Andrade, L S; Fransozo, V; Fernandes-Góes, L C; Castilho, A L

    2015-11-01

    The pattern of shell occupation by the hermit crab Dardanus insignis (Saussure, 1858) from the subtropical region of southeastern coast of Brazil was investigated in the present study. The percentage of shell types that were occupied and the morphometric relationships between hermit crabs and occupied shells were analyzed from monthly collections conducted during two years (from January 1998 to December 1999). Individuals were categorized according to sex and gonadal maturation, weighed and measured with respect to their cephalothoracic shield length (CSL) and wet weight (CWW). Shells were measured regarding their aperture width (SAW), dry weight (SDW) and internal volume (SIV). A total of 1086 hermit crabs was collected, occupying shells of 11 gastropod species. Olivancillaria urceus (Roding, 1798) was most commonly used by the hermit crab D. insignis, followed by Buccinanops cochlidium (Dillwyn, 1817), and Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767). The highest determination coefficients (r2 > 0.50, p < 0.01) were recorded particularly in the morphometric relationships between CSL vs. CWW and SAW vs. SIV, which are important indication that in this D. insignis population the great majority the animals occupied adequate shells during the two years analysed. The high number of used shell species and relative plasticity in pattern of shell utilization by smaller individuals of D. insignis indicated that occupation is influenced by the shell availability, while larger individuals demonstrated more specialized occupation in Tonna galea (Linnaeus, 1758) shell.

  14. Slow death for a swamp forest: Implications of salinity, infrastructure and their interactions for ecosystems in transition along North Carolina's estuarine coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, A.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater-dependent ecosystems of coastal North Carolina have been altered by humans over many centuries, mainly by draining these ecosystems to facilitate forestry and farming operations. In recent decades the quickening pace of sea level rise and infrequent but large coastal storms have exposed these ecosystems to additional pressures associated with the intrusion of brackish and salty water. Infrastructure, including roadbeds, levees, and other water management structures add additional complexity to this system by acting as either exacerbating or mitigating factors depending on time and location. This study investigates the dynamics of surface water and salinity in a critically stressed, freshwater swamp forest at Goose Creek State Park in coastal North Carolina. We evaluate temporal patterns of surface water elevation and salinity following a major inundation event (Hurricane Irene, 2011) at locations both upstream and downstream of an earthen roadbed that bisects the wetland. Results suggest that climatic conditions together with poor drainage through the roadbed caused harmful salinity levels to persist in the wetland for nearly a year following the hurricane, yet the potential also exists for the roadbed to protect the wetland from less extreme exposures to saltwater. This case study illustrates one facet of a complex, coupled natural-human system that is currently being reshaped by climate change. The work has implications for larger efforts to understand and assess the vulnerability of low-lying coastal regions to sea level rise and the preceding salinization.

  15. Long-term performance monitoring for a permeable reactive barrier at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Puls, R W; Blowes, D W; Gillham, R W

    1999-08-12

    A continuous hanging iron wall was installed in June, 1996, at the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC, United States, to treat overlapping plumes of chromate and chlorinated solvent compounds. The wall was emplaced using a continuous trenching machine whereby native soil and aquifer sediment was removed and the iron simultaneously emplaced in one continuous excavation and fill operation. To date, there have been seven rounds (November 1996, March 1997, June 1997, September 1997, December 1997, March 1998, and June 1998) of performance monitoring of the wall. At this time, this is the only full-scale continuous 'hanging' wall installed as a permeable reactive barrier to remediate both chlorinated solvent compounds and chromate in groundwater. Performance monitoring entails the following: sampling of 10-5 cm PVC compliance wells and 15 multi-level samplers for the following constituents: TCE, cis-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), vinyl chloride, ethane, ethene, acetylene, methane, major anions, metals, Cr(VI), Fe(II), total sulfides, dissolved H(2), Eh, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, alkalinity, and turbidity. Electrical conductivity profiles have been conducted using a Geoprobe to verify emplacement of the continuous wall as designed and to locate upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces for coring purposes. Coring has been conducted in November, 1996, in June and September, 1997, and March, 1998, to evaluate the rate of corrosion on the iron surfaces, precipitate buildup (particularly at the upgradient interface), and permeability changes due to wall emplacement. In addition to several continuous vertical cores, angled cores through the 0.6-m thick wall have been collected to capture upgradient and downgradient wall interfaces along approximate horizontal flow paths for mineralogic analyses.

  16. Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2013-09-01

    Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after

  17. Surface Ocean pCO2 Seasonality and Sea-Air CO2 Flux Estimates for the North American East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorini, Sergio; Mannino, Antonio; Najjar, Raymond G., Jr.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Salisbury, Joe; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Underway and in situ observations of surface ocean pCO2, combined with satellite data, were used to develop pCO2 regional algorithms to analyze the seasonal and interannual variability of surface ocean pCO2 and sea-air CO2 flux for five physically and biologically distinct regions of the eastern North American continental shelf: the South Atlantic Bight (SAB), the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), the Gulf of Maine (GoM), Nantucket Shoals and Georges Bank (NS+GB), and the Scotian Shelf (SS). Temperature and dissolved inorganic carbon variability are the most influential factors driving the seasonality of pCO2. Estimates of the sea-air CO2 flux were derived from the available pCO2 data, as well as from the pCO2 reconstructed by the algorithm. Two different gas exchange parameterizations were used. The SS, GB+NS, MAB, and SAB regions are net sinks of atmospheric CO2 while the GoM is a weak source. The estimates vary depending on the use of surface ocean pCO2 from the data or algorithm, as well as with the use of the two different gas exchange parameterizations. Most of the regional estimates are in general agreement with previous studies when the range of uncertainty and interannual variability are taken into account. According to the algorithm, the average annual uptake of atmospheric CO2 by eastern North American continental shelf waters is found to be between 3.4 and 5.4 Tg C/yr (areal average of 0.7 to 1.0 mol CO2 /sq m/yr) over the period 2003-2010.

  18. Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Dunk, I. J.

    2002-07-01

    Red emperor, Lutjanus sebae, were examined from commercial catches in the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery (NDSF) of north-western Australia from 1997 to 1999. Specimens ranged from 183 to 728 mm fork length (FL); males had a mean FL of 509 mm, and were significantly larger than females that had a mean FL of 451 mm. Ages were estimated from thin sections of sagittal otoliths. Marginal increment analysis of sagittal otoliths showed a single annual minimum during September and October and indicated that one annulus is formed each year. Male L. sebae (n=977; 211-728 mm FL) ranged from age 2 to 30 years and females (n=1384; 183-584 mm FL) ranged from age 1 to 34 years. Sagittal otolith weight and height were significantly correlated with age for each sex. There was significant differential growth between sexes. The relationship of observed fork length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation for males, Lt=627·8 {1-exp [-0·151 (t+0·595)]} and females, Lt=482·6 {1-exp [-0·271 (t-0·065)]}. The slow growth, long life span and large size and age at maturity of L. sebae indicate that this species has a low production potential and hence spatial area closures are vulnerable to over-exploitation. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) ranged from 0·104 to 0·122. The optimum rate of fishing mortality was estimated to be 0·052-0·061. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) estimated from catch at age data for fully recruited ages, was 0·374 in 1997/98 and 0·242 in 1998/99. Hence, the NDSF population of L. sebae is exploited above optimum levels. Given their low production potential, populations of L. sebae in north-western Australia and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region require prudent management. Furthermore, fishery managers need to consider as part of any harvest strategy for these fish to preserve significant levels of the spawning stock.

  19. Sandstream on the northeast Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, Marcio L.; Solewicz, Reynaldo; Cabral, Alexandre P.; Testa, Viviane

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary characterization of seabed morphology and mapping of algal patches within a sandstream on the northeast Brazilian continental shelf off Cape Calcanhar (where the South American coast turns sharply to the west) is presented. The study area (30 km × 30 km) is swept by unidirectional, wind-driven, tidally rectified currents, under the influence of the North Brazil Current. The study was made by use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the seafloor down to 40 m depth, digital bathymetric data from smooth sheets furnished by the Brazilian Navy, echo-sounder profiling and underwater surveying by SCUBA diving. A mesoscale shore-parallel natural zonation of the sandstream was observable on the TM-images: (a) an inner zone dominated by sediment resuspension caused by wave-driven turbulence and tidal currents; (b) an intermediate zone dominated by sand ribbons and other longitudinal bedforms; (c) an outer zone dominated by large-scale sand waves (underwater sand dunes) limited offshore by shore-parallel sandbanks. Image-assisted in situ work, carried out on the latter zone, gave the following results: (1) Morphology and sand composition—the asymmetric sand waves are made of medium quartz sand, with almost straight crests of lengths up to 4 km, heights between 3 and 7 m, and avalanche lee slopes of 30°; on the stoss sides we recorded the presence of ripples and absence of megaripples and benthic ecosystems; on interdune areas, benthic ecosystem patches dominated by foliaceous and calcareous algae were found.(2) Sediment transport—active bedload transport was observable only during the winter season, when the strongest wind-forced currents induce flow separation at the crests and avalanche streams on the lee slope. Within the interdune areas, under the influence of the lee vortices, benthic community data confirms no appreciable abrasion due to sand transport.(3) Biology—species composition and biomass estimates from the algal patches in the first

  20. Altitude Differentiated Aerosol Extinction Over Tenerife (North Atlantic Coast) During ACE-2 by Means of Ground and Airborne Photometry and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formenti, P.; Elias, T.; Welton, J.; Diaz, J. P.; Exposito, F.; Schmid, B.; Powell, D.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Andreae, M. O.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depths (tau(sub a)) by means of sun photometers have been undertaken in Tenerife (28 deg 16' N, 16 deg 36' W) during ACE-2 (June-July 1997). Five ground-based sites were located at four different altitudes in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, from 0 to 3570 m asl. The goal of the investigation was to provide estimates of the vertical aerosol extinction over the island, both under clean and turbid conditions. Inversion of spectral tau(sub a) allowed to retrieve size distributions, from which the single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) and the asymmetry factor g could be estimated as a function of altitude. These parameters were combined to calculate aerosol forcing in the column. Emphasis is put on episodes of increased turbidity, which were observed at different locations simultaneously, and attributed to outbreaks of mineral dust from North Africa. Differentiation of tau(sub a) as a function of altitude provided the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient sigma(sub e). For dust outbreaks, aerosol extinction is concentrated in two distinct layers above and below the strong subsidence inversion around 1200 m asl. Vertical profiles of tau(sub a) and sigma(sub e) are shown for July 8. In some occasions, vertical profiles are compared to LIDAR observations, performed both at sea level and in the low free troposphere, and to airborne measurements of aerosol optical depths.

  1. Altitude Differentiated Aerosol Extinction Over Tenerife (North Atlantic Coast) During ACE-2 by Means of Ground and Airborne Photometry and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formenti, P.; Elias, T.; Welton, J.; Diaz, J. P.; Exposito, F.; Schmid, B.; Powell, D.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Devaux, C.; Voss, K.; Lelieveld, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Durkee, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depths (tau(sub a)) by means of sun photometers have been undertaken in Tenerife (28 deg 16' N, 16 deg 36' W) during ACE-2 (June-July 1997). Five ground-based sites were located at four different altitudes in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, from 0 to 3570 m asl. The goal of the investigation was to provide estimates of the vertical aerosol extinction over the island, both under clean and turbid conditions. Inversion of spectral tau(sub a) allowed to retrieve size distributions, from which the single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) and the asymmetry factor g could be estimated as a function of altitude. These parameters were combined to calculate aerosol forcing in the column. Emphasis is put on episodes of increased turbidity, which were observed at different locations simultaneously, and attributed to outbreaks of mineral dust from North Africa. Differentiation of tau(sub a) as a function of altitude provided the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient sigma(sub e). For dust outbreaks, aerosol extinction is concentrated in two distinct layers above and below the strong subsidence inversion around 1200 m asl. Vertical profiles of tau(sub a) and sigma(sub e) are shown for July 8. In some occasions, vertical profiles are compared to LIDAR observations, performed both at sea level and in the low free troposphere, and to airborne measurements of aerosol optical depths.

  2. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

  3. Anti-proliferative activity and chemical characterization by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry of phlorotannins from the brown macroalga Sargassum muticum collected on North-Atlantic coasts.

    PubMed

    Montero, Lidia; Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea P; García-Cañas, Virginia; Tanniou, Anaëlle; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-01-08

    In the present work, the phlorotannin composition of different Sargassum muticum samples collected at different locations along the North Atlantic coasts as well as the bioactivities related to these components were investigated. After pressurized liquid extraction, the samples collected at the extreme locations of a latitudinal gradient from Portugal and Norway, were found to be the richest on total phenols and, particularly, on phlorotannins, containing up to 148.97 and 5.12mg phloroglucinol equivalents g(-1), respectively. The extracts obtained from these locations were further purified and chemically characterized using a modified HILIC×RP-DAD-MS/MS method. The application of this methodology allowed the tentative identification of a great variability of phlorotannins with different degrees of polymerization (from 3 to 11) and structures, determined for the first time in S. muticum. The most-abundant phlorotannins on these samples were fuhalols, hydroxyfuhalols and phlorethols, showing also particularities and important differences depending on the geographical location. Afterwards, the antiproliferative activity of these extracts against HT-29 adenocarcinoma colon cancer cells was studied. Results revealed that the richest S. muticum samples in terms of total phlorotannins, i.e., those from Norway, presented the highest activity, showing a good cytotoxic potential at concentrations in the medium micromolar range.

  4. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  5. A numerical investigation into the ability of the Poisson PDE to extract the mass-density from land-based gravity data: A case study of salt diapirs in the north coast of the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AllahTavakoli, Yahya; Safari, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    This paper is counted as a numerical investigation into the capability of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) at Earth's surface to extract the near-surface mass-density from land-based gravity data. For this purpose, first it focuses on approximating the gradient tensor of Earth's gravitational potential by means of land-based gravity data. Then, based on the concepts of both the gradient tensor and Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface, certain formulae are proposed for the mass-density determination. Furthermore, this paper shows how the generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy can be used for enhancing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, in a real case study, the formulae are applied to 6350 gravity stations located within a part of the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The case study numerically indicates that the proposed formulae, provided by Poisson's PDE, has the ability to convert land-based gravity data into the terrain mass-density which has been used for depicting areas of salt diapirs in the region of the case study.

  6. Characterization of the infralittoral system along the north-east Spanish coast based on sport shore-based fishing tournament catches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordoa, Ana

    2009-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the structure of fish assemblages were analysed based on the catch data from a total of 2329 shore-based sport fishing tournaments held in north-eastern Spain from 2002 to 2006 with a view to characterizing the infralittoral system along 400 km of coastline and assessing the usefulness of these data as an additional means of monitoring coastal areas. A total of 63 species in 35 families were identified in the catches. Daily catch rates per fisherman varied from 0.1 kg to 0.5 kg according to the fishing area, and maximum catch rates and minimum species richness values were observed in the vicinity of the mouths of major rivers. Cluster analysis yielded six separate major groups. Two groups were characterized by predominantly or entirely rocky bottoms where the main species were Coris julis and Serranus cabrilla and were differentiated by a higher abundance of labrids and serranids and an absence of sparids. A third group encompassed areas under the influence of major rivers, where Chelon labrosus dominated the fish community. The other three groups were dominated by sparids but with differences in the total contribution by the main species, Sparus aurata, Lithognathus mormyrus, and Pagellus acarne, to each fish assemblage, indicating differences in ecological structure. The results suggest that sublittoral fish assemblages can be regarded as ecosystem descriptors and should not be overlooked as indicators of ecosystem changes. The study showed that a structured legislative framework for regulating recreational fishing tournaments can be extremely useful for monitoring littoral fishes at minimal added cost.

  7. Rupture lengths and temporal history of significant earthquakes on the offshore and north coast segments of the Northern San Andreas Fault based on turbidite stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, Chris; Morey, Ann E.; Nelson, C. Hans; Gutiérrez-Pastor, Julia; Johnson, Joel E.; Karabanov, Eugene; Chaytor, Jason; Eriksson, Andrew; Shipboard Scientific Party

    2007-02-01

    74 piston, gravity and jumbo Kasten cores were collected from channel and canyon systems draining the northern California continental margin to investigate the record of periodic Holocene turbidites for possible connection to large magnitude earthquakes on the adjacent Northern San Andreas Fault. Poorly known channel systems were mapped with multibeam sonar to define pathways and channel confluences. Cores sampled all major and many minor channel systems extending from Cape Mendocino to just north of Monterey Bay. Sampling both along and across channels was done and particular attention was paid to channel confluences, as these areas afford opportunities to test for synchronous triggering of turbidity currents. While at sea, all cores were scanned using a GEOTEK multisensor core logger (MSCL), which collects high-resolution photography, P-wave velocity, gamma-ray density, and magnetic susceptibility data from the unsplit cores. Lithology was logged visually, and cores were later imaged with X-radiography. We use 14C ages, relative dating tests at channel confluences, and stratigraphic correlation using physical properties to determine whether turbidites deposited in separate channel systems are correlative, implying they were triggered by a common event. These tests can, in most cases, separate earthquake-triggered turbidity currents from other possible sources. The late Holocene turbidite record off northern California passes these tests for synchronous triggering, and can be correlated with multiple proxies from site to site between Noyo Channel and the latitude of San Francisco. Preliminary comparisons of our event ages with existing and in progress work at onshore coastal sites show good correlation, further circumstantial evidence that the offshore record is primarily earthquake generated. During the last ˜ 2800 yr, 15 turbidites are recognized, including the great 1906 earthquake. Their chronology establishes an average repeat time of ˜ 200 yr, similar to

  8. The 11th Century Collapse of Aqaba on the North Coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Fault System, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Tina; Allison, Alivia; Rucker, John

    2010-05-01

    The city of Aqaba is situated at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba along the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform Fault. Based both on the historical accounts and archaeological excavations, it is clear that earthquakes have played a significant role in the history of the region. The early Islamic city of Ayla was probably founded around 650 A.D., suffered some damage as a result of the 748 A.D. earthquake, and saw extensive reconstruction around the beginning of the Abbasid period (Whitcomb, 1994). Among other evidence of earthquake destruction at the Islamic city of Ayla is the leaning city Sea wall. Stratified pottery collections from our February 2009 excavation of the buttress of the city wall of Ayla strongly suggest a date for revetment construction in the early 11th Century. Based on the fact that the most recent pottery from sealed loci inside the buttress wall is late Abbasid - Fatimid and the absence of handmade pottery often found in the abandonment phases, the buttress was likely constructed after liquefaction damage from the 1033 earthquake. Damage from distant source earthquakes (748 and 1033) in the ancient city was repaired in antiquity. The destruction and loss of life (accounts claim that all but 12 residents who had been out fishing were killed) caused by the 1068 earthquake may account for the relative ease with which Baldwin I of Jerusalem took over when he arrived with a small retinue in 1116 A.D. Paleoseismic trenches in the modern city of Aqaba indicate that at least two earthquakes have occurred after deposits dated to 1045-1278 A.D. A preliminary analysis of the stratigraphy in new trenches in the Taba sabkha north of Aqaba shows at least three separate faulting events, with the most recent event located at a depth of 70 cm below the ground surface. This finding supports the initial ground penetrating radar survey conducted at the southern end of the Taba sabkha by Abueladas (2005). These data document a long period of quiescence

  9. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  10. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  11. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  12. INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS HALL, LOOKING NORTH INTO MESS. Oregon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER STAIRS HALL, LOOKING NORTH INTO MESS. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  13. Up the East Coast of North America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video was taken by the crew of Expedition 30 on board the International Space Station. The sequence of shots was taken January 29, 2012 from 05:33:11 to 05:48:10 GMT, on a pass from just south...

  14. 21. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING BUILDING F AT RIGHT AND BUILDING H (HAER No. CA-329-B) AT UPPER LEFT. 30X24 inch black and white silver gelatin print. Photographers unknown. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. NASA Provides Coast-to-Coast Coverage of Aug. 21 Solar Eclipse (Rocky Mountains)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-21

    On Monday, Aug. 21, NASA provided coast-to-coast coverage of the solar eclipse across America – featuring views of the phenomenon from unique vantage points, including from the ground, from aircraft, and from spacecraft including the ISS, during a live broadcast seen on NASA Television and the agency’s website. This is footage from Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina and Tennessee).

  16. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Parra, Flavia C; Amado, Roberto C; Lambertucci, José R; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2003-01-07

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers.

  17. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Flavia C.; Amado, Roberto C.; Lambertucci, José R.; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2003-01-01

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers. PMID:12509516

  18. 77 FR 35898 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel movement... Topsail Beach, North Carolina. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the Coast Guard on...

  19. INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  20. INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  1. INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  2. The possible role of Brazilian promontory in Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Youjia; Xi, Xiangying

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf Stream, one of the strongest currents in the world, transports approximately 31 Sv of water (Kelly and Gille, 1990; Baringer and Larsen, 2001; Leaman et al., 1995) and 1.3 × 1015 W (Larsen, 1992) of heat into the Atlantic Ocean, and warms the vast European continent. Thus any change of the Gulf Stream could lead to the climate change in the European continent, and even worldwide (Bryden et al., 2005). Past studies have revealed a diminished Gulf Stream and oceanic heat transport that was possibly associated with a southward migration of intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and may have contributed to Little Ice Age (AD ∼1200 to 1850) in the North Atlantic (Lund et al., 2006). However, the causations of the Gulf Stream weakening due to the southward migration of the ITCZ remain uncertain. Here we use satellite observation data and employ a model (oceanic general circulation model - OGCM) to demonstrate that the Brazilian promontory in the east coast of South America may have played a crucial role in allocating the equatorial currents, while the mean position of the equatorial currents migrates between northern and southern hemisphere in the Atlantic Ocean. Northward migrations of the equatorial currents in the Atlantic Ocean have little influence on the Gulf Stream. Nevertheless, southward migrations, especially abrupt large southward migrations of the equatorial currents, can lead to the increase of the Brazil Current and the significant decrease of the North Brazil Current, in turn the weakening of the Gulf Stream. The results from the model simulations suggest the mean position of the equatorial currents in the Atlantic Ocean shifted at least 180-260 km southwards of its present-day position during the Little Ice Age based on the calculations of simple linear equations and the OGCM simulations.

  3. Receiver function analysis of the Texas Gulf Coast to better understand the Ouachita Orogeny, opening of the Gulf of Mexico, and current state of the southern margin of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuppel, M.; Pratt, K. W.; Evanzia, D.; Gurrola, H.; Pulliam, J.

    2012-12-01

    For the past two years, Texas Tech and Baylor universities have been operating 21 broadband seismic stations extending from Matagorda Island, crossing the Gulf Coast plain and Balcones fault, ending in the middle of the Llano Uplift at Johnson City, Texas. The goal of this project is to image the basement to better understand the opening of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and the stabilization of the southern lithosphere of North America. In this presentation we will present preliminary results of receiver function analysis of data recorded by our broadband array. Using 18 months' of data we performed common conversion point (CCP) stack imaging of the crust and lithosphere along the profile and have produced a cross section showing receiver function derived Vp/Vs ratios along the profile. The strongest phase on the CCP stack is the Ps phase from the base of a 15 to 20-km-deep (at the shoreline) sedimentary basin that shallows to approximately 1 km deep at the Balcones fault. Vp/Vs analysis shows that this sedimentary unit has Vp/Vs ratios between 1.9 and 2.0. This unusually high Vp/Vs ratio is consistent with the basin being dominated by poorly consolidated, relatively young clastic sediment. This layer pinches out to the northwest. No clear Ps phase is observed from base of the Mesozoic carbonates and Ouachita-related sediments that we believe is several kilometers thick, based on observed Vp/Vs ratios of 1.85 to 1.9 (which is more consistent with carbonate rock than granitic basement). The pattern of Vp/Vs implies near-vertical, crust-wide displacement along the Balcones Fault. The Moho appears to be 15 to 20 km deep near the ocean but descends to more than 40 km beneath the Llano uplift. There is a strong Ps phase from about 70 km depth near the coastline that we interpret as remnant depleted mantle from the rifting of the GOM. The region between this P70s phase and the Moho appear to have a low Vp/Vs ratio (~1.75), which would be consistent with mantle depleted in

  4. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  5. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  6. Protodrilus (Protodrilidae, Annelida) from the southern and southeastern Brazilian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Domenico, Maikon; Martínez, Alejandro; Lana, Paulo da Cunha; Worsaae, Katrine

    2013-12-01

    Protodrilus corderoi, Protodrilus ovarium n. sp. and Protodrilus pythonius n. sp. are reported from beaches in southern and southeastern Brazil and described combining live observations with light and electron scanning microscopy studies. Protodrilus corderoi is redescribed from new collections at the type locality, and a neotype for the species is assigned since the original type material no longer exists. New information on reproductive organs, segmental adhesive glands and unpigmented ciliary receptors as well as morphometrics is provided. Protodrilus ovarium n. sp. and P. pythonius n. sp. are formally described. Protodrilus ovarium n. sp. is diagnosed by the presence of separated lateral organs on segments 7-12, three spermioducts of segments 10-12 and salivary glands in segments 1-9. Protodrilus pythonius n. sp. is defined by the presence of separated lateral organs on segments 7-16, long pygidial lobes and body tapering toward the pygidium. The distribution of the different species in more or less spacious habitats seems to be correlated with their gross morphology. Protodrilus pythonius n. sp., with relatively long and wide body and long palps with ciliary bands, was collected in very coarse sandy sediments at a reflective sheltered beach. Conversely, P. corderoi and P. ovarium n. sp., both possessing more slender bodies with shorter, less ciliated palps, occurred in medium-coarse, well-sorted sediments in the more energetic swash zone of exposed intermediate-reflective beaches. The finding of P. pythonius and P. corderoi in nearby beaches corroborates other studies showing a higher morphological variability among species in different habitats within the same geographical area than among species in the same habitat in different geographical areas.

  7. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  8. Brazilian consensus on photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; Cunha, José Antônio Jabur da; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.

  9. ADCIRC: An Advanced Three-Dimensional Circulation Model for Shelves, Coasts, and Estuaries. Report 3. Development of a Tidal Constituent DataBase for the Western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    in these five technical areas: Area 1 - Analysis of Dredged Material Placed in Open Water Area 2 - Material Properties Related to Navigation and...reports the tidal-constituent in open water are classified as either dispersive database developed for locations along the or nondispersive depending on...whether local East and Gulf coast of the United States, water velocities ame strong enough to erode and which is a part of the first two goals listed

  10. 22. AERIAL VIEW OF SOUTH PART OF THE COAST GUARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW OF SOUTH PART OF THE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING PART OF BUILDING H IN THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER (DOES NOT SHOW BUILDING F). 30X24 inch black and white silver gelatin print. Photographer unknown. Date unknown. 304 - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Bachelor Officer Quarters, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. View of portion of Mediterranean Coast of Turkey and Syria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey and Syria, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. This view covers the Levant Coast north of Beirut, showing the cities of Aleppo, Hamah, Homs and Latakia. The Levantine rift bends to the northeast. The altitude of the spacecraft was 225 kilometers (140 statute miles) when this photo was taken.

  12. Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. 7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND BUILDING F IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, Air Station Contract 1247, Sewer System. 1956. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. Soft tissue profile in white Brazilian adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces.

    PubMed

    Scavone, Helio; Zahn-Silva, Wesley; do Valle-Corotti, Karyna Martins; Nahás, Ana Carla Raphaelli

    2008-01-01

    To analyze anteroposterior soft tissue facial parameters for a sample of white Brazilian adults and to compare these measurements with the values proposed for white North American adults. Facial profile photographs were taken of 59 white Brazilians (30 men and 29 women) with normal occlusions and balanced faces with ages ranging from 18 to 30 years. The independent Student's t-test (P < .05) was used to compare the soft tissue parameters of the Brazilians with those of the North Americans. White Brazilian women presented a less protruded face compared with white American women except for the glabella region. White Brazilian women showed a smaller nasal projection, less protruded upper and lower lips, a more obtuse nasolabial angle, and a smaller projection of the B' point and chin than white American women. Conversely, the two male groups demonstrated less evident soft tissue profile differences, with the exception of the nose projection, which was smaller in white Brazilian men than in white American men. A universal standard of facial esthetic is not applicable to diverse white populations. Differences regarding the soft tissue profile features were found between white Brazilians and white Americans. These differences should be considered in the orthodontic/orthognathic surgery diagnosis and treatment plan for white Brazilians together with the patient's individual opinion and perception of beauty.

  16. Oceans and Coasts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  17. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  18. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  19. Satellite chlorophyll off the British Columbia Coast, 1997-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jennifer M.; Thomson, Richard E.; Brown, Leslie N.; Willis, Peter G.; Borstad, Gary A.

    2015-07-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal variability of satellite-sensed sea surface chlorophyll off the west coast of North America from 1997 to 2010, with focus on coastal British Columbia. The variability in surface chlorophyll is complex. Whereas the spring bloom generates the highest phytoplankton concentration for coastal Alaska, the north and east coasts of Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Sound, the Strait of Georgia, and coastal Oregon and California, it is the fall bloom that normally generates the highest concentration for the west coast of Vancouver Island, Juan de Fuca Strait, and the west coast of Washington. The highest satellite-sensed chlorophyll concentrations occur in the Strait of Georgia, where mean values are at least 2 times higher than elsewhere in the northeast Pacific. Moreover, the annual average surface chlorophyll concentration increased significantly in the Strait of Georgia during this period, with highest concentration observed during the near neutral ENSO conditions of the spring of 2007. The next highest concentrations occur off southwest Vancouver Island but have no statistically significant trend. The lowest average peak chlorophyll concentration is observed off Southern California. The timing of the highest chlorophyll concentration is latest off the coast of Washington and earliest off the coast of Southern California. Small increasing concentration trends are observed off the Washington and California coasts.

  20. Resource inventory of marine and estuarine fishes of the West Coast and Alaska: A checklist of North Pacific and Arctic Ocean species from Baja California to the Alaska - Yukon border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Milton S.; Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Mecklenburg, T. Anthony; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.

    2005-01-01

    This is a comprehensive inventory of the fish species recorded in marine and estuarine waters between the Alaska–Yukon Territory border in the Beaufort Sea and Cabo San Lucas at the southern end of Baja California and out about 300 miles from shore. Our westernmost range includes the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. In addition, we have also included our best impressions of the species that might reasonably be expected to be members of the West Coast ichthyofauna but have not yet been captured or reported within our study area. These species are marked with an asterisk (*) and have been reported (1) in the western Bering Sea; (2) off Canada’s Yukon Territory and adjacent portions of the Northwest Territories; (3) along the southern-eastern tip (non-Pacific side) of Baja California; and (4) in waters somewhat beyond 300 miles from shore. Although the term West Coast usually refers to the coast of the continuous western states, our usage herein means the entire study area. The West Coast inventory within this range encompasses fish fauna from 44 orders, 232 families, and a minimum of 1,450 species. Please note that introduced and invasive fish species are marked by double asterisks (**) and that their scientific names are highlighted in gray. We have compiled this document because the most geographically inclusive previous inventories (Jordan and Evermann 1896a, Jordan et al. 1930) are largely of historical interest and are out of date. More recent lists and compilations have either focused on relatively narrow taxonomic groups (e. g., Kramer et al. 1995, Love et al. 2002), are regional in scope (e. g., Hart 1973, Hubbs et al. 1979, Mecklenburg et al. 2002), or focus on commonly observed species (e. g., Miller and Lea 1972, Eschmeyer and Herald 1983). With the explosion of coastal research and environmental assessments, beginning in the 1970s, and more recently, renewed scientific interest in biodiversity (e.g., effects of global climate change), our own

  1. Estimation of the Change in Freshwater Volume in the North Coast Limestone Upper Aquifer of Puerto Rico in the Rio Grande de Manati-Rio de la Plata Area between 1960 and 1990 and Implications on Public-Supply Water Availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the upper aquifer of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system historically has been the principal source of public-supply and self-supplied industrial water use in north-central Puerto Rico. Development of the aquifer for these two major water-use categories began in about 1930; however, withdrawals did not become an important water-supply source for sustaining local development until the 1960s. Ground-water withdrawals averaged about 6 million gallons per day from 1948 to the mid-1960s and peaked at about 33 million gallons per day in the 1980s. Withdrawals have since declined, averaging about 11.5 million gallons per day in 2002. Aquifer contamination by industrial chemical spills and by nitrates from agricultural and domestic sources initially reduced pumpage for public-supply use within localized areas, leading eventually to increased withdrawals at unaffected well fields. The long-term effect of unconstrained ground-water withdrawals has been a regional thinning of the freshwater lens in an area encompassing 50,600 acres between the Rio Grande de Manati and Rio de la Plata, generally north of latitude 18?25?. The effects of aquifer overdraft have been documented in the regional thinning of the freshwater lens, with an increase in dissolved-solids concentration in ground-water wells. Dissolved-solids concentration in public-supply wells were generally between 250 and 350 milligrams per liter during the 1960s, but increased to greater than 500 milligrams per liter in virtually all of the wells by 2000. Depletion of fresh ground water was estimated at 282,000 acre-feet: 103,000 acre-feet in the Rio Grande de Manati to Rio Cibuco area between 1960 and 1995, and 179,000 acre-feet in the Rio Cibuco to Rio de la Plata area between 1960 and 1992. Thus, aquifer freshwater volume depletion below mean sea level datum may have contributed as much as 38 percent (7.5 million gallons per day) of the 20-million gallons per day average withdrawal rate during

  2. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  3. Prevalence of atopic eczema and related symptoms in Brazilian schoolchildren: results from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase 3.

    PubMed

    Solé, D; Camelo-Nunes, I C; Wandalsen, G F; Mallozi, M C; Naspitz, Charles K

    2006-01-01

    International comparisons of the prevalence of atopic eczema and related symptoms are scarce. The standardized protocol of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) facilitates investigation of prevalence all over the world. To apply the ISAAC written questionnaire to evaluate the prevalence of atopic eczema and related symptoms among 6-7 year-old children and 13-14 year-old adolescents living in 20 Brazilian cities. The ISAAC written questionnaire was filled in by 23,422 children aged 6-7 years and 58,144 adolescents aged 13-14 years living in 2 population centers in the north, 8 in the northeast, 1 in the midwest, 5 in the southeast, and 5 in the south. The prevalence of flexural eczema (itchy rash ever in characteristic places in the last 12 months) ranged from 5.3% to 13.0% for children and was lower among the adolescents (range, 3.4%-7.9%). Among children, the highest rates were observed in population centers in the northeast, mainly along the coast. Among adolescents the highest rates were observed in the north and northeast, mainly in Natal, Aracaju, and Vitória da Conquista. The northeastern countryside had higher prevalence rates of severe eczema (kept awake at night by this itchy rash in the last 12 months) in comparison to northeastern coastal centers. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of flexural eczema and severe eczema for both age groups, separately (6-7 year-olds, prho= 0.756, P<.004; 13-14 year-olds, rho=0.874, P<.0001) or grouped (6-7 plus 13-14 years-olds, rho=0.696, P<.0001). The prevalence of eczema and related symptoms is variable in Brazil, where the highest prevalence is found in the north and northeast; on the other hand, a higher prevalence of severe eczema was observed in Brazilian centers in the south.

  4. Flatfishes of Norwegian coasts and fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Ole Thomas; Eliassen, Jens-Eric; Høines, Åge

    1998-09-01

    Bottom trawl surveys in North Norwegian fjords and coastal areas, on a South Norwegian coastal bank, and along the Russian Kola coast, are used to describe distribution, species composition, individual growth, population structure, and exploitation of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa), long rough dab ( Hippoglossoides platessoides), witch ( Glyptocephalus cynoglossus), lemon sole ( Microstomus kitt), dab ( Limanda limanda), megrim ( Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis), halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Based on distribution and abundance, individual species have been grouped as northern, southern or intermediate, as shallow or deep, and as associated with fjords or with coastal banks. The four most abundant flatfishes in Norwegian coastal zones, plaice, long rough dab, witch, and lemon sole, were equally or more abundant in the north compared to the south. Specimens of these species were generally larger in the north and mean length at age tended to be lower. Possible nursery areas were indicated for plaice and lemon sole.

  5. Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America and subsequent population bottlenecks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cornus florida (eastern flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (pacific flowering dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, have fruits that contain high fat content for animal...

  6. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  7. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  8. Biodiversity and Distribution of Horseshoe Crabs in Northern Coast of Java and Southern Coast of Madura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashar, A.; Butet, NA; Juliandi, B.; Qonita, Y.; Hakim, AA; Wardiatno, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Horseshoe crab is an important component of macro-benthos communities in the fine sand or mud substrate in coastal waters, both in the tropical and temperate region. This primitive animal consists of four species in the world, and three species can be found di Asian region, including Indonesia, namely Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Scientific information about species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in Indonesia is limited, also about morphometric characters. This study aims to determine the morphometric characters and species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island. This study was conducted on July-August 2016. The total number of three Asian horseshoe crab obtained in this study was 260 individuals, distributed along north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island, respectively 176 individuals of C. rotundicauda, 35 individuals of T. tridentatus, and 49 individuals of T. gigas. Tachypleus gigas has the largest size and widest class interval among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Morphometric characters is differences among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Carapace width and telson length were not significantly different among sampling locations only in T. tridentatus.

  9. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  10. Lamellodiscus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) parasites of Dentex macrophthalmus (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the North Atlantic coast of Africa, with a redescription of L. dentexi Aljoshkina, 1984, and description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Diamanka, Arfang; Neifar, Lassâd; Pariselle, Antoine; Euzet, Louis

    2011-03-01

    Lamellodiscus dentexi Aljoshkina, 1984, a gill parasite of Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch), is redescribed based on new material from the northwest coast of Africa (Senegal and Morocco). Three new species of Lamellodiscus Johnston et Tiegs, 1922 from D. macrophthalmus are described, Lamellodiscus toguebayei sp. n., L. vicinus sp. n., and L. triacies sp. n., all belonging to the "ignoratus" group. They can be distinguished from all other species of this group by the size and shape of male copulatory organ and sclerotised parts of the haptor. Considering the peculiar morphology of the male copulatory organ (long and thin tube) we propose to put together L. dentexi, L. virgula Euzet et Oliver, 1967 and L. obeliae Oliver, 1973 to form the "elongatus" type within the "elegans" group.

  11. Coasts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfish