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Sample records for north indian caste

  1. Comparative Approach to the Study of a White-Indian-Negro Caste System in Robeson County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Dennis Michael

    Attempting to find empirical evidence to support an hypothesis on the social stratification system in Robeson County, North Carolina, the study theorized that there exists a caste system in which the Lumbee Indians have a status between the dominant whites and subordinate Negro groups. The Lumbees and their relationship to these other groups were…

  2. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the Cherokee Indians from the mid-sixteenth century to modern day depicts an industrious tribe adversely affected by the settlement movement only to make exceptional economic advancements with the aid of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Civic pride and self-leadership among the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina has…

  3. Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past.

  4. Indians of North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  5. Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

    2004-02-03

    The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society.

  6. Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups.

  7. DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DE LAVAUD CASTING FACING NORTH, NOTE CORE MOUNTED IN PREPARATION FOR NEXT PIPE CASTING. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.

    PubMed

    Bamshad, M; Kivisild, T; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Ricker, C E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Prasad, B V; Reddy, P G; Rasanayagam, A; Papiha, S S; Villems, R; Redd, A J; Hammer, M F; Nguyen, S V; Carroll, M L; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

    2001-06-01

    The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements

  9. Adaptive significance of the Indian caste system: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, M; Malhotra, K C

    1983-01-01

    Indian society is an agglomeration of several thousand endogamous groups or castes each with a restricted geographical range and a hereditarily determined mode of subsistence. These reproductively isolated castes may be compared to biological species, and the society thought of as a biological community with each caste having its specific ecological niche. In this paper we examine the ecological-niche relationships of castes which are directly dependent on natural resources. Evidence is presented to show that castes living together in the same region had so organized their pattern of resource use as to avoid excessive intercaste competition for limiting resources. Furthermore, territorial division of the total range of the caste regulated intra-caste competition. Hence, a particular plant or animal resource in a given locality was used almost exclusively by a given lineage within a caste generation after generation. This favoured the cultural evolution of traditions ensuring sustainable use of natural resources. This must have contributed significantly to the stability of Indian caste society over several thousand years. The collapse of the base of natural resources and increasing monetarization of the economy has, however, destroyed the earlier complementarity between the different castes and led to increasing conflicts between them in recent years.

  10. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one’s profession became ‘hereditary,’ resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one’s caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual’s status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a ‘black sheep effect,’ that is, when high caste individuals’ group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is ‘Caste norm consistent’ (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa ‘Caste norm inconsistent’ condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the ‘black sheep’ effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society.

  11. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  12. HLA-B27 allele diversity in Indians: impact of ethnic origin and the caste system.

    PubMed

    Shankarkumar, U

    2003-01-01

    HLA-B27 is a serological specificity which encompasses an increasing number of subtypes that show varied racial/ethnic prevalence in the world. Here, data from 5129 Indians (4500 population and caste; 629 tribal) is compiled from the literature. In addition, HLA-B27 subtyping of 58 positive individuals from Maharastra is presented. Analysis revealed an increased B27 antigen frequency among the north Indian groups (>5%) compared to the south Indian groups (<5%). HLA-B27 subtyping identified B*2704 (34.48%), B*2705 (36.2%), B*2707 (15.51%), B*2708 (10.34%) and B*2714 (3.44%) alleles in the population groups from Maharastra, but these differed in their distribution among the caste and tribal groups studied. The study showed that more extensive subtyping in other Indian caste groups will be necessary to resolve the evolutionary implications of HLA-B27 subtypes and their relationship to disease association in the Indian context.

  13. 126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING CAST SHED NO. 2, FURNACE NO. 2, STOVES, POWER HOUSE, STACKS, FURNACE NO. 1 CAST SHED. FURNACE NO. 2 IS IN PROCESS OF RESTORATION. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH NEWER CHECK AND TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  16. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  18. NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH END OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND CAST AND ENGINE SHED, WITH BLOWER HOUSE TO THE EAST AND CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE TO THE WEST, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  19. 66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. LOOKING NORTH INSIDE THE CAST HOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. THE IRON RUNNER IS IN THE FOREGROUND, AND THE BLOWERS CONTROL ROOM IS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPHER. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. Genetics Home Reference: North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions North American Indian childhood cirrhosis ...

  1. Intersocietal Relationships by Evolutionary Levels among North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Extends use of evolutionary theory in understanding developmental processes within societies for examining patterns occuring between societies. Emphasizes North American Indian situations. Examines four degrees of intersocietal integration: first contact, low, medium and high. (MH)

  2. North Atlantic forcing of tropical Indian Ocean climate.

    PubMed

    Mohtadi, Mahyar; Prange, Matthias; Oppo, Delia W; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Merkel, Ute; Zhang, Xiao; Steinke, Stephan; Lückge, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The response of the tropical climate in the Indian Ocean realm to abrupt climate change events in the North Atlantic Ocean is contentious. Repositioning of the intertropical convergence zone is thought to have been responsible for changes in tropical hydroclimate during North Atlantic cold spells, but the dearth of high-resolution records outside the monsoon realm in the Indian Ocean precludes a full understanding of this remote relationship and its underlying mechanisms. Here we show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation including a southward shift in the rising branch (the intertropical convergence zone) and an overall weakening over the southern Indian Ocean. Our results are based on new, high-resolution sea surface temperature and seawater oxygen isotope records of well-dated sedimentary archives from the tropical eastern Indian Ocean for the past 45,000 years, combined with climate model simulations of Atlantic circulation slowdown under Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 3 boundary conditions. Similar conditions in the east and west of the basin rule out a zonal dipole structure as the dominant forcing of the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate of millennial-scale events. Results from our simulations and proxy data suggest dry conditions in the northern Indian Ocean realm and wet and warm conditions in the southern realm during North Atlantic cold spells.

  3. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  4. First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetmore, Ruth Y.

    Written for students at the secondary level, this book details the historical development (10,000 B.C. to the present) of the 3 American Indian linguistic groups located in the 4 geographical areas of North Carolina (the Algonquians on the coast, the Iroquoians, including the Tuscarora on the coastal plain and the Cherokee in the mountains, and…

  5. Thanksgiving Address of the North American Indian Ohenton Kariwatehkwen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Watenriio (Michael), Comp.; And Others

    Translated by the North American Indian Travelling College, this traditional Thanksgiving Address is delivered before and after all meetings and ceremonies of the Iroquois people. Through this address, the Creator is introduced into a ceremony, social dance, or council, and, at the end of the meeting, the address brings the minds of the people…

  6. North Indian Weddings: Speech Events Reflecting and Reinforcing Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remlinger, Kathryn A.

    A study examined traditional Hindi songs typically sung by women during north Indian weddings, using pragmatic and semantic analysis. Some historical and cultural background for the practice of women's singing at weddings is offered. It is suggested that gender roles are defined and regulated through the language of this speech event, and that…

  7. North American Indians: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's resource guide produced by the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) is a collection of materials about North American Indians covering 3 categories, including an introduction, selected bibliographies, and a listing photographs and portraits. Additionally, there is a collecting of answers to questions that…

  8. Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation.…

  9. Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Ganeshprasad; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Kavitha, Valampuri John; Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S; Royyuru, Ajay K; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.

  10. Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R. Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G.; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4–6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India. PMID:23209694

  11. Evaluation of facial divine proportion in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naseem Ahmad; Nagar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gulshan Kumar; Singh, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the facial divine proportion and its relationship with facial attractiveness in North Indian population. Materials and Methods: For evaluation of various facial proportions, standardized frontal facial photographs of total 300 subjects between 18 and 30 years of age were obtained. Black and white copies of these photographs were presented in front of an evaluation jury for assigning scores of facial attractiveness and finally 130 attractive subjects were selected. These subjects were divided into two groups, Group I (attractive females n = 65) and Group II (attractive males n = 65) and they were further analyzed for various parameters of facial proportions. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare both groups. Results: Group I showed that five of seven vertical facial proportions were close to divine proportion (1.618) whereas only two vertical proportions in Group II were close to it. Transverse facial proportions in both groups deviated more from divine proportion (1.618) and were closer to silver proportion (1.414). Conclusions: Most of the facial proportions of attractive females in the North-Indian population were close to the divine proportion. Thus, facial divine proportion could be an important factor in the perception of facial attractiveness of North-Indian attractive females. PMID:27630502

  12. Determination of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kumar, Raj

    2007-05-01

    A forensic medicine specialist, while a conducting medico-legal autopsy, is often asked to opine about the identity of the deceased in unknown fragmentary and dismembered remains. Determination of stature is an important aspect in establishing identity in such cases. Sometimes, cephalo-facial remains are brought for postmortem and forensic examination. The aim of the present study was to estimate the stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in a sample of 252 Koli male adolescents from North India. As a part of Indian caste system, Kolis are an endogamous group of North India. Along with stature, sixteen cephalo-facial measurements were taken on each subject. The findings suggest that all the cephalo-facial measurements are significantly correlated with stature (P<0.001, P<0.01); the measurements of the cephalic region have strong correlation with stature than those of the facial region. This was also supported by the regression analysis, which shows that the cephalic measurements give better prediction of stature. Reliability of the regression formulae was checked by comparing the estimated and actual stature within the same sample (genetically homogeneous population, n=252) and in another sample taken from a mixed population of North India (genetically heterogeneous population, n=90).

  13. Development of a regional model for the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Hasibur; Ravichandran, M.; Sengupta, Debasis; Harrison, Matthew J.; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a one-way nested Indian Ocean regional model. The model combines the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM4p1) at global climate model resolution (nominally one degree), and a regional Indian Ocean MOM4p1 configuration with 25 km horizontal resolution and 1 m vertical resolution near the surface. Inter-annual global simulations with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II) surface forcing over years 1992-2005 provide surface boundary conditions. We show that relative to the global simulation, (i) biases in upper ocean temperature, salinity and mixed layer depth are reduced, (ii) sea surface height and upper ocean circulation are closer to observations, and (iii) improvements in model simulation can be attributed to refined resolution, more realistic topography and inclusion of seasonal river runoff. Notably, the surface salinity bias is reduced to less than 0.1 psu over the Bay of Bengal using relatively weak restoring to observations, and the model simulates the strong, shallow halocline often observed in the North Bay of Bengal. There is marked improvement in subsurface salinity and temperature, as well as mixed layer depth in the Bay of Bengal. Major seasonal signatures in observed sea surface height anomaly in the tropical Indian Ocean, including the coastal waveguide around the Indian peninsula, are simulated with great fidelity. The use of realistic topography and seasonal river runoff brings the three dimensional structure of the East India Coastal Current and West India Coastal Current much closer to observations. As a result, the incursion of low salinity Bay of Bengal water into the south-eastern Arabian Sea is more realistic.

  14. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2009-01-01

    Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions.

  15. Seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclogenesis over the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.

    2016-03-01

    Over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) and particularly over the Bay of Bengal (BoB), the post-monsoon season from October to December (OND) are known to produce tropical cyclones, which cause damage to life and property over India and many neighbouring countries. The variability of frequency of cyclonic disturbances (CDs) during OND season is found to be associated with variability of previous large-scale features during monsoon season from June to September, which is used to develop seasonal forecast model of CDs frequency over the BoB and NIO based on principal component regression (PCR). Six dynamical/thermodynamical parameters during previous June-August, viz., (i) sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial central Pacific, (ii) sea level pressure (SLP) over the southeastern equatorial Indian Ocean, (iii) meridional wind over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean at 850 hPa, (iv) strength of upper level easterly, (v) strength of monsoon westerly over North Indian Ocean at 850 hPa, and (vi) SST over the northwest Pacific having significant and stable relationship with CDs over BoB in subsequent OND season are used in PCR model for a training period of 40 years (1971-2010) and the latest four years (2011-2014) are used for validation. The PCR model indicates highly significant correlation coefficient of 0.77 (0.76) between forecast and observed frequency of CD over the BoB (NIO) for the whole period of 44 years and is associated with the root mean square error and mean absolute error ≤ 1 CD. With respect to the category forecast of CD frequency over BoB and NIO, the Hit score is found to be about 63% and the Relative Operating Curves (ROC) for above and below normal forecast is found to be having much better forecast skill than the climatology. The PCR model performs very well, particularly for the above and below normal CD year over the BoB and the NIO, during the test period from 2011 to 2014.

  16. Prevalence of Taurodont molars in a North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Chandra, Anil; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Arya, Deeksha

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is very important for dentists to be familiar with anomalies of teeth not only for the clinical complications but also their management. Taurodontism also provides a valuable clue in detecting its association with various syndromes and other systemic conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Taurodont molars among a North Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 patients’ full-mouth periapical radiographs were screened. The radiographs were evaluated under optimal conditions using double magnifying glasses. A total of 7615 molars (including third molars) were evaluated. The relative incidence and the correlations regarding the location of Taurodont teeth (right versus left side and maxillary versus mandibular) were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Twenty-eight patients were found to have a Taurodont molar (11 women and 17 men [P = 0.250]). The prevalence of Taurodont molar was 2.8%. Males had a higher prevalence rate than females (3.4% vs. 2.2%, respectively). A cluster analysis of total Taurodonts in the mandible (45%) versus maxilla (55%) of both males and females combined showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The occurrence of Taurodontism is basically based on racial expression in different populations. These variations in prevalence between different populations may be due to ethnic variations. The occurrence of Taurodont molars among this Indian population was rare. PMID:25767357

  17. Incidental Learning of Melodic Structure of North Indian Music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Widdess, Richard

    2016-11-17

    Musical knowledge is largely implicit. It is acquired without awareness of its complex rules, through interaction with a large number of samples during musical enculturation. Whereas several studies explored implicit learning of mostly abstract and less ecologically valid features of Western music, very little work has been done with respect to ecologically valid stimuli as well as non-Western music. The present study investigated implicit learning of modal melodic features in North Indian classical music in a realistic and ecologically valid way. It employed a cross-grammar design, using melodic materials from two modes (rāgas) that use the same scale. Findings indicated that Western participants unfamiliar with Indian music incidentally learned to identify distinctive features of each mode. Confidence ratings suggest that participants' performance was consistently correlated with confidence, indicating that they became aware of whether they were right in their responses; that is, they possessed explicit judgment knowledge. Altogether our findings show incidental learning in a realistic ecologically valid context during only a very short exposure, they provide evidence that incidental learning constitutes a powerful mechanism that plays a fundamental role in musical acquisition.

  18. Sex determination from hand dimensions of North and South Indians.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Rastogi, Prateek

    2009-05-01

    When dismembered human remains are encountered, the decedent's sex may not be obvious. For these scenarios, techniques for sex determination may play a vital part of the medicolegal investigation. Five hundred hands (230 males, 270 females) from North and South Indian region were studied to investigate sexual dimorphism in hand dimensions (hand length, hand breadth, and palm length). The hand index (hand breadth/hand length x 100) and the palm index (hand breadth/palm length x 100) were derived. The hand dimensions show a higher accuracy in sex determination when compared to indices. Of all hand dimensions, hand breadth has the highest accuracy of sex determination in the study group. The sex differences were found to be statistically significant only for the hand index on the left side. The morphometric parameters of the hand show considerable sexual dimorphism in the Indian population while the hand and palm index remain poor sex indicators. The study thus has medicolegal implications when a dismembered hand is brought for examination.

  19. Cultures in the North: Aleut; Athabascan Indian; Eskimo; Haida Indian; Tlingit Indian; Tsimpshian Indian. Multi-Media Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isto, Sarah A., Comp.

    The wide variety of books and informational resources presently available about the American Indian people of Alaska reflect their cultural diversity. Intended to assist the teacher in identifying, collecting, and assessing useful materials on the Alaska Native cultures, this publication cites approximately 406 books, periodicals, films,…

  20. Role of south Indian Ocean swells in modulating the north Indian Ocean wave climate through modelling and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.

    2012-04-01

    Implementation and validation of a third generation wave model, Wavewatch III was used to study the characteristics of the south Indian ocean swells and their propagation in the north Indian Ocean. The NCEP reanalysis wind data (2.5° x 2.5°) has been used to generate the wind waves for the entire Indian Ocean during 2006 - 2007. The modelled wave parameters have been compared with measured buoy data and with merged altimeter data. The model results show good agreement with the buoy and altimeter data. A case study is carried out to study the propagation of the swells generated at the roaring 40°S in the Indian Ocean during May 2007. The "southern swell" occurred during May 2007 has been successfully reproduced in the wave model, which confirmed by the comparison of modelled significant wave heights with the merged altimeter significant wave heights. These swells were generated in the Atlantic ocean near the southern tip of South Africa and propagated towards the north Indian Ocean. These waves touches the Madagascar region and further hits the La Reunion islands after three days thus creating numerous damages near the islands. The magnitude of the swell is around 15m near the generation area and it reduces to around 6m near the La Reunion islands while propagating towards the north Indian Ocean. Further the swell energy is spataially distributed in the northern and southern Indian Ocean. The study reveals that the swells generated in the roaring forties and propagating in the SW/SSW direction influences more to Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea. This occurs during pre-monsoon season primarily because large scale winds are weak in the north Indian Ocean during this period and hence swells from south Indian Ocean dominates at this time. The case of "southern swell" also happened to be at the same season. Further wave parameters were extracted at few locations in the northern Indian Ocean to study the impact of May 2007 swells on the wave climate. An average of around

  1. Dd-antigen-antibody system in five caste groups in north India.

    PubMed

    Berry, V; Kaur, H

    1991-12-01

    Antigen Dd, a polymorphic antigen found in extracts of certain human dandruff specimens, was investigated in five caste groups of north India. The incidence of antigen Dd-positive type varied from 21.21 per cent in Brahmins to 29.08 per cent in the Jat Sikhs of Punjab. However, a high frequency (45%) was observed in the Sunni Muslims of Kashmir, which differed significantly, when compared with different caste groups of Punjab. Family studies on 44 families indicated its inherited nature, the mode of inheritance being autosomal dominant.

  2. High-resolution Quantification of Turbulent Mixing in the North Indian Ocean During the Monsoons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    High-resolution quantification of turbulent mixing in the North Indian Ocean during the monsoons Sutanu Sarkar Department of Mechanical and...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-resolution Quantification of Turbulent Mixing in the North Indian Ocean During the...the upper ocean surface of the Bay of Bengal. Understanding such processes will help improve the parametrization of momentum and heat fluxes across

  3. Morphometric Evaluation of Adult Acromion Process in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dimensions of acromion process are important to show linkage to the shoulder girdle pathologies. Also morphometric analysis of acromion process would be helpful for surgeons while performing surgical procedures on the shoulder joint. Aim The purpose of this present study was to observe the detailed morphometric evaluation of adult acromion processes in North Indian population because different morphometric dimensions play an important role in various disorders of the shoulder, particularly sub acromial impingement syndrome. Materials and Methods Two hundred adult dry scapulae from the osteology museum of MAMC, New Delhi, were obtained for evaluation of various measurement of acromion process. The length, width, thickness of acromion, coraco-acromial (C-A) distance and acromio-glenoid (Ac-g) distance were measured. The measurements were compared with other osteological studies performed on different population group. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12.0 and mean values with standard deviation for each dimension were presented. Results The mean values of each measurement were: length: 41.007 mm; width: 21.82 mm; thickness: 6.58 mm; C-A distance: 28.34 mm and Ac-g distance: 26.21 mm. Conclusion It is expected that various dimensions of adult acromion process will serve as a reference base and will assist the surgeon in the approach to be used and precision of the operative technique. So, the study will provide a vital support for planning and executing acromioplasty in the treatment of impingement syndrome. PMID:28273959

  4. Cadaveric Study of Berretini Communications in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Rajan Kumar; Kullar, Jagdev Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intercommunication between peripheral nerves deserves special attention in view of their clinical significance. Superficial palmar communication between the median nerve and ulnar nerve is referred to as Berrettini Anastomosis. The presence or absence of this communicating branch varies between individuals. Earlier, incidence of Berretini communication reported varied significantly (4-94%). Aim The aim of this study was to find out the frequency with which Berretini communication is found in North Indians. Materials and Methods The present study was conducted on 60 upper limbs of 30 cadavers at the Government Medical College, Amritsar. The whole course of the median nerve and the ulnar nerve was exposed. Communicating rami in the hand were identified, cleaned and photographed. Results In all the six (10%) variant limbs, the communicating branch originated from lateral common palmar digital branch of ulnar nerve and joined medial common palmar digital branch of median nerve. Single communication with oblique course was seen in all the variants. Further, its ontogeny and clinical implications have been discussed in detail. Conclusion The Berretini anastomosis was seen in 10% upper limbs of the present study. Damage to the communicating branch or the severing of the branch might result in sensory loss which may be difficult to diagnose owing to the large number of variations in the origin of the communicating branch. The patterns of sensory impairment may vary depending upon the branch of median and ulnar nerve it is seen connecting. PMID:27504271

  5. North Equatorial Indian Ocean Convection and Indian Summer Monsoon June Progression: a Case Study of 2013 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Bhupendra Bahadur

    2017-02-01

    The consecutive summer monsoons of 2013 and 2014 over the Indian subcontinent saw very contrasting onsets and progressions during the initial month. While the 2013 monsoon saw the timely onset and one of the fastest progressions during the recent decades, 2014 had a delayed onset and a slower progression phase. The monthly rainfall of June 2013 was +34 %, whereas in 2014 it was -43 % of its long-period average. The progress/onset of monsoon in June is influenced by large-scale circulation and local feedback processes. But, in 2013 (2014), one of the main reasons for the timely onset and fastest progression (delayed onset and slower progression) was the persistent strong (weak) convection over the north equatorial Indian Ocean during May. This resulted in a strong (weak) Hadley circulation with strong (weak) ascent and descent over the north equatorial Indian Ocean and the South Indian Ocean, respectively. The strong (weak) descent over the south Indian Ocean intensified (weakened) the Mascarene High, which in turn strengthened (weakened) the cross-equatorial flow and hence the monsoonal circulation.

  6. Myths about diabetes and its treatment in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Mridula; Kishore, Jugal

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myths prevailing about diabetes in the society have become a major hurdle for its proper treatment and control. AIM: To find out about various myths related to diabetes and its treatment in the population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital of Delhi in 2008. 124 diabetic patients attending the regular diabetic clinic, 78 people who accompanied these patients and 214 non-diabetic people were included in the study. A pre-tested interview schedule with 48 questions was used to get information about sociodemographic characteristics and myths about diabetes. Data was analyzed by Epi info software version 3.2. RESULTS: The most common myth in the population (22%) was that eating more sugar causes diabetes. Others were: diabetes can only occur in old age, soaking feet in water can help control blood sugar, diabetes is a result of past sins and is cured by spiritual treatment. Myths were significantly more common in females, non-diabetics, less educated group. There was a slightly higher prevalence of myths in Muslim population. 12.1% of diabetics were taking herbal medicines. 15.9% of the diabetics and 26% of non diabetics were unaware that complications could occur if diabetes was uncontrolled. 18.5% of diabetics and 30.1% of non-diabetics were unaware about role of diet and lifestyle measures in control of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of myths about diabetes is high in North Indian population which could be associated with poor early health seeking behavior and poor compliance with treatment. PMID:20165650

  7. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt.

  8. Soft tissue cephalometric norms for a North Indian population group using Legan and Burstone analysis.

    PubMed

    Jain, P; Kalra, J P S

    2011-03-01

    Cephalometric norms are used for providing guidance to clinicians during diagnosis and treatment planning. Most classical norms are not applicable to diverse racial and ethnic population hence the purpose of this study was to establish the soft tissue norms of a North Indian population group using Legan and Burstone soft tissue analysis. The study was conducted on 60 adult subjects with esthetically pleasing profiles aged 18-25 years. Standardized lateral cephalograms were taken in a natural head position and analyzed. North Indians were found to have more convex faces, protrusive lips and acute nasolabial angles compared with Caucasians. Males had more convex faces and protrusive lips than females. This North Indian population group had significant deviations from the Caucasian standards. Considerable diversity was also found for some of the soft tissue variables in males and females.

  9. Sexual dimorphism in foot length ratios among North Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Passi, Neelam; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-11-01

    Determination of sex along with other parameters of identification like stature, age and ancestry is one of the foremost criteria in establishing the biological profile of an individual. The present study was conducted to analyze the sex differences in the foot length ratios in a North Indian adolescent population. The study was conducted on 149 females and 154 males aged from 13 to 18 years. Foot length measurements were taken from pternion to the most anterior part of each toe and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively for first to fifth toes on both the feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. A total of ten ratios (T1:T2, T1:T3, T1:T4, T1:T5, T2:T3, T2:T4, T2:T5, T3:T4, T3:T5, and T4:T5) were thus, obtained and the same were analyzed for sex differences using Student's t-test. Stature was measured in each participant and Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to find the correlation between various foot length ratios, age and stature. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to test the sexing accuracy of the variables. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Foot length dimensions from each toe (T1 to T5) and stature were found to be significantly higher in males than females. The foot length ratios did not show any statistically significant correlation with stature. Statistically significant sex differences were exhibited by ratios between T1 and T2 (p = 0.002), T1 and T3 (p = 0.001), T1 and T4 (p < 0.001), T1 and T5 (p = 0.001), and T2 and T4 (p = 0.014). Maximum sex differences were evident for foot length ratio between T1 and T4 (63.4%), and minimum for the ratio between T2 and T4 (56.5%). Though foot length measurements are significantly larger in males, its utility in sex differentiation may be limited owing to its direct correlation with stature of an individual. It has been observed that the foot length ratios are independent of stature and thus

  10. A Critical Bibliography on North American Indians, for K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaupp, P. Ann, Comp.; Burnett, Fiona, Comp.; Malloy, Maureen, Comp.; Wilson, Cheryl, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography is a response to teachers' concerns about choosing culturally sensitive and historically accurate books about American Indians and Alaska Natives. It contains critical annotations and evaluations of approximately 1,000 books, most published 1960-93, and points out controversial titles and disagreements about specific…

  11. Some Concepts of Sacred Space Among North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, John T.; Irby, Charles C.

    Since sacred space is revealed in the symbolism of the center, and sacred time is revealed in traditional Native American cosmogony (according to Mircea Eliade), the symbols of the center and the myths of origin were analyzed for the: Naskapi; Pomo; Paiute; Navajo; Ojibwa; and Delaware American Indians. Analysis revealed the following: (1) for the…

  12. Enactments of Discursive Empowerment in Narratives of Medium of Education by North Indian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Priti

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine how women in a north Indian city narratively construct their identities in relation to medium of education (MoE)--English only (EME), Hindi only (HME), and a combination of both. I specifically analyze how the participants discursively articulate empowerment or disempowerment while narrating stories connected to their MoEs.…

  13. Establishment of soft tissue norms for the north Indian population based on laymen perception.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankur; Garg, Jaishree; Anand, Neelima; Hegde, Manjunath; Parashar, Sandeep

    2014-03-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the soft tissue norms for the North Indian population based on the laymen perception of facial esthetics and to test the hypothesis that there are racial differences in cephalometric measurement between North Indians and White Americans norms. Two sets (Facial frontal and profile photographs) of 170 standardized facial photographs (76 males and 94 females in the age group of 18-28 years) were taken. A panel of judges which consisted of 20 laymen evaluated the photographs on the visual analogue scale to select a sample of 120 subjects (60 males and 60 females), which included individuals with esthetically pleasing appearance. Digital lateral cephalograms were made and anatomic landmarks were identified directly on the digital images. Seventeen soft tissue variables taken from Subtenley's, Holdaway's, Ricketts and Legan's analysis were calculated electronically using the Dolphin (version 9) software package. Most measurements were similar to the white American norms, some differences were noticed in nasal prominence, basic upper lip thickness, and 'H' angle measurements. The independent-sample t test was used to compare the measurement differences of the North Indian men and women. North Indian males have relatively prominent and thicker upper lip, and increased basic upper lip thickness than the females. Lower lip was found to be more protrusive in females than in males.

  14. Prediction equations for diffusing capacity (transfer factor) of lung for North Indians

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Rajeev; Gupta, Uday A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prediction equations for diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar volume (VA), and DLCO/VA using the current standardization guidelines are not available for Indian population. The present study was carried out to develop equations for these parameters for North Indian adults and examine the ethnic diversity in predictions. Materials and Methods: DLCO was measured by single-breath technique and VA by single-breath helium dilution using standardized methodology in 357 (258 males, 99 females) normal nonsmoker adult North Indians and DLCO/VA was computed. The subjects were randomized into training and test datasets for development of prediction equations by multiple linear regressions and for validation, respectively. Results: For males, the following equations were developed: DLCO, −7.813 + 0.318 × ht −0.624 × age + 0.00552 × age2; VA, −8.152 + 0.087 × ht −0.019 × wt; DLCO/VA, 7.315 − 0.037 × age. For females, the equations were: DLCO, −44.15 + 0.449 × ht −0.099 × age; VA, −6.893 + 0.068 × ht. A statistically acceptable prediction equation was not obtained for DLCO/VA in females. It was therefore computed from predicted DLCO and predicted VA. All equations were internally valid. Predictions of DLCO by Indian equations were lower than most Caucasian predictions in both males and females and greater than the Chinese predictions for males. Conclusion: This study has developed validated prediction equations for DLCO, VA, and DLCO/VA in North Indians. Substantial ethnic diversity exists in predictions for DLCO and VA with Caucasian equations generally yielding higher values than the Indian or Chinese equations. However, DLCO/VA predicted by the Indian equations is slightly higher than that by other equations. PMID:27625439

  15. Serogenetic variation in four caste populations of Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, K P; Chahal, S M; Bansal, I J; Chugh, O P; Sarojani

    1990-01-01

    The phenotypes and gene frequencies of 3 blood groups, 7 red-cell enzymes and a serum protein were studied in 4 caste population groups of Haryana, North India. The results indicate that the distribution of these blood markers is rather homogeneous in the 4 groups and generally resembles that observed in various populations from neighbouring North Indian states.

  16. Dermatology in the North American Indian/Alaska Native population.

    PubMed

    Kryatova, Maria S; Okoye, Ginette A

    2016-02-01

    Dermatology is greatly understudied in the American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) population. This topic deserves attention in light of the changing demographics of the United States and the healthcare disparities faced by AIAN, including access to dermatologic care. In this review, we discuss disorders that are more prevalent or otherwise important in the AIAN population, such as cutaneous malignancies, photodermatoses, acanthosis nigricans, connective tissue disorders, cutaneous infections, hypertrophic scar formation, and Heck's disease. We aim to provide an updated review and increase awareness of the dermatologic needs of the AIAN population.

  17. The effects of migration on the establishment of networks: caste disintegration and reformation among the Indians of Fiji.

    PubMed

    Grieco, E M

    1998-01-01

    "This article focuses on how migration auspices affect the formation of migrant networks and ethnic communities. Using ethnographic data and migration histories to focus on caste ¿reformation' in the subcommunities of the Indians of Fiji, the ability to reestablish and maintain subcaste group ¿extensions' in Fiji is shown as directly related to the migration auspices that originally established the community. By determining the characteristics of migrants, the reason for migrating, and the magnitude and duration of migration streams, migration auspices define a migration type. This migration type affects the strength and density of social ties present in migration streams. It also affects the strength and density of network ties that members of a migrant community can establish in a receiving society."

  18. Prevalence of tooth size discrepancy among North Indian orthodontic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rekha; Kumar, Sushil; Singla, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a representative orthodontics population, to explore how many millimeters of TSD is clinically significant and to determine the ability of simple visual inspection to detect such a discrepancy. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 150 pretreatment study casts with fully erupted and complete permanent dentitions from first molar to first molar, which were selected randomly from records of the orthodontic patients. The mesiodistal diameters of the teeth were measured at contact points using digital calipers and the Bolton's analysis was carried out on them. Simple visual estimation of Bolton discrepancy was also performed. Results: In the sample group, 24% of the patients had anterior tooth width ratios and 8% had total arch ratios greater than ±2 standard deviation (SD) from Bolton's means. For the anterior analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 24% of patients in the upper arch or 14% in the lower arch. For the total arch analysis, correction greater than ±2 mm was required for 36% of patients in the upper arch or 32% in the lower arch. Conclusion: Bolton's analysis should be routinely performed in all orthodontic patients and the findings should be included in orthodontic treatment planning. 2 mm of the required tooth size correction is an appropriate threshold for clinical significance. Visual estimation of TSD has low sensitivity and specificity. Careful measurement is more frequently required in clinical practice than visual estimation would suggest. PMID:22090759

  19. Regional projections of North Indian climate for adaptation studies.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Camilla; Wiltshire, Andrew; Dimri, A P; Falloon, Pete; Jacob, Daniela; Kumar, Pankaj; Moors, Eddy; Ridley, Jeff; Siderius, Christian; Stoffel, Markus; Yasunari, T

    2013-12-01

    Adaptation is increasingly important for regions around the world where large changes in climate could have an impact on populations and industry. The Brahmaputra-Ganges catchments have a large population, a main industry of agriculture and a growing hydro-power industry, making the region susceptible to changes in the Indian Summer Monsoon, annually the main water source. The HighNoon project has completed four regional climate model simulations for India and the Himalaya at high resolution (25km) from 1960 to 2100 to provide an ensemble of simulations for the region. In this paper we have assessed the ensemble for these catchments, comparing the simulations with observations, to give credence that the simulations provide a realistic representation of atmospheric processes and therefore future climate. We have illustrated how these simulations could be used to provide information on potential future climate impacts and therefore aid decision-making using climatology and threshold analysis. The ensemble analysis shows an increase in temperature between the baseline (1970-2000) and the 2050s (2040-2070) of between 2 and 4°C and an increase in the number of days with maximum temperatures above 28°C and 35°C. There is less certainty for precipitation and runoff which show considerable variability, even in this relatively small ensemble, spanning zero. The HighNoon ensemble is the most complete data for the region providing useful information on a wide range of variables for the regional climate of the Brahmaputra-Ganges region, however there are processes not yet included in the models that could have an impact on the simulations of future climate. We have discussed these processes and show that the range from the HighNoon ensemble is similar in magnitude to potential changes in projections where these processes are included. Therefore strategies for adaptation must be robust and flexible allowing for advances in the science and natural environmental changes.

  20. Traditions and reproductive technology in an urbanizing north Indian village.

    PubMed

    Khanna, S K

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses the practices of prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion through ethnographic research in Shahargaon, a Jat village undergoing rapid urbanization and cultural change in north India. The paper presents the sociodemographic outcomes of sex-selective abortion practiced within a system of patriarchy, manifested in terms of son preference and daughter disfavor. It argues that changes from an agriculture to an urban economy have led to a decrease in family size among Shahargaon Jats. In spite of improvements in educational and economic status, there is a reinforcement of son preference and daughter disfavor in the Jat community in Shahargaon. Jat couples are using prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion to achieve smaller family size and to reduce the number of daughters in a family.

  1. Recurrent miscarriage and micro-RNA among north Indian women.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Farah; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2015-04-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse cellular processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Mutation in miRNAs results in various pathological conditions such as inflammation, viral infections, neurodegeneration, autoimmunity, and so on. We have evaluated the association of miR-146aC > G (rs2910164), miR-149T > C (rs2292832), miR-196a2T > C (rs11614913), and miR-499A > G (rs3746444) among patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and controls from North India. All the 200 patients with RM reported to experience at least 3 unexplained miscarriages before 20th week of gestation. Three hundred fertile women with no history of RMs were taken as controls. Both patients and controls were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Variant alleles and genotypes of miR-499 A > G (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database [dbSNP] ID rs3746444) were found to be significant risks associated with patients having RM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40-2.81; P value = .0001) and controls (OR = 3.64; 95% CI = 1.33-9.94; P value = .0109). A significant susceptible effect was found at allelic level in miR-196aT > C (dbSNP ID rs11614913) and miR-499 A > G (dbSNP ID rs3746444).

  2. The Response of the Indian Monsoon to North Atlantic Freshwater Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrill, C.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Paleoclimate records indicate that during some past abrupt climate changes, such as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and the 8.2 ka event, the Indian monsoon weakened and temperatures in the North Atlantic fell. It has been hypothesized that pulses of freshwater added to the North Atlantic could have led to this remote climate response in Asia. However, the physical mechanisms for the teleconnection have yet to be determined. To test this hypothesis, we present results from two experiments using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) coupled Community Climate System Model, version 3. In these experiments, we applied a 1 Sverdrup (1x106 m3/s) freshwater hosing over the North Atlantic between 50 and 70 degrees N for 100 years. The two experiments used boundary conditions relevant for 8.5 ka and 21 ka (Last Glacial Maximum). Both simulations show a statistically significant decrease in summer precipitation over India following freshwater addition to the North Atlantic. Precipitation in June-July-August decreases 40 % in the 21 ka simulation and 20 % in the 8.5 ka simulation. We will discuss whether these simulations provide support for any of the proposed pathways for the teleconnection. These include: an increase in Eurasian snowcover, an increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean, or a reduction in the temperature gradient across the tropical Pacific.

  3. Causes for the reversal of North Indian Ocean decadal sea level trend in recent two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasu, U.; Ravichandran, M.; Han, Weiqing; Sivareddy, S.; Rahman, H.; Li, Yuanlong; Nayak, Shailesh

    2017-03-01

    Using satellite and in-situ observations, ocean reanalysis products and model simulations, we show a distinct reversal of the North Indian Ocean (NIO, north of 5°S) sea level decadal trend between 1993-2003 and 2004-3013, after the global mean sea level rise is removed. Sea level falls from 1993 to 2003 (Period I) but rises sharply from 2004 to 2013 (Period II). Steric height, which is dominated by thermosteric sea level of the upper 700 m, explains most of the observed reversal, including the spatial patterns of sea level change. The decadal change of surface turbulent heat flux acts in concert with the change of meridional heat transport at 5°S, with both being driven by decadal change of surface winds over the Indian Ocean, to cause sea level fall during Period I and rise during Period II. While the effect of surface net heat flux is consistent among various data sets, the uncertainty is larger for meridional heat transport, which shows both qualitative and quantitative differences amongst different reanalyses. The effect of the Indonesian Throughflow on heat content and thus thermosteric sea level is limited to the South Indian Ocean, and has little influence on the NIO. Our new results point to the importance of surface winds in causing decadal sea level change of the NIO.

  4. Forcing of recent decadal variability in the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P. R.; Piecuch, C. G.; Merrifield, M. A.; McCreary, J. P.; Firing, E.

    2016-09-01

    Recent decadal sea surface height (SSH) variability across the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean (ENIO, north of 5°S) is spatially coherent and related to a reversal in basin-scale, upper-ocean-temperature trends. Analysis of ocean and forcing fields from a data-assimilating ocean synthesis (ECCOv4) suggests that two equally important mechanisms of wind-driven heat redistribution within the Indian Ocean account for a majority of the decadal variability. The first is the Cross-Equatorial Cell (CEC) forced by zonal wind stress curl at the equator. The wind stress curl variability relates to the strength and position of the Mascarene High, which is influenced by the phase of the Indian Ocean Subtropical Dipole. The second mechanism is deep (700 m) upwelling related to zonal wind stress at the equator that causes deep, cross-equatorial overturning due to the unique geometry of the basin. The CEC acts to cool the upper ocean throughout most of the first decade of satellite altimetry, while the deep upwelling delays and then amplifies the effect of the CEC on SSH. During the subsequent decade, reversals in the forcing anomalies drive warming of the upper ocean and increasing SSH, with the effect of the deep upwelling leading the CEC.

  5. Estimation of stature from hand dimensions of north and south Indians.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Prateek; Nagesh, K R; Yoganarasimha, K

    2008-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to predict the stature of a person using hand length and breadth. The study includes 500 right-hand dominant medical students aged between 20 and 30 years, from northern and southern parts of India, studying in Kasturba medical college, Manipal, India. Hand length was measured 'between the distal wrist crease and the tip of middle finger (HL-1)' and 'between the mid-point of inter-styloid line to the tip of middle finger (HL-2)'. Hand breadth was measured between radial side of the second metacarpophalyngeal joint and ulnar side of the fifth metacarpophalyngeal joint (HB). No significant difference was present in hand dimensions between north and south Indians. When compared between both hands, right-hand dimensions were larger than the left hand, with statistically significant difference in HL-2 and HB. Linear regression equations using hand length is more helpful in estimating stature than the hand breadth. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.673 to 0.665 and 0.740 to 0.732 in north Indian males and females, respectively. Whereas in south Indians, it ranged from 0.752 to 0.732 and 0.701 to 0.691 in males and females, respectively. Multiple regression equations give better results than linear regression equations. HL-2 gives more accurate results in stature estimation than the HL-1.

  6. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R

    1991-01-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

  7. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VII: The Indian Tribes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The publication, Part VII of a series, includes the charters, constitutions, articles of association or community organization, and by-laws of California Indians on 16 reservations and rancherias. Legal documents from the following groups are provided: Hoopa, Me-Wuk, and Paiute Indians; the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Mission Creek…

  8. Impact of XPD gene polymorphism on risk of prostate cancer on north Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Berhane, Nega; Melese, Shiferaw; Mahdi, Salih Abdul; Gupta, Libsy; Thakur, Hitender; Singh, Neha

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in men next to skin cancer in the developed world. Risk of disease varies most prominently with age, ethnicity, family history, and diet. Genetic polymorphism of some genes has been implicated in increasing the risk. The XPD (Xeroderma pigmentosum group D) gene codes for a DNA helicase involved in transcription and nucleotide excision repair. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of XPD 751 Lys/Gln polymorphism on risk of prostate cancer on north Indian patients. Blood sample from 150 prostate cancer patients, 150 from Prostate Hyper Plasia and equal number of samples from healthy control groups was collected from North India. The polymerase chain reaction and restrictive fragment length polymorphism techniques were implemented. Statistically non-significant increase risk of prostate cancer was observed with patients having Gln/Gln genotype (OR 1.62, 95% CI).

  9. Determination of sex by radiographic analysis of mental foramen in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Akhilesh; Singh, Anil; Badni, Manjunath; Jaiswal, Rohit; Agnihotri, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Identification and determination of sex of unknown human skeletal remains has been one of the most challenging tasks for forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the gender from the analysis of mental foramen on panoramic radiographs in a north Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred radiographs were selected for the analysis of mental foramen. Tangents were drawn to the superior and inferior borders of the foramen and perpendiculars were drawn from the tangents to the lower border of the mandible (S-L and I-L). The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The average values of S-L and I-L were significantly higher in males than in females, while the distances for the right and left sides of an individual were almost similar in both the male and the females group, and the results were non-significant. Conclusion: The distances from the mental foramen to the lower border of the mandible exhibit sexual dimorphism in the north Indian population. PMID:23960416

  10. Sitting occupations are an independent risk factor for Ischemic stroke in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Prasad, M; Kathuria, P

    2014-10-01

    Stroke is a multi-factorial disease and is influenced by complex environmental interactions. The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the relationship of sitting occupations with ischemic stroke in the North Indian population. In a hospital-based case-control study, age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from the outpatient department and the neurology ward of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Occupation along with other demographic and risk factor variables was measured in-person interview in standardized case record form. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio associated with ischemic stroke. Two hundred and twenty-four people post-stroke and 224 control participants were recruited from the period of February 2009 to February 2012. Mean age of cases and controls was 53.47 ± 14 and 52.92 ± 13.4, respectively. The occupations which involve sitting at work were independently associated with the risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for demographic and risk factor variables (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.12-3.8). The result of this study has shown an independent association between the sitting occupations and ischemic stroke in North Indian population. The present study supports the workplace health initiative to implement workplace physical activity policy and encourages employee to reduce the amount of time they spend sitting throughout the day.

  11. Overweight and obesity among North American Indian infants, children, and youth.

    PubMed

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults' size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan.

  12. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway in a healthy North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Shastri, Dipti; Tandon, Pradeep; Nagar, Amit; Singh, Alka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to obtain normative data for cephalometric measurements of the upper airway in the North Indian population. Design: Observational study. Setting: University department and teaching hospital out-patient clinic. Subjects and Methods: A total of 180 healthy patients were included out of which 90 were males (age range, 8-16 years), and 90 were females (age range, 8-16 years), with normal skeletal facial profile, no history of snoring, sleep apnea, upper airway disease, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, obesity, or pathology in the pharynx. Twenty cephalometric airway measurements, including size of the tongue, soft palate, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and relative position of the hyoid bone and valleculae were obtained. Landmarks on cephalometric radiographs were digitized and measurements were made using a specially designed computer program. Error analysis of measurements was performed and comparison of measurements according to sex was made. Results: Significant sex dimorphism was seen for the majority of measurements, with the exception of minimal depth of the airway, oropharyngeal depth of the airway, and the soft palate angle with the hard palate. Conclusion: A minimum sagittal dimension of the upper airway was evident despite differences in measurements between sexes. Findings from this study should be a useful reference for the assessment of sleep apnea in the North Indian population. PMID:26097352

  13. [North American Indians: A Collection of Bibliographies, Resource Lists, Questions and Answers, and Other Leaflets Prepared by the National Museum of Natural History].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This extensive collection of information and resource materials about North American Indians includes: (1) "A General Introduction to North American Indian Art"; (2) "Selected References on Native American Silverwork"; (3) "Selected References on Southwestern Native American Pottery"; (4) "Selected References on…

  14. Indian Government and Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starblanket, Noel V.

    1981-01-01

    Accountability for Indian education must be shared among the chiefs and their councils, the Indian leaders at all levels, parents and students. This may be accomplished by Indian control of Indian education. Available from: Department of Educational Foundations, 5-109 Education North, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 2G5. (ERB)

  15. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  16. Divorce in a rural north Indian area: evidence from Himachali villages.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1996-09-01

    This study focuses on divorce patterns in 10 rural villages near Shimla town, the capital of Himachal Pradesh, India. Data were obtained from a survey conducted in 1988 among 338 ever married women. Most villagers are Hindus. Caste groups include Brahmins (13%), Rajputs (45%), and Sudras (42%). Indian divorce consists in a permanent separation without legal formalities or an informal process within the panchayat judicial system. Large national studies indicate low levels of divorce, while local anthropological studies indicate high levels in some areas. This study in 1988 indicates that over 17% of women (58 out of 338) in Himachal villages were divorced at least once. Evidence suggests that divorces by cohort were higher prior to 1960. About 30% of women who married during 1951-60, 13% of women who married during 1971-80, and 3% of women who married during 1981-88 were divorced at least once. The mean age of marriage for ever divorced women was much lower than for never divorced women. The mean age at divorce was also much lower than the mean age at marriage among never divorced women. The variables associated with divorce at the 0.05 level of significance were marriage age, level of female education, age difference of spouses, and level of education of spouse and caste. Women who married before the age of 13 years were three times more likely to divorce than women who married at ages 13-15 years. Women with at least 5 years of education were four times less likely to divorce than uneducated women. Brahmin women were less likely to divorce. Women with uneducated husbands had a 50% greater chance of being divorced than women with primary educated husbands. Women who were younger by 10 years than their spouse were six times more likely to divorce.

  17. Native Agency and the Making of "The North American Indian": Alexander B. Upshaw and Edward S. Curtis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamir, Shamoon

    2007-01-01

    The twenty volumes of ethnographic text and pictorial photography and the twenty portfolios of large, finely printed photogravures that together comprise "The North American Indian" were the product of an extraordinary labor by Edward S. Curtis, an extensive and shifting team of co-workers, and the participation of hundreds of Native Americans. By…

  18. Validation of a modified Hindi version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale among a North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Geetika; Shukla, Garima; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Gupta, Anupama; Afsar, Mohammed; Goyal, Vinay; Srivastava, Achal; Behari, Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since a majority of population in India does not drive automobiles, one item on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) requires modification and validation. In addition, data collected by us indicated that a majority of rural and urban Indians regularly spend time in prayer/spiritual activity. The main purpose of this study was to develop a cross-cultural adaptation of the ESS for a North Indian population, in Hindi language (ESS-I). The study also provides evidence of reliability and validity of the modified version. Methodology: The subjects included were normal volunteers aged 18–75 years (Group 1) (n = 70), compared with patients with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness, who had undergone polysomnography (Group 2) (n = 22) and patients who had undergone multiple sleep latency test (Group 3) (n = 10). The study was carried out in four phases: Translation and retranslation of the original scale with modification of item 8 (mainly addition of option of question on “while offering prayers or in spiritual activity”); reliability (test–retest) (n = 30); internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha index) (n = 102); and sensitivity to change (n = 8). Results: Group 1 showed spiritual activity as a significantly more commonly practiced activity than driving. The Cronbach's alpha for the modified version was 0.892 (excellent), and this was not improved by removing the modified item. The alpha value for Group 1 versus Groups 2 and 3 was 0.667 and 0.892, respectively. The scale was reliable over time (test–retest), and it was sensitive to sleepiness change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during treatment. Conclusion: The ESS-I, is comparable to the original scale. It is reliable, valid, and change-sensitive. It is proposed that the modified version can be very useful for detecting sleepiness among Indian population, especially those who do not drive their own vehicles. PMID:27994361

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

  20. Relation between tropical cyclone heat potential and cyclone intensity in the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangir, B.; Swain, D.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.

    2016-05-01

    Ocean Heat Content (OHC) plays a significant role in modulating the intensity of Tropical Cyclones (TC) in terms of the oceanic energy available to TCs. TC Heat Potential (TCHP), an estimate of OHC, is thus known to be a useful indicator of TC genesis and intensification. In the present study, we analyze the role of TCHP in intensification of TCs in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) through statistical comparisons between TCHP and Cyclone Intensities (CI). A total of 27 TCs (20 in the Bay of Bengal, and 7 in the Arabian Sea) during the period 2005-2012 have been analyzed using TCHP data from Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) model of Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services and cyclone best track data from India Meteorological Department. Out of the 27 cyclones analyzed, 58% (86%) in the Bay (Arabian Sea) have negative correlation and 42% (14%) cyclones have positive correlation between CI and TCHP. On the whole, more than 60% cyclones in the NIO show negative correlations between CI and TCHP. The negative percentage further increases for TCHP leading CI by 24 and 48 hours. Similar trend is also seen with satellite derived TCHP data obtained from National Remote Sensing Center and TC best track data from Joint Typhoon Warming Centre. Hence, it is postulated that TCHP alone need not be the only significant oceanographic parameter, apart from sea surface temperature, responsible for intensification and propagation of TCs in the NIO.

  1. Polymorphism of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes and breast cancer susceptibility in North Indian women.

    PubMed

    Singh, Virendra; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Rastogi, Neeraj; Singh, Kalpana; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2011-05-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) are involved in the metabolism of estrogens. Genetic polymorphisms in these genes may lead to interindividual variation in breast cancer susceptibility. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of NQO1 exon 6 proline187serine (C609T) and CYP1A2 exon 2 phenylalanine21leucine (C63G) polymorphisms with breast cancer susceptibility in North Indian women. Polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the desired segment of NQO1 and CYP1A2 genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. NQO1 mRNA expression was analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and its enzyme activity was estimated spectrofluorophotometrically. Odds ratios for NQO1 C609T heterozygous and homozygous variants were 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.39-1.13; p-value: 0.141) and 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-2.46; p-value: 0.976). All cases and controls were monomorphic for the CYP1A2 exon 2 phenylalanine21leucine (C63G) genotype. NQO1 mRNA expression and its catalytic activity among wild-type genotype, homozygous variant, and heterozygous variant were not significantly altered, except for catalytic activity of the NQO1 homozygous variant, which was observed extremely low. The results of the study suggest that NQO1 exon 6 proline187serine (C609T) and CYP1A2 exon 2 phenylalanine21leucine (C63G) polymorphisms do not play a significant role in breast cancer susceptibility in North Indian women.

  2. Atmospheric input of N, P, Fe and trace metals to north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarin, Manmohan; Srinivas, Bikkina

    2016-04-01

    The air-sea deposition of chemical constituents to the north Indian Ocean is influenced by seasonal continental outflow during the late NE-monsoon (December-April). Our recent studies have focused on deposition of mineral dust, nutrients (N, P and Fe) and toxic trace metals to the Arabian Sea (ARS) and Bay of Bengal (BoB), two important limbs of the north Indian Ocean. The chemical composition of PM2.5 in the continental outflow to the marine atmospheric boundary layer reveals dominance of nss-SO42- (as high as 25 μg m-3) and abundance of dust varies from 3 to 20 μg m-3. A striking similarity in the temporal variability of total inorganic acidity (TIA = NO3- + nss-SO42-) and fractional solubility of aerosol-Fe (FeTot: 60 - 1145 ng m-3) provides evidence for chemical processing of mineral dust during atmospheric transport. The enhanced solubility of Fe has implications to further increase in the deposition of this micro-nutrient to ocean surface. The mass ratio of nutrients (NInorg/NTot, Norg/NTot and PInorg/nss-Ca2+) also suggests further increase in their air-sea deposition to the surface BoB. The dry-deposition flux of PInorgto BoB varies by one order of magnitude (0.5 - 5.0 μmol-P m-2 d-1; Av: 0.02 Tg P yr-1). Based on atmospheric deposition of P and Fe, C-fixation in BoB (˜1 Pg yr-1) is dominated by anthropogenic sources and that in ARS (0.3 Pg yr-1) is limited by P and Fe. This is attributed to poor fractional solubility (˜1%) of mineral dust over the Arabian Sea. However, N-fixation by diazotrophs in the two oceanic regions is somewhat similar (0.03 Pg yr-1). Our estimate of N-deposition (0.2 Tg yr-1) to the northern Indian Ocean is significantly lower than the model results (˜800 - 1200 mg-N m-2 yr-1 ≈ 5.7 - 8.6 Tg yr-1 by Duce et al. (2008); ˜4.1 Tg yr-1 by Okin et al. (2011); and ˜0.8 Tg yr-1 by Kanakidou et al. (2012). The increase in aerosol toxicity is also evident from high enrichment factors of anthropogenic trace metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and

  3. Sex determination from hand and foot dimensions in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2011-03-01

    Hands and feet are often recovered from the site of natural as well as man-made disasters because of bomb blasts, train accidents, plane crashes, or mass homicides. This study is intended to establish standards for determination of sex from the dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population. The data for this study comprise 123 men and 123 women aged between 17 and 20 years from the "Rajput" population of Himachal Pradesh in North India. Four anthropometric measurements viz. hand length, hand breadth, foot length, and foot breadth have been taken on both sides of each subject following international anthropometric standards. The hand index (hand breadth/hand length × 100) and the foot index (foot breadth/foot length × 100) were calculated. Sectioning points and regression models are derived for the hand and foot dimensions and the derived indices. The hand and foot dimensions show a higher accuracy in sex determination by sectioning point analysis when compared to hand and foot index. Of the hand and the foot dimensions, hand breadth and foot breadth showed better accuracy in sex determination. Hand index and foot index remain poor sex discriminators in the study.

  4. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jeevan; Verma, Nitin; Kaur, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%), calcifications of falx cerebri (60%), palmar-plantar pits (80%), rib anomalies (80%), macroencephaly (60%), ocular hypertelorism (80%), and frontal bossing (60%) in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested. PMID:26604574

  5. Productivity response to the PETM in the North Atlantic and South Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, T.; Kanamaru-Shinn, K.; Stoll, H. M.; Shimizu, N.

    2009-12-01

    During the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), transient changes in climate and the ocean carbonate system resulted from a major release of isotopically light C into the ocean and atmosphere. We examine the productivity response of calcareous planktonic nannofossils to the dramatic climate and ecosystem changes at DSDP Site 401 in the Bay of Biscay, North Atlantic, and ODP Site 738, Southernmost Indian Ocean. We use the productivity indicator based on Sr/Ca ratios of coccoliths, which is independent of changes in sediment accumulation rate. Sr/Ca is measured in individually picked coccoliths using secondary ion mass spectrometry. At site 401, Sr/Ca ratios in coccoliths of Toweius and Coccolithus pelagicus increase during the PETM, indicating an increase in coccolithophore productivity until the PETM isotope recovery. We are working to characterize the background pre-PETM variability at this site to establish if this increase is a unique response to PETM environmental changes. Bulk sediment Sr/Ca ratios from the same depths, measured by ICP-AES, do not covary with Sr/Ca Coccolithus or Toweius but instead increases monotonically towards shallower depths. One possible explanation is a change in proportion of Sr-poor type coccoliths, such as Discoaster sp. and Zygrhab sp. Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes at site 401 exhibit extremely similar values among three different coccolith size fractions dominated by different genera, consistent with limited vital effects as observed at other sites. At ODP 738, Sr/Ca ratios in Toweius increase during the later part of the PETM and decrease by the end of the recovery, indicating a brief productivity increase. This increase is clearly beyond the background variability before the PETM or during the first part of the CIE. We are assessing whether a similar pattern is observed in Coccolithus. We will also similarly characterize productivity response to ELMO in the Equatorial Pacific and Southernmost Indian Ocean.

  6. Interannual variation of tropical cyclone energy metrics over North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Vijay Kumar, V.

    2017-03-01

    There is decreasing trend in the tropical cyclone (TC) number over the North Indian Ocean (NIO) in recent years, though there is increasing trend in the sea surface temperature (SST) which is one of the main environmental parameters for the development and intensification of TCs. Hence, a study has been performed to understand whether any trend exists in other TC parameters such as velocity flux (VF), accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) and power dissipation index (PDI). The interseasonal and interannual variations of VF, ACE and PDI for the NIO as a whole and Bay of Bengal (BOB) and Arabian Sea (AS) are analysed based on the data of 1990-2013 (24 years). Role of large scale features like El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) have also been analyzed. The mean ACE per year for TCs [maximum sustained wind of 34 knots (kt) or more] over the NIO is about 13.1 × 104 kt2 including 9.5 × 104 kt2 over the BOB and 3.6 × 104 kt2 over the AS. The mean PDI per year for TCs over the NIO is about 10 × 106 kt3 including 3 × 106 kt3 over the AS and 7 × 106 kt3 over the BOB. The VF, ACE and PDI of TCs are significantly less over BOB during post-monsoon season (Oct.-Dec.) of El Nino years than in La Nina and normal years. The VF for TCs over the BOB during post-monsoon season is significantly less (higher) during positive (negative) IOD years. There is significant decreasing trend at 95 % level of confidence in ACE and PDI of TCs over AS during post-monsoon season and PDI over the BOB and NIO during pre-monsoon season mainly due to similar trend in average intensity of TCs and not due to trends in SST over Nino regions or IOD index.

  7. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... Secretary--Indian Affairs made a final agency determination to acquire approximately 305.49 acres of land in... November 26, 2012, the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs decided to accept approximately 305.49 acres...

  8. Tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean: experiments with the high-resolution global icosahedral grid point model GME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumkar, Yogesh V.; Sen, P. N.; Chaudhari, Hemankumar S.; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to conduct a numerical experiment with the high-resolution global model GME to predict the tropical storms in the North Indian Ocean during the year 2007. Numerical integrations using the icosahedral hexagonal grid point global model GME were performed to study the evolution of tropical cyclones, viz., Akash, Gonu, Yemyin and Sidr over North Indian Ocean during 2007. It has been seen that the GME model forecast underestimates cyclone's intensity, but the model can capture the evolution of cyclone's intensity especially its weakening during landfall, which is primarily due to the cutoff of the water vapor supply in the boundary layer as cyclones approach the coastal region. A series of numerical simulation of tropical cyclones have been performed with GME to examine model capability in prediction of intensity and track of the cyclones. The model performance is evaluated by calculating the root mean square errors as cyclone track errors.

  9. Structure and isostatic compensation of the Comorin Ridge, north central Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, K. M.; Krishna, K. S.; Bansal, A. R.

    2008-11-01

    Bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data (about 9200 lkm) of the Comorin Ridge, north central Indian Ocean were investigated using the transfer function and forward model techniques to understand the mode of isostatic compensation and origin of the ridge. The ridge extends for about 500 km in NNW-SSE direction and associates with low-amplitude gravity anomalies ranging from 25 to 30 mGal compared to the ridge relief, suggesting that the anomalies are compensated at deeper depths. From Admittance analysis an Airy model or local compensation with an elastic plate thickness (Te) of about 3 km and crust thickness (t) of 15-20 km are suggested for the southern part of the Comorin Ridge (south of 5°N), whereas for the northern part a flexural plate model with an elastic thickness of about 15 km is obtained. Admittance analysis together with the results from gravity forward modelling reveal that the south part was emplaced on relatively weak oceanic crust with both surface and subsurface loading, while the north part was emplaced on the continental crust. Based on present studies and published plate kinematic models we interpret that the Comorin Ridge was evolved at about 90 Ma during the rift stage of Madagascar from the southwest of India. We have also demarcated the continent-ocean boundary (COB) west of Sri Lanka and southern tip of India, which runs across the strike of the ridge, placing the northern part of the ridge on continent and southern part on oceanic crust. On the southern part of the ridge eastern flank is steep-faulted up to 0.6 km and is controlled by the 79°E FZ and then by COB.

  10. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part IIa: The Northern Plains. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IIa of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes in the Northern Plains (Montana and North Dakota). Documents are presented relative to the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation, the Blackfeet Tribe of the…

  11. Lipoprotein (a) Levels in Relation to Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in North Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Fauzia; Goel, Pravin Kumar; Sethi, Rishi; Khan, Mohd Idrees; Ali, Wahid; Idris, Mohd Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is an established risk marker of coronary artery disease which is independent from other risk factors. Objective: The aim was to address the association between Lp (a) and CAD risk in North Indians. To evaluate whether high levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is a predictor of risk and is related to the severity of CAD. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 360 patients presenting with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed CAD in 270 patients and 90 patients without CAD. Lipoprotein (a) level, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed. Results: Lipoprotein (a) 21.0 mg/dL is associated with the presence of coronary lesions (P = 0.0001). A highly significant difference in Lp (a) levels was observed between normal coronaries vs. single-vessel disease, double-and triple-vessel disease ( P < 0.0001). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly raised in CAD group compared to normal coronary. Conclusion: Multivariate analysis found that Lp (a) was considered an independent predictor for severity of CAD and Lp (a) levels 21.0 mg/dL are associated with severe patterns of coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:23580919

  12. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature.

  13. Nucleolar localization of cirhin, the protein mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Bin; Mitchell, Grant A.; Richter, Andrea . E-mail: andrea.richter@umontreal.ca

    2005-12-10

    Cirhin (NP{sub 1}16219), the product of the CIRH1A gene is mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A, OMIM 604901), a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. It is a 686-amino-acid WD40-repeat containing protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain multiple targeting signals, including an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal, a C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (BNLS). We performed the direct determination of subcellular localization of cirhin as a crucial first step in unraveling its biological function. Using EGFP and His-tagged cirhin fusion proteins expressed in HeLa and HepG2, cells we show that cirhin is a nucleolar protein and that the R565W mutation, for which all NAIC patients are homozygous, has no effect on subcellular localization. Cirhin has an active C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a unique nucleolar localization signal (NrLS) between residues 315 and 432. The nucleolus is not known to be important specifically for intrahepatic cholestasis. These observations provide a new dimension in the study of hereditary cholestasis.

  14. Impact of dietary intake, education, and physical activity on bone mineral density among North Indian women.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Soniya; Orito, Seiya; Ishitani, Ken; Ohta, Hiroaki

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of dietary nutrients and bone mineral density (BMD) in North Indian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to March 2008. Subjects included 255 healthy women, aged 20-69 years, who were relatives of patients being admitted in the hospital. Various demographic characteristics including socioeconomic status and serum parameters in relationship to BMD were evaluated. In addition, the daily dietary intake of energy, protein, fat, and calcium and the amount of physical activity were assessed. BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and educational level were positively correlated with BMD. The daily intakes of energy (1563.4 +/- 267.2 kcal) and protein (48.7 +/- 8.7 g) were below the recommended dietary allowance. Daily dietary energy, protein, and calcium intakes were correlated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, BMI, and physical activity were significant predictors for BMD at all sites. In addition, energy intake was also a predictor for BMD at the lumbar spine. The protein intake was associated with BMD at the spine (P = 0.02 and beta = 0.163) even after making adjustments for energy intake. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health.

  15. Estimation of stature from dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2007-08-01

    In medico-legal autopsies, establishing personal identity of the victims is often required. Estimation of stature from extremities and their parts plays an important role in identifying the dead in forensic examinations. The study examines the relationship between stature and dimensions of hands and feet among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh -- a North Indian endogamous group. The purpose for understanding these examinations was the paucity in the literature of studies that allow the reconstruction of stature from various dimensions of hands and feet amongst Rajputs. Hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 246 subjects comprising 123 males and 123 females ranging in age from 17 to 20 years were taken independently on left and right side of each individual. Statistical analyses indicated that the bilateral variation was insignificant for all the measurements except hand breadth in both the sexes (P<0.01). Sex differences were found to be highly significant for all the measurements (P<0.01). Linear and multiple regression equations for stature estimation were calculated using the above mentioned variables. The correlation coefficients between stature and all the measurements of hands and feet were found to be positive and statistically significant. The highest correlation coefficient between stature and foot length and lowest SEE (standard error of estimate) indicate that the foot length provides highest reliability and accuracy in estimating stature of an unknown individual. The regression equations were checked for their accuracy by comparing the estimated stature and actual stature.

  16. Work, worksites, and wellbeing among North American Indian women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Karina; Gadhoke, Preety; Pardilla, Marla; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to understand what factors influenced work-family balance and related health behaviors among a sample of rural North American Indian women. We interviewed 89 women through both in-depth interviews and focus groups across four tribal communities in the American Southwest and Upper Midwest between July 2010 and August 2011. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes related to work- family demands placed on women and resources available to cope with those demands. Three prominent themes emerged: structural characteristics (the context of rural reservation life), role stressors (women's multiple and conflicting roles) and the influence of social support (communal nature of care in the family and institutional support in the workplace). We found that women in participating rural reservation communities often acted as primary caregivers for both immediate and extended family, and often placed the needs of others before themselves. The context of rural reservations, with high rates of unemployment, poverty, and chronic illnesses associated with the collective trauma of colonization, placed high demands on female caregivers. Social support from within the workplace, family, and cultural traditions helped some female caregivers balance the demands of home and work. Tribal worksites could be a resource for promoting health and work-life balance by being responsive to the particular demands placed on women that often interfere with engaging in positive health behaviors in general and tribal wellness programs in particular.

  17. Risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes among Inuit and North American Indian women in Quebec, 1985-97.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Wilkins, Russell; Platt, Robert W; Kramer, Michael S

    2004-01-01

    We used Statistics Canada's linked stillbirth, live birth and infant death files to assess the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes among Inuit and North American Indian vs. other ethnic women in Quebec, 1985-97 (1 125 462 singleton births). Mother tongue was used to define ethnicity, with the largest French language group as the reference. Main outcome measures are adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), stillbirth, neonatal and postneonatal death controlled for maternal age, education, marital status, parity, infant sex, community size, and community-level random effects using multilevel logit models. Inuit women had higher risks of preterm birth (AOR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.25, 1.78]) and immaturity-related infant mortality (AOR = 3.03 [1.36, 6.74]), while Indian women did not. Infants of Inuit (AOR = 0.39 [0.31, 0.49]) and Indian (AOR = 0.27 [0.24, 0.31]) women had substantially lower risks of SGA. Elevated risks of stillbirth were observed among Indian women [AOR = 1.53 (1.09, 2.15)], and of postneonatal death among both Inuit (AOR = 4.45 [2.74, 7.22]) and Indian (AOR = 1.86 [1.28, 2.70]) infants. Both Inuit and Indian infants had much higher risks of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infection-related mortality. Although the absolute risks of adverse outcomes declined from 1985-87 to 1995-97, the relative disparities between aboriginal and non-aboriginal women changed little over this period. We conclude that Inuit and Indian women have different risk profiles for adverse pregnancy outcomes, and that prevention of preterm birth among Inuit women, and of SIDS and infection-related infant mortality in both aboriginal groups, are important targets for future research and intervention.

  18. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  19. Early Pliocene closing of the Indonesian Seaway: evidence from north-east Indian Ocean and Tropical Pacific deep sea cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M. S.; Sinha, D. K.

    1998-04-01

    Deep sea cores from sites 214 and 758 A (Ninetyeast Ridge, north-east Indian Ocean), 761 B (Wombat Plateau, north-east Indian Ocean) and 586 B (Ontong Java Plateau, Tropical Pacific) are ideally located for comparison of late Neogene planktic foraminiferal biogeography and paleoceanographic records of tropical Indian and Pacific oceans to infer the timing of closing of the Indonesian Seaway. A consistent stratigraphy was developed between sites 214 and 586 B using graphic correlation and was integrated with the paleomagnetic time scale of Berggren et al. (1985) to provide an accurate chronology to compare interocean stratigraphic ranges of late Neogene planktic foraminifera. Tropical planktic foraminifera occur throughout each sequence at all sites. At each site the Miocene-Pliocene boundary is defined by the first appearance of Globorotalia tumida (5.2 Ma), the early/late Pliocene boundary by the first appearance of Globigerinoides fistulosus (3.2 Ma) and the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary by the last appearance of G. fistulosus (1.6 Ma). Neogene planktic foraminiferal assemblages at sites 214, 758A, 761 B and 586B are generally similar until the beginning of the Pliocene (5.2 Ma) when the faunal record indicates divergence. A notable difference is complete absence of early Pliocene taxon Pulleniatina spectabilis from all the Indian Ocean sites. This difference suggests that the Indonesian Seaway became an effective biogeographic barrier to planktic foraminifera at the beginning of the Pliocene. However, there is still exchange of surface waters through this Seaway. Earlier studies suggested a Middle to Late Miocene occurrence for this biogeographic barrier. P. spectabilis evolved from P. primalis in the equatorial Pacific at about 5.2 Ma. It is a short-ranging early Pliocene species spanning about 1.3 my and occurred only in Pacific, unlike earlier suggestions of a broader distribution into the Indian Ocean.

  20. Three Dimensional Aerosol Climatology over India and the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    the CALIPSO algorithm, probably misclassifying marine aerosol as polluted dust. The origin of much of the polluted dust, the most prominent aerosol species in the region, is the mixing of dust and smoke from Africa. Low-level southerly winds south of 10°N transport smoke northward while northerly winds north of 10°N transport dust southward and upward due to orographic lifting. At their area of convergence, zonal wind transports the now elevated polluted dust eastward toward the Indian subcontinent. Subsidence and monsoon circulation reversal during boreal winter and fall limit vertical and horizontal aerosol transport from the India, particularly in the highly populated and always polluted Indo¬-Gangetic Plain. Polluted dust, polluted continental (non-elevated smoke), and smoke aerosols are confined near the surface and located over high population density areas and known biomass burning locations. Himalayan topography is an obvious barrier for the northward extent of aerosol. However, it also acts to create a meridional circulation limiting the southward extent of aerosol. Although transport pathways and the spatial structure of aerosol are well documented in the 2D sense, understanding the mechanisms controlling the vertical structure in concert with observation of the structure will be a valuable tool in reducing the uncertainty of aerosol effects in model simulations.

  1. Pulse and entrainment to non-isochronous auditory stimuli: the case of north Indian alap.

    PubMed

    Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one's internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects' internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting 'social' effects of temporally regular music.

  2. Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among Young Dentate North Indian Population: A Biometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Polsani L; Bhoria, Mohaneesh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of various gingival biotypes and to corroborate gingival thickness and gingival biotypes across tooth type, site, and gender. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted across systemically healthy subjects. A systematic clinical evaluation for gingival biotypes and gingival thicknesses was recorded by modified Iwanson’s gauge, to the nearest 0.1 mm, probing the gingival sulcus at the midfacial aspect of maxillary and mandibular central incisors and first molars. All measurements were made across a total of 920 sites in 115 subjects (69 female and 46 male) based on gingival transparency and were statistically analyzed. Results: A significant agreement on the reproducibility of the measurements was noted. The median overall gingival thickness was recorded at 0.75 mm with interquantile difference of 0.39 mm. The thin biotype variant showed across the ranges of 0.3 to 0.6 mm of gingival thicknesses and thick biotype variant across the ranges of 1.0 to 1.2 mm, with more prevalence in anterior and posterior site respectively. Moreover, for gingi-val thickness of 0.7 mm, the probe visibility showed tendency toward both thin/thick biotype variant in both anterior and posterior segments. The disposition of male participants toward thick biotype and female participants toward the thin biotype variant has been noted. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, our data support the traditional hypothesis of two main gingival biotypes as distinguishable by gingival transparency. In addition, we provide evidence of existence of intermediate biotypes with respect to gingival thickness. These findings can be utilized as objective guidelines for determination of biotype and can be implicated in many dental operative procedures. How to cite this article: Rathee M, Rao PL, Bhoria M. Prevalence of Gingival Biotypes among Young Dentate North Indian Population: A Biometric Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016

  3. Study of sense of coherence health promoting behavior in north Indian students

    PubMed Central

    Suraj, Senjam; Singh, Amarjeet

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: With advances in knowledge about health promotion, public health professionals are in search for the determinants of personal health behaviours. This study was carried out to explore the level of engagement of north Indian students in health promoting behaviours; to determine their sense of coherence scores; and to ascertain the determinants of health promoting behaviours of these students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during 2007-2008 in 200 students (100 male, 100 female). Their health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP) and sense of coherence (SOC) scores were estimated using interviews. The data were analyzed using Pearson's product moment correlation, and also stepwise linear regression analysis. Results: Mean HPLP and SOC scores of the students were 138.69 and 130.87, respectively. Females cared more about their health than males. Male students were more involved in physical activities. There was a linear correlation between the total SOC and HPLP scores (r=0.3). Female students (63%) consulted doctors more than males (50%) and washed their hands more regularly (P<0.05). Only 13 per cent students practiced yoga regularly. Female students had more meaningful relationships with friends and had more faith in God. Regression equation revealed that the two independent variables (SOC and age) accounted for 10.8 per cent of the variance in HPLP. Interpretation & conclusion: Students with higher SOC scores had higher HPLP scores. Female students were more health conscious than male students. In general, college students in Chandigarh had a good health promoting lifestyle and good sense of coherence. PMID:22199103

  4. A study of sex differences in fingerprint ridge density in a North Indian young adult population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Ngangom, Chitrabala

    2013-05-01

    Fingerprints have considerable value in morphological, biological, anthropological and forensic studies. Fingerprints collected from the crime scene and from the items of evidence of crime have been successfully used to identify suspects, victims or any other person who had touched the surface in question. The thickness of epidermal ridges varies between individuals; females are supposed to have finer ridges than males and therefore a greater ridge density. The present research is an attempt to distinguish sex from fingerprint ridge density in the radial, ulnar and lower areas of a fingerprint in a North Indian population. A total of 194 individuals (97 males and 97 females) aged between 18 and 25 years were included in the study and fingerprints were collected from each finger of the participants. Thus, a total of 1940 fingerprints were obtained and epidermal ridges were counted in the radial, ulnar, and lower areas of each fingerprint. The radial and ulnar areas are the 5 mm × 5 mm areas on the radial and ulnar side of the central core respectively while the lower area is designated as 5 mm × 5 mm area adjoining the flexion crease of the terminal phalanx on a fingerprint. The fingerprint ridge density in radial, ulnar and lower areas and between sexes was compared statistically using t-test. The results indicate that the females tend to have a significantly higher ridge density than males in the three areas analyzed in the study. The fingerprint ridge density in the ulnar and radial areas of the fingerprints is significantly higher than the lower area. The present study suggests that the fingerprint ridge density can be a relevant and useful morphological parameter in distinguishing sex of a latent fingerprint of unknown origin from the scene of crime. The findings can also be useful in identification of mutilated remains when a dismembered hand is brought for medico-legal examination.

  5. A climatological model of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wotherspoon, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-12-01

    Extensive damage and loss of life can be caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall. Modelling of TC landfall probability is beneficial to insurance/re-insurance companies, decision makers, government policy and planning, and residents in coastal areas. In this study, we develop a climatological model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall for North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries based on kernel density estimation, a generalised additive model (GAM) including an Euler integration step, and landfall detection using a country mask approach. Using a 35-year record (1979-2013) of tropical cyclone track observations from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (part of the International Best Track Archive Climate Stewardship Version 6), the GAM is fitted to the observed cyclone track velocities as a smooth function of location in each season. The distribution of cyclone genesis points is approximated by kernel density estimation. The model simulated TCs are randomly selected from the fitted kernel (TC genesis), and the cyclone paths (TC tracks), represented by the GAM together with the application of stochastic innovations at each step, are simulated to generate a suite of NIO rim landfall statistics. Three hindcast validation methods are applied to evaluate the integrity of the model. First, leave-one-out cross validation is applied whereby the country of landfall is determined by the majority vote (considering the location by only highest percentage of landfall) from the simulated tracks. Second, the probability distribution of simulated landfall is evaluated against the observed landfall. Third, the distances between the point of observed landfall and simulated landfall are compared and quantified. Overall, the model shows very good cross-validated hindcast skill of modelled landfalling cyclones against observations in each of the NIO tropical cyclone seasons and for most NIO rim countries, with only a relatively small difference in the percentage of

  6. Pulse and Entrainment to Non-Isochronous Auditory Stimuli: The Case of North Indian Alap

    PubMed Central

    Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one’s internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects’ internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting ‘social’ effects of temporally regular music. PMID:25849357

  7. Seasonal prediction of tropical cyclone activity over the north Indian Ocean using three artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Sankar; Kotal, S. D.; Kundu, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Three artificial neural network (ANN) methods, namely, multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function (RBF) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are utilized to predict the seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity over the north Indian Ocean (NIO) during the post-monsoon season (October, November, December). The frequency of TC and large-scale climate variables derived from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset of resolution 2.5° × 2.5° were analyzed for the period 1971-2013. Data for the years 1971-2002 were used for the development of the models, which were tested with independent sample data for the year 2003-2013. Using the correlation analysis, the five large-scale climate variables, namely, geopotential height at 500 hPa, relative humidity at 500 hPa, sea-level pressure, zonal wind at 700 hPa and 200 hPa for the preceding month September, are selected as potential predictors of the post-monsoon season TC activity. The result reveals that all the three different ANN methods are able to provide satisfactory forecast in terms of the various metrics, such as root mean-square error (RMSE), standard deviation (SD), correlation coefficient ( r), and bias and index of agreement ( d). Additionally, leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) method is also performed and the forecast skill is evaluated. The results show that the MLP model is found to be superior to the other two models (RBF, GRNN). The (MLP) is expected to be very useful to operational forecasters for prediction of TC activity.

  8. Centennial-scale teleconnection between North Atlantic sea surface temperatures and the Indian summer monsoon during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Jin, Liya; Jia, Wanna

    2016-05-01

    Proxy records have shown that abrupt changes in the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) are closely linked to cold events in the North Atlantic at centennial timescales during the Holocene. However, mechanisms for these co-occurring phenomena are not fully understood. This study uses simulation results from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice general circulation model forced by astronomical variations to investigate how summer (June, July, August and September) North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) may have influenced the ISM at centennial timescales during the Holocene (9.5-0 ka BP). Our analyses identified an intimate relationship between the North Atlantic tripole SST (NATS) mode and the ISM. The NATS mode can affect the ISM in several ways. First, air-sea interactions over the tropical Atlantic can induce negative tropospheric temperature (TT) anomalies over the Indian Ocean, resulting in a strengthened meridional TT gradient favorable to a prolonged monsoonal rainy season. Second, a positive NATS mode tends to induce closed zonal vertical circulation over the tropical Atlantic, North Africa and the tropical Indian Ocean, creating anomalous convergence over India, and hence an enhanced ISM. Third, westerly surface wind anomalies, related to the NATS mode and coursing over the Arabian Sea, can increase moisture delivery to the monsoon region, causing enhanced rainfall in India. This mechanism resembles a decadal-scale mechanism that operates in the present-day climate. We also compared the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), an alternative North Atlantic SST mode, with the NATS mode to determine their relationships to the ISM. A Holocene transient simulation indicates that the AMO's trend has diverged from that of the ISM since 5.5 ka BP, due to inverse SST trends over the tropical and extratropical North Atlantic. This latter trend leads to a much weaker relationship between the AMO and the ISM, relative to that observed between the NATS mode and the ISM

  9. Morphologic characteristics of root canal of mandibular incisors in North-East Indian population: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Boruah, Lalit C; Bhuyan, Atul C

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To aim of this study is to investigate the root canal characteristics of mandibular incisors in a North East Indian population using a canal staining and tooth-clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and eighty extracted mandibular incisors, collected from dental clinics within North East India were selected for this study. Following pulp tissue removal, the teeth were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated with ascending concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. After staining of the canal systems with India ink, cleared teeth were examined under 5X magnification and the following features were evaluated: (i) number and type of root canals; (ii) presence and location of lateral canals and intercanal communications; (iii) location of apical foramina; and, (iv) Bifurcation of canals. Results: The majority of mandibular incisors had a single canal (63.75% of teeth possessed a Type I canal system). Although 36.25% of the roots possessed two canals, only 6.25% had two separate apical foramina. Conclusions: The prevalence of two canals in this group (of North East Indians) of mandibular incisors was 36.25% and is within the range of previous studies performed on populations of different racial origin. PMID:22144800

  10. Changes in erosion and ocean circulation recorded in the Hf isotopic compositions of North Atlantic and Indian Ocean ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Christensen, John N.; Burton, Kevin W.; Halliday, Alex N.; Hein, James R.; Günther, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution Hf isotopic records are presented for hydrogenetic Fe–Mn crusts from the North Atlantic and Indian Oceans. BM1969 from the western North Atlantic has previously been shown to record systematically decreasing Nd isotopic compositions from about 60 to ∼4 Ma, at which time both show a rapid decrease to unradiogenic Nd composition, thought to be related to the increasing influence of NADW or glaciation in the northern hemisphere. During the Oligocene, North Atlantic Hf became progressively less radiogenic until in the mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) it reached +1. It then shifted gradually back to an ϵHf value of +3 at 4 Ma, since when it has decreased rapidly to about −1 at the present day. The observed shifts in the Hf isotopic composition were probably caused by variation in intensity of erosion as glaciation progressed in the northern hemisphere. Ferromanganese crusts SS663 and 109D are from about 5500 m depth in the Indian Ocean and are now separated by ∼2300 km across the Mid-Indian Ridge. They display similar trends in Hf isotopic composition from 20 to 5 Ma, with the more northern crust having a composition that is consistently more radiogenic (by ∼2 ϵHf units). Paradoxically, during the last 20 Ma the Hf isotopic compositions of the two crusts have converged despite increased separation and subsidence relative to the ridge. A correlatable negative excursion at ∼5 Ma in the two records may reflect a short-term increase in erosion caused by the activation of the Himalayan main central thrust. Changes to unradiogenic Hf in the central Indian Ocean after 5 Ma may alternatively have been caused by the expanding influence of NADW into the Mid-Indian Basin via circum-Antarctic deep water or a reduction of Pacific flow through the Indonesian gateway. In either case, these results illustrate the utility of the Hf isotope system as a tracer of paleoceanographic changes, capable of responding to subtle changes in erosional regime not readily resolved

  11. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    During July 2015, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota and analyzed for physical properties and 54 pesticides. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate was designed to provide an update on pesticide concentrations of the same 18 wetlands that were sampled for a reconnaissance-level assessment during July 2006. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of pesticide concentrations in selected Lake Traverse Indian Reservation wetlands during July 2015 and provide a comparison of pesticide concentrations between 2006 and 2015.Of the 54 pesticides that were analyzed for in the samples collected during July 2015, 47 pesticides were not detected in any samples. Seven pesticides—2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT); 2,4–D; acetachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; metolachlor; and prometon—were detected in the 2015 samples with estimated concentrations or concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level, and most pesticides were detected at low concentrations in only a few samples. Samples from all wetlands contained at least one detected pesticide. The maximum number of pesticides detected in a wetland sample was six, and the median number of pesticides detected was three.The most commonly detected pesticides in the 2015 samples were atrazine and the atrazine degradate CIAT (also known as deethylatrazine), which were detected in 14 and 13 of the wetlands sampled, respectively. Glyphosate was detected in samples from 11 wetlands, and metolachlor was detected in samples from 10 wetlands. The other detected pesticides were 2,4–D (4 wetlands), acetochlor (3 wetlands), and prometon (1 wetland).The same pesticides that were detected in the 2006 samples were detected in the 2015 samples, with the exception of simazine, which was detected only in one sample in 2006

  12. Role of 677C→T polymorphism a single substitution in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in North Indian infertile men.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Hena; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Farzana; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narayain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-02-01

    Failure or severe difficulty in conceiving a child is surprisingly common, worldwide problem. Half of these cases are due to male factors with defects in sperm (1 in 15 men) being the single most common cause. Also about 60-75 % of male infertility cases are idiopathic, since the molecular mechanisms underlying the defects remain unknown. DNA methylation is crucial for spermatogenesis and high methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity in adult testis than other organs in mouse, signifies its critical role in spermatogenesis. According to recent findings there is a correlation of epigenetic regulation of several imprinted genes with disturbed spermatogenesis and fertility. Consequently any change in the MTHFR gene sequence can modify the spermatogenesis including transmission of infertility to the carriers. The aim of the study is to analyze the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism C677T in the MTHFR gene in 637 North Indian infertile patients and 364 fertile North Indian men as controls by using PCR-RFLP technique and Chi Square test for statistical analysis. The average MTHFR 677CC, 677CT, 677TT genotype frequencies of total infertile men were 70.17, 24.17, 5.65 % in infertile men and 75.27, 21.7, 2.74 % in controls, respectively. The average frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele was 17.73 % in infertile men as compared to 13.59 % in controls. The statistical difference was significant. Disease risk was found 2.27-folds increased in patients who were carrying T allele. We found an association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility and that it may be a genetic risk factor for male infertility in North Indian population.

  13. Influence of North Atlantic Oscillation on Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall in Relation to Quasi-Binneal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatla, R.; Singh, A. K.; Mandal, B.; Ghosh, S.; Pandey, S. N.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to find out the possible linkage between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a major ocean-atmosphere coupled phenomena believed to be responsible for the variability of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (ISMR) and its relation with Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) using 60 years (1953-2012) period. Spring North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) has been found to be inversely correlated with the ISMR, which has been highly enhanced during the east years when the NAOI data have been stratified according to the phases of QBO. The effect of NAOI on the ISMR is shown to be strengthening significant in the later years of the study as compared to that of the initial years of the study. This interesting result provides an input to use it as a predictor of the ISMR.

  14. The Characteristics and Education Outcomes of American Indian Students in Grades 6-12 in North Carolina. REL 2017-202

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sarah Crittenden; Davis, Cassandra R.

    2016-01-01

    In the 2012/13 school year American Indian students accounted for 1.1 percent of K-12 students nationwide and 1.4 percent of K-12 students in North Carolina (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.). Research has identified substantial achievement gaps between American Indian and other students on national tests, in graduation rates, and in…

  15. Association of polymorphisms in 9p21 region with CAD in North Indian population: replication of SNPs identified through GWAS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J; Yumnam, S; Basu, T; Ghosh, A; Garg, G; Karthikeyan, G; Sengupta, S

    2011-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide that is influenced by both environmental as well as genetic factors. Several recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported the association of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mainly in the 9p21 region with CAD. However, the association of these SNPs with CAD has not been rigorously tested in Indian population, which accounts for the largest incidences of CAD in the world. Herein, we genotyped six such SNPs (rs10116277, rs10757274, rs1333040, rs2383206, rs2383207 and rs1994016) identified through GWAS, in 754 individuals (311 angiography-confirmed CAD patients and 443 treadmill test controls) recruited mainly from North India to evaluate if these SNPs were associated with CAD. The minor allele frequency of these six SNPs was comparable to that reported in the respective GWAS. We found that three of these SNPs (rs10116277, rs1333040 and rs2383206) present at the locus 9p21 were significantly associated with CAD even after controlling for the confounding factors such as age, sex, body mass index, homocysteine, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, diet, etc. In conclusion, the locus 9p21 found to be significantly associated with cardiovascular diseases in the Caucasian populations seems to be also important in North Indian population.

  16. Human Papillomavirus-mediated cervical cancer awareness and Gardasil vaccination: a pilot survey among North Indian women.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saumya; Chandravati

    2013-10-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated cervical cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide, including Indian women. Cervical cancer control and prevention strategies are being adopted in developing nations to reduce the increasing burden of HPV infection in the vaccine era. The present study, therefore, aimed to evaluate cervical cancer awareness and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination in North Indian women. A pilot survey was conducted among 103 women of North Indian ethnicity residing in Lucknow/adjoining areas in state of Uttar Pradesh, during routine screening/clinic visits from June 2012 to December 2012. The study subjects were interviewed in either Hindi or English; subsequently the awareness of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and knowledge of Gardasil vaccination was assessed in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response". The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Written informed consent was taken from the participants. Overall, the response of participants (n = 103) in our single-centre survey-based pilot study was well-defined. The response regarding HPV-mediated cervical cancer awareness in terms of "yes", "no" and "no response" among the study subjects was 43.7, 44.7 and 11.6 %, respectively. Furthermore, in response to knowledge of HPV vaccine Gardasil, out of 103 subjects, 28.1 % answered "yes" while 37.9 and 34.0 % stated "no" and "no response", respectively. Our pilot survey may help in assessing knowledge of HPV-mediated cervical cancer and Gardasil vaccination awareness in women, and accordingly develop cost-effective cervical cancer control and prevention/public health counseling sessions in a clinical setting.

  17. Casting Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  18. Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse: A retrospective study evaluating outcomes in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Abhijit; Kumar, Saket; Maurya, Ajeet Pratap; Gupta, Vishal; Gupta, Vivek; Rahul

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the outcomes of laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy in the management of complete rectal prolapse (CRP) in North Indian patients with inherent bulky and redundant colon. METHODS: The study was conducted at a tertiary health care center of North India. Between January 2010 and October 2014, 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral mesh repair for CRP, were evaluated in the present study. Perioperative outcomes, improvement in bowel dysfunction or appearance of new complications were documented from the hospital records maintained prospectively. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (9 female) with a median age of 50 years (range, 15-68) were included in the study. The median operative time was 200 min (range, 180-350 min) and the median post-operative stay was 4 d (range, 3-21 d). No operative mortality occurred. One patient with inadvertent small bowel injury required laparotomy on post-operative day 2. At a median follow-up of 22 mo (range, 4-54 mo), no prolapse recurrence was reported. No mesh-related complication was encountered. Wexner constipation score improved significantly from the preoperative value of 17 (range, 5-24) to 6 (range, 0-23) (P < 0.001) and the fecal incontinence severity index score from 24 (range, 0-53) to 2 (range, 0-53) (P = 0.007). No de novo constipation or fecal incontinence was recorded during the follow-up. On personal conversation, all patients expressed satisfaction with the outcome of their treatment. CONCLUSION: Our experience indicates that laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy is an effective surgical option for CRP in North Indian patients having a bulky redundant colon. PMID:27152139

  19. Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

  20. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part V: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Alabama-Quassarte to the Osage)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    As Part V of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes in Oklahoma. Twenty such documents are presented, representing the following Indian groups: Alabama-Quassarte, Caddo, Cherokee Nation and United Keetoowah,…

  1. Prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6 in North Indian population residing in Indian national capital territory.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Ekta; Saha, Nilanjan; Tandon, Monika; Shrivastava, Vikesh; Ali, Shakir

    2012-01-01

    Identification of poor and rapid metabolizers for the category of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is important for understanding the differences in clinical responses of drugs metabolized by this enzyme. This study reports the prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers in North Indian population residing in the National Capital Territory. The prevalence of poor and rapid metabolizers was determined in the target population for the category of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6 by measuring plasma bupropion, a drug metabolized by CYP2B6, and its metabolite. Bupropion (75 mg) was administered to 107 volunteers, and the drug (bupropion) and its metabolite (hydroxybupropion) were determined simultaneously by LCMS/MS in the plasma. CYP2B6 activity was measured as hydroxybupropion/bupropion ratio, and volunteers were categorized as rapid or poor metabolizers on the basis of cutoff value of log (hydroxybupropion/bupropion). Significant differences were observed between the mean metabolite/drug ratio of rapid metabolizers (Mean = 0.59) and poor metabolizers (Mean = 0.26) with p<0.0001. Results indicate that 20.56% individuals in the target population were poor metabolizers for the category of drugs metabolized by CYP2B6. Cutoff value defined in this study can be used as a tool for evaluating the status of CYP2B6 using bupropion as a probe drug. The baseline information would be clinically useful before administering the drugs metabolized by this isoform.

  2. A Study of the Contributing Factors Relating to Why American Indian Students Drop Out of Or Graduate from Educational Programs at the University of North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanotte, Leigh D.

    Undergraduate American Indians who enrolled at the University of North Dakota for academic years 1970-1979 were surveyed to determine factors contributing to attrition and retention. The final sample included 116 students, 71 dropouts and 45 graduates. A questionnaire and two information forms were designed to obtain information on biographical,…

  3. Validation of a satellite-based cyclogenesis technique over the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Suman; Mohapatra, M.; Kumar, Ashish; Dube, S. K.; Rajendra, Kushagra; Goswami, P.

    2016-10-01

    Indian region is severely affected by the tropical cyclones (TCs) due to the long coast line of about 7500 km. Hence, whenever any low level circulation (LLC) forms over the Indian Seas, the prediction of its intensification into a TC is very essential for the management of TC disaster. Satellite Application Centre (SAC) of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Ahmedabad, has developed a technique to predict TCs based on scatterometer-derived winds from the polar orbiting satellite, QuikSCAT and Oceansat-II. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) has acquired the technique and verified it for the years 2010-2013 for operational use. The model is based on the concept of analogs of the sea surface wind distribution at the stage of LLC or vortex (T1.0) as per Dvorak's classifications, which eventually leads to cyclogenesis (T2.5). The results indicate that the developed model could predict cyclogenesis with a probability of detection of 61% and critical success index of 0.29. However, it shows high over-prediction of the model is better over the Bay of Bengal than over Arabian Sea and during post-monsoon season (September-December) than in pre-monsoon season (March-June).

  4. A Representative Study of Deaths of North Indian Migrants and Its Medical Certification Across the World.

    PubMed

    Vidua, Raghvendra K; Dubey, Nisha; Pramanik, Parthsarthi; Mattoo, Sanjay K; Jakher, Naresh

    2016-09-26

    Many Indians is moving to other nations of the world in the search of employment, education or other reasons. The process of globalization along with the faster mode of traveling and communication has facilitated this movement in the hope of getting more opportunities and earning of easy money abroad, than in India. Unfortunately, sometimes they meet a tragic end and their families in India get only their dead bodies back from abroad. This study focuses on these kind of unfortunate tragic events faced by Indians in different countries and thereby raise a concern on their safety abroad and necessitate the need of relooking in to the quality of medical certification of death and medico legal investigations to find out the real reasons of deaths to avoid any kind of doubt in mind. Data was collected from medical death certificates and passports of the deceased Indians. There was a total of 711 dead bodies/human remains received in 2012 at IGI airport New Delhi. The Middle East countries together contributed a total of 398 (55.98 %) cases. The distribution as per manner of death shows that in maximum number of cases (269), the manner of death was ambiguous with unspecified aetiology. The study therefore recommends for upgradation of the level of medico legal investigations in form of 2nd autopsy in recipient country and proper medical death certification.

  5. HLA-B∗ 1502 is associated with carbamazepine induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ritu; Sharma, Madhulika; Modi, Manish; Garg, Vivek Kumar; Salaria, Manilla

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of association between HLA-B(∗)1502 and anticonvulsant induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) from the Indian population is scant. Patients with a history of SJS/TEN secondary to carbamazepine or phenytoin were enrolled. The control group comprised of patients who had received carbamazepine/phenytoin for ⩾ 6 months without any adverse cutaneous event. Low-resolution DNA typing for HLA-B and high resolution HLA-B(∗)15 typing was performed. Seventeen patients with history of SJS/TEN secondary to carbamazepine (9) or phenytoin (8) and 50 tolerant controls (carbamazepine-37; phenytoin-13) were enrolled. The mean age of patients and controls was 33.9 ± 11.6 and 28.1 ± 9.9 years, respectively. HLA-B(∗)1502 was observed in 2/9 (22.2%) carbamazepine-SJS/TEN patients and none of the 37 carbamazepine tolerant controls (p = 0.035). HLA-B(∗)1502 was not observed in any of the 8 phenytoin-SJS/TEN patients or the 13 phenytoin tolerant controls. Our data suggests that HLA-B(∗)1502 is a risk factor for carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN. Therefore, HLA-B(∗)1502 testing should be performed prior to initiating carbamazepine in North Indian population.

  6. The Indian Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Augusta

    1969-01-01

    Appraisal of Boas'"Introduction to Handbook of American Indian Languages (1911), and Powell's "Indian Linguistic Famlies of America North of Mexico (1891), as reissued by University of Nebraska, Lincoln. (AF)

  7. Urinary casts

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood cell (WBC) casts are more common with acute kidney infections. Your provider will tell you more about your results. Risks There are no risks with this test. Alternative Names Hyaline casts; Granular casts; Renal tubular epithelial casts; Waxy casts; Casts in the ...

  8. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America, Part VI: [The Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Ottawa-Wyandotte)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    As Part VI of a series of publications of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume contains charters, resolutions, constitutions, and by-laws of some of the Indian tribes of Oklahoma. Twenty-two such documents are included, representing the following tribes: Ottawa, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole,…

  9. Polymorphic Alu Insertion/Deletion in Different Caste and Tribal Populations from South India

    PubMed Central

    Chinniah, Rathika; Vijayan, Murali; Thirunavukkarasu, Manikandan; Mani, Dhivakar; Raju, Kamaraj; Ravi, Padma Malini; Sivanadham, Ramgopal; C, Kandeepan; N, Mahalakshmi; Karuppiah, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Seven human-specific Alu markers were studied in 574 unrelated individuals from 10 endogamous groups and 2 hill tribes of Tamil Nadu and Kerala states. DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR-SSP, and subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis, and genotypes were assigned for various Alu loci. Average heterozygosity among caste populations was in the range of 0.292–0.468. Among tribes, the average heterozygosity was higher for Paliyan (0.3759) than for Kani (0.2915). Frequency differences were prominent in all loci studied except Alu CD4. For Alu CD4, the frequency was 0.0363 in Yadavas, a traditional pastoral and herd maintaining population, and 0.2439 in Narikuravars, a nomadic gypsy population. The overall genetic difference (Gst) of 12 populations (castes and tribes) studied was 3.6%, which corresponds to the Gst values of 3.6% recorded earlier for Western Asian populations. Thus, our study confirms the genetic similarities between West Asian populations and South Indian castes and tribes and supported the large scale coastal migrations from Africa into India through West Asia. However, the average genetic difference (Gst) of Kani and Paliyan tribes with other South Indian tribes studied earlier was 8.3%. The average Gst of combined South and North Indian Tribes (CSNIT) was 9.5%. Neighbor joining tree constructed showed close proximity of Kani and Paliyan tribal groups to the other two South Indian tribes, Toda and Irula of Nilgiri hills studied earlier. Further, the analysis revealed the affinities among populations and confirmed the presence of North and South India specific lineages. Our findings have documented the highly diverse (micro differentiated) nature of South Indian tribes, predominantly due to isolation, than the endogamous population groups of South India. Thus, our study firmly established the genetic relationship of South Indian castes and tribes and supported the proposed large scale ancestral migrations from Africa, particularly into South India

  10. Validation of SARAL/AltiKa significant wave height and wind speed observations over the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, U. Mahesh; Swain, D.; Sasamal, S. K.; Reddy, N. Narendra; Ramanjappa, T.

    2015-12-01

    SARAL/AltiKa, a joint Ka-band altimetry mission of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was successfully launched on February 25, 2013. The main purpose of this mission is to explore the ocean surface topography. As it is a Ka-band altimeter mission unlike other altimeters which were primarily in Ku-band, it is essential to calibrate and validate AltiKa data products before using the data for oceanographic applications. With this objective, two important geophysical parameters, Significant Wave Height (SWH) and Wind Speed (WS) from SARAL/AltiKa are inter-compared with those from 18 moored buoy stations in the North Indian Ocean (NIO) for a two year period from March 2013 to March 2015. SARAL/AltiKa GDR-T patch-2 version products are collocated with moored buoy observations with a collocation criteria of spatio-temporal window of 50 km radius about the buoy location and 30 min time for all the altimeter measurements. Following this, linear regression relations are developed and statistical analyses carried out to assess the performance of SARAL/AltiKa. The correlation between SARAL/AltiKa derived SWHs and those from moored buoys is 0.98 m with a bias of -0.02 m and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.15 m at 95% confidence level. The WSs derived from SARAL/AltiKa Ka-band correlates reasonably well with buoy observations with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, bias of -0.28 m/s and RMSE of 1.13 m/s. The inter-comparison results are found to be interesting with a good agreement between SARAL/AltiKa and moored buoys observations of SWH and WS in the NIO where SWHs are less than ∼4 m and WS are less than ∼13 m/s during the entire analysis period.

  11. Effect of Gratitude Educational Intervention on Well-Being Indicators among North Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Pulkit; Singh, Kamlesh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the impact of a gratitude building intervention on adolescents' gratitude and well-being indicators. The sample comprised 177 students aged 11--14 years (M[subscript Age] = 12.29 years, SD = 0.67, 58% male) attending two schools in North India. Using quasi-experimental design, participating classrooms from…

  12. Spectrum of Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Levetiracetam and Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing in North-Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Bhargavi; Ihtisham, Kavish; Kaur, Gurvinder; Srivastava, Shivani; Mehra, Narinder Kumar; Khanna, Neena; Singh, Mahip; Tripathi, Manjari

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Aromatic antiepileptic drugs are frequently implicated for cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs); there are case-reports of even severe reactions like drug reaction eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS)-toxic epidermal necrolysis with Levetiracetam (LEV). Certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-alleles have strong association with cADRs due to specific drugs - HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 in Carbamazepine (CBZ)-related SJS in Han-Chinese and European populations, respectively. Here, the spectrum of cADRs to LEV was studied, and HLA-typing in patients with cADRs due to LEV and some who were LEV-tolerant was performed, in an attempt to find an association between HLA and such reactions. Methods 589 patients taking LEV were screened for skin reactions, and eight patients with LEV-related cADRs and 25 LEV-tolerant controls were recruited - all 33 of North Indian ethnicity, their HLA-A, B, DRB1 genotyping done. Statistical analysis was done to compare carrier-rates and allele-frequencies of HLA-alleles between cases and controls (and healthy population, where necessary) for alleles occurring more than two times in either group. Results Out of 589 patients on LEV screened, there were 8 cases of cADR: 5 with maculopapular exanthema (MPE), 2 of SJS, and 1 with DRESS. Although HLA-A*33:01 was seen to occur more in MPE cases as compared to tolerant controls, the difference was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] 6.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30–116.6; p = 0.31). HLA A*11:01 and 24:02 were found to occur more in LEV-tolerant controls than in cases (OR 0.23 [95% CI 0.02–2.36, p = 0.33] and 1.00 [95% CI 0.09–11.02, p = 1.00] respectively). Conclusions Cutaneous reactions to LEV are very unusual, and their association with HLA in North-Indian population was not statistically significant. PMID:28101480

  13. A prehistory of Indian Y chromosomes: evaluating demic diffusion scenarios.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Singh, Anamika; Himabindu, G; Banerjee, Jheelam; Sitalaximi, T; Gaikwad, Sonali; Trivedi, R; Endicott, Phillip; Kivisild, Toomas; Metspalu, Mait; Villems, Richard; Kashyap, V K

    2006-01-24

    Understanding the genetic origins and demographic history of Indian populations is important both for questions concerning the early settlement of Eurasia and more recent events, including the appearance of Indo-Aryan languages and settled agriculture in the subcontinent. Although there is general agreement that Indian caste and tribal populations share a common late Pleistocene maternal ancestry in India, some studies of the Y-chromosome markers have suggested a recent, substantial incursion from Central or West Eurasia. To investigate the origin of paternal lineages of Indian populations, 936 Y chromosomes, representing 32 tribal and 45 caste groups from all four major linguistic groups of India, were analyzed for 38 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers. Phylogeography of the major Y-chromosomal haplogroups in India, genetic distance, and admixture analyses all indicate that the recent external contribution to Dravidian- and Hindi-speaking caste groups has been low. The sharing of some Y-chromosomal haplogroups between Indian and Central Asian populations is most parsimoniously explained by a deep, common ancestry between the two regions, with diffusion of some Indian-specific lineages northward. The Y-chromosomal data consistently suggest a largely South Asian origin for Indian caste communities and therefore argue against any major influx, from regions north and west of India, of people associated either with the development of agriculture or the spread of the Indo-Aryan language family. The dyadic Y-chromosome composition of Tibeto-Burman speakers of India, however, can be attributed to a recent demographic process, which appears to have absorbed and overlain populations who previously spoke Austro-Asiatic languages.

  14. Q-structure beneath the north and central Indian Ocean from the inversion of observed Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D. D.

    The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Qβ ≈ 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Qβ ≈ 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Qβ ≈ 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Qβ ≈ 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Qβ-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in adenocarcinoma lung in a North Indian population: Prevalence and relation with different clinical variables

    PubMed Central

    Kasana, Basharat Ahmad; Dar, Waseem Raja; Aziz, Sheikh Aijaz; Lone, Abdul Rashid; Sofi, Najeeb Ullah; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Latief, Muzamil; Arshad, Faheem; Hussain, Moomin; Hussain, Mir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is taking over squamous cell lung cancer as the predominant histological subtype. Several cytotoxic drugs are available for the treatment of lung cancer, but side effects limit their use. Recently, targeted therapies for cancers have come into clinical practice. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in adenocarcinoma lung in a North Indian population and its relation with different clinical variables. Materials and Methods: A total of 57 patients who met inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. Relevant history, clinical examination and investigations were done. EGFR mutation was done in all patients. Results: A total of twenty patients tested positive for EGFR mutation. EGFR was more frequently detected in female patients (53.8%), while as only 19.4% of the male patients expressed EGFR mutation, which was statistically very significant (P = 0.007). EGFR mutation was more frequently detected in nonsmokers (52%) as compared to smokers (21.9%) which also was statistically significant (P value of 0.018). EGFR mutation was more common in Stage III and IV adenocarcinomas (48%) as compared to Stage I and II (21.4%) which was statistically significant (P value 0.034). Conclusion: EGFR mutation should be routinely done in all patients of adenocarcinoma lung particularly non-smoker females with Stage III and IV disease. PMID:27688613

  16. Caspase 8 gene variants in healthy North Indian population and comparison with worldwide ethnic group variations

    PubMed Central

    George, Ginu P.; Mittal, Rama D.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many strategies are being used for the quest for the disease causing genes. Inter-individual variations in several genes exist. Thus, even if they share the same disease-associated allele, the genomic backgrounds – and hence potential interacting alleles at other loci – of people with different regional ancestries may differ, with a consequent variation in the severity of their disease. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The present study was conducted to determine the distribution of Caspase 8 IVS12-19G/A, Caspase 8D302H, Caspase 8 -652del and Caspase 8 -678del polymorphisms (as frequency distribution of caspases in Indians generally is not yet known), which was then compared with different populations globally. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis was conducted in 205 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity. RESULTS: The variant allele frequencies were 17.6% (A) in Caspase 8 IVS12-19G/A, 13.2% (H) in Caspase 8D302H, 23.2% (Del) in Caspase 8 -652del and 24.6% (Del) in Caspase 8 -678del. Further, comparison of frequency distribution of these genes was done with various published studies of different ethnic groups globally. CONCLUSION: It is anticipated from our results that the frequency of these caspase genes exhibits distinctive patterns in India, which could perhaps be attributed to ethnic variation. This study is important as it can form a baseline for screening individuals who are at high risk due to exposure to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition, and therefore, might help in investigating linked polymorphisms in a way that will not obscure potential associations between genotype and phenotype. PMID:21206702

  17. Vitamin-D deficiency predicts infections in young north Indian children: A secondary data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Sunita; Bhandari, Nita; Sinha, Bireshwar; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between poor vitamin D status and respiratory infections and diarrhea among young children. Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and diarrhea are among the two most important causes of death in under-5 children. In this paper, we examined the extent to which vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) predicts ALRI, clinical pneumonia and diarrhea among 6 to 30 months old children. Methods We used data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily folic acid and/or vitamin B12 supplementation for six months in 6 to 30 months old children conducted in Delhi, India. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the associations between vitamin-D deficiency and episodes of ALRI, clinical pneumonia and diarrhea. Results Of the 960 subjects who had vitamin-D concentrations measured, 331(34.5%) were vitamin-D deficient. We found, after controlling for relevant potential confounders (age, sex, breastfeeding status, wasting, stunting, underweight, anemia status and season), that the risk of ALRI was significantly higher among vitamin-D deficient (OR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.55) compared to vitamin-D-replete children in the six months follow-up period. Vitamin-D status was not associated with episodes of diarrhea or clinical pneumonia. Conclusion Vitamin-D deficiency is common in young children in New Delhi and is associated with a higher risk of ALRI. The role of vitamin D in Indian children needs to be elucidated in further studies. PMID:28273084

  18. Passive smoking, domestic fuels and lung function in north Indian children.

    PubMed

    Behera, D; Sood, P; Singh, S

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out in 200 school children from north India to find out the effects of passive smoking and exposure to domestic cooking fuels on their lung functions. Forced vital capacity and FEV1 were the lowest in boys whose households used biomass fuel (p < 0.05) and PEFR and FEF 25% and 50% were lowest in boys with their homes using kerosene as fuels. All these were the best for LPG fuel. However, in girls there was no significant difference in different parameters, although the values were lower in those using kerosene and biomass fuel. All parameters were lower in passive smokers irrespective of the type of fuel used although they were not statistically significant. However, FEF 50% was significantly less in passive smokers whose households used mixed fuels. The same was true for PEFR, PEFR %, and FEF 25% in cases of LPG fuel use.

  19. Indians into Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, James N.

    Located at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Indians Into Medicine (INMED) is a multi-faceted program providing academic, financial, and personal support for Indian students preparing for health careers. The program has the following goals: (1) increase awareness and motivation among Indian students with the potential for health…

  20. Seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol over the North Indian region during 2005-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2012-11-01

    The Indo-Gangetic basin (IGB) extends 2000 km in length along NW-SE and has 400 km width, in the north the basin is bounded by towering Himalaya. High aerosol optical depth (AOD) is observed over the IGB throughout the year. The Himalaya restricts the transport of aerosols across Tibet and China. We have used ground based Kanpur and Gandhi College Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra level-3 AOD products for the years 2005-2009 to study the variability of aerosol over the Indo-Gangetic (IG) plains. An increase in both satellite-derived as well as ground observed aerosol loading during 2005-2009 has been found over major cities located in the IG plains. The correlation coefficients between AERONET and MISR data are found to be 0.70, 0.36 0.82, in contrast the correlation coefficients between AERONET and MODIS 0.49, 0.68, and 0.43, respectively during summer, winter and monsoon seasons. The AOD estimation using MISR is found to be close to AERONET data during summer and monsoon seasons, in contrast MODIS estimation is better during winter season.

  1. Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Galbraith, Eric D.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Zhang, Rong

    2007-09-01

    Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas.

  2. Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations of North Atlantic Deep Water subduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmittner, A.; Galbraith, E.D.; Hostetler, S.W.; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Zhang, R.

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimate records from glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved oxygen levels and denitrification coherent with North Atlantic temperature oscillations. Yet the mechanism of this teleconnection between the remote ocean basins remains elusive. Here we present model simulations of the oxygen and nitrogen cycles that explain how changes in deepwater subduction in the North Atlantic can cause large and synchronous variations of oxygen minimum zones, throughout the Northern Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods in the North Atlantic are associated with reduced nutrient delivery to the upper Indo-Pacific oceans, thereby decreasing productivity. Reduced export production diminishes subsurface respiration of organic matter leading to higher oxygen concentrations and less denitrification. This effect of reduced oxygen consumption dominates at low latitudes. At high latitudes in the Southern Ocean and North Pacific, increased mixed layer depths and steepening of isopycnals improve ocean ventilation and oxygen supply to the subsurface. Atmospheric teleconnections through changes in wind-driven ocean circulation modify this basin-scale pattern regionally. These results suggest that changes in the Atlantic Ocean circulation, similar to those projected by climate models to possibly occur in the centuries to come because of anthropogenic climate warming, can have large effects on marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles even in remote areas. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Health education to increase screening for cervical cancer among Lumbee Indian women in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Wells, H B; Sharp, P; Blinson, K; Case, L D; Bell, R; Konen, J; Davis, S; McQuellon, R P

    1998-12-01

    Although age-adjusted mortality rates from cancer among Native-Americans are generally lower than for the US population as a whole, cervical cancer mortality rates are higher. This report presents results from a National Cancer Institute-funded health education program conducted among the Lumbee tribe in North Carolina that was designed to increase the proportion of women, age 18 and older, who receive Pap smears to screen for cervical cancer. The Solomon Four Group research design was used for this project. Participants were selected at random from the enrollment records of the Lumbee tribe and data collection was carried out during face-to-face interviews. The health education program was provided one-on-one in women's homes by a trained lay health educator and included verbal, print and videotape information. A total of 979 women were enrolled in the study, and 125 were lost to follow-up between the pre-test and post-test. Women who received the education program were found to be more likely to have knowledge of the Pap smear and to report a Pap smear in the past year at the post-test than those in the control group, regardless of whether they received the pre-test interview, P < 0.05. Women most likely to respond to the education program were also likely to have reported that they receive an annual physical examination. Women with better knowledge of the Pap smear tended to have more education, higher income and greater identification with Native-American culture than those with less knowledge. We conclude that the health education program was associated with greater knowledge about cervical cancer prevention and higher proportions of Lumbee women obtaining Pap smears in the past year.

  4. Effect of tropical cyclones on the stratosphere-troposphere exchange observed using satellite observations over the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat Ratnam, M.; Babu, S. Ravindra; Das, S. S.; Basha, G.; Krishnamurthy, B. V.; Venkateswararao, B.

    2016-07-01

    Tropical cyclones play an important role in modifying the tropopause structure and dynamics as well as stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In the present study, the impact of cyclones that occurred over the north Indian Ocean during 2007-2013 on the STE processes is quantified using satellite observations. Tropopause characteristics during cyclones are obtained from the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) measurements, and ozone and water vapour concentrations in the UTLS region are obtained from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite observations. The effect of cyclones on the tropopause parameters is observed to be more prominent within 500 km of the centre of the tropical cyclone. In our earlier study, we observed a decrease (increase) in the tropopause altitude (temperature) up to 0.6 km (3 K), and the convective outflow level increased up to 2 km. This change leads to a total increase in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) thickness of 3 km within 500 km of the centre of cyclone. Interestingly, an enhancement in the ozone mixing ratio in the upper troposphere is clearly noticed within 500 km from the cyclone centre, whereas the enhancement in the water vapour in the lower stratosphere is more significant on the south-east side, extending from 500 to 1000 km away from the cyclone centre. The cross-tropopause mass flux for different intensities of cyclones is estimated and it is found that the mean flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere for cyclonic storms is 0.05 ± 0.29 × 10-3 kg m-2, and for very severe cyclonic storms it is 0.5 ± 1.07 × 10-3 kg m-2. More downward flux is noticed on the north-west and south-west side of the cyclone centre. These results indicate that the cyclones have significant impact in effecting the tropopause structure, ozone and water vapour budget, and consequentially the STE in the UTLS region.

  5. Association of limited joint mobility and increased plantar hardness in diabetic foot ulceration in north Asian Indian: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, R; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the association of limited joint mobility and foot sole hardness in north Asian Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Limited joint mobility and hardness of the foot sole were measured for 39 subjects attending the AIIMS Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinic. The total subject divided into three groups: 13 control subjects (nondiabetic), 13 diabetic patients without neuropathy and 13 diabetic neuropathy patients. Neuropathy status was assessed using 10 gm Semen's Weinstein monofilament. Joint mobility parameters, such as ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion and metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, are measured using a goniometer. Foot sole hardness was measured using a durometer or shore meter. We found that diabetic patients with a neuropathic foot had significantly reduced joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness, placing them at risk for subsequent ulceration. Metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion of both feet of diabetic patients had significant correlation (at p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 level) over age and body mass index. Also ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion and metatarsophalangeal-1 dorsiflexion/plantar flexion has a significant correlations (at p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 level) with foot sole hardness in both feet of diabetic neuropathy subjects. Also linear regression analysis showed that duration of diabetes was significantly associated with the joint mobility parameters. In this study we conclude that joint mobility had reduced further if neuropathy and increased foot sole hardness coexisted owing to high plantar pressures. Hence, both limited joint mobility and increased foot sole hardness appears to be important determinants of foot sole ulceration in diabetic neuropathic subject.

  6. Growth faulting and syntectonic casting of the Dawson Creek Graben Complex: A North American craton-marginal trough; Carboniferous-Permian Peace River Embayment, western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, J.E.; Utting, J. ); Krause, F.F.; Campbell, R.I. )

    1991-06-01

    The Dawson Creek Graben Complex was a 150 {times} 300 km, craton-perpendicular trough near the western North American craton margin. Sedimentary infill spanned 100 million years, and this tectonically controlled basin provides a comparison with other craton-marginal troughs or aulacogens, such as the Big Snowy, Uinta, Delaware, and Southern Oklahoma. The authors suspect that the graben complex was controlled by outboard, Antler-like orogeny and perhaps some strike-slip control. This syntectonic graben infill model provides a basis for developing new structural-stratigraphic plays in this mature basin. This extensional trough rests on a former basement arch and is centered in the broadly downwarped Peace River embayment. Sediment infill records several graben casting stages beginning with westernmost down-dropping, which then extended eastward and was accompanied by an increase in growth-type block faulting. Subsidence and faulting decay was followed by a retreat to western areas and tectonic stabilization. The complex was an arcuate half-graben, steep to the north, that widened asymmetrically and increased in depth to the west through time. The complex contained a principal half-graben with neighboring satellite grabens; throughout the complex are numerous kilometer-scale horst and graben blocks. The horsts subsided slower than neighboring grabens. This differential subsidence along block-bounding syn- and postdepositional growth-type normal faults controlled formation and bed thickness, as did inter- and intraformational unconformities.

  7. Fur Production as a Specialized Activity in a World System: Indians in the North American Fur Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardulias, P. Nick

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fur trade as critical fulcrum in Indian-White contact, focusing on craft specialization as the Native response to the international market system. Describes effects on Indian dependence on European trade goods, Native territorial boundaries and population distribution, social and family structures, and animal populations. Contains 73…

  8. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the thick regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system of Indian Creek basin, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, Charles C.; Smith, Douglas G.; Eimers, Jo Leslie

    1997-01-01

    The Indian Creek Basin in the southwestern Piedmont of North Carolina is one of five type areas studied as part of the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System analysis. Detailed studies of selected type areas were used to quantify ground-water flow characteristics in various conceptual hydrogeologic terranes. The conceptual hydrogeologic terranes are considered representative of ground-water conditions beneath large areas of the three physiographic provinces--Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont--that compose the Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis area. The Appalachian Valleys-Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study area extends over approximately 142,000 square miles in 11 states and the District of Columbia in the Appalachian highlands of the Eastern United States. The Indian Creek type area is typical of ground-water conditions in a single hydrogeologic terrane that underlies perhaps as much as 40 percent of the Piedmont physiographic province. The hydrogeologic terrane of the Indian Creek model area is one of massive and foliated crystalline rocks mantled by thick regolith. The area lies almost entirely within the Inner Piedmont geologic belt. Five hydrogeologic units occupy major portions of the model area, but statistical tests on well yields, specific capacities, and other hydrologic characteristics show that the five hydrogeologic units can be treated as one unit for purposes of modeling ground-water flow. The 146-square-mile Indian Creek model area includes the Indian Creek Basin, which has a surface drainage area of about 69 square miles. The Indian Creek Basin lies in parts of Catawba, Lincoln, and Gaston Counties, North Carolina. The larger model area is based on boundary conditions established for digital simulation of ground-water flow within the smaller Indian Creek Basin. The ground-water flow model of the Indian Creek Basin is based on the U.S. Geological Survey?s modular finite

  9. Caste in India, Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Donald H.

    1971-01-01

    Traced is the sociocultural framework for the system in Indian culture which emphasized duty and obligations rather than individual freedom and rights. Also discussed are contemporary changes in the caste system. (DB)

  10. Best Practices for Effective Clinical Partnerships with Indigenous Populations of North America (American Indian, Alaska Native, First Nations, Métis, and Inuit).

    PubMed

    Haozous, Emily A; Neher, Charles

    2015-09-01

    This article presents a review of the literature to identify best practices for clinical partnerships with indigenous populations of North America, specifically American Indian/Alaska Native, First Nations, Métis, and Inuit of Canada. The authors have identified best practices and lessons learned from collaborating with indigenous populations, presented in 2 categories: conceptual guidelines and health care delivery guidelines. Major themes include the importance of trust and communication, the delivery of culturally congruent health care, and the necessity of working in partnership with tribal entities for successful delivery of health care. Best practices in health care delivery with indigenous populations are presented.

  11. Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

  12. Late Neogene changes in North America and Antarctica absolute plate motions inferred from the Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges spreading histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, G.; DeMets, C.

    2016-08-01

    Reconstructions of absolute plate motions underpin our understanding of the plate torque balance, but are challenging due to difficulties in inferring well-dated rates and directions of plate movements from hot spot tracks. Useful information about plate dynamics can be inferred from rapid absolute plate motion changes, as these are linked only to the torque(s) that changed. Here we infer late Neogene changes in the absolute motions of North America and possibly Antarctica from changes in the easier-to-determine relative plate motions recorded along the Arctic, northern Mid-Atlantic and Southwest Indian Ridges. We show that Eurasia/North America and Nubia/North America motions changed by the same amount between 8 and 5 Ma, as may have Nubia/Antarctica and Somalia/Antarctica plate motions. By considering additional, independent constraints on Somalia/India plate motion, we argue that a scenario in which North America and Antarctica absolute motions changed is the simplest one that explains the observed changes in relative motions. We speculate that these changes are linked to the late Neogene dynamics of the Pacific plate.

  13. Hind-Casting the Quantity and Composition of Discards by Mixed Demersal Fisheries in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R.; Cook, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term. PMID:25774938

  14. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Cook, Robin M

    2015-01-01

    Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80%) roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.

  15. Association of Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1B) gene polymorphism with early pregnancy loss risk in the North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nair, R R; Khanna, A; Singh, K

    2014-02-01

    C+3953T IL-1 B single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was carried out in 140 unrelated early pregnancy loss (EPL) patients and in 198 fertile healthy control women and in chorionic villous samples by PCR-RFLP. In Indian population, this is the first report on association of IL-1 B SNP C+3953T polymorphism and EPL.

  16. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Clinical and Angiographic Profile in Patients With Naive Acute Coronary Syndrome in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Goel, Amit; Madaan, Amit; Thakur, Ramesh; Krishna, Vinay; Singh, Karandeep; Sachan, Mohit; Pandey, Umeshwar; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Background Data of isolated metabolic syndrome as risk factor in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) especially in context to Indian subcontinent are sparse. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its clinical and angiographic profile in naive ACS patients in North Indian population. Methods A single-center, prospective, observational study of 324 patients was conducted at LPS Institute of Cardiology, G.S.V.M. Medical College, Kanpur, India with newly diagnosed ACS patients with MetS, as per modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. They were divided into two groups with and without MetS, and their clinical and angiographic profiles were studied. Results Prevalence of MetS in our study was 37.65%. Patients with MetS were significantly older than without MetS (60.3 ± 8.4 vs. 57.6 ± 7.9), and had females preponderance (35.24% vs. 24.25%), less tobacco abuse (30.32% vs. 42.57%), more non-ST-segment elevation ACS (58.19% vs. 36.14%), less ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (41.80% vs. 63.86%), more cardiogenic shock (27.04% vs. 17.32%), recurrent ischemia (14.75% vs. 7.42%) and on angiogram, lesser single vessel disease (21.13% vs. 53.96%), more double vessel disease (39.34 vs. 24.26%), triple vessel disease (19.67% vs. 10.39%), left main (13.11% vs. 4.45%) and complex coronary lesions (tubular 40.98% vs. 31.68%; diffuse 26.23% vs. 18.32%). However, there was a trend of lower but insignificant mortality with MetS (5.44% vs. 6.55%). Conclusion There was high prevalence of MetS among patients with ACS in North Indian population with more advanced coronary artery disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study from North India documenting clinical and angiographic profile of patients with MetS and ACS. PMID:27540441

  17. English 367: American Indian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert W.; DeFlyer, Joseph E.

    A study guide to American Indian Literature (English 367), a 3-credit hour correspondence course available through the University of North Dakota, contains eight lessons to be used with the following six textbooks: "Black Elk Speaks,""Carriers of the Dream Wheel,""Ceremony,""The Portable North American Indian Reader,""Winter in Blood,""In the…

  18. Numerical simulation and observations of very severe cyclone generated surface wave fields in the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisha, P.; Remya, P. G.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2015-12-01

    Accurate wave forecast is most needed during tropical cyclones as it has adverse effects on the entire marine activities. The present work evaluates the performance of a wave forecasting system under very severe cyclonic conditions for the Indian Ocean. The wave model results are validated separately for the deep water and shallow water using in-situ observations. Satellite altimeter observations are also utilized for validation purpose. The results show that the model performance is accurate (SI < 26% and correlation > 0.9) and consistent during very severe cyclones (categories 4 and 5). The power of the cyclone waves which hit in the eastern Indian coastal region is also analysed and it reveals that the coastal region which lies on the right side of the cyclone track receives high amount wave energy throughout the cyclone period. The study also says that the abnormal waves mostly present on the right side of the track.

  19. The monsoon imprint during the `atypical' MIS 13 as seen through north and equatorial Indian Ocean records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caley, Thibaut; Malaizé, Bruno; Bassinot, Franck; Clemens, Steven C.; Caillon, Nicolas; Linda, Rossignol; Charlier, Karine; Rebaubier, Helene

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, recognized as atypical in many paleoclimate records, is marked by the development of anomalously strong summer monsoons in the northern tropical areas. To test this hypothesis, we performed a multi-proxy study on three marine records from the tropical Indian Ocean in order to reconstruct and analyse changes in the summer Indian monsoon winds and precipitations during MIS 13. Our data confirm the existence of a low-salinity event during MIS 13 in the equatorial Indian Ocean but we argue that this event should not be considered as "atypical". Taking only into account a smaller precession does not make it possible to explain such precipitation episode. However, when considering also the larger obliquity in a more complete orbitally driven monsoon "model," one can successfully explain this event. In addition, our data suggest that intense summer monsoon winds, although not atypical in strength, prevailed during MIS 13 in the western Arabian Sea. These strong monsoon winds, transporting important moisture, together with the effect of insolation and Eurasian ice sheet, are likely one of the factors responsible for the intense monsoon precipitation signal recorded in China loess, as suggested by model simulations.

  20. Promising link of HLA-G polymorphism, tobacco consumption and risk of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Vertica; Gupta, Abhishek; Kumar, Rahul; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Dwivedi, Sadanand; Kumar, Lalit; Dey, Sharmistha

    2017-02-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G) is a potent immune-tolerant molecule and has a critical role in various pathological conditions of cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of HLA-G polymorphism as a risk factor in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). The HLA-G polymorphism at 3'UTR 14bp INDEL (rs371194629) and +3142G/C (rs1063320) were studied in 383 HNSCC patients and 383 ethnically similar-aged healthy controls in North Indian population. The genotyping study of two polymorphisms of HLA-G was documented using DNA-PAGE and RFLP-PCR method. 14bp INDEL Del/Ins, Ins/Ins genotype and Ins allele were more pronounced in HNSCC patients in compared to controls. Whereas, +3142 C/C genotype and C allele were associated with risk factors in HNSCC. Furthermore, the dual effect of polymorphisms; both variants (Del/Ins-Ins/Ins & G/C-C/C) carrying loci was significantly (OR=2.78) associated with the disease compared to one variant (Del/Del-G/C or Del/Del-C/C or Ins/Ins-G/G). Moreover, both polymorphisms showed promising link in terms of tobacco influence on HNSCC risk. It can be concluded that this study first time reports that C/C, Del/Ins and Ins/Ins genotype as well as C and Ins allele could be major risk factors with strong impact of tobacco for HNSCC in North Indian population.

  1. Population and genomic lessons from genetic analysis of two Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Juyal, Garima; Mondal, Mayukh; Luisi, Pierre; Laayouni, Hafid; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Heutink, Peter; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Thelma, B K; Casals, Ferran

    2014-10-01

    Indian demographic history includes special features such as founder effects, interpopulation segregation, complex social structure with a caste system and elevated frequency of consanguineous marriages. It also presents a higher frequency for some rare mendelian disorders and in the last two decades increased prevalence of some complex disorders. Despite the fact that India represents about one-sixth of the human population, deep genetic studies from this terrain have been scarce. In this study, we analyzed high-density genotyping and whole-exome sequencing data of a North and a South Indian population. Indian populations show higher differentiation levels than those reported between populations of other continents. In this work, we have analyzed its consequences, by specifically assessing the transferability of genetic markers from or to Indian populations. We show that there is limited genetic marker portability from available genetic resources such as HapMap or the 1,000 Genomes Project to Indian populations, which also present an excess of private rare variants. Conversely, tagSNPs show a high level of portability between the two Indian populations, in contrast to the common belief that North and South Indian populations are genetically very different. By estimating kinship from mates and consanguinity in our data from trios, we also describe different patterns of assortative mating and inbreeding in the two populations, in agreement with distinct mating preferences and social structures. In addition, this analysis has allowed us to describe genomic regions under recent adaptive selection, indicating differential adaptive histories for North and South Indian populations. Our findings highlight the importance of considering demography for design and analysis of genetic studies, as well as the need for extending human genetic variation catalogs to new populations and particularly to those with particular demographic histories.

  2. SOUTH END OF FURNACE WITH CAST AND ENGINE SHED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH END OF FURNACE WITH CAST AND ENGINE SHED IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  3. Association between Beta-Fibrinogen C148T Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in a North Indian Population: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Misra, Shubham; Kumar, Pradeep; Sagar, Ram; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke is a multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this case-control study was to determine the association between β-fibrinogen C148T (rs1800787) gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ischemic stroke (IS) in a North Indian population. Methods In the present case-control study, genotyping was performed using the PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) method on 250 IS patients and 250 age- and sex-matched controls. Frequency distributions of genotypes and alleles were compared between the cases and controls by conditional logistic regression. Results Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, low socioeconomic status, and family history of stroke were found to be independent risk factors for IS. The mean age of the cases and controls was 52.83 ± 12.59 and 50.97 ± 12.70 years, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent association between β-fibrinogen C148T (rs1800787) polymorphism and risk of IS in dominant (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.23-3.90; p = 0.007) and allelic (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.19-2.33; p = 0.002) models. Based on the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification, an independent association of small vessel disease with risk of IS was observed in the dominant (OR = 2.09; 95% CI 1.10-3.96; p = 0.02) and allelic (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.12-2.75; p = 0.01) models, and a significant association of cardioembolic stroke with risk of IS was seen in the allelic model (OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.07-4.17; p = 0.02). All the genotype frequencies observed were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both cases and controls. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that polymorphism in the C148T position of the β-fibrinogen gene might be a risk factor for IS mainly for the small vessel disease stroke subtype in a North Indian population. Further, large prospective studies are required to confirm these

  4. CYP7A1 (-204 A>C; rs3808607 and -469 T>C; rs3824260) promoter polymorphisms and risk of gallbladder cancer in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anvesha; Choudhuri, Gourdas; Mittal, Balraj

    2010-06-01

    Cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), which is a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol catabolism and bile acid synthesis, may affect cholesterol homeostasis and result in gallstone formation that is a major risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC) pathogenesis. Genetic variations in CYP7A1 may influence its expression and thus may affect the risk of gallstone disease and GBC. We aimed to study the association of 2 promoter polymorphisms of CYP7A1 (-204 A>C [rs3808607] and -469 T>C [rs3824260]) in gallstone and GBC susceptibility in North Indian population. The study included 185 GBC patients, 195 symptomatic gallstone patients, and 200 healthy controls. Genotyping for both polymorphisms was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Although the CC genotype of CYP7A1 -204 A>C was not significantly associated with gallstone disease (P = .083, odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9-3.0), it was conferring higher risk for GBC (P = .018, OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.1-3.7). However, CYP7A1 -469 T>C was not associated with gallstone disease and GBC risk in our population. After subgroup stratifications on the basis of sex and gallstone status, CC genotype and variant allele of CYP7A1 -204 A>C imparted higher risk for GBC in women (P = .003, OR = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.5-7.2) and patients without gallstones (P = .045, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.2-3.6). Haplotype analysis of the 2 polymorphisms showed that C,T (P = .045, OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.0-3.3) and C,C (P = .0001, OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.6-6.0) haplotypes had elevated risk of GBC predisposition. CYP7A1 -469 T>C is not associated with gallstone disease or GBC risk. Although CYP7A1 -204 A>C might play a modest role in gallstone susceptibility, it is an independent risk factor for GBC in North Indian population. Underlying mechanism for GBC susceptibility by CYP7A1 (-204 A>C and -469 T>C) haplotype appears to be independent of gallstone pathway and is believed to involve

  5. A therapy to live by: public health, the self and nationalism in the practice of a north Indian yoga society.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1997-06-01

    In this article I focus on the relationship between concepts of self and health in modern North India. Drawing on field research in a popular yoga society, I argue that yoga therapy, as practiced by the Bharatiya Yog Sansthan of Delhi, provides a reconceptualization of what can be meant by public health. Using studies that challenge both the essentialist and epistemological facticity of the self, I show how the discourse and practice of yoga is implicated in, and derived from, a complex search for self definition in terms of health; health which is conceived of as a public regimen that seeks to reconnect that which modernity has broken apart: mind and body.

  6. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part XI: The Basin-Plateau Tribes. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado at Greeley, has assembled various American Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to comprise a series of publications. The present volume, Part XI of the series, deals with the Indian tribes of Nevada: The Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, the…

  7. Comparison of haematological and biochemical changes between non-anaemic and anaemic primigravid women in a north Indian population to establish normative values.

    PubMed

    Shankar, H; Kumar, N; Rao, D N; Chandhiok, N; Sandhir, R; Kriplani, A; Dhaliwal, L; Sehgal, R; Jindal, V L; Maithi, L; Kandpal, S; Kumar, A; Kurra, S

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by several haemodynamic, biochemical and haematological changes, which may lead to severe problems, if they are not suitably addressed. The current study highlights the haematological and biochemical differences observed in anaemic (AP) and non-anaemic primigravida (NAP), in the 2nd trimester, in a north Indian population. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the body weight and body temperature of NAP compared with AP. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in haematological parameters including haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte count, MCH and MCHC, was observed in AP; however, MCV was found to be significantly higher (p = 0.038). Many biochemical parameters viz. potassium, albumin, total protein and calcium levels were significantly reduced (p < 0.01) in AP, except alkaline phosphatase whose level was found significantly increased (p < 0.01). The findings of the study suggest that haematological and biochemical changes take place in anaemia during pregnancy. Further, the results obtained should be used for establishing normative values for similar populations.

  8. Development of a digital model of ground-water flow in deeply weathered crystalline rock, Indian Creek area, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, C.C. III; Eimers, J.L. )

    1994-03-01

    The digital ground-water model of the regolith-bedrock aquifer system in the Indian Creek area is based on the US Geological Survey's modular finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW). Use of MODFLOW assumes porous media equivalence; however, special approaches have been used to account for non-uniform fracture distribution. The model is divided into a uniformly spaced grid having 196 rows, 140 columns, and a 500-foot spacing. Rows are oriented parallel to fractures (N 72 E) and columns are oriented parallel to foliation (N 18 W). The area represented by active model cells is 146 square miles and has about 17,400 cells. The model has 11 layers of different thickness; the top layer represents the regolith and the lower 10 layers represent bedrock. The regolith-bedrock contact is at a uniform depth of 50 feet. The base of the model is 850 feet below land surface. Hydraulic properties of regolith are based on diffusivity calculated from streamflow recession and are assumed to be areally constant. The steady-state model simulates recharge to, flow through, and discharge from the regolith-bedrock aquifer system. The mass balance between inflow and outflow differs by less than 1%. Along select sections, computed travel times from drainage divides to streams range from less than 4 years in the regolith to as much as 300 years for flow passing through the bottom layer of bedrock. The volume of ground water that flows through the bottom layer is only about 2% of the flow through the regolith.

  9. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... moving. The outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, ... color! These casts are lighter and stronger than plaster casts. Plaster casts are usually white and made ...

  10. Purification and Characterization of Nk-3FTx: A Three Finger Toxin from the Venom of North East Indian Monocled Cobra.

    PubMed

    Das, Diganta; Sharma, Maitreyee; Kumar Das, Hemanga; Pratim Sahu, Partha; Doley, Robin

    2016-02-01

    Snake venom three finger toxins (3FTxs) are a non-enzymatic family of venom proteins abundantly found in elapids. We have purified a 7579.5 ± 0.591 Da 3FTx named as Nk-3FTx from the venom of Naja kaouthia of North East India origin. The primary structure was determined by a combination of N-terminal sequencing and electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Biochemical and biological characterization reveal that it is nontoxic to human cell lines and exhibit mild anticoagulant activity when tested on citrated human plasma. Nk-3FTx was found to affect the compound action potential (CAP) and nerve conduction velocity of isolated toad sciatic nerve. This is the first report of a non-conventional 3FTx from Naja kaouthia venom that reduces CAP for its neurotoxic effect. Further studies can be carried out to understand the mechanism of action and to explore its potential therapeutic application.

  11. Affirmative Action: The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaramayya, B.

    This paper considers Indian affirmative action policies that provide reservations (quotas) in favor of two disadvantaged groups, the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes. First, definitions and background are presented. The scheduled castes ("untouchables") are said to suffer from social segregation, and the scheduled tribes from…

  12. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America. Part II: The Indian Tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part II of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, and by-laws of Indian tribes of Wisconsin (Great Lakes Agency). Documents are included relative to the Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, and the Red Cliff bands of Lake Superior Chippewa…

  13. Project CAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Board of Education, La Plata, MD. Office of Special Education.

    The document outlines procedures for implementing Project CAST (Community and School Together), a community-based career education program for secondary special education students in Charles County, Maryland. Initial sections discuss the role of a learning coordinator, (including relevant travel reimbursement and mileage forms) and an overview of…

  14. Paper Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrasjid, Dorine A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an art project, based on the work of artist Chew Teng Beng, in the molding of wet paper on a plaster cast to create embossed paper designs. The values of such a project are outlined, including a note that its tactile approach makes it suitable to visually handicapped students. (SJL)

  15. CASTING FURNACES

    DOEpatents

    Ruppel, R.H.; Winters, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    A device is described for casting uranium which comprises a crucible, a rotatable table holding a plurality of molds, and a shell around both the crucible and the table. The bottom of the crucible has an eccentrically arranged pouring hole aligned with one of the molds at a time. The shell can be connected with a vacuum.

  16. Evidence for validity of five secondary data sources for enumerating retail food outlets in seven American Indian Communities in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most studies on the local food environment have used secondary sources to describe the food environment, such as government food registries or commercial listings (e.g., Reference USA). Most of the studies exploring evidence for validity of secondary retail food data have used on-site verification and have not conducted analysis by data source (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA) or by food outlet type (e.g., sensitivity of Reference USA for convenience stores). Few studies have explored the food environment in American Indian communities. To advance the science on measuring the food environment, we conducted direct, on-site observations of a wide range of food outlets in multiple American Indian communities, without a list guiding the field observations, and then compared our findings to several types of secondary data. Methods Food outlets located within seven State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas in North Carolina (NC) were gathered from online Yellow Pages, Reference USA, Dun & Bradstreet, local health departments, and the NC Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. All TIGER/Line 2009 roads (>1,500 miles) were driven in six of the more rural tribal areas and, for the largest tribe, all roads in two of its cities were driven. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, concordance, and kappa statistics were calculated to compare secondary data sources to primary data. Results 699 food outlets were identified during primary data collection. Match rate for primary data and secondary data differed by type of food outlet observed, with the highest match rates found for grocery stores (97%), general merchandise stores (96%), and restaurants (91%). Reference USA exhibited almost perfect sensitivity (0.89). Local health department data had substantial sensitivity (0.66) and was almost perfect when focusing only on restaurants (0.91). Positive predictive value was substantial for Reference USA (0.67) and moderate for local health department data (0

  17. The Indian Heritage of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephy, Alvin M., Jr.

    In this book nominated for the National Book Award, the author presents the past, present, and future of the Indians of North, Central, and South America with current archaeological findings which add to the knowledge about Indians. As noted, the volume contains information from the works of a large number of people who, since the time of…

  18. Association of CTG repeat polymorphism in carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) gene with diabetic nephropathy in north Indians

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ashok K.; Sinha, Nisha; Kumar, Vinod; Bhansali, Anil; Dutta, Pinaki; Jha, Vivekanand

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: CNDP1 gene, present on chromosome 18q22.3-23, encodes carnosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in hydrolysis of carnosine to β-alanine and L-histidine. Linkage of CTG trinucleotide (leucine) repeat polymorphism in CNDP1 gene with diabetic nephropathy has been observed in several populations. However, this association is conflicting and population-dependent. We investigated this association in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without nephropathy in north India. Methods: A total of 564 individuals [199 T2DM without nephropathy (DM), 185 T2DM with nephropathy (DN) and 180 healthy individuals (HC)] were enrolled. CNDP1 CTG repeat analysis was done by direct sequencing of a 377 base pair fragment in exon 2. Results: The most frequent leucine (L) repeats were 5L-5L, 6L-5L and 6L-6L. 5L-5L genotype frequency was reduced in DN (24.3%) as compared to DM (34.7%, P=0.035) and HC (38.4%, P=0.005). Similarly, 5L allele frequency was lower in DN (46.8%) as compared to DM (57.3%, P=0.004) and HC (60.5%, P<0.001). The genotype and allelic frequencies were similar in DM and HC groups. No gender specific difference was observed in the genotype or allelic frequencies between groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Compared to healthy individuals and those with diabetes but no kidney disease, patients with diabetic nephropathy exhibited lower frequencies of 5L-5L genotype and 5L allele of CNDP1 gene, suggesting that this allele might confer protection against development of kidney disease in this population. PMID:27834323

  19. Participation in Mass Gatherings Can Benefit Well-Being: Longitudinal and Control Data from a North Indian Hindu Pilgrimage Event

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Shruti; Khan, Sammyh; Hopkins, Nick; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    How does participation in a long-duration mass gathering (such as a pilgrimage event) impact well-being? There are good reasons to believe such collective events pose risks to health. There are risks associated with communicable diseases. Moreover, the physical conditions at such events (noise, crowding, harsh conditions) are often detrimental to well-being. Yet, at the same time, social psychological research suggests participation in group-related activities can impact well-being positively, and we therefore investigated if participating in a long-duration mass gathering can actually bring such benefits. In our research we studied one of the world's largest collective events – a demanding month-long Hindu religious festival in North India. Participants (comprising 416 pilgrims who attended the gathering for the whole month of its duration, and 127 controls who did not) completed measures of self-assessed well-being and symptoms of ill-health at two time points. The first was a month before the gathering commenced, the second was a month after it finished. We found that those participating in this collective event reported a longitudinal increase in well-being relative to those who did not participate. Our data therefore imply we should reconceptualise how mass gatherings impact individuals. Although such gatherings can entail significant health risks, the benefits for well-being also need recognition. Indeed, an exclusive focus on risk is misleading and limits our understanding of why such events may be so attractive. More importantly, as our research is longitudinal and includes a control group, our work adds robust evidence to the social psychological literature concerning the relationship between participation in social group activities and well-being. PMID:23082155

  20. History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

    Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

  1. Does awareness of diagnosis influence health related quality of life in north Indian patients with lung cancer ?

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Singh, Navneet; Gupta, Dheeraj; Behera, Digambar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several patients with cancer in India are not aware of their diagnosis. We evaluated the impact of awareness of cancer diagnosis on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer. Methods: A total of 391 treatment-naïve patients with lung cancer, seen at the Lung Cancer Clinic of a tertiary care hospital in north India, were categorized into those aware of their diagnosis (group A) and those not aware (group B). All patients answered Hindi versions of abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), and its lung cancer module, EORTC QLQ-LC13. Various domain scores were computed and compared between the two groups. Analysis of covariance was used to determine significance of differences after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results: Only 117 (29.9%) patients were aware of their diagnosis. Of all, 302 (77.2%) patients had non-small cell lung cancer, and 301 (77.0%) had advanced disease. All HRQL domain scores were similar between the two groups, except that group B patients had significantly poorer median (interquartile range) Physical [39.3 (28.6-50.0) vs 46.4 (28.6-57.1)] and Environment [46.9 (40.6-56.3) vs 53.1 (0.6-65.6)] domain scores of WHOQOL-Bref, and Physical function [60.0 (40.0-73.3) vs 66.7 (46.7-80.0)] and Fatigue [66.7 (55.6-77.8) vs 66.7 (44.4-66.7)] scores of QLQ-C30. After adjusting for gender, age, education, family income, and tumour extent, these differences were not significant. Interpretation & conclusions: Disclosure of cancer diagnosis, or lack of it, had no significant impact on HRQL in patients with lung cancer after adjustment of potential confounders. PMID:27748276

  2. Casting methods

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  3. Casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Messer, Regina L

    2004-04-01

    Although the role of dental casting alloys has changed in recent years with the development of improved all-ceramic materials and resin-based composites, alloys will likely continue to be critical assets in the treatment of missing and severely damaged teeth. Alloy shave physical, chemical, and biologic properties that exceed other classes of materials. The selection of the appropriate dental casting alloy is paramount to the long-term success of dental prostheses,and the selection process has become complex with the development of many new alloys. However, this selection process is manageable if the practitioner focuses on the appropriate physical and biologic properties, such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity,corrosion, and biocompatibility, and avoids dwelling on the less important properties of alloy color and short-term cost. The appropriate selection of an alloy helps to ensure a longer-lasting restoration and better oral health for the patient.

  4. Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects Over the Northwest Atlantic, Northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: Estimates Based on In-situ Chemical and Optical Measurements and Chemical Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Anderson, T. L.; Baynard, T.; Bond, T.; Boucher, O.; Carmichael, G.; Clarke, A.; Erlick, C.; Guo, H.; Horowitz, L.; Howell, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Maring, H.; McComiskey, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Noone, K.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ogren, J. A.; Penner, J.; Quinn, P. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Savoie, D. L.; Schwartz, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Tang, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Wu, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions. Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean during ICARTT), incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART). Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth, and direct radiative effect of aerosols (change in radiative flux due to total aerosols) are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity) are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan) to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Such comparisons with observations and resultant reductions in uncertainties are

  5. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella on ready-to-eat betel leaves (Paan) and in water used for soaking betel leaves in North Indian cities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, Mohan; Singh, Preetam; Babu, N; Chandra, Mudit; Agarwal, Ravi Kant

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the water used by Paan vendors in 11 North Indian cities. The analysis of 776 water samples and 120 samples each of preprocessed Paan (from vendor stock) and ready-to-eat Paan collected from Bareilly revealed that four of the ready-to-eat Paan and 34 of the water samples contained multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains. The isolates belonged to five different serovars, i.e., Salmonella Newport (1), Salmonella Paratyphi B (1), Salmonella Teko (1), Salmonella Virchow (3), and Salmonella Saintpaul (32), and could also be classified into 18 different resistotypes. All of the isolates were sensitive to cotrimoxazole, and 97.27% of the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and neomycin. Multidrug resistance (against 5 to 18 antibiotics) was common, particularly for nalidixic acid (65.79%), cephalothin (68.42%), cefoperazone (57.89%), sulfamethizole (52.63%), furazolidone (65.79%), kanamycin (68.42%), doxycycline (50.00%), and cefotaxime (44.74%). Bacteriological analysis of 16 Salmonella-positive and 23 Salmonella-negative samples revealed that the presence of Salmonella in water samples had a negative correlation (r = -0.35) with coliform counts and a positive correlation (r = 0.55) with nonlactose fermenter counts. We determined that centrifugation was a rapid and cheap method for concentrating large samples of Salmonella. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of zoonotic Salmonella on ready-to-eat Paan is a public health concern and may be one of the factors responsible for the hyperendemic status of salmonellosis in India.

  6. Reconnaissance of the hydrology of sandstone and limestone aquifers along the northwest flank of the Little Rocky Mountains, Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, S.E.; Christensen, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    The geohydrology of aquifers was studied the south- western part of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in north-central Montana. The geologic units of interest are the Lodgepole Limestone, principally composed of thin-bedded limestone; the Mission Canyon Limestone, a massive limestone containing numerous solution cavities; the lower part of the Kootenai Formation, composed of sandstone; a sands- stone unit at the base of the Colorado Group; and the Virgelle Sandstone Member at the base of the Eagle Sandstone. These units were formed during Early Mississippian through Late Cretaceous time and have been subjected to uplift, folding, and the intrusion of the igneous core of Little Rocky Mountains. Dips of these units range from nearly vertical to about 10 degrees. Thirty-one test holes were drilled and 25 of the holes were completed as monitoring wells. Water-level fluctuations in most aquifers followed a seasonal pattern with the lowest levels occurring in the fall and winter and highest levels in the spring and summer. Seasonal fluctuations ranged from about 0.6 to 21 feet. Specific capacity of wells tested ranged from 0.02 gallon per minute per foot for a well completed in the Eagle Sandstone to 4.6 gallons per minute per foot for a well completed in the Mission Canyon Limestone. Eight aquifer tests indicated transmissivity values of 15 to 1,000 feet squared per day. Dissolved-solids concentration in water collected from 22 wells ranged from 263 to 1,930 milligrams per liter. The least mineralized water was obtained from the Mission Canyon Limestone and the most mineralized from the Eagle Sandstone.

  7. Association study between genetic variations in Axin2 gene and lung cancer risk in North Indian population: A multiple interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Charu; Sharma, Siddharth; Singh, Navneet; Behera, Digamber

    2017-04-01

    Wnt pathway has been implicated in the process of human carcinogenesis. Axis inhibition protein2 ( Axin2), a major scaffold protein is an antagonist of Wnt pathway and is potent to act as a tumor suppressor gene in various human cancers. Therefore, the seven polymorphic sites of Axin2 gene were analyzed, in relation to lung cancer susceptibility in North Indians. A total of 608 subjects were genotyped using PCR-RFLP technique for each polymorphic site including 303 cases and 305 controls. Further association analysis was carried out using logistic regression approach to obtain adjusted odds ratio and statistical significance. MDR and CART analysis were applied to evaluate high order interactions between the SNP's. Three out of seven studied polymorphic sites showed a strong protective effect in subjects having mutant genotype for Axin2 148 C >T and heterozygous genotype for 1365 G > A and 1712 + 19 G > T towards lung cancer risk. The other important finding was the significant association of Axin2 148 C >T in SQCC patients having variant (TT) genotype. Axin2 1712 + 19 G >T showed a decreased risk for all the histological subtypes in patients with heterozygous (GT) genotype. MDR analysis predicted a best interaction model ( Axin2 148, Axin2 2062 and Axin2 1712 +19) with maximum CVC (10/10) and minimum prediction error (0.38) along with significant permutation p-value. CART analysis gave a wide spectrum of interactive combinations which exhibited a major contribution in modulating lung cancer susceptibility. Axin2 148 and Axin2 1712 + 19 were found to play a major role in modulating lung cancer risk.

  8. Polymorphism in XRCC1 gene modulates survival and clinical outcomes of advanced North Indian lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amrita; Singh, Navneet; Behera, Digambar; Sharma, Siddharth

    2017-04-01

    Survival in lung cancer patients is genetically determined. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes are observed to play a critical role in survival as DNA repair itself can behave as double-edged sword. We aim to explore the association of DNA repair gene XRCC1 in survival and clinical outcomes for North Indian population. Blood sample from patients diagnosed with lung cancer was taken. DNA isolation and genotyping were performed for the SNPs of XRCC1 gene. Further, patients were followed up through telephonic conversation after every 2 months for 3 years. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kaplan-Meier to determine the median survival time (MST) and Cox proportional regression model to determine the hazards ratio. Further, logistic regression was used to calculate to calculate the objective response. The mutant genotype for XRCC1 399 is observed to have a better survival (MST = 9.6). Histological stratification did not reveal any association for any SNP except for SCLC subtype in XRCC1 632 with an increased death rate (HR 3.08, p = 0.02). On stratification according to chemotherapy regimen administered; cisplatin/carboplatin + docetaxel was observed to increase survival for XRCC1 399 mutant genotype (AA) (HR 0.26, p = 0.05). Cisplatin/carboplatin + irinotecan increased survival in both heterozygotes (GA) and combined variants (GA + AA) (HR 0.22, p = 0.014; HR 0.23, p = 0.012). The polymorphic variants within the XRCC1 gene have found to play an important role in overall survival of lung cancer patients undergoing specific chemotherapy regimen.

  9. Impact of air-sea coupling on the simulation of tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean using a simple 3-D ocean model coupled to ARW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Mohan, Greeshma M.; Naidu, C. V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the impact of air-sea coupling on tropical cyclone (TC) predictions is studied using a three-dimensional Price-Weller-Pinkel (3DPWP) ocean model coupled to the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting in six tropical storms in the North Indian Ocean, representing different intensities, seasonality, and varied oceanic conditions. A set of numerical experiments are conducted for each cyclone using sea surface temperature (SST) boundary conditions derived from Global Forecast System (GFS) SST, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction SST, and ocean coupling (3DPWP). Significant differences and improvements are found in the predicted intensity and track in the simulations, in which the cyclones' impact on SST is included. It has been found that while the uncoupled model using GFS SST considerably overestimated the intensity as well as produced large track errors, the ocean coupling substantially improved the track and intensity predictions. The improvements with 3DPWP are because of simulating the ocean-atmosphere feedback in terms of deepening of ocean mixed layer, reduction in enthalpy fluxes, and storm-induced SST cooling as seen in observations. The coupled model could simulate the cold wake in SST, asymmetries in the surface winds, enthalpy fluxes, size, and structure of the storm in better agreement with observations than the uncoupled model. The coupled model reduced the track errors by roughly 0.3-39% and intensity errors by 29-47% at 24-96 h predictions by controlling the northward deviation of storms tracks by SST cooling and associated changes in the dynamics. The vorticity changes associated with horizontal advection and stretching terms affect the tracks of the storms in the three simulations.

  10. CASTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  11. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  12. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of Indian Tribes of North America. Part I: The Sioux Tribes of South Dakota. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    To facilitate the study and understanding of present-day Indian tribal organization and governmental procedures, the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of…

  13. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part IV: The Southwest (Navajo--Zuni). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    Part IV of a series of publications consisting of American Indian tribal governmental documents, this volume includes charters, constitutions, articles of association, and by-laws of Indian tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. Documents are included relative to the Navajo Tribe of Arizona and New Mexico; the Eastern Navajo Council--New Mexico; the…

  14. Indian Writers and Indian Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensland, Anna Lee

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of popular Indian stereotypes and counter-stereotypes in literature, based on the thesis that the introduction of the literature of the American Indian, traditional and modern, will help to increase the Indian child's pride in his culture and add to the understanding of the non-Indian child. (EH)

  15. Robeson County Indian Education Needs Assessment, FY-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth Dial; And Others

    Robeson County, North Carolina, has the largest Indian population in the state. There are 25,684 Lumbee Indians in the county; Indian students comprise 61 percent of the school population. In compliance with Title IV-A regulations, a 1978-79 needs assessment was conducted to allow the Indian community participation in the development of cultural…

  16. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  17. Geology and ground-water resources of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota, with a section on the chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingman, Robert James; Gordon, Ellis D.; Swenson, H.A.

    1954-01-01

    The Fort Berthold Indian Reservation occupies about 1,000 square miles in west- central North Dakota. The Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers flow through the area and form part of its boundaries. Garrison Dam, which is under construction on the Missouri River 30 miles downstream from the east boundary of the reservation, will impound water in Garrison Reservoir and flood the valleys of both rivers throughout the area. The reservoir will divide the reservation into five parts, herein referred to as the eastern, northeastern, northern, western, and southern segments. Rock formations ranging in age from Paleocene to Recent are exposed. The Fort Union formation of Paleocene age underlies the entire reservation, and it crops out along the Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers. Relatively thin glacial till and outwash deposits of late Pleistocene age mantle much of the upland in all of the segments. The glacial de. posits commonly are less than 10 feet thick; in many places they consist only of scattered boulders on the bedrock surface. The major valleys have terrace deposits of Pleistocene and Recent age and alluvium of Recent age. The principal mineral resources of the reservation are lignite, sand, and gravel. The lignite beds range in thickness from a few inches to about 30 feet. At least four separate beds, which range in thickness from 4 feet to more than 7 feet, are mined locally. Although many mines will be flooded after Garrison Dam is completed, many suitable mine sites will remain above the proposed reservoir level. Sand and gravel deposits are found in glacial outwash and in stream-terrace deposits. On upland areas of the reservation ground water is available principally from the lignite and the associated fine- to medium-grained sandstone beds of the Fort Union formation. Few wells on the reservation are known to produce water from glacial material, although the recessional moraines are possible sources of shallow-water supplies. Small quantities of ground

  18. American Indian Music for the Classroom: An Indian Education Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    This teaching guide, produced in cooperation with Indian parents, students and teachers, offers classroom material on the complex culture and history of American Indians. The guide suggests youngsters be taught that, contrary to stereotypes, there was a wide variation of Indian tribal groups and cultures in North America. A list of 14…

  19. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    PubMed

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

  20. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Anderson, T. L.; Baynard, T.; Bond, T.; Boucher, O.; Carmichael, G.; Clarke, A.; Erlick, C.; Guo, H.; Horowitz, L.; Howell, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Maring, H.; McComiskey, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Noone, K.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ogren, J.; Penner, J.; Quinn, P. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Savoie, D. L.; Schwartz, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Tang, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Wu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001). Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO) during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA) during ICARTT), incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART). Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD), and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE - change in radiative flux due to total aerosols) are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity) are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan) to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative transfer

  1. Aerosol direct radiative effects over the northwest Atlantic, northwest Pacific, and North Indian Oceans: estimates based on in-situ chemical and optical measurements and chemical transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Anderson, T. L.; Baynard, T.; Bond, T.; Boucher, O.; Carmichael, G.; Clarke, A.; Erlick, C.; Guo, H.; Horowitz, L.; Howell, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Maring, H.; McComiskey, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Noone, K.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ogren, J.; Penner, J.; Quinn, P. K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Savoie, D. L.; Schwartz, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Tang, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Wu, Y.

    2006-05-01

    The largest uncertainty in the radiative forcing of climate change over the industrial era is that due to aerosols, a substantial fraction of which is the uncertainty associated with scattering and absorption of shortwave (solar) radiation by anthropogenic aerosols in cloud-free conditions (IPCC, 2001). Quantifying and reducing the uncertainty in aerosol influences on climate is critical to understanding climate change over the industrial period and to improving predictions of future climate change for assumed emission scenarios. Measurements of aerosol properties during major field campaigns in several regions of the globe during the past decade are contributing to an enhanced understanding of atmospheric aerosols and their effects on light scattering and climate. The present study, which focuses on three regions downwind of major urban/population centers (North Indian Ocean (NIO) during INDOEX, the Northwest Pacific Ocean (NWP) during ACE-Asia, and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWA) during ICARTT), incorporates understanding gained from field observations of aerosol distributions and properties into calculations of perturbations in radiative fluxes due to these aerosols. This study evaluates the current state of observations and of two chemical transport models (STEM and MOZART). Measurements of burdens, extinction optical depth (AOD), and direct radiative effect of aerosols (DRE - change in radiative flux due to total aerosols) are used as measurement-model check points to assess uncertainties. In-situ measured and remotely sensed aerosol properties for each region (mixing state, mass scattering efficiency, single scattering albedo, and angular scattering properties and their dependences on relative humidity) are used as input parameters to two radiative transfer models (GFDL and University of Michigan) to constrain estimates of aerosol radiative effects, with uncertainties in each step propagated through the analysis. Constraining the radiative transfer

  2. p53-Mediated Biliary Defects Caused by Knockdown of cirh1a, the Zebrafish Homolog of the Gene Responsible for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Lorent, Kristin; Matthews, Randolph P.; Pack, Michael

    2013-01-01

    North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (NAIC) is a rare, autosomal recessive, progressive cholestatic disease of infancy affecting the Cree-Ojibway first Nations of Quebec. All NAIC patients are homozygous for a missense mutation (R565W) in CIRH1A, the human homolog of the yeast nucleolar protein Utp4. Utp4 is part of the t-Utp subcomplex of the small subunit (SSU) processome, a ribonucleoprotein complex required for ribosomal RNA processing and small subunit assembly. NAIC has thus been proposed to be a primary ribosomal disorder (ribosomopathy); however, investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism of this disease has been hindered by lack of an animal model. Here, using a morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based loss-of-function strategy, we have generated a model of NAIC in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Zebrafish Cirhin shows substantial homology to the human homolog, and cirh1a mRNA is expressed in developing hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. Injection of two independent MOs directed against cirh1a at the one-cell stage causes defects in canalicular and biliary morphology in 5 dpf larvae. In addition, 5 dpf Cirhin-deficient larvae have dose-dependent defects in hepatobiliary function, as assayed by the metabolism of an ingested fluorescent lipid reporter. Previous yeast and in vitro studies have shown that defects in ribosome biogenesis cause stabilization and nuclear accumulation of p53, which in turn causes p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Thus, the nucleolus appears to function as a cellular stress sensor in some cell types. In accordance with this hypothesis, transcriptional targets of p53 are upregulated in Cirhin-deficient zebrafish embryos, and defects in biliary function seen in Cirhin-deficient larvae are completely abrogated by mutation of tp53. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence of a role for Cirhin in biliary development, and support the hypothesis that congenital defects affecting ribosome biogenesis can activate

  3. PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine gene interactions contribute to the susceptibility to leprosy: a case–control study of North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytokines and related molecules in immune-response pathways seem important in deciding the outcome of the host–pathogen interactions towards different polar forms in leprosy. We studied the role of significant and functionally important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes, published independently from our research group, through combined interaction with an additional analysis of the in silico network outcome, to understand how these impact the susceptibility towards the disease, leprosy. Design The study was designed to assess an overall combined contribution of significantly associated individual SNPs to reflect on epistatic interactions and their outcome in the form of the disease, leprosy. Furthermore, in silico approach was adopted to carry out protein–protein interaction study between PARK2 and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Setting Population-based case–control study involved the data of North India. Protein–protein interaction networks were constructed using cytoscape. Participants Study included the data available from 2305 Northern Indians samples (829 patients with leprosy; 1476 healthy controls), generated by our research group. Primary and secondary outcome measures For genotype interaction analysis, all possible genotype combinations between selected SNPs were used as an independent variable, using binary logistic regression with the forward likelihood ratio method, keeping the gender as a covariate. Results Interaction analysis between PARK2 and significant SNPs of anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory cytokine genes, including BAT1 to BTNL2-DR spanning the HLA (6p21.3) region in a case–control comparison, showed that the combined analysis of: (1) PARK2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), BTNL2-DR, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 and TGFBR2 increased the risk towards leprosy (OR=2.54); (2) PARK2, BAT1, NFKBIL1, LTA, TNF-LTB, IL12B and IL10RB provided increased protection (OR=0.26) in comparison with their

  4. Wisconsin Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lurie, Nancy Oestreich

    Wisconsin encompasses an astonishingly representative illustration of the total historical development of federal Indian policy and Indian reactions to it. Wisconsin's Indian population (at least 25,000 people) is the third largest east of the Mississippi River and offers great diversity (3 major linguistic stocks, 6 broad tribal affiliations, and…

  5. Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India.

    PubMed

    Zerjal, Tatiana; Pandya, Arpita; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Ling, Edmund Y S; Kearley, Jennifer; Bertoneri, Stefania; Paracchini, Silvia; Singh, Lalji; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2007-03-01

    The caste system has persisted in Indian Hindu society for around 3,500 years. Like the Y chromosome, caste is defined at birth, and males cannot change their caste. In order to investigate the genetic consequences of this system, we have analysed male-lineage variation in a sample of 227 Indian men of known caste, 141 from the Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh and 86 from the rest of India. We typed 131 Y-chromosomal binary markers and 16 microsatellites. We find striking evidence for male substructure: in particular, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (but not other castes) from Jaunpur each show low diversity and the predominance of a single distinct cluster of haplotypes. These findings confirm the genetic isolation and drift within the Jaunpur upper castes, which are likely to result from founder effects and social factors. In the other castes, there may be either larger effective population sizes, or less strict isolation, or both.

  6. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  7. Soft sediment deformation associated with the passage of North Atlantic Deep water through the deep Ariel Graben, Mozambique Ridge southwest Indian Ocean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiles, Errol; Green, Andrew; Watkeys, Mike; Jokat, Wilfried; Krocker, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between bottom water currents and seafloor sediments are well known. Bottom current generated bedforms are varied both morphologicaly and sedimentologicaly. Sediment transport and deposition, associated with bottom water circulation, plays a significant role is sculpting seafloor morphology in all ocean basins. Indeed, bedforms have been used to great effect to define the presence, direction and strength of bottom water circulation globally. Here we present new multibeam swath bathymetry and high frequency seismic data from the Natal Valley and Mozambique Ridge, southwest Indian Ocean. These data show a deep (-3200 m) channel-like feature (Ariel Graben, situated at 28° 30"S on the Mozambique Ridge) connecting the northern Natal Valley to the Mozambique Basin. A distinct W - E change in seafloor morphology and seismic character is noted moving from the Natal Valley through the Ariel Graben. The northern flank of the graben exhibits smooth plastered drifts which give way to undulating seafloor in the east. The plastered drifts are characterised by distinct bottom echoes, with several discontinuous sub-bottom reflections. In contrast, the undulating seafloor is characterised by distinct hyperbolic echoes, with occasional indistinct sub-bottom reflectors. The W - E orientated undulations are straight crested, parallel / sub-parallel to the local isobaths. Wavelength is variable, ranging from 600 m to 1200 m. Cross-sectional symmetry of these features varies from symmetrical to asymmetrical, with board crests and narrow troughs. When asymmetrical, the lower (south-facing) limb is the longer (511.76 m average) than the upper (north-facing) limb (323.53 m average). The lower limbs are also steeper than the upper limbs; calculated averages being 3.80° and 1.55°, respectively. Overall, the slope on which the undulations are found, is south-facing with a gradient of 1.54°, however, the area affected by undulations is slightly steeper (average slope of 1.75

  8. HLA diversity among Nadars, a primitive Dravidian caste of South India.

    PubMed

    Shankarkumar, U; Sridharan, B; Pitchappan, R M

    2003-12-01

    South India is one of the oldest geophysical regions mainly occupied by Dravidian language-speaking people. Here a random panel of 61 unrelated Nadar healthy individual from Tamil Nadu State were analyzed and compared with other populations of India and the world. HLA-A, B and C alleles frequencies and their haplotype frequencies were determined by high-resolution typing of genomic DNA. The analysis revealed that the Nadar caste of South India have several characters shared with East Asian populations consistent with the demographic history of South India, as well as specific features including several unique alleles such as A*03011, A*31011, B*15011, B*3501, B*51011, Cw*02022. In addition, haplotypes such as A*31011-Cw*02022-B*3501, A*03011-Cw*04011-B*4406 and A*2402101-Cw*04011-B*51011 are of high frequency in both these populations but are rare or absent in other populations of India and the world. The study suggests that a comparatively lesser degree of genetic admixture occurred between the South Indian and North Indian racial groups than that between South Indian and East Asian groups.

  9. AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Charters, Constitutions and By-Laws of the Indian Tribes of North America; Part III: The Southwest (Apache--Mohave). Occasional Publications in Anthropology Ethnology Series No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, George E., Comp.

    The Museum of Anthropology of the University of Northern Colorado (formerly known as Colorado State College) has assembled a large number of Indian tribal charters, constitutions, and by-laws to be reproduced as a series of publications. Included in this volume are the amended charter and constitution of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe, Dulce, New…

  11. 25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted wooded post at top, located at north end of bridge. VIEW NORTHEAST - Chelsea Street Bridge & Draw Tender's House, Spanning Chelsea River, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, FOUNDRY CA. 1919 SHOWING CASTINGS READY FOR CLEANING AND FOUNDRY FLASKS TO RIGHT. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, Workshop, 800 Twenty-eighth Street North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 4. DETAIL OF CAST AND WROUGHT IRON RAILING WITH SUPPORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF CAST AND WROUGHT IRON RAILING WITH SUPPORTING STRUCTURES AND STEEL BEAM, FROM THE NORTH BANK LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE WEST (UPSTREAM) SIDE - Railroad Avenue Bridge, Spanning Mispillion River on Church Street, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  15. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  17. First description of the worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Himender

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The hitherto unknown worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Forel, 1894) is described for the first time. Sexuals are redescribed and photomontage images of all castes are provided. A key is presented to separate the six Indian species of Nylanderia. Previously described Nylanderia assimilis (Jerdon, 1851) is considered a species inquirenda. PMID:25197237

  18. Cool Cast Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... outer layer is usually made of plaster or fiberglass. Fiberglass casts are made of fiberglass, which is a plastic that can be shaped. Fiberglass casts come in many different colors — if you' ...

  19. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  20. LLNL casting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US compentiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective, experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  1. General Historical Survey of Federal Indian Policies. Chapter II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockman, W. H.

    This paper summarizes the history of North America, especially of the United States, from the earliest explorations and settlements through the present. Emphasis is placed on the Europeans' effect on American Indian life and the inadequate development of Indian education. Comparisons are made between the various colonizers' Indian policies before…

  2. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  3. The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, A. Grove

    More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

  4. The 2 March 2016 Wharton Basin Mw 7.8 earthquake: High stress drop north-south strike-slip rupture in the diffuse oceanic deformation zone between the Indian and Australian Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Ammon, Charles J.; Dunham, Audrey; Koper, Keith D.

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse deformation zone between the Indian and Australian plates has hosted numerous major and great earthquakes during the seismological record, including the 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 event, the largest recorded intraplate earthquake. On 2 March 2016, an Mw 7.8 strike-slip faulting earthquake occurred in the northwestern Wharton Basin, in a region bracketed by north-south trending fracture zones with no previously recorded large event nearby. Despite the large magnitude, only minor source finiteness is evident in aftershock locations or resolvable from seismic wave processing including high-frequency P wave backprojections and Love wave directivity analysis. Our analyses indicate that the event ruptured bilaterally on a north-south trending fault over a length of up to 70 km, with rupture speed of ≤ 2 km/s, and a total duration of 35 s. The estimated stress drop, 20 MPa, is high, comparable to estimates for other large events in this broad intraplate oceanic deformation zone.

  5. Indian Sports Nicknames/Logos: Affective Difference between American Indian and Non-Indian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Angela R.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed…

  6. 9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS AND STEEL ROPE IN UPPER TROUGH IN CONVEYOR HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; NOTE STEEL PLATES LINING WOODEN TROUGH - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  7. Glovebox Advanced Casting System Casting Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, Randall Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Casting optimization in the GACS included three broad areas; casting of U-10Zr pins, incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier, and development of a permanent crucible coating. U-10Zr casting was improved over last year’s results by modifying the crucible design to minimize contact with the colder mold. Through these modifications casting of a three pin batch was successful. Incorporation of an integral FCCI barrier also was optimized through furnace chamber pressure changes during the casting cycle to reduce gas pressures in the mold cavities which led to three full length pins being cast which incorporated FCCI barriers of three different thicknesses. Permanent crucible coatings were tested against a base case; 1500°C for 10 minutes in a U-20Pu-10Zr molten alloy. None of the candidate coating materials showed evidence of failure upon initial visual examination. In all areas of work a large amount of characterization will be needed to fully determine the effects of the optimization activities. The characterization activities and future work will occur next year.

  8. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  9. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public out reach was emphasized during this first year of the project. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and off-stream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements were signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Two landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and one chose OWEB as a funding source. Two landowners implemented there own enhancement measures protecting 3 miles of stream. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin. We provided input to the John Day Summary prepared for the NWPPC by ODFW. The Tribe worked with the Umatilla National Forest on the Clear Creek Dredgetailings Rehabilitation project and coordinated regularly with USFS Fisheries, Hydrology and Range staff.

  10. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  11. SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Allison, A.G.

    1959-09-01

    S>A process is described for preparing a magnesium oxide slip casting slurry which when used in conjunction with standard casting techniques results in a very strong "green" slip casting and a fired piece of very close dimensional tolerance. The process involves aging an aqueous magnestum oxide slurry, having a basic pH value, until it attains a specified critical viscosity at which time a deflocculating agent is added without upsetting the basic pH value.

  12. Evolution of halictine castes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knerer, Gerd

    1980-03-01

    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  13. Cast Aluminum Bonding Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    fabricated using P?-’r;est11 bur)ld II19 te(hnll I Oly with 6 cIsL nqs. The cast a lumi num alloy used was A357 . The sur- face preparation was phosphoric acid...from a cast aluminum alloy designated A357 . The bonding surfaces of the adherends were prepared using PAA. One primer and two adhesives considered...System, Cast Aluminum Lap Shear 18 11 Bond Area of 350°F Adhesive System, Cast Aluminum Lap Shear 19 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 A357 Chemical

  14. Indian Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  15. Mutualistic interactions between granivorous heteromyid rodents and a preferred food resource, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Granivorous heteromyid rodent species and Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) are both widely distributed throughout North American deserts. The vast majority (~95%) of Indian ricegrass seedling recruitment occurs from seed clusters cached in shallowly-buried scatterhoards by heteromyids, espe...

  16. Transforming growth factor-β1 (C509T, G800A, and T869C) gene polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke in North Indian population: A hospital-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Misra, Shubham; Kumar, Amit; Faruq, Mohammad; Shakya, Sunil; Vardhan, Gyan; Vivekanandhan, Subiah; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammation and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. There is limited information on the association between variations within the TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the TGF-β1 gene (C509T, G800A, and T869C) polymorphisms, and their haplotypes with the risk of IS in North Indian population. Methods: A total of 250 IS patients and 250 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. IS was classified using the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the strength of association between TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms and risk of IS. Genotyping was performed using SNaPshot method. Results: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, alcohol, smoking, family history of stroke, sedentary lifestyle, and low socioeconomic status were found to be associated with the risk of IS. The distribution of C509T, G800A and T869C genotypes was consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the IS and control groups. Adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of TGF-β1 C509T (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% CI; 1.2–3.8; P = 0.006), G800A (OR, 4.4; 95% CI; 2.1–9.3; P < 0.001) and T869C (OR, 2.6; 95% CI; 1.5–4.5; P = 0.001) with the risk of IS under dominant model. Haplotype analysis showed that C509-A800-T869 and T509-G800-C869 haplotypes were significantly associated with the increased risk of IS. C509T and T869C were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' =0.51, r2 = 0.23). Conclusion: Our results suggest that TGF-β1 polymorphisms and their haplotypes are significantly associated with the risk of IS in North Indian population. PMID:28298836

  17. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism on Exon 17 of Insulin Receptor Gene Influences Insulin Resistance in PCOS: A Pilot Study on North Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Sukanya; Agrawal, Nitin; Batra, Aruna; Kabi, Bhaskar Charan; Gupta, Akash

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a major cause of infertility, is also strongly associated with insulin resistance. Defects in insulin receptor signaling are considered as one of the major molecular pathogeneses for insulin resistance. To investigate the possible mechanism of this signaling defect at genetic level, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) [His 1085 C/T] at the exon 17 of insulin receptor gene (INSR) was studied in this pilot study. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on leucocytic DNA of women diagnosed with PCOS, selected from the outpatient department of Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, using suitable primer to amplify a region on INSR. An equal number of age-matched healthy women were selected as controls. SNP analysis was performed with restriction enzyme length polymorphism technique using Pm II enzyme. Serum insulin level was measured by ELISA kit and HOMA-IR was calculated mathematically. A higher frequency of the CC genotype was observed in PCOS women than in controls. Also, HOMA-IR, a tool for estimating insulin resistance, was significantly high in PCOS women with the CC genotype. C1008T SNP at exon 17 of INSR is associated with insulin resistance in Indian women with PCOS. Presence of CC genotype (C1085T) could be developed as a marker for insulin resistance and metabolic complications in PCOS women.

  18. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  19. Cast segment evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.; Studhalter, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation program to determine feasibility of fabricating segmented rocket engine thrust chambers using low cost, lightweight castings extends state of the art in areas of casting size and complexity, and in ability to provide thin sections and narrow, deep, cooling channels. Related developments are discussed.

  20. Higher Education's Caste System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  1. A cast orientation index.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, J R; Mahanna, G K

    1994-12-01

    This article describes a technique that allows multiple master casts to be precisely oriented to the same path of insertion and withdrawal. This technique is useful in situations where multiple fixed prosthodontic preparations require surveyed restorations and a single master cast is not available.

  2. Variations in land use and nonpoint-source contamination on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, west-central North Dakota, 1990-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen; Lent, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of land-use activities on the water quality of five streams on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were evaluated. The five basinsevaluated were East Fork Shell Creek, Deepwater Creek, Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek. East Fork Shell Creek and DeepwaterCreek Basins are located east of Lake Sakakawea and Bear Den Creek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek Basins are located west of the lake. Land-use data for the five selected basins on and adjacent to the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation were obtained for 1990-92. Discharge measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected at stations and sites on each of the five streams during October 1991 through September 1993. Analysis of land-use data indicated that prairie was the largest land-use category in the study area. More prairie acreage was found in the basins located west of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located east of the lake. Wheat was the predominant crop in the study area. More wheat acreage was found in the basins located east of Lake Sakakawea than in the basins located west of the lake. Discharge data for the five selected streams indicated that all of thestreams were ephemeral and had many days of no flow during the study period. High flows were usually the result of spring runoff or intense storms over the basins. East Fork Shell Creek and Deepwater Creek with larger basins and flatter stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and gradually receding flows. In contrast, Bear DenCreek, Moccasin Creek, and Squaw Creek with smaller basins and steeper stream slopes had high flows characterized by rapidly rising flows and receding flows of shorter duration. Analysis of water-quality samples indicated concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and total organic carbon varied throughout the study area. Nitrogen concentrations were larger in the streams located east of LakeSakakawea than in the streams located west of the lake. The largest nitrogen

  3. Indian Orphanages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  4. Effect of Almond Supplementation on Glycemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Asian Indians in North India with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 24–Week Study

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Seema; Pandey, Ravindra M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) statistics have reached menacing proportions in India. Appropriate dietary intervention, as part of healthy lifestyle, is imperative to curb further spread of this disease. Objectives: This pre–post intervention study was conducted in New Delhi, India, to investigate the effects of daily consumption of almonds for 24 weeks in T2D subjects, specifically on measures of glycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods and Study Design: In this study, the 24-week intervention period was preceded by a control diet and exercise run-in period of 3 weeks. Raw almonds (20% of energy intake) were provided to the patients for consumption along with diet and physical activity counseling. Patients were assessed for anthropometry, blood pressure, measures of glycemia (fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin), lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a)], surrogate marker of atherosclerosis (Pulse wave velocity), and marker of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) at baseline and after the intervention period. Results: Statistically significant improvement in mean values for various parameters post intervention was as follows: waist circumference (P < 0.03), waist-to-height ratio (P < 0.005), TC (P < 0.002), serum triglycerides (P < 0.004), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.01), glycosylated hemoglobin (P < 0.04), and hs-CRP (P < 0.01). A trend toward improvement in pulse wave velocity (P < 0.06) was also observed. Conclusion: The study findings illustrate that incorporation of almonds in a well-balanced healthy diet leads to multiple beneficial effects on glycemic and CVDs risk factors in Asian Indian patients with T2D. PMID:28051354

  5. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves. PMID:27079921

  6. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, J V; Behera, Swadhin K; Ratna, Satyaban B; Rajeevan, M; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-15

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  7. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH LARGE PIPE CASTING MACHINE CASTING A 48' PIPE OPERATOR SPRAYING A POWDER TO HELP SOLIDIFY THE PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  10. Little Blaze and the Buffalo Jump. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roop, Peter

    The reader is one in a series of stories of the Blackfeet Indians which take place when the people were at the height of their power, hunting buffalo north to the North Saskatchewan River, south to the Yellowstone River, east to the Montana-North Dakota border, and west to the Rocky Mountains. The story is about Little Blaze, a young Blackfeet…

  11. Changes in the Food Habits of Asian Indians in the United States: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Santosh P.

    1975-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on acculturation in the food habits of first generation Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that: 1) food habits of Asian Indians are changing toward the American pattern; and 2) these changes are directly related to the subject's sex, caste, age, marital status, and duration of exposure…

  12. Symptomatic stent cast.

    PubMed

    Keohane, John; Moore, Michael; O'Mahony, Seamus; Crosbie, Orla

    2008-02-01

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  13. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  14. Adhesion Casting In Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond J.

    1996-01-01

    Adhesion casting in low gravity proposed as technique for making new and improved materials. Advantages of low-gravity adhesion casting, in comparison with adhesion casting in normal Earth gravity, comes from better control over, and greater uniformity of, thicknesses of liquid films that form on and adhere to solid surfaces during casting.

  15. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the…

  16. MOLDS FOR CASTING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.W.; Miley, F.; Pritchard, W.C.

    1962-02-27

    A coated mold for casting plutonium comprises a mold base portion of a material which remains solid and stable at temperatures as high as the pouring temperature of the metal to be cast and having a thin coating of the order of 0.005 inch thick on the interior thereof. The coating is composed of finely divided calcium fluoride having a particle size of about 149 microns. (AEC)

  17. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  18. Method of casting aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Poco, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  19. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  20. A Winning Cast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Howmet Research Corporation was the first to commercialize an innovative cast metal technology developed at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. With funding assistance from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Auburn University's Solidification Design Center (a NASA Commercial Space Center), developed accurate nickel-based superalloy data for casting molten metals. Through a contract agreement, Howmet used the data to develop computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials in cast metal manufacturing. Howmet Metal Mold (HMM), part of Howmet Corporation Specialty Products, of Whitehall, Michigan, utilizes metal molds to manufacture net shape castings in various alloys and amorphous metal (metallic glass). By implementing the thermophysical property data from by Auburn researchers, Howmet employs its newly developed computer model predictions to offer customers high-quality, low-cost, products with significantly improved mechanical properties. Components fabricated with this new process replace components originally made from forgings or billet. Compared with products manufactured through traditional casting methods, Howmet's computer-modeled castings come out on top.

  1. Genotype 3b of human parvovirus B19 detected from hospitalized children with solid malignancies in a North Indian tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amita; Jain, Parul; Prakash, Shantanu; Kumar, Archana; Khan, Danish N; Seth, Akansha; Gupta, Shikha; Kant, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is known to cause serious consequences in immuno-compromized individuals. The present cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence and genotype distribution of B19V in children receiving chemotherapy for solid malignancies at a tertiary care hospital in North India during October 2013 to May 2015. Serum samples from all the patients were tested for anti-B19V IgM and IgG antibodies and for B19V-DNA as soon as received. Samples testing positive for B19V-DNA were subjected to viral load estimation and to genotype determination by sequencing. Total 96 children were enrolled of which 9 (9.3%), 32 (33.3%), and 25 (26%) tested positive for anti-B19V IgM, anti-B19V IgG, and B19V-DNA, respectively. The viral load of B19V-DNA positive children ranged from 5.5 × 10(2) to 3.5 × 10(12) copies/ml. Accordingly children were divided into three groups: group I, with acute infection (n = 25); group II, previously exposed (n = 27), and group III, negative for B19V infection or with inappropriate antibody response (n = 44). B19V positivity was significantly associated (P-value < 0.0001) with a history of blood transfusion in the past 6 months, severe anemia (hemoglobin levels <6 gm%) and thrombocytopenia (platelets <150,000/cu.mm.). Sequence analysis of 21 of 25 DNA positive samples showed that all of them were Genotype 3b that clustered into three groups. All the sequences within each cluster were identical. The nucleotide identity of the sequences suggests a nosocomial outbreak of B19V during the study period. Children on chemotherapy for solid tumors should be routinely screened for B19V infection by both serology and PCR. J. Med. Virol. 88:1922-1929, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Women psychiatrists--Indian impetus.

    PubMed

    Ruksheda, Syeda N

    2008-01-01

    Incredible India is a multicultural, multilingual, multifaceted, country of contradictions, where the women mental health professionals are participating in substantially increasing numbers. Evolving social, cultural and economical factors have facilitated the empowerment of women which is reflected in the health services. The contemporary Indian Woman Medical Professional is liberated, articulate and free. Remunerative employment has decreased economic vulnerability and dependence on men. Her decisions though, from choosing medicine as a vocation, opting for psychiatry, to specializing in a particular field are all coloured by class, caste, sex, region and religion. Cultural expectations and influences set norms for all in a society, dictating the behaviour and attitude of colleagues, superiors, patients, family and that of the psychiatrist herself. Egalitarianism, while on the rise, the long tradition of social hierarchies replicates themselves in professional arenas. An ever increasing number, women are still less than 10% of all Indian psychiatrists. Women psychiatrists continue to be underrepresented as policy makers in most psychiatric organizations and institutes. This article will discuss some of the experiences of the young Indian woman psychiatrist influencing her life architecture.

  3. 29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CROSSCUT FACILITY PROPERTY AND POWER LINE LOCATION, SHOWING INDIAN BEND POND LABELLED 'SETTLING BASIN,' STEAM/DIESEL PLANT AND OTHER FEATURES. 1951 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  5. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  6. 1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  7. Report on Conference on Employment Awareness for Indian Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    An informal coalition of the North American Indian Women's Association, the New Mexico Commission on the Status of Women, and the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor presented a two-day program in Shiprock, New Mexico, to provide employment awareness for Indian women. The July 24-25, 1975 program was attended by 200 Navajo and Hopi…

  8. The Battle over Termination on the Colville Indian Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Kathleen A.

    1994-01-01

    The 1953 Termination Resolution set up a process for abolishing the trust status of Indian tribes and appropriating reservation resources for use by non-Indians. Colville Confederated Tribes in north-central Washington struggled with the question of termination and ultimately rejected it amid power struggles between antitermination…

  9. Gene diversity in some Muslim populations of North India.

    PubMed

    Aarzoo, S Shabana; Afzal, Mohammad

    2005-06-01

    North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed, Pathan, Ansari, Saifi, and Hindu Bania. All the groups at most loci showed statistically nonsignificant differences, except for ABO and PTC traits, for which interpopulational differences were seen. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.048 to 0.617 among the Sheikh, 0.149 to 0.599 among the Pathan, 0.105 to 0.585 among the Ansari, 0.25 to 0.869 among the Syed, 0.107 to 0.565 among the Saifi, and 0.100 to 0.492 among the Hindu Bania. The average D(ST) and G(ST) values for the five marker loci were 0.0625 +/- 0.098 and 0.1072 +/- 0.041, respectively. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA clustering method. Our results revealed that the Pathan and the Sheikh form one cluster, the Syed and the Hindu Bania form another cluster, and the two clusters join together (the so-called higher caste); also, the Saifi and the Ansari form a separate cluster (lower caste). The results of the genetic distance analysis are useful for understanding the pattern of genetic relationships between different endogamous groups of Muslims.

  10. Soviet-Indian Relations and the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    present Indian reserves, is unlikely in this century.(45] Despite these steps toward diversification , India’s economic options are hampered by the... economic or political change. Finally, some analysts were disturbed by a growing "regionalism" which contemplated denying free transit to Western...in their own backyard. Arguing along lines now familiar in North-South economic conferences, the Indian Ocean countries stated the only way the West

  11. A Survey of Obstetric Healthcare Utilization in the Rural Western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Erica C; Uniyal, V P; Lanham, Michael; Heisler, Michele; Quasin, Shazia; Bisht, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To determine the socio-economic factors affecting access to antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum healthcare in the rural Western Indian Himalayas over the past 20 years. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 197 women in Chamoli District, Uttarakhand from October 2011 to May 2012. Participants who gave birth within the past 20 years were included in the final analysis (n = 158). Stratified odds ratios and analysis of variance were calculated. Results Among women who delivered in the prior 7 years, there was a nine-fold increase (95 % CI 4-20.8) in institutionalized births compared to women who delivered 8-20 years before the study. Among women who delivered 7 years prior to the study, low income increased the risk of home delivery (OR 3.07, 95 % CI 1.15-8.54). Low caste (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.04-7.72) and low level of education (OR 3.93 95 % CI 1.41-11.81) decreased the use of antepartum medications (vitamins and vaccines). Remote location among all participants was a risk factor for not seeking care for obstetric morbidities (OR 0.44 95 % CI 0.2-0.95). Conclusions The incidence of institutionalized delivery has increased over the past decade in rural Uttarakhand. Income, caste, education, and remote location correlated with poor access to antepartum and intrapartum healthcare. These correlations have increased in statistical significance over the past 20 years, except for location. This indicates that the Western Himalayas face similar challenges to obstetric service utilization as the north Indian plains and that several of these inequalities in healthcare access have become more pronounced in recent years.

  12. View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of foundrymen casting ingot molds; The flames from the mold in the center-right of the photo are present immediately after the pour has been completed - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Iron Foundry, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  13. 16. DETAIL OF WICKET AND CAST IRON BALL JOINT (off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF WICKET AND CAST IRON BALL JOINT (off site) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  14. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  15. Sealing micropores in thin castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mersereau, G. A.; Nitzschke, G. O.; Ochs, H. L.; Sutch, F. S.

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic pores in thin-walled aluminum castings are sealed by impregnation pretreatment. Technique was developed for investment castings used in hermetically sealed chassic for electronic circuitry. Excessively high leakage rates were previously measured in some chassis.

  16. Indian Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cy, Sr.; And Others

    A product of the Indian Studies Curriculum Committee and the Indian Studies Staff, this manual on the Indians of Southeast Alaska constitutes a useable classroom tool designed for the cross-cultural program in the Juneau School District. Objectives of this Indian Studies Program are identified as: to increase knowledge, awareness, and positive…

  17. American Indian Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Edward, Ed.

    Written for teachers instructing both Indian and non-Indian students, the handbook provides information on American Indians in California. The handbook is presented in six chapters. Chapter 1 is devoted to terminoloy (e.g., American Indian, Native American, tribe, band, rancheria, and chief). Chapter 2 details historic and cultural changes related…

  18. American Indians Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    This paper reviews American Indian demography and the political and economic conditions on Indian reservations. After collapsing during the 19th century, the American Indian population grew gradually during the early 20th century, approaching 2 million in 1990. American Indians are heavily concentrated in the West, northern Midwest, and Oklahoma;…

  19. American Indians: Hands-On Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rethlefsen, Ann Lyle

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes some of the teaching methods she uses to teach how different American Indian groups lived in different regions of the North American continent. Her lessons include a number of projects: (1) Practicing symbolic writing; (2) Creating a personal timeline; (3) Studying winter counts and creating a personalized…

  20. A Steward of American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2008-01-01

    David Gipp, Hunkpapa Lakota and member of the Standing Rock Indian Tribe, is considered by many to be the unofficial historian of tribal colleges and the tribal college movement. He has been president of the United Tribes Technical College (UTTC), one of the first tribal colleges, in Bismarck, North Dakota since 1977 and led the college to its…

  1. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    castings. Liquid-solid slurries were cast Rheocasting ) to evaluate cast- ing properties and opportunities for enhanced mold life with a reduced temperature...pouring temperature, 600 0C mold temperature, all-metal mold. Figure 29 Schem.atic of rheocasting attachment for vacuum melting furnace. Motor and gear...33 Alumina paddle and rheocasting . Paddle cracked during itirring. Casting did not fill, probably due to poor stirring of melt. Figure 34 ZrO 2

  2. Casting Of Multilayer Ceramic Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Procedure for casting thin, multilayer ceramic membranes, commonly called tapes, involves centrifugal casting at accelerations of 1,800 to 2,000 times normal gravitational acceleration. Layers of tape cast one at a time on top of any previous layer or layers. Each layer cast from slurry of ground ceramic suspended in mixture of solvents, binders, and other components. Used in capacitors, fuel cells, and electrolytic separation of oxygen from air.

  3. Agile Manufacturing Development of Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Consortium was tasked by GE Transportation Systems (GETS) with development of the IFE, a complex ductile iron casting for a commercial loco- motive that... ductile iron foundry with this tooling, it was clear that castings with acceptable quality could not be made. These castings were on the GE...requirements. Therefore, the design specifies a thin - walled casting with complex structures and the requirements demand tight dimensional tolerances and

  4. Evaluation of an improved centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Donovan, T E; White, L E

    1985-05-01

    A Type III gold alloy, a silver-palladium alloy, and a base metal alloy were cast in two different centrifugal casting machines. With the number of complete cast mesh squares as an indicator of castability, the Airspin casting machine produced superior castings with all three alloys. The base metal alloy produced the greatest number of complete squares with both casting machines.

  5. The rs2070895 (-250G/A) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Hepatic Lipase (HL) Gene and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in North Indian Population: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dileep Kumar; Sethi, Rishi; Singh, Shraddha; Krishna, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipid transport genes have been shown to be associated with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). The Hepatic Lipase (HL)glycoprotein is a key component that catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides and phospholipids in all major classes of lipoproteins. Aim We studied whether the HL gene-250G/A polymorphism affect blood lipid level and the CAD in a North Indian population. Materials and Methods A total number of 477 subjects were enrolled in the study after approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee. Out of 477 subjects, 233 were with coronary artery disease as study group and 244 subjects without coronary artery disease as control group. All subjects recruited with matched ethnicity in age group of 40-70 years. Blood samples were collected in EDTA vials and genomic DNA was extracted from blood using the phenol-chloroform method. Lipid profile was estimated by using a commercially available kit. Polymorphisms in the HL (-250 G/A) gene were analysed by using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) method. The effect of this polymorphism on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and coronary artery disease was determined. Results In Human Hepatic Lipase (LIPC)-250G/A genotype, the frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotype in CAD group was 80.69%, 15.45% and 3.86%, respectively; in the control group, the corresponding frequencies were 90.16%, 9.02% and 0.82%, respectively. A significant difference was found in the genotype (LIPC-250G/A) distribution between the two groups. Further logistic regression analysis indicated that the GA and AA genotypes in SNP-250G/A were significantly associated with CAD in all genetic models (In codominant model- GA vs. GG, OR=1.91, 95% CI=1. 09-3.37, p=0. 03 and AA vs. GG, OR= 5.26, 95% CI= 1.10-24.60, p=0.04; in dominant model- GA+AA vs. GG, OR=2.19, p=0.004 and in recessive model- AA vs. GG+GA, OR=5.26, p=0.04 whereas, A allele at nucleotide -250G/A in

  6. Assessment of 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-βHSD1) 4478T>G and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-308G>A polymorphisms with obesity and insulin resistance in Asian Indians in North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukti; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Anoop; Bhatt, SuryaPrakash; Tarique, Mohammed; Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Luthra, Kalpana

    2013-11-01

    11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11-βHSD1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and their role in obesity, regional adiposity and insulin resistance has been sparsely evaluated. We determined the polymorphic status of 11-βHSD1 4478T>G and TNF-α-308G>A in Asian Indians in north India. In this cross-sectional study (n = 498; 258 males, 240 females), association of genotypes (PCR–RFLP) of 11-βHSD1 and TNF-α were analyzed with obesity [BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2), percentage body fat (%BF by DEXA); subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat area (L(2-3) level by single slice MRI) in a sub sample] and insulin resistance. 46 percent subjects had generalized obesity, 55 % abdominal obesity and 23.8 % were insulin resistant. Frequencies (%) of [T/T] and [T/G] genotypes of 11-βHSD1 were 89.57 and 10.43 respectively. Homozygosity for 11-βHSD1 4478G/G was absent with no association with parameters of obesity and insulin resistance. Frequencies (%) of TNF-α [G] and [A] alleles were 88 and 12 respectively. Higher frequency of variant -308[A/A] was observed in females versus males (p = 0.01). Females with at least one single A allele of TNF-α-308G>A had significantly high %BF and total skinfold, whereas higher values of waist hip ratio, total cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL were observed in males. Subjects with even a single A allele in TNF-α genotype showed higher subscapular skinfold predisposing them to truncal subcutaneous adiposity (p = 0.02). Our findings of association of TNF-α-308G>A variant in females with obesity indices suggests a gender-specific role of this polymorphism in obesity. High truncal subcutaneous adiposity is associated with A allele of TNF-α-308G>A in this population.

  7. Relationships between the Colonists and the Indians. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.3. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 5.3 is delineated as: Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers. North American Indians once had inhabited regions now contained in the United States that stretched from far north to south and from the east to the west coasts. The…

  8. Dentition of Chilean paleo-Indians and peopling of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Turner, C G; Bird, J

    1981-05-29

    Teeth of 12 cremated paleo-Indians (11,000 years old) from caves in southern Chile have crown and root morphology like that of recent American Indians and north Asians, but unlike that of Europeans. This finding supports the view that American Indians originated in northeast Asia. This dental series also suggests that paleo-Indians could easily have been ancestral to most living Indians, that very little dental evolution has occurred, and that the founding paleo-Indian population was small, genetically homogeneous, and arrived late in the Pleistocene.

  9. ToxCast Dashboard

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ToxCast Dashboard helps users examine high-throughput assay data to inform chemical safety decisions. To date, it has data on over 9,000 chemicals and information from more than 1,000 high-throughput assay endpoint components.

  10. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julian W.

    As part of a series of books and pamphlets on outdoor education, this manual consists of easy-to-follow instructions for fishing activities dealing with casting and angling. The manual may be used as a part of the regular physical education program in schools and colleges or as a club activity for the accomplished weekend fisherman or the…

  11. Microporosity in casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A J

    1975-06-01

    Three series of tensile test pieces were produced using a nickel base partial denture casting alloy. For the first series induction heating was employed, for the second a resistance crucible, and for the third an oxy-acetylene torch. Samples from each series were sectioned longitudinally, mounted, polished and examined microscopically for evidence of microporosity.

  12. ShakeCast Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, Kuo-Wan; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users? facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

  13. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  14. Casting and Angling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mildred J.; Bunting, Camille

    The self-contained packet contains background information, lesson plans, 15 transparency and student handout masters, drills and games, 2 objective examinations, and references for teaching a 15-day unit on casting and angling to junior high and senior high school students, either as part of a regular physical education program or as a club…

  15. Ocular toxocariasis in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Khokar, Sudershan Kumar

    2002-12-01

    Sera form 68 patients aged 1-30 years, suffering from posterior pole granuloma, peripheral granuloma, uveitis, endophthalmitis, optic neuritis and with a clinical diagnosis of suspected ocular toxocariasis, were tested for the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies. Antibodies to Toxocara were detected in 11 (17 per cent) subjects less than 15 years old and three (4 per cent) subjects more than 15 years of age using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. None of the controls sera (other helminthic diseases) were positive for anti-Toxocara antibody.

  16. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  17. Precision cast vs. wrought superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.; Borofka, J. C.; Casey, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    While cast polycrystalline superalloys recommend themselves in virtue of better 'buy-to-fly' ratios and higher strengthening gamma-prime volume fractions than those of wrought superalloys, the expansion of their use into such critical superalloy applications as gas turbine hot section components has been slowed by insufficient casting process opportunities for microstructural control. Attention is presently drawn, however, to casting process developments facilitating the production of defect-tolerant superalloy castings having improved fracture reliability. Integrally bladed turbine wheel and thin-walled turbine exhaust case near-net-shape castings have been produced by these means.

  18. Cast Aluminum Primary Aircraft Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    ABSTRAC R A A A357 cast aluminum alloy forward fuselage pressure bulkhead has been developed and manufactured for the AMST-YC-14 aircraft. This work...urring in castings. Test coupons were! removed from castings containing defU-ts and subjected to repeated loads. The shift of the S-N curve for A357 ...selected for the casting is A357 . The cast bulkhead (Fig 2) measures approximately 2.29 m (7.5 ft) by 1.37 m (4.5 ft). It is designed to replace the

  19. AMCC casting development, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    PCC successfully cast and performed nondestructive testing, FPI and x-ray, on seventeen AMCC castings. Destructive testing, lab analysis and chemical milling, was performed on eleven of the castings and the remaining six castings were shipped to NASA or Aerojet. Two of the six castings shipped, lots 015 and 016, were fully processed per blueprint requirements. PCC has fully developed the gating and processing parameters of this part and feels the part could be implemented into production, after four more castings have been completed to ensure the repeatability of the process. The AMCC casting has been a technically challenging part due to its size, configuration, and alloy type. The height and weight of the wax pattern assembly necessitated the development of a hollow gating system to ensure structural integrity of the shell throughout the investment process. The complexity in the jacket area of the casting required the development of an innovative casting technology that PCC has termed 'TGC' or thermal gradient control. This method of setting up thermal gradients in the casting during solidification represents a significant process improvement for PCC and has been successfully implemented on other programs. The alloy, JBK75, is a relatively new alloy in the investment casting arena and required our engineering staff to learn the gating, processing, and dimensional characteristics of the material.

  20. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Wilkening, D.; Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B.

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  1. Optimizing cast blasting efficiency using ANFO with liners

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, A.

    2007-01-15

    As part of a five research project funded by the National Science Foundation, Peabody Energy studied three experimental cast blasts conducted at the North Antelope Rochelle mine site on July 24,28 and 31 2005. The initial purpose of this research project was to determine the influence that blast initiation sequence have on: NOx production; Face Displacement; Highwall damage; Explosive performance; Vibration emissions; Displacement; Surface swell; and Cast benefit. Two new discoveries on velocity of detonation (VoD) and pressure of detonation (PoD) were made as a result of this research project. Furthermore, a relationship between surface swell velocity and face velocity was also noted. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Casting faults and structural studies on bonded alloys comparing centrifugal castings and vacuum pressure castings].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P; Küfmann, W

    1978-07-01

    The casting processes in use today such as centrifugal casting and vacuum pressure casting were compared with one another. An effort was made to answer the question whether the occurrence of shrink cavities and the mean diameter of the grain of the alloy is dependent on the method of casting. 80 crowns were made by both processes from the baked alloys Degudent Universal, Degudent N and the trial alloy 4437 of the firm Degusa. Slice sections were examined for macro and micro-porosity and the structural appearance was evaluated by linear analysis. Statistical analysis showed that casting faults and casting structure is independent of the method used and their causes must be found in the conditions of casting and the composition of the alloy.

  3. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  4. Advanced Casting Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    water , aged 5 hrs on 155 C. Fig. 15 Time required for 19 mm thick test slab casting, poured in sand, to cool...fraction rare earth could be solution treated, quenched and artificially aged to give high tensile properties at room temperature, which were well...Strength. MagnesiumrZincrRare. Earth . Alloys In parallel with the development of silver containing alloy systems, further improvements were obtained

  5. USGS ShakeCast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, David; Lin, Kuo-Wan

    2007-01-01

    Automating, Simplifying, and Improving the Use of ShakeMap for Post-Earthquake Decisionmaking and Response. ShakeCast is a freely available, post-earthquake situational awareness application that automatically retrieves earthquake shaking data from ShakeMap, compares intensity measures against users facilities, and generates potential damage assessment notifications, facility damage maps, and other Web-based products for emergency managers and responders.

  6. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  7. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  8. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  9. 27. Bollinger twinchain tandem, pigcasting machine, located at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Bollinger twin-chain tandem, pig-casting machine, located at the north end of the plant. Prior to closing, approximately 40 percent of the plant's: iron production was cast into pigs and sold to foundry customers. The pig-casting machine employed a controller, lime man, trough man, and crane operator. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. Ecological organization of Indian society.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, M

    1991-01-01

    Some of the factors involved in securing the well being of an Indian rural population in a sustainable and environmentally sound fashion are discussed. Population pressure on the land and declining productivity threaten the balance between man and nature. The options are to provide outside technological inputs and/or to empower the rural population who may be able to provide an intimate knowledge of the local environment and must be organized and motivated to value and protect their resource base. Attention in paid to the Indian caste system, resource use diversification, group size and range, group dynamics, elites and the ecosystem, the drain on rural resources, the iron triangle of beneficiaries of subsidies, of administrators of subsidies, and of politicians, and the growing strife. The Indian caste system is differentiated by its subgroups which maintain communication within the subgroup, and resource access is determined by an individual's affiliation with the subgroup. It is not a smooth continuum between subgroups. Inequalities in resource access can create social tensions and/or partitioning of resources. The example is given of the subgroups Gavlis and Kunbis, in the Western Ghats in Pune district of Maharashtra, where exchanges are made for livestock or surplus grain, and the multicaste system of 40 subgroups in Uttara Kannada, with occupations specific to each subgroup. In order to function effectively as a subgroup the numbers must be limited or splinter groups develop. Several estimates of possible ranges are given, i.e., an upper limit of 10,000 or the equivalent of a subcaste and 10-20 endogenous groups/larger village with an area of 1000 km. Mergers and group splits are described among the Gavlis in Western Ghat and Tirumal Nadivallas and settlers of the Andaman Islands. Historically, communities were self-sufficient and surrounded elite communities; they had their own self-government and organized local resources for sustainable use, even though

  11. Cast Aluminum Structures Technology (CAST) Phase VI. Technology Transfer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    system and ultimately fill the mold cavity to produce a casting. The fluidity of a given metal is measured with standard fluidity test molds. One...showed that the pouring temperature for large, thin-wall aluminum castings must be (1) high enough to provide sufficient fluidity for complete filling of...castings should have the following specific characteristics: good flowability , permeability, tensile strength, and compressive strength; high hot

  12. Cast Aluminum Structures Technology (CAST). Phase I. Preliminary Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    49 26 Assumed Crack Growth Rate -- A357 . . . . . . . . . .. 50 27 Flaw Growth at Hole of Gear Attachment Point .... .... 52 28 A357 S-N...wo TABLES Number ?Ile 1 Statistics on.16 Classes of A357 Aluminum Casting Data .. 14 2 "CAST" Preliminary Design Allowables .. .. .. ....... 20 3...damage tolerance criteria; development of preliminary design allowables data for A357 aluminum casting alloy to be used for design until completion

  13. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian…

  14. Indian Ocean and Indian summer monsoon: relationships without ENSO in ocean-atmosphere coupled simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, Julien; Terray, Pascal; Masson, Sébastien; Sooraj, K. P.; Roxy, Mathew Koll

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between the Indian Ocean and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and their respective influence over the Indo-Western North Pacific (WNP) region are examined in the absence of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in two partially decoupled global experiments. ENSO is removed by nudging the tropical Pacific simulated sea surface temperature (SST) toward SST climatology from either observations or a fully coupled control run. The control reasonably captures the observed relationships between ENSO, ISM and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Despite weaker amplitude, IODs do exist in the absence of ENSO and are triggered by a boreal spring ocean-atmosphere coupled mode over the South-East Indian Ocean similar to that found in the presence of ENSO. These pure IODs significantly affect the tropical Indian Ocean throughout boreal summer, inducing a significant modulation of both the local Walker and Hadley cells. This meridional circulation is masked in the presence of ENSO. However, these pure IODs do not significantly influence the Indian subcontinent rainfall despite overestimated SST variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean compared to observations. On the other hand, they promote a late summer cross-equatorial quadrupole rainfall pattern linking the tropical Indian Ocean with the WNP, inducing important zonal shifts of the Walker circulation despite the absence of ENSO. Surprisingly, the interannual ISM rainfall variability is barely modified and the Indian Ocean does not force the monsoon circulation when ENSO is removed. On the contrary, the monsoon circulation significantly forces the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal SSTs, while its connection with the western tropical Indian Ocean is clearly driven by ENSO in our numerical framework. Convection and diabatic heating associated with above-normal ISM induce a strong response over the WNP, even in the absence of ENSO, favoring moisture convergence over India.

  15. Directional migration in the Hindu castes: inferences from mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosomal data.

    PubMed

    Wooding, Stephen; Ostler, Christopher; Prasad, B V Ravi; Watkins, W Scott; Sung, Sandy; Bamshad, Mike; Jorde, Lynn B

    2004-08-01

    Genetic, ethnographic, and historical evidence suggests that the Hindu castes have been highly endogamous for several thousand years and that, when movement between castes does occur, it typically consists of females joining castes of higher social status. However, little is known about migration rates in these populations or the extent to which migration occurs between caste groups of low, middle, and high social status. To investigate these aspects of migration, we analyzed the largest collection of genetic markers collected to date in Hindu caste populations. These data included 45 newly typed autosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), 411 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence, and 43 Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were assayed in more than 200 individuals of known caste status sampled in Andrah Pradesh, in South India. Application of recently developed likelihood-based analyses to this dataset enabled us to obtain genetically derived estimates of intercaste migration rates. STRPs indicated migration rates of 1-2% per generation between high-, middle-, and low-status caste groups. We also found support for the hypothesis that rates of gene flow differ between maternally and paternally inherited genes. Migration rates were substantially higher in maternally than in paternally inherited markers. In addition, while prevailing patterns of migration involved movement between castes of similar rank, paternally inherited markers in the low-status castes were most likely to move into high-status castes. Our findings support earlier evidence that the caste system has been a significant, long-term source of population structuring in South Indian Hindu populations, and that patterns of migration differ between males and females.

  16. 76 FR 11494 - List of Recipients of Indian Health Scholarships Under the Indian Health Scholarship Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Mexico Jensen, Camilla Rae, A.T. Still University, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Michigan..., Sunny Rae, Montana State University, Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming Stamile... Clark State College, Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho Thuen, Bobbi Rae, University of North Dakota,...

  17. Indian Country: A History of Native People in America and Indian Country: Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen D.; Harjo, Lisa D.

    Appropriate for the middle grades through junior high school, this book and accompanying teacher's guide provide a curriculum for teaching American Indian history. Following an overview of the European encounter and the early years of White penetration into North America, the book focuses on five distinct periods of U.S. government policy toward…

  18. Interleukin-1 Gene Cluster Polymorphisms and Their Association with Coronary Artery Disease: Separate Evidences from the Largest Case-Control Study amongst North Indians and an Updated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nakul; Kumar, Sudeep; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2016-01-01

    Several researchers have reported significant association of numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) residing in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, their association status amongst North Indian ancestry (NIA) have never been systematically assessed. Despite a published meta-analysis on this subject, their association status worldwide as well as amongst different major ancestral subgroups still remains unclear. We therefore decided to prospectively test the association of 11 IL-1 gene cluster SNPs with CAD, vide a case-control study amongst a cohort of NIA and attempted to validate our results with the help of an updated meta-analysis of all relevant published association studies. Included studies were segregated into ancestral subgroups and association statuses for each subgroup were determined. A total of 323 cases and 400 healthy, age and sex matched controls belonging to NIA were prospectively enrolled and subsequently genotyped for 11 selected IL-1 gene cluster SNPs. Although results for none of the evaluated IL-1 gene cluster SNPs reached the adjusted level of significance (p<0.0045), clear trends of association were seen for IL1B -511 C>T and IL1RN 86bp VNTR in several of the constructed genetic models (p range = 0.01–0.044 and 0.005–0.034 respectively). The presence of >1, ‘T’ (minor) allele of IL1B -511 C>T in a genotype seemed to provide protection against CAD (OR = 0.62, p = 0.044), while the presence of >1, ‘C’ (major) allele seemed to increase the risk of CAD (OR = 1.36, p = 0.041). The minor allele (allele 2) of IL1RN 86bp VNTR and its homozygous genotype (2/2 genotype) also seemed to carry an increased risk for CAD (OR = 1.62, p = 0.005 and OR = 2.25, p = 0.031 respectively). On the other hand, several haplotype combinations constructed out of IL1B and IL1RN gene variants clearly showed statistically significant associations with CAD (p<0.0045). Our meta-analysis was conducted for 8

  19. High density tape casting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is provided for casting thin sheets (or tapes) of particles bound together, that are used for oxygen membranes and other applications, which enables the particles to be cast at a high packing density in a tape of uniform thickness. A slurry contains the particles, a binder, and a solvent, and is cast against the inside walls of a rotating chamber. Prior to spraying the slurry against the chamber walls, a solvent is applied to a container. The solvent evaporates to saturate the chamber with solvent vapor. Only then is the slurry cast. As a result, the slurry remains fluid long enough to spread evenly over the casting surface formed by the chamber, and for the slurry particles to become densely packed. Only then is the chamber vented to remove solvent, so the slurry can dry. The major novel feature is applying solvent vapor to a rotating chamber before casting slurry against the chamber walls.

  20. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  2. National Indian Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Karen Kay

    2006-01-01

    This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

  3. Indians in Minneapolis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Richard G.

    The League of Women Voters of Minneapolis decided in May of 1967 to examine public and private agencies in the city of Minneapolis to determine agency perception of Indian problems, and to assess how well the various agencies were dealing with problems related to the Indian population of the city. In addition, 100 Indians were randomly selected…

  4. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  5. Tall Tales of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    Designed for use in junior high school language arts classes, this learning activity packet introduces students to North American folklore. Selected readings cover Indian tales, real folk heroes (Davy Crockett and John Henry), imaginary folk heroes (Paul Bunyan and Pecos Bill), Black folk stories (Brer Rabbit), and tales of Washington Irving. Each…

  6. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  7. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    possible today. Extensive work was conducted on casting of semi-solid alloys when highly fluid (’ Rheocasting ’) and when thixotropically gelled...Thixocasting’). In initial phases of the program, copper base alloys and cast iron alloys were prepared with special non-dendritic Rheocast structure by batch...processing. Compatibility studies were carried out to select materials suitable for preparing cast iron with the Rheocast structure. Design

  8. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW OF BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; BOILER HOUSE ON LEFT; BLAST FURNACE, OVENS AND CASTING HOUSE BEYOND. - U.S. Steel Corporation, Clairton Works, Blast Furnace Blowing Engine Building, 400 State Street, Clairton, Allegheny County, PA

  9. The paternal ancestry of Uttarakhand does not imitate the classical caste system of India.

    PubMed

    Negi, Neetu; Tamang, Rakesh; Pande, Veena; Sharma, Amrita; Shah, Anish; Reddy, Alla G; Vishnupriya, Satti; Singh, Lalji; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2016-02-01

    Although, there have been rigorous research on the Indian caste system by several disciplines, it is still one of the most controversial socioscientific topic. Previous genetic studies on the subcontinent have supported a classical hierarchal sharing of genetic component by various castes of India. In the present study, we have used high-resolution mtDNA and Y chromosomal markers to characterize the genetic structuring of the Uttarakhand populations in the context of neighboring regions. Furthermore, we have tested whether the genetic structuring of caste populations at different social levels of this region, follow the classical chaturvarna system. Interestingly, we found that this region showed a high level of variation for East Eurasian ancestry in both maternal and paternal lines of descent. Moreover, the intrapopulation comparison showed a high level of heterogeneity, likely because of different caste hierarchy, interpolated on asymmetric admixture of populations inhabiting on both sides of the Himalayas.

  10. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard bandage that's usually made of material like fiberglass or plaster. Casts keep bones in place while ... water. Plaster of Paris casts are heavier than fiberglass casts and don't hold up as well ...

  11. Cast Care: Do's and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    ... typically lighter and more durable than are traditional plaster casts. Air circulates more freely inside a fiberglass ... Also, X-rays penetrate fiberglass casts better than plaster casts. This is helpful if your child's doctor ...

  12. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's usually made of material like fiberglass or plaster. Casts keep bones in place while they heal. ... Types of Casts Casts usually are made of: Plaster of Paris: This heavy white powder forms a ...

  13. Indian – American contributions to psychiatric research

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangi, Anand K.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian – American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years. PMID:21836715

  14. Biomaterials by freeze casting.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schecter, Matthew; Donius, Amalie E; Hunger, Philipp M

    2010-04-28

    The functional requirements for synthetic tissue substitutes appear deceptively simple: they should provide a porous matrix with interconnecting porosity and surface properties that promote rapid tissue ingrowth; at the same time, they should possess sufficient stiffness, strength and toughness to prevent crushing under physiological loads until full integration and healing are reached. Despite extensive efforts and first encouraging results, current biomaterials for tissue regeneration tend to suffer common limitations: insufficient tissue-material interaction and an inherent lack of strength and toughness associated with porosity. The challenge persists to synthesize materials that mimic both structure and mechanical performance of the natural tissue and permit strong tissue-implant interfaces to be formed. In the case of bone substitute materials, for example, the goal is to engineer high-performance composites with effective properties that, similar to natural mineralized tissue, exceed by orders of magnitude the properties of its constituents. It is still difficult with current technology to emulate in synthetic biomaterials multi-level hierarchical composite structures that are thought to be the origin of the observed mechanical property amplification in biological materials. Freeze casting permits to manufacture such complex, hybrid materials through excellent control of structural and mechanical properties. As a processing technique for the manufacture of biomaterials, freeze casting therefore has great promise.

  15. Education and Caste in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  16. Lost-Soap Aluminum Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalow, Paula

    1980-01-01

    Lost-wax casting in sterling silver is a costly experience for the average high school student. However, this jewelry process can be learned at no cost if scrap aluminum is used instead of silver, and soap bars are used instead of wax. This lost-soap aluminum casting process is described. (Author/KC)

  17. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  18. Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

    2013-11-01

    The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105 Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean.

  19. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    PubMed

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

  20. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  1. Can Genetics Help Us Understand Indian Social History?

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-01-01

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called “Aryans” as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. PMID:24968702

  2. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  3. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  4. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  5. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710,...

  6. Decadal and interannual variability of the Indian Ocean SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmi; Krishnamurthy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of the Indian Ocean on interannual and decadal timescales is investigated in observations, coupled model simulation and model experiment. The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode was specifically analyzed using a data-adaptive method. This study reveals one decadal mode and two interannual modes in the sea surface temperature (SST) of the IOD. The decadal mode in the IOD is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) of the North Pacific SST. The two interannual modes are related to the biennial and canonical components of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), consistent with previous studies. This study hypothesizes that the relation between the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific on decadal scale may be through the northerly winds from the western North Pacific. The long simulation of Community Climate System Model version 4 also indicates the presence of IOD modes associated with the decadal PDO and canonical ENSO modes. However, the model fails to simulate the biennial ENSO mode in the Indian Ocean. The relation between the Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean is further supported by the regionally de-coupled model experiment.

  7. Unlocking Indian Maritime Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    installment of a maritime strategy, Indian strategy has been expanding since India’s partition from the British Empire. India appears poised to assume...After partition it did not represent a totally Indian force, as almost all of its top leadership and most of its strategic planning was conducted by the...arm of the Royal navy and after the partition of the subcontinent and the Royal Indian Naval force, India possessed four sloops, two frigates, one

  8. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  9. Navigating the Nation and Positioning the Other: Undergraduate Students' Experiences with Caste, Class, Gender, and Communalism in Bangalore, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranha, Rima Marina

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the idea of national belonging, held amongst Indian youth in general, and male and female college students in an urban city in particular, to examine the multiple ways in which social and cultural dynamics (e.g., communalism, gender, class, and caste) interact with their idea of nation. It analyses the data gathered…

  10. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Robert S.; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Sussman, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) includes a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14), a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22) and devices (29) for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces (44) of the casting rolls with a powder flux material (56). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550.degree. C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll.

  11. Strip casting with fluxing agent applied to casting roll

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; O`Malley, R.J.; Sussman, R.C.

    1997-07-29

    A strip caster for producing a continuous strip includes a tundish for containing a melt, a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls and devices for electrostatically coating the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls with a powder flux material. The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouting basin for receiving the melt through a teeming tube thereby establishing a meniscus between the rolls for forming the strip. The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line to a sealing chamber. A preferred flux is boron oxide having a melting point of about 550 C. The flux coating enhances wetting of the steel melt to the casting roll and dissolves any metal oxide formed on the roll. 3 figs.

  12. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Michael M.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2013-06-01

    Natural materials, such as bone and abalone nacre, exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, a product of their intricate microstructural organization. Freeze casting is a relatively simple, inexpensive, and adaptable materials processing method to form porous ceramic scaffolds with controllable microstructural features. After infiltration of a second polymeric phase, hybrid ceramic-polymer composites can be fabricated that closely resemble the architecture and mechanical performance of natural bone and nacre. Inspired by the narwhal tusk, magnetic fields applied during freeze casting can be used to further control architectural alignment, resulting in freeze-cast materials with enhanced mechanical properties.

  13. Rapid Cycle Casting of Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Figs. 10 and 11 show carbon segregation as a function of a N at casting temperatures of 1185 0 C and 1360°C. 5.7.5 Macrosegregation for non-ideal...casting temperature. Run# T a N Carbon Segregation , % 0 C L 7.5mm L 35mn L =65nm L =90nm R53 1185 .3900 11 -2 -2 -2 R52 1185 .0860 17 -3 -3 -3 R51 1185...superheated shot and melt; superheat = 66cc and casting temperature = 1198 C. Run# tI Carbon segregation , % sL = 29mm L = 43mm L = 80mm L =98mm Rl 0.35

  14. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  15. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  16. mtDNA variation in caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Bamshad, M; Fraley, A E; Crawford, M H; Cann, R L; Busi, B R; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B

    1996-02-01

    Various anthropological analyses have documented extensive regional variation among populations on the subcontinent of India using morphological, protein, blood group, and nuclear DNA polymorphisms. These patterns are the product of complex population structure (genetic drift, gene flow) and a population history noted for numerous branching events. As a result, the interpretation of relationships among caste populations of South India and between Indians and continental populations remains controversial. The Hindu caste system is a general model of genetic differentiation among endogamous populations stratified by social forces (e.g., religion and occupation). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has unique properties that facilitate the exploration of population structure. We analyzed 36 Hindu men born in Andhra Pradesh who were unrelated matrilineally through at least 3 generations and who represent 4 caste populations: Brahmin (9), Yadava (10), Kapu (7), and Relli (10). Individuals from Africa (36), Asia (36), and Europe (36) were sampled for comparison. A 200-base-pair segment of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS2) of the mtDNA control region was sequenced in all individuals. In the Indian castes 25 distinct haplotypes are identified. Aside from the Cambridge reference sequence, only two haplotypes are shared between caste populations. Middle castes form a highly supported cluster in a neighbor-joining network. Mean nucleotide diversity within each caste is 0.015, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.012 for the Brahmin, Yadava, Kapu, and Relli, respectively. mtDNA variation is highly structured between castes (GST = 0.17; p < 0.002). The effects of social structure on mtDNA variation are much greater than those on variation measured by traditional markers. Explanations for this discordance include (1) the higher resolving power of mtDNA, (2) sex-dependent gene flow, (3) differences in male and female effective population sizes, and (4) elements of the kinship structure. Thirty

  17. Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Awarded 2015 EPA Region 4 Rain Catcher Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians with the regional 2015 EPA Rain Catcher Award in the Tribal Category for the Native Plant Facility project in western North Carolina. The award was g

  18. Energy and Technolgy Assessment of Zinc and Magnesium Casting Plants, Technical Report Close-out, August 25,2006

    SciTech Connect

    Twin City Die Castings Company; Tom Heider; North American Die Castings Association

    2006-08-25

    Twin City Die Castings Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Twin City Die Castings Company was awarded project No. DE-FG36-05GO15097 to perform plant wide assessments of ten (10) die casting facilities that produce zinc and magnesium alloy castings in order to determine improvements and potential cost savings in energy use. Mr. Heider filled the role of team leader for the project and utilized the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) to conduct audits at team participant plants so as to hold findings specific to each plant proprietary. The intended benefits of the project were to improve energy use through higher operational and process efficiency for the plants assessed. An improvement in energy efficiency of 5 – 15% was targeted. The primary objectives of the project was to: 1) Expand an energy and technology tool developed by the NADCA under a previous DOE project titled, “Energy and Technology Assessment for Die Casting Plants” for assessing aluminum die casting plants to be more specifically applicable to zinc and magnesium die casting facilities. 2) Conduct ten (10) assessments of zinc and magnesium die casting plants, within eight (8) companies, utilizing the assessment tool to identify, evaluate and recommend opportunities to enhance energy efficiency, minimize waste, and improve productivity. 3) Transfer the assessment tool to the die casting industry at large.

  19. Teaching the American Indian in the American School: An Adventure in Cultural Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Daniel

    In order to teach students about American Indian culture, it is suggested that a chronological approach be taken in terms of where it all began, what it all means, and what of the entire Indian story is pertinent to geographic education for the student of any age. Archeology dates man's arrival in North America further and further back. This…

  20. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Volume 1, 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Barry T., Ed.

    Volume 1 of the fourth edition of the encyclopedia contains directory and descriptive listings of organizations in the United States and Canada, resource materials concerning North American Indians, and a bibliography of in-print books about the American Indian. The first section of the volume contains source listings of government agencies,…

  1. 40 CFR 147.1703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Carolina § 147.1703 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1752 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1752 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1752 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1752 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Carolina § 147.1703 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  5. Casting Using A Polystyrene Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter; Guenther, Bengamin; Vranas, Thomas; Veneris, Peter; Joyner, Michael

    1993-01-01

    New technique for making metal aircraft models saves significant amount of time and effort in comparison with conventional lost-wax method. Produces inexpensive, effective wind-tunnel models. Metal wind-tunnel model cast by use of polystyrene pattern.

  6. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  7. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    t^ ~cMnrc.pVbU of evaluating rheocasting as tell as more conventional casting techniques has been designed and is presently under construction...construction. The immediate objective of this machine is to study rheocasting and conventional casting with respect to .processing and properties. The...used in small, bottom-pour ladles. The stirring required by the Rheocasting proce- dures is to be accomplished by the paddle assembly shown in Figure

  8. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    high- lights of the earlier reports and much detail about Rheocast - ing and the casting of aluminum containing superalloys by Hitchiner’s patented...Augmented Hipo-v Procer-s EVALUATION OF RHEOCASTING WITH TFT: CTA PROCESS fU.S. Pat. 3,863,706) . Introduction to Rheocasting ... Rheocasting ...Drawing of suspension Bomb Lug. 13 Apparatus used to CLA pour Rheocast aluminum. 14 collection of parts cast by CLA process in semi- solid 35 5 aluminum

  9. Yakima Indian Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Migrant and Indian Education, Toppenish, WA.

    This booklet was prepared by the Yakima Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs, to provide information to the public on the history and customs of the Yakima Indian Nation, as well as explaining life on the Reservation today. The events mentioned range from 1775 to July 1, 1971. Since this document only skims the surface of Yakima culture and history,…

  10. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  11. Indians of Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

  12. The American Indian Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, George

    This guide provides a basic source of historical and contemporary Indian information from an American Indian perspective and includes study questions at the end of each section. The primary function of this guide is to be a quick-study reference handbook. Basic questions essential to understanding current problems and issues of American Indians…

  13. American Indian Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  14. An American Indian Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tvedten, Benet, Comp.

    The anthology is intended to be a discovery for the many Americans whose superficial knowledge of the American Indians has been derived from history books, Hollywood films, and other stereotyped views of the Indian culture. Understanding and appreciation of a particular culture can be found in the stories and poetry of the people. This small…

  15. Suicide in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    This book reviews present knowledge about suicidal behavior in American Indians, prevention efforts in Native communities, and recommendations for understanding suicidal behavior and developing suicide prevention efforts. Data from Canadian aboriginal groups is also included. Chapter 1 explains why suicide in American Indians is of concern to…

  16. Moldless casting by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Marc A.; Shannon, G. J.; Steen, William M.

    1997-09-01

    The principle of laser cladding involves the use of high power carbon-dioxide lasers and powder deposition technology to provide wear and corrosion resistant surface coatings to engineering components. By injecting metal powder into a laser generated melt pool on a moving substrate a solidified metal track can be produced. Deposition of successive tracks produces a multi-layer build. Laser direct casting (LDC) utilizes a coaxial nozzle enabling consistent omnidirectional deposition to produce 3D components from a selection of metal powders. The influence of the principal process parameters over the process features namely, powder catchment efficiency, beam shape and build rates are presented with several successfully generated 3D components. Nickel, stainless steel and satellite powders were deposited at laser powders of 0.4 to 1.4 kW and speeds of 500 to 1000 mm/min achieving build rates of 3 to 9 mm3/s. Fully dense metallurgical structures have been produced with no cracking or porosity and powder catchment efficiencies up to 85% have been achieved.

  17. EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREESTORY BRICK BUILDING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, FRONT (NORTH) ELEVATION. THIS THREE-STORY BRICK BUILDING WITH DEEPLY-BRACKETED AND OVERHANGING EAVES INCLUDES MULTIPLE BAYS CONSTRUCTED BEGINNING IN 1913 TO SERVE AS A 'CIVIC CENTER' FOR ACIPCO EMPLOYEES AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE BUILDING CURRENTLY INCLUDES THE TIME OFFICE, CAFETERIA, AND AUDITORIUM. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Service Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The complex structure and beauty of polar clouds are highlighted by these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 23, 2003. These clouds occur at multiple altitudes and exhibit a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica.

    The image at left was created by overlying a natural-color view from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) camera with a color-coded stereo height field. MISR retrieves heights by a pattern recognition algorithm that utilizes multiple view angles to derive cloud height and motion. The opacity of the height field was then reduced until the field appears as a translucent wash over the natural-color image. The resulting purple, cyan and green hues of this aesthetic display indicate low, medium or high altitudes, respectively, with heights ranging from less than 2 kilometers (purple) to about 8 kilometers (green). In the lower right corner, the edge of the Antarctic coastline and some sea ice can be seen through some thin, high cirrus clouds.

    The right-hand panel is a natural-color image from MISR's 70-degree backward viewing camera. This camera looks backwards along the path of Terra's flight, and in the southern hemisphere the Sun is in front of this camera. This perspective causes the cloud-tops to be brightly outlined by the sun behind them, and enhances the shadows cast by clouds with significant vertical structure. An oblique observation angle also enhances the reflection of light by atmospheric particles, and accentuates the appearance of polar clouds. The dark ocean and sea ice that were apparent through the cirrus clouds at the bottom right corner of the nadir image are overwhelmed by the brightness of these clouds at the oblique view.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude

  19. Genetic differentiation and population structure of five ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-12-01

    The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The FST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping

  20. Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velie, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

  1. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  2. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  3. Federal Financing of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loon, Eric Van

    Since over 200 million Federal dollars are disbursed annually for American Indian education under Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I, Indian Education Act Title IV, and Johnson O'Malley programs, it is difficult to understand the dismal state of Indian education. However, factors contributing to abuse of…

  4. Information About Indians of Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toothman, Maryann; Jensen, Denise

    An intermediate or junior high level unit on Indians indigenous to Iowa focuses on history, culture, and cultural conflict between the Indians and white Americans. Many of the materials can be adapted for use in other states or for a more general unit on American Indians. Twenty lessons cover the location of Iowa; prehistoric Iowa; Indian society…

  5. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  6. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...: 2010-16214] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic Development, Washington, DC 20240, (202) 219-4066. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of...

  7. The American Indian Development Bank?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  8. Potential Change in the Indian Monsoon Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C. C.; Williams, A. P.; Mishra, V.; Barlow, M. A.; Hoerling, M. P.; Hoell, A.

    2011-12-01

    In India and East Africa more than 350 million people face chronic undernourishment; population growth alone could bring this number to 500 million by 2030. Below normal rains have become more frequent as falling water tables, land degradation, warmer air temperatures, and rising fuel and fertilizer costs limit crop production growth. The Indian and East African boreal summer monsoons rely on large moisture transports from the southern Indian Ocean (SIO, 55-90°E, 0-15°S) and a low pressure cell over the north Indian Ocean (NIO, 55-90°E, 0-15°N). The relatively cloud free NIO warm pool receives a large excess of solar radiation, which the ocean transports south across the equator. While many factors influence this system, we present here observations and climate simulations linking preferential SIO-versus-NIO warming, evaporation and precipitation changes to weaker monsoon winds, weaker northward moisture transports, and warmer and drier weather in India and East Africa. Observations show that increasing SIO sea surface temperatures (SSTs) below rapid surface winds provide an 'evaporative window' (Fig. 1) that transfers energy and moisture to the atmosphere, increasing SIO rainfall. Climate simulations driven with i) observed SSTs and ii) mid-tropospheric SIO heating associate increased SIO rainfall with lower NIO rainfall. Given the empirical relationships between increasing SIO rainfall and reduced summer monsoon rains, continued warming in the Indian Ocean could lead to more frequent droughts in India, and perhaps, East Africa.

  9. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  10. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  11. South Asian Indian Cultural Orientations toward Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The findings of a portion of a 2-year ethnographic study involving North Indian Hindu immigrants living in the mid-Western United States is discussed. These findings illuminate the ways in which participants think and talk about mental retardation, how this linguistic information was obtained, and the cultural context within which participants…

  12. Barriers to diabetes prevention and control among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ronny A

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina's American Indian population experiences a disproportionate diabetes burden, in terms of both a high prevalence of the disease and excess diabetes-related death and disability. Concerted efforts need to be made to provide culturally appropriate and easily accessible education, health care, and health-promoting resources in these vulnerable communities.

  13. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  14. Indian Heritage: A Selected Book List for All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Library, CO.

    This book list, a sampling of resources from the Denver Public Library, pertains to the Indians of North America, especially those west of the Mississippi River. The annotated list is divided into two main parts: "Adult and Young Adult Books, Films, and Records" and "Children's Books, Films, and Records." The bulk of the list is adult and young…

  15. Bilingual Education for Indians and Inuit: The Canadian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, G. Kent

    The 1867 British North America Act consigned responsibility for the education of Canadian Indians and Inuit to the Federal Government, but churches ran the schools until the post-World War II period. Government policy from 1948 until 1969 encouraged the integration of Native children into provincial educational systems. In 1969 the Government…

  16. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  17. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  18. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  19. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  20. 25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands. 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.12 Indian lands. Indian lands means: (a) Land within the limits of an Indian reservation; or (b)...

  1. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L

    1977-06-18

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.

  2. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Weldon, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin. PMID:861896

  3. Tourism and Indian Exploitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    A cursory review of Federal support to the Eastern Cherokees shows that the Cherokee Historical Association and not the Cherokee Indians are the recipients and beneficiaries of many Federal grants. (JC)

  4. Indians on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamail, Milton H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the Kickapoo have actively sought to preserve their culture at Nacimiento in Coahuila, Mexico, evidence of an eroding culture is found at Eagle Pass, Texas where American Indian migrant workers reside temporarily. (JC)

  5. Indian Summer for Wayfarers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltenbronn, Kyra

    1977-01-01

    A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

  6. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  7. Morphological castes in a vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    O'Riain, M. J.; Jarvis, J. U. M.; Alexander, R.; Buffenstein, R.; Peeters, C.

    2000-01-01

    Morphological specialization for a specific role has, until now, been assumed to be restricted to social invertebrates. Herein we show that complete physical dimorphism has evolved between reproductives and helpers in the eusocial naked mole-rat. Dimorphism is a consequence of the lumbar vertebrae lengthening after the onset of reproduction in females. This is the only known example of morphological castes in a vertebrate and is distinct from continuous size variation between breeders and helpers in other species of cooperatively breeding vertebrates. The evolution of castes in a mammal and insects represents a striking example of convergent evolution for enhanced fecundity in societies characterized by high reproductive skew. Similarities in the selective environment between naked mole-rats and eusocial insect species highlight the selective conditions under which queen/worker castes are predicted to evolve in animal societies. PMID:11087866

  8. Centrifugal slip casting of components

    SciTech Connect

    Steinlage, G.A.; Roeder, R.K.; Trumble, K.P.; Bowman, K.J.

    1996-05-01

    Research in layered and functionally gradient materials has emerged because of the increasing demand for high-performance engineering materials. Many techniques have been used to produce layered and functionally gradient components. Common examples include thermal spray processing, powder processing, chemical and physical vapor deposition, high-temperature or combustion synthesis, diffusion treatments, microwave processing and infiltration. Of these techniques, powder processing routes offer excellent microstructural control and product quality, and they are capable of producing large components. Centrifugal slip casting is a powder-processing technique combining the effects of slip casting and centrifugation. In slip casting, consolidation takes place as fluid is removed by the porous mold. Particles within the slip move with the suspending fluid until reaching the mold wall, at which point they are consolidated. In centrifugation, particles within the slip move through the fluid at a rate dependent upon the gravitational force and particle drag.

  9. Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, E; Pandey, V; Pandey, A K; Keski-Saari, S; Kontunen-Soppela, S; Sharma, C

    2013-06-01

    Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region.

  10. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3... Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and non-Indian children who are not eligible for... of maintenance in the school attended, when their presence will not exclude Indian pupils...

  13. Casting propellant in rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, J. E.; Froehling, S. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for casting a solid propellant in the casing of a rocket engine having a continuous wall with a single opening which is formed by leaves of a material which melt at a temperature of the propellant and with curved edges concentric to the curvature of the spherical casing. The leaves are inserted into the spherical casing through the opening forming a core having a greater width than the width of the single opening and with curved peripheral edges. The cast propellant forms a solid mass and then heated to melt the leaves and provide a central opening with radial projecting flutes.

  14. Casting behavior of titanium alloys in a centrifugal casting machine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Miyakawa, O; Takada, Y; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2003-05-01

    Since dental casting requires replication of complex shapes with great accuracy, this study examined how well some commercial titanium alloys and experimental titanium-copper alloys filled a mold cavity. The metals examined were three types of commercial dental titanium [commercially pure titanium (hereinafter noted as CP-Ti), Ti-6Al-4V (T64) and Ti-6Al-7Nb (T67)], and experimental titanium-copper alloys [3%, 5% and 10% Cu (mass %)]. The volume percentage filling the cavity was evaluated in castings prepared in a very thin perforated sheet pattern and cast in a centrifugal casting machine. The flow behavior of the molten metal was also examined using a so-called "tracer element technique." The amounts of CP-Ti and all the Ti-Cu alloys filling the cavity were similar; less T64 and T67 filled the cavity. However, the Ti-Cu alloys failed to reach the end of the cavities due to a lower fluidity compared to the other metals. A mold prepared with specially designed perforated sheets was effective at differentiating the flow behavior of the metals tested. The present technique also revealed that the more viscous Ti-Cu alloys with a wide freezing range failed to sequentially flow to the end of the cavity.

  15. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus in nasal carriage, food, wastewater and paper currency in Jalandhar city (north-western), an Indian state of Punjab.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harsh; Palaha, Rajdeep; Kaur, Navreet; Ratnakar, Wankhede Swapnil; Sodi, Aakanksha; Kaur, Manmeet; Katiyar, Richa; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Charanpreet; Kumar, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Development of multidrug-resistant pattern in the bacterial community is a major threat to the society. Staphylococcus aureus is perhaps the pathogen of the greatest concern because of its inherent virulence, its ability to cause a diverse array of life-threatening situations and capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions. The aims of this study is to investigate the multidrug-resistant pattern of the coagulase-positive S. aureus isolated from nasal carriage, food, paper currency and wastewater samples. We had also studied the multiple antibiotic resistance index and in vitro production of β-lactamase. The study had found out 130 coagulase-positive S. aureus strains isolated from total of 595 samples such as anterior nares of preschool children (195), hospital nurses (100), drivers (76), food (86), wastewater (3) and paper currency (135) (Indian rupee). The biotypes pattern were as follows; A > D > B > C> UT. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) value clearly defines the multidrug-resistant pattern of the S. aureus among different sources. Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) of results obtained indicated that the difference in the antibiotic resistance observed in the 130 bacterial isolates against the 23 different antibiotics used in this study was statically significant (p < 0.01).

  16. Mundrabilla: A Microgravity Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budka, P. Z.; Viertl, J. R. M.

    1993-07-01

    The name "Mundrabilla" is applied to two nickel-iron meteorite masses (combined mass over 22,700 kg), which apparently were a single mass before atmospheric entry [1]. A medium octahedrite, Mundrabilla exhibits the microstructural features common to other nickel-iron meteorites such as Widmanstatten structure and troilite; however, its macrostructure is anything but common. Described by Buchwald as "anomalous" [1], Mundrabilla's macrostructural morphology is characterized by strikingly prominent, rounded Widmanstatten areas separated by regions of sulfur segregation (Fig. 1). While microstructural development of a metal can reflect both solidification and solid state reactions, macrostructural features are determined during solidification. Thus, a typical metallurgist, unfamiliar with microgravity solidification, might describe Mundrabilla's macrostructure as an "anomalous" casting. Those familiar with microgravity solidification might characterize Mundrabilla's macrostructural features as due to solidification of two immiscible liquids [2]--one rich in nickel-iron, the other rich in sulfur. Combining these observations, Mundrabilla's macrostructural features are consistent with that of a liquid mass solidified under microgravity conditions [3,4]. Since nickel-iron meteorite cooling rates often serve as the foundation for assumptions about the formation of solar system bodies, information on the solidification time for the Mundrabilla mass may give additional insights. How long did it take for Mundrabilla, with a minimum "as received" mass of approximately 22,700 kg to solidify? Because Mundrabilla's mass before atmospheric entry is unknown, we take as an upper boundary a mass of 4.1 x 10^15kg. These masses, assumed spherical, range in diameter between 1.8 meters and 10 kilometers, respectively. Mundrabilla can be idealized as a pure iron liquid mass cooling from the melting point of pure iron (1535C) by radiation into space at absolute zero. The latent heat of

  17. Effect of ferrite on cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nadezhdin, A.; Cooper, K. ); Timbers, G. . Kraft Pulp Division)

    1994-09-01

    Premature failure of stainless steel castings in bleach washing service is attributed to poor casting quality high porosity and to a high ferrite content, which makes the castings susceptible to corrosion by hot acid chloride solutions. A survey of the chemical compositions and ferrite contents of corrosion-resistant castings in bleach plants at three pulp mills found high [delta]-ferrite levels in the austenitic matrix due to the improper balance between austenite and ferrite stabilizers.

  18. 20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of low crib dam and apron, looking north. Building across river is part of Muckleshoot Indian fish hatchery, constructed in 1989. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  19. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa.

  20. Pressure distribution in centrifugal dental casting.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J P

    1978-02-01

    Equations are developed for liquid metal pressure in centrifugal dental casting, given the instantaneous rotational velocity, density, and certain dimensions of the casting machine and casting pattern. A "reference parabola" is introduced making the fluid pressure concept more understandable. A specially designed specimen demonstrates experimentally the reference parabola at freezing.

  1. Prediction of Microporosity in Shrouded Impeller Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S. Nelson, C.D.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Morris Bean and Company was to link computer models of heat and fluid flow with previously developed quality criteria for the prediction of microporosity in a Al-4.5% Cu alloy shrouded impeller casting. The results may be used to analyze the casting process design for the commercial production of 206 o alloy shrouded impeller castings. Test impeller castings were poured in the laboratory for the purpose of obtaining thermal data and porosity distributions. Also, a simulation of the test impeller casting was conducted and the results validated with porosity measurements on the test castings. A comparison of the predicted and measured microporosity distributions indicated an excellent correlation between experiments and prediction. The results of the experimental and modeling studies undertaken in this project indicate that the quality criteria developed for the prediction of microporosity in Al-4.5% Cu alloy castings can accurately predict regions of elevated microporosity even in complex castings such as the shrouded impeller casting. Accordingly, it should be possible to use quality criteria for porosity prediction in conjunction with computer models of heat and fluid flow to optimize the casting process for the production of shrouded impeller castings. Since high levels of microporosity may be expected to result in poor fatigue properties, casting designs that are optimized for low levels of microporosity should exhibit superior fatigue life.

  2. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    SciTech Connect

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  3. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J. Brock

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  4. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  5. SEGREGATION IN SMALL STEEL CASTINGS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Carbon segregation in small castings often occurs near riser necks. Systematic studies were continued to determine effect on segregation of such...intensity of carbon segregation under ’neck-down’ risers varies directly as the neck length and inversely as the neck diameter. The degree of segregation

  6. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  7. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    produce porosity-free parts and to evaluate the Rheocasting and Thixocasting processes from both a technical and economical point of view. Analytical...and computer models were developed for solutionizing of Rheocast and conventional cast (dendritic) alloys. The predictions were compared with

  8. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  9. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  10. The use of tin and bronze in prehistoric southern Indian metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Sharada

    1998-07-01

    Although the findings are from disparate contexts, they demonstrate a long familiarity of Indian metal workers with the use of tin and with manipulating bronze alloys to exploit the functional properties of phases and intermetallic compounds. Thus, the copper-bronze tradition in southern Indian antiquity and in the Indian subcontinent has more depth than suspected, with some evidence for the use of local tin sources in southern India. Some of the findings are reasonably peculiar to the region, such as the solid-cast bronze images, β bronze coinage, δ bronze mirrors, and α bronze slags, while the high-tin β bronzes and vessels from Indian prehistory predate those known elsewhere and probably go back to the Indus Valley. All of this strengthens the case for indigenous copper-bronze traditions.

  11. Resources for Teaching About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Lists selected resources for teaching about American Indians available from the ERIC database. Topics of resources include Navajo history, Pacific Northwest history, Indians of Oklahoma, Indian traditions, Plains Indian culture, and Pawnee history. (AEM)

  12. A Study of Selected Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ethnic Minorities Based on the 1970 Census. Volume 3: American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RJ Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Today, there are 827,000 American Indians and Alaskan Natives in the United States. Although found throughout the U.S., nearly two-thirds live in the states of Oklahoma, Arizona, California, New Mexico, Alaska (including Eskimos and Aleuts), North Carolina, South Dakota, and Washington. While in 1930 only 10 percent of the Indians lived in urban…

  13. 75 FR 53299 - Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY Issuance of NPDES General Permits for Wastewater Lagoon Systems Located in Indian Country in... for wastewater lagoon systems that are located in Indian country in the States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming and the issuance of the NPDES general permit for wastewater...

  14. The Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Program, Robeson County, N.C., 1973-74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynor, Waltz; Thompson, Vernon R.

    Major priority areas established by the American Indian (Lumbee) Parent Committee of the Indian Elementary and Secondary School Assistance Program for Robeson County, North Carolina were: remedial reading; additional vocational education; special guidance programs; accelerated training for gifted; specialists in math; and cultural enrichment…

  15. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  16. Young Once, Indian Forever: Youth Gangs in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Lim, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Not unlike mainstream society of the United States, Indian Country faces new challenges regarding the values, mores, and behavior of its young people. Since their first encounters with European explorers, American Indians have fought to preserve their culture and traditions. Federal policies that addressed the "Indian problem" by…

  17. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  18. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  19. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K.

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  20. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation... Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class III...

  1. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the... Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the State of Nevada became effective upon publication of the...

  2. Teaching about Indians? Use the Real Stuff!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldkamp-Price, Betsy; Smith, David Lee

    1994-01-01

    Provides suggestions for teaching students about American Indians. Teachers need to learn more about Indians; confront misconceptions and stereotypes; have students make Indian crafts and foods; play Indian games; learn about contemporary Indian culture; be critical of resources; and contact local Indian or cultural groups. (MDM)

  3. Inner surface roughness of complete cast crowns made by centrifugal casting machines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, H; Raptis, C N; Asgar, K

    1981-05-01

    Six variables that could affect the surface roughness of a casting were investigated. The variables were (1) type of alloy, (2) mold temperature, (3) metal casting temperature, (4) casting machine, (5) sandblasting, and (6) location of each section. It was determined that the training portion of a complete cast crown had rougher surfaces than the leading portion. Higher mold and casting temperatures produced rougher castings, and this effect was more pronounced in the case of the base metal alloy. Sandblasting reduced the roughness, but produced scratched surfaces. Sandblasting had a more pronounced affect on the surface roughness of the base metal alloy cast either at a higher mold temperature or metal casting temperature. The morphology and the roughness profile of the original cast surface differed considerably with the type of alloy used.

  4. Titanium casting: the surface reaction layer of castings obtained using ultra-low-temperature molds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, H; Onouchi, M; Hsu, H C; Kurotani, T; Nishiyama, M

    2001-03-01

    To examine whether the surface reaction layer of titanium castings can be reduced by lowering the mold temperature during casting, we cast titanium at three mold temperatures, including an ultra-low temperature produced by cooling the mold with liquid nitrogen, then measured the tensile strength and elongation of the castings. The titanium was cast using a centrifugal casting machine, and the molds were incinerated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Castings were then made with the molds at 200 degrees C, 600 degrees C, and an ultra-low temperature (-196 degrees C). The castability of titanium cast in the mold at the ultra-low temperature was good. The Vickers hardness near the surface layer of castings decreased as the mold temperature decreased.

  5. The cast structure of a 7075 alloy produced by a water-cooling centrifugal casting method

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, J.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Jong, S.H.

    1994-03-01

    A water-cooling centrifugal casting method was applied to cast the 7075 Al alloy to generate a much finer cast structure than that produced by conventional ingot casting methods. The effects of casting parameters, i.e., rotation speed, pouring temperature, water flow, and grain refiner, on casting structure were systematically studied so that the optimum casting condition and the solidification mechanism could be established. The typical cast structure along the thickness direction of a cast ring could be divided into four equiaxed zones, including the chill zone which is in contact with the mold wall. All zones have their characteristic grain size, morphology, and relative thickness, which are all dependent on the casting condition. The optimum casting condition yielding the finest structure available was found to be 3,000 rpm, 650 C, and sufficient water cooling. A uniform portion occupying 90 pct of the whole thickness and having a grain size of 17 [mu]m could be achieved under such a casting condition. When a grain refiner was added, the whole ring became further concentrated with grains of fine structure. A mechanism concerning the overall effects of rapid solidification, turbulent flow, and centrifugal force has been proposed for the present casting method and might explain the zone-structure formation and the effects of the casting parameters on microstructural features.

  6. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  7. The Indian Mineral Development Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Antoinette

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) and the possible effects it may have on Indian mineral development. Explains how the provisions of IMDA work to provide Indian tribes with greater flexibility for the development and sale of their mineral resources. (ML)

  8. A History of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon; Eder, Jeanne

    The goal of assimilating American Indians into an alien culture seemed inevitable as superior weaponry and foreign diseases conquered the Indians. Only in the 20th century has serious consideration been given to allowing Indians to choose their own destiny. Using many excerpts from historical accounts, this book describes educational efforts by…

  9. Literature of the Indian Subcontinent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr.

    Indian literature is intimately bound up with the Indian religious system. The earliest sacred writings are the Vedas. In addition to being poetry on nature, and later on, ritual formulae for controlling the universe, the Vedas have philosophical speculation. A large part of classical Indian literature consists of writing commentaries on…

  10. Facts about American Indian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  11. The American Indian: A Microcourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Norman; And Others

    Designed for secondary students and dealing with the concept of ethnicity in an urban setting, this microcourse on the American Indian presents general information on American Indians and an in-depth study of Indians within the Chicago, Illinois area. Included in this curriculum guide are: seven specific behavioral objectives; course content (some…

  12. [Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Richard

    President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

  13. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Deemed Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III... Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On October 31, 2012, the Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians and the State of California submitted Amendment I to the Class III compact approved on December...

  14. The impact of US versus Indian BMD reference standards on the diagnosis of osteoporosis among South Asian Indians living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, Alexander; Vittinghoff, Eric; Sriram, Usha; Schwartz, Ann V.; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk is not well-established for non-white populations. There is no established BMD reference standard for South Asians. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure BMD at total hip and lumbar spine in 150 US-based South Asian Indians. For each subject T-scores were calculated using BMD reference values based on US white, North Indian and South Indian populations, and the resulting WHO BMD category assignments were compared. Reference standards derived from Indian populations classified a larger proportion of US-based Indians as normal than did US white-based standards. The percentage of individuals reclassified when changing between reference standards varied by skeletal site and reference population origin, ranging from 13% (95% CI, 7–18%), when switching from US-white- to North Indian-based standard for total hip, to 40% (95% CI, 32–48%), when switching from US white to South Indian reference values for lumbar spine. These finding illustrate that choice of reference standard has a significant effect on the diagnosis of osteoporosis in South Asians, and underscore the importance of future research to quantify the relationship between BMD and fracture risk in this population. PMID:20663699

  15. Tropical Indian Ocean subsurface temperature variability and the forcing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayantani, Ojha; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2015-05-01

    The first two leading modes of interannual variability of sea surface temperature in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) are governed by El Niño Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) respectively. TIO subsurface however does not co-vary with the surface. The patterns of the first mode of TIO subsurface temperature variability and their vertical structure are found to closely resemble the patterns of IOD and El Niño co-occurrence years. These co-occurrence years are characterized by a north-south subsurface dipole rather than a conventional IOD forced east-west dipole. This subsurface dipole is forced by wind stress curl anomalies, driven mainly by meridional shear in the zonal wind anomalies. A new subsurface dipole index (SDI) has been defined in this study to quantify the intensity of the north-south dipole mode. The SDI peaks during December to February (DJF), a season after the dipole mode index peaks. It is found that this subsurface north-south dipole is a manifestation of the internal mode of variability of the Indian Ocean forced by IOD but modulated by Pacific forcing. The seasonal evolution of thermocline, subsurface temperature and the corresponding leading modes of variability further support this hypothesis. Positive wind stress curl anomalies in the south and negative wind stress curl anomalies in the north of 5°S force (or intensify) downwelling and upwelling waves respectively during DJF. These waves induce strong subsurface warming in the south and cooling in the north (especially during DJF) and assist the formation and/or maintenance of the north-south subsurface dipole. A thick barrier layer forms in the southern TIO, supporting the long persistence of anomalous subsurface warming. To the best of our knowledge the existence of such north-south subsurface dipole in TIO is being reported for the first time.

  16. Innovative algorithm for cast detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo; Gallina, Paolo

    2001-12-01

    The paper describes a method for detecting a color cast (i.e. a superimposed dominant color) in a digital image without any a priori knowledge of its semantic content. The color gamut of the image is first mapped in the CIELab color space. The color distribution of the whole image and of the so-called Near Neutral Objects (NNO) is then investigated using statistical tools then, to determine the presence of a cast. The boundaries of the near neutral objects in the color space are set adaptively by the algorithm on the basis of a preliminary analysis of the image color gamut. The method we propose has been tuned and successfully tested on a large data set of images, downloaded from personal web-pages or acquired using various digital and traditional cameras.

  17. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    During this year the basic Rheocasting system, which was fully operational at the beginning of the year, was improved in various ways to increase...graphite inserts at the bottom of the Rheocaster to eliminate ’hot spots’. Large quantities of 304 and 440C stainless steel alloys were cast during this...period (approximately 800 pounds of 304 and 2000 pounds of 440C) and smaller quantities of other materials were also Rheocast including M2 tool steel, and

  18. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    To protect the shot sleeve and plunger, a graphite wafer was inserted against the plunger tip, and a Fiberfrax (R) cloth was placed on the bottom...of the shot sleeve. After casting, (R) the Fiberfrax cloth was matted in the biscuit, and the wafer was on the end of the biscuit where it could... Fiberfrax cloth on the bottom of the shot sleeve, and insert a graphite wafer against the shot ram tip. Then, molten metal is poured into a preheated

  19. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  20. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  1. Who Is An Indian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jeanette; Costo, Rupert

    1980-01-01

    A resolution submitted by the National Tribal Chairmen's Association declares only tribes have the right to determine tribal membership. The resolution results from an emergency meeting of the tribes to review the six federal options of defining "Indian" for eligibility to receive educational services. (ERB)

  2. Indians of New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

  3. Indians of Washington State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Maps, photographs, and illustrations are included in this introductory history of Indians in Washington state. The tribal groups of the area are classified by geographic and cultural region as Coastal, Puget Sound, and Plateau tribes, and the majority of the resource booklet provides information about the history and culture of each group.…

  4. Indians as Archaeologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badhorse, Beverly

    1993-01-01

    Describes a cooperative program between Fort Belknap College, in northern Montana, and an archeological firm designed to provide Native American students with hands-on experience in research and excavation of Indian artifacts. Reviews benefits of the partnership with respect to student experience and knowledge of ancient cultures. (MAB)

  5. Indian School Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age…

  6. Prison Reform and Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Briefly describing the history of prison reform and the American Indian, this article argues that the "professed" humanitarian philosophy of the reformers would not have been extended to "peoples languishing in prison or sequestered on reservations had it not been expedient for the business interests of the larger society". (JC)

  7. American Indian Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  8. Great Indian Chiefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastron, Allen

    Brief biographies and pen and ink portraits of over 40 chiefs and other distinguised American Indians comprise this book. Each page contains a full page portrait and a biography that notes tribal affiliation, important dates, geographical location, major accomplishments, and dealings with other tribes, white settlers, and the United States or…

  9. Indian Astronomy: History of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  10. Problems of Indian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Marigold

    Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

  11. English for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  12. Marsden Hartley: "Indian Fantasy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Uses Marsden Hartley's "Indian Fantasy" to explore with students in grades 7-9 the variety of expressive qualities of an early twentieth-century U.S. artist working abroad. Presents lesson objectives, instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and background information about the artist and painting. (GEA)

  13. Downriver Indians' Legends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Exline, Jesse

    Yurok Indian legends in Yurok Unifon text include English translations of the entire texts in order to produce fluent reading for English speakers and a continuous text for Yurok readers. Although corresponding sentences are numbered, translation is not word-for-word or sentence-for-sentence. The five stories refer to a time when animals could…

  14. Indian Wisdom Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanche, Jerry D.

    Rather than simply recreating a real or imagined event or experience for entertainment purposes, the wisdom stories of the American Indians were sophisticated teaching devices that kept alive the history and traditions of the tribe at the same time that they instructed the young tribe members in the areas of history, geography, nature study, and…

  15. Experiencing Indian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol; And Others

    Intended to provide for the reader a new road to study India, the booklet encourages students to experience the languages of India as an avenue to learning something about its people. The workbook introduces the reader to the languages of India; shows through activities and research the contributions of Indian languages to English; and provides a…

  16. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  17. The Urban Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  18. INDIAN EDUCATION WORKSHOPS. PART I - EDUCATION OF INDIAN ADULTS. PART II - COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, NICHOLAS, ED.; ROESSEL, ROBERT A., JR., ED.

    DURING THE SUMMER OF 1962, THE INDIAN EDUCATION CENTER OF ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY OFFERED TWO COURSES--EDUCATION OF THE INDIAN ADULT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN EDUCATION. PAPERS WRITTEN BY STUDENTS IN THE COURSES AND REPORTS OF GUEST SPEAKERS ARE PRESENTED IN THIS VOLUME. TOPICS COVERED INCLUDE ADULT EDUCATION THROUGH PARENT-TEACHER…

  19. Centrifugally cast bimetallic pipe for offshore corrosion resistant pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitake, A.; Torigoe, T.

    1994-12-31

    Centrifugally cast bimetallic pipes and fittings have been developed for the use of offshore oil and gas production. The metallurgical properties, mechanical properties, and corrosion properties of centrifugal a cast bimetallic pipe with outside metal of API 5L X52 to X65 internally clad with alloy 825 and 625 are discussed. First, molten steel for outer pipe is introduced into a rotating metallic mold. During the solidification of the outer pipe (carbon steel), the temperature of the pipe inside is monitored. After the solidification of the outer pipe, and when a certain temperature is reached, then a corrosion resistant alloy such as Alloy 825 or 625 for inside layer is poured. By controlling the casting conditions and selecting suitable flux, sound metallurgical bonded bimetallic pipe is produced with a minimum mixing layer at the interface also keeping a homogeneous outside wall thickness along the pipe length. The weld joints of the pipe are also evaluated from the view points of weldability, mechanical strength, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance properties. The welding method applied was basically TIG welding (GTAW). COD tests at {minus}10 C are applied to the welds to investigate fracture toughness of the weld joints. Huey test according to ASTM A262C is carried out on the root of the welds as the corrosion test. As a result, the weld joint using filler wire of alloy625 from root to cover pass has proved a very reliable method from the point of view of mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. These centrifugally cast bimetallic pipes and fittings have been widely used for riser pipes, template process lines, top side and subsea manifolds, and flow bends for christmas trees in the North Sea.

  20. [The cast structure after vacuum-pressure casting and centrifugal casting].

    PubMed

    Finger, W; Jung, T; Quast, U

    1975-02-01

    Evaluation of polished sections revealed the following: 1. Grain size in marginal areas of the crown is, in general, smaller than it is in the occlusal region. 2. Grain size varies depending on the casting method applied. Differences in hardness were found only to a limited extent. They were not always in line with the grain structure. This phenomenon deviating from the rule cannot satisfactorily be explained. The piping distribution was in accordance with observations made so far.

  1. Method for casting thin metal objects

    DOEpatents

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2015-04-14

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  2. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  3. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  4. Indian sports nicknames/logos: affective difference between American Indian and non-Indian college students.

    PubMed

    LaRocque, Angela R; McDonald, J Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Ferraro, F Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R) before viewing two slide presentations of Fighting Sioux-related images: one neutral (i.e., non-controversial) and one controversial. Participants completed the MAACL-R after each presentation. They also completed the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale, and AI participants completed the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory to assess their degree of cultural orientation. Results showed that AIs experienced higher negative affect following both slide presentations than did MC participants. MC participants' affect was only changed following the controversial slide presentation. The findings suggest AI students may experience significantly higher levels of psychological distress when viewing even neutral images of AI nicknames/logos.

  5. Accuracy of Casting Single Crowns in Titanium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    in bone (Branemark, et.al. 1985). Titanium’s biocompatibility in dental implantology created an interest in its use in cast restorations. The aerospace...and dental implantology , but implants are fabricated by machining, not casting. The first use of Ti as a cast dental restoration was accomplished in...Chairman of Dental Research, WHMC) and Dr. Adrian F. VanDellen (Veterinary Research Pathologist) for their assistance in accomplishing the

  6. Integrally Cast Low-Cost Compressor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-03

    and AE355 for discs). Figures 3 through 6 sumarize cast Custom 450 properties compared with wrought A350 and 355 and cast 17 - 4PH (a common compressor...experience with the casting of other Custom 450 alloy and 17 - 4PH alloy components. Although higher cagting and mold temperatures normally assist alloy...by regulation of air pressure. Tip deflection was related to the stress at failure locations by strain gaging techniques. 94 AOL- TABLE 17 . TENSILE

  7. Directional Solidification of Nodular Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Cerium enhances formation of graphite nodules. Preliminary experiments in directional solidification of cast iron shows quantitative correlation of graphite microstructure with growth rate and thermal gradient, with sufficient spheroidizing element to form spheroidal graphite under proper thermal conditions. Experimental approach enables use of directional solidification to study solidification of spheriodal-graphite cast iron in low gravity. Possible to form new structural materials from nodular cast iron.

  8. High-Density-Tape Casting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Centrifuge packs solids from slurry into uniform, dense layer. New system produces tapes of nearly theoretical packing density. Centrifugal system used to cast thin tapes for capacitors, fuel cells, and filters. Cylindrical rotary casting chamber mounted on high-speed bearings and connected to motor. Liquid for vapor-pressure control and casting slurry introduced from syringes through rotary seal. During drying step, liquid and vapor vented through feed tubes or other openings. Laminated tapes produced by adding more syringes to cast additional layers of different materials.

  9. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  10. Indian monsoon variability on millennial-orbital timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathayat, Gayatri; Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Spötl, Christoph; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Li, Xianglei; Yi, Liang; Ning, Youfeng; Cai, Yanjun; Lui, Weiguo Lui; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) monsoon is critical to billions of people living in the region. Yet, significant debates remain on primary ISM drivers on millennial-orbital timescales. Here, we use speleothem oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from Bittoo cave, Northern India to reconstruct ISM variability over the past 280,000 years. We find strong coherence between North Indian and Chinese speleothem δ18O records from the East Asian monsoon domain, suggesting that both Asian monsoon subsystems exhibit a coupled response to changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (NHSI) without significant temporal lags, supporting the view that the tropical-subtropical monsoon variability is driven directly by precession-induced changes in NHSI. Comparisons of the North Indian record with both Antarctic ice core and sea-surface temperature records from the southern Indian Ocean over the last glacial period do not suggest a dominant role of Southern Hemisphere climate processes in regulating the ISM variability on millennial-orbital timescales.

  11. Indian monsoon variability on millennial-orbital timescales.

    PubMed

    Kathayat, Gayatri; Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Spötl, Christoph; Edwards, R Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Li, Xianglei; Yi, Liang; Ning, Youfeng; Cai, Yanjun; Lui, Weiguo Lui; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M

    2016-04-13

    The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) monsoon is critical to billions of people living in the region. Yet, significant debates remain on primary ISM drivers on millennial-orbital timescales. Here, we use speleothem oxygen isotope (δ(18)O) data from Bittoo cave, Northern India to reconstruct ISM variability over the past 280,000 years. We find strong coherence between North Indian and Chinese speleothem δ(18)O records from the East Asian monsoon domain, suggesting that both Asian monsoon subsystems exhibit a coupled response to changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (NHSI) without significant temporal lags, supporting the view that the tropical-subtropical monsoon variability is driven directly by precession-induced changes in NHSI. Comparisons of the North Indian record with both Antarctic ice core and sea-surface temperature records from the southern Indian Ocean over the last glacial period do not suggest a dominant role of Southern Hemisphere climate processes in regulating the ISM variability on millennial-orbital timescales.

  12. Indian monsoon variability on millennial-orbital timescales

    PubMed Central

    Kathayat, Gayatri; Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Spötl, Christoph; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Zhang, Haiwei; Li, Xianglei; Yi, Liang; Ning, Youfeng; Cai, Yanjun; Lui, Weiguo Lui; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) monsoon is critical to billions of people living in the region. Yet, significant debates remain on primary ISM drivers on millennial-orbital timescales. Here, we use speleothem oxygen isotope (δ18O) data from Bittoo cave, Northern India to reconstruct ISM variability over the past 280,000 years. We find strong coherence between North Indian and Chinese speleothem δ18O records from the East Asian monsoon domain, suggesting that both Asian monsoon subsystems exhibit a coupled response to changes in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (NHSI) without significant temporal lags, supporting the view that the tropical-subtropical monsoon variability is driven directly by precession-induced changes in NHSI. Comparisons of the North Indian record with both Antarctic ice core and sea-surface temperature records from the southern Indian Ocean over the last glacial period do not suggest a dominant role of Southern Hemisphere climate processes in regulating the ISM variability on millennial-orbital timescales. PMID:27071753

  13. Release of ToxCastDB and ExpoCastDB databases

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released two databases - the Toxicity Forecaster database (ToxCastDB) and a database of chemical exposure studies (ExpoCastDB) - that scientists and the public can use to access chemical toxicity and exposure data. ToxCastDB users can search and download data from over 50...

  14. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  15. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  16. INDIAN PEAKS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Robert C.; Speltz, Charles N.

    1984-01-01

    The Indian Peaks Wilderness northwest of Denver is partly within the Colorado Mineral Belt, and the southeast part of it contains all the geologic characteristics associated with the several nearby mining districts. Two deposits have demonstrated mineral resources, one of copper and the other of uranium; both are surrounded by areas with probable potential. Two other areas have probable resource potential for copper, gold, and possibly molydenum. Detailed gravity and magnetic studies in the southeast part of the Indian Peaks Wilderness might detect in the subsurface igneous bodies that may be mineralized. Physical exploration such as drilling would be necessary to determine more precisely the copper resources at the Roaring Fork locality and uranium resources at Wheeler Basin.

  17. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  18. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    C-0110 June 1975 by M. C. Flemings, R. Mehrabian, J. R. Melcher, R. G. Riek, K. P. Young N. Matsumoto, D. G. Backman, F. S. Blackall , &E. Bond, E...17. F. Blackall , "The Delivery and Casting of Semi-Solid Metals", S.M. Thesis, 1975, M.I.T. 18. V. Laxmanan, "Rheocasting of Superalloys", S.M...Flemings, R. Mehrabian, J.R. Melcher, R.G. Riek, K.P. Young, N. Matsumoto D.G.Backman, F.S. Blackall , B.E. Bond, E.J. McHal^ S. Schottman 8. CONTRACT

  19. Microdefects in cast multicrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, E.; Klinger, D.; Bergmann, S.

    1995-08-01

    The microdefect etching behavior of cast multicrystalline BAYSIX and SILSO samples is mainly the same as that of EFG silicon, in spite of the very different growth parameters applied to these two techniques and the different carbon contents of the investigated materials. Intentional decorating of mc silicon with copper, iron and gold did not influence the results of etching and with help of infrared transmission microscopy no metal precipitates at the assumed microdefects could be established. There are many open questions concerning the origin of the assumed, not yet doubtless proved microdefects.

  20. Changes in food habits of south Indian Hindu Brahmin immigrants in State College, PA.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Meena; Blair, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the factors influencing changes in the food habits of south Indian Brahmin immigrants in State College, PA. Data was collected from participants (n = 28) using a semi-structured interview based on the PRECEDE framework, and participant observations. Analysis of the data used grounded theory generated themes highlighting their food acculturation experience. Adjusting in State College was described as a "delicate balance" that meant maintaining their south Indian traditions while at the same time adapting to the cultural milieu of a town that favored north Indian cuisine, and "blending in" with the larger American society.