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Sample records for north east russia

  1. The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

  2. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. [CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EEG AND RHEOGRAPHIC INDICES OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN CHILDREN ON NORTH-EAST OF RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Burykh, E A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the work was an estimation of correlations between EEG spectral parameters and rheoencephalogram (REG) indicators of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the group of children of 7-18 years old living in the North-East of Russia. Well-known data were confirmed about age-dependent EEG and REG-CBF indicators dynamics. It was not revealed strong coordination between EEG and REG age-dependent changes in this period of life. This may to our opinion speak of relative independence of development of those systems which reflect itself in EEG and REG--structural functional organization of the brain and cerebral metabolic rate. In a narrow age band 14.8-15.6 years old it was found highly significant positive correlation between EEG theta activity and REG amplitude-frequency parameter--indicating CBF. The hypothesis was suggested explaining this fact from the point of view of the down-regulation mechanism of the brain in the period of energy expensive synthetic processes in puberty period. PMID:26672163

  4. [CORRELATIONS BETWEEN EEG AND RHEOGRAPHIC INDICES OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN CHILDREN ON NORTH-EAST OF RUSSIA].

    PubMed

    Burykh, E A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the work was an estimation of correlations between EEG spectral parameters and rheoencephalogram (REG) indicators of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the group of children of 7-18 years old living in the North-East of Russia. Well-known data were confirmed about age-dependent EEG and REG-CBF indicators dynamics. It was not revealed strong coordination between EEG and REG age-dependent changes in this period of life. This may to our opinion speak of relative independence of development of those systems which reflect itself in EEG and REG--structural functional organization of the brain and cerebral metabolic rate. In a narrow age band 14.8-15.6 years old it was found highly significant positive correlation between EEG theta activity and REG amplitude-frequency parameter--indicating CBF. The hypothesis was suggested explaining this fact from the point of view of the down-regulation mechanism of the brain in the period of energy expensive synthetic processes in puberty period.

  5. Lower Carboniferous carbonates rocks in Chukotka (North-East of Russia): paleogeographical reconstruction and geodynamic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchkova, Marianna; Sokolov, Sergey; Khudoley, Andrey; Pokrovsky, Boris; Vatrushkina, Elena

    2014-05-01

    ; Eardly, 1948; Embry, 1993, 2011). In our opinion, Carboniferous carbonates rocks of Chukotka are the part of carbonate platform of Old continental block, that was existent in the north of Arctic. Lower Carboniferous limestones of South-Anyui Suture cannot be considered an element of the exhumed Paleozoic section of Anyui-Chukotka fold belt (Sokolov et al., 2006). Acknowledgments: This work is financially supported by RFBR Project nos. 11-05-00074, 11-05-00787, 14-05-00031 and Scientific School NSh - 2981.2014.5

  6. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    PubMed

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  7. Nitrogen fixation activity in biological soil crusts dominated by cyanobacteria in the Subpolar Urals (European North-East Russia).

    PubMed

    Patova, Elena; Sivkov, Michail; Patova, Anna

    2016-09-01

    The nitrogen fixation by biological soil crusts with a dominance of cyanobacteria was studied using the acetylene reduction assay in the territory of the Subpolar Urals (65°11' N, 60°18' E), Russia. The field measurements of nitrogen fixation activity were conducted in situ for two different types of soil crusts dominated by Stigonema (V1 type) and Nostoc with Scytonema (V2 type). The nitrogen fixation process had similar dynamics in both crusts but nitrogen fixation rates were different. The crusts of the V2 type showed a significantly higher acetylene reduction activity, with ethylene production rate of 1.76 ± 0.49 g C2H4 m(-2) h(-1) at 15°C, compared with V1-type soil crusts, with a rate of 0.53 ± 0.21 mg C2H4 m(-2) h(-1) at 15°C. The daily value of acetylene reduction activity in V2-type soil crusts was 32.7 ± 6.2 mg C2H4 m(-2) d(-1) and in V1-type crusts, 12.3 ± 1.8 mg C2H4 m(-2) d(-1) After recalculation for N, the daily values of nitrogen fixation were in the range 3.3-22.3 mg N m(-2) d(-1), which is a few times higher than the values of N input from the precipitation to the soil in the studied regions. The dependence of nitrogen-fixation activity on temperature and light intensity of biological soil crusts was investigated. On the basis of temperature models obtained from the dependence, the nitrogen balance was calculated for the growing season (approximately 120 days). The crusts dominated by Stigonema species were fixing 0.3 g N m(-2) (ethylene production rate, 1.10 g C2H4 m(-2)) and crusts dominated by Nostoc and Scytonema were fixing 1.3 g N m(-2) (4.10 g C2H4 m(-2)).

  8. Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

  9. 17. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North McDonald Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  10. 2. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North Coweta Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  11. Quantitative bedrock geology of east and Southeast Asia (Brunei, Cambodia, eastern and southeastern China, East Timor, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, far-eastern Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic bedrock based on data from the most recent digital geologic maps of East and Southeast Asia (Coordinating Committee for Coastal and Offshore Geosciences Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) and the Geologic Survey of Japan, 1997; 1:2,000,000), published as Digital Geoscience Map G-2 by the Geological Survey of Japan. Sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks, plutonic rocks, ultramafic rocks and metamorphic rocks cover 73.3%, 8.5%, 8.8%, 0.9%, and 8.6% of the surface area, respectively. The average ages of major lithologic units, weighted according to bedrock area, are as follows: sedimentary rocks (average stratigraphic age of 123 Myr/median age of 26 Myr), volcanic rocks (84 Myr/20 Myr), intrusive rocks (278 Myr/195 Myr), ultramafic rocks (unknown) and metamorphic rocks (1465 Myr/1118 Myr). The variability in lithologic composition and age structure of individual countries reflects the complex tectonic makeup of this region that ranges from Precambrian cratons (e.g., northeast China and North Korea) to Mesozoic-Cenozoic active margins (e.g., Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea). The spatial resolution of the data varies from 44 km2 per polygon (Japan) to 1659 km2 per polygon (Taiwan) and is, on average (490 km2/polygon), similar to our previous analyses of the United States of America and Canada. The temporal and spatial resolution is sufficiently high to perform age-area analyses of individual river basins larger than ˜10,000 km2 and to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between bedrock geology and river chemistry. As many rivers draining tropical, mountainous islands of East and Southeast Asia have a disproportionate effect on the dissolved and particulate load delivered to the world oceans, bedrock geology in such river drainage basins disproportionately affect ocean chemistry.

  12. Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. Subdivision of the tribe Oligaphorurini in the light of new and lesser known species from North-East Russia (Collembola, Onychiuridae, Onychiurinae)

    PubMed Central

    Babenko, Anatoly B.; Fjellberg, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The paper is devoted to a taxonomic review of Oligaphorurini from the north-eastern part of Palaearctic. Two new species, i.e. Oligaphorura ambigua sp. n. and Oligaphorura duocellata sp. n., are described. Four species, Oligaphorura nataliae (Fjellberg, 1987), Oligaphorura interrupta (Fjellberg, 1987), Oligaphorura pingicola (Fjellberg, 1987), and Micraphorura alnus (Fjellberg, 1987), are redescribed on base of the types and new material, and remarks on other species known for the region, Oligaphorura groenlandica (Tullberg, 1876), Oligaphorura ursi (Fjellberg, 1984), Oligaphorura aborigensis (Fjellberg, 1987), and Micraphorura absoloni (Börner, 1901), are given to clarify their generic affiliation. Finally, merits and disadvantages of the current subdivision of the tribe are discussed and a key to the northern species of the tribe is provided. PMID:25878523

  15. VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING, EAST SIDE OF FOSTER HANGAR AND FRANCIS HANGAR, AND NORTH SIDE OF DAVIS HANGAR AND METAL STORAGE HANGAR - Capital City Airport, Francis Aviation, North side of Grand River Avenue, Lansing, Ingham County, MI

  16. 3. East side, details of north half of east web; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side, details of north half of east web; also details of roadway, railing and overhead bracing; looking northeast - Dodd Ford Bridge, County Road 147 Spanning Blue Earth River, Amboy, Blue Earth County, MN

  17. NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE (WPA PROJECT, 1938-1941). - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  18. WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE WEST PIER OF THE CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  19. 19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, background north & east facades of Forest Hall. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  20. 27. View east, foreground north facade of Forest Hall, background ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View east, foreground north facade of Forest Hall, background north facade of Forest East Suites. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  1. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  2. Future Biome Projections in Alaska and East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, A.; Saito, K.; Bigelow, N. H.; Walsh, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We projected Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. BIOME4, which produces an equilibrium vegetation distribution under a given climate condition, was forced by CMIP5/PMIP3 climate data considered in IPCC AR5. We are exploring vegetation and permafrost distributions during the last 21,000 years and future projections (2100 C.E.) to gain an understanding of the effects of climate shifts on this complex subsystem. When forced with the baseline climatology, compiled from the University of Delaware temperature and precipitation climatology and ERA-40 sunshine data, our biome simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region. The biomes in this region are mostly evergreen and deciduous taiga capped by shrub and graminoid tundras to the north. The more noticeable differences were the tree line simulated north of the Brooks Range in Alaska and evergreen taiga in southwest Alaska where we know these biomes do not exist today. The projected changes in climate conditions in the region under a RCP8.5 climate scenario (significant warming upwards of 10°C by some models, an increase in precipitation by as much as 40%, and carbon dioxide concentration reaching approximately 940 ppm) drive shifts in Arctic biomes. The tree line shifts northward while shrub tundra and graminoid tundra regions decrease significantly. An intrusion of cool mixed, deciduous, and conifer forests above 60° north, especially in southwest Alaska, were marked and were not modeled for present day. Across eastern Russia, deciduous taiga begins to overtake evergreen taiga, except along the coastal regions where evergreen taiga remains the favored biome. The implications of vegetation shifts in the Arctic are vast and include effects on snow cover, soil properties, permafrost distribution, and albedo, not to mention impacts on local fauna and people of the Artic.

  3. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF NORTH WING; NOTE PLYWOOD COVERED WINDOWS DUE TO EXPLOSION ON LAUNCH PAD A IN MARCH 1997 WITH FIERY RAIN OF SOLID ROCKET FUEL AND PROLONGED CONCUSSION WAVES; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36001, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. 5. VIEW TO THE EAST NORTH EAST FROM PEAK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO THE EAST NORTH EAST FROM PEAK OF THE TURBINE HALL. THE BRICK STACK TO THE RIGHT EXHAUSTED BOILER 904 WHICH WAS INSTALLED IN 1944. STEEL SHEATHED STRUCTURE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH HOUSED BOILERS 902 AND 903. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. Paleointensity determinations from Middle Miocene volcanic rocks, Far East, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Shcherbakova, Valentina; Zhidkov, Grigoriy; Bretstein, Yury

    2010-05-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleointensity studies of a representative collection of Middle Miocene volcanic rocks of (12.4-10.0) Ma age from Far East, Russia were carried out. A comprehensive rock magnetic investigation has been performed in order to determine the mineralogy of magnetic fraction and to identify the origin of NRM. Successful Thellier palaeointensity determinations with pTRM checks were obtained for 4 sites (33 samples). The Thellier experiments were complimented by the Wilson's express method. Values of the VDMs range from 3.1 to 7.5 (10^22 Am^2) with the mean VDM = 5.5×10^22 Am^2. A total 88 Thellier-type palaeointensity determinations were found in the World Paleointensity database for the 5-23 Ma period with the overall mean VDM = 5×10^22 Am^2. The VDM distribution is characterized by high variance from 1.5 to 12 (10^22 Am^2). No significant difference between the VDM distributions for the normal and reverse polarity intervals was revealed.

  6. 5. View north, south and east facade of Lake Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View north, south and east facade of Lake Forest (original Forest Cottage structure incorporated into renamed structure) - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  7. Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    As a consequence of its capability to retrieve cloud-top elevations, stereoscopic observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) can discriminate clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya Sibir, are portrayed in these views from data acquired on May 28, 2002.

    The left-hand image is a natural color view from MISR's nadir camera. On the right is a height field retrieved using automated computer processing of data from multiple MISR cameras. Although both clouds and ice appear white in the natural color view, the stereoscopic retrievals are able to identify elevated clouds based on the geometric parallax which results when they are observed from different angles. Owing to their elevation above sea level, clouds are mapped as green and yellow areas, whereas land, sea ice, and very low clouds appear blue and purple. Purple, in particular, denotes elevations very close to sea level. The island of Novaya Sibir is located in the lower left of the images. It can be identified in the natural color view as the dark area surrounded by an expanse of fast ice. In the stereo map the island appears as a blue region indicating its elevation of less than 100 meters above sea level. Areas where the automated stereo processing failed due to lack of sufficient spatial contrast are shown in dark gray. The northern edge of the Siberian mainland can be found at the very bottom of the panels, and is located a little over 250 kilometers south of Novaya Sibir. Pack ice containing numerous fragmented ice floes surrounds the fast ice, and narrow areas of open ocean are visible.

    The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are almost always covered by snow and ice, and tundra vegetation is very scant. Despite continuous sunlight from the end of April until the middle of August, the ice between the island and the

  8. The North Sakhalin Neogene total petroleum system of eastern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    The North Sakhalin Basin Province of eastern Russia contains one Total Petroleum System (TPS) ? North Sakhalin Neogene ? with more than 6 BBOE known, ultimately recoverable petroleum (61% gas, 36% oil, 3% condensate). Tertiary rocks in the basin were deposited by the prograding paleo-Amur River system. Marine to continental, Middle to Upper Miocene shale to coaly shale source rocks charged marine to continental Middle Miocene to Pliocene sandstone reservoir rocks in Late Miocene to Pliocene time. Fractured, self-sourced, Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene siliceous shales also produce hydrocarbons. Geologic history is that of a Mesozoic Asian passive continental margin that was transformed into an active accretionary Tertiary margin and Cenozoic fold belt by the collision of India with Eurasia and by the subduction of Pacific Ocean crustal plates under the Asian continent. The area is characterized by extensional, compressional and wrench structural features that comprise most known traps.

  9. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. North and part of the east sides of the wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and part of the east sides of the wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. East side of the north wing of the building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side of the north wing of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Front (east side) and north side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (east side) and north side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employees' Quarters, North Hickey Street, West side, 150 feet North of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. NorthEast view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator North Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 1921 POWERHOUSE, EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING WESTSOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1921 POWERHOUSE, EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, VERTICAL VIEW; FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, 1921 Powerhouse, North Bank of Snake River, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  15. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, General Instruction Building, 200 feet North Road EW-1; 60 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail for refrigeration room. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 3. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDE OF TIPPLE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDE OF TIPPLE AND CLEANING PLANT LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Eureka No. 40, Tipple & Cleaning Plant, East of State Route 56, north of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

  20. East and north sides. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Physiotherapy & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and north sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Physiotherapy & Electrocardiograph Department Building, North of Building No. 516, East of corridor connecting Building No. 511 to Building No. 515, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. View of north end of east elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north end of east elevation of Building No. 21, looking west - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 21, East side of South Twenty-sixth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. Oblique view of east front and north side facing southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east front and north side facing southwest - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia.

    PubMed

    Timchenko, Nelly F; Adgamov, Ruslan R; Popov, Alexander F; Psareva, Ekaterina K; Sobyanin, Konstantin A; Gintsburg, Alexander L; Ermolaeva, Svetlana A

    2016-03-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates from patients in Russia during 1973-2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype's dominance.

  4. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Timchenko, Nelly F.; Adgamov, Ruslan R.; Popov, Alexander F.; Psareva, Ekaterina K.; Sobyanin, Konstantin A.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated in Russia during 1973–2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype’s dominance. PMID:26889961

  5. Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Petrenya, Natalya; Konoplev, Alexei; Bojko, Evgeny; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    Background The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos) in 2001–2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community. Methods During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals. Results PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p′-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p′-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p′-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p′-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study

  6. 6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. (View is taken from lakeside with lowered water level. This view encompasses the same area as MT-88-A-5 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  7. 11. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock between Dewey AVenue and North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  8. 15. View of north side of East Ward Street at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of north side of East Ward Street at the intersection with North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  9. 10. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock between Dewey Avenue and North McDonald Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  10. 18. View of north side of East Ward Street at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of north side of East Ward Street at the intersection with North Dart Street, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  11. 3. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of East Ward Street midblock between North Coweta Avenue and Dewey Avenue. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  12. 1. View of north side of East Ward Street west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of north side of East Ward Street west of North Coweta Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  13. 3. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laundry Service Building, 690 feet South of December Seventh Avenue, 60 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 543. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 543. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Maintenance Shop, 1050 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1550 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 459. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 459. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Acetylene Generator Building, 1650 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1050 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  17. NORTH (SIDE) AND EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (SIDE) AND EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  18. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. 1. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard Distillation Building, 550 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 400 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. East yard, north elevation of car department tool house (converted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East yard, north elevation of car department tool house (converted from express car). - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  2. 3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard & Aldrin Manufacturing, 1200 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 4. GENERAL VIEW EAST AND NORTH SIDES WITH FIXED UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW EAST AND NORTH SIDES WITH FIXED UMBILICAL TOWER FAR LEFT; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. 18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, FROM A POINT ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. View of north end of east elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north end of east elevation of Building No. 48. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 48, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, opposite Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. Walkway and east elevation of Building No. 48. Looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Walkway and east elevation of Building No. 48. Looking north - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 48, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, opposite Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. 1. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 538. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 538. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Thaw House-Distilled Mustard Drum Disposal, 410 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1640 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 5. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF NORTH END OF EAST FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF NORTH END OF EAST FACADE OF STEAM PLANT, BUILDING 740, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Steam Plant, Sixth Street south of East K Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 532. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 532. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Pesticide Filling & Storage Building, 390 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. North and east elevations of tractor shed facing southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and east elevations of tractor shed facing southwest - Norris Farm, Tractor Shed-Combine Barn, .5 mile west of County Road 857 & .25 mile east of County Road 88/1, Cheat Neck, Monongalia County, WV

  12. Peer Tutoring at North East High School North East (Cecil County Public Schools), Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadle, Susan

    2010-01-01

    A program at North East High School (NEHS) was started to help improve state test scores. Senior students work with underclassmen in one of the four state test areas: Algebra, English 10, Biology, and Government to help improve scores with hopes of passing the test. State test scores help to determine whether or not a school will meet their Annual…

  13. Camera position east of CO172CE7, showing north and east sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camera position east of CO-172-CE-7, showing north and east sides of the two most eastern wings. Note three wall anchors on north side of most eastern wing. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Laundry, Southeast corner of East Harlow Avenue & South Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. 4. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF SUBSTRUCTURE CONNECTIONS ON EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF SUBSTRUCTURE CONNECTIONS ON EAST END OF BRIDGE - Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railroad Bridge, Abandonned Penn Central Route, spanning Tom's Run, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  15. Interior, second floor north side of building toward east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor north side of building toward east end - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. 15. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND EAST FACADES, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. UPPER STATION, FRONT AND EAST FACADES, LOOKING NORTH. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 6. VIEW NORTH, LOWER STATION EAST SIDE. Monongahela Incline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTH, LOWER STATION EAST SIDE. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Powerhouse east, north and west elevations and operating machinery, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Powerhouse - east, north and west elevations and operating machinery, battery storage building, and typical span of steel service bridge - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  19. 18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ORIGINAL LIGHT STANDARD, WITH REPLACEMENT BRACKET AND COBRA-HEAD LAMP - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  20. UTILITY BUILDING "B", EAST AND NORTH (FRONT) SIDES, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UTILITY BUILDING "B", EAST AND NORTH (FRONT) SIDES, VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. HOSE WINDING SHED AT FAR RIGHT, WITH SCALE. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, Utility Building "B", 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  1. 2. SUPERINTENDENT'S COTTAGE NORTH FRONT AND EAST WALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SUPERINTENDENT'S COTTAGE NORTH FRONT AND EAST WALL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SUPERINTENDENT'S GARAGE (BLDG. NO. 9) AT FAR RIGHT. - Tucson Plant Materials Center, Superintendent's Cottage, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  2. 1. East (front) and north (side) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East (front) and north (side) elevations - view to west - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. 36. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF MAIN STAIR HALL SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF MAIN STAIR HALL SHOWING STAIRWAY, NORTH SCULPTURE PANEL, AND CEILING VAULT; LOOKING NORTHEAST (Harms & Wieskamp) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  4. 15. Looking north from east bank of ditch, approximately halfway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Looking north from east bank of ditch, approximately halfway between cement pipe to north and burned irrigation pump station to south - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  5. West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 13. Utility building (east and north facades) looking southeast. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Utility building (east and north facades) looking southeast. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  8. North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, near east end, showing exhaust fan and exit (series 3 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. 3. NORTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH SIDE VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 11. Detail view of the north end of the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view of the north end of the east elevation highlighting the fluted tile door surround of the northeast entrance - Arlington Realty Building, 2300 North Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  11. 28. EAST END OF THE NORTH TRAINING WALL AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. EAST END OF THE NORTH TRAINING WALL AT THE FISHING PIER, FROM THE WATER, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, LIVING ROOM, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTH FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  13. Gate on east side, between north side of building 148 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gate on east side, between north side of building 148 and south side of building 149. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Carpenter Shop Building, Southwest Corner of West I Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. 12. View to north along recovery dock along east side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View to north along recovery dock along east side of firing pier. Steel brackets originally supported a sheltering canopy over the dock. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  15. 4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  16. 9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE BLOCK PAVING, EXPANSION JOINT AND NORTH SIDE PIPE RAILING - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  17. NorthEast view; Mechanical Building, south and west elevations North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Mechanical Building, south and west elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Mechanical Building, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COTTAGES, NORTH SIDE OF OCEAN PATHWAY EAST OF BEACH AVENUE, (NOS. 17, 15, 13, 11, 7 AND 5), GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH - Town of Ocean Grove, East terminus of State Route 33, south of Asbury Park, Ocean Grove, Monmouth County, NJ

  19. RCE North East: Culture as the Means to Goodwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Aidan; Foy, Mary

    2010-01-01

    A key task of RCE North East, located in the North East of England, will be to tackle problems of inequality in education and to meet local and global challenges by promoting an expansive program of education for sustainable development. The article describes how the Regional Centre of Expertise in education for sustainable development (RCE) is…

  20. 3. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST: taken from north end BLDG. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST: taken from north end BLDG. 1. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  1. View of east and north elevation of Building No. 21. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and north elevation of Building No. 21. Building No. 20 seen at right rear. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 21, East side of South Twenty-sixth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. 4. View of north side of East Ward Street west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of north side of East Ward Street west of Dewey Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  3. Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there

  4. A new species of the genus Hypsibius (Tardigrada: Parachela: Hypsibiidae) from Sakhalin island, far East Russia.

    PubMed

    Abe, Wataru

    2004-09-01

    A new species of semiterrestrial eutardigrade, Hypsibius stiliferus, is described from Sakhalin Island, Far East Russia. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having an irregular, polygonal or subtriangular dorsal sculpture, which increases in size posteriorly, two granular macroplacoids, and a cuticular bar near the base of posterior claw 4, and by lacking a microplacoid and septulum. It is currently known from its type locality and several other localities in northern and southern Sakhalin Island. This is the first report concerning tardigrades from Sakhalin Island.

  5. Groundwater quality of north-east Libya.

    PubMed

    Nair, G Achuthan; Bohjuari, Jalal Ahmed; Al-Mariami, Muftah A; Attia, Fathi Ali; El-Toumi, Fatma F

    2006-10-01

    The quality of groundwater was assessed to their suitability for drinking at six places of north-east Libya viz. El-Marj, Albayda, Shahat, Susa, Ras al-Hilal and Derna, during November, 2003 to March, 2004, by determining their physicochemical parameters (17 parameters) and water quality index (15 parameters). The temperatures of water samples averaged 15.1 degree C, pH values were alkaline and dissolved oxygen values were in safe ranges. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and hardness of water at all places except Susa were within the standard limits. Alkalinity of well water at all six places exceeded, and chlorine and chloride (except Susa) were within the desirable limits set for them. Fluoride and nitrate contaminations of well water were not observed, and only very low values of phosphorus, manganese, chromium, iron and zinc were recorded. Copper in well water was generally high, and at Susa and Ras al-Hilal, it exceeded the desirable limit. Parametric ratios showed that all parameters studied except those of pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity and total chlorine originated from sources different from that of hardness. Water quality index (WQI) revealed that well water of Albayda and Shahat were good for drinking and were only slightly polluted, whereas those of El-Marj, Ras al-Hilal and Derna were moderately polluted. However, the well water of Susa was excessively polluted and was unsuitable for drinking. Suitable suggestions were made to improve the quality of groundwater of N.E. Libya.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Sakhalin Basin Province, Russia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the North Sakhalin Basin Province of Russia. The mean volumes were estimated at 5.3 billion barrels of crude oil, 43.8 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 0.8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  7. 4. A VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM THE EAST BANK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. A VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM THE EAST BANK OF LITTLE WALNUT CREEK. THE NARROW ARCH OF THE SPAN IS CLEARLY SHOWN - Putnam County Bridge No. 111, Spanning Little Walnut Creek on County Road 50, Greencastle, Putnam County, IN

  8. 12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to left and barn ramp at center - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. Helium building no. 2 east and north sides. Looking 270 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Helium building no. 2 east and north sides. Looking 270 W. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Helium Tank Building No. 1, Near intersection of Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. 3. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING EAST ELEVATION NORTH WING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING EAST ELEVATION NORTH WING WALL (SCALE ROD IS MEASURED IN FEET) - Mulladay Hollow Bridge, Spanning Mulladay Hollow Creek at County Road No.61, Eureka Springs, Carroll County, AR

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, LOCK TENDER'S HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  12. 9. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, FROM EAST END OF NORTH MEZZANINE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, FROM EAST END OF NORTH MEZZANINE, LOOKING WEST, WITH TRAVELING CRANE CAB AT UPPER CENTER. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 261. JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES HALL AT 1718, NORTH FRONT AND EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    261. JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES HALL AT 1718, NORTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE, TOWARD SOUTHWEST, RUSSELL JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL (RUSSELL APARTMENTS) IN BACKGROUND - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  14. North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North & south wall elevation of the east entrance loggia; detail of pilaster base and capital - National Zoological Park, Elephant House, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  16. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Explosives Blending Building, 2180 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  18. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  19. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  20. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 6. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES, AS VIEWED FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES, AS VIEWED FROM BANK OF THOMAS CREEK. COUNTY ROAD 829 AT UPPER LEFT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Jordan Covered Bridge, Spanning Thomas Creek, County Road 829, Scio, Linn County, OR

  2. 6. Keeper's house, view southwest, east and north sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Keeper's house, view southwest, east and north sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  3. 3. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH FRONT OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH FRONT OF BUILDING #2205 (AREA CONTAINING VEHICLE REPAIR SHOP AND VEHICLE MANAGEMENT OFFICE), FACING SOUTHWEST. - Medford Service Center, Warehouse, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

  4. Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cathedral house & crocker fence, Taylor Street east and north elevations, perspective view from the northeast - Grace Cathedral, George William Gibbs Memorial Hall, 1051 Taylor Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Oblique view of north end and east side, facing southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north end and east side, facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Locomotive Building, Lower Tank Farm, near intersection of Sixth Street & South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 26. NORTH TRAINING WALL, CLOSE UP VIEW OF EAST SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. NORTH TRAINING WALL, CLOSE UP VIEW OF EAST SECTION SIDE WALL, LOW TIDE. (Panoramic view 2 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. 2. Ice Plant interior, east section, looking north. Insulated walls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Ice Plant interior, east section, looking north. Insulated walls and ceiling are sheathed in fir. Note condenser coils on ceiling. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  8. VIEW OF THE EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 63, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 63, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Station, Enlisted Men's Barracks, West corner of Central Street & Midway Drive, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 231 SHOWING EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 231 SHOWING EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS; CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. DETAIL OF FIRST STORY WINDOWS ON NORTH END OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FIRST STORY WINDOWS ON NORTH END OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. 1. EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF NABISCO CARTON FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF NABISCO CARTON FACTORY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ALONG MARSEILLES POWER CANAL - National Biscuit Company, Marseilles Factory, Off Main Street on Marseilles Power Canal, Marseilles, La Salle County, IL

  12. East and north sides of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and north sides of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. 79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  14. View looking north along the balustrade at the east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking north along the balustrade at the east end of West Mount Vernon Place; view includes the lion statue and the statue "Peace" - Mount Vernon Place, Charles & Monument Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. INTERIOR DETAIL OF, CEILINGS OF EAST BEDROOM, NORTH WING, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL OF, CEILINGS OF EAST BEDROOM, NORTH WING, SHOWING PART OF MOUNTAIN LION MURAL; CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST - Harry Carey Ranch, Ranch House, 28515 San Francisquito Canyon Road, Saugus, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 6. Interior detail of east wing, south section, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior detail of east wing, south section, looking north; Note tongue-and-groove flooring - Advance Base Depot, Davisville, Building A-130, Northeast section of Advance Base Depot, adjacent to Pier No. 1, Davisville, Washington County, RI

  17. WAREHOUSE 477, NORTH SIDE AND EAST END, VIEW FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAREHOUSE 477, NORTH SIDE AND EAST END, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Dispersed Storage Warehouse Type, Along Boxer Avenue & between Franklin D. Roosevelt & Lexington Avenues, Nassau Street & Saratoga Place, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  18. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST END LOOKING WEST AT NORTH ROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR- EAST END LOOKING WEST AT NORTH ROW OF MUSHROOM COLUMNS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, South Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  19. ELEVATION FROM EAST, SHOWING INTEGRAL RETAINING WALL EXTENDING TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION FROM EAST, SHOWING INTEGRAL RETAINING WALL EXTENDING TO NORTH. - Brick Arch Culvert over Master Street, Spanning dirt slope of Master Street at Thirty-third Street (U.S. Route 13), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 2. TIP TOP MINE. NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF HOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TIP TOP MINE. NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF HOUSE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  1. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. 1-9 - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 6. VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS OF OPERATOR HOUSE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS OF OPERATOR HOUSE; OPERATING WHEEL AND LINK AND COUNTERWEIGHT LINK IN FOREGROUND - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  3. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM NORTHEAST SIDE SHOWING NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Drum & Can Loading Facility, South of Arizona Street near Kamehameha Highway, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 7. Detail of gallery railings, looking north along Saybrook east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of gallery railings, looking north along Saybrook east breakwater to Lynde Point Lighthouse - Saybrook Breakwater Light, South tip of west end of Saybrook Breakwater, Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, CT

  5. EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (SIDE) AND NORTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Exchange Sales Store, Off New York Road, between Kansas & Idaho Avenues, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  6. 4. Building 7 north elevation (east end), showing boiler unit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Building 7 north elevation (east end), showing boiler unit to left. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 2. View of east elevation of north wing of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of east elevation of north wing of main building in south court from driveway of main entrance; facing northwest. - Mission Motel, South Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. FACILITY 1520, EAST END AND NORTH SIDE OF QUONSET HUT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 1520, EAST END AND NORTH SIDE OF QUONSET HUT, VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Quonset Hut Type 1 - 40' x 100', Between John F. Kennedy & Harrison Streets, south of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 1. East front and north side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. East front and north side of building. View to west. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  10. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Small Arms Range System, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, M-60 Machine Gun Range, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. 3. VIEW OF BUILDING 128: EAST AND NORTH (GABLE END) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF BUILDING 128: EAST AND NORTH (GABLE END) SIDES FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Hospital Wards, Anderson Way & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  14. SOUTH AND EAST FACADES OF BRASS FOUNDRY, LOOKING NORTH, MORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH AND EAST FACADES OF BRASS FOUNDRY, LOOKING NORTH, MORE RECENTLY USED FOR STORAGE. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Brass Foundry, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Oblique view of the north end and east side, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north end and east side, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE INTERIOR, KITCHEN, NORTH AND EAST WALLS, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CENTER OF ROOM - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  17. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH AND EAST SIDES. VIEW SHOWS POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH AND EAST SIDES. VIEW SHOWS POSITION OF BUILDING UNDER LEG OF TOWER 33. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, PERS Support Storage Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  18. 2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Caustic Fusion Building, 450 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 329. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 329. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Gasoline Pump Building, 1300 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 840 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF JUNCTION OF EAST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF JUNCTION OF EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS AT PORCH ROOF LEVEL SHOWING GLAZED HEADERS AND BELT COURSE - David Sterrett House, State Game Lands Plot No. 169 (Upper Mifflin Township), Newville, Cumberland County, PA

  1. 27. NORTH SIDE OF DECK TRUSS AT EAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. NORTH SIDE OF DECK TRUSS AT EAST END OF COOPER RIVER SPAN, FACUBG SOUTHEAST FROM WATER - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  2. Facility No. 176, oblique view of north and east sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 176, oblique view of north and east sides, corner of Facility No. 175 is to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north and east sides, view facing southwest - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 6. View looking east of north elevation. IN the foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View looking east of north elevation. IN the foreground is the ornamental wrought iron railing of the old Superior Avenue Viaduct. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. Contextual view of building 84 showing east and north elevations; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 84 showing east and north elevations; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Detail of windows on first floor east elevation of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows on first floor east elevation of north wing; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. B & P Tunnel east portal & North Avenue Bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    B & P Tunnel east portal & North Avenue Bridge. Baltimore, Baltimore City, MD. Sec. 1201, MP 96.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERSECTION OF 445 NORTH & 1040 EAST, SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18272, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  9. NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  10. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 2. VIEW SOUTHSOUTHWEST OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHWEST OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES, WITH MILL BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Juniata Mill Complex, Warehouse, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  14. 2. SOUTHSOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTH AND EAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH-SOUTHWEST VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, NORTH AND EAST SIDES - Juniata Mill Complex, Camp Bunk House, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  15. 9. Perspective of east side of north 1922 section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Perspective of east side of north 1922 section of Building 59. Cameral pointed NW, Windows at end are seen from inside in photo WA-116-A-11. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EXTERIOR OF REAR (EAST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, BACKYARD LAWN, AND CLOTHESLINE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  17. 10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. August, 1970 EAST SIDE OF ORANGE STREET LOOKING NORTH FOM IN FRONT OF THE LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. 6. North wall and east end of air brake shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. North wall and east end of air brake shop section of roundhouse at center. East end of boiler shop section of roundhouse to the right of air brake shop. East end of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at far right. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  19. 14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, facing east (Note: B/W scale on wall in foreground is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING EAST. THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS AT THE LEFT. THE BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE IS SEEN AT THE UPPER LEFT AND SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 4 IS SEEN BEYOND THE EAST WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  1. 10. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, EAST END OF STOREHOUSE, FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, EAST END OF STOREHOUSE, FROM NORTH MEZZANINE NEAR EAST WALL, LOOKING SOUTH, WITH TRAVELING CRANE, MOTOR, HOOK AND OTHER DETAILS AT CENTER. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 14. DETAIL OF NORTH PYLON, EAST SIDE, BEARING INSCRIPTION, "STATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF NORTH PYLON, EAST SIDE, BEARING INSCRIPTION, "STATE HIGHWAY ROUTE 30." LOOKING EAST. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  3. 12. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE GLAZE KILN CHIMNEYS ON THE LEFT. CISTERN TOWER. BOILER AND TWO BISCUIT KILN CHIMNEYS ARE ON THE RIGHT. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE INDIAN HOUSE TOWER. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  4. 86. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE GLAZE KILN CHIMNEYS ON THE LEFT. CISTERN TOWER, BOILER AND TWO BISCUIT KILN CHIMNEY'S ARE ON THE RIGHT. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE INDIAN HOUSE TOWER. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-12. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  5. Teaching about East Asia in North Dakota Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Fredrick E.

    The current practice of teaching about East Asia in North Dakota schools was surveyed. From a list of 607 North Dakota social studies teachers, ranging from grades 7 to 12 in both public and private schools, a target sample of 266 teachers was administered a questionnaire. All regions of the states, with at least one teacher form each school, were…

  6. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 2. TENSTALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND PARTIAL NORTH SIDES. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TEN-STALL GARAGE. FRONT (EAST) AND PARTIAL NORTH SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  8. 12. DETAIL OF NORTH ABUTMENT (EAST SIDE) AND PIER. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF NORTH ABUTMENT (EAST SIDE) AND PIER. LOOKING NORTH. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  9. 11. East and north facades of headgate house; to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. East and north facades of headgate house; to the right is the utility building. View looking southwest. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. 21. LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTH BRANCH PRAIRIE CITY DITCH TO POINT (AT WIRE ROLL) WHERE IT IS CUT BY A ROCK WALL. DITCH IS ALSO VISIBLE RUNNING ALONG BASE OF KNOLL IN DISTANCE, BELOW AND TO RIGHT OF DEAD TREE. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 15. VIEW OF NORTH FACE AND EAST SIDE OF MST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF NORTH FACE AND EAST SIDE OF MST IN PARKED POSITION, NORTH OF THE FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST. SLC-3E MST IN PARKED POSITION IN BACKGROUND (LEFT). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 68. View of north arm of Lake Tapps, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. View of north arm of Lake Tapps, looking east toward power line that crosses Hille Lake; the shore is composed of a dike built by the Pacific Coast Power Company as part of the Lake Tapps reservoir construction. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  13. Petroleum geology and resources of the North Caspian Basin, Kazakhstan and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The North Caspian basin is a petroleum-rich but lightly explored basin located in Kazakhstan and Russia. It occupies the shallow northern portion of the Caspian Sea and a large plain to the north of the sea between the Volga and Ural Rivers and farther east to the Mugodzhary Highland, which is the southern continuation of the Ural foldbelt. The basin is bounded by the Paleozoic carbonate platform of the Volga-Ural province to the north and west and by the Ural, South Emba, and Karpinsky Hercynian foldbelts to the east and south. The basin was originated by pre-Late Devonian rifting and subsequent spreading that opened the oceanic crust, but the precise time of these tectonic events is not known. The sedimentary succession of the basin is more than 20 km thick in the central areas. The drilled Upper Devonian to Tertiary part of this succession includes a prominent thick Kungurian (uppermost Lower Permian) salt formation that separates strata into the subsalt and suprasalt sequences and played an important role in the formation of oil and gas fields. Shallow-shelf carbonate formations that contain various reefs and alternate with clastic wedges compose the subsalt sequence on the 1 basin margins. Basinward, these rocks grade into deep-water anoxic black shales and turbidites. The Kungurian salt formation is strongly deformed into domes and intervening depressions. The most active halokinesis occurred during Late Permian?Triassic time, but growth of salt domes continued later and some of them are exposed on the present-day surface. The suprasalt sequence is mostly composed of clastic rocks that are several kilometers thick in depressions between salt domes. A single total petroleum system is defined in the North Caspian basin. Discovered reserves are about 19.7 billion barrels of oil and natural gas liquids and 157 trillion cubic feet of gas. Much of the reserves are concentrated in the supergiant Tengiz, Karachaganak, and Astrakhan fields. A recent new oil discovery

  14. Camera position east of CO172CE6, showing more of north and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Camera position east of CO-172-CE-6, showing more of north and east sides of middle east wing. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Laundry, Southeast corner of East Harlow Avenue & South Twelfth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) SHOWING THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2. BASSWOOD BUOY TENDER AND THREE SMALL VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASIN NO. 1. LARGER VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASINS TO THE EAST, SEEN IN BACKGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. 2. View east at north end of west facade of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View east at north end of west facade of culvert outlet headwall with part of canal bank removed. Foreground to background: dewatered streambed with pump intake (left) and coffer dam (right); outlet headwall with partially intact voussoirs; partially removed canal bank revealing horizontal masonry cutoff wall (exposed in trenches to left and right); towpath at top of canal bank. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Six Mile Run Culvert, .2 mile South of Blackwells Mills Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  17. 20. VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. HERE, THE CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. HERE, THE CANAL HAS BEEN DRAINED, ALLOWING A RARE VIEW OF THE HEADGATES. THE MILL'S NORTH BASEMENT WALL WAS CLOSED UP WITH CINDER BLOCK AFTER A STORM BROUGHT WATER POWER TO AN END IN 1970. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF SETTLING RESERVOIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH ALONG THE EAST SIDE OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3. THE BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE IS SEEN AT THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE RESERVOIR. THE CONCRETE COLUMNS (LEFT) AND THE CEMENT-ASBESTOS TROUGH (RIGHT) WERE ADDED CIRCA 1944. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  19. 1. THREEQUARTER VIEW OF MECHANICAL SHOP, SHOWING EAST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. THREE-QUARTER VIEW OF MECHANICAL SHOP, SHOWING EAST AND NORTH SIDES; LOOKING SOUTHWEST; POWER PLANT IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT; SAWTOOTH MONITORS ON BEEF KILL (BUILDING 149) VISIBLE ABOVE SHOP BUILDING AT CENTER OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Mechanical Shop, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. 1. Operating Floor Front (east) Corridor, view to the north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Operating Floor Front (east) Corridor, view to the north. The wall of turbine Unit 1 is visible in left foreground of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  1. 8. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF EAST TRUSS, SHOWING END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF EAST TRUSS, SHOWING END POST, TOP AND LOWER CHORDS, AND DIAGONAL EYE BARS, SEEN FROM NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  2. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  3. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  4. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF NORTHWEST CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF NORTHWEST CONTROL HOUSE WITH SOUTHWEST CONTROL HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTH - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Machinery and Control Houses, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  6. 1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF RADIO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF RADIO SHOP (BUILDING #2202) FACING SOUTHWEST. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM WITHIN BUILDING 2300; NOTE THE RECENT 'C.C.C.-STYLE' PORCH DETAIL, ADDED IN 1980s. - Medford Service Center, Radio Shop, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

  7. EAST WEST NORTH ELEVATIONS OF MULTICURIE CELL ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS REMOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WEST NORTH ELEVATIONS OF MULTICURIE CELL ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-00627-00-706-050245. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER AED-D-245. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. SOUTH, EAST, NORTH ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH, EAST, NORTH ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0603-61-299-103030. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 542-31-B-22. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 19. Historic north and east elevation drawing of Building 100. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic north and east elevation drawing of Building 100. June 29, 1955. NASA GRC drawing number CE-101442. (On file at NASA Glenn Research Center). - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. Oblique view of north end and east side, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north end and east side, taken from back side of bus stop, with stair to Facility 2 in foreground, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Passenger Shelter, Seventh Street near Avenue F intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 34. View east of clear well houses located north of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View east of clear well houses located north of filtration building. Armory Street is at the left of the photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GASANDOIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR OF GAS-AND-OIL HOUSE (BUILDING #2500), FACING SOUTHWEST. (NOTE: CANOPY STRUCTURE NEXT TO BUILDING FORMERLY COVERED GAS PUMPS; CANOPY BUILT IN 1930s BUT MOVED TO THIS LOCATION IN ABOUT 1970.) - Medford Service Center, Gas & Oil House, 1319 McAndrews Road, Medford, Jackson County, OR

  13. 5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  14. 24. LOGAN LOOP LOOKING EAST, NORTH SIDE (Buildings No. 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. LOGAN LOOP LOOKING EAST, NORTH SIDE (Buildings No. 13, 12, 11, 10) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61A-4) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  15. 16. LOGAN LOOP LOOKING EAST, NORTH AND SOUTH SIDES (Buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOGAN LOOP LOOKING EAST, NORTH AND SOUTH SIDES (Buildings No. 13, 12, 11, 10, 3, 4, 5, 6) (Copy negative made from National Archives negative No. 92-F-61A-6) - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  16. 5. DECK FROM SOUTH, ON EAST SIDEWALK. LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DECK FROM SOUTH, ON EAST SIDEWALK. LOOKING NORTH. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  17. 7. VIEW OF BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTH ALONG EAST BASEMENT WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BASEMENT, LOOKING NORTH ALONG EAST BASEMENT WALL TOWARD TURBINES. AT RIGHT IS A WATER-POWERED EAR CORN CRUSHER (manufacturer unknown), WHICH PERFORMED THE INITIAL COARSE GRINDING OF EAR CORN Photographer: Jet T. Lowe, 1985 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. 11. 100 foot through truss north east bearing abutment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 100 foot through truss - north east bearing abutment of the second through truss, showing that the bearing point is to the backmost position of the concrete pier. This bearing point is on a concrete extension of the original bearing point now covered by rock and soil. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  19. 2. TAKEN FROM THE NORTH BANK, LOOKING EAST TOWARD THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TAKEN FROM THE NORTH BANK, LOOKING EAST TOWARD THE WEST ELEVATION, THIS IMAGE HIGHLIGHTS THE BULL-NOSED PIER AND THE DOUBLE ARCHES. - Delphi Bridge on U.S. Route 421, Spanning Deer Creek at U.S. Route 421, Delphi, Carroll County, IN

  20. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops of individual vaults and vent housings - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 7. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING DIRECTLY EAST OF THE NORTH ABUTMENT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING DIRECTLY EAST OF THE NORTH ABUTMENT. A PORTION OF THE PORTAL GUARD RAIL, THE BACK OF THE BRIDGE GUARD RAIL AND PINS ARE VISIBLE. - Wabash County Bridge No. 509, Spanning Wabash River at Carroll & Smith Streets, Wabash, Wabash County, IN

  2. Facility 171 Oblique exterior view of east and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 171 - Oblique exterior view of east and north sides - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrine Dry Dock No. 2 & Latrine Dry Dock No.3, Near Avenue G adjacent to Dry Dock No. 2 & Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) north bay, east end interior looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Machine Shop (Bldg. 163) north bay, east end interior looking northeast. Note the 250-ton Shaw bridge crane on the upper rails and two smaller P&H bridge cranes on the lower rails. Three cranes shared the lower rails - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Machine Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  4. 2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 242, WITH PROCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 242, WITH PROCESS PIPING IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW FROM CATWALK OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING NORTH. BOILERS 900 AND 901 ARE ON THE LEFT, BOILERS 902 AND 903 ARE ON THE RIGHT. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, ALEXANDER'S MILL (WILSON'S MILL). THE 2-1/1-STORY MAIN BLOCK, ERECTED IN 1855, HAS OVERTONES OF THE GREEK REVIVAL STYLE. Photographer: louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 13. THE SAME NORTH TRAINING WALL TOP SURFACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. THE SAME NORTH TRAINING WALL TOP SURFACE, LOOKING EAST FROM ATOP ADJACENT RIPRAP. THE TRAINING WALL IS TO THE RIGHT OF THE JUMBLED, LIGHT TONED RIPRAP. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. NORTH TRAINING WALL, EAST SECTION, SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST FROM A POINT ABOUT 500 FEET FROM THE MIDDLE HARBOR PARK FISHING PIER. (Panoramic view 1 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 19. BOILER ROOM AT THE EAST END OF THE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. BOILER ROOM AT THE EAST END OF THE NORTH SIDE OF THE ANSELMO ENGINE ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. BOTH BOILERS WERE MADE AT THE ANACONDA FOUNDRY, AND ARE INSCRIBED 'AMC CO. Foundry Dept. Anaconda, Mont' - Butte Mineyards, Anselmo Mine, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. Facility 136, oblique view of east side and north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 136, oblique view of east side and north end with entry door, electrical panel with soda bottles, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrines, Off Avenue C, at Repair Basins B13, B15-B18 & B20, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 30. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WALKWAY EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WALKWAY EAST ABUTMENT. THE HORIZONTAL CABLES RUN FROM THE ABUTMENT TO THE QUARTER POINT OF THE WALKWAY DECK. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 28. Photographic copy of North, South, East Elevation (The Ballinger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of North, South, East Elevation (The Ballinger Company, April 12, 1955). In files of the City of Philadelphia. Division of Aviation, Terminal E, Philadelphia International Airport. Reprinted with permission of the Division of Aviation. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. SEXTON'S HOUSE. 200 NORTH N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SEXTON'S HOUSE. 200 NORTH N STREET (895 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW OF THE NORTHEAST. REPHOTOGRAPH OF HISTORIC SHIPLER PHOTO # 18996, UTAH STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  14. View of front (north) and east walls of the Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of front (north) and east walls of the Office, Childs power plant. Rock cairn in front frames the 1976 National Historic Mechanical Engineering plaque. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Office, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. GENERAL VIEW OF THE NORTH SECTION OF THE EAST TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE NORTH SECTION OF THE EAST TEST AREA. THE SATURN V TEST FACILITY (BLDG. 4550) IS TO THE LEFT IN THE PHOTO. THE SATURN I TEST FACILITY (BLDG. 4557) IS IN THE CENTER, THE COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND (BLDG. 4588) IS THE SHORT STEEL FRAMED STRUCTURE TO THE RIGHT IN THE PHOTO AND THE TURBO PUMP / HIGH VOLUME FLOW FACILITY (BLDG. 4548) IS THE TALL STEEL FRAMED STRUCTURE IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Oil shales of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East

    SciTech Connect

    Troger, U.

    1984-04-01

    Oil shale deposits are known from almost all countries in Europe and range in age from Paleozoic to Eocene. The geology of Europe is well known, and the discovery of new and significant oil shale deposits is not anticipated. A considerably different situation exists in North Africa and the Near East, where sparsely tested areas in the Sahara and desert fringe might contain important oil shale deposits. Most of the oil shale deposits in these areas (1) are of Cretaceous age, (2) occur with phosphate deposits, and (3) owe their origin to sedimentary processes associated with upwelling. Oil shales can be found from Turkey to Morocco along a paleocoastline, and better definition of this feature could result in new discoveries. In contrast to the US, oil shale deposits in Europe are being used as energy sources and will probably serve the same purpose in North Africa and the Near East.

  17. 1. General view, east end and north side. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, east end and north side. View to southwest toward San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, along general alignment of former Interurban Electric Railway main line. Note truncated catenary support arms on power poles; these originally carried overhead power supply catenary line for the electrically-powered interurban cars. - Interurban Electric Railway Bridge Yard Shop, Interstate 80 at Alameda County Postmile 2.0, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ADDITION AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. VISIBLE ARE DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY (CENTER), THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, AND UPPER PORTION OF THE STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE UPPER TAILINGS POND LIES BEYOND THE MILL WITH THE UPPER TAILINGS DAM UNDER THE GRAVEL ROAD IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  19. CORNER OF SUBPILE ROOM: NORTH AND EAST SIDES. STEEL OUTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CORNER OF SUBPILE ROOM: NORTH AND EAST SIDES. STEEL OUTER SHELL HAS BEEN AFFIXED. SIGN SAYS "HERRICK IRON WORKS STEEL, OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA." NOTE CONDUIT FOR FUTURE INSTRUMENTATION. TOP OF STEEL CASE WILL BE LEVEL WITH BASEMENT CEILING. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 734. Unknown Photographer, 10/6/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE ONESTORY BUILDING (WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE ONE-STORY BUILDING (WITH VENTILATORS) AT RIGHT IS THE FORMER SCREEN WELL HOUSE. AT CENTER IS THE GAS METER BUILDING. AT LEFT, IN FOREGROUND, IS A FORMER GUARD STATION OF RECENT CONSTRUCTION. (THE GUARD STATION WAS RELOCATED FOLLOWING THE 9/11 TERRORIST ATTACKS.) AT FAR RIGHT (WITH CRANE), THE NEW PUMPING STATION NEARS COMPLETION. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Recreational Industry in the North of European Russia: Case Assessment, Komi Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, M. P.; Kuchkina, E.; Iyevlev, N.; Lyaskovsky, S.

    2012-12-01

    At the past AGU Annual Meeting in 2011, we presented information about development of the recreation industry in European Russia within the "Silver Ring" Project (http://neespi.org/web-content/meetings/AGU_2011/Yakovleva-poster.pdf). This Project can be considered as a system of actions directed to a comprehensive socio-economic development of the Northwest of the Russian Federation that includes 11 provinces ("oblast", "republic", "okrug") of the country. Among the provinces included in the Project, The Komi Republic is one of the most interesting regions. The Komi Republic is located in the North of European Russia within the gridbox restricted by 59N - 69N latitudes and 45E - 66E longitudes. The region is populated by indigenous northern nations: Komi, Russians, Karels, Ved', Permyaks, and others. It is characterized as an ecologically clean territory, has a small population density, is rich with natural reserves, and has abundant forest and water resources. Flora and fauna of the Republic are unique and attractive. Rich biodiversity and abundance of fish and game allow hunting and sport fishing. As of January 1, 2010, The Komi Republic has 240 territories of special environmental protection ("zakazniki") with restricted human activity. This allows a diversity of field trips devoted to in-depth studies of regional ecosystems as well as tourist visits aiming to enjoy unique nature and ethnic-cultures of the North.

  2. A novel Asian clade within the Fusarium graminearum species complex includes a newly discovered cereal head blight pathogen from the Far East of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay revealed significant differences in the geographic distribution of 3ADON and 15ADON chemotypes of F. graminearum in Europe. While 93.5% of the isolates in southern Russia (N = 43 of 46) possessed the 15ADON chemotype, isolates in Finland and north-western Russia...

  3. SouthWest view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South-West view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. NorthEast view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. SouthEast view; Platform, canopy, and Station Building north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South-East view; Platform, canopy, and Station Building - north elevation (obscured) - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  7. Comparison of the Impact of the Arctic Oscillation and East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection on Interannual Variation in East Asian Winter Temperatures and Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) teleconnection on the East Asian winter climate anomalies are compared for the past 34 winters focusing on 1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, 2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and 3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and EA/WR over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. The EA/WR impact is found to be comparable to the AO impact in affecting the East Asian temperature and monsoon. For example, warm (cold) months over mid-latitude East Asia during the positive (negative) AO are clearly seen when the AO and EA/WR are in the same phase. Near zero correlation is found between temperature and the AO phase when both teleconnections are in an opposite phase. The well-known negative relationship between SH and the AO phase is observed significantly more often when the AO is in the same phase with the EA/WR. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH are found to be more highly negative-correlated with the EA/WR rather than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the anomalous large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EA/WR, influencing the East Asian winter climates. These results suggest that the impact of EA/WR should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  8. Performance potential of the coal strip mining in the east of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Cheskidov, V.I.

    2007-07-15

    The potentialities of the leading mining districts in Russia to improve coal production by strip mining are analyzed. The operational issues of the Erunakovskiy (Kuzbass), Kansko-Achinskiy and South Yakutia territorial production complexes are considered.

  9. ADHD Symptoms and Associated Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Adolescents from the European North of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruchkin, Vladislav; Lorberg, Boris; Koposov, Roman; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and their relationship to psychopathology in adolescents from the European North of Russia. Method: The prevalence of ADHD symptoms is assessed by teacher reports in 536 adolescents. Internalizing and externalizing problems are assessed by teacher ratings and student self-reports. Results:…

  10. Sulfur Isotope Chemistry of the Uzon Caldera Active Hydrothermal System, Kamchatka, Far-East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, E. R.; Crowe, D. E.

    2006-05-01

    The Uzon Caldera is an actively precipitating As-Sb-Au epithermal system located on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Far-East Russia. Present at the surface of the caldera is a remarkable diversity of thermal fluid types discharging within the geothermal fields. These fluids have subsequently produced a broad array of S- bearing alteration minerals both within and around pools, hotsprings, mudpots, and fumaroles. Using the δD/δ18O/δ34S and dissolved ion chemistry of the thermal fluids, three types were distinguished as follows: 1) an acid sulfate type with δD/δ18O/δ34S values ranging between -74.66‰ to -100.33‰, - 2.30‰ to -9.57‰, and -0.3‰ to 0.3‰ respectively with sulfate being the dominant anion ranging between 504ppm and 3439ppm 2) an alkali chloride type with δD/δ18O/δ34S values ranging between -97.22‰ to -104.37‰, - 8.8‰ to -11.43‰ respectively with chloride being the dominant anion ranging between 1090ppm to 2405ppm, and 3) a dilute type resulting from the mixture of the alkali-chloride endmember with the cold meteoric waters present at the surface subsequently generating δD/δ18O/δ34S values ranging between -82.00‰ to -119.34‰, -6.02‰ to -15.76‰, and +1.9‰ to +13.5‰ with dissolved ion concentrations falling along a mixing line between the two endmember components. The interpretations made from the presence of these three fluid types were used in conjunction with the δ34S of the S-bearing alteration minerals from within and around the various water and gas sources (values ranging between -1.94‰ to +5.7‰ and -5.19‰ to +1.6‰ respectively) to construct a sulfur evolution model for the Uzon's hydrothermal system. Results of the model show the chemical and isotopic processes responsible for the speciation and isotopic signature of the S-bearing phases collected at the surface (both aqueous and mineral) are not only dictated by the geologic processes at depth, but are also influenced by microbiological processes at the

  11. Credit PSR. This view shows the east and north facades ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. This view shows the east and north facades of the storage facility as seen when looking south southwest. This fireproof all-metal structure was rated for a maximum of 50,000 pounds (22,730 Kg) of class 1.4 materials and four personnel. The concrete catch basin at left was designed to retain any spilled chemicals, preventing them from contaminating the soil. Spills were collected from the building and apron via a concrete lined gutter - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Solid Fuel Storage Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Virulence genotypes and drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori from Vladivostok, Russia: another feature in the Far East.

    PubMed

    Reva, Ivan; Takano, Tomomi; Higuchi, Wataru; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Taneike, Ikue; Nakagawa, Saori; Ike, Masami; Pererva, Oleg; Tarankov, Alexey; Agapov, Mikhail; Rizhkov, Evgeniy; Singur, Olga; Reva, Galina; Potapov, Vladimir; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori in Vladivostok, Far Eastern Russia, was investigated during 2004 to 2009. The genotype cagA(+) vacA(+) (s1/m1 or m2) accounted for 74.7%, with cagA(-) vacA(+) (s2/m2) at 11.2%. The CagA EPIYA type was mainly Western ABC, with minor types (ABCCC and novel AAABC) or non-Western/non-East Asia type (AB). Regarding drug resistance, metronidazole resistance was the highest, with a marked decrease in 6 years (from 71.4% to 30.8%); in contrast, levofloxacin and clarithromycin resistance increased. The data indicate that in Vladivostok, H. pylori was mainly the Western (not East Asian) type and dynamic changes in drug resistance occurred during 6 years.

  13. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  14. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  15. View southwest; north and east facades Naval Base PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest; north and east facades - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. A case study of radon-222 transport from continental North-East Asia to the Japanese islands in winter by numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, T; Doi, M; Nakamura, Y; Iida, T

    2004-01-01

    A case study of the regional transport ( approximately 3000 km) of radon-222 ((222)Rn) from continental North-East Asia to the Japanese islands was performed by numerical analysis using five separate source areas (South, Middle and North China, Russia and Korea), while a seasonal northwest wind blew over the Japan Sea. The results for three periods (Term I: 16-18, Term II: 22-25 and Term III: 27-28 in December 1990) were compared with concentrations measured at the Kanazawa site (near the coast of the Japan Sea facing the seasonal wind) and the Nagoya site (overland and downwind on the shores of the Pacific Ocean). Most of the (222)Rn at the Kanazawa site was calculated to come from North China and Korea in Term I, Middle China, North China, and Korea in Term II, and Russia and Korea in Term III. The considerable differences in the origins of (222)Rn emanated from the continent were estimated between Terms I, II and III, even though the similar northwest wind was dominant over the Japan Sea. A contour line analysis indicated movement of (222)Rn emanated from Middle China in a northerly direction first and then a southeasterly direction, resulting from low pressure. The results suggest that the low-pressure systems play an important role in the transport of (222)Rn in North-East Asia.

  17. Predicting changes in alluvial channel patterns in North-European Russia under conditions of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Oleg; Vandenberghe, Jef; Lobanov, Vladimir; Kondratiev, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    Global climate change may have a noticeable impact on the northern environment, leading to changes in permafrost, vegetation and fluvial morphology. In this paper we compare the results from three geomorphological models and study the potential effects of changing climatic factors on the river channel types in North-European Russia. Two of the selected models by Romashin [Romashin, V.V., 1968. Variations of the river channel types under governing factors, Annals of the Hydrological Institute, vol. 155. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad, pp. 56-63.] and Leopold and Wolman [Leopold, L.B., Wolman, M.G., 1957. River channel pattern: braided, meandering and straight, Physiographic and hydraulic studies of rivers. USA Geological Survey Professional Paper 252, pp. 85-98.] are conventional QS-type models, which predict the existence of either multi-thread or single-tread channel types using data on discharge and channel slope. The more advanced model by Van den Berg [Van den Berg, J.H., 1995. Prediction of alluvial channel pattern of perennial rivers. Geomorphology 12, 259-270.] takes into account the size of the sediment material. We used data from 16 runoff gauges to validate the models and predict the channel types at selected locations under modern and predicted for the future climatic conditions. Two of the three models successfully replicated the currently existing channel types in all but one of the studied sites. Predictive calculations under the hypothetical scenarios of 10%, 15%, 20% and 35% runoff increase gave different results. Van den Berg's model predicted potential transformation of the channel types, from single- to multi-thread, at 4 of 16 selected locations in the next few decades, and at 5 locations by the middle of the 21st century. Each of the QS-type models predicted such transformation at one site only. Results of the study indicate that climatic warming in combination with other environmental changes may lead to transformation of the river channel types

  18. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  19. 77 FR 13171 - China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2012. It... accurate information concerning the securities of China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited (``NEP''),...

  20. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  1. [Health state of aluminum industry workers in the European North of Russia].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the constant performed improvement of technological processes, working conditions in the aluminum industry compose an increased risk of work-stipulated and occupational diseases. An examination of 1172 workers from aluminum facilities of European North of Russia showed that in the structure of their health state disorders and the pathology of the musculoskeletal system of dystrophic-degenerative character (29.8%) have the particular importance and the most commonly diagnosed disease is deforming osteoarthritis (8.6%). Conditions of the work in the professions "anode worker" and "electrolysis worker" (OR = 1.20; CI: 1.07-1.34), as well as the impact of aluminum production waste and the polluting the environment (OR = 1.62; CI 1.44-1.82) increase the risk of diseases of the musculoskeletal system. In the structure of occupational pathology diseases of the respiratory (39.6%) and musculoskeletal (38.5%) systems are of the most importance. There were made conclusions about the necessity of the optimization of working conditions in the aluminum industry, restoration of the state of the environment and the improvement of the medical methods of the prevention of health disorders in this contingent of workers.

  2. New archeointensity data from Novgorod (North-Western Russia) from between c. 1100 and 1550 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnaia, N.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.; Antipov, I.

    2015-12-01

    We recently sampled fired-clay bricks from old buildings, essentially churches, at Novgorod in North-Western Russia for archeointensity analysis. Novgorod is one of the oldest Russian cities, which was particularly prosperous during the first half of the second millennium AD. Thanks to excavations conducted over the past few years, we have been able to collect a series of eight groups of baked brick fragments dated to between the beginning of the 12th century and the middle of the 16th century AD. Historical and archeological constraints allow a dating precision of better than 10 years. Rock magnetic analyses indicate that the magnetization of the fragments is mainly carried by (titano)magnetite together with a variable fraction of hematite. Archeointensity measurements were performed using the experimental protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. These experiments include an analysis of the cooling rate effect on the studied fragments. We determine several group-mean intensity values that will be presented in light of the archeointensity data already obtained from Western and Eastern Europe and of the available global and regional archeomagnetic field models.

  3. HLA profile of three ethnic groups living in the North-Western region of Russia.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, I; Spurkland, A; Thorsby, E; Smerdel, A; Tranebjaerg, L; Boldyreva, M; Groudakova, E; Gouskova, I; Alexeev, L L

    2002-01-01

    HLA class II alleles were determined by PCR-SSO and PCR-SSP typing of DNA samples from 55 Nentsy, 81 Saami and 73 Pomor individuals from the North-European part of Russia. The results were compared with similar data from Russians. A high frequency of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 haplotype and a low frequency of the DRB1*11-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotype, observed in all three ethnic groups, may indicate a common aboriginal component in their ancestry. Saami and Pomors displayed a similar pattern of allele and haplotype distribution, with the exception of the DRB1*04-DQA1*0304-DQB1*0301 haplotype, which was significantly higher among Saami compared Nentsy, Pomors and Russians. Nentsy individuals had a particularly high frequency of the DRB1*09-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0303 and the DRB1*12-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 haplotypes. Genetic distances and correspondence analysis show that Pomors have a close relationship with Norwegians and Finns, whereas Nentsy and Saami are more closely related to Oriental populations.

  4. Distribution and Geochemistry of Rare-Earth Elements in Rivers of Southern and Eastern Primorye (Far East of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudaev, O. V.; Bragin, I. V.; A, Kharitonova N.; Chelnokov, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The distribution and geochemistry of rare earth elements (REE) in anthropogenic, technogenic and natural surface waters of southern and eastern Primorye, Far East of Russia, are presented in this study. The obtained results indicated that most of REE (up to 70%) were transported as suspended matter, ratio between dissolved and suspended forms varing from the source to the mouth of rivers. It is shown that all REE (except Ce) in the source of the rivers are predominantly presented in dissolved form, however, the content of light and heavy REE is different. Short-term enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) caused by REE-rich runoff from waste dumps and mining is neutralized by the increase in river flow rate. Rivers in urban areas are characterized by high content of LREE in dissolved form and very low in suspended one.

  5. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  6. Evolution and genesis of permafrost peatlands in southern limit of cryolithozone in Europen North-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Kaverin, Dmitry; Marchenko-Vagapova, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    The North-East of the European part of Russia is currently experiencing a degradation of permafrost due to climate warming. Permafrost peat plateaus extending only about 20% of the territory contain almost 50% of stocks of soil organic carbon (Pastukhov & Kaverin, 2013). Currently in the region extreme southern limit of the permafrost zone with permafrost temperature 0 ... -1 ° C is the far north taiga. Sporadic island permafrost is preserved only in peat plateaus, which are an ideal object for assessing climate change impacts in the event of further thawing of permafrost. On the basis of the macrofossil, palynological and 14C data of peat, Holocene evolution and current state of permafrost peatlands were studed in the extreme southern limit of the East European Cryolithozone. Palynological and radiocarbon data provides evidence of the start of peat accumulation in the early Holocene, about 8000 years ago, in the late Boreal (BO-2). Then the accumulation of peat first significantly slowed down, and then almost stopped between 2500-850 years ago. I.e. about 2500 years ago permafrost was aggradated, which manifested itself in the heave of peatland mounds and a sharp decline in peat accumulation due to dry conditions in raised surface peat. There was the formation of permafrost peat plateaus of modern appearance. Fens occurred from the late-modern Subatlantic (SA-3-SA-R) Holocene period, i.e. after the Little Ice Age and the beginning of the small climatic optimum (about 850 years ago), when the permafrost partially degraded, and formed non-permafrost sphagnum bogs. At the same time (SA-3-SA-R), the gradual and slower peat accumulation proceeded. Vegetation of peat mounds prevents permafrost thawing in the current climate warming. As mounds surface dry out, lichens succeed mosses and bare peat circles are formed. But dry peat has higher insulating properties and prevents from further thawing. Thawing of permafrost peatlands starting from the surface occurs only as

  7. North East Atlantic Tsunamis Related with Gloria Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Batllo, J.; Macia, R.

    2011-12-01

    Gloria fault is one segment of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary. It is a large strike slip fault, located between 24W and 19W, with scarce seismic activity but which was the location of several large events during the XX Century, in particular the 25 November 1941 earthquake, a submarine strike-slip event of magnitude 8.3-8.4 and the 26 May 1975 with magnitude 7.9. Since the installation of the tide-gauge networks in several countries of the North East Atlantic area a significant amount of mareograms were obtained, concerning these events, in a number of coastal stations located along the European coasts. The most impacted areas were the north coast of Portugal where the sea overtopped some beaches, in November 1941, and the harbors of Azores, in 1975, where it was observed the fast withdraw of the sea followed by a strong influx over the highest water mark. We present here a systematic view of the tsunami potential of the Gloria Fault and using results of hydrodynamic simulations we compare model results against observations and tide records and we discuss the corresponding implications in the design of the NEAMTWS decision matrix. To properly constrain the source characteristics of the tsunamigenic earthquakes, relocation and scalar moment calculation of the 1941 earthquake from digitized seismograms have been performed. This work is a funded by project s TAGUSDELTA. Ref. PTDC/MAR/113888/2009 and PTDC/CTE-GIX/110205/2009

  8. Low temperature fertile spinel lherzolites from Sikhote-Alin, Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluemel, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theo; Ashchepkov, Igor; Prikhodko, Vladimir; Gregoire, Michél

    2013-04-01

    The Pacific margin of East and NE Asia is part of the circum-Pacific orogenic system and could be considered as a tectonic collage of nappes, displaced terrenes, accreted island arcs and accretionary complexes. This tectonic environment is the consequence of the convergence between the Palaeo-Pacific plate and the eastern Eurasian continent. It could be divided into three main units; the Koryak-Kamachatka fold belt, the Sikhote-Alin fold belt and the Okhotsk volcanic belt. The broadly defined Sikhote-Alin fold belt here refers to a nearly N-S belt extending north from the southern shoreline of the Okhotsk Sea south to the northern margin of the Japan Sea. The Mantle xenoliths come from Tuttochi, a locality close to Khabarovsk, Sikhote-Alin. The xenoliths are spinel peridotites, their sizes vary from 3 to 8 cm in diameter and they are exceptional fresh. The majority of the samples are coarse grained with protogranular texture. However a number of xenoliths have transitional textures from relatively coarse grained protogranular to fine grained equigranular textures. Hydrous phases such as phlogopite and/or amphibole were not found so far. The most striking feature is the fact that part of the xenoliths show heavy infiltration of melts. These melts circulate intergranular and react with the neighbor minerals creating veinlets with variable thickness that consists of glass and new forming minerals. Especially, their interaction with orthopyroxene results often to its almost entirely consumption, indicating that the invaded melt was silica undersaturated but rich in alkalies. According to their modal composition the xenoliths are fertile spinel lherzolites as also can be inferred from the compositions of the constituent minerals. Olivine is forsteritic with Fo varying from 89.3 to 90.1 and the average NiO content is 0.37 wt%. The mg# of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene vary from 0.895-0.904 and 0.904-0.915, respectively and the spinel is Al2O3-rich with an average of cr

  9. Identifying Predictors of Childhood Anaemia in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR=2.035; p=0.003) and moderate (OR=1.23; p=0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR=2.971; p=0.000), (OR=1.195; p=0.010), and (OR=1.201; p=0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR=1.406; p=0.001) and mild (OR=1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  10. Regional TEMPEST survey in north-east Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geoffrey; Street, Gregory; Kahimise, Ivor; Hutchins, David

    2015-09-01

    A regional scale TEMPEST208 airborne electromagnetic survey was flown in north-east Namibia in 2011. With broad line spacing (4 km) and a relatively low-powered, fixed-wing system, the approach was intended to provide a regional geo-electric map of the area, rather than direct detection of potential mineral deposits. A key component of the geo-electric profiling was to map the relative thickness of the Kalahari sediments, which is up to 200 m thick and obscures most of the bedrock in the area. Knowledge of the thickness would allow explorers to better predict the costs of exploration under the Kalahari. An additional aim was to determine if bedrock conductors were detectable beneath the Kalahari cover. The system succeeded in measuring the Kalahari thickness where this cover was relatively thin and moderately conductive. Limitations in depth penetration mean that it is not possible to map the thickness in the centre of the survey area, and much of the northern half of the survey area. Additional problems arise due to the variable conductivity of the Kalahari cover. Where the conductivity of the Kalahari sediment is close to that of the basement, there is no discernable contrast to delineate the base of the Kalahari. Basement conductors are visible beneath the more thinly covered areas such as in the north-west and south of the survey area. The remainder of the survey area generally comprises deeper, more conductive cover and for the most part basement conductors cannot be detected. A qualitative comparison with VTEM data shows comparable results in terms of regional mapping, and suggests that even more powerful systems such as the VTEM may not detect discrete conductors beneath the thick conductive parts of the Kalahari cover.

  11. Variations in the reproductive cycle of Dreissena polymorpha in Europe, Russia, and North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Susan Jerrine

    1996-01-01

    The reproductive cycle of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is highly variable throughout its range in Europe, Russia, and North America. The environmental factors influencing this variation are poorly understood, but successful reproduction is occurring in areas where it was initially believed that adult zebra mussels could not survive (i.e., southern United States). The differences in mussel reproduction occurring from site-to-site make it difficult to predict timing of specific events, such as the start of larval production, that are important in initiating containment or control procedures. For example, the amount of time required for a fertilized egg to develop into a juvenile mussel can be as short as 8 days, or as long as 240 days. Release of gametes by adults can be a highly synchronized event, focused over a 1-2 week period, or it can be completely non-synchronized, occurring throughout the year. Zebra mussels in some localities start spawning at water temperatures of 12-13A?C, but do not start until water temperatures reaches 22A?C at other sites. While some of this variability in reproductive behavior stems from mussel adaptation to local conditions, part is due to difficulties in sampling these events. It is difficult to determine reproductive success of a specific population because of the problems in separating locally produced larvae from larvae drifting in from other areas. Further research is needed not only on the relationship between reproduction and environment at the community level, but also on the variability in response of individual mussels.

  12. Vitamin D in North-East Asian clinical nutrition practice.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Sound clinical nutrition practice is grounded in evidence and stimulated by research. Yet, there are unanswered questions about food-health relationships. Clinical nutrition involves the identification of nutritional disorders and the motivation to rectify them with all required care. Vitamin D health exemplifies the biomedical, societal and environmental dimensions of clinical nutrition, its science and practice. It depends most of all on access to sunshine and food and probably represents a paradigm in human health which is still at its beginning. Nevertheless, the problem of its deficiency is much more widespread and common than has been thought since it was first identified as a cause of rickets and osteomalacia. It is now known to spare no body organ or system. The problem in North-East Asia is comparable to much of the rest of the world, but the risk profile for it is exaggerated by atmospheric pollution, cultures with sun-avoidance on account of skin colour and potentially mitigated by foodstuffs like fish, eggs, organ meats and mushrooms which can partially offset sunshine-deficiency. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by biochemistry which may not be affordable. Therefore a close working relationship between public health and clinical nutritionist is essential.

  13. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  14. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  15. View looks east northeast (64°) along North Base Road, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looks east northeast (64°) along North Base Road, showing North Base as it appears on approach by automobile. From left to right, one sees Building 4505 with its ancillary buildings; Building 4500, Control Tower; followed by Buildings 4402 (Hangar No. 2), 4401 (Hangar No. 1), and 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) with their respective ancillary structures. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2

  17. 6. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Fish community comparisons along environmental gradients in lakes of France and north-east USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess whether eight traits of fish communities (species richness, three reproductive traits and four trophic traits) respond similarly to environmental gradients, and consequently display convergence between the lakes of France and north-east USA (NEUSA). Location 75 Frenc...

  19. Setting, distant view looking east/southeast toward north and west elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Setting, distant view looking east/southeast toward north and west elevations of Ranger's Residence, with rock formations in the background - Toney Residence, 10700 Escondido Canyon Road, Agua Dulce, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 2. MEMORIAL HALL AND COURTHOUSE/LIBRARY EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MEMORIAL HALL AND COURTHOUSE/LIBRARY EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE FROM CEDAR AVENUE AT LANCASTER BOULEVARD, CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. - Lancaster County Center, Memorial Hall & Courthouse/Library, 4845 Cedar Avenue, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East and north elevations (rear façade) of quarters no. 2, looking southwest. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  2. Detection of the virulent Marek's disease virus genome from feather tips of wild geese in Japan and the Far East region of Russia.

    PubMed

    Murata, S; Chang, K-S; Yamamoto, Y; Okada, T; Lee, S-I; Konnai, S; Onuma, M; Osa, Y; Asakawa, M; Ohashi, K

    2007-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) virus (MDV) is known to cause malignant lymphomas in chickens. In 2001, we first reported an MD case in a white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) in Japan. Therefore, the prevalence of MDV in the wild geese was surveyed by nested PCR using feather-tip samples in Japan and the Far East region of Russia, breeding habitats of geese migrating to Japan. MDV was detected in about 30% of analyzed white-fronted geese. Furthermore, by nucleotide sequence analysis, we confirmed that this MDV shows high homology to very virulent MDV, suggesting that highly virulent MDV is widespread in white-fronted geese migrating between Japan and Far East region of Russia. PMID:17497232

  3. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Darina; Rahme, Maya; Hoteit, Maha; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   Aim: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. Methods: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000–2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. Results: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30–90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease. PMID:24194968

  4. Ground Penetrating Radar Investigations in the North East of Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, D.; Schoener, W.; Brueckl, E.; Hynek, B.; Weyss, G.

    2009-04-01

    The scientific branch of the interdisciplinary Austrian IPY contribution FERMAP aims the North East of Greenland. Based at the Danish research station Zackenberg (74°28'N, 20°34'W) two adjacent glaciers were of main interest of the FERMAP expedition in May 2008. The Freya Glacier (74°23'N, 20°50'W) is an alpine-type valley glacier, c. 6 km² in size, situated on Clavering Island. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was performed to determine accumulation for mass balance calculation. Further GPR was used to gain ice thickness data to calculate ice thickness distribution and total ice volume. The second glacier of interest was an outlet glacier of the A. P. Olsen Ice Cap (74°38' N, 21°26' W). Again GPR was performed to yield ice thickness distribution of the outlet glacier, whereas englacial and subglacial reflections drew attention on itself. Conspicuous englacial and subglacial reflections are all located downwards in flow direction of the remaining structures of a lake outburst, and are likely to be part of an englacial and subglacial drainage system. The glacial stream of the investigated outlet glacier drains into the Zackenberg River. In the period of 1997-2008 floods where documented qualitatively by photo and quantitatively by discharge data, showing obvious peaks. Several floods occurred in the end of July, hence high discharge caused by snowmelt can be precluded. First assumptions about structures, mixtures and origin of conspicuous reflections were taken into consideration. Forward modelling revealed potential structures and mixtures of englacial and subglacial objects causing acquired GPR data. Further the theoretical structure of the subglacial drainage system was modelled using different assumptions about subglacial water pressure. Calculated drainage pathways were compared with location of conspicuous subglacial reflections to yield first estimation for the water pressure condition in the formation period of the subglacial drainage system.

  5. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghazaey, Saeedeh; Mirzaei, Farzaneh; Ahadian, Mitra; Keifi, Fatemeh; Semiramis, Tootian; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities. Results: The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS) was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%). Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner’s syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter’s syndrome. Conclusion: According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service. PMID:24027668

  6. Farmer's response to changing climate in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Diversification of land use in the cultivation of various crops provides an alternative way to moderate the climate risk. By choosing alternative crops that are resilient to various weather parameters, farmers can reduce the crop damage and achieve optimum output from their limited land resources. Apart from other adaptation measures, crop diversity can reflect farmers' response towards changing climate uncertainty. This paper tries to examine the changing climatic condition through spatio-temporal variation of two important weather variables (precipitation and temperature) in the largest North-East Indian state, Assam, since 1950. It is examined by the variation in crop diversification index. We have used (1) Herfindahl Index for measuring degree of diversification and (2) locational quotient for measuring the changes in the regional crop concentration. The results show that, in almost all the districts, crop specialization has been taking place slowly and that happened mostly in the last phase of our study. The hilly and backward districts recorded more diversification but towards lower value crops. It goes against the normal feature of crop diversification where farmers diversify in favour of high value crops. Employing ordinary least squares method and/or Fixed Effect model, irrigation is found to have significant impact on crop diversification; while the flood plain zones and hill zones are found to have better progress in this regard, which has been due to the survival necessity of poor farmers living the zone. Thus crop diversity does not reflect very significant response from the farmers' side towards changing weather factors (except rainfall) though they have significant impact on the productivity of various crops, and thus profitability. The study thus suggests the necessity for rapid and suitable diversification as alternative climate change mitigation in the long run.

  7. Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-25

    Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation. PMID:25447914

  8. Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-25

    Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation.

  9. 3. East and north elevations, facing southwest (Note: B/W scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East and north elevations, facing southwest (Note: B/W scale on east elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. 3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1601/1606/1607. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1601/1606/1607. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 4. COURTYARD/LIGHTWELL ON NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING BETWEEN EAST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. COURTYARD/LIGHTWELL ON NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING BETWEEN EAST AND CENTRAL WINGS, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET WEST OF NORTHEAST CORNER, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lodge-Cafeteria, East of Fifth Street, between D & E Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Ophiolites and oceanic plateau remnants (greenstones) in Japan and Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, A.; Ichiyama, Y.; Koizumi, K.

    2005-12-01

    , suggesting their origin by deep (4-5 GPa) partial melting of a superplume (Ichiyama & Ishiwatari, 2005; CMP, 149, 373-; Lithos, in submission.). The Yakuno ophiolite and the Tamba greenstone thus represent coeval but unrelated SSZ and oceanic magmatisms, respectively, in the same Permian time. The Jurassic superplume-related volcanic rocks are also reported from Hokkaido (Japan) and Sakhalin (Russia), and Jurassic meimechite lavas and related Alaskan-type zoned ultramafic plutons are reported from Primorye (Russia), but their age of accretion is also Late Jurassic. The Jurassic ophiolites in Hokkaido and Sakhalin are characterized by unusually depleted harzburgite (Spinel Cr#80-90), indicating very high degree of melting (Ishiwatari et al. GSL Spec. Publ. 218, 597-). These facts suggests that the superplume was placed beneath the subduction zone (Ishiwatari & Ichiyama, 2004; Int. Geol. Rev., 46, 316-), and facilitated plate convergence and SSZ magmatism. This study provides a new evidence for Permian oceanic superplume magmatism that is coeval with Siberian and Emeishan LIPs, and postulates possibility of superplume-SSZ interaction in Jurassic NW Pacific margin.

  13. Noble metal and graphite formation in metamorphic rocks of the Khanka terrane, Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Plyusnina, L. P.; Berdnikov, N. V.

    2015-03-01

    Noble metal-graphite mineralization has been identified in the Riphean-Cambrian metamorphic complexes of the northern Khanka terrane, Russia. The graphite mineralization is hosted in magmatic and sedimentary rocks metamorphosed under greenschist to granulite facies conditions. This paper provides the results of our study of the Turgenevo-Tamga graphite deposits. This study analyzes the geochemistry of the noble metals with the aim of determining the spatial relationships between noble metals and graphite. The graphitized rocks, analyzed by various geochemical methods, show a wide range of noble metal concentrations (ppm): Pt (0.02-62.13), Au (0.02-26), Ag (0.56-4.41), Pd (0.003-5.67), Ru (0.007-0.2), Rh (0.001-0.74), Ir (0.002-0.55), and Os (0.011-0.09). Crystallization from gas-condensates is indicated by the relationships between the noble metal mineralization and the graphite, and in particular the inhomogeneous distribution of graphite in the rocks, the inhomogeneous distribution of metals in the graphite, the microglobular graphite structures, and the carbon isotopic compositions. Thermal analysis and Raman spectroscopy indicate that some of the graphite formed from the metamorphism of sedimentary biogenic carbonaceous matter. The uneven distribution of noble metals in the rocks, and the compositional variability of the mineralization, implies that the origin of the metals was largely related to endogenic processes involving reduced fluids derived from depth. Our conclusion is that the noble metals and graphite mainly originated from magmatic fluids, but that some material was derived from exogenic and metamorphic sources.

  14. Further east: eutrophication as a major threat to the flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia.

    PubMed

    Seregin, Alexey P

    2014-11-01

    Eutrophication remains a major threat to the flora of Western Europe despite measures to reduce nitrogen emissions. Although nutrient enrichment has been recorded for both inland waters and adjacent seas, there is almost no evidence from Russia for large-scale anthropogenic eutrophication of soils and its impact on terrestrial biota. I used the distribution grid data (337 grid squares, ca. 96 km(2)) on 1,384 vascular plants of Vladimir Oblast for two periods (1869-1999 vs. 2000-2012) to estimate the shifts in mean Ellenberg's indicator values for nitrogen and soil reaction. Decadal changes in the flora of acid sandy Meshchera Lowlands were observed directly during two grid surveys of 2002 and 2012 based on a coarser grid (50 squares, ca. 24 km(2)). Despite the spatial correlation of Ellenberg's indicator values for soil reaction and nitrogen, mean grid values for nitrogen are growing in areas with both acid and neutral soils. The changes in mean grid indicator values for nitrogen are caused by either local extinctions of species from nutrient-poor habitats or spread of nitrophilous plants. I found that oligotrophic habitats are declining rapidly within the eutrophic loamy landscapes. In contrast, changes in landscapes with acid sandy soils are caused by increasing number of records of nitrophilous species, both invasive and native. These two processes have different spatial patterns caused by varying levels of geochemical buffer capacity and should be considered separately. Fragmentary historical data on Vladimir Oblast flora agrees with the overall European picture of eutrophication in the twentieth century.

  15. Seasonal perturbations in interseismic deformation of North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. D.; Vijayan, M.; Kumar, A.

    2013-12-01

    is mostly abundant in the lower frequency domains whereas at higher frequencies the spectrum mostly corresponds to white noise. Power spectrum of time series are estimated using periodorgram method. The spectral indice of most components are within -1<α<1 and suggest a dominance of fractal white noise in the time series. Autocorrelation studies also favoring the presence of white noise by showing highest peak at iΔt=0. In order to investigate the seasonality, time series is decomposed to find its trend and the seasonal signal has been extracted from the power spectrum. The power spectrum of every component (North, East and Up) shows its biggest peak at 0.73cycles/year and next prominent peak is found at 2.15cycles/year at one of the stations. This assessment of deformation associated with non-tectonic forcing, like atmospheric loading, along with tectonics is vital since it not only affects the earthquake nucleation process and stress build up in the crust but also effectively alters the drainage pattern which is the lifeline of the North-Eastern India.

  16. Role of the North Pacific sea surface temperature in the East Asian winter monsoon decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianqi; Wu, Sha; Ao, Juan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a possible mechanism for the decadal variability in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is proposed. Specifically, the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) may play an important role. An analysis of the observations shows that the North Pacific SST has a remarkable decadal pattern whose phase shifted around the mid-1980s. This North Pacific SST decadal pattern can weaken the East Asian trough and enhance the North Pacific Oscillation through changing air-sea interactions over the North Pacific. The weak East Asian trough enhances the zonal circulation and weakens the meridional circulation over East Asia, consequently leading to a weaker southward cold surge and East Asia warming around the mid-1980s. The numerical experiment further confirms the pronounced physical processes. In addition, over the longer period of 1871-2012, the indices of the EAWM and North Pacific SST decadal pattern are also highly consistent on the decadal timescale, which further confirms the impact of the North Pacific SST decadal pattern on the EAWM decadal variability.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species.

  19. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  20. Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt

  1. High-latitude environmental change during MIS 8-12: biogeochemical evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, R. M.; Wei, J. H.; Castañeda, I. S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Petsch, S. T.; Finkelstein, D. B.

    2012-09-01

    Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 11 has been proposed as an analog for the present interglacial; however, terrestrial records of this time period are rare. Sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30´ N, 172°5´ E) in Far East Russia contain a 3.56 Ma record of climate variability from the Arctic. Here, we present an organic geochemical reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes from MIS 8 through 12 (289 to 460 ka). Terrestrial vegetation changes, as revealed by plant leaf wax (n-alkane) indices and concentrations of arborinol (a biomarker for trees), show increased tree cover around the lake during interglacial periods, with higher concentrations observed during MIS 11 as compared to MIS 9. A similar pattern is also observed in records of aquatic productivity revealed by molecular indicators from dinoflagellates (dinosterol), eustigmatophyte algae (long-chain (C28-C32) 1,15 n-alkyl diols) in addition to short-chain nalkanes, where aquatic productivity is highest during MIS 11. Changes recorded in these molecular proxies track relative temperature variability as recorded by the MBT/CBT paleothermometer, based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Additionally, relative MBT/CBT temperature changes generally track pollen and diatom δ18O temperature estimates, compiled by other studies, which suggest glacial-interglacial temperature changes of ~ 9-12 °C. These records of environmental and climatic change indicate Arctic sensitivity to external forcings such as orbital variability and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Overall, this study indicates that organic geochemical analyses of the Lake El'gygytgyn sediment archive can provide critical insight into the response of lake ecosystems and their sensitivity in high latitude regions.

  2. High-latitude environmental change during MIS 9 and 11: biogeochemical evidence from Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anjou, R. M.; Wei, J. H.; Castañeda, I. S.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Petsch, S. T.; Finkelstein, D. B.

    2013-03-01

    Marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 has been proposed as an analog for the present interglacial; however, terrestrial records of this time period are rare. Sediments from Lake El'gygytgyn (67°30' N, 172°5' E) in Far East Russia contain a 3.56 Ma record of climate variability from the Arctic. Here, we present the first terrestrial Arctic reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes from MIS 8 through 12 (289 to 464 ka) using organic geochemical proxies. Terrestrial vegetation changes, as revealed by plant leaf wax (n-alkane) indices and concentrations of arborinol (a biomarker for trees), show increased tree cover around the lake during interglacial periods, with higher concentrations observed during MIS 11 as compared to MIS 9. A similar pattern is also observed in records of aquatic productivity revealed by molecular indicators from dinoflagellates (dinosterol), eustigmatophyte algae (long-chain (C28-C32) 1, 15 n-alkyl diols) in addition to short-chain n-alkanes, where aquatic productivity is highest during MIS 11. Changes recorded in these molecular proxies show a similar structure to relative temperature variability as recorded by the MBT/CBT (Methylation of Branched Tetraether/Cyclization of Branched Tetraether) paleothermometer, based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Additionally, relative MBT/CBT temperature changes generally track pollen and diatom δ18O temperature estimates, compiled by other studies, which suggest glacial-interglacial temperature changes of ~ 9 to 12 °C. These records of environmental and climatic change indicate Arctic sensitivity to external forcings such as orbital variability and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Overall, this study indicates that organic geochemical analyses of the Lake El'gygytgyn sediment archive can provide critical insight into the response of lake ecosystems and their sensitivity in high latitude regions.

  3. New data on Lepidion schmidti (Gadiformes: Moridae) from the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Arronte, J C; Bañón, R; Quigley, D T G; Pis-Millán, J A; Heredia, J

    2011-12-01

    A new record of Lepidion schmidti (Gadiformes: Moridae) is reported from the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic Ocean). Lepidion schmidti is a rare and poorly known species, scarcely described in the ichthyological literature. Morphometric and meristic characteristics of the specimen are given. A compilation of the specimens caught in the north-east Atlantic Ocean was carried out and the current status of the species in Atlantic waters is discussed. Lepidion schmidti is characterized mainly by the presence of an inverted V-shaped patch of vomerine teeth and a V-shaped crest on the dorsal surface of the head with the apex anterior. The presence of supernumerary anal fin rays in this species is described for the first time. The results obtained confirm the presence of L. schmidti from the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

  4. [Age-Related Features of EEG Coherence in Children and Adolescents Living in the European North of Russia].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Nagornova, Zh V; Rozhkov, V P; Shemyakina, N V

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents data on the formation of spatial synchronization of brain potentials in 91 children aged 7-18 years living in European North of Russia. We estimated coherence values for 19 derivations (pair 171) in five EEG frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta). We described age-related changes, gender differences and topical specific features of the formation of coherence in the left and right hemispheres, and in inter- and intrahemispheric synchronization. We carried out computer assessment of the differences in EEG coherence between three age groups of children in order to determine criteria for identification of children with retarded formation of spatial organization of local EEG processes. Age-related changes in the structure of EEG patterns observed in the study reflect the processes of morphofunctional brain development in children and adolescents at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis under severe conditions of northern climate.

  5. Inter-annual dynamics of abyssal polychaete communities in the North East Pacific and North East Atlantic—A family-level study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguionie-Marchais, C.; Billett, D. S. M.; Paterson, G. L. D.; Ruhl, H. A.; Soto, E. H.; Smith, K. L., Jr.; Thatje, S.

    2013-05-01

    Characterising how deep-sea communities change on contemporary time-scales and understanding underlying ecosystem processes has become important under changing climate and the rise in the exploitation of deep-sea resources. However, little is known about these dynamics and processes. Long-term observations from which inter-annual variations can be detected are scarce in the deep sea. This study examines inter-annual changes in density, family richness and evenness, family and functional group rank abundance distributions of infaunal polychaetes at two abyssal stations in the North East Pacific (Station M, 1991 to 2005) and in the North East Atlantic (Porcupine Abyssal Plain, 1991 to 1999). The two long-term data sets were used to investigate not only if polychaete community structure and composition varied at inter-annual scales in terms of diversity and rank abundance distributions but also if any changes were related to previous observations in megafauna and environmental factors at each locality. The polychaete community structure at each locality was analysed using univariate statistics as well as multivariate ordination techniques based on Bray-Curtis similarity of the yearly family density. Sub-surface deposit feeders, such as Paraonidae, dominated the North East Pacific, whereas surface deposit feeders, such as Cirratulidae, dominated the North East Atlantic. Both stations showed inter-annual variations in density, family evenness and rank abundance distributions. The greatest changes occurred in 1998 in both time series when polychaete densities peaked, and switches in the rank abundance of the most abundant families and functional groups took place. Inter-annual variations in the polychaete community were correlated with a limited number of holothurian species changes, but no correlation was found with particulate organic matter flux or climate indices. Ecological and environmental factors behind the family-level changes remain elusive. Overall, changes in

  6. Possible relationship between East Asian summer monsoon and western North Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the fact that strong positive correlations have existed between East Asian summer monsoons (EASMs) and western North Pacific tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency over the last 37 years was found. To figure out the cause of these correlations, 7 years (positive East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) phase) that have the highest values and 7 years (negative EASMI phase) that have the lowest values in the normalized EASM index were selected and the differences in averages between the two phases were analyzed. In the positive EASMI phase, TCs mainly occurred in the northwestern waters of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and showed a tendency to move from the far eastern waters of the Philippines, pass the East China Sea, and move northward toward Korea and Japan. On the 500 hPa streamline, whereas anomalous anticyclones developed in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous cyclones developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. Therefore, in this phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, western North Pacific summer monsoons (WNPSMs) were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. In addition, in the case of the East China Sea and the southern waters of Japan located between the two anomalous pressure systems, TCs could move some more toward the East Asia middle-latitude region in this phase. According to an analysis of the 850 hPa relative vorticity, negative anomalies were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region while positive anomalies were strengthened in the region south to 25 N. Therefore, in the positive EASMI phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, WNPSMs were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. According to an analysis of the 850 and 200 hPa horizontal divergence, whereas anomalous downward flows were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous upward flows were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. According to an analysis

  7. Morphologic Variability of the Shoulder between the Populations of North American and East Asian

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, Andres F.; Krebes, Kristi; Hussey, Michael M.; Santoni, Brandon G.; Kim, Hyuong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between North American and East Asian populations that may influence sizing and selection of shoulder arthroplasty systems. Methods Computed tomography reconstructions of 92 North American and 58 East Asian patients were used to perform 3-dimensional measurements. The proximal humeral position was normalized in all patients by aligning it with the scapular plane utilizing anatomic landmarks. Measurements were performed on the humerus and scapula and included coronal and axial humeral head radius, humeral neck shaft and articular arc angles, glenoid height and width, and critical shoulder angle. Glenohumeral relationships were also measured and included lateral distance to the greater tuberosity and acromion, abduction lever arm, and acromial index. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were used to compare population metrics. Results East Asian glenohumeral measurements were significantly smaller for all linear metrics (p < 0.05), with the exception of acromial length, which was greater than in the North American cohort (p < 0.001). The increase in acromial length affected all measurements involving the acromion including abduction lever arms. No difference was found between the neck shaft and articular angular measurements. Conclusions The East Asian population exhibited smaller shoulder morphometrics than their North American cohort, with the exception of an extended acromial overhang. The morphologic data can provide some additional factors to consider when choosing an optimal shoulder implant for the East Asian population, in addition to creating future designs that may better accommodate this population. PMID:27583111

  8. Multiple co-circulating HIV-1 subtypes in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Morgane; Modjarrad, Kayvon

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 incidence has been increasing more rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa than in any other global region. Despite this trend, HIV epidemiology in the region remains poorly defined. We conducted an analysis of 3284 publicly available HIV-1 sequences from 15 countries in the Middle East and North Africa to better characterize the regional epidemic. A phylogenetic tree based on the reverse transcriptase gene revealed a complex mosaic of diverse HIV subtypes and circulating recombinant forms across the region. PMID:26091303

  9. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  10. Late Mesozoic post-collisional intermediate to silicic magmatism in the Badjal area, Far East of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, S. I.; Pshenichny, C. A.

    1998-12-01

    The Late Cretaceous Badjal intrusive suite at the Far East of Russia includes a spectrum of rocks having emplaced successively in four phases, from (i) diorite and quartz diorite to (ii) granodiorite, (iii) granite and (iv) high-silica granite, various facies being distinguished within the phases. The generation of these rocks took place after the collision of a number of island arcs and a terrane now locally preserved in Sikhote-Alin region with the Asian continent, that had happened in the end of Early to the beginning of Late Cretaceous. The massifs intrude in Early Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic-sedimentary rocks topping the basement, and in comagmatic volcanic rocks. Chemically, the granitoid rocks have high-K calc-alkaline character and form continuous and regular trends of most of major oxides and trace elements with the SiO 2 contents ranging from 55 to 77 wt.%, that favors the concept of crystal fractionation. Major oxides and REE have a break at 70 wt.% SiO 2 pointing to a change of precipitating mineral assemblage. Such change is also documented by the negative Eu anomaly. We believe that the fractionation of mafic minerals had to take place at the first stage of fractionation, whereas plagioclase and possibly biotite began precipitating later, as supposed by abrupt decrease of Ba. This hypothesis is in accordance with the mass balance calculations. Diorite magma compositionally similar to the first intrusive phase rocks should be taken for parental for the entire Badjal suite. Small volume of these oldest rocks makes us suggest that the parental magma was a mixture of silicic liquid and restite mineral phases that would result from the partial melting of a heterogeneous metapelite-basaltic or metapelite-amphibolitic protolith. Almost total absence of basalt and gabbro of close age in the area makes a suggestion of crustal silicic contamination of a mantle-produced basic magma unlikely. After the melting, the differentiation of the derived magmatic

  11. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  12. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  13. 7. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, CLOSEUP (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, CLOSE-UP (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  15. Sunderland Software City: An Innovative Approach to Knowledge Exchange in the North East of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lynne; Irons, Alastair; MacIntyre, John; Sellers, Charles; Smith, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a collaborative initiative within the North East of England which aims to grow and sustain a software industry, based on the strengths of regional players, including in particular the local university. The project Sunderland Software City has the ambitious aim of developing the people, the infrastructure and the business and…

  16. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  17. ARMF, TRA660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARMF, TRA-660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. VERTICAL LIFT DOOR IN WEST WALL. WINDOWS AND LOUVERS WERE LATER COVERED. H.K. FERGUSON 8956 MTR-ETR-660-53, 9/1959. INL INDEX NO. 531-0660-00-279-101994, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. 121. ARAI Guard house (ARA628). Drawing shows north, south, east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. ARA-I Guard house (ARA-628). Drawing shows north, south, east, and west elevations, floor plan, counter details, and roof plan. Norman Engineering Corporation 961-area/SF-628-A-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 063-0628-00-613-102772. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 132. ARAII Administration building (ARA613) elevations of north, south, east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. ARA-II Administration building (ARA-613) elevations of north, south, east, and west sides. F. C. Torkelson Company 842-area/SL-1-613-A-2. Date: October 1959. Ineel index no. 070-0613-00-851-150054. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 330 NORTH & CENTER STREET (990 EAST) (8E1684E, SALT LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    330 NORTH & CENTER STREET (990 EAST) (8-E-16-8-4E, SALT LAKE CITY CEMETERY LOCATER), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST OVER THE CEMETERY. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  1. Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nicola L.; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  2. High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia

    PubMed Central

    Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (−13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (−13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

  3. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender

  4. Care of World War II convoy casualties in the Kola area of north Russia. Part 2--The Royal Naval Auxiliary Hospital, Vaenga.

    PubMed

    McMillan, G H

    1996-01-01

    The Royal Naval Auxiliary Hospital at Vaenga, North Russia was operational from October 1942 to July 1945. Care and treatment were provided to 752 male and one female in-patients from Arctic convoy merchant ships and their escorts and Allied personnel who became sick or injured while in the Kola area. One hundred and forty nine of the men were casualties of enemy action. An account is given of the hospital's structure, staff, organisation and work. PMID:8776939

  5. Life cycle of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the North-West of Russia.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, L A; Stanyukovich, M K

    2016-07-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes persulcatus lasts 3 years in the conditions of the Leningrad province (North-West Russia), the development of each phase taking a year. The normal age of the taiga tick is 3 years. The calendar age of larvae and nymphs reaches 11-12 months under favorable abiotic and biotic factors, while the calendar age of adults does not exceed 11 months. At the preimaginal phases of development the ticks that breed in August can feed before or after winter. However, their metamorphosis begins and reaches completion within the same timeframes (from late June to early August) and lasts for about 30-50 (60) days. The survival rate of hungry and engorged larvae and nymphs after wintering is quite high (88.6-100 %). We explain the low activity of larvae and nymphs in late summer and autumn by incomplete development. Morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae and nymphs interrupts digestion but not metamorphosis which starts only in late June and July after the complete absorption of blood from the gut cavity.

  6. Life cycle of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the North-West of Russia.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, L A; Stanyukovich, M K

    2016-07-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes persulcatus lasts 3 years in the conditions of the Leningrad province (North-West Russia), the development of each phase taking a year. The normal age of the taiga tick is 3 years. The calendar age of larvae and nymphs reaches 11-12 months under favorable abiotic and biotic factors, while the calendar age of adults does not exceed 11 months. At the preimaginal phases of development the ticks that breed in August can feed before or after winter. However, their metamorphosis begins and reaches completion within the same timeframes (from late June to early August) and lasts for about 30-50 (60) days. The survival rate of hungry and engorged larvae and nymphs after wintering is quite high (88.6-100 %). We explain the low activity of larvae and nymphs in late summer and autumn by incomplete development. Morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae and nymphs interrupts digestion but not metamorphosis which starts only in late June and July after the complete absorption of blood from the gut cavity. PMID:26979586

  7. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  8. [Comparisons of cerebral circulation parameters in schoolchildren living in the Far East and European North].

    PubMed

    Rozhkov, V P; Nikolaev, I V; Soroko, S I

    2011-10-01

    Transcranial Doppler sonography and impedansometry was used to study cerebral circulation in students aged from 7 to 17 living in the North in the "absolute discomfort" area (Magadan region. 62 degrees North, 158 degrees East, n = 167) and "discomfort" area (Arkhangelsk region, 61 degrees North, 41 degrees East, n = 52). New data were obtained about both blood flow parameters in main cerebral arteries, vessels tone and vasomotor reactivity as well as differences between these indices in children from the two northern areas. The results reveal that arterial blood flow velocity (BFV) in cerebral arteries is faster in Koryaks and Evens who are the children of the native population compared to BFV in the children born in the North whose parents represent newcomers. A tendency exists in the form of vascular tone rising in the living in the North students. This tendency is more expressed in children and adolescents from Magadan region which is distinguished from Arkhangelsk region by more severe climate. The indices that characterize individual alterations of cerebral circulation under hypoxic-cold factors as well as population peculiarities related to "polar adaptive type of metabolism" forming are discussed.

  9. 33 CFR 110.70a - Northeast River, North East, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area west of North East Heights, Maryland enclosed by a line beginning on the shoreline at latitude 39°34′26″ N., longitude 75°57′18″ W.; thence westerly to latitude 39°34′26″ N., longitude 75°57′29″ W.; thence northeasterly to latitude 39°34′30″ N., longitude 75°57′27″ W.; thence easterly to the...

  10. Exterior view of north and east exterior walls of LongTerm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view of north and east exterior walls of Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B), looking south. Silo was designed to assess long-term environmental impacts on storage of the Titan II's oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide). The shorter Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) is located behind and to the immediate left of T-28B - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Long-Term Oxidizer Silo, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  11. CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett barn was constructed into the sloping landscape. The Pennsylvania Bank Barn construction style allows for access at ground level on both the upper and lower floors. The Crockett granary is visible on the right hand side of the photograph. Currently a property line runs between the two buildings. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  12. 122. ARAI Pump House (ARA629). Drawing shows north, south, east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. ARA-I Pump House (ARA-629). Drawing shows north, south, east, and west elevations, floor plan, foundation plan, and other details. Note small enclosure at southwest corner of building to contain chlorination equipment. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/SF-629-A-1. Date: January 1959. Ineel index code no. 068-0629-00-613-102774. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  14. Leadership and transformational change in healthcare organisations: a qualitative analysis of the North East Transformation System.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Jonathan; Hunter, David J; Small, Adrian; Hicks, Chris; McGovern, Tom; Lugsden, Ed; Whitty, Paula; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin Paul

    2013-02-01

    The research project 'An Evaluation of Transformational Change in NHS North East' examines the progress and success of National Health Service (NHS) organisations in north east England in implementing and embedding the North East Transformation System (NETS), a region-wide programme to improve healthcare quality and safety, and to reduce waste, using a combination of Vision, Compact, and Lean-based Method. This paper concentrates on findings concerning the role of leadership in enabling tranformational change, based on semi-structured interviews with a mix of senior NHS managers and quality improvement staff in 14 study sites. Most interviewees felt that implementing the NETS requires committed, stable leadership, attention to team-building across disciplines and leadership development at many levels. We conclude that without senior leader commitment to continuous improvement over a long time scale and serious efforts to distribute leadership tasks to all levels, healthcare organisations are less likely to achieve positive changes in managerial-clinical relations, sustainable improvements to organisational culture and, ultimately, the region-wide step change in quality, safety and efficiency that the NETS was designed to deliver.

  15. North-East Asian Super Grid: Renewable energy mix and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breyer, Christian; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Komoto, Keiichi; Ehara, Tomoki; Song, Jinsoo; Enebish, Namjil

    2015-08-01

    Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and country-wide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW·h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30-40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources-based energy system is THE real policy option.

  16. Leadership and transformational change in healthcare organisations: a qualitative analysis of the North East Transformation System.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Jonathan; Hunter, David J; Small, Adrian; Hicks, Chris; McGovern, Tom; Lugsden, Ed; Whitty, Paula; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin Paul

    2013-02-01

    The research project 'An Evaluation of Transformational Change in NHS North East' examines the progress and success of National Health Service (NHS) organisations in north east England in implementing and embedding the North East Transformation System (NETS), a region-wide programme to improve healthcare quality and safety, and to reduce waste, using a combination of Vision, Compact, and Lean-based Method. This paper concentrates on findings concerning the role of leadership in enabling tranformational change, based on semi-structured interviews with a mix of senior NHS managers and quality improvement staff in 14 study sites. Most interviewees felt that implementing the NETS requires committed, stable leadership, attention to team-building across disciplines and leadership development at many levels. We conclude that without senior leader commitment to continuous improvement over a long time scale and serious efforts to distribute leadership tasks to all levels, healthcare organisations are less likely to achieve positive changes in managerial-clinical relations, sustainable improvements to organisational culture and, ultimately, the region-wide step change in quality, safety and efficiency that the NETS was designed to deliver. PMID:25594999

  17. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy

  18. Genetic variability of Babesia parasites in Haemaphysalis spp. and Ixodes persulcatus ticks in the Baikal region and Far East of Russia.

    PubMed

    Rar, V A; Epikhina, T I; Suntsova, O V; Kozlova, I V; Lisak, O V; Pukhovskaya, N M; Vysochina, N P; Ivanov, L I; Tikunova, N V

    2014-12-01

    To study Babesia diversity in Ixodid ticks in Russia, Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis japonica, Haemaphysalisconcinna, Dermacentor silvarum, and Dermacentor nuttalli ticks collected in the Far East and Baikal region were assayed for the presence of Babesia spp. using nested PCR. In total, Babesia DNA was detected in 30 of the 1125 (2.7%) I. persulcatus, 17 of the 573 (3.0%) H. concinna, and 12 of the 543 (2.2%) H. japonica but was undetectable in any of the 294 analyzed Dermacentor spp. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences were determined for all of the positive samples. Among the positive ticks, nine I. persulcatus were infected by Babesia microti 'US'-type, five I. persulcatus were infected by Babesia divergens-like parasites, and 11 I. persulcatus were infected by Babesia venatorum. For all three of these species, the determined 18S rRNA gene sequences were identical to those of the Babesia genetic variants found previously in I. persulcatus in Russia. In addition, five I. persulcatus from the Baikal region and all of the positive Haemaphysalis spp. ticks carried 13 different sequence variants of Babesia sensu stricto belonging to distinct phylogenetic clusters. Babesia spp. from 29 ticks of different species collected in distinct locations belonged to the cluster of cattle and ovine parasites (Babesia crassa, Babesiamajor, Babesiamotasi, Babesiabigemina, etc.). Babesia spp. from four H. japonica ticks in the Far East belonged to the cluster formed by parasites of carnivores. One more Babesia sequence variant detected in an I. persulcatus tick from the Baikal region belonged to the cluster formed by parasites of cattle and wild cervids (B. divergens, Babesiacapreoli, B. venatorum, Babesiaodocoilei, etc.).

  19. The biology and fisheries of European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in the north-east Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Murua, Hilario

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to review the biology and fishery, including the management, of European hake in the north-east Atlantic. The European hake is widely distributed throughout the north-east Atlantic, from Norway in the north to the Guinea Gulf in the south, and throughout the Mediterranean and Black Sea, being more abundant from the British Isles to the south of Spain. In this area, ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) recognises the existence of two stocks: the northern stock and the southern stock. Both stocks have been extensively and intensively harvested and since the beginning of the 90s have been considered to be outside safe biological limits. The northern stock, however, is currently considered to lie within safe biological limits. In any case, recovery plans were implemented for the northern stock in 2004 and for the southern stock in 2006. Despite its commercial importance, knowledge of the biology and ecology of the European hake in the North Atlantic is still quite scarce. For example, recent investigations suggest that European hake grows much faster, by a factor of two, than was considered previously. This faster growth also affects the maturity-at-age pattern of hake and the agreed maturity-at-age ogive used in the assessments. European hake is a top predator in the demersal community in the north-east Atlantic area; mainly preying on blue whiting, horse mackerel and other cupleids. In relation to the reproductive biology, European hake is considered to be a batch spawner species with indeterminate fecundity and spawning activity all year round. All these characteristics could, in turn, be interpreted as European hake adopting a more opportunistic life strategy, which is unusual for a gadoid and demersal species, and raises several questions about hake biology and ecology that require further investigation.

  20. Sea surface height variability in the North East Atlantic from satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterlini, Paul; de Vries, Hylke; Katsman, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Data from 21 years of satellite altimeter measurements are used to identify and understand the major contributing components of sea surface height variability (SSV) on monthly time-scales in the North East Atlantic. A number of SSV drivers is considered, which are categorised into two groups; local (wind and sea surface temperature) and remote (sea level pressure and the North Atlantic oscillation index). A multiple linear regression model is constructed to model the SSV for a specific target area in the North Sea basin. Cross-correlations between candidate regressors potentially lead to ambiguity in the interpretation of the results. We therefore use an objective hierarchical selection method based on variance inflation factors to select the optimal number of regressors for the target area and accept these into the regression model if they can be associated to SSV through a direct underlying physical forcing mechanism. Results show that a region of high SSV exists off the west coast of Denmark and that it can be represented well with a regression model that uses local wind, sea surface temperature and sea level pressure as primary regressors. The regression model developed here helps to understand sea level change in the North East Atlantic. The methodology is generalised and easily applied to other regions.

  1. Young People's Participation in Extracurricular Physical Education: A Study of 15-16 Year Olds in North-West England and North-East Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andy; Thurston, Miranda; Green, Ken; Lamb, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the levels and forms of participation in extracurricular physical education (PE) of a cohort of 1010 15-16 year olds attending seven state schools in north-west England and north-east Wales. The data reveal that extracurricular PE provision in all schools retained a particular focus on competitive team sports alongside a number…

  2. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. The food of Near East, North West and Western African regions.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Among the countries that can be classified as Near East Africa, North West Africa, and Western Africa, there is a great diversity of foods and dietary patterns. Prevalence of undernourishment as defined by FAO using dietary energy supply data, varies dramatically among these countries, with Tunisia in the lowest prevalence category (<2.5%), and Sierra Leone in the highest prevalence category (>35%). Throughout the 1960's, the dietary energy supply of North West African and Western African countries was similar. However, since the 1970s a great and consistent improvement has been seen in North and North West African countries. Both the proportion and number of undernourished in North Africa is now very similar to that of North America. Oil use, energy from fat, and protein from plant versus animal sources account for a large part of the food pattern differences between countries in these regions. Using Tunisia and Sierra Leone as examples again, dietary diversity as measured by the percentage of energy from foods other than starchy staples, is about 50% in the former, while in the latter, it is only 36%. Fatty fruits such as olives, cocoa and palm fruit have a special role in both the diet and the economies of the region. PMID:14505995

  4. The food of Near East, North West and Western African regions.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Among the countries that can be classified as Near East Africa, North West Africa, and Western Africa, there is a great diversity of foods and dietary patterns. Prevalence of undernourishment as defined by FAO using dietary energy supply data, varies dramatically among these countries, with Tunisia in the lowest prevalence category (<2.5%), and Sierra Leone in the highest prevalence category (>35%). Throughout the 1960's, the dietary energy supply of North West African and Western African countries was similar. However, since the 1970s a great and consistent improvement has been seen in North and North West African countries. Both the proportion and number of undernourished in North Africa is now very similar to that of North America. Oil use, energy from fat, and protein from plant versus animal sources account for a large part of the food pattern differences between countries in these regions. Using Tunisia and Sierra Leone as examples again, dietary diversity as measured by the percentage of energy from foods other than starchy staples, is about 50% in the former, while in the latter, it is only 36%. Fatty fruits such as olives, cocoa and palm fruit have a special role in both the diet and the economies of the region.

  5. GIS Applied to Landslide Hazard Mapping and Evaluation in North-East Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. A.; Degg, M.

    2009-04-01

    Slope instability is a significant environmental hazard in North-East Wales, responsible for important damage to roads and built-up areas. During the late 1980s and the 1990s, systematic landslide mapping and hazard modelling was completed for a number of landslide prone areas within Great Britain, but no such study has to date been carried out for North Wales. This research reports on the creation of a digital landslide inventory for North-East Wales and the use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to create the first landslide susceptibility models for the area. The research has resulted in the most comprehensive landslide inventory of North-East Wales completed to date. This was accomplished through a combination of aerial photograph interpretation, field mapping and data collection from secondary sources (e.g. consultancy reports, newspapers), yielding a database that records 430 landslides for the area. This represents a 76% (186 landslides) increase on the number of landslides recorded for the area in the UK national landslides database. The landslides in North-East Wales are almost entirely situated inland, with less than 1% on the coast. Approximately 84% of the landslides occur within drift geology and 16% in solid geology. For the slides of known type, 46% are translational slides, 47% rotational slides, 3% flows, 3% falls and 1% complex failures. The type and distribution of landsliding in the area shows notable differences to that found in areas of similar bedrock geology elsewhere in the UK (e.g. Derbyshire and South Wales). Analysis shows that the main landslide controlling parameters in North-East Wales are: lithology, drift material, slope angle, proximity to known faults (structural weaknesses) and proximity to fluvial channels (undercutting). These factors were weighted statistically based on their estimated contribution to slope instability, and combined to create the landslide susceptibility models using a statistical (multiple logistic

  6. Arc magmatism and mineralization in North Luzon and its relationship to subduction at the East Luzon and North Manila Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, John A.

    The Tertiary tectonics of North Luzon are complicated by an early thermotectonic regime in the Eocene (40-50 Ma) and the second from 30 to 17 Ma in the Oligocene resulting from subduction in the East Luzon Trench. The second stage coincided with the opening of the South China Sea on the west side of the Philippines. Portions of the western Philippines were translated south from China by the opening of the South China Sea. This includes Mindoro Island, Palawan and the Reed Bank area. No one has presented any evidence that any oceanic crust existed between early Luzon and China prior to opening of the South China Sea. After spreading of the South China Sea ceased, China began to extrude eastward and coupled with the oceanic crust of the South China Sea initiated subduction in the North Manila trench under Luzon at about 17 Ma. Commencing at approximately 15 Ma a graben formed east of the Manila Trench, centered in Baguio City. It contained the volcanic arc which began to develop as the Agno batholith intruded the graben. The graben extends for at least 75 km on the southwest flank of the Cordillera with relayed extensions into the Cordillera. Porphyry copper mineralization developed within the graben from 10 to 8 Ma interrupted by the explosion of a caldera or volcano tectonic depression extending south of Baguio. This graben contains 22 porphyry copper bodies, some of them uneconomic. Described by Gervasio as a "crackle zone", the same zone was described by Fernandez and Damasco as the area most favorable for gold exploration. The second period of mineralization was imposed on the district from 4 to 3 Ma. Gold mineralization in the Baguio district constituted a third phase of mineralization in the Pleistocene. Absence of commercial mineralization in the Cordillera and Sierra Madre correlated with the Paleogene is one of the criteria for distinguishing between the subduction related to the South China Sea and that related to the Philippine Sea on the east. One of the

  7. Impact of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole on the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jinqing; Li, Weijing; Sun, Chenghu; Xu, Li; Ren, Hong-Li

    2013-07-01

    A strong (weak) East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is usually concurrent with the tripole pattern of North Atlantic SST anomalies on the interannual timescale during summer, which has positive (negative) SST anomalies in the northwestern North Atlantic and negative (positive) SST anomalies in the subpolar and tropical ocean. The mechanisms responsible for this linkage are diagnosed in the present study. It is shown that a barotropic wave-train pattern occurring over the Atlantic-Eurasia region likely acts as a link between the EASM and the SST tripole during summer. This wave-train pattern is concurrent with geopotential height anomalies over the Ural Mountains, which has a substantial effect on the EASM. Diagnosis based on observations and linear dynamical model results reveals that the mechanism for maintaining the wave-train pattern involves both the anomalous diabatic heating and synoptic eddy-vorticity forcing. Since the North Atlantic SST tripole is closely coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the relationships between these two factors and the EASM are also examined. It is found that the connection of the EASM with the summer SST tripole is sensitive to the meridional location of the tripole, which is characterized by large seasonal variations due to the north-south movement of the activity centers of the NAO. The SST tripole that has a strong relationship with the EASM appears to be closely coupled with the NAO in the previous spring rather than in the simultaneous summer.

  8. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  9. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  10. The Relationship between the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and the East Asian Surface Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, Jieun; Kim, Ga-Young; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    The tropospheric ozone is known as one of the short-lived climate pollutants and the greenhouse gases, but little is known about it. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the relationship between the western North Pacific subtropical high and the East Asian surface ozone. For the study, we used the trajectory enhanced tropospheric ozone residual (TTOR) for 9 years (2005-2013) and GEOS-Chem model data for 41 years (1971-2011). Despite the short period, the observation well shows the ozone concentration changes according to the WNPSH strength and the model as well. WNPSH enhances the convection along the East Asian monsoon band and the surface ozone concentration decreases. The ozone concentration increases in the area around the rainband. Depending on the location of the rain band, the ozone concentration changes. This study indicates that the ozone concentration is affected by not only the emission of ozone precursors and but also the meteorological condition.

  11. Temporal Fluctuation in North East Baltic Sea Region Cattle Population Revealed by Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal DNA Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, Marianna; Bläuer, Auli; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Harjula, Janne; Nyström Edmark, Veronica; Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Sajantila, Antti; Lidén, Kerstin; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Ancient DNA analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time. To date, most studies of ancient cattle have focused on their domestication in prehistory, while only a limited number of studies have analysed later periods. Conversely, the genetic structure of modern cattle populations is well known given the undertaking of several molecular and population genetic studies. Results Bones and teeth from ancient cattle populations from the North-East Baltic Sea region dated to the Prehistoric (Late Bronze and Iron Age, 5 samples), Medieval (14), and Post-Medieval (26) periods were investigated by sequencing 667 base pairs (bp) from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 155 bp of intron 19 in the Y-chromosomal UTY gene. Comparison of maternal (mtDNA haplotypes) genetic diversity in ancient cattle (45 samples) with modern cattle populations in Europe and Asia (2094 samples) revealed 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes, 24 of which were shared with modern breeds, while 6 were unique to the ancient samples. Of seven Y-chromosomal sequences determined from ancient samples, six were Y2 and one Y1 haplotype. Combined data including Swedish samples from the same periods (64 samples) was compared with the occurrence of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in modern cattle (1614 samples). Conclusions The diversity of haplogroups was highest in the Prehistoric samples, where many haplotypes were unique. The Medieval and Post-Medieval samples also show a high diversity with new haplotypes. Some of these haplotypes have become frequent in modern breeds in the Nordic Countries and North-Western Russia while other haplotypes have remained in only a few local breeds or seem to have been lost. A temporal shift in Y-chromosomal haplotypes from Y2 to Y1 was detected that corresponds with the appearance of new mtDNA haplotypes in the Medieval and Post-Medieval period. This suggests a replacement of the Prehistoric mtDNA and Y chromosomal haplotypes by new types of cattle. PMID:25992976

  12. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  13. Fluoride in groundwater in selected villages in Eritrea (North East Africa).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Viswanatham, K S; Kahsai, Fikremariam; Fisahatsion, Abraham; Asmellash, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above the safety level for consumption. Geological basis for the high concentration of high fluoride has been established; it is presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by a granitic batholith. Extensive dental fluorosis has been observed in the population exposed to drinking water of high fluoride content.

  14. Computer-assisted follow-up register for the north-east of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Hedley, A J; Scott, A M; Weir, R D; Crooks, J

    1970-02-28

    An automated follow-up register for the detection of iatrogenic thyroid disease has been established as a joint venture between the general practitioners in the north-east of Scotland and the thyroid clinic of Aberdeen General Hospitals.The data-processing operations in the system are handled by an International Computers Limited 4/50 computer. Patients are followed up at predetermined intervals and the system has been designed to process, screen, and store clinical and biochemical follow-up data and report results to the patients, general practitioners, and the hospital records department.

  15. Fluoride in groundwater in selected villages in Eritrea (North East Africa).

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Viswanatham, K S; Kahsai, Fikremariam; Fisahatsion, Abraham; Asmellash, Micheal

    2002-04-01

    A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above the safety level for consumption. Geological basis for the high concentration of high fluoride has been established; it is presumed to be the pegmatite intrusion hosted by a granitic batholith. Extensive dental fluorosis has been observed in the population exposed to drinking water of high fluoride content. PMID:12002285

  16. Mapping Glauconite Unites with Using Remote Sensing Techniques in North East of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadirouhani, R.; Samiee, S.

    2014-10-01

    Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM), band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  17. Estimating growth from tagging data: an application to north-east Atlantic tope shark Galeorhinus galeus.

    PubMed

    Dureuil, M; Worm, B

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the inherent uncertainty when estimating growth from limited mark-recapture information. A selection procedure was developed utilizing 18 competing growth estimation methods. The optimal method for a given data set was identified by simulating the length at capture and recapture under different scenarios of measurement error and growth variability while considering the structure of observed data. This selection procedure was applied to mark-recapture data for 37 female and 16 male tope sharks Galeorhinus galeus obtained from tagging studies in the north-east Atlantic Ocean. Parameter estimates differed strongly among methods, showing the need for careful method selection. The selection approach suggested that best estimates for males and females were given by James' weighted least-squares approach with a fixed asymptote. Given an average total length (LT) at birth of 28 cm, the von Bertalanffy growth function of north-east Atlantic G. galeus would be LT = 200·85 - (200·85 - 28)e(-0·076t) for females and LT = 177·30 - (177·30 - 28)e(-0·081t) for males. The resulting age estimates were up to 11 years lower when compared with previous estimates derived from highly uncertain vertebrae readings. More generally, this procedure can help identify optimal estimation methods for a given data set and therefore aid in estimating more reliable growth parameters from mark-recapture information.

  18. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  19. A model for the three-dimensional evolution of continental rift basins, north-east Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, William

    1994-12-01

    Large areas of north-east Africa were dominated by regional extension in the Late Phanerozoic. Widespread rifting occurred in the Late Jurassic, with regional extension culminating in the Cretaceous and resulting in the greatest areal extent and degree of interconnection of the west, central and north African rift systems. Basin reactivation continued in the Paleocene and Eocene and new rifts probably formed in the Red Sea and western Kenya. In the Oligocene and Early Miocene, rifts in Kenya, Ethiopia and the Red Sea linked and expanded to form the new east African rift system. This complex history of rifting resulted in failed rift basins with low to high strain geometries, a range of associated volcanism and varying degrees of interaction with older structures. One system, the Red Sea rift, has partially attained active seafloor spreading. From a comparison of these basins, a general model of three-dimensional rift evolution is proposed. Asymmetrical crustal geometries dominated the early phases of these basins, accompanied by low angle normal faulting that has been observed at least locally in outcrop. As rifting progressed, the original fault and basin forms were modified to produce larger, more through-going structures. Some basins were abandoned, others experienced reversals in regional dip and, in general, extension and subsidence became focused along narrower zones near the rift axes. The final transition to oceanic spreading was accomplished in the Red Sea by a change to high angle, planar normal faulting and diffuse dike injection, followed by the organization of an axial magma chamber.

  20. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted.

  1. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Sea Level Change along the North American East Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. L.; Han, D.; Oh, B.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the nature of sea-level change (SLC) is of paramount importance to, and a significant aspect of the future well being of, coastal towns and ecosystems. The east coast of North America is particularly susceptible to the impacts of SLC because its high economic productivity and population density compound the possible damage that could occur to the region. Moreover, predictions regarding the near-term and long-term future effects of SLC in this region are inconclusive because there is uncertainty regarding its long-term causes. As a result, the findings of a study of the various components of sea-level change on the U.S. East Coast will be presented. A model for SLC on the East Coast will be developed consisting of SLC due to thermosteric changes, glacial isostatic adjustment, and gravitationally self-consistent calculations for SLC due to present-day melting from Greenland and other areas from GRACE data. Tide gauges along the coast will be used to provide observational constraints on SLC. The models will include scenarios for the time-dependence of SLC. The comparison between data and models will be used to assess the current level of understanding of SLC in this region on a wide range of timescales.

  2. Assessment of hydrological extremes in the basins of Shilka and Argun rivers (Far East of Russia) in changing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Daria; Semenova, Olga; Vinogradova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Transbaikal region of Russia is formed by the basins of the Argun and Shilka Rivers (the upreaches of the Amur River). This region is simultaneously under the flood and drought hazard threat due to the combination of dry continental climate and monsoon impacts. Observed intensification of extreme hazard events in the region requires the scientific base of development of adaptation and mitigation measures. The aim of the study is the analysis of long-term variability of hydrological characteristics of the region by the means of mathematical statistics and projection of hydrological extremes in changing conditions of climate and landscapes based on hydrological modelling. Our research consisted of two stages. Firstly, we developed the database of observed daily hydrographs for about 50 runoff gauges of the region with average continuous period of observations 50 years (up to 2013) and areas from 12.3 to 200000 km2. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted and the trends of changes were assessed and analyzed. At the second stage we selected four river watersheds as the objects of modelling, namely, the gauging stations at the rivers Zun-Cooka, Gazipur, Borzya and Mogoytuy, ranging in size from 100 to 4000 km2. The basins are characterized by the variety of runoff conditions. Average elevation is about 650 m, hilly plateaus dominate the relief. The landscapes are taiga and forest-steppe with discontinuous permafrost. The climate is continental, annual precipitation varies within the range 200-450 mm, runoff - from 30 to 100 mm. The objectives of modelling stage were 1) the estimation of the hydrological model's parameters and its validation at historical data, 2) development of conceptual scenarios of changes of climate and landscapes, 3) running the model in projection mode to assess the implications of possible changes in hydrological regime. High variability of climate and hydrological regime do not allow for conventional modelling procedures to be

  3. Human Activities on the Deep Seafloor in the North East Atlantic: An Assessment of Spatial Extent

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Angela R.; Weaver, Philip P.; Billet, David S. M.; van den Hove, Sybille; Murdock, Andrew P.; Doneghan, Gemma B.; Le Bas, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental impacts of human activities on the deep seafloor are of increasing concern. While activities within waters shallower than 200 m have been the focus of previous assessments of anthropogenic impacts, no study has quantified the extent of individual activities or determined the relative severity of each type of impact in the deep sea. Methodology The OSPAR maritime area of the North East Atlantic was chosen for the study because it is considered to be one of the most heavily impacted by human activities. In addition, it was assumed data would be accessible and comprehensive. Using the available data we map and estimate the spatial extent of five major human activities in the North East Atlantic that impact the deep seafloor: submarine communication cables, marine scientific research, oil and gas industry, bottom trawling and the historical dumping of radioactive waste, munitions and chemical weapons. It was not possible to map military activities. The extent of each activity has been quantified for a single year, 2005. Principal Findings Human activities on the deep seafloor of the OSPAR area of the North Atlantic are significant but their footprints vary. Some activities have an immediate impact after which seafloor communities could re-establish, while others can continue to make an impact for many years and the impact could extend far beyond the physical disturbance. The spatial extent of waste disposal, telecommunication cables, the hydrocarbon industry and marine research activities is relatively small. The extent of bottom trawling is very significant and, even on the lowest possible estimates, is an order of magnitude greater than the total extent of all the other activities. Conclusions/Significance To meet future ecosystem-based management and governance objectives for the deep sea significant improvements are required in data collection and availability as well as a greater awareness of the relative impact of each human activity

  4. HIV infection among injecting drug users in north-east Malaysia, 1992.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Crofts, N

    1993-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has spread widely among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries to the north and west of the 'Golden Triangle' region of South-East Asia; it is likely to have spread southwards to Malaysia as well. In order to assess HIV seroprevalence among IDUs in north-east Malaysia and describe risk factors for HIV infection in this population, we performed a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study among 210 IDUs recruited at the detoxification ward of the General Hospital in the capital city of the north-eastern Malaysian state, Kelantan. Subjects were sequential entrants to the detoxification ward, interviewed about HIV risk behaviour, and tested for antibody to HIV and to syphilis. Nearly a third (62/210, 30%) of these IDUs were HIV seropositive. Three-quarters (159/210) had travelled to Thailand in the preceding 5 years, of whom 32% (51/159) were HIV seropositive; this was associated with injecting in Thailand, but not with sexual contact there. Of those who had not left Malaysia in the preceding 5 years, 26% (11/43) were HIV seropositive, a rate not significantly different from those who had travelled. Travel within Malaysia was common (144/210, 69%) among IDUs interviewed, as was unsafe injecting and unsafe sexual behaviour (20% had shared injecting equipment and 21% had had unprotected intercourse) in other states. In every locale, rates of unsafe injecting behaviour were high (55% sharing in last month), even among those who knew they were HIV infected, and rates of condom usage were low (93% of 160 sexually active IDUs had never used a condom). Syphilis was not associated with HIV infection, but with contact with Thai prostitutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8218462

  5. Assessment of atmospheric acidified pollutants trends observed by EANET in North-East Asia in the first decade of XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2015-04-01

    Owing to rapid development and subsequent enormous increase in energy consumption/fossil fuel use, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides in China and other Asian countries surpass those in North America and Europe since mid-1990s. Consequently, regional air pollution has become an issue for the most of developing countries in North-East Asia. Since 1998, the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) provides constant monitoring of the air quality and precipitation (including gaseous and particulate phase chemistry) in 13 countries of the region. The measurements are conducted at 45 rural and remote stations using both filter pack sampling techniques and automatic monitoring equipment. In this study we present a comprehensive trend analysis of the long-term (last 15 years) air pollution monitoring data from selected EANET monitoring sites. Using several statistical approaches, we estimate the quality of the data and perform distribution tests, single out special events (detect outliers) and calculate an ensemble of trends (monthly, seasonal, long-term and quartile) and their statistical significance for a suite of observed compounds. Based on this analysis, we further estimate the statistics and overall significance of the observed temporal dynamics for each pollutant. Ultimately we derive more than 20 trend estimates for a total of up to 12 gas-phase and particulate compounds for each station. Our calculations ascertain that about half of the trends (either negative or positive) observed at the EANET stations in Russia, Korea and Japan are significant. Whilst an increase in SO2, HCl, Cl-, NO3 (except for the stations in Russia) concentrations is distinct, small or insignificant trends are reckoned for HNO3-. A marked decrease in K+ content is seen at all regarded stations. We commonly find station-wise correlation for the trends of the remaining compounds, and for several species we conclude a general spatial

  6. Water and Climate Change in the Classroom in the North-East of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchian, A. M.; Luchian, D.; Luchian, N.

    2012-04-01

    We have studied with the students our climate variability in the last 55 years (1956-2010) to better understanding the feedback between the interlinked terrestrial and atmospheric processes on different spatial and temporal scales. We did case studies of regional hydrological behavior in climate sensitive and drought or flood regions in the North-East of Romania. In the classroom at the "Costache Negruzzi" National College Iasi we have studied with our students, aged 14-18 years old, the temporal and spatial distribution of the precipitation and the temperature in a 55 years period, between 1956-2010, in the North-East of Romania, especially at the meteorological station in Iaši. We did graphs with the observational data from the National Meteorological Agency of Romania about precipitation and air-temperature in our region climate and we have registered our own data with an automatic meteorological station placed in the "Costache Negruzzi" schoolyard. In the classroom we have represented the annual medium precipitation and the temperature variability in graphics registered between 1970-2010, in the area of Iasi-Moldavia, Romania. We have identified four dangerous levels of precipitation especially for flood and drought regions in the North-East of Romania. We have studied the maximal and minimal level of the daily, monthly and annual precipitation in correlation with the temperature variability graphs in the same area. We have realized with the students a very complex analysis on the frequency, repartition and variation in time of the precipitation and we have used the information in the Physics and Geography classes. The students aged 14-18 years old did computing statistics of the meteorological data and did different graphs for the precipitation intensity and frequency on special levels: medium, minimum and maximum. The students applied the data for annual precipitation level in each month, 1970-2010 period and discuss the results to identify the climate

  7. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils.

  8. Family patterns, women's status and fertility in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Allman, J

    1978-01-01

    Currently, countries in the Middle East and North Africa are in the process of changing from high to low mortality and fertility, and the present paper reviews and assesses the current state of the social science research on family patterns and women's status in these regions. In particular, it reviews literature on: 1) marriage patterns; 2) the extended family and relations internal to the family; 3) larger kinship structures; 4) the role and status of women in the larger society; and 5) divorce, widowhood, and remarriage. The author, however, believes that much of the research on family patterns lacks concern with the impact of basic structural changes in the economic and social organization of countries in the region. He concludes by offering a few suggestions about areas where research linking population dynamics with family patterns and the status of women could be usefully undertaken.

  9. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. PMID:23648267

  10. Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur, North East India.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M; Meitei, S Y; Luxmi, Y; Achoubi, N; Meitei, K S; Murry, B; Sachdeva, M P; Saraswathy, K N

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur in comparison with other North East Indian population has been studied. Crow's index as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index for natural selection were calculated based on differential fertility and mortality. The mortality component was found to be lower compared to fertility component in all the populations which may attribute to comparatively improved and easily accessible health care facilities. However, different selection pressures, artificial and natural, seem to be influencing the selection intensity through induced abortion and spontaneous abortion among the two non-tribal migrant groups: Bamon and Muslims, respectively. This study highlights the probable interaction of artificial and natural selection in determining the evolutionary fate of any population group.

  11. Prevalence of Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) in industrial poultry farms in North-East Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Sakly, Nadhem; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae), a mite of poultry, represents the most important ecotoparasite of egg-laying poultry in several countries. We estimated the prevalence of D. gallinae infestation in 38 industrial poultry farms (28 egg-laying and 10 reproductive hen farms) in the governorate of Nabeul (North-East Tunisia). Traps were placed in two locations of each farm during 24 h in August. The overall prevalence at the farms was estimated to be 34%. A total number of 329 D. gallinae were collected, giving an intensity of 0.0028 and an abundance of 0.0015. Infestation intensity and abundance were significantly higher in egg production farms than reproductive farms. There was no correlation between the intensity of infestation and temperature. An exponential correlation was observed between the birds' age and infestation intensity. We recommend a systematic survey of poultry farms during the whole breeding period. Prompt treatment is recommended to avoid the exponential increase of mite population.

  12. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  13. Origin of Mineral Springs on the East Coast, North Island, NZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, T.M.; Glover, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Strongly mineralized waters emerge as warm and cold springs from parts of a Cenozoic accretionary prism which extends along the East Coast of the North Island. The chemistry of these waters is consistent with them having been derived from connate sea water in deeply-buried marine sediments and is distinct from springs in other parts of the prism and elsewhere in New Zealand. Most of these mineral springs are associated with three, long-wavelength, magnetic anomalies which modeling suggests are caused by deeply-buried ophiolite bodies within the prism or by seamounts on the top of the subducted Pacific Plate underlying the prism. It is postulated that these deep-seated bodies have facilitated the dewatering of marine sediments from deep within the prism or from the subducted plate. This ''devolved sea water'' has then risen, been modified by contact with overlying sediments and mixed with near-surface meteoric waters, before emerging at the mineral springs.

  14. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  15. Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  16. Hydrographic Description and Habitat use of Eddies by Northern Elephant Seals in the North East Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D. P.; Simmons, S.; Robinson, P.; Tremblay, Y.; Hassrick, J.; Walli, A.

    2006-12-01

    Northern elephant seals range widely over the North East Pacific Ocean. As part of the Tagging of Pacific Pelagics program we have followed the migratory patterns and habitat utilization of these animals. Habitat utilization has been defined by a combination of satellite remote sensing and animal bourn sensors. Previous work has shown that elephant seals forage around frontal systems and regions of high thermal gradients. Here we examine the foraging behavior of 4 elephant seals that were found to forage within eddies that formed along the coast of Southeastern Alaska (Haida & Sitka) and the Alaska Peninsula. Animal movements were observed using ARGOS locations and were correlated with eddies that were defined by satellite derived sea surface height anomaly data. All animals carried time depth and temperature sensors, while one animal carried a CTD instrument. We used these in situ data to examine the thermal profile of these eddies and the variation in the animals diving behavior as it migrated through the eddy.

  17. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  18. Geological and Geochemical Criteria for the Estimation of the Area of The Lesser Hinggan for the Endogenous Gold Mineralization (The Far East, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Yuriy

    2015-04-01

    The Area of the Lesser Hinggan in the middle of the XIX century has been known as one of the Gold areas of the Far East. Exploration of gold in different years were engaged by P.K. Yavorovskiy (1904), E.E. Anert (1928), G.V. Itsikson (1961), V.A. Buryak (1999, 2002, 2003), A.M. Zhirnov (1998, 2000, 2008), L.V. Eyrish (1960, 1964, 1995, 1999, 2002, 2008) and many others. But despite the abundance of factual materials in the problem of the gold metallogeny of the Lesser Hinggan are more aspects that still have not received a answer. Among them is the key issue about indigenous sources of the gold. First for the Lesser Hinggan area, structural-geochemical zoning at 1:200 000 scale was carried out based on the results of the precise analyses of over 2,600 soil and sediment stream samples. Three anomalous geochemical zones and nine anomalous geochemical clusters in their contours specialized for gold mineralization were revealed. Regional clarkes (fersms) for 19 chemical elements were calculated. Geological formations geochemically specialized for gold and their role in endogenous ore-forming processes were defined. Geochemical criteria for endogenous gold mineralization and its ore-formational affiliation were defined as well. Thus, from the geological and geochemical data, are the following signs of the gold mineralization of the Lesser Hinggan: 1. Some geological formations are geochemical specialized by the gold (carbon ("black") schists and ferruginous quartzite Vendian-Cambrian Hinggan series). They're considered as a source of the gold, involved in younger epigenetic processes of mobilization and redistribution of this element; 2. Contrasting geochemical anomalies of the gold and elements satellites in the secondary halos and stream sediments displayed in the contours of the geological formations of a wide age range - terrigenous-carbonate rocks of the Hinggan series, the Paleozoic granitoid massives, the Cretaceous volcanic fields ; 3. Samples of the native gold

  19. Prevalence and Symptom Correlation of Lactose Intolerance in the North East Part of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, M; Shil, B C; Saha, S K; Chowdhury, M; Perveen, I; Banik, R; Rahman, M H

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to see the prevalence of lactose intolerance and symptom correlation following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers in the north east part of Bangladesh. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, diarrhea and others were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 50 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM) i.e., lactose intolerance. Sensitivity and specificity of different symptoms were then found out. A total of 171 volunteers (male 123, female 48) with a mean age 34.08 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 82.5% (n=141, M=100, F=41) subjects. Symptoms mostly experience by the lactose malabsorbers were diarrhea 93(66.0%), borborygmi 80(56.7%), abdominal pain 31(22.0%) and flatulence 32(22.7%). LM prevalence was found to increase with increasing number of symptoms up to 3 symptoms. A week positive correlation (r=0.205, P=0.007) was found between the number of symptoms and proportion of subjects having positive lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance among healthy adults of North East part of our country is as common as in other Asian countries including China and Malaysia. But LM is higher than that of Europeans and south Indians. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated with LM. PMID:26931253

  20. Partial eclogitization of the Ambolten gabbro-norite, north-east Greenland Caledonides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilotti, J.A.; Elvevold, S.

    1998-01-01

    Partially eclogitized igneous bodies composed of gabbro, leucogabbro, anorthosite and cross-cutting diabase dikes are well represented in the North-East Greenland Eclogite Province. A 200 x 100 meter intrusive body on Ambolten Island (78?? 20' N, 19?? 15' W) records a prograde transition from gabbro-norite to eclogite facies coronitic metagabro-norite surrounded by hydrated margins of undeformed to strongly foliated amphibolite. Igneous plagioclase + olivine + enstatite + augite + oxides convert to eclogite facies assemblages consisting of garnet, omphacite, diopside, enstatite, kyanite, zoisite, rutile and pargasitic amphibole through several coronitic reactions. Relict cumulus plagioclase laths are replaced by an outer corona of garnet, an inner corona of omphacite and an internal region of sodic plagioclase, garnet, kyanite, omphacite and zoisite. Olivine and intercumulus pyroxene are partly replaced by metamorphic pyroxenes and amphibole. The corona structures, zoning patterns, diversity of mineral compositions in a single thin section, and preservation of metastable asemblages are characteristic of diffusion-controlled metamorphism. The most extreme disequilibrium is found in static amphibolites, where igneous pyroxenes, plagioclase domains with eclogite facies, assemblages, and matrix amphibole coexist. Complete eclogitization was not attained at Ambolten due to a lack of fluids needed to drive diffusion during prograde and retrograde metamorphism. The P-T conditions of the high-pressure metamorphism are estimated at ??? 750??C and > 18 kbar. Well-equilibrated, foliated amphibolites from the margin of the gabbro-norite supports our contention that the entire North-East Greenland Eclogite Province experienced Caledonian high-pressure metamorphism, even though no eclogite facies assemblages have been found in the quartzofeldspathic host gneisses to date.

  1. Prevalence and Symptom Correlation of Lactose Intolerance in the North East Part of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, M; Shil, B C; Saha, S K; Chowdhury, M; Perveen, I; Banik, R; Rahman, M H

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to see the prevalence of lactose intolerance and symptom correlation following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers in the north east part of Bangladesh. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, diarrhea and others were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 50 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM) i.e., lactose intolerance. Sensitivity and specificity of different symptoms were then found out. A total of 171 volunteers (male 123, female 48) with a mean age 34.08 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 82.5% (n=141, M=100, F=41) subjects. Symptoms mostly experience by the lactose malabsorbers were diarrhea 93(66.0%), borborygmi 80(56.7%), abdominal pain 31(22.0%) and flatulence 32(22.7%). LM prevalence was found to increase with increasing number of symptoms up to 3 symptoms. A week positive correlation (r=0.205, P=0.007) was found between the number of symptoms and proportion of subjects having positive lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance among healthy adults of North East part of our country is as common as in other Asian countries including China and Malaysia. But LM is higher than that of Europeans and south Indians. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated with LM.

  2. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  3. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  4. Overview of cervical cancer screening practices in the extended Middle East and North Africa countries.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Khazraji, Youssef Chami; Cherif, Moktar Hamdi; Mahnane, Abbes; Hsairi, Mohamed; El Shalakamy, Amr; Osgul, Nejat; Tuncer, Murat; Jumaan, Aisha O; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2013-12-30

    National Organized Cervical Cancer Screening (NOCCS) programs are lacking in most of the "Extended Middle East and North Africa" (EMENA) countries. Consequently, most cervical cancers are diagnosed late and are associated with high mortality. In fact, in most of these countries, national mortality data are unknown due to the absence of population-based mortality registries. Most countries of the EMENA practice more or less limited opportunistic, cytology-based, screening tests, which often lack quality assurance and follow-up care. A few countries, within the initiation of a National Cancer Control Plan, have just started to implement organized screening programs using, for cervical cancer detection, visual inspection with acetic acid (Morocco) or cytology (Turkey). Moreover, most countries of the EMENA lack national guideline, as well as resources for the management of abnormal cytologic screening (or any other screening test). The main obstacle for the implementation of NOCCS is a lack of political understanding to support such public health programs and provide the necessary resources. Other obstacles that hinder the participation of women in cervical screening include a lack of knowledge of the disease, socio-religious and cultural barriers, and geographic and economic difficulties in accessing medical services. These countries are already convinced that prevention of cervical cancers in women who have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is possible through various screening and treatment algorithms, but most countries still need to invest in well organized programs that can reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in women. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and

  5. Ultrafresh salty kimberlite of the Udachnaya-East pipe (Yakutia, Russia): A petrological oddity or fortuitous discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Sharygin, Victor V.; Maas, Roland

    2012-11-01

    An ultrabasic/ultramafic composition of kimberlite magmas is difficult to reconcile with existing models of the kimberlite mantle source and melting conditions, inferred magma temperatures and rheological properties, and the style of magma ascent and emplacement. The inconsistencies in current thinking indicate serious flaws in understanding kimberlite magma compositions. Much of the uncertainty over true kimberlite compositions may stem from almost ubiquitous hydration and leaching of kimberlite rocks. This study presents petrographic and geochemical data for kimberlite samples largely unaffected by postmagmatic modification, from the Devonian Udachnaya-East pipe in Siberia. These samples are unusually enriched in chlorine and sodium, yet they are essentially anhydrous. These features are consistent with the phase composition of the groundmass which is dominated by minerals such as Na-Ca carbonates, Na-K chlorides and sulphates which appear to be - in our samples - co-magmatic with common silicates and oxides, but are unknown in other kimberlites, or rarely found within magmatic assemblages. We suggest that a kimberlite parent melt of essentially non-silicate composition, with high concentrations of alkalis, CO2 and Cl may be a viable alternative to the currently favoured water-rich, high-Mg model primary melt. Entrainment of mantle silicates into such a melt en route to the surface, followed by gravitational accumulation of mantle olivine and liquidus oxides (perovskite, Cr-spinel) at the bottom of vertically extensive magma bodies after emplacement, would explain the observed properties of kimberlite magma/rock, notably enrichment in olivine and trace elements in the hypabyssal kimberlite facies. A carbonate melt composition would retain attributes of the standard model such as trace element enrichment via low degrees of partial melting, it would explain low temperatures of crystallisation and the exceptional rheological properties that enable kimberlite primary

  6. Extensive ice stream activity on the North-East Greenland Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Jan Erik; Jokat, Wilfried; Dorschel, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Even though approximately 20% of the modern day Greenland ice sheet is drained via the North-East Greenland Continental Shelf (NEGCS), its submarine geomorphology is only poorly resolved. Acting as the main export region for Arctic sea-ice transported southward by the cold East Greenland Current, the NEGCS shows year-round harsh ice conditions that limit the accessibility for research vessels to conduct swath bathymetric surveys. While studies based on radiocarbon dating were arguing if the ice sheet reached on the shelf during full-glacial periods, two studies using high-resolution swath bathymetric data from single cruise tracks showed submarine glacial seafloor features, including mega-scale glacial lineations and retreat moraines that gave direct marine evidence of past ice stream activity at least to the middle shelf in Westwind Trough. We have newly processed swath bathymetry and sub-bottom profiler data of 18 cruises of RV Polarstern from 1985 until 2014. This data was investigated for submarine glacial seafloor features to better constrain the past ice sheet configuration, including its maximum extent and retreat history. Amongst others, we have now first marine evidence for ice stream activity in Norske Trough and in general a more intense ice streaming activity on the shelf. In addition, our data indicates that possibly a small separate ice sheet was present offshore the modern day Greenland coast.

  7. The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable

  8. Agreement on Water and a Watered-Down Agreement: The Political Ecology of Contested Coastal Development in Down East, North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Lisa M.; Meletis, Zoe A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, land use planning emerged as a contested issue in the rural area known as "Down East", Carteret County, in eastern North Carolina, USA. Down East is experiencing a transition from a commercial fishing to an amenity economy and concerns about related changes led to the formation of "Down East Tomorrow" (DET), a grassroots group that…

  9. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent…

  10. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the…

  11. In situ observation of chimaerid species in the Gorringe Bank: new distribution records for the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R P; Cunha, M R

    2014-09-01

    In the framework of the R.V. Nautilus exploration programme, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys were conducted at bathyal depths in the Gorringe Bank. Video transects revealed the presence of the chimaerids Chimaera opalescens and Hydrolagus affinis in the region. An identification key for the north-east Atlantic species of the family Chimaeridae is proposed.

  12. In situ observation of chimaerid species in the Gorringe Bank: new distribution records for the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R P; Cunha, M R

    2014-09-01

    In the framework of the R.V. Nautilus exploration programme, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys were conducted at bathyal depths in the Gorringe Bank. Video transects revealed the presence of the chimaerids Chimaera opalescens and Hydrolagus affinis in the region. An identification key for the north-east Atlantic species of the family Chimaeridae is proposed. PMID:24976453

  13. 76 FR 13182 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; 345 North 700 East, Richfield PCE Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; 345 North 700 East, Richfield PCE Site... the United States has at this Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the...), with regard to reimbursement of Past Response Costs. Opportunity for Comment: For thirty (30)...

  14. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.

  15. e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This case study deals with the implementation methodology, innovations and lessons of the ICT initiative in providing agricultural extension services to the rural tribal farming community of North-East India. Methodology: This study documents the ICT project implementation challenges, impact among farmers and briefly indicates lessons of…

  16. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  17. Late Nineteenth Century Popular Educational Conservatism: The Work of Coalminers on the School Boards of the North-East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Brendan

    1998-01-01

    Examines educational preferences of workers in England's North-East coal mining districts in the late 19th-century. Contrasts views of worker preferences represented in the memoirs of socialist labor organizers with the preferences recorded in votes of working-class members of local school boards. Finds a strong conservatism in many areas of…

  18. The Quality of Secondary Education in the Middle East and North Africa: What Can We Learn from TIMSS' Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhlila, Donia Smaali

    2011-01-01

    Research on educational quality has been scarce in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, whereas the debates over educational quality date from 1966 in the USA with the Coleman Report. Fortunately TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) starts to fill this gap by providing data on students' achievement and for many…

  19. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; Sonsthagen, Sarah A; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Donnelly, Tyrone; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds. PMID:25827532

  20. Detection of Babesia Sp. EU1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at Curonian Spit, North-Western Russia.

    PubMed

    Movila, Alexandru; Reye, Anna L; Dubinina, Helen V; Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Toderas, Ion; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Alekseev, Andrey N

    2011-01-01

    To reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae and Babesia sp. in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of Passeriformes and were collected at Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad enclave of North-Western Russia. The ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, Turdus philomelos, Fringilla coelebs, Parus major, and Sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by PCR using the primers Rp CS.877p/Rp CS.1258n for the detection of Rickettsia and BJ1/BN2 for Babesia spp. Babesia spp. were detected in 2 of 126 (1.6%) ticks. The partial sequence of 18S rDNA had 100% similarity to human pathogenic Babesia sp. EU1. The SFG rickettsiae were detected in 19 of 126 (15.1%) ticks collected from the above-mentioned bird species. BLAST analysis of SFG rickettsia gltA assigned sequences to human pathogenic Rickettsia helvetica (10.3%), Rickettsia monacensis (3.9%), and Rickettsia japonica (0.8%) with 98%-100% sequence similarity. The SFG rickettsiae and Babesia sp. EU1 in ticks collected from the passerines in Russia were detected for the first time. The survey indicates that migratory birds may become a reservoir for Babesia spp. and SFG rickettsiae. Future investigations need to characterize the role of birds in the epidemiology of these human pathogens in the region.

  1. Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene sequence analysis in six flatfish species (Teleostei, Pleuronectidae) of Far East Russia with inferences in phylogeny and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kartavtsev, Yuri Ph; Sharina, Svetlana N; Goto, Tadasuke; Chichvarkhin, Anton Y; Balanov, Andrey A; Vinnikov, Kirill A; Ivankov, Vyacheslav N; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA at the cytochrome oxidase 1 (Co-1) gene region was sequenced for six flatfish species (in total, 11 sequences of at least 539 base pairs) from the Far East of Russia and compared with other sequences of Pleuronectiformes, comprising altogether 26 flatfish sequences and two outgroup sequences (Perciformes). An analysis of the protein-coding Co-1 gene revealed a statistically substantiated bias in (T + C):(A + G) content, supporting earlier findings. Average scores of the p-distances for different scales of the evolutionary history at the Co-1 gene revealed a clear pattern of increased nucleotide diversity at four different levels: (1) intraspecies, (2) intragenus, (3) intrafamily, and (4) intra-order. Scores of average p-distances of the four categories of comparison in flatfishes were (1) 0.17 +/- 0.09%, (2) 10.60 +/- 1.57%, (3) 12.40 +/- 0.27%, and (4) 19.93 +/- 0.05%, respectively (mean +/- standard error). These data jointly with current knowledge support the concept that speciation in the order Pleuronectiformes mostly follows a geographic mode through accumulation of numerous small genetic changes over a long period of time. A phylogenetic tree for 26 sequences of flatfishes and two other fishes belonging to ray-finned fishes (Actinopterigii) was developed using the Co-1 gene and four different analytical approaches: neighbour-joining, Bayesian (BA), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood. The analysis revealed a monophyletic origin for the representatives of Pleuronectidae, which is the principal flatfish family investigated (73-100% support level in our MP and BA analyses). According to the current and literary data, the monophyletic origin for the six compared flatfish families was well supported. Species identification on a per-individual basis (barcoding tagging) was high.

  2. Creation of North-East Indian face database for human face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhowmik, Mrinal K.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2013-02-01

    Due to the various factors like illumination, expression, and pose variation etc., human face seem different in multiple occasions. To determine the efficiency of the different face recognition algorithms, it requires benchmark face images. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the available 2D face databases and also introduces the creation of a visual face database, North-East Indian (NEI) Face Database, which is under development in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University, India. It contains high quality face images of 292 individuals of different tribe and non-tribe people of Mongolian origin collected from the North-Eastern states of India. The database contains four different types of illumination variations, eight different expressions, faces wearing glasses and each of these variations are being clicked concurrently from five different angles to provide pose variation using five CMOS sensor cameras, in a controlled indoor environment. Three different resolutions are being used for capturing the database images. Some baseline face recognition algorithms have also been tested using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier on the NEI face database, which may be used as the control algorithm performance score by other researchers.

  3. Prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Intraseasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): pre-Meiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. Here, we use stepwise regression to determine the predictors for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the sea surface temperature (SST)/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the pre-Meiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the western North Pacific (WNP), which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode is related to the WNP subtropical high, induced by the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the Pacific-Japan pattern, and monsoon gyre mode is primarily associated with a persistent SST cooling over the tropical Indian Ocean by the preceding ENSO signal. This study carries important implications for prediction by establishing valuable precursors of the four modes including nonlinear characteristics.

  4. Prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2015-12-01

    Intraseasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): pre-Meiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. Here, we use stepwise regression to determine the predictors for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the sea surface temperature (SST)/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the pre-Meiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the western North Pacific (WNP), which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode is related to the WNP subtropical high, induced by the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the Pacific-Japan pattern, and monsoon gyre mode is primarily associated with a persistent SST cooling over the tropical Indian Ocean by the preceding ENSO signal. This study carries important implications for prediction by establishing valuable precursors of the four modes including nonlinear characteristics.

  5. A new skink (Scincidae: Saproscincus) from rocky rainforest habitat on Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2013-01-01

    Saproscincus skinks are restricted to wet forest habitats of eastern Australia. Eleven species have previously been described, with most having small distributions in disjunct areas of subtropical and tropical rainforest. The localized distributions and specific habitat requirements of Saproscincus have made them a key group for understanding the biogeographic history of Australia's rainforests. Here I describe a new species of Saproscincus from the Melville Range on Cape Melville, north-east Australia. The Melville Range is composed of boulder-fields and areas of rainforest in the uplands, and is highly isolated from other areas of elevated rainforest. All individuals of the new species were found on a moist ridgeline, active on boulders under a rainforest canopy or on boulder-field immediately adjacent to rainforest. Saproscincus saltus sp. nov. is highly distinct in morphology and colour pattern. Of particular interest are its long limbs and digits compared to congeners, which in conjunction with the observed ecology, suggest a long history of association with rock. The discovery of S. saltus sp. nov. extends the distribution of the genus over 100 km north from the nearest congeners in the Wet Tropics region. This species brings the number of vertebrates known to be endemic to the Melville Range to six, which is remarkable for such a small area.

  6. Analysis of Y chromosome STR haplotypes in the European part of Russia reveals high diversities but non-significant genetic distances between populations.

    PubMed

    Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Krüger, Carmen; Nagy, Marion; Rychkov, Sergey; Morozowa, Irina; Naumova, Oksana; Schneider, Yuriy; Zhukova, Olga; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

    2008-05-01

    A total of 17 Y-specific STR loci were studied in 12 districts of the European part of Russia aiming to ascertain the amount of substructure required for the construction of a representative regional database. All groups exhibited high haplotype diversities but low inter-population variance as measured by an analysis of molecular variance. However, when Western Russia is taken as a whole, the genetic distances to the neighbouring populations were significant. Whereas gradual change in the Y chromosome pool exists between Russia and the Slavic-speaking populations to the West, remarkable discontinuities were observed with neighbouring populations in the East, North and South.

  7. Distribution of Ixodes ricinus L., 1758 and Ixodes persulcatus Shulze, 1930 (Parasitoformes, Ixodidae) in Russia and adjacent countries in view of observable climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasyukevich, V. V.; Kazakova, E. V.; Popov, I. O.; Semenov, S. M.

    2009-08-01

    Possible changes in the area inhabited by the ticks Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus, the main transmitters of tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease in Russia, caused by temperature changes in 1976-2005 compared to 1946-1975 are discussed. It is shown that these changes could result in some areal expansion of these species. In the European part of Russia, I. ricinus expanded its areal boundaries to the east 100-300 km. I. persulcatus expanded its areal in the Asian part of Russia. Its boundary moved to the north and northeast 100-300 km. Areal expansion both of species has not been observed.

  8. Discovery of sublacustrine hydrothermal activity and associated massive sulfides and hydrocarbons in the north Tanganyika trough, East African Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Mondeguer, A. ); Thouin, C. ); Kalala, T. )

    1989-11-01

    Massive sulfides and carbonate mineral deposits associated with sublacustrine thermal springs were recently discovered along the Zaire side of the north Tanganyika trough, western branch of the East African Rift. This hydrothermal activity, investigated by scuba diving at a maximum depth of 20 m, is located at the intersection of major north-south normal faults and northwest-southeast faults belonging to the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) strike-slip fault zone. The preliminary results presented here come from analyses of sulfide deposits, hydrothermal fluids, and associated hydrocarbons that result from geothermal activity in this part of the East African Rift filled by a thick pile of sediment, the north Tanganyika trough.

  9. Trace-element record in zircons during exhumation from UHP conditions, North-East Greenland Caledonides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Mazdab, F.K.; Wooden, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Coesite-bearing zircon formed at ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions share general characteristics of eclogite-facies zircon with trace-element signatures characterized by depleted heavy rare earth elements (HREE), lack of an Eu anomaly, and low Th/ U ratios. Trace-element signatures of zircons from the Caledonian UHP terrane in North-East Greenland were used to examine the possible changes in signature with age during exhumation. Collection and interpretation of age and trace-element analyses of zircon from three samples of quartzofeldspathic gneiss and two leucocratic intrusions were guided by core vs. rim zoning patterns as imaged by cathodoluminesence. Change from igneous to eclogite-facies metamorphic trace-element signature in protolith zircon is characterized by gradual depletion of HREE, whereas newly formed metamorphic rims have flat HREE patterns and REE concentrations that are distinct from the recrystallized inherited cores. The signature associated with eclogite-facies metamorphic zircon is observed in coesite-bearing zircon formed at 358 ?? 4 Ma, metamorphic rims formed at 348 ?? 5 Ma during the initial stages of exhumation, and metamorphic rims formed at 337 ?? 5 Ma. Zircons from a garnet-bearing granite emplaced in the neck of an eclogite boudin and a leucocratic dike that cross-cuts amphibolite-facies structural fabrics have steeply sloping HREE patterns, variably developed negative Eu anomalies, and low Th/U ratios. The granite records initial decompression melting and exhumation at 347 ?? 2 Ma and later zircon rim growth at 329 ?? 5. The leucocratic dike was likely emplaced at amphibolite-facies conditions at 330 ?? 2 Ma, but records additional growth of compositionally similar zircon at 321 ??2 Ma. The difference between the trace-element signature of metamorphic zircon in the gneisses and in part coeval leucocratic intrusions indicates that the zircon signature varies as a function of lithology and context, thus enhancing its ability to aid in

  10. Zonation of benthic communities in a tropical tidal flat of north-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S.

    2000-02-01

    Tropical tidal flats are relatively less well-known marine ecosystems. Therefore, the distribution and abundance of infaunal organisms were surveyed in a tidal flat in the Haughton estuary, north-east Australia, testing several hypotheses on characteristics of intertidal faunal distributions. Using a stratified random sampling design, macrofauna, small macrofauna (mesofauna) and meiofauna were sampled at five sites along a transect from the high to the low intertidal in April and September 1991. In total, 77 macrobenthic species were recorded during this study, with polychaetes and crustaceans richest in species. While this species record was low compared to other tropical tidal flats, the low individual densities confirmed previous findings of lower abundances in tropical than temperate tidal flats. Along the transect, species densities were highest in the mid-intertidal muddy sand and sandflats, with values ranging from 2.9 to 7.6 species 177 cm -2 for macrofauna and from 2.2 to 3.8 species 10 cm -2 for mesofauna. At the Callianassa site in the mid-intertidal 35 species were recorded, while the lower sandflat site had the highest diversity ( H'=2.60). Macro- and mesofauna abundances were highest at the sandflat site (median values for macrofauna: 65 and 69 ind. 177 cm -2 in September and April, respectively, and 37 and 48 ind. 10 cm -2 for mesofauna). There was little variation between the two sampling dates, although single taxa occurred with significantly higher abundances in one of the two months. Polychaeta and Amphipoda were abundant at the sandflat and Callianassa site, juvenile bivalves were most frequent in the sandflat after a spatfall in September. There was no pronounced increase of suspension feeders in the lower intertidal, and deposit feeders dominated the fauna. Meiofauna was abundant throughout the intertidal with median values up to 310 ind. 5 cm -2. Their densities were highest in the lower intertidal and lowest at the transect site with

  11. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia.

  12. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  13. 110 years of local glacier and ice cap changes in Central- and North East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjork, A. A.; Aagaard, S.; Kjaer, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Box, J.

    2014-12-01

    The local glaciers and ice caps of Greenland are becoming more apparent players in global sea-level rise, and their contribution to future changes is significant. Very little information on their historical fluctuations exists as much of the focus has been on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Now, we can for the first time present historic data that spans 110 years for more than 200 of the local glaciers and ice caps covering this large and important region of the Arctic. The central- and north eastern part of Greenland is of particular interest as these areas are predicted to exhibit a more active behavior with higher mass loss in the future - simultaneously with an increase in precipitation. Our results show that the glaciers and ice caps in the region are responding very rapidly to changes in temperature and precipitation. The present retreat is the fastest observed within the last eight decades, only surpassed by the rapid post LIA retreat. The 1930s was the golden era for scientific exploration in Central- and North East Greenland as several large expeditions visited the area and photographed from land, sea and air. We use historic recordings from Danish and Norwegian aerial missions and terrestrial recordings from the renowned American Explorer Louise Boyd. These unique pictures from the early 1930s form the backbone of the study and are supplemented the more recent aerial photographs the 1940s and onwards and satellite imagery from the mid-1960s and up until present. From high resolution aerial photographs we are able to map the maximum extent of the glaciers during the LIA (Little Ice Age), from which retreat in this area is estimated to commence in 1900. Using a new SMB (Surface Mass Balance) model and its components covering the entire observational period along with high resolution DEMs and historic sea-ice records we are now able to extract valuable information on the past and present triggers of glacial change.

  14. Multidecadal spatial reorganisation of plankton communities in the North East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Victoria; Olhede, Sofia C.; Edwards, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Changes in the spatial distribution of plankton populations are thought to have a profound effect on the oceanic ecosystem across all levels. This study aims to address how the spatial distribution of different plankton assemblages has changed over a multidecadal period. The multivariate structure on the CPR dataset is analysed using a technique called sparse principal component analysis. We identify functional groups of species and show that there have been changes in the ecoregions in the North East Atlantic over a multidecadal period. This technique is data-driven and can be used to identify biologically defined ecoregions based on dominant assemblages from the dataset without relying on prior knowledge. Whilst there is a change in ecoregions across time for both zooplankton and diatoms, the nature of the changes differs for the two assemblages. For zooplankton species there has been a shift in the ecoregions towards higher latitudes, implying that cold water zooplankton have moved further into arctic waters. For species that were previously restricted to the south of the region, these have been identified with increasing frequency further north. The change in spatial distribution for different species assemblages can be attributed to different factors. For example, the primary driver of zooplankton abundance across all spatial locations appears to be temperature. It is speculated that the observed northward movement of zooplankton species is a response to rising sea surface temperatures. The abundance of diatom species is instead highly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), with the spatial patterns becoming more clearly defined in its positive phase. For the diatom species, changes may be cyclic and so mean reverting to a certain extent, but for the zooplankton, continued changes can be expected if the current warming trend continues.

  15. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

  16. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae), in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero-Alonso, Diana; Montero, Francisco E; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway) in 2002 (spring and autumn) and 2003 (spring). The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads) were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus). The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species) and nematodes (13 species) including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which

  17. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils. PMID:12927152

  18. The relief formed by the descent phenomenon in the north-east part of Kosova.

    PubMed

    Bulliqi, Shpejtim; Isufi, Florim; Ramadani, Ibrahim; Gashi, Gani

    2012-04-01

    In the diverse relief of north-east part of Kosova a relatively wide range occupies the relief modelled by the descent phenomenon, which is conditioned by morph-structural and climatic factors quite suitable for their development. The morphogenesis activity of descent phenomenon is conditioned by the types of rocks, tectonic process of this region and climatic conditions. These factors condition horizontal and vertical relief fragmentation, slope, especially in Gollaku mountains and in SE part of Kopaonik mountain. Along the tectonic descents, the steepness is detaching and the detaching lines consisting of magmatic rocks show overthrows, demolitions and stony torrents, but the Teri gene composition formations are modelled by sliding and muddy torrents, depending upon the presence of clayey and alevrolite belts on these Teri gene ones. The impact of factors and conditions on the relief of this part, the phenomena like demolitions, overthrows, sliding, muddy torrents, stony torrents, etc, operate here, which play an important morphological role in the modelling of relief. PMID:23424844

  19. Spatial Correlations of Malaria Incidence Hotspots with Environmental Factors in Assam, North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handique, Bijoy K.; Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Nath, Manash J.; Qadir, Abdul; Raju, P. L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is endemic and a major public health problem in north east (NE) region of India and contributes about 8-12 % of India's malaria positives cases. Historical morbidity pattern of malaria in terms of API (Annual Parasite Incidence) in the state of Assam has been used for delineating the malaria incidence hotspots at health sub centre (HSC) level. Strong spatial autocorrelation (p < 0.01) among the HSCs have been observed in terms of API (Annual Parasite Incidence). Malaria incidence hot spots in the state could be identified based on General G statistics and tested for statistical significance. Spatial correlation of malaria incidence hotspots with physiographic and climatic parameters across 6 agro-climatic zones of the state reveals the types of land cover pattern and the range of elevation contributing to the malaria outbreaks. Analysis shows that villages under malaria hotspots are having more agricultural land, evergreen/semi-evergreen forests with abundant waterbodies. Statistical and spatial analyses of malaria incidence showed a significant positive correlation with malaria incidence hotspots and the elevation (p < 0.05) with villages under malaria hotspots are having average elevation ranging between 17 to 240 MSL. This conforms to the characteristics of two dominant mosquito species in the state Anopheles minimus and An. baimai that prefers the habitat of slow flowing streams in the foot hills and in forest ecosystems respectively.

  20. Role of Libraries in Disaster Management: Experience from North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpathy, K. C.

    2007-10-01

    India is a large country and prone to a number of natural hazards. Among all the natural hazards that that country faces, river floods are the most frequent and devastating. A shortfall in rainfall causes droughts or drought-like situations in various parts of the country. The country has suffered some severe earthquakes causing widespread damage to life and property. India has a coastline of about 8000 km which is prone to very severe cyclonic formations in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Another major problem faced by the country takes the form of landslides and avalanches. All the major disasters directly or indirectly affect libraries. With an increasing interest in spreading a culture of prevention in the field of disaster management, considerable emphasis is now being placed on research and development activities in the area of information technology for disaster preparedness and prevention. This has brought a significant positive change even through the number and frequency of disasters in this country has increased. The library can play a significant role in spreading awareness of disaster management. Keeping the above facts in mind the author describes a disaster and the role of Information technology in reducing its impact. The paper also describes the role of libraries in the management of the disaster. The author shares his personal experience of how North East India deals with disaster management. Finally, the future vision of disaster management is outlined.

  1. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  2. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  3. The evolution of north-east Atlantic gadfly petrels using statistical phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Gangloff, B; Zino, F; Shirihai, H; González-Solís, J; Couloux, A; Pasquet, E; Bretagnolle, V

    2013-01-01

    Macaronesia (north-east Atlantic archipelagos) has been host to complex patterns of colonization and differentiation in many groups of organisms including seabirds such as gadfly petrels (genus Pterodroma). Considering the subspecies of widely distributed soft-plumaged petrel for many years, the taxonomic status of the three gadfly petrel taxa breeding in Macaronesia is not yet settled, some authors advocating the presence of three, two or one species. These birds have already been the subject of genetic studies with only one mtDNA gene and relatively modest sample sizes. In this study, using a total of five genes (two mitochondrial genes and three nuclear introns), we investigated the population and phylogeographical histories of petrel populations breeding on Madeira and Cape Verde archipelagos. Despite confirming complete lineage sorting with mtDNA, analyses with nucDNA failed to reveal any population structuring and Isolation with Migration analysis revealed the absence of gene flow during the differentiation process of these populations. It appears that the three populations diverged in the late Pleistocene in the last 150 000 years, that is 10 times more recently than previous estimates based solely on one mtDNA gene. Finally, our results suggest that the Madeira petrel population is ancestral rather than that from Cape Verde. This study strongly advocates the use of nuclear loci in addition to mtDNA in demographical and phylogeographical history studies. PMID:23171163

  4. Results of injection and tracer tests in Olkaria north east field in Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Karingithi, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Tracer and injection tests were performed in the Olkaria North East Field with the objective to reduce uncertainty in the engineering design and to determine the suitability of well OW-704 as a re-injection well for the waste brine from the steam field during production. An organic dye (sodium fluorescein) was injected into well OW-704 as a slug. The tracer returns were observed in well OW-M2 which is 580 m deep, 620 m from well OW-704 and well OW-716 which is 900 m from well OW-704. The other wells on discharge, OW-714, and OW-725 did not show any tracer returns. However, other chemical constituents suggested., that well OW-716 experienced a chemical breakthrough earlier than OW-M2. Tracer return velocities of 0.31 m/hr and 1.3 m/hr were observed. Results of the tracer and injection tests indicate that OW-704 may be used as a re-injection well provided a close monitoring program is put in place.

  5. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock--Experience in North East Zone of Somalia.

    PubMed

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013-2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia.

  6. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  7. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals. PMID:17512379

  8. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock--Experience in North East Zone of Somalia.

    PubMed

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013-2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia. PMID:26365693

  9. Folic acid and glutathione in the water column of the North East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christine, Anne; Gall, Le; Van Den Berg, Constant M. G.

    1998-11-01

    Reactive folic acid and glutathione were determined in the water column of the north east Atlantic between 30 and 54°N, 20°W. Cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) was used to determine these compounds on board ship at low nanomolar levels after minimal sample pretreatment. Folic acid was found to occur throughout the water column, whereas glutathione was found only in the upper water column as it was undetectable in deep waters. The concentration of glutathione ranged from <1 to 15 nmol/l, the folic acid concentrations generally between 0.10 and 4.0 nmol/l. Folic acid was found to follow the same trend as the Chl- a fluorescence in the upper water column but not in deeper waters. The data show that both folic acid and glutathione are very reactive in the oceanic water column, presumably as a result of in situ production and uptake by microorganisms. The high bioactivity was confirmed by rapid decreases in the concentrations of folic acid and glutathione in unfiltered seawater during storage over periods of hours.

  10. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  11. Prevalence of Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) in industrial poultry farms in North-East Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Sakly, Nadhem; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae), a mite of poultry, represents the most important ecotoparasite of egg-laying poultry in several countries. We estimated the prevalence of D. gallinae infestation in 38 industrial poultry farms (28 egg-laying and 10 reproductive hen farms) in the governorate of Nabeul (North-East Tunisia). Traps were placed in two locations of each farm during 24 h in August. The overall prevalence at the farms was estimated to be 34%. A total number of 329 D. gallinae were collected, giving an intensity of 0.0028 and an abundance of 0.0015. Infestation intensity and abundance were significantly higher in egg production farms than reproductive farms. There was no correlation between the intensity of infestation and temperature. An exponential correlation was observed between the birds’ age and infestation intensity. We recommend a systematic survey of poultry farms during the whole breeding period. Prompt treatment is recommended to avoid the exponential increase of mite population. PMID:24160169

  12. Diabetes in the Middle-East and North Africa: an update.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Azeem; El-Sayed, Adel A; Khoja, Tawfik; Alshamsan, Riyadh; Millett, Christopher; Rawaf, Salman

    2014-02-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically in many countries of the International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. This increase has been driven by a range of factors that include rapid economic development and urbanisation; changes in lifestyle that have led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased intake of refined carbohydrates, and a rise in obesity. These changes have resulted in the countries of MENA Region now having among the highest rates of diabetes prevalence in the world. The current prevalence of diabetes in adults in the Region is estimated to be around 9.2%. Of the 34 million people affected by diabetes, nearly 17 million were undiagnosed and therefore at considerable risk of diabetes complications and poor health outcomes. Enhanced research on the epidemiology of diabetes in the MENA Region needs to be combined with more effective primary prevention of diabetes; and early detection and improved management of patients with established diabetes, including an increased focus on self-management and management in primary care and community settings. PMID:24300017

  13. Geological mapping of the Schuppen belt of north-east India using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanaya; Basu, Surajit; Hazra, Sugata

    2014-01-01

    A revised geologic map of the Schuppen belt of northeast India has been prepared based on interpretation of digitally enhanced satellite images. The satellite image interpretation is supported by limited field work and existing geologic maps. Available geological maps of this fold thrust belt are discontinuous and multi-scaled. The authors are of multiple opinions regarding the trajectory of formation boundaries and fault contacts. Digital image processing of satellite images and limited field surveys have been used to reinterpret and modify the existing geological maps of this fold thrust belt. Optical data of Landsat Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper and elevation data of ASTER have been used to prepare this revised geological map. The study area extends from Hajadisa in south to Digboi oilfield in north, bounded by Naga thrust in the west and Disang thrust in the east. PCA, Image fusion, Linear Contrast stretch, Histogram Equalization and Painted relief algorithms have been used for the delineation of major geological lineaments like lithological boundary, thrust and strike slip faults. Digital elevation maps have enabled in the discrimination between thrust contacts and lithological boundaries, with the former being located mostly in the valleys. Textural enhancements of PCA, colour composites and Painted relief algorithm have been used to discriminate between different rock types. Few geological concepts about the terrain have been revisited and modified. It is assumed that this revised map should be of practical use as this terrain promises unexploited hydrocarbon reserves.

  14. An outbreak of an unusual strain of Listeria monocytogenes infection in North-East Scotland.

    PubMed

    Okpo, Emmanuel; Leith, Jayne; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Bell, John; Parks, Duncan; Browning, Fiona; Byers, Lynn; Corrigan, Helen; Webster, Diana; Karcher, Anne M; Murray, Andrew; Storey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection is an important cause of illness and hospitalization in vulnerable individuals. In the present study, we describe a community outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes in the North-East region of Scotland, which was epidemiologically, environmentally and microbiologically linked to a local meat product and ready-to-eat product manufacturer. Infected individuals were interviewed, and an environmental investigation was conducted. Clinical and environmental samples were tested by culture, and isolates were typed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP). Three cases of Listeria monocytogenes were linked geographically, had the same serotype (1/2a) and were indistinguishable by fAFLP type XII.6. The human, food and environmental isolates were of the same serotype and were indistinguishable by molecular typing. This is the first community outbreak of L. monocytogenes reported in Scotland since the current outbreak surveillance was established in 1996. Epidemiological and laboratory evidence indicated poor hand hygiene, unhygienic practices and cross-contamination throughout the manufacturing process of ready-to-eat foods as a possible cause of the outbreak. More stringent control of commercial food establishments that provide ready-to-eat food and the need to advise specifically vulnerable groups, e.g., pregnant women, of the risk of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food is urgently needed.

  15. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  16. Heavy metals in raw cow and ewe milk from north-east Iran.

    PubMed

    Najarnezhad, Vahid; Akbarabadi, Masoome

    2013-01-01

    The presence of toxic metals in milk may create significant health problems for the population. In this study, 1440 raw cow and ewe milk samples from 18 townships in north-east Iran were analysed in four different seasons. Lead, cadmium and mercury levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean concentration of lead, cadmium and mercury in cow milk samples was 12.9 ± 6.0, 0.3 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.3 ng g⁻¹, respectively, and in ewe milk samples, these mean values were 14.9 ± 7.8, 1.6 ± 1.2 and 3.1 ± 0.3 ng g⁻¹, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that lead and cadmium concentrations in ewe milk were significantly higher than in cow milk. Concentrations of these metals in ewe milk varied significantly with different seasons. As the concentrations did not exceed the safety limits, they could not pose a serious danger to public health.

  17. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  18. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped. PMID:27105417

  19. Mitogenome sequence variation in migratory and stationary ecotypes of North-east Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Bård O; Emblem, Åse; Jørgensen, Tor E; Klingan, Kevin A; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls; Johansen, Steinar D

    2014-06-01

    Sequencing of mitochondrial gene fragments from specimens representing a wide range of geographical locations has indicated limited population structuring in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). We recently performed whole genome analysis based on next-generation sequencing of two pooled ecotype samples representing offshore migratory and inshore stationary cod from the North-east Atlantic Ocean. Here we report molecular features and variability of the 16.7kb mitogenome component that was collected from the datasets. These sequences represented more than 25 times coverage of each individual and more than 1100 times coverage of each ecotype sample. We estimated the mitogenome to have evolved 14 times more rapidly than the nuclear genome. Among the 365 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites identified, 121 were shared between ecotypes, and 151 and 93 were private within the migratory and stationary cod, respectively. We found 323 SNPs to be located in protein coding genes, of which 29 were non-synonymous. One synonymous site in ND2 was likely to be under positive selection. FST measurements indicated weak differentiation in ND1 and ND2 between ecotypes. We conclude that the Atlantic cod mitogenome and the nuclear genome apparently evolved by distinct evolutionary constraints, and that the reproductive isolation observed from whole genome analysis was not visible in the mtDNA sequences.

  20. Paracetamol poisoning in the north east of England: presentation, early management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Horner, J E; Chew, K; Connolly, J; Dorani, B; Bevan, L; Bhattacharyya, S; Bramble, M G; Han, K H; Rodgers, A; Sen, B; Tesfayohannes, B; Wynne, H; Bateman, D N

    1997-09-01

    1. Paracetamol is increasingly involved in self-poisoning in the United Kingdom and remains a common cause of fatal poisoning. 2. To document the epidemiology and early management of paracetamol poisoning data were collected on consecutive patients with suspected paracetamol poisoning presenting to 6 hospitals in the North East of England over 12 weeks in 1994. 3. There were 400 presentations (attendance rate 1.14/10(3) population/yr) involving 343 persons (45% male). Paracetamol concentrations at 4 h correlated weakly with reported paracetamol dose (R = 0.49, P < 0.0001) and were similar comparing those treated and not treated by gastric decontamination. 4. In 38 (9%) cases paracetamol concentrations were above the appropriate nomogram treatment line, including 3% and 20% of patients who reported ingesting less than and more than 12 g respectively. In 21 patients acetylcysteine treatment was deferred until admission to the ward, the mean delay involved was 2.8 h. 5. One patient died, from arrhythmias caused by co-ingested dothiepin. 6. Paracetamol poisoning is common. Most cases do not have potentially toxic plasma paracetamol concentrations, but those who do often present late and antidotal treatment may be delayed inappropriately. PMID:9306135

  1. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants in goats in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Das, Sutopa; Raju, D S N; Chakravarty, Indirani; Nagalingam, M; Hemadri, D; Govindaraj, G; Ibotombi Singh, N; Ltu, Keduzol; Devi, Maitryee; Sharma, K; Gajendragad, M R; Rahman, H

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection in goats in various parts of North-East (NE) India by screening of suspected serum samples collected during outbreak investigation and random samples during 2013-2014 survey. A total of 391 serum samples (318 random and 73 outbreak/suspected) were collected from 28 districts in 7 states (Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Mizoram) of NE India. Serum samples were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal-antibody based competitive ELISA. Analysis of 391 serum samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 17.90 % [CI 95 % 14.40-22.00] in goats {45.2 % in suspected [CI 95 % 34.32-56.58] and 11.63 % in random [CI 95 % 8.56-15.63] samples} in NE India. As expected prevalence was high in outbreaks vis-à-vis random samples. The random survey results (11.63 %) has specific implication in epidemiological perspectives, since it highlights the exact PPR prevalence under natural situations, where the subclinical, in apparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in goats, as samples were collected from unvaccinated animals. It also warrants appropriate control measures against PPR in NE region to prevent spread of infection besides widespread presence of the disease in rest of India. PMID:25674627

  2. Improving water use in agriculture. Experiences in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Tuijl, W.V.

    1993-08-01

    As water becomes more scarce, many countries are under pressure to conserve water, especially in the agricultural sector. This paper examines strategies that save water in river basins, irrigation projects, and on farms throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Countries elsewhere can use these suggestions in their own water conservation strategies. Improved surface irrigation techniques and micro-irrigation systems are evaluated. These systems use sprinkler, drip/trickle, or micro-spray methods. The author reviews the preliminary work that is needed to install modern irrigation technologies. He describes the role that governments must play to improve the infrastructure and institutions that affect water use. He also provides detailed case studies of efficient irrigation practices in Cyprus, Israel, and Jordan. These case studies describe the conditions that made better irrigation technology a necessity. They look at ways to plan for development, management, and utilization of water in the face of growing demand. Key topics include how to oversee water rights, adopt essential land reforms, and install a graduated system of water pricing and allocation. The study also recommends projects in water conservation and research.

  3. Snow depth and snow duration variability in Trentino (North-East Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolini, Giorgia; Bellin, Alberto; Disse, Markus; Chiogna, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Snowpack dynamics is an important indicator in assessing climate change in mountainous regions. In fact, it is strongly influenced by temperature and precipitation behavior and is the strongest single element controlling the hydrological cycle of Alpine catchments. Furthermore, related quantities, such as snow cover duration and extension, affect many aspects of life in mountainous regions, from economical activities, such as winter tourism and hydropower production, to water availability and ecosystem dynamics. Available data on snowpack are often heterogeneous and long time series, useful for climate analysis, are often obtained by merging data of different origins. This, among other factors, calls for robust homogenization techniques. We apply the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT) to detect breakpoints in 109 timeseries of snowpack collected in Trentino (North-East Italy). After having performed the detection of anthropogenic breakpoints, we investigated the occurrence of anomalies and changes in the mean seasonal snow-depth, in the number of days with snowfall, in the snow cover duration and the correlation of these variables with the altitude of the sites. We mainly focus on the period 1950-2013, since it is the richest in terms of data availability. The analyses clearly indicate that the period 1990-2000 was critical in terms of seasonal mean snow depth and snow-cover duration, in particular for stations below 1600 m a.s.l.

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  5. North-East Atlantic Current Systems from 10 Years of Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, C.; Fernandes, M. J.; Alves, M.

    2006-07-01

    At the Faculty of Science, University of Porto (FCUP), Portugal, data from several altimeter missions have been regularly reprocessed using state-of-art geophysical corrections and have been used for oceanographic applications, the main focus being the Cape Verde Archipelago and the Iberia Peninsula regions. In this study, some of the latest results for the North- East (NE) Atlantic region comprising the upwelling systems that occur along the African and Iberian coasts, obtained from a continuous 10-year SLA data set of merged data from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), Jason-1 (J1), ERS-2 and Envisat (EN) missions, are shown. This data set was generated with the aim of analysing the spatial and temporal evolution of the ocean currents associated with the upwelling systems along the coasts, known as rich and diverse ecosystems. This regional study covers the NE Atlantic between latitudes 10°N and 50°N and longitudes 30°W and 5°W.

  6. Sustainable wastewater management for small communities in the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Bakir, H A

    2001-04-01

    Accelerated expansion of wastewater services to small communities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is essential in order to address serious concerns over water scarcity and pollution in addition to meeting the demand for convenience and protecting public health. Centralized and conventional wastewater systems are currently the preferred choice of planners and decision-makers in MENA. Water and funding are not available to provide these centralized conventional services to small communities. This paper presents an integrated approach to sustainable wastewater management for small communities in MENA under the severe water resources crisis. The approach calls for a paradigm shift from centralized conventional wastewater systems to decentralized wastewater systems. Management of wastewater in MENA should start at home. Wastewater generation should be reduced through a combination of domestic water conservation measures. On-site systems must be improved and monitored to control pollution and to recover water for non-potable water uses. Should the circumstances not allow the use of on-site systems, wastewater should be transported and managed through a community system applying the principles of decentralized wastewater management and using the settled sewers for wastewater transportation where appropriate. This approach will facilitate the accelerated and sustainable extension of environmentally responsible wastewater services to MENA's small communities. It offers great potential for cost reduction, accommodates the necessary domestic water conservation efforts, reduces freshwater inputs in wastewater transportation thus eliminating unnecessary demand on freshwater, reduces associated environmental risks and increases wastewater reuse opportunities.

  7. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  8. Oxygen variability and meridional oxygen supply in the tropical North East Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Johannes; Brandt, Peter; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Krahmann, Gerd; Körtzinger, Arne

    2013-04-01

    The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical North East Atlantic (TNEA) is located between the oxygen-rich equatorial region and the Cape Verde Frontal Zone at about 20°N in a depth range of 300 - 700 m. Its horizontal extent is predominantly defined by the North Equatorial Current and by the equatorial zonal current system ventilating the region to the north and south of the OMZ, respectively. The interior of the OMZ is characterized by a sluggish flow regime, where mesoscale eddies play a major role in the ventilation. In this study we focus on the oxygen variability in the TNEA as well as the eddy driven lateral ventilation of the TNEA OMZ across its southern boundary. During recent years an intense measurement program was executed along 23°W cutting meridionally through the TNEA OMZ. Hydrographic and velocity data has been acquired from ship sections and moorings, together covering the latitude range between 6°S and 14°N with particularly high meridional resolution of shipboard and high temporal resolution of moored observations. Based on shipboard data we derived a meridional section of oxygen variance, which reveals numerous local maxima of oxygen variability. Exemplary, strong oxygen variability is observed at the upper (300m, 5° - 12°N) and the southern boundary (400m - 700m, 5°N - 8°N) of the OMZ, whereas the interior of the OMZ is characterized by weak variability. An application of the extended Osborn-Cox model shows that the strong oxygen variability at the southern boundary is mainly generated by mesoscale eddies. The strong variability at the upper boundary is generated by mesoscale eddies as well as microscale turbulence. We apply two methods to estimate the meridional oxygen flux: 1) a flux gradient parameterization and 2) a correlation of oxygen and velocity mooring time series. From the analysis of the 5°N mooring data we find a northward oxygen flux directed towards the OMZ at its core depth, that is mainly due to variability of

  9. The impact of climate change on the expansion of Ixodes persulcatus habitat and the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in the north of European Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tokarevich, Nikolay K.; Tronin, Andrey A.; Blinova, Olga V.; Buzinov, Roman V.; Boltenkov, Vitaliy P.; Yurasova, Elena D.; Nurse, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background The increase in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) incidence is observed in recent decades in a number of subarctic countries. The reasons of it are widely discussed in scientific publications. The objective of this study was to understand if the climate change in Arkhangelsk Oblast (AO) situated in the north of European subarctic zone of Russia has real impact on the northward expansion of Ixodid ticks and stipulates the increase in TBE incidence. Methods This study analyzes: TBE incidence in AO and throughout Russia, the results of Ixodid ticks collecting in a number of sites in AO, and TBE virus prevalence in those ticks, the data on tick bite incidence in AO, and meteorological data on AO mean annual air temperatures and precipitations. Results It is established that in recent years TBE incidence in AO tended to increase contrary to its apparent decrease nationwide. In last 10 years, there was nearly 50-fold rise in TBE incidence in AO when compared with 1980–1989. Probably, the increase both in mean annual air temperatures and temperatures during tick active season resulted in the northward expansion of Ixodes Persulcatus, main TBE virus vector. The Ixodid ticks expansion is confirmed both by the results of ticks flagging from the surface vegetation and by the tick bite incidence in the population of AO locations earlier free from ticks. Our mathematical (correlation and regression) analysis of available data revealed a distinct correlation between TBE incidence and the growth of mean annual air temperatures in AO in 1990–2009. Conclusion Not ruling out other factors, we conclude that climate change contributed much to the TBE incidence increase in AO. PMID:22028678

  10. East-China Geochemistry Database (ECGD):A New Networking Database for North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ma, W.

    2010-12-01

    North China Craton is one of the best natural laboratories that research some Earth Dynamic questions[1]. Scientists made much progress in research on this area, and got vast geochemistry data, which are essential for answering many fundamental questions about the age, composition, structure, and evolution of the East China area. But the geochemical data have long been accessible only through the scientific literature and theses where they have been widely dispersed, making it difficult for the broad Geosciences community to find, access and efficiently use the full range of available data[2]. How to effectively store, manage, share and reuse the existing geochemical data in the North China Craton area? East-China Geochemistry Database(ECGD) is a networking geochemical scientific database system that has been designed based on WebGIS and relational database for the structured storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. It is integrated the functions of data retrieval, spatial visualization and online analysis. ECGD focus on three areas: 1.Storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. Research on the characters of geochemical data, including its composing and connecting of each other, we designed a relational database, which based on geochemical relational data model, to store a variety of geological sample information such as sampling locality, age, sample characteristics, reference, major elements, rare earth elements, trace elements and isotope system et al. And a web-based user-friendly interface is provided for constructing queries. 2.Data view. ECGD is committed to online data visualization by different ways, especially to view data in digital map with dynamic way. Because ECGD was integrated WebGIS technology, the query results can be mapped on digital map, which can be zoomed, translation and dot selection. Besides of view and output query results data by html, txt or xls formats, researchers also can

  11. Aerosol characteristics in north-east India using ARFINET spectral optical depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B.; Subba, T.; Dahutia, P.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Gogoi, M. M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Chutia, L.; Ajay, P.; Biswas, J.; Bharali, C.; Borgohain, A.; Dhar, P.; Guha, A.; De, B. K.; Banik, T.; Chakraborty, M.; Kundu, S. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Singh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Four years (2010-2014) of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 4 Indian Space Research Organisation's ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India) stations (Shillong, Agartala, Imphal and Dibrugarh) in the North-Eastern Region (NER) of India (lying between 22-30°N and 89-98°E) are synthesized to evolve a regional aerosol representation, for the first time. Results show that the columnar AOD (an indicator of the column abundance of aerosols) is highest at Agartala (0.80 ± 0.24) in the west and lowest at Imphal (0.59 ± 0.23) in the east in the pre-monsoon season due to intense anthropogenic bio-mass burning in this region aided by long-range transport from the high aerosol laden regions of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), polluted Bangladesh and Bay of Bengal. In addition to local biogenic aerosols and pollutants emitted from brick kilns, oil/gas fields, household bio-fuel/fossil-fuel, vehicles, industries. Aerosol distribution and climatic impacts show a west to east gradient within the NER. For example, the climatological mean AODs are 0.67 ± 0.26, 0.52 ± 0.14, 0.40 ± 0.17 and 0.41 ± 0.23 respectively in Agartala, Shillong, Imphal and Dibrugarh which are geographically located from west to east within the NER. The average aerosol burden in NER ranks second highest with climatological mean AOD 0.49 ± 0.2 next to the Indo-Gangetic Plains where the climatological mean AOD is 0.64 ± 0.2 followed by the South and South-East Asia region. Elevated aerosol layers are observed over the eastern most stations Dibrugarh and Imphal, while at the western stations the concentrations are high near the surface. The climate implications of aerosols are evaluated in terms of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and consequent heating of the atmosphere in the region which follows AOD and exhibit high values in pre-monsoon season at all the locations except in Agartala. The highest ARF in the atmosphere occurs in the pre-monsoon season ranging from 48.6 Wm-2 in Agartala

  12. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    PubMed

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified.

  13. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    PubMed

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified. PMID:27596560

  14. Muellerius capillaris in north-east Zaire: prevalence in sheep and goats and determination of intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Chartier, C

    1989-12-01

    Muellerius capillaris was the only species of nematode recovered from the lungs of young and adult sheep and goats of north-east Zaire. The prevalences were of 19% (sheep) and 32% (goats). The slug Atoxon pallens contained larvae in natural conditions and represents a potential intermediate host. The land snails Achatinidae (Achatina stuhlmanni and Limicolaria spp.) could not be experimentally infected with M. capillaris larvae. PMID:2600412

  15. Possible influence of western North Pacific monsoon on TC activity in mid-latitudes of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the correlation between tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and the Western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI), which have both been influential in East Asia's mid-latitude regions during the summer season over the past 37 years (1977-2013). A high positive correlation existed between these two variables, which was not reduced even if El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years were excluded. To determine the cause of this positive correlation, the highest (positive WNPMI phase) and lowest WNPMIs (negative WNPMI phase) during a nine-year period were selected to analyze the mean difference between them, excluding ENSO years. In the positive WNPMI phase, TCs were mainly generated in the eastern seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the East China Sea and moving northward toward Korea and Japan. In the negative phase, TCs were mainly generated in the western seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the South China Sea and moving westward toward China's southern regions. Therefore, TC intensity in the positive phase was stronger due to the acquisition of sufficient energy from the sea while moving a long distance up to East Asia's mid-latitude. Additionally, TCs occurred more in the positive phase. Regarding the difference of the two phases between the 850 and 500-hPa streamlines, anomalous cyclones were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, whereas anomalous anticyclones were strengthened in East Asia's mid-latitude regions. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed in East Asia's mid-latitude regions, which played a role in the anomalous steering flows that moved TCs into these regions. Furthermore, due to the anomalous cyclones that developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, more TCs could be generated in the positive phase. Both the lower and upper tropospheric layers had warm anomalies

  16. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (< 0.5 Myr) and affected intracratonic basins of Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The organisation of the glacial sedimentary record is considered to be controlled at the basin-scale by the location of fast-flowing ice streams active during glacial maxima, and by the processes of meltwater release during glacial recession. In these latter

  17. Radiative Impact of Observed and Simulated Aerosol Layers Over the East Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, L. K.; Fast, J. D.; Burton, S. P.; Chand, D.; Comstock, J. M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hubbe, J. M.; Kassianov, E.; Rogers, R. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Shilling, J. E.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vertical distribution of particles in the atmospheric column can have a large impact on the radiative forcing and cloud microphysics. A recent climatology constructed using data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) suggests elevated layers of aerosol are quite common near the North American east coast during both winter and summer. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study utilizing both in situ and remotely sensed measurements designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate science questions related to aerosol radiative forcing and the vertical distribution of aerosol. The study sampled the atmosphere at a number of altitudes within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. TCAP included the yearlong deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) located at the base of the Cape Cod column, as well as summer and winter aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs) using the ARM Aerial Facility. One important finding from the TCAP summer IOP is the relatively common occurrence (during four of the six nearly cloud-free flights) of elevated aerosol layers in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA Langley Research Center High-Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). These elevated layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. Both the in situ and remote sensing observations have been compared to

  18. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  19. Controls on salt mobility and storage in the weathered dolerites of north-east Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Margaret; Moore, Leah

    2014-05-01

    Changes in land use and vegetation due to agriculture, forestry practices and urbanisation can mobilise naturally occurring salts in the landscape and accelerate the expression of land and water salinisation, potentially threatening built and natural assets. Some salts are released during rock weathering or are derived from marine sediments or wind-blown dust, but in Tasmania most originate from salt dissolved in rainfall that is concentrated during evaporation. The volume of salts deposited over north-east Tasmania from precipitation exceeds 70kg/ha/year. The dominant lithology of the salt affected regions in Tasmania is dolerite which breaks down to form secondary minerals including: smectite and kaolinite clays and Fe-bearing sesquioxides. The weathering of Tasmanian dolerites, sampled from fresh corestones, weathering rinds and sequentially through the soil horizon, has been examined petrographically and geochemically. The EC1:5 increases with weathering to a maximum 4.9 dS/m and decreases in the pedogenic zone. This confirms field observations that deeply weathered dolerite can serve as a significant store for salt in the landscape. The water associated with dolerite weathering is typically a bicarbonate fluid. The pH1:5 decreases as the samples weather and increases in the pedogenic zone. Clay content increases with distance from corestones (sandy clay loam to heavy clay), and this is also reflected in the density (2.6-1.3 gm/cm3) and loss on ignition (1.3-13.3 wt%). The patterns for Na are complicated as it is enriched through NaCl accession and removed during the weathering of plagioclase. The net enrichment of Cl (up to 5239 ppm) implies decoupling of Cl from Na during weathering. Potassium, Ca and Sr are mobilised from the profile as plagioclase weathers, and silica is progressively lost from the profile with the weathering of silicate phases. Iron is initially mobilised with the weathering of pyroxene and mafic accessory minerals, but is rapidly fixed in

  20. High Resolution Map of Water Supply and Demand for North East United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate estimates of water supply and demand are crucial elements in water resources management and modeling. As part of our NSF-funded EaSM effort to build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) as a framework to improve our understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy and economic systems through the 21st century, we are producing a high resolution map (3' x 3' lat/long) of estimated water supply and use for the north east region of United States. Focusing on water demand, results from this study enables us to quantify how demand sources affect the hydrology and thermal-chemical water pollution across the region. In an attempt to generate this 3-minute resolution map in which each grid cell has a specific estimated monthly domestic, agriculture, thermoelectric and industrial water use. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009) is being coupled to high resolution land cover and land use, irrigation, power plant and population data sets. In addition to water demands, we tried to improve estimates of water supply from the WBM model by improving the way it controls discharge from reservoirs. Reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on altering the natural stream flow, thermal characteristics, and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. Depending on dam characteristics, watershed characteristics and the purpose of building a dam, each reservoir has a specific optimum operating rule. It means that literally 84,000 dams in the National Inventory of Dams potentially follow 84,000 different sets of rules for storing and releasing water which must somehow be accounted for in our modeling exercise. In reality, there is no comprehensive observational dataset depicting these operating rules. Thus, we will simulate these rules. Our perspective is not to find the optimum operating rule per se but to find

  1. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  2. Characterising the progress in HIV/AIDS research in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Hanan F; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is perceived to have limited HIV data. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterise the progress in HIV research in this region since the discovery of the epidemic. Methods Four indices were defined and implemented to measure the progress of HIV research using the PubMed, Embase, MENA HIV/AIDS Epidemiology Synthesis Project and US Census Bureau HIV/AIDS Surveillance databases. The four indices provide complementary measures to characterise different aspects of the progress of HIV research. Results A total of 2118, 2352, 683 and 4889 records were identified through the PubMed, the Embase, the Synthesis Project and the HIV Prevalence indices, respectively. The proportion of the total global HIV records that relate to MENA is 1.2%. Overall, the indices show steady progress in the number of new records every year, with an accelerated pace in the last few years. The rate of progress in MENA was also higher than the rate of progress in HIV records globally. There is no evidence so far of stabilisation or a peak in the number of new records year by year. About half of the records were produced after the year 2005. The number of records shows large heterogeneity across countries. Conclusions MENA has witnessed a rapid growth in HIV research over the last decade. However, there are still large gaps in HIV scientific evidence in the region, and the progress is far from being uniform across countries. Ongoing and future research needs to be geared towards academic standard and production of scientific publications. PMID:23596206

  3. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  4. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity. PMID:27440675

  5. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity.

  6. Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present.

  7. Diverse staghorn coral fauna on the mesophotic reefs of north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Muir, Paul; Wallace, Carden; Bridge, Tom C L; Bongaerts, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Concern for the future of reef-building corals in conditions of rising sea temperatures combined with recent technological advances has led to a renewed interest in documenting the biodiversity of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) and their potential to provide lineage continuation for coral taxa. Here, we examine species diversity of staghorn corals (genera Acropora and Isopora) in the mesophotic zone (below 30 m depth) of the Great Barrier Reef and western Coral Sea. Using specimen-based records we found 38 staghorn species in the mesophotic zone, including three species newly recorded for Australia and five species that only occurred below 30 m. Staghorn corals became scarce at depths below 50 m but were found growing in-situ to 73 m depth. Of the 76 staghorn coral species recorded for shallow waters (depth ≤ 30 m) in north-east Australia, 21% extended to mesophotic depths with a further 22% recorded only rarely to 40 m depth. Extending into the mesophotic zone provided shallow water species no significant advantage in terms of their estimated global range-size relative to species restricted to shallow waters (means 86.2 X 10(6) km2 and 85.7 X 10(6) km2 respectively, p = 0.98). We found four staghorn coral species at mesophotic depths on the Great Barrier Reef that were previously considered rare and endangered on the basis of their limited distribution in central Indonesia and the far western Pacific. Colonies below 40 m depth showed laterally flattened branches, light and fragile skeletal structure and increased spacing between branches and corallites. The morphological changes are discussed in relation to decreased light, water movement and down-welling coarse sediments. Staghorn corals have long been regarded as typical shallow-water genera, but here we demonstrate the significant contribution of this group to the region's mesophotic fauna and the importance of considering MCEs in reef biodiversity estimates and management.

  8. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sardashti, Sara; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; Firouzeh, Mona Mohammadi; Mirshahvalad, Seyed Ali; Pahlaviani, Fatemeh Golsoorat; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2015-01-01

    New World Health Organization guidelines recommend the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of ≤ 500 cells/mm3. Substantial reduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is addressed as a major public health outcome of this new approach. Middle East and North Africa (MENA), known as the area of controversies in terms of availability of comprehensive data, has shown concentrated epidemics among most of it’s at risk population groups. Serious challenges impede the applicability of new guidelines in the MENA Region. Insufficient resources restrict ART coverage to less than 14%, while only one fourth of the countries had reportable data on patients’ CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Clinical guidelines need to be significantly modified to reach practical utility, and surveillance systems have not yet been developed in many countries of MENA. Based on available evidence in several countries people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are increasingly vulnerable to HIV and viral hepatitis, while their sexual partners - either female sex workers or women in monogamous relationships with high-risk men - are potential bridging populations that are not appropriately addressed by regional programs. Research to monitor the response to ART among the mentioned groups are seriously lacking, while drug resistant HIV strains and limited information on adherence patterns to treatment regimens require urgent recognition by health policymakers. Commitment to defined goals in the fight against HIV, development of innovative methods to improve registration and reporting systems, monitoring and evaluation of current programs followed by cost-effective modifications are proposed as effective steps to be acknowledged by National AIDS Programs of the countries of MENA Region. PMID:25964878

  9. Summer distribution of seabirds in the North-East Water polynya, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiris, Claude R.; Kampp, Kaj; Tahon, Jacques; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    1997-10-01

    The distribution at sea of seabirds was studied in the North-East Water (NEW) polynya, Greenland, during transect counts in the summers of 1991, 1992 and 1993 on board the ice-breaking RVs Polarstern and Polar Sea. Data collected within the polynya 'box' (78-82°N; 5-18°W) concern observations of 8000 birds counted during 1350 half-hour counts. Distribution is presented as density (N/km 2) and calculated daily food intake. Five bird species were selected for discussion, representing more than 95% of the total numbers encountered: Fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), Ivory Gull ( Pagophila eburnea), Kittiwake ( Rissa tridactyla), Glaucous Gull ( Larus hyperboreus) and Ross's Gull ( Rhodostethia rosea). For these species, densities are comparable in the NE Greenland polynya and in other European Arctic seas. The main difference is the absence in NEW of the species playing the main role in Arctic seas: Brünnich's Guillemot ( Uria lomvia) and Little Auk ( Alle alle). In the absence of fish-eating birds and of birds consuming zooplankton in the water column, the NEW polynya ecosystem is thus dominated by surface feeders and, closer to the coast, by benthic feeders like eiders, Somateria mollissima and S. spectabilis, and walrus, Odobenus rosmarus. The density and daily food intake for all seabirds are one order of magnitude lower in the polynya than in the Arctic seas. The distribution and abundance of seabirds in the NEW polynya seems to reflect a very low density of pelagic fish and Zooplankton in the water column, while Zooplankton must be present at 'normal' concentrations in the upper layer.

  10. A statistical analysis of North East Atlantic (submicron) aerosol size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Monahan, C.; Greaney, R.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Ceburnis, D.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Global Atmospheric Watch research station at Mace Head (Ireland) offers the possibility to sample some of the cleanest air masses being imported into Europe as well as some of the most polluted being exported out of Europe. We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of aerosol size distributions in air ranging from the cleanest to the most polluted for the year 2008. Data coverage achieved was 75% throughout the year. By applying the Hartigan-Wong k-Means method, 12 clusters were identified as systematically occurring. These 12 clusters could be further combined into 4 categories with similar characteristics, namely: coastal nucleation category (occurring 21.3 % of the time), open ocean nucleation category (occurring 32.6% of the time), background clean marine category (occurring 26.1% of the time) and anthropogenic category (occurring 20% of the time) aerosol size distributions. The coastal nucleation category is characterised by a clear and dominant nucleation mode at sizes less than 10 nm while the open ocean nucleation category is characterised by a dominant Aitken mode between 15 nm and 50 nm. The background clean marine aerosol exhibited a clear bimodality in the sub-micron size distribution, with although it should be noted that either the Aitken mode or the accumulation mode may dominate the number concentration. However, peculiar background clean marine size distributions with coarser accumulation modes are also observed during winter months. By contrast, the continentally-influenced size distributions are generally more monomodal (accumulation), albeit with traces of bimodality. The open ocean category occurs more often during May, June and July, corresponding with the North East (NE) Atlantic high biological period. Combined with the relatively high percentage frequency of occurrence (32.6%), this suggests that the marine biota is an important source of new nano aerosol particles in NE Atlantic Air.

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Prachurjya; Dey, Tapan; Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA) against oxidative stress pathophysiology. Methods The free radical scavenging activities of AEVA were examined against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals and the effect on the activities of antioxidant enzyme (GST and CAT) was determined using both recombinant proteins and human plasma. The antioxidant potential of AEVA was again investigated using THP-1 monocytes. Results AEVA possesses a significant free radical scavenging activity as evident from the DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Incubation of AEVA (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) with the recombinant antioxidant enzymes, rGST and rCAT significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to those observed in corresponding enzyme alone or AEVA itself. AEVA supplementation (5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) also stimulates the activities of GST and CAT when incubated with human plasma. A cell culture study also confirmed the beneficial role of AEVA (0.8 and 1.2 μg/μL) which enhances the activities of GST and CAT, and also reduces the intercellular ROS production in monocytes treated with or without H2O2 and the effects are at par with what is observed in N-acetyl cysteine-treated cells. Conclusion The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders. PMID:27195807

  12. Smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Adel; Javaid, Arshad; Iraqi, Ghali; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Ben Kheder, Ali; Koniski, Marie-Louise; Shahrour, Naem; Taright, Samya; Idrees, Magdy; Polatli, Mehmet; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    Few recent comparative data exist on smoking habits in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate smoking patterns in a large general population sample of individuals aged ≥ 40 years in ten countries in the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A random sample of 457,258 telephone numbers was generated and called. This identified 65,154 eligible subjects, of whom 62,086 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire was administered to each participant, which included six questions relating to cigarette consumption and waterpipe use. The age- and gender-adjusted proportion of respondents reporting current or past smoking of cigarettes or waterpipes was 31.2% [95% CI: 30.9-31.6%]. This proportion was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in men (48.0%) than in women (13.8%), but no relevant differences were observed between age groups. Smoking rates were in general lowest in the Maghreb countries and Pakistan and highest in the Eastern Mediterranean countries, ranging from 15.3% in Morocco to 53.9% in Lebanon. Consumption rates were 28.8% [28.4-29.2%] for cigarette smoking and 3.5% [3.4-3.6%] for waterpipe use. Use of waterpipes was most frequent in Saudi Arabia (8.5% of respondents) but remained low in the Maghreb countries (< 1.5%). Cumulative cigarette exposure was high, with a mean number of pack · years smoked of 18.5 ± 20.5 for women and 29.1 ± 26.2 for men. In conclusion, smoking is a major health issue in the MENA region.

  13. Assessing extreme droughts in North-East Spain from rogation ceremonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuadrat, José M.; Barriendos, Mariano; Tejedor, Ernesto; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Serrano, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Among the different meteorological hazards, droughts are those with the highest socio-economical impact on the Iberian Peninsula. In the present work, drought events that occurred in North-East Spain during the period 1600-1900 have been analysed, using historical information. The abundant documentation available in historical archives and the detail of the meteorological event records allows us the systematic and continuous summary of the drought events from 16th to 19th centuries. Rogation (ceremonies to ask God for rain: pro-pluvia, or to stop raining: pro-serenitate) analysis is an effective method to derive information about climate extremes from documentary sources. These documents are homogeneous information that permit the reconstruction of drought frequency series and create continuous drought indices. Weighted annual sum by levels has been a widespread technique to analyze such data but this analysis is liable to be biased to spring values as these ceremonies are strongly related to farming activities and crop development. The analysis of the length of pro-pluvia periods (the time span during which rogations are carried out in relation to a drought event) and the combination of annual and seasonal information offers a more objective criterion for the analysis of the drought periods and an increase in the resolution of the study. Two drought maxima appear during the 1650-1675 and 1765-1795 periods, characterized by rogations during almost all the year, with a middle stage (1676-1710) when droughts were less frequent and their length shortened. Results indicate that drought evolution during the past four centuries often coincides in time with the evolution recorded in other Mediterranean areas. Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries the most important droughts were recorded in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, which coincided with a period of high climatic variability known as the "Maldá" anomaly. In general, the eighteenth century was

  14. Forest fire scenario and challenges of mitigation during fire season in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, K.; Mondal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.; Sudhakar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Forest fires are a major environmental problem in North East Region (NER) with large tracts of forest areas being affected in every season. Forest fires have become a major threat to the forest ecosystems in the region, leading to loss of timber, biodiversity, wildlife habitat and loss to other natural resources. Studies on forest fire have reported that about 50% of forest fire in the country takes place in NE region. The forest fire in NER is anthropogenic in nature. The forest fire hazard map generated based on appropriate weightage given to the factors affecting fire behavior like topography, fuel characteristic and proximity to roads, settlements and also historical fire locations helped to demarcate the fire prone zones. Whereas, during fire season the weather pattern also governs the fire spread in the given area. Therefore, various data on fuel characteristics (land use/land cover, forest type map, forest density map), topography (DEM, slope, aspect) proximity to settlement, road, waterbodies, meteorological data from AWS on wind speed, wind direction, dew point have been used for each fire point to rank its possible hazard level. Near real time fire location data obtained from MODIS/FIRMSwere used to generate the fire alerts. This work demonstrates dissemination of information in the form of maps and tables containing information of latitude and longitude of fire location, fire occurrence date, state and district name, LULC, road connectivity, slope and aspect, settlements/water bodies and meteorological data and the corresponding rating of possibility of fire spread to the respective fire control authorities during fire season.

  15. HIV/AIDS among pastoralists and refugees in north-east Africa: a neglected problem.

    PubMed

    Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kassa, Afework; Alwan, Fathia; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since the late 1980s, the IGAD Regional HIV & AIDS Partnership Program was (IRAPP) established in 2007 to mitigate the challenges of HIV among neglected pastoral and refugee communities. This article assesses vulnerability of pastoralists and refugee communities to HIV and interventions targeting these groups in the IGAD countries. Outcomes from this study may serve as a baseline for further research and to improve interventions. Published articles were accessed through web searches using PubMed and Google Scholar engines and unpublished documents were collected manually. The search terms were HIV risk behaviour, vulnerability, HIV prevalence and interventions, under the headings pastoralists, refugees, IGAD and north-east Africa for the period 2001-2014. Of the 214 documents reviewed, 78 met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most HIV/AIDS related studies focusing of pastoral communities in IGAD countries were found to be limited in scope and coverage but reveal precarious situations. Sero-prevalence among various pastoral populations ranged from 1% to 21% in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda and from 1% to 5% among refugees in Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. Socioeconomic, cultural, logistic, infrastructure and programmatic factors were found to contribute to continuing vulnerability to HIV. Interventions need to be further contextualised to the needs of those impoverished populations and integrated into national HIV/AIDS programmes. HIV/AIDS remains a major public health concern among the pastoral and refugee communities of IGAD countries. This calls for IGAD to collaborate with national and international partners in

  16. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  17. Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present. PMID:23353604

  18. Oxygen variance and meridional oxygen supply in the Tropical North East Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, J.; Brandt, P.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Krahmann, G.; Körtzinger, A.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of the mean oceanic oxygen concentration results from a balance between ventilation and consumption. In the eastern tropical Pacific and Atlantic, this balance creates extended oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) at intermediate depth. Here, we analyze hydrographic and velocity data from shipboard and moored observations, which were taken along the 23°W meridian cutting through the Tropical North East Atlantic (TNEA) OMZ, to study the distribution and generation of oxygen variability. By applying the extended Osborn-Cox model, the respective role of mesoscale stirring and diapycnal mixing in producing enhanced oxygen variability, found at the southern and upper boundary of the OMZ, is quantified. From the well-ventilated equatorial region toward the OMZ core a northward eddy-driven oxygen flux is observed whose divergence corresponds to an oxygen supply of about 2.4 μmol kg-1 year-1 at the OMZ core depth. Above the OMZ core, mesoscale eddies act to redistribute low- and high-oxygen waters associated with westward and eastward currents, respectively. Here, absolute values of the local oxygen supply >10 μmol kg-1 year-1 are found, likely balanced by mean zonal advection. Combining our results with recent studies, a refined oxygen budget for the TNEA OMZ is derived. Eddy-driven meridional oxygen supply contributes more than 50 % of the supply required to balance the estimated oxygen consumption. The oxygen tendency in the OMZ, as given by the multidecadal oxygen decline, is maximum slightly above the OMZ core and represents a substantial imbalance of the oxygen budget reaching about 20 % of the magnitude of the eddy-driven oxygen supply.

  19. Investigating Sea-Level Acceleration Along the East Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    A number of researchers have reported on accelerated sea level along the east coast of North America, particularly in the northeast. We have previously modeled sea-level rates and accelerations from the last half of the 20th and early 21st centuries inferred from tide gauges in this region using steric sea-level changes, gravitationally self-consistent sea-level changes that includes self-attraction and loading (SAL), and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). We have found that, whereas the spatial variability of sea-level rates is dominated by GIA, the observed accelerations are not explained by these processes. In this talk, we first further investigate the observed accelerations, which we took to be constant during the study period. We have found, however, some evidence that the accelerations began in the timeframe 1990-2000. For example, the figure below shows the root-mean-square (rms) residual after removing a best-fit model wherein the acceleration was zero before the indicated year, for the Boston tide gauge, having one of the longest tide-gauge records. The minimimum rms residual occurs in the year 2000. A Monte Carlo simulation (red curve) shows that no time-dependence is expected from white noise. Evaluation of the statistical significance of these results has been difficult, since the postfit residuals are dominated by interannual variability. We will utilize time-dependent models for dynamic sea-level changes (including steric changes), GIA. For the Greenland ice mass, we will combine estimates of Greenland ice-mass variability obtained from recent analyses of GRACE data with long-term climate models for Greenland (from, e.g., RACMO) to calculate long-term sea-level impact. Comparing these models with tide-gauge data will yield insights into the nature and timing of accelerated sea level in this region. We will also discuss the implciations of these models for long-term global sea-level change.

  20. Diverse Staghorn Coral Fauna on the Mesophotic Reefs of North-East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Paul; Wallace, Carden; Bridge, Tom C. L.; Bongaerts, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Concern for the future of reef-building corals in conditions of rising sea temperatures combined with recent technological advances has led to a renewed interest in documenting the biodiversity of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) and their potential to provide lineage continuation for coral taxa. Here, we examine species diversity of staghorn corals (genera Acropora and Isopora) in the mesophotic zone (below 30 m depth) of the Great Barrier Reef and western Coral Sea. Using specimen-based records we found 38 staghorn species in the mesophotic zone, including three species newly recorded for Australia and five species that only occurred below 30 m. Staghorn corals became scarce at depths below 50 m but were found growing in-situ to 73 m depth. Of the 76 staghorn coral species recorded for shallow waters (depth ≤ 30 m) in north-east Australia, 21% extended to mesophotic depths with a further 22% recorded only rarely to 40 m depth. Extending into the mesophotic zone provided shallow water species no significant advantage in terms of their estimated global range-size relative to species restricted to shallow waters (means 86.2 X 106 km2 and 85.7 X 106 km2 respectively, p = 0.98). We found four staghorn coral species at mesophotic depths on the Great Barrier Reef that were previously considered rare and endangered on the basis of their limited distribution in central Indonesia and the far western Pacific. Colonies below 40 m depth showed laterally flattened branches, light and fragile skeletal structure and increased spacing between branches and corallites. The morphological changes are discussed in relation to decreased light, water movement and down-welling coarse sediments. Staghorn corals have long been regarded as typical shallow-water genera, but here we demonstrate the significant contribution of this group to the region’s mesophotic fauna and the importance of considering MCEs in reef biodiversity estimates and management. PMID:25714341

  1. Magmatic nature of Sn-bearing fluids from isotopic (H,O) data of tourmalines (Solnechnoye deposit, Far East of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushchevskaya, Tatiana; Ignatiev, Alexander; Velivetskaya, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    It was shown, that the main factors, controlled Sn-W ore deposition in hydrothermal systems in connection with granites were: a) cooling, b) mixing of fluids of different composition and genesis, c) heterogenization (boiling) of mineral forming fluids (Heinrich, 1990; et al). The results of physical chemical modelling of water-rock interaction pointed to magmatic nature of tin-bearing fluids in the hydrothermal systems, connected with granites. Tin concentration in model magmatogeneous fluid was calculated to be three times higher than in the model exogenic fluid (Sushchevskaya, Ryzhenko, 1998). New data on the source of ore forming fluids, which had formed the large economic Solnechnoye Sn deposit (Far East of Russia), were obtained from hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of tourmalines from successive mineral associations. Hydrogen position in the tourmaline crystal structure allows to suppose, that postproductive processes did not change the initial δD values, in contrast to phyllosilicates, often used for this purpose. During mineral formation at the Solnechnoye deposit tourmaline was formed practically without interruption. Its composition was gradually changed from schorl to dravite, when temperature decreased. The ores of cassiterite-tourmaline type were formed in a vertically dipping fracture zones, extended in a metamorphosed sandstone-shale rocks. Hydrogene and oxygen isotopic composition of fluids were calculated from tourmaline data with the help of equations, proposed in (Kotzer et al., 1993). The temperature intervals for these calculations were accepted as: 1- 450-400o C for quartz-tourmaline preore stage, 2 - 400-350o C -for early productive quartz-cassiterite stage, 3 - 350-300o C - for late quartz- cassiterite stage. The obtained results corresponded to magmatic character of the fluids of productive stage of the Solnechnoye deposit, because their isotopic composition lied in the interval: δ18О (3.2-9.3)‰, δD -(31.7-76.6)‰. The

  2. Space Radar Image of Star City, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the Star City cosmonaut training center, east of Moscow, Russia. Four American astronauts are training here for future long-duration flights aboard the Russian Mir space station. These joint flights are giving NASA and the Russian Space Agency experience necessary for the construction of the international Alpha space station, beginning in late 1997. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR), on its 62nd orbit on October 3, 1994. This Star City image is centered at 55.55 degrees north latitude and 38.0 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 32 kilometers by 49 kilometers (20 miles by 30 miles). North is to the top in this image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The image was produced using three channels of SIR-C radar data: red indicates L-band (23 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and received); green indicates L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue indicates C-band (6 cm wavelength, horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In general, dark pink areas are agricultural; pink and light blue areas are urban communities; black areas represent lakes and rivers; dark blue areas are cleared forest; and light green areas are forested. The prominent black runways just right of center are Shchelkovo Airfield, about 4 km long. The textured pale blue-green area east and southeast of Shchelkovo Airfield is forest. Just east of the runways is a thin railroad line running southeast; the Star City compound lies just east of the small bend in the rail line. Star City contains the living quarters and training facilities for Russian cosmonauts and their families. Moscow's inner loop road is visible at the lower left edge of the image. The Kremlin is just off the left edge, on the banks of the meandering Moskva River. The Klyazma River snakes to the southeast from the reservoir in the upper left (shown in bright red

  3. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene Temperature Reconstructions from Paleolakes of the West Turkana and North Awash Basins, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, I. S.; Thompson-Munson, M.; Lupien, R.; Russell, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) aims to reconstruct past environments of the East African Rift Valley from locations in close proximity to some of the world's most important fossil hominin and artifact sites. In this study, we investigate sediments from the West Turkana and North Awash Basins, which were recently drilled as part of the HSPDP. The North Awash Basin contains abundant early hominin fossils and the lakebeds of the Hadar Formation (~3.6 to ~2.9 Ma) will provide a record of climate variability during the Pliocene, prior to the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation at ~2.7 Ma. The lakebeds of the Turkana Basin are Early Pleistocene in age (~1.9 to ~1.45 Ma) and span the interval that includes some the earliest fossils of Homo rudolfensis and H. ergaster/erectus. Here we examine the organic geochemistry of West Turkana and North Awash Basin sediments and investigate the use of proxies based on isoprenoid and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) to reconstruct temperature, including TEX86 and the methylation and cyclization (MBT and CBT) ratios and relative abundances of branched GDGTs. We also examine variability in the abundances and ratios of plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) to provide insight into past vegetation changes on the East African landscape.

  4. Watershed characterization for precipitation-runoff modeling system, north fork, American River and east fork, Carson River watersheds, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Reece, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its Global Change Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating the potential effects of climate change on the water resources of several river basins in the United States. The American River Basin in California represents the windward slope of the north-central Sierra Nevada, and the California part of the Carson River Basin, most of which is in Nevada, represents the leeward slope. Parts of the American River and Carson River Basins—the North Fork American River and East Fork Carson River watersheds, both in California—were studied to determine the sensitivity of water resources to potential climate change. The water resources of both basins are derived primarily from snowmelt. A geographic information system (GIS) data base has been created to facilitate paired-basin analysis. The GIS data base incorporates (1) land-surface data, which include elevation, land use and land cover, soil type, and geology; (2) hydrologic data, such as stream networks and streamflow-gaging stations; and (3) climatic data, such as snow-course, snow-telemetry, radiosonde, and meteorological data. Precipitation-runoff models were developed and calibrated for the North Fork watershed within the American River Basin and for the East Fork watershed within the Carson River Basin. (These watersheds were selected to represent the climatic and physiographic variability of the two larger basins.) Synthesized climate scenarios then were used in the model to predict potential effects of climate change.

  5. Satellite image analysis of human caused changes in the tundra vegetation around the city of Vorkuta, north-European Russia.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Tarmo; Mikkola, Kari; Patova, Elena; Nikula, Ari

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present what kind of human impacted changes can be found in dwarf birch (Betula nana) dominated shrub tundra vegetation around the large industrial complex of Vorkuta in the north-European Russian tundra. Using fieldwork data and Landsat TM satellite image we could identify two impact zones: (1) Pollution zone (150-200 km2). In this zone most of the lichen species are absent. Changes in vegetation communities' species composition in all main plant groups are obvious. Willows especially are more dominant than in the unpolluted sites. (2) Slight pollution/disturbance zone (600-900 km2). Here vegetation changes are mainly similar but less so than the changes in the first zone. Particularly, the amount of herbs and grasses is increased when compared to unpolluted areas. The pollution zones are spatially connected to the main emission sources in the area. Zones spread furthest to the northeast, matching the prevailing winds during winter.

  6. Diversity of cultured photosynthetic flagellates in the North East Pacific and Arctic Oceans in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, S.; Gourvil, P.; Siano, R.; Chanoine, M.; Marie, D.; Lessard, S.; Sarno, D.; Vaulot, D.

    2012-06-01

    During the MALINA cruise (summer 2009) an extensive effort was undertaken to isolate phytoplankton strains from the North East (NE) Pacific Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Beaufort Sea. Strains were isolated by flow cytometry sorting (FCS) and pipetting before or after phytoplankton enrichment of seawater samples. Strains were isolated both onboard and back in the laboratory and cultured at 4 °C under light/dark conditions. Overall, we isolated and characterised by light microscopy and 18S rRNA gene sequencing 104 strains of photosynthetic flagellates which grouped into 21 genotypes (defined by 99.5% 18S rRNA gene sequence similarity) mainly affiliated to Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta. The taxon most frequently isolated was an Arctic ecotype of the green algal genus Micromonas (Arctic Micromonas) which was almost the only phytoplankter recovered within picoplankton (≤ 2 μm) size range. Strains of Arctic Micromonas as well as three unidentified strains related to the same genus were identified in further details by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA operon. The MALINA Micromonas strains share identical 18S rRNA and ITS sequences suggesting high genetic homogeneity within Arctic Micromonas. The unidentified strains form a genotype likely belonging to a new genus within the family Mamiellaceae to which Micromonas belongs. Other green algae genotypes from the genera Nephroselmis, Chlamydomonas, Pyramimonas were also isolated whereas Heterokontophyta included Pelagophyceae, Dictyochophyceae and Chrysophyceae. Dictyochophyceae included Pedinellales which could not be identified to the genus level whereas Chrysophyceae comprised Dinobryon faculiferum. Moreover, we isolated Rhodomonas sp. as well as a few Haptophyta and dinoflagellates. We identified the dinoflagellate Woloszynskia cincta by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and 28S rRNA gene sequencing. Our morphological analyses show that this species possess the diagnostic

  7. Seed Dispersal by Ants in the Semi-arid Caatinga of North-east Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Inara R.; Wirth, Rainer; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Myrmecochory is a conspicuous feature of several sclerophyll ecosystems around the world but it has received little attention in the semi-arid areas of South America. This study addresses the importance of seed dispersal by ants in a 2500-km2 area of the Caatinga ecosystem (north-east Brazil) and investigates ant-derived benefits to the plant through myrmecochory. Methods Seed manipulation and dispersal by ants was investigated during a 3-year period in the Xingó region. Both plant and ant assemblages involved in seed dispersal were described and ant behaviour was characterized. True myrmecochorous seeds of seven Euphorbiaceae species (i.e. elaiosome-bearing seeds) were used in experiments designed to: (1) quantify the rates of seed cleaning/removal and the influence of both seed size and elaiosome presence on seed removal; (2) identify the fate of seeds dispersed by ants; and (3) document the benefits of seed dispersal by ants in terms of seed germination and seedling growth. Key Results Seed dispersal by ants involved one-quarter of the woody flora inhabiting the Xingó region, but true myrmecochory was restricted to 12·8 % of the woody plant species. Myrmecochorous seeds manipulated by ants faced high levels of seed removal (38–84 %) and 83 % of removed seeds were discarded on ant nests. Moreover, seed removal positively correlated with the presence of elaiosome, and elaiosome removal increased germination success by at least 30 %. Finally, some Euphorbiaceae species presented both increased germination and seedling growth on ant-nest soils. Conclusions Myrmecochory is a relevant seed dispersal mode in the Caatinga ecosystem, and is particularly frequent among Euphorbiaceae trees and shrubs. The fact that seeds reach micro-sites suitable for establishment (ant nests) supports the directed dispersal hypothesis as a possible force favouring myrmecochory in this ecosystem. Ecosystems with a high frequency of myrmecochorous plants appear not

  8. Epidemiology and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma in north-east Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Nurhazalini-Zayani, Che Ghazali Che

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.

  9. Hydrocarbon seep-carbonates of a Miocene forearc (East Coast Basin), North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Kathleen A.; Francis, David A.; Collins, Mike; Gregory, Murray R.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Greinert, Jens; Aharon, Paul

    2008-02-01

    An ancient hydrocarbon seep province of 14 isolated, authigenic carbonate deposits has been identified in fine-grained, deep-marine siliciclastic strata of the Miocene East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand. These forearc sediments have been uplifted and complexly deformed into accretionary ridges, adjacent to the still-active Hikurangi convergent margin. Older active and passive margin strata (mid-Cretaceous to Oligocene in age) underlie the Neogene sequence, and contain oil- and gas-prone source rocks. Older Mesozoic meta-sedimentary rocks constitute the backstop against which the current phase of subduction-related sedimentation has accumulated (~ 24 Ma-present). The seep-carbonates (up to 10 m thick, 200 m across) archive methane signatures in their depleted carbon isotopes (to δ13C -51.7‰ PDB), and contain chemosynthesis-based paleocommunities (e.g. worm tubes, bathymodioline mussels, and vesicomyid, lucinid and thyasirid bivalves) typical of other Cenozoic and modern seeps. Northern and southern sites are geographically separated, and exhibit distinct lithological and faunal differences. Structural settings are variable. Seep-associated lithologies also are varied, and suggest carbonate development in sub-seafloor, seafloor and physically reworked (diapiric expansion, gas explosion, gravity slide or debris flow) settings, similar to Italian Apennine seep deposits of overlapping ages. Peculiar attributes of the New Zealand Miocene seep deposits are several, including digitate thrombolites of clotted microbial micrite encased in thick, isopachous horizons and botryoids of aragonite. Seep plumbing features are also well-exposed at some sites, displaying probable gas-explosion breccias filled with aragonite, tubular concretions (fluid conduits), and carbonate-cemented, thin sandstone beds and burrows within otherwise impermeable mudstones. A few seeps were large enough to develop talus-debris piles on their flanks, which were populated by lucinid bivalves

  10. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  11. Drivers of diel and regional variations of halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Ziska, F.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Krüger, K.; Peeken, I.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2014-02-01

    Methyl iodide (CH3I), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which are produced naturally in the oceans, take part in ozone chemistry both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The significance of oceanic upwelling regions for emissions of these trace gases in the global context is still uncertain although they have been identified as important source regions. To better quantify the role of upwelling areas in current and future climate, this paper analyzes major factors that influenced halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic including the Mauritanian upwelling during the DRIVE expedition. Diel and regional variability of oceanic and atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 was determined along with biological and physical parameters at six 24 h-stations. Low oceanic concentrations of CH3I from 0.1-5.4 pmol L-1 were equally distributed throughout the investigation area. CHBr3 and CH2Br2 from 1.0 to 42.4 pmol L-1 and to 9.4 pmol L-1, respectively were measured with maximum concentrations close to the Mauritanian coast. Atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3, and CH2Br2 of up to 3.3, 8.9, and 3.1 ppt, respectively were detected above the upwelling, as well as up to 1.8, 12.8, and 2.2 ppt at the Cape Verdean coast. While diel variability in CH3I emissions could be mainly ascribed to oceanic non-biological production, no main driver was identified for its emissions over the entire study region. In contrast, biological parameters showed the greatest influence on the regional distribution of sea-to-air fluxes of bromocarbons. The diel impact of wind speed on bromocarbon emissions increased with decreasing distance to the coast. The height of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) influenced halocarbon emissions via its influence on atmospheric mixing ratios. Oceanic and atmospheric halocarbons correlated well in the study region, and in combination with high oceanic CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 concentrations, local hot spots of atmospheric halocarbons could

  12. Seamless hydrological predictions for a monsoon driven catchment in North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, Lisei; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological forecasting systems on different time scales is interesting and challenging with regards to humanitarian as well as scientific aspects. In meteorological research, short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts are now being merged to form a system of seamless weather and climate predictions. Coupling of these meteorological forecasts with a hydrological model leads to seamless predictions of streamflow, ranging from one day to a season. While there are big efforts made to analyse the uncertainties of probabilistic streamflow forecasts, knowledge of the single uncertainty contributions from meteorological and hydrological modeling is still limited. The overarching goal of this project is to gain knowledge in this subject by decomposing and quantifying the overall predictive uncertainty into its single factors for the entire seamless forecast horizon. Our study area is the Mahanadi River Basin in North-East India, which is prone to severe floods and droughts. Improved streamflow forecasts on different time scales would contribute to early flood warning as well as better water management operations in the agricultural sector. Because of strong inter-annual monsoon variations in this region, which are, unlike the mid-latitudes, partly predictable from long-term atmospheric-oceanic oscillations, the Mahanadi catchment represents an ideal study site. Regionalized precipitation forecasts are obtained by applying the method of expanded downscaling to the ensemble prediction systems of ECMWF and NCEP. The semi-distributed hydrological model HYPSO-RR, which was developed in the Eco-Hydrological Simulation Environment ECHSE, is set up for several sub-catchments of the Mahanadi River Basin. The model is calibrated automatically using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm, with a modified Nash-Sutcliff efficiency as objective function. Meteorological uncertainty is estimated from the existing ensemble simulations, while the hydrological uncertainty is

  13. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of a floodplain tree species Barringtonia acutangula from North East India.

    PubMed

    Nath, Shikhasmita; Nath, Arun Jyoti; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenology of Barringtonia acutangula, a floodplain tree species was studied at Chatla floodplain, Assam North East India with the aim to investigate vegetative and reproductive phenology under stressful environment of seasonal submergence and to assess the impact of environmental variables (temperature and precipitation) on tree phenophases. Quantitative assessment was made at 15 day interval for all the phenophases (leaf initiation, leaf-fall, flowering and fruiting) by tagging 40 (forty) trees over aperiod of two years (2012-14).To test seasonal influence on the phenology of Barringtonia acutangula different phenophases were correlated with environmental variables and statistical spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed. Aridity index was computed that delineate influence of rainfall and temperature together on any phenophases. Leaf initiation showed positively significant correlation with temperature (r(s) = 0.601, p = < .05) during the year 2012-2013 whereas it was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) during the year 2013-2014. Leaf-fall was significant negatively correlated with temperature (r(s) = -0.623, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) for both the studied years. Flowering was significantly influenced by temperature (r(s) = 0.639, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) while in one month lag flowering was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.678, p = < .01) in 2012-13. Fruiting was also positively significant with temperature (r(s) = 0.795, P < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) for both the years. During one month lag period fruiting was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall and aridity index in both the years. Temperature, rainfall and aridity index were major

  14. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of a floodplain tree species Barringtonia acutangula from North East India.

    PubMed

    Nath, Shikhasmita; Nath, Arun Jyoti; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenology of Barringtonia acutangula, a floodplain tree species was studied at Chatla floodplain, Assam North East India with the aim to investigate vegetative and reproductive phenology under stressful environment of seasonal submergence and to assess the impact of environmental variables (temperature and precipitation) on tree phenophases. Quantitative assessment was made at 15 day interval for all the phenophases (leaf initiation, leaf-fall, flowering and fruiting) by tagging 40 (forty) trees over aperiod of two years (2012-14).To test seasonal influence on the phenology of Barringtonia acutangula different phenophases were correlated with environmental variables and statistical spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed. Aridity index was computed that delineate influence of rainfall and temperature together on any phenophases. Leaf initiation showed positively significant correlation with temperature (r(s) = 0.601, p = < .05) during the year 2012-2013 whereas it was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) during the year 2013-2014. Leaf-fall was significant negatively correlated with temperature (r(s) = -0.623, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) for both the studied years. Flowering was significantly influenced by temperature (r(s) = 0.639, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) while in one month lag flowering was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.678, p = < .01) in 2012-13. Fruiting was also positively significant with temperature (r(s) = 0.795, P < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) for both the years. During one month lag period fruiting was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall and aridity index in both the years. Temperature, rainfall and aridity index were major

  15. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. Results: There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. Limitations: It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. Conclusion: The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and

  16. A new species of Neparholaspis (Acari: Parholaspididae) from Russia, with additional information on Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Irina I

    2016-01-01

    Neparholaspis dubatolovi sp. nov. is described and illustrated from adult females and males collected from litter and moss in montane forest in north-eastern Sikhote-Alin Ridge in the Far East of Russia. Additional morphological information and illustrations of Neparholaspis evansi Krantz, 1960 are provided, based on examination of a paratype. A key to the world species of Neparholaspis is provided. PMID:27615851

  17. Chapter 27: Geology and petroleum potential of the north and east margins of the Siberian Craton, north of the Arctic Circle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Wandrey, C.J.; Pitman, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Siberian Craton consists of crystalline rocks and superimposed Precambrian sedimentary rocks deposited in rift basins. Palaeozoic rocks, mainly carbonates, were deposited along the margins of the craton to form an outwardly younger concentric pattern that underlies an outward-thickening Mesozoic sedimentary section. The north and east margins of the Siberian Craton subsequently became foreland basins created by compressional deformation during collision with other tectonic plates. The Tunguska Basin developed as a Palaeozoic rift/sag basin over Proterozoic rifts. The geological provinces along the north and east margins of the Siberian Craton are immature with respect to exploration, so exploration-history analysis alone cannot be used for assessing undiscovered petroleum resources. Therefore, other areas from around the world having greater petroleum exploration maturity and similar geological characteristics, and which have been previously assessed, were used as analogues to aid in this assessment. The analogues included those of foreland basins and rift/sag basins that were later subjected to compression. The US Geological Survey estimated the mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional petroleum resources to be approximately 28 billion barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 103 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the North and East Margins of the Siberian Craton, Russian Federation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    Four geologic provinces located along the north and east margins of the Siberian craton were assessed for undiscovered crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids/condensates resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimated the mean undiscovered, conventional petroleum resources in these provinces to be approximately 28 billion barrels of oil equivalent, including approximately 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 106 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 3 billion barrels of natural gas liquids.

  19. One new species and a new record of the genus Chordodes (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Yadav, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater Nematomorpha have been described from India, five of which belong to the genus Chordodes. This paper describes one new species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha): Chordodes lasuboni and a new record, C. moutoni from North-East India, which raises the total number of described species from India to 17. Chordodes lasuboni is characterized by a novel cuticular pattern in the head region and by the presence of slender, hooked thorn areoles on the body cuticle. Compared to the large size and ecological diversity of India, the nematomorph fauna is regarded as under-sampled and several new species are to be expected.

  20. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.