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Sample records for north queensland australia

  1. Epithermal sinters of Paleozoic age in north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, N. C.; Wood, D. G.; Lee, M. C.

    1989-08-01

    Silica sinters deposited from hot springs have been found associated with volcanic rocks of Late Devonian to late Carboniferous age in north Queensland, Australia. These deposits have many features in common with modern hot-spring sinters, such as those of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand. They occur associated with subaerial volcanic rocks and are locally found with air-fall tuffs and fluvial and lake deposits in which hydrothermal eruption breccias are common. The associated rocks are extensively hydrothermally altered and are cut by silica veins showing characteristic epithermal vein textures; the silica veins contain low-salinity fluid inclusions trapped at epithermal temperatures, and there is evidence of boiling. Textures preserved in the sinters are identical to those found in modern sinters; they include columnar structures similar to bacterial stromatolites described from Yellowstone National Park, as well as striated surfaces apparently resulting from silica deposition on filamentous algae. Plant fossils, including Oxroadia gracilis, are abundant. Criteria applied to identify these ancient sinters may be applied to other possible sinter deposits and may provide evidence indicating the level of exposure of the former geothermal system, which may be an important guide in exploration for epithermal precious-metal deposits.

  2. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  3. Origin of north Queensland Cenozoic volcanism: Relationships to long lava flow basaltic fields, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, F. L.

    1998-11-01

    A plume model proposed for north Queensland late Cenozoic volcanism and long lava flow distribution combines basalt ages with recent seismic studies of Australia's mantle, regional stress fields, and plate motion. Several basalt fields overlie mantle "thermal" anomalies, and other fields outside these anomalies can be traced to them through past lithospheric motion. Elsewhere, anomalies close to Australia's eastern rift margin show little volcanism, probably due to gravity-enhanced compression. Since final collision of north Queensland with New Guinea, areas of basaltic volcanism have developed over 10 Myr, and episodes appear to migrate southward from 15° to 20°S. Long lava flows increase southward as area/volume of fields increases, but topography, vent distributions, and uplifts play a role. This is attributed to magmatic plume activation within a tensional zone, as lithosphere moves over mantle thermal anomalies. The plume model predicts peak magmatism under the McBride field, coincident with the Undara long lava flow and that long lava flow fields will erupt for another 5-10 Myr. Queensland's movement over a major N-S thermal system imparts a consistent isotopic signature to its northern younger basalts, distinct to basalts from older or more southern thermal systems. Australia's motion toward this northern thermal system will give north Queensland fields continued vigorous volcanism, in contrast to the Victorian field which is leaving its southern thermal system.

  4. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia.

  5. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from north Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus congoo sp. nov. It is a small, pale grey to tan, unpatterned or faintly striped gecko, resembling the phasmid geckos in appearance, habitat and behaviour. However, within Strophurus it is not closely related to the phasmid geckos. It is distinguished from all other Strophurus by a combination of even scalation, dull colouration, small size and short tail length. It is only known to occur in a restricted area of the northern Great Dividing Range, within the Einasleigh Uplands bioregion, in a relatively infertile area of rolling, largely granitic hills, and is only known from spinifex (Triodia) hummock grasslands in open woodland.

  6. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-06-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. Aside from precipitation patterns, boundaries between these two vegetation types are strongly determined by soil characteristics and nutrient availability. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical far north Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ Nitrogen relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area- or mass-basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus were above 20 at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P-limitation of photosynthesis for the forest group. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that in leaf area-based photosynthetic terms, savanna trees of far north Queensland, Australia are capable of out-performing forest species at their common boundaries1. 1 Adopted symbols and abbreviations are defined in Table 5.

  7. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (Far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. At a broad scale, it has long been recognised that the distributions of these two biomes are principally governed by precipitation and its seasonality, but with soil physical and chemical properties also potentially important. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical Far North Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ nitrogen (N) relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area or mass basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus (P) were relatively high (>20) at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P limitation of photosynthesis for either forest or savanna trees. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that, on a leaf-area basis, savanna trees of Far North Queensland, Australia, are capable of photosynthetically outperforming forest species at their common boundaries.

  8. The Trophic Fate of Shrimp Farm Effluent in Mangrove Creeks of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckinnon, A. D.; Trott, L. A.; Cappo, M.; Miller, D. K.; Duggan, S.; Speare, P.; Davidson, A.

    2002-10-01

    Zooplankton and fish communities in mangrove creeks removed materials originating from the discharge of effluent from ponds used for shrimp aquaculture at two commercial farms in North Queensland, Australia. Undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared to creeks receiving effluent from shrimp farms. Shrimp farm effluent was rich in chlorophyll a (56 μg l -1) and bacteria (1·9×10 6 cells ml -1). The potential grazing impact of ciliates was higher than that of copepod nauplii or copepodids upstream. In contrast, copepods were more important downstream. Carbon removal by ciliates and copepods accounted for as much as 85% of primary production during non-discharge periods, but was less important during discharge periods. Direct measurement of microzooplankton grazing with the dilution method indicated that growth and grazing were usually in balance, but during pond discharge periods microzooplankton grazing removed >120% of primary production and 117-266% of bacterioplankton production in the mixed lower reaches of the creeks and immediately offshore. Grazing by bacterivores was saturated in the upper reaches of the creeks, but was very high near the creek mouths, where the range of specific grazing rates was 5·2-11·8 d -1. Baitfish juveniles were abundant in the creek systems, and fed either directly on macro-particulates by indiscriminate filter feeding, or by selective feeding on microfauna. Trophic processes and their associated respiratory losses are instrumental in the assimilation and dissipation of effluent materials within the creek system, and are responsible for returning concentrations of bio-available materials to ambient levels. The sustainable use of coastal environments depends to a large degree on understanding and regulating the impacts from activities within the catchment. This research provides environmental managers with direct evidence that, under certain conditions, perturbations in creek water quality and biota originating from shrimp farm

  9. Characterization of novel Brucella strains originating from wild native rodent species in North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Rebekah V; Gee, Jay E; Frace, Michael A; Taylor, Trevor K; Setubal, Joao C; Hoffmaster, Alex R; De, Barun K

    2010-09-01

    We report on the characterization of a group of seven novel Brucella strains isolated in 1964 from three native rodent species in North Queensland, Australia, during a survey of wild animals. The strains were initially reported to be Brucella suis biovar 3 on the basis of microbiological test results. Our results indicated that the rodent strains had microbiological traits distinct from those of B. suis biovar 3 and all other Brucella spp. To reinvestigate these rodent strains, we sequenced the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoB genes and nine housekeeping genes and also performed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). The rodent strains have a unique 16S rRNA gene sequence compared to the sequences of the classical Brucella spp. Sequence analysis of the recA, rpoB, and nine housekeeping genes reveals that the rodent strains are genetically identical to each other at these loci and divergent from any of the currently described Brucella sequence types. However, all seven of the rodent strains do exhibit distinctive allelic MLVA profiles, although none demonstrated an amplicon for VNTR 07, whereas the other Brucella spp. did. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLVA data reveals that the rodent strains form a distinct clade separate from the classical Brucella spp. Furthermore, whole-genome sequence comparison using the maximal unique exact matches index (MUMi) demonstrated a high degree of relatedness of one of the seven rodent Brucella strains (strain NF 2653) to another Australian rodent Brucella strain (strain 83-13). Our findings strongly suggest that this group of Brucella strains isolated from wild Australian rodents defines a new species in the Brucella genus.

  10. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Misting for Control of Aedes in Cryptic Ground Containers in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jacups, Susan P.; Rapley, Luke P.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance. PMID:23358637

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis misting for control of Aedes in cryptic ground containers in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Rapley, Luke P; Johnson, Petrina H; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A

    2013-03-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance.

  13. Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Karo-Karo, D; Cheam, A L; Skerratt, L F

    2012-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds (WABs) are considered as reservoir hosts for Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) and may act as vectors for transferring these viruses to poultry, causing outbreaks of disease. A 3-year epidemiological study was conducted on WABs of north Queensland from April 2007 to March 2010. Swab and fresh moist faecal samples of WABs were screened to detect Newcastle disease viral (NDV) RNA by one-step real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in multiplex primers, targeting the matrix gene. The potential reactor samples in rRT-PCR were processed for sequencing of the different NDV genes using conventional PCR. The overall NDV RNA prevalence was 3.5% for live bird samples (N=1461) and 0.4% for faecal samples (N=1157). Plumed whistling ducks (PWDs) had a higher prevalence (4.2%) than Pacific black ducks (PBDs) (0.9%) (χ(2) test, p=0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between the proportion of reactor and non-reactor NDV RNA samples of PWDs and potential risk factors. The odds of reactor samples were 2.7 (95% Confidence Interval 1.5-4.9) times more likely in younger than older ducks (p=0.001) (data set B, multivariate analysis). Both NDV RNA class-one and class-two types were identified in samples of WABs (12 and 59, respectively) (Supplementary Table 1). Phylogenetic analysis of the matrix gene identified two reactor sequences of class-one type NDV RNA (PWD-48 and 55) which were closely related to the sequences of Australian Ibis and duck isolates (Fig. 2). Another reactor sample sequence was determined as class-two type NDV RNA (PWD-46, avirulent) based on analysis of the matrix and fusion genes which was more similar to the sequences of Australian I-2 progenitor virus and vaccine strain virus (Figs. 3 and 4). Our findings of higher prevalence in PWDs along with confirmation of class-one and class-two type NDV RNAs will significantly contribute to the design of

  14. Causes of morbidity and mortality of wild aquatic birds at Billabong Sanctuary, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Greenhil, A R; Hedlefs, R; Skerratt, L F

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases are common causes of significant morbidity and mortality events of wild aquatic birds (WABs) worldwide. Reports of Australian events are infrequent. A 3-yr passive surveillance program investigating the common causes of morbidity and mortality of WABs was conducted at Billabong Sanctuary near Townsville, North Queensland, from April 2007 to March 2010. Forty-two carcasses were obtained and evaluated by clinico-pathologic, histologic, bacteriologic, and virologic (molecular) examinations. Morbidity and mortality were sporadic and more commonly observed in chicks and juvenile birds in April than other months of the year. Morbid birds were frequently unable to walk. Hemorrhagic lesions and infiltration of lymphocytes in various organs were the most common findings in dead birds. Identified bacterial diseases that could cause bird mortality were colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, and salmonellosis. Salmonella serotypes Virchow and Hvittingfoss were isolated from an Australian white ibis (Threskiornis molucca) chick and two juvenile plumed whistling ducks (Dendrocygna eytoni) in April 2007. These strains have been previously isolated from humans in North Queensland. A multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) detected Newcastle disease viral RNA (class 2 type) in one adult Australian pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) and a juvenile plumed whistling duck. No avian influenza viral RNA was detected from any sampled birds by the rRT-PCR for avian influenza. This study identified the public health importance of Salmonella in WABs but did not detect the introduction of the high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1 virus in the population. A successful network was established between the property owner and the James Cook University research team through which dead birds, with accompanying information, were readily obtained for analysis. There is an opportunity for establishing a long-term passive disease surveillance program for WABs in North

  15. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic wrench tectonics in eastern Australia: Insights from the North Pine Fault System (southeast Queensland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Rosenbaum, G.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pine Fault System (NPFS) in SE Queensland belongs to a series of NNW-striking sinistral faults that displaced Paleozoic to Cenozoic rock units in eastern Australia. We have studied the geometry and kinematics of the NPFS by utilizing gridded aeromagnetic data, digital elevation models, and field observations. The results indicate that all segments of the NPFS were subjected to sinistral reverse strike-slip faulting. Restorations of displaced magnetic anomalies indicate sinistral offsets ranging from ˜3.4 to ˜8.2 km. The existence of a (possibly) Late Triassic granophyre dyke parallel to one of the fault segments, and the occurrence of NNW-striking steeply dipping strike-slip and normal faults in the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous Maryborough Basin, indicate that the NPFS has likely been active during the Mesozoic. We propose that from Late Cretaceous to early Eocene, NNW-striking faults in eastern Australia, including the NPFS, were reactivated with oblique sinistral-normal kinematics in response to regional oblique extension associated with the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas. This interpretation is consistent with the modeled dominant NNE- to NNW-directed horizontal tensional stress in the Eocene. The latest movements along the NPFS involved sinistral transpressional kinematics, which was possibly related to far-field contractional stresses from collisional tectonics at the eastern and northern boundaries of the Australian plate in the Cenozoic. This sinistral-reverse oblique kinematics of the NPFS in the Cenozoic is in line with ˜ESE to ENE orientations of the modeled maximum horizontal stress in SE Queensland.

  16. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  17. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery.

  18. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent

  19. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  20. Frequency of Cyanogenesis in Tropical Rainforests of Far North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, REBECCA E.; JENSEN, RIGEL; WOODROW, IAN E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant cyanogenesis is the release of toxic cyanide from endogenous cyanide-containing compounds, typically cyanogenic glycosides. Despite a large body of phytochemical, taxonomic and ecological work on cyanogenic species, little is known of their frequency in natural plant communities. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of cyanogenesis in Australian tropical rainforests. Secondary aims were to quantify the cyanogenic glycoside content of tissues, to investigate intra-plant and intra-population variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration and to appraise the potential chemotaxonomic significance of any findings in relation to the distribution of cyanogenesis in related taxa. • Methods All species in six 200 m2 plots at each of five sites across lowland, upland and highland tropical rainforest were screened for cyanogenesis using Feigl–Anger indicator papers. The concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides were accurately determined for all cyanogenic individuals. • Key Results Over 400 species from 87 plant families were screened. Overall, 18 species (4·5 %) were cyanogenic, accounting for 7·3 % of total stem basal area. Cyanogenesis has not previously been reported for 17 of the 18 species, 13 of which are endemic to Australia. Several species belong to plant families or orders in which cyanogenesis has been little reported, if at all (e.g. Elaeocarpaceae, Myrsinaceae, Araliaceae and Lamiaceae). A number of species contained concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides among the highest ever reported for mature leaves—up to 5·2 mg CN g−1 d. wt, for example, in leaves of Elaeocarpus sericopetalus. There was significant variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration within individuals; young leaves and reproductive tissues typically had higher cyanogen content. In addition, there was substantial variation in cyanogenic glycoside content within populations of single species. • Conclusions This study expands

  1. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  2. The use of transplanted cultured tropical oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) to monitor Cd levels in North Queensland coastal waters (Australia).

    PubMed

    Olivier, Frédérique; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2002-10-01

    Bivalves are commonly used to detect metal pollution in the marine environment. Commercially cultured Milky oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) were transplanted in various sites along the North Queensland coast and analyzed for two metals of potentially anthropogenic origin (Cd, Zn). To provide additional information, naturally occurring Black Lip oysters (Saccostrea echinata) were also collected at the transplantation sites. The study demonstrated that the oysters species transplanted are good bioindicators of these metal concentrations in tropical waters, sensitive to variations in the environment at concentrations which are much smaller than pollution signals commonly reported for temperate waters. Three transplant experiments were carried out from May 1999 to February 2000. Milky oysters transplanted to offshore areas (Orpheus Is., Kelso Reef) accumulated Cd in the soft parts whereas oysters sampled from cages placed in Ross Creek and the Herbert River estuaries showed a decrease in Cd concentration, which resulted from an increase in dry weight. Dry weight appeared to be an important covariant affecting Cd concentration in the oysters whereas it does not unambiguously affect Zn concentrations. For the duration of the experiments, oysters sampled from the Magnetic Is. reference site showed effectively constant Cd concentrations and total Cd contents which indicates that any seasonal cycle affecting metal concentration is weak. It was found that Cd accumulation in oysters increased as ambient dissolved Cd concentration decreased, from which it was concluded that for these oysters, the predominant source of Cd was from the particulate phase rather than the dissolved phase.

  3. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  4. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event.

    PubMed

    McKENNA, Skye; Jarvis, Jessie; Sankey, Tonia; Reason, Carissa; Coles, Robert; Rasheed, Michael

    2015-06-01

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic event and that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour were lost. Recent survey data and trend analysis from an on-ground monitoring program show that seagrasses in Cairns Harbour do remain, albeit at low levels, and the decline in seagrasses occurred over several years with cyclone Yasi having little additional impact. We have conducted annual on-ground surveys of seagrass distribution and the above-ground meadow biomass in Cairns Harbour and Trinity Inlet since 2001. This has shown a declining trend in biomass since a peak in 2004 and in area since it peaked in 2007. In 2012, seagrass area and above-ground biomass were significantly below the long-term (12 year) average but seagrass was still present. Declines were associated with regional impacts on coastal seagrasses from multiple years of above-average rainfall and severe storm and cyclone activity, similar to other nearby seagrass areas, and not as a result of a single event.

  5. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  6. A new species of Neorhaphiomidas Norris (Diptera: Mydidae) from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2013-02-14

    Neorhaphiomidas Norris, with 7 species, is an endemic genus and the only Australian representative of the mydid subfamily Megascelinae. The genus was for many years considered to be restricted to Western Australia but the range of the genus was extended to the eastern part of South Australia with Paramonov's (1961) description of N. inermis. The new species described here, the first record of the genus from Queensland, extends the known distribution of the genus some 1500 km to the north-east.

  7. View of portion of Queensland, Australia from Skylab space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of a portion of the State of Queensland, Australia, (17.0S, 140.0E) as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewman used a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera to take this picture. The body of water is the southeastern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria. This picture was taken in support studies of the north Australian drought region. The largest island seen is Mornington. The town of Normanton can also be seen. Of interest here is the sediment-laden waters at the perimeter of the Gulf showing how rains at the end of the drought are washing the top soil into the sea after the drought killed the covering vegatation. Also noted is that the vegetation patterns tend more toward those of other arid regions (i.e. they follow topographic and hydrographic patterns) rather than those in other parts of Australia (i.e. more convenient and easier to see, rectilinear patterns which are prevalent in less arid areas.)

  8. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  9. The Reconstruction Potential of a 350 year-long, Mid-Elevation Proxy for PDSI in a Tree-Ring Record from Tropical North Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Duffy, R.; Balanzategui, D.; Baker, P. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    In far northern Queensland (FNQ) there are only sporadic coral and speleothem precipitation proxy records, and only one annually resolved, terrestrial record of rainfall that predates 1850 CE. Black kauri pine, Agathis atropurpurea, is a large conifer present in isolated stands near 1000 masl in the wet tropical dividing range of FNQ. Little is known about its phenology or responses to climate, although its presence near the elevational limit of the dividing range may hinder its ability to respond to increased temperature or decreased precipitation through elevational migration. We hypothesize that in this energy-limited forest, increased (decreased) solar radiation leads to increased (decreased) ring widths, and higher (lower) evapotranspiration rates produce increases (decreases) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the a-cellulose component of wood. To test this hypothesis, we collected over 60 cores from 21 large (dbh = 56 to 186 cm) A. atropurpurea trees from Spurgeon Peak National Park. The resulting tree-ring chronology extends from 2013 to 1438 CE and shows high average mean sensitivity (0.642) although expressed population signal drops off at 1650 CE as sample depth decreases. Comparison of the most recent 100 years of ring widths and direct climate observations show a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.4, p < 0.01) to PDSI in December through March, coinciding with the austral rainy season associated with onset of the northern Australian Monsoon. Annualized δ18Oxygen (a-cellulose) maxima for 1983-2013 show strong and significant spatial positive relationships to Tmax and Pacific seasurface temperatures. Work to refine the interpretation of the data is onoing, but the resulting dataset may enable extension of the terrestrial climate record of north Queensland two centuries beyond current tree-ring proxies and historical observations.

  10. A Survey of Zoonotic Pathogens Carried by Non-Indigenous Rodents at the Interface of the Wet Tropics of North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chakma, S; Picard, J; Duffy, R; Constantinoiu, C; Gummow, B

    2017-02-01

    In 1964, Brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in Wooroonooran National Park (WNP), in Northern Queensland, Australia. Genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel Brucella species. This study attempted to reisolate this species of Brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to WNP and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. Seventy non-indigenous rodents were trapped [Mus musculus (52), Rattus rattus (17) and Rattus norvegicus (1)], euthanized and sampled on four properties adjacent to the WNP in July 2012. Organ pools were screened by culture for Salmonella, Leptospira and Brucella species, real-time PCR for Coxiella burnetii and conventional PCR for Leptospira. Collected ecto- and endo-parasites were identified using morphological criteria. The percentage of rodents carrying pathogens were Leptospira (40%), Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. arizonae (14.29%), ectoparasites (21.42%) and endoparasites (87%). Brucella and C. burnetii were not identified, and it was concluded that their prevalences were below 12%. Two rodent-specific helminthic species, namely Syphacia obvelata (2.86%) and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (85.71%), were identified. The most prevalent ectoparasites belonged to Laelaps spp. (41.17%) followed by Polyplax spp. (23.53%), Hoplopleura spp. (17.65%), Ixodes holocyclus (17.64%) and Stephanocircus harrisoni (5.88%), respectively. These ectoparasites, except S. harrisoni, are known to transmit zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. from rat to rat and could be transmitted to humans by other arthropods that bite humans. The high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira species is of significant public health concern. This is the first known study of zoonotic agents carried by non-indigenous rodents living in the Australian wet-tropical forest interface.

  11. Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Gemma; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low

    2014-01-01

    Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures. PMID:28229002

  12. Candida orba sp. nov., a new cactus-specific yeast species from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Starmer, W T; Phaff, H J; Ganter, P F; Lachance, M A

    2001-03-01

    A new species of yeast from decaying cladodes of Opuntia cactus, Candida orba, is described. This species is a member of a four-species clade of cactophilic yeasts. The new species has only been found in one region of Queensland, Australia, where it was presumably introduced during attempts to eradicate prickly pear cactus. DNA-DNA relatedness, phylogenetic analysis, physiological differences, killer-sensitivity profiles and mating reactions establish the distinctness of the taxon as a new species. C. orba is most closely related to Phaffomyces thermotolerans, a species found associated with columnar cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert. The type strain of C. orba, isolated from rotting cladodes of Opuntia stricta in the State of Queensland, Australia, is strain UCD-FST 84-833.1T (= CBS 8782T = NRRL Y-27336T = ATCC MYA-341). Only the h- mating type of the species has been recovered. The lack of the opposite mating type could be the result of a bottleneck during its introduction to Australia. The original geographic/host distribution of this species in the Americas is unknown.

  13. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  14. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of SS220 and Deet Against Mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    eucalypt and mangrove wetlands, where mosquitoes are commonly found in the summer from September to April each year. The current field trial was...LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF SS220 AND DEET AGAINST MOSQUITOES IN QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA4 STEPHEN P. FRANCES,1 DONNA O. MACKENZIE,1 JEROME A...methylpiperindinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide] against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia, were conducted. In the laboratory, both compounds provided

  15. Barriers, Successes and Enabling Practices of Education for Sustainability in Far North Queensland Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Whitehouse, Hilary; Gooch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There are many documented barriers to implementing school-based sustainability. This article examines a) the barriers faced by principals and staff in two regional primary schools in Far North Queensland, Australia, well known for their exemplary practice, and b) ways the barriers were overcome. Through interviews conducted with principals and key…

  16. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  17. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, S.; Tong, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. This study explored spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of locally-acquired dengue cases in Queensland State, Australia and identified target areas for effective interventions. A computerised locally-acquired dengue case dataset was collected from Queensland Health for Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Dengue hot spots were detected using SatScan method. Descriptive spatial analysis showed that a total of 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in central and northern regions of tropical Queensland. A seasonal pattern was observed with most of the cases occurring in autumn. Spatial and temporal variation of dengue cases was observed in the geographic areas affected by dengue over time. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in tropical Queensland, Australia. There is a clear evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of dengue and these clusters varied over time. These findings enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters suggesting that the use of geospatial information can assist the health authority in planning dengue control activities and it would allow for better design and implementation of dengue management programs.

  18. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A; Goullet, M; Mitchell, J; Ketheesan, N; Govan, B

    2012-07-01

    The state of Queensland has the highest incidence of Q fever in Australia. In recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern Queensland. Australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common northern bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Introduced species sampled included dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), cats (Felis catus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pigs (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were tested by ELISA for both phase II and phase I antigens of the organism using an Australian isolate. The serological evidence of C. burnetii infection demonstrated in these species has public health implications due to their increasing movement into residential areas in regional Queensland. This study is the first known investigation of C. burnetii seroprevalence in these species in northern Queensland.

  19. Description of a new Tiporus Watts, 1985 from northern Queensland, Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael; Watts, Chris H S

    2016-11-09

    Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is described from NE Queensland. The new species is similar to T. undecimmaculatus (Clark, 1862) and T. giuliani (Watts, 1978) from the Northern Territory and north-western Australia but well characterized by its larger size, more elongate habitus, and form of median lobe and parameres. Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is a lotic species being collected from rest pools of intermittent creeks and rivers with a sandy bottom. Important species-defining characters (habitus, median lobe, paramere, protibia of male) are illustrated. Together with T. queenslandicus sp. n. the genus comprises now 13 species.

  20. The Prevalence and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse in Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of undergraduates (N=427) in Queensland (Australia) found child sexual abuse prevalence rates of 19% for males and 45% for females, with incestuous abuse reported by 9% of males and 19% of females. Other findings addressed age at onset of abuse, gender, types of unwanted sexual experiences, and media exposure. (DB)

  1. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  2. The Probable Whole of Slope Submarine Landslides of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubble, T.

    2015-12-01

    A research cruise aboard the RV Southern Surveyor (SS2013-V01) conducted in January 2013 offshore east Australia collected regional bathymetric data for the seabed of the continental margin of southern Queensland for the seabed bounded by Noosa Heads in the south and Indian Head, Fraser Island in the north. This newly mapped area presents a particularly steep portion of continental slope (5o to 10 o) that presents numerous submarine landslides, including two 'whole-of-slope' features (The Wide Bay Canyon, and Inskip Slides. The slope is also dissected by three large submarine canyons offshore northern Fraser Island, Wide Bay and Noosa Heads (i.e. the Fraser Canyons, the Wide Bay Canyon and the Noosa Canyon). Dredge and core samples were collected from slide scars in the northern, central and southern areas of the bathymetric survey area. The initial examination of the area's bathymetry, the core and dredge sample sedimentology, and determination of biostratigraphic ages for these sediment samples indicates that the larger, submarine slides present in this study area have probably been shed from the slope since the late Pliocene and that canyon incision is currently active on this portion of the slope. In one case, canyon incision is partly responsible for generating slides due to undercutting and removal of the toe of the slope. Slope sediments are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic muds but the presence of massive coarse sands and graded sands in some cores above erosion surfaces that cut into slope mud units is interpreted to indicate that areas of the southern Queensland continental slope are probably subjected to abrasion by grain-flows and turbidites comprised of shelf-derived sands and upper slope sediment. The results from this voyage confirms and extends previous work on the southeastern Australian continental margin that indicates that sediment transport from the shelf to deep water on this margin is dominated by gravity mass transport and that the margin

  3. Flame retardants (PBDEs) in marine turtles, dugongs and seafood from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, S; Matthews, V; Päpke, O; Limpus, C J; Gaus, C

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in numerous products. These compounds have been found to enter the marine environment where they have the potential to bioaccumulate in biota. Limited information is currently available concerning the levels of PBDEs in Australian marine wildlife. This study presents baseline information on PBDE levels in a variety of marine species from Queensland, Australia and considers the influence of species-specific factors on contaminant levels and tissue distribution in marine turtles. Overall, the PBDE levels measured in this study are relatively low compared to marine biota from the northern hemisphere, indicating low level input into the marine system of Queensland. This is in general agreement with global estimates which suggest low PBDE usage in Australia. Previous studies, however, have found relatively high PBDE levels in Australian human milk and sera. This discrepancy in contamination trends between terrestrial and marine biota suggests that future transport of PBDEs may occur to the marine system in Australia.

  4. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  5. Epidemic Potential for Local Transmission of Zika Virus in 2015 and 2016 in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Viennet, Elvina; Mincham, Gina; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Jansen, Cassie C.; Montgomery, Brian L.; Harley, David; Flower, Robert L.P.; Williams, Craig R.; Faddy, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zika virus could be transmitted in the state of Queensland, Australia, in parts of the state where the mosquito vectors are established. Methods: We assessed the epidemic potential of Zika in Queensland from January 2015 to August 2016, and estimate the epidemic potential from September to December 2016, by calculating the temperature-dependent relative vectorial capacity (rVc), based on empirical and estimated parameters. Results: Through 2015, we estimated a rVc of 0.119, 0.152, 0.170, and 0.175, respectively in the major cities of Brisbane, Rockhampton, Cairns, and Townsville. From January to August 2016, the epidemic potential trend was similar to 2015, however the highest epidemic potential was in Cairns. During September to November 2016, the epidemic potential is consistently the highest in Cairns, followed by Townsville, Rockhampton and Brisbane. Then, from November to December 2016, Townsville has the highest estimated epidemic potential. Discussion: We demonstrate using a vectorial capacity model that ZIKV could have been locally transmitted in Queensland, Australia during 2015 and 2016. ZIKV remains a threat to Australia for the upcoming summer, during the Brazilian Carnival season, when the abundance of vectors is relatively high. Understanding the epidemic potential of local ZIKV transmission will allow better management of threats to blood safety and assessment of public health risk. PMID:28123859

  6. Assessment for Learning in the Accountability Era: Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Val

    2011-01-01

    Developments in school education in Australia over the past decade have witnessed the rise of national efforts to reform curriculum, assessment and reporting. Constitutionally the power to decide on curriculum matters still resides with the States. Higher stakes in assessment, brought about by national testing and international comparative…

  7. Palaeomagnetic results from the Palaeozoic basement of the southern Drummond Basin, central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kari L.; Lackie, Mark A.; Clark, David A.

    2004-11-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from the Theresa Creek Volcanics and the Middle Devonian (~380 Ma) Retreat Batholith, located in the southern Drummond Basin, central Queensland, Australia, reveal up to three components of magnetization. Component 1 is characteristically of reversed polarity with a mean palaeopole at 64.0°S, 79.7°E (N= 7, A95= 11.5°), possibly reflecting a remagnetization event associated with the Middle Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny, is found in both units. A shallow to very shallow roughly north-south direction, Component 2, was isolated in seven sites, predominantly within the Retreat Batholith, D= 345.8°, I=-6.7° (α95= 10.1°, k= 36.8). The corresponding palaeomagnetic pole lies at 66.0°S, 290.7°E (A95= 9.1°). This pole is consistent with the Middle Devonian segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and is thought to reflect a primary magnetization related to the emplacement and cooling of the batholith. Component 3 is found exclusively within the Theresa Creek Volcanics and is characterized by east-west directions with moderate to steep inclinations, D= 62.4°, I= 59.5° (α95= 10.5°, k= 25.0). A consistent set of site level virtual geomagnetic pole (VGPs) yield a palaeopole at 4.1°N, 188.9°E (N= 9, A95= 14.0°). The presumed Middle Devonian age for the volcanics is at odds with this direction, with respect to the Australian Early to Middle Palaeozoic APWP, suggesting the characteristic direction found in the volcanics reflects an Ordovician or possibly Early Silurian magnetization age. A pre-Middle Devonian magnetization age for the Theresa Creek Volcanics is supported by a positive contact test between the volcanics and the hornfelsing Retreat Batholith as both units are characterized by stable magnetizations whose palaeopoles are dissimilar from each other and younger segments of Australia's APWP.

  8. Submarine Landslide Morphology of Box Slides Present on the Continental Slope Offshore Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, M. J. A.; Hubble, T.; Clarke, S. L.; Airey, D.; Yu, P. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser Island slide complex is located on eastern Australia's continental slope. Two potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides identified here as the 'North Fraser Island Upper Slope Slide' (25km2 in area, 100m thick) and the 'Middle Fraser Island Middle Slope Slide' (12km2 in area, 50m thick) are described. Morphologic, sedimentologic and geomechanical properties for these slides are compared to data reported for existing submarine landslides located to the south in New South Wales (NSW). The two Fraser Island slides are translational, box-shaped, slab slides. We suspect that the slabs remained intact during downslope transport. The upper slope slide is situated at a water depth of approximately 750m at the northern end of the Fraser Canyon complex. The head of this slide has apparently detached from a structural surface comprised of a Miocene reef complex located beneath the continental shelf edge. The middle slope slide is situated on a large plateau to the south of the Fraser Canyon complex in 1500m of water. Cores taken in the continental slope within both slides are long and present hemipelagic muds. Cores taken adjacent to both slides are short and terminate in stiff muds of suspected Miocene or Pliocene age. Additionally, the core adjacent to the upper slope slide presents a near surface layer of upper-fining of coarse to fine shelly sand which we interpret to be a turbidite deposit. This layer was deposited above hemipelagic muds which are ubiquitously present on the upper eastern Australian continental slope in NSW and Southern Queensland.

  9. Lower crustal xenoliths from Queensland, Australia: Evidence for deep crustal assimilation and fractionation of continental basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; McDonough, W. F.; McCulloch, M. T.; Taylor, S. R.

    1986-06-01

    A suite of mafic, granulite facies xenoliths from north Queensland possesses petrographic and geochemical features of basaltic cumulates crystallized at lower crustal pressures. Negative correlations between incompatible trace elements and Mg# and positive correlations between compatible trace elements and Mg# suggest the xenoliths are genetically related and crystallized from a continuously evolving melt. Zr, Hf, Y, HREE, Ti and V do not correlate with Mg#, but show excellent negative correlations with Al 2O 3 content, reflecting the proportion of cumulate plagioclase to clinopyroxene. These chemical trends also suggest the trace element concentrations have not been affected by subsolidus recrystallization. The xenoliths have a large range in Sr and Nd isotopic compositions ( 87Sr /86Sr = 0.70239 to 0.71467 , ɛNd = +9.5 to -6.1) which cannot be produced by crystal fractionation alone, and excellent correlations between isotope ratios and Mg# suggest the variable isotope compositions are not due to mantle source heterogeneities. These mafic xenoliths are proposed to be cumulate products from a melt undergoing simultaneous assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC). The data illustrate that only a few percent AFC in lower crustal environments can dramatically change the Sr and Nd isotopic composition of a basaltic melt, and suggest the use of caution when inferring mantle source isotopic compositions from continental basalts. Additionally, the Nd isotopic data plot on a positive trend on an Sm-Nd isochron diagram with an age of ~570 Ma. However, if these xenoliths formed by AFC, the positive trend reflects mixing between two isotopic end members and has no age significance. The correlations between Sr and Nd isotopic compositions with Mg# degrade as the isotopic ratios are back-calculated to earlier times, suggesting the xenoliths are relatively young; the xenoliths may be related to the Cenozoic igneous activity which occurs throughout eastern Australia.

  10. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  11. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  12. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.

  13. Continuation of the New England Orogen, Australia, beneath the Queensland Plateau and Lord Howe rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Hauff, F.; Calvert, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Greywacke, argillite, greyschist and hypabyssal igneous rocks have been obtained from an Ocean Drilling Program core on the Queensland Plateau and from xenoliths in a volcanic breccia dredged from the crest of the Lord Howe Rise. Low to intermediate detrital quartz contents, 260-240 Ma K-Ar ages, and only moderately radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions, suggest a correlation with the New England Orogen of eastern Australia, rather than with Australia's Lachlan Orogen or other adjacent geological provinces. Our results indicate that the New England Orogen terranes continue towards New Zealand at least as far as the southern Lord Howe Rise. The projected offshore boundaries of the major east Australian orogens are now known with more confidence, and do not appear to require any major cross-orogen offsets.

  14. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. Methods NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001–2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning < $32,000 and < $52,000) and land use category. Results Significant clusters of NTM infection were identified in the central Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning < $52,000 (95% CI 9–34%) and an expected decrease of 13% for every metre increase of average topsoil depth for risk of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection (95% CI -3 – -22%). There was an estimated increase of 79% per mg/m3 increase of soil bulk density (95% CI 26–156%) and 19% decrease for every percentage increase in population earning < $32,000 for risk of M. kansasii infection (95% CI -3 – -49%). Conclusions There were distinct spatial clusters of M. kansasii, M. intracellulare and M. abscessus infections in Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk. PMID:24885916

  15. Investigating Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of and Practices in Education for Sustainability in Queensland: A Japan-Australia Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Michiko; O'Gorman, Lyndal; Davis, Julie

    2016-01-01

    In a study undertaken in Queensland, Australia, analysis of a survey that included both qualitative and quantitative questions revealed that, like their Japanese counterparts, early childhood teachers do not have well-developed ideas and practices in education for sustainability (EfS). Instead, they mainly practise traditional nature-based…

  16. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  17. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  18. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals.

  19. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  20. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay.

  1. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  2. Efficacy of an advanced sewage treatment plant in southeast Queensland, Australia, to remove estrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Chapman, Heather F; Korner, Wolfgang; Gooneratne, S Ravi; Tremblay, Louis A

    2005-08-01

    The estrogenicity profile of domestic sewage during treatment at a medium-sized (3800 EP) advanced biological nutrient removal plant in Queensland, Australia, was characterized using a sheep estrogen receptor binding assay (ERBA) and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay (E-Screen). The raw influent was highly estrogenic (20-54 ng/L EEq), and primary treatment resulted in a slight increase in estrogenicity that was detected in one of the assays (6-80 ng/L). Concurrent chemical analysis suggested that most of the estrogenicity in the influent was due to natural hormones (>48%). Secondary activated sludge treatment followed by nitrification/denitrification effectively removed > 95% of the estrogenic activity (to <0.75-2.6 ng/L), and estrogenicity of the final tertiary-treated effluent was below the detection limit of both assays (<0.75 ng/L).

  3. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  4. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  5. Pliocene Paleoenvironments of Southeastern Queensland, Australia Inferred from Stable Isotopes of Marsupial Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Shaena; Louys, Julien; Price, Gilbert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinchilla Local Fauna is a diverse assemblage of both terrestrial and aquatic Pliocene vertebrates from the fluviatile Chinchilla Sand deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. It represents one of Australia's few but exceptionally rich Pliocene vertebrate localities, and as such is an important source of paleoecological data concerning Pliocene environmental changes and its effects on ecosystems. Prior inferences about the paleoenvironment of this locality made on the basis of qualitative observations have ranged from grassland to open woodland to wetland. Examination of the carbon and oxygen isotopes in the tooth enamel of marsupials from this site represents a quantitative method for inferring the paleoenvironments and paleoecology of the fossil fauna. Results from Chinchilla show that Protemnodon sp. indet. consumed both C3 and C4 photosynthesis plant types (mean δ13C = −14.5±2.0‰), and therefore probably occupied a mixed vegetation environment. Macropus sp. indet. from Chinchilla also consumed a mixed diet of both C3 and C4 plants, with more of a tendency for C4 plant consumption (mean δ13C = −10.3±2.3‰). Interestingly, their isotopic dietary signature is more consistent with tropical and temperate kangaroo communities than the sub-tropical communities found around Chinchilla today. Other genera sampled in this study include the extinct kangaroo Troposodon sp. indet. and the fossil diprotodontid Euryzygoma dunense each of which appear to have occupied distinct dietary niches. This study suggests that southeastern Queensland hosted a mosaic of tropical forests, wetlands and grasslands during the Pliocene and was much less arid than previously thought. PMID:23776636

  6. Pliocene paleoenvironments of southeastern Queensland, Australia inferred from stable isotopes of marsupial tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Shaena; Louys, Julien; Price, Gilbert J

    2013-01-01

    The Chinchilla Local Fauna is a diverse assemblage of both terrestrial and aquatic Pliocene vertebrates from the fluviatile Chinchilla Sand deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. It represents one of Australia's few but exceptionally rich Pliocene vertebrate localities, and as such is an important source of paleoecological data concerning Pliocene environmental changes and its effects on ecosystems. Prior inferences about the paleoenvironment of this locality made on the basis of qualitative observations have ranged from grassland to open woodland to wetland. Examination of the carbon and oxygen isotopes in the tooth enamel of marsupials from this site represents a quantitative method for inferring the paleoenvironments and paleoecology of the fossil fauna. Results from Chinchilla show that Protemnodon sp. indet. consumed both C3 and C4 photosynthesis plant types (mean δ(13)C = -14.5±2.0‰), and therefore probably occupied a mixed vegetation environment. Macropus sp. indet. from Chinchilla also consumed a mixed diet of both C3 and C4 plants, with more of a tendency for C4 plant consumption (mean δ(13)C = -10.3±2.3‰). Interestingly, their isotopic dietary signature is more consistent with tropical and temperate kangaroo communities than the sub-tropical communities found around Chinchilla today. Other genera sampled in this study include the extinct kangaroo Troposodon sp. indet. and the fossil diprotodontid Euryzygoma dunense each of which appear to have occupied distinct dietary niches. This study suggests that southeastern Queensland hosted a mosaic of tropical forests, wetlands and grasslands during the Pliocene and was much less arid than previously thought.

  7. Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral mapping of structural related mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Salati, Sanaz; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Alone or combined with other remote sensing data, hyperspectral mineral mapping can be used to investigate mineralizations and deposits via alteration minerals. Their kind, abundance and spatial distribution can deliver important statements about the occurrence and formation of mineralizations and their relation to structural features. The high spectral and spatial resolution of HyMap data exceeds multispectral data distinctly and makes the recognition of even smaller geological structures possible. The spectral unmixing of single endmembers can be used for the accurate mapping of specific materials or minerals. The support of hyperspectral imaging by spectral data gathered in the field and the analysis of the composition of rock samples can help to determine endmembers and to identify absorption features. This study demonstrates the possibilities and limitations of remote sensing, especially hyperspectral data, for mineral mapping purposes, using the example of the Mount Isa Inlier. This geological area is situated in Northern Queensland, Australia, and is known for its considerable ore deposits and consequent mining of predominantly copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold. Beside hyperspectral HyMap data, multispectral Landsat 8 and SRTM digital elevation data were analyzed. A three-week field study in 2014 supported the investigations. After preprocessing and vegetation masking the data were analyzed using Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) for alteration mineral mapping. The outcomes were combined with results from decorrelation stretch, band ratioing, topographic indices and automated lineament analysis. Additional information was provided by field spectrometer measurements and the XRF and XRD analysis of rock samples. Throughout the study, mineral mapping using remote sensing data, especially hyperspectral data, turned out to deliver high qualitative results when it is supported by additional information. In situ

  8. Occurrence of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus in mosquitoes at Shoalwater Bay military training area, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Cooper, R D; Rowcliffe, K L; Chen, N; Cheng, Q

    2004-01-01

    Shoalwater Bay military training area (SWBTA), 2,713 km2 of land located 50-80 km north of Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, is used by Australian and allied forces for training purposes. Between March 1998 and February 2000, monthly collections of mosquitoes at 15 sites were conducted using carbon dioxide-baited traps to study the seasonal occurrence of mosquitoes and Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) in mosquitoes. A total of 72,616 mosquitoes, comprising 3,897 pools were collected, and 2,428 pools were tested using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 pools of mosquitoes were positive for virus, 10 RRV and five BFV. Blood meals from an additional 763 mosquitoes were tested by a gel diffusion assay, and the majority (96%) of those identified were from kangaroo, which was the most common mammal in the study area. The results indicate that Culex annulirostris Skuse and Ochlerotatus vigilax (Skuse) are the main vectors of RRV at SWBTA.

  9. Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz, a new member of the Tarassovi serogroup isolated from a bovine source in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Corney, B G; Slack, A T; Symonds, M L; Dohnt, M F; McClintock, C S; McGowan, M R; Smythe, L D

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports on a Leptospira isolate of bovine origin and its identification as belonging to a previously unknown serovar, for which the name Topaz is proposed. The isolate (94-79970/3) was cultured from bovine urine from a north Queensland dairy farm in Australia. Strain 94-79970/3 grew at 30 degrees C in Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium but failed to grow at 13 degrees C in EMJH medium or in the presence of 8-azaguanine. Serologically, strain 94-79970/3 produced titres against the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Tarassovi, the reference strain for the Tarassovi serogroup; however, no significant titres to any other serovars within the serogroup were obtained. Using 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B gene analysis, strain 94-79970/3 was identified as a member of the species Leptospira weilii. We propose that the serovar be named Topaz, after the location where the original isolate was obtained. The reference strain for this serovar is 94-79970/3 (=KIT 94-79970/3=LT722).

  10. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  11. Experiences and Perspectives of Physical Therapists Managing Patients Covered by Workers' Compensation in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Mandy; Corbière, Marc; Franche, Reneé-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical therapists have an active role in the rehabilitation of injured workers. However, regulations in Queensland, Australia, do not afford them the opportunity to participate in return-to-work (RTW) decisions in a standardized way. No prior research has explored the experiences and perceptions of therapists in determining work capacity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate physical therapists' experiences with and perspectives on their role in determining readiness for RTW and work capacity for patients receiving workers' compensation in Queensland. Design A qualitative design was used. Participants were physical therapists who manage injured workers. Methods Novice (n=5) and experienced (n=20) therapists managing patients receiving workers' compensation were selected through purposeful sampling to participate in a focus group or semistructured telephone interviews. Data obtained were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. Physical therapists' confidence in making RTW decisions was determined with 1 question scored on a 0 to 10 scale. Results Themes identified were: (1) physical therapists believe they are important in RTW, (2) physical therapists use a variety of methods to determine work capacity, and (3) physical therapists experience a lack of role clarity. Therapists made recommendations for RTW using clinical judgment informed by subjective and objective information gathered from the injured worker. Novice therapists were less confident in making RTW decisions. Conclusion Therapists are well situated to gather and interpret the information necessary to make RTW recommendations. Strategies targeting the Australian Physiotherapy Association, physical therapists, and the regulators are needed to standardize assessment of readiness for RTW, improve role clarity, and assist novice practitioners. PMID:22745200

  12. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  13. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009−2014

    PubMed Central

    Si, Damin; Marquess, John; Donnan, Ellen; Harrower, Bruce; McCall, Bradley; Bennett, Sonya; Lambert, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. Methodology/Principal Findings Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96%) were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47%) or bites (37%), with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%). Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications). Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92%) were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1%) had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes) and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat). Conclusions

  14. Monitoring temporal changes in use of two cathinones in a large urban catchment in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Lai, Foon Yin; Edirisinghe, Methsiri; Hall, Wayne; Bruno, Raimondo; O'Brien, Jake W; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater analysis was used to examine prevalence and temporal trends in the use of two cathinones, methylone and mephedrone, in an urban population (>200,000 people) in South East Queensland, Australia. Wastewater samples were collected from the inlet of the sewage treatment plant that serviced the catchment from 2011 to 2013. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure mephedrone and methylone in wastewater sample using direct injection mode. Mephedrone was not detected in any samples while methylone was detected in 45% of the samples. Daily mass loads of methylone were normalized to the population and used to evaluate methylone use in the catchment. Methylone mass loads peaked in 2012 but there was no clear temporal trend over the monitoring period. The prevalence of methylone use in the catchment was associated with the use of MDMA, the more popular analogue of methylone, as indicated by other complementary sources. Methylone use was stable in the study catchment during the monitoring period whereas mephedrone use has been declining after its peak in 2010. More research is needed on the pharmacokinetics of emerging illicit drugs to improve the applicability of wastewater analysis in monitoring their use in the population.

  15. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  16. A parvo-like virus in cultured redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, Rachel O; Wingfield, Max; Fisk, Andrew; Condon, Kelly M L; Reid, Angela; Prior, Howard; Kulpa, Elizabeth C

    2002-07-08

    In the summer of 1999/2000, an epizootic occurred in cultured juvenile redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus on one commercial crayfish farm in northern Queensland, Australia. Mortalities occurred over 4 wk, with up to 96% cumulative mortalities in 2 earthen ponds stocked with juveniles. The crayfish were weak, anorexic and lethargic. A transmission trial was conducted, using filtered, cell-free extract prepared from infected crayfish as inoculum. The disease was reproduced, with on-going mortalities occurring in inoculated crayfish over 55 d. Experimentally inoculated crayfish showed gross signs of malaise, anorexia and disorientation before dying. Two types of intranuclear inclusion bodies (INIBs) were seen in tissues of endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal origin by light microscopy with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections. 'Early'-stage INIBs were eosinophilic, rounded and located centrally within slightly enlarged nuclei while 'late'-stage INIBs were well-rounded and deeply basophilic. The gills, cuticular epithelium and epithelial cells of the foregut, midgut and hindgut were the most heavily infected tissues. By transmission electron microscopy, virions with an average diameter of 19.5 nm were seen within electron-dense granular inclusion bodies within enlarged nuclei of both naturally and experimentally infected crayfish. The size of the virions and cytopathology are consistent with characteristics of viruses in the Family Parvoviridae. This is the first reported case of mass mortality caused by a parvo-like virus infection in C. quadricarinatus.

  17. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  18. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  20. The incidence of melanocytic naevi in adolescent children in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, A; Siskind, V; Green, L

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess longitudinally the development of melanocytic naevi in children around the time of their puberty. In Queensland, Australia, 102 schoolchildren born mostly in 1977 or 1978, were examined annually on four occasions from 1990. All naevi on the body except for the scalp and parts covered by a bathing suit were counted by an experienced research nurse or trained assistant according to a set protocol. In addition, each subject's pigmentary characteristics were recorded and height, weight and pubertal status were assessed annually. The findings confirmed that the average number of naevi and average density of naevi (count per m2) on the whole body in boys and girls increase significantly with increasing age and increases were also seen on each of the following anatomic sites: face and neck, back and shoulders, and upper and lower limbs. Children who had a high baseline naevus count, or a large increase in skin surface area during the 3-year follow-up period had the highest absolute increases in naevus count but the smallest proportionate increases. Associations between baseline naevus counts and male sex, light brown or blonde hair, blue or hazel eyes, facial freckling and a tendency to sunburn, which have been previously reported, were also found. However, the independent relations of each of these factors to the increase in new naevi were more complex, once the effects of high naevus counts at baseline and increases in skin surface area were taken into account.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Evaluation of bifenthrin and permethrin as barrier treatments for military tents against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P

    2007-06-01

    A study comparing the effectiveness of barrier treatment of military tents with bifenthrin and permethrin in preventing entry of mosquitoes was conducted at Wide Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia. Five military tents were erected at a site in bushland at Mosquito Creek, about 2 km from the coast. Two tents were sprayed with bifenthrin (Bistar 80SC, 0.1% mix, 12.5 ml/liter) and 2 with permethrin (Perigen 500, 1.2%, 24 ml/liter). One was left untreated and served as a control. Carbon dioxide-baited traps were placed inside each tent 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk after treatment, and a single trap was placed in forest 50 m from the tents. The predominant mosquito species collected was Aedes vigilax (78% of collection). Compared to the untreated control, protection against mosquitoes entering treated tents was initially 78.6% for bifenthrin-treated tents and 84.3% for permethrin. At 4 wk, protection was 68.6% for bifenthrin and 50.7% for permethrin. After 6 wk, less than 34% protection was provided by either insecticide. There was no significant difference between the protection provided by either insecticide treatment. The study showed that barrier tent treatments provide a reasonable increase in preventing the entry of mosquitoes for at least 4 wk.

  2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Barozzi, Nadia; Tett, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD)/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005). Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland. PMID:18816393

  3. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  4. Patterns of tidal flooding within a mangrove forest: Coombabah Lake, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. M.; Dale, P. E. R.; Dunn, R. J. K.; Broadbent, G. J.; Lemckert, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    Tidal flooding and surface drainage patterns have often been used to describe mangrove species zonation. However, in mangrove forests exhibiting little topography, ambiguous species distributions and/or few species, such approaches are ineffective. We identified four physiognomic mangrove forest types (Riverine, Fringing, Overwash and Basin) at Coombabah Lake, a tidal lake in southeast Queensland, Australia and investigated tidal flooding patterns using synoptic surveys of tidal observations at the local Standard Port combined with local water depth observation. Subsequently three sub-types of the basin forest type were identified: (1) Deep Basin Forest with mature trees, ˜50 cm standing water and ˜3 tides per year; (2) Medium Depth Basin Forest with intermediate tree development, ˜15-30 cm standing water and 20-40 tides per year; and (3) Shallow Basin Forest with relatively recent mangrove establishment, 5-15 cm standing water and ˜80 tides per year. These three basin sub-types were found to flood at different tide heights with the Shallow Basin flooding for tides above mean high water springs and the Deep Basin flooding only for tide heights approaching the highest astronomical tide. We propose that these basin types represent a succession in mangrove forest development that corresponds with increasing water depth and tree maturation over time. The succession not only represents increasing age but also change in basin substrate composition. This is manifest as increasing pneumatophore density and an increasing area of basin surface occupied by contiguous pneumatophore cover. As a result, it seems that mangrove development is able to modify tidal flooding into the basin by increasingly impeding water movement.

  5. Fluidal-clast breccia generated by submarine fire fountaining, Trooper Creek Formation, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K.; McPhie, J.

    2001-09-01

    A distinctive monomictic breccia, composed of fluidal and blocky basaltic andesite clasts, occurs in a Cambro-Ordovician submarine volcanic succession in northern Queensland, Australia. Associated with this fluvial-clast buccia facies are coherent facies and coarse and fine breccia facies of the same composition. The fluidal-clast breccia facies is internally massive and >250 m thick, varying only in the ratio of fluidal clasts to blocky clasts. Fluidal clasts range in size from 2 cm to 170 cm, and have moderately to highly vesicular cores and thick (up to 1 cm), non-vesicular, formerly glassy rims. Blocky clasts are highly vesicular to non-vesicular, <2 cm, angular, dominantly equant or splintery in shape and identical in composition to the fluidal clasts. The fluidal clasts strongly resemble subaerial volcanic bombs and are interpreted to be the products of submarine fire fountaining of relatively low-viscosity lava. The blocky clasts were mainly derived from disintegration of the fluidal clasts, by means of quench fragmentation. Coherent basaltic andesite intercalated with the fluidal-clast breccia represents co-genetic lavas, dykes and irregular shallow intrusions. The coarse and fine breccia facies is very thickly bedded, monomictic (basaltic andesite), poorly sorted and clast supported. This facies is interpreted to have been generated by periodic gravitational collapse of unstable accumulations of the fluidal-clast breccia facies. Subaqueous fire-fountain breccias are distinguished from subaerial fire-fountain breccias by thick glassy margins on fluidal clasts, the lack of welding and agglutination, and the distinctive association of highly vesicular, fluidal clasts with non-vesicular, angular, blocky clasts. Recognition of submarine fire-fountain breccias in volcanic successions constrains the eruption style, proximity (tens of metres) to source and environment of deposition.

  6. Petrogenesis of peralkaline rhyolites in an intra-plate setting: Glass House Mountains, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fengli; Niu, Yaoling; Regelous, Marcel; Zhu, Di-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    We report petrological and geochemical data on coeval trachybasalts, syenites with enclaves, trachytes, peralkaline rhyolites and peraluminous rhyolites from the Glass House Mountains-Maleny-Noosa area, southeast Queensland, Australia. This rock association and the unique characteristics of the peralkaline rhyolites offer convincing lines of evidence that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites is a straightforward consequence of protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic melts of alkali-rich composition. Compared to the common peraluminous rhyolites elsewhere, the peralkaline rhyolites here are characterized by elevated abundances of most incompatible elements, especially the very high Nb (vs. Th) and Ta (vs. U), the very low Ba, Sr and Eu and the extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio. The high Nb and Ta are inherited from the parental alkali basaltic melts. The low Ba, Sr and Eu result from removal of plagioclase during the protracted fractional crystallization. These rocks altogether define a Rb-Sr isochron of ~ 28 Ma, which is similar to Ar-Ar age data on these rocks in the literature. The extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the peralkaline rhyolites (up to 1.88) is actually characteristic of peralkaline rhyolites because of extreme Sr (also Eu and Ba) depletion and thus the very high Rb/Sr ratio. That is, the Sr in these rocks is essentially radiogenic 87Sr accumulated from the 87Rb decay since the volcanism. We suggest that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites from the Glass House Mountain area may be of general significance globally. The coeval peraluminous rhyolites apparently result from crustal anatexis in response to the basaltic magma underplating. The small "Daly Gap" exhibited in this rock association is anticipated during the protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic parent to the more evolved felsic varieties.

  7. Landsat Based Woody Vegetation Loss Detection in Queensland, Australia Using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, K.; Phinn, S. R.; Taylor, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land clearing detection and woody Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) monitoring at the state and national level in Australia has mainly been undertaken by state governments and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) because of the considerable expense, expertise, sustained duration of activities and staffing levels needed. Only recently have services become available, providing low budget, generalized access to change detection tools suited to this task. The objective of this research was to examine if a globally available service, Google Earth Engine Beta, could be used to predict woody vegetation loss with accuracies approaching the methods used by TERN and the government of the state of Queensland, Australia. Two change detection approaches were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper time series and the Google Earth Engine Application Programming Interface: (1) CART and Random Forest classifiers; and (2) a normalized time series of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and NDVI combined with a spectral index. The CART and Random Forest classifiers produced high user's and producer's mapping accuracies of clearing (77-92% and 54-77%, respectively) when detecting change within epochs for which training data were available, but extrapolation to epochs without training data reduced the mapping accuracies. The use of FPC and NDVI time series provided a more robust approach for calculation of a clearing probability, as it did not rely on training data but instead on the difference of the normalized FPC / NDVI mean and standard deviation of a single year at the change point in relation to the remaining time series. However, the FPC and NDVI time series approach represented a trade-off between user's and producer's accuracies. Both change detection approaches explored in this research were sensitive to ephemeral greening and drying of the landscape. However, the developed normalized FPC and NDVI time series approach can be tuned to provide automated alerts for large

  8. Parasites of QX-resistant and wild-type Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) in Moreton Bay, SE Queensland, Australia: diversity and host response.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C; Chan, Janlin; Hénault, Olivier; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    Wild caught (WC) and QX resistant (QXR) Sydney rock oysters were introduced at North Stradbroke Island and Pimpama River, SE Queensland, Australia, and sampled monthly during 1 year. Three groups of parasites/diseases were identified by observation of histological sections: (1) Marteilia sydneyi (Queensland unknown (QX) disease) and Steinhausia sp. (Microsporidia) characterized by a high prevalence and deleterious impact on the host; (2) disseminated neoplasia and the trematode Proctoeces sp. characterized by low prevalence but deleterious effects on the host; (3) parasites or symbionts with no detectable effect on the host: trematodes, ciliates, turbellarians and metacestodes. Mortality rates were similar between both oyster lines but higher at Pimpama River (reaching around 90%) than Stradbroke Island, mostly because of QX disease and, to a lesser extent, to the unfavourable environmental conditions of the summer 2010-2011. Lower prevalences of QX disease at Stradbroke Island probably related to the relative lack of intermediate hosts of the parasite and to lower freshwater input. Surprisingly, no difference in prevalence of QX disease was observed between the two oyster lines.

  9. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in North Queensland: the paediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Claire L; Parsonson, Fiona; Gray, Lawrence Ek; Heyer, Adele; Donohue, Steven; Wiseman, Greg; Norton, Robert

    2016-10-03

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant, diffuse haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, with an almost invariably fatal outcome. In Australia and the developed world, PAM remains a rare disease, although it is very likely that large numbers of cases go undetected in developing countries. N. fowleri is a thermophilic, free-living amoeba with a worldwide distribution. It is acquired when contaminated fresh water is flushed into the nose and penetrates the central nervous system via the cribriform plate. Clinical features are similar to those of bacterial meningitis, but it does not respond to standard therapy and rapid progression to death occurs in most cases. Some survivors have been reported; these patients received early treatment with amphotericin B in combination with a variety of other medications. Our review describes the local and worldwide experience of this disease and its clinical features, and discusses the associated diagnostic challenges. We hope that by detailing the local response to a recent case, and the outcomes of our public health campaign, we can improve the knowledge of this rare disease for doctors working in rural and remote Australia.

  10. Dua sakit (double sick): trauma and the settlement experiences of West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    2009-08-01

    There is mounting evidence of systematic abuses, including torture, rape and extrajudicial killings directed against independence activists as well as the civilian population in Indonesian occupied West Papua. Refugees from West Papua have sought safety in neighbouring Australia, experiencing hazardous journeys during their flight. We report early observations from a mental health study among West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland, Australia. The project includes qualitative methods aimed at gathering histories of trauma and human rights violations as well as standard mental health assessments and indices of acculturation and resettlement stresses. We consider the emerging data from the vantage point of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma model that identifies five psychosocial domains that require repair following exposure to gross human rights violations and refugee trauma. The model emphasizes the inter-relatedness of key challenges, the compounding of adversity, and the bivalent effects of complex experiences, with both positive and negative elements shaping the adaptive trajectory of displaced persons. Refugee groups have their own approaches to conceptualizing the complexity of their problems, with the term dua sakit representing the expression used by West Papuans to identify the multiple challenges they face. The study highlights the importance of assessing each refugee group within its unique social and cultural context, taking into account such diverse factors as geographical location, employment, and ongoing conflict in the homeland in designing appropriate interventions.

  11. Building of tropical beach ridges, northeastern Queensland, Australia: Cyclone inundation and aeolian decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Toru; Nicholas, William; Brooke, Brendan; Oliver, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Processes associated with tropical cyclones are thought responsible for building coarse sand beach ridges along the northeastern Queensland coast, Australia. While these ridges are expected to be geological records of the past cyclone, they question the general consensus of the aeolian genesis of sandy beach ridges. To explore the ridge-forming process, we carried out the GPR survey, auger drilling, pit excavation, grain-size analysis, and OSL dating for coarse sand beach ridges at the Cowley Beach, northeastern Queensland. The Cowley Beach is a mesotidal beach characterized by a low-tide terrace and steep beach face. Ten beach ridges are recognized along the survey transect that extends 700 m inland from the shore. 37 OSL ages are younger seawards, indicating the seaward accretion of the ridge sequence over the last 2700 years. The highest ridge is +5.1 m high above AHD (Australian Height Datum). Two GPR units are bounded by a groundwater surface at c. +1.5 m AHD. The upper unit is characterized by horizontal to hummocky reflectors punctuated by seaward dipping truncation surfaces. These reflectors in places form dome-like structure that appears to be the nucleus of a beach ridge. The shape and level (+2.5 m AHD) of the dome are similar to those of the present swash berm. The lower unit shows a sequence of reflectors that dip at an angle of present beach face. The sequence is dissected by truncation surfaces, some of which are continuous to those in the upper unit. Coarse sand mainly forms beach ridge deposits below +4.0 m AHD, while a few higher ridges have an upward fining layer composed of medium sand above +4.0 m, which is finer than aeolian ripples found on the backshore during the survey. In addition, pumice gravel horizons underlie the examined ridge crests. The sequence of seaward dipping reflectors indicates that the Cowley Beach, like other many sandy beaches, has prograded during onshore sand accretion by fairweather waves and has been eroded by storms

  12. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R. Lesley; Gynther, Ian C.; Leung, Luke K-P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species’ range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population’s size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  13. Historical emissions of octachlorodibenzodioxin in a watershed in Queensland, Australia: estimation from field data and an environmental fate model.

    PubMed

    Camenzuli, Louise; Scheringer, Martin; Gaus, Caroline; Grant, Sharon; Zennegg, Markus; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    An octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD)-dominated contamination is present along the coast of Queensland, Australia. Several findings indicate that this contamination originates from pesticide use, although due to limited information on OCDD levels in the pesticides used, estimating past and current emissions of OCDD solely from pesticide use data is unfeasible. We used all the qualitative and quantitative information available on OCDD in pesticides together with a previously validated chemical fate model for a catchment in the Queensland Wet Tropics to back-calculate the emissions of OCDD from measured soil concentrations. We estimate that under different emission scenarios an average of 2,500 kg of OCDD was emitted within the modelled 1,685 km2 (Tully river) catchment between 1950 and 2010. Because this catchment represents only approximately 0.85% of the whole coast of Queensland under a similar contamination, the total amount of OCDD released in this region is considerably larger. For all emission scenarios, we could show that the OCDD currently present in agricultural soil is a result of historical emissions, and current-day emissions are less important in comparison to past emissions. Overall 18% was lost by degradation and 62% was buried below the agricultural surface soil, as a result of facilitated transport.

  14. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R Lesley; Gynther, Ian C; Leung, Luke K-P; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  15. What Makes Community Engagement Effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED) Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE) was a key component of the ED Program’s initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team’s senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program’s approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program’s CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program’s approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1) enabling conditions; 2) leadership; 3) core commitments and guiding values; and 4) formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1) building the CE team; 2) integrating CE into management practices; 3) discerning the community of stakeholders; 4) establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5) socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders’ willingness to support the trials. Conclusions/Significance Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the

  16. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  17. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  18. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  19. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  20. Regional-scale investigation of the spatial distribution and origin of soluble salts in central north Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Elisabeth N.; Moran, Christopher J.

    2000-02-01

    A method for regional assessment of the distribution of saline outbreaks is demonstrated for a large area (68 000 km2) in north Queensland, Australia. Soil samples were used in conjunction with a digital elevation model and a map of potentially saline discharge zones to examine the landscape distribution of soluble salts in the region. The hypothesis of atmospheric accession of salt was tested for the topographically defined catchment regions feeding into each potentially saline discharge area. Most catchments showed a salt distribution consistent with this hypothesis, i.e. %TSS was large near the discharge areas and decreased rapidly with distance uphill from the discharge areas. In some catchments, however, local saline outbreaks were apparent at significant distances uphill from discharge areas. The possibility of geological sources of this salt was examined by comparing random point distributions with the location of saline points with distance downhill from geological units (excluding points near discharge zones). The distribution of some saline outbreaks was consistent with the occurrence of Cambro-Ordovician metasediments, Devonian limestone, Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous volcanics, and Triassic sediments.

  1. New forearm elements discovered of holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis from Winton, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Cook, Alex G; Hocknull, Scott A; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2012-01-01

    New skeletal elements are reported of the holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis, from the type locality, near Winton, central western Queensland. New elements include left and right humeri, right radius, right radiale, right distal carpal 1, near complete right metacarpal I, left manual phalanx II-1, left manual phalanx II-2, near complete left manual phalanx II-3 and a left manual phalanx III-3. These new elements combined with those previously described are compared against other neovenatorids.

  2. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  3. Outbreaks of the cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), related to weather in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.G.; Gage, S.H.

    1986-10-01

    The cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Zeller), has periodically caused serious damage to seedling cotton in Southeast Queensland. An analysis of data over 11 years revealed that outbreaks of this pest are weather related. A heat/precipitation ratio (weather index) was calculated and compared with population levels of the tipworm. Outbreaks were strongly correlated to cool and wet weather during March--November, the principal growth period of the weed host Malva parviflora (L.). Infestations were minor when conditions were dry. A prediction based on this index is compared with field infestation levels in 1984. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Going the distance--experiences of women with gynaecological cancer residing in rural remote north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele E; Usher, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Women who are diagnosed with gynaecological cancer face a difficult journey. For women residing in areas geographically removed from major health providers the journey can be much more difficult. While they 'make do' and 'struggle on', their lived experiences can provide valuable insight into the complex issues surrounding a cancer diagnosis in rural areas. This study aimed to understand their experiences through the women's stories and sought to identify the major themes impacting on these stories. This qualitative phenomenological study undertook interviews with seven women with gynaecological cancer who reside in rural and remote north Queensland. Analysis of the data collected revealed three themes: seeking answers at a distance; sharing information within a small community; and experiences of navigating the health system. The results show the inherent difficulties in accessing support in rural areas and the difficulties associated with travelling considerable distances to undergo treatment.

  5. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  6. Characterisation of invasive clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Queensland, Australia using whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Staples, M; Graham, R M A; Jennison, A V

    2017-03-06

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity. Encapsulated isolates were largely clonal, however NTHi isolates displayed high genetic variability by MLST and single nucleotide polymorphism typing with no dominant clone observed. The only mechanism for β-lactam resistance identified in the QLD isolates was β-lactamase production. No single set of virulence determinants was conclusively associated with invasive QLD NTHi isolates.

  7. Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

  8. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  9. Mental Disorders and Communication of Intent to Die in Indigenous Suicide Cases, Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Leo, Diego; Milner, Allison; Sveticic, Jerneja

    2012-01-01

    In comparing Indigenous to non-Indigenous suicide in Australia, this study focussed on the frequency of the association between some psychiatric conditions, such as depression and alcohol abuse, and some aspect of suicidality, in particular communication of suicide intent. Logistic regression was implemented to analyze cases of Indigenous (n =…

  10. Climate change impacts on the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2012-12-01

    SummaryHow the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland could change in response to climate change was examined using physically based models of interception and transpiration along with long term weather records. Future rainfall and temperature changes were based on the most recent climate modelling for the region and were assumed to fall within the range ±20% for rainfall with a temperature increase of 1-3 K. Climate change will affect the water balance of Australian rainforests primarily via rainfall changes rather than temperature. Any given change in rainfall produces a greater change in downstream runoff, the amplification ranging from 1.1 to 1.5 in the wet season to a factor of 12 in the dry season. Changes in wet season rainfall (80% of the annual total) dominate the total annual amount of water released for downstream flow, but dry season rainfall (20% of the annual total) changes are also very important as they affect onset and the duration of the period when there is no runoff. This period is currently ˜110 days and this would change by ±30 days under the above climate scenarios. There are also potential in situ impacts of climate change that affect how long the rainforest canopy is wet, which may have important implications for the epiphytes and mosses that depend on these wet canopy conditions. Similarly there may be significant impacts on downstream freshwater species whose life cycles are adapted to the current dry season flow regime.

  11. Secondary welding of submarine, pumice-lithic breccia at Mount Chalmers, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhie, Jocelyn; Hunns, Steven R.

    1995-06-01

    Very thick units of massive pumice and lithic clast-rich breccia in the Early Permian Berserker beds at Mount Chalmers, Queensland, are deposits from cold, water-supported, volcaniclastic mass flows emplaced in a below-wave base submarine setting. Adjacent to syn-volcanic andesitic and rhyolitic sills and dykes, the pumice-lithic breccia shows a well-developed eutaxitic texture. The eutaxitic foliation is parallel to intrusive contacts and extends as far as a few metres away from the contact. At these sites, pumice clasts are strongly flattened and tube vesicles within the pumice clasts are compacted and aligned parallel to the direction of flattening. Some lenticular pumice clasts contain small (≤2 mm), round, quartz-filled amygdales and spherulites. Further away from the sills and dykes, the pumice clasts have randomly oriented, delicate tube vesicle structure and are blocky or lensoid in shape. Round amygdales were generated by re-vesiculation of the glass and the spherulites indicate devitrification of the glass at relatively high temperatures. The eutaxitic texture is therefore attributed to re-heating and welding compaction of glassy pumice-lithic breccia close to contacts with intrusions. In cases involving sills, secondary welding along the contacts formed extensive, conformable, eutaxitic zones in the pumice-lithic breccia that could be mistaken for primary welding compaction in a hot, primary pyroclastic deposit.

  12. Preliminary geological investigation of AIS data at Mary Kathleen, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. F.; Green, A. A.; Craig, M. D.; Cocks, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over granitic, volcanic, and calc-silicate terrain around the Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine in Queensland, in a test of its mineralocial mapping capabilities. An analysis strategy and restoration and enhancement techniques were developed to process the 128 band AIS data. A preliminary analysis of one of three AIS flight lines shows that the data contains considerable spectral variation but that it is also contaminated by second-order leakage of radiation from the near-infrared region. This makes the recognition of expected spectral absorption shapes very difficult. The effect appears worst in terrains containing considerable vegetation. Techniques that try to predict this supplementary radiation coupled with the log residual analytical technique show that expected mineral absorption spectra can be derived. The techniques suggest that with additional refinement correction procedures, the Australian AIS data may be revised. Application of the log residual analysis method has proved very successful on the cuprite, Nevada data set, and for highlighting the alunite, linite, and SiOH mineralogy.

  13. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from inputs into farm enterprises in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek N; Cockfield, Geoff; Apan, Armando

    2007-01-01

    One of the assumptions underlying efforts to convert cropping land, especially marginal crop land, to plantations is that there will be a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, with a gas "sink" replacing a high energy system in which the breakdown of biomass is routinely accelerated to prepare for new crops. This research, based on case studies in Kingaroy in southeast Queensland, compares the amount of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions from a peanut/maize crop rotation, a pasture system for beef production and a spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) timber plantation. Three production inputs, fuel, farm machinery and agrochemicals (fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides) are considered. The study extends beyond the farm gate to include packing and transportation and the time period is 30 years. The results suggest that replacing the crops with plantations would indeed reduce emissions but that a pasture system would have even lower net emissions. These findings cast some doubt on the case for farm forestry as a relatively effective means of ameliorating greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Diagenesis and reservoir potential of volcanogenic sandstones - Cretaceous of the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hawlader, H.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The sandstones of the Lower Cretaceous succession of the Surat basin are characterized by abundant volcanogenic detritus in the form of rock-fragments and feldspars derived from an andesitic magmatic arc coincident with the present Great Barrier Reef in offshore Queensland. These compositionally immature sandstones are not regarded as favorable exploration targets because of their labile nature, their shallow burial depths, and hence the low thermal maturity of the intercalated mudrocks that might have constituted hydrocarbon source rocks. However, petrographic and petrophysical examinations show that significant primary and early diagenetic secondary dissolution porosity and permeability exist in some of these stratigraphic units that under certain circumstances could be the host for hydrocarbons and may become the future exploration targets. Flushing by CO{sub 2}-charged meteoric water after the inception of the Great Artesian basin (of which the Surat basin is a component) in the Tertiary is likely to have been the principal agent of secondary porosity development in these sandstones. Additionally, products of microbial degradation of organic matter (in the intercalated mudstones) and/or maturation products from the deeply buried part of the basin might have assisted in the dissolution of framework grains and previously deposited cement.

  15. Bacteria isolated from dugongs (Dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristen A; Owen, Helen C; Mills, Paul C; Flint, Mark; Gibson, Justine S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial infection may contribute to disease in a significant proportion of marine mammal mortalities, but little is known about infectious bacterial species and their prevalence in dugongs (Dugong dugon). This study represents a survey of the species of bacteria and fungi isolated from dugongs submitted to the University of Queensland's School of Veterinary Science for postmortem examination. Thirty-six dugongs were included in the survey, with 23 species of bacteria and four species of fungus cultured from lesions that were suspected of contributing to local infection, systemic infection, or both. The most abundant bacteria included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas spp. In six cases, the microorganism(s) cultured were considered to have been associated with disease. Mixed infections containing Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.; Morganella morganii, Pasteurella multocida, and Serratia marcescens; and Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. were associated with pneumonia or pleuritis, and Enterococcus faecalis was associated with a multisystemic infection in a neonate. Clostridium spp. was cultured from two animals with peritonitis and likely septicemia. The significance of many of the other isolates is uncertain because the samples were taken after death, and some of the species isolated may represent postmortem overgrowth. It is also difficult to fulfil Koch's postulates through experimental infection in marine mammals. Regardless, this information will assist clinicians working with dugongs to make treatment decisions and the baseline data on the prevalence of bacterial and fungal species is of value for monitoring coastal water habitat health and risks of zoonotic disease transmission.

  16. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species—one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  19. Comparative morphology of the egg cases of Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) from southern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2013-07-01

    Descriptions of the egg cases of three catsharks, Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani, are provided from 65 egg cases obtained from fishing surveys carried out on the continental shelf of southern Queensland, Australia. Egg cases of A. analis, A. rubiginosus and F. boardmani have the same basic morphology; they are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened and yellow and brown-tan in colour. The shape of the posterior border in terms of horn length and tendril thickness is the specific characteristic discriminating these three catsharks: enclosed horns in F. boardmani, short horns and tendrils in A. rubiginosus and long, coiled tendrils in A. analis. A non-parametric statistical approach was used as an exploratory tool for egg case identification in which six proportional measurements were sufficient to discriminate between species. Three egg cases of F. boardmani were recovered from the stomachs of three A. rubiginosus, which provided the first evidence of catshark-catshark predator-prey interaction.

  20. Real-time PCR detection of pathogenic microorganisms in roof-harvested rainwater in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Huygens, F; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of roof-harvested rainwater was assessed by monitoring the concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacteroides spp. in rainwater obtained from tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Samples were also tested using real-time PCR (with SYBR Green I dye) for the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms. Of the 27 rainwater samples tested, 17 (63%), 21 (78%), 13 (48%), and 24 (89%) were positive for E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, and Bacteroides spp., respectively. Of the 27 samples, 11 (41%), 7 (26%), 4 (15%), 3 (11%), and 1 (4%) were PCR positive for the Campylobacter coli ceuE gene, the Legionella pneumophila mip gene, the Aeromonas hydrophila lip gene, the Salmonella invA gene, and the Campylobacter jejuni mapA gene. Of the 21 samples tested, 4 (19%) were positive for the Giardia lamblia beta-giardin gene. The binary logistic regression model indicated a positive correlation (P < 0.02) between the presence/absence of enterococci and A. hydrophila. In contrast, the presence/absence of the remaining potential pathogens did not correlate with traditional fecal indicators. The poor correlation between fecal indicators and potential pathogens suggested that fecal indicators may not be adequate to assess the microbiological quality of rainwater and consequent health risk.

  1. Effect of temperature and precipitation on salmonellosis cases in South-East Queensland, Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Foodborne illnesses in Australia, including salmonellosis, are estimated to cost over $A1.25 billion annually. The weather has been identified as being influential on salmonellosis incidence, as cases increase during summer, however time series modelling of salmonellosis is challenging because outbreaks cause strong autocorrelation. This study assesses whether switching models is an improved method of estimating weather–salmonellosis associations. Design We analysed weather and salmonellosis in South-East Queensland between 2004 and 2013 using 2 common regression models and a switching model, each with 21-day lags for temperature and precipitation. Results The switching model best fit the data, as judged by its substantial improvement in deviance information criterion over the regression models, less autocorrelated residuals and control of seasonality. The switching model estimated a 5°C increase in mean temperature and 10 mm precipitation were associated with increases in salmonellosis cases of 45.4% (95% CrI 40.4%, 50.5%) and 24.1% (95% CrI 17.0%, 31.6%), respectively. Conclusions Switching models improve on traditional time series models in quantifying weather–salmonellosis associations. A better understanding of how temperature and precipitation influence salmonellosis may identify where interventions can be made to lower the health and economic costs of salmonellosis. PMID:26916693

  2. Oviposition and larval habitat preferences of the saltwater mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a subtropical mangrove forest in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins.

  3. Greenschist facies regional and contact metamorphism of the Thalanga volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit (northern Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulick, Holger; Franz, Gerhard

    2001-12-01

    The conditions of two separate greenschist facies metamorphic events have been reconstructed at the syn-genetic Thalanga massive sulfide deposit (northern Queensland, Australia) using scarce garnet-biotite- and garnet-chlorite-bearing samples from the felsic volcano-sedimentary host-rock succession. Regional metamorphism (peak temperature: 440 to 480 °C) generated a foliation defined by aligned chlorite, muscovite and biotite, and rare, euhedral spessartine-almandine(-grossular)-rich garnets. The emplacement of a post-tectonic diorite pluton was associated with contact metamorphism and scarce anhedral spessartine-almandine-rich garnet poikiloblasts crystallized within a ~650-m wide aureole at temperatures of ~500 °C. Both metamorphic stages occurred under pressure conditions of ≤3.5 kbar. Our study documents a useful method for geothermobarometric reconstruction of metamorphosed, syn-genetic ore deposits where calculations based on sulfide assemblages failed to produce unequivocal constraints. Furthermore, we show that hydrothermally altered footwall rhyolite have higher than unaltered rocks, which may help to identify fossil, metamorphosed, hydrothermal systems associated with massive sulfide deposits similar to Thalanga.

  4. Oviposition and Larval Habitat Preferences of the Saltwater Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a Subtropical Mangrove Forest in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins. PMID:22938052

  5. The epidemiology and clinical features of melioidosis in Far North Queensland: Implications for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, James D.; Smith, Simon; Binotto, Enzo; McBride, William J.; Currie, Bart J.; Hanson, Josh

    2017-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of melioidosis vary around the world. It is essential to define the disease’s local features to optimise its management. Principal findings Between 1998 and 2016 there were 197 cases of culture confirmed melioidosis in Far North Queensland; 154 (78%) presented in the December-April wet season. 145 (74%) patients were bacteraemic, 58 (29%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and 27 (14%) died; nine (33%) of these deaths occurred within 48 hours of presentation. Pneumonia was the most frequent clinical finding, present in 101 (61%) of the 166 with available imaging. A recognised risk factor for melioidosis (diabetes, hazardous alcohol use, chronic renal disease, chronic lung disease, immunosuppression or malignancy) was present in 148 (91%) of 162 patients with complete comorbidity data. Despite representing only 9% of the region’s population, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island (ATSI) people comprised 59% of the cases. ATSI patients were younger than non-ATSI patients (median (interquartile range): 46 (38–56) years versus 59 (43–69) years (p<0.001) and had a higher case-fatality rate (22/117 (19%) versus 5/80 (6.3%) (p = 0.01)). In the 155 patients surviving the initial intensive intravenous phase of treatment, eleven (7.1%) had disease recurrence, despite the fact that nine (82%) of these patients had received prolonged intravenous therapy. Recurrence was usually due to inadequate source control or poor adherence to oral eradication therapy. The case fatality rate declined from 12/44 (27%) in the first five years of the study to 7/76 (9%) in the last five (p = 0.009), reflecting national improvements in sepsis management. Conclusions Melioidosis in Far North Queensland is a seasonal, opportunistic infection of patients with specific comorbidities. The ATSI population bear the greatest burden of disease. Although the case-fatality rate is declining, deaths frequently occur early after

  6. Modelling interception in coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2008-01-01

    SummaryThis paper reports a comparison of measured and modelled interception for three different forest types at six rainforest locations in northern Queensland. The Gash interception model was able to reproduce cumulative interception at the sites accurately, provided an appropriate value of canopy storage capacity ( S) was used, 2.0-3.6 mm. These values are significantly higher than S values generally reported in other rainforest studies (˜1 mm) and the reason may be that Australian rainforests contain many epiphytes and mosses, which can trap significant quantities of water within the canopy. There is also some evidence of a seasonal variation in S and wet canopy evaporation rate ( E), both being lower in the dry season than the wet season. However, although the rainfall rate ( R), S and E all affect the seasonal value of interception, the changes in these three parameters tend to compensate and so the biggest factor affecting seasonal variations in interception is the number of small storms. The consequence of this is that it is still possible to get good estimates of seasonal and annual interception using R, S and E values that are fixed for the entire year. Values of E fell in the range 0.35-0.81 mm h -1, which are 1.4-9 times the concurrent rates estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. This implies that either our rainforests received very large amounts of advected energy during rain storms, or the Penman-Monteith E values are too low. Some advection of energy to our sites is quite feasible given their proximity to the ocean and generally well exposed locations. However, most of the above discrepancy is probably due to underestimation of the Penman-Monteith values of E, because of errors in the estimation of the above canopy relative humidity, due to the use of weather data adjacent to rather than above the forests and inherent difficulties of measuring the very high humidity's that occur during rainfall.

  7. A new estimate for the composition of weathered young upper continental crust from alluvial sediments, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamber, Balz S.; Greig, Alan; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2005-02-01

    We present new major element, trace element and Nd-isotope data for 30 alluvial sediments collected from 25 rivers in Queensland, E Australia. Samples were chosen to represent drainage from the region's most important lithologies, including Tertiary intraplate volcanic rocks, a Cretaceous igneous province (and sedimentary rocks derived thereof) as well as Proterozoic blocks. In most chemical and isotopic aspects, the alluvial sediments represent binary or ternary mixing relationships, with absolute abundances implied to reflect the proportion of lithologies in the catchments. When averaged, the studied sediments differ from other proxies of upper continental crust (UCC) mainly in their relative middle rare earth element enrichment (including an elevated Sm/Nd ratio), higher relative Eu abundance and higher Nb/Ta ratio. These features are inherited from eroded Tertiary intraplate basalts, which commonly form topographic highs in the studied region. Despite the high degree of weathering strong to excellent coherence between similarly incompatible elements is found for all samples. From this coherence, we suggest revisions of the following upper crustal element ratios: Y/Ho = 26.2, Yb/Tm = 6.37, Th/W = 7.14, Th/Tl = 24 and Zr/Hf = 36.9. Lithium, Rb, Cs and Be contents do not seem depleted relative to UCC, which may reflect paucity of K-feldspar in the eroded catchments. Nickel, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations are elevated in polluted rivers surrounding the state capital. River sediments in the Proterozoic Georgetown Inlier are elevated in Pb, Cu and Zn but this could be a natural phenomenon reflecting abundant sulphide mineralisation in the area. Except for relative Sr concentrations, which broadly anticorrelate with mean annual rainfall in catchments, there is no obvious relationship between the extent of weathering and climate types, which range from arid to tropical. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the weathering profiles in many

  8. The 1993 dengue 2 epidemic in Charters Towers, North Queensland: clinical features and public health impact.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, W. J.; Mullner, H.; LaBrooy, J. T.; Wronski, I.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 an epidemic caused by dengue virus type 2 occurred in several North Queensland population centres. Charters Towers, estimated population 10,000, had 155 officially notified cases. An analysis of symptoms was undertaken using a random sample of 1000 residents to determine specificity of symptoms, the subclinical infection rate, and to establish the true extent of the epidemic. Retrospective diagnoses of dengue fever were based on the presence of both serum dengue 2 neutralizing antibody and presence of symptoms. An estimated 20% of the population had dengue fever. The rate of subclinical infections in this epidemic was 14.6%. There were no symptoms that were specific for dengue fever. Bleeding occurred more frequently in people who recalled a previous dengue infection during a dengue 1 epidemic 12 years earlier (55.6% vs. 16.8%, P = 0.003). Surveillance for future epidemics should be based on serological and virological confirmation of dengue virus infection amongst symptomatic patient. PMID:9747766

  9. A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2014-10-01

    Carlia skinks are widespread in New Guinea, Wallacea, and northern and eastern Australia. Most Australian species occur in dry woodlands and savannas or marginal rainforest habitats associated with these. There are two rainforest species, parapatrically distributed in coastal mid-eastern Queensland (C. rhomboidalis) and the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland (C. rubrigularis). These two sister species share a diagnostic morphological trait in having the interparietal scale fused to the frontoparietal. Here I describe a third species in this group, Carlia wundalthini sp. nov., from rainforest uplands of the Melville Range, a rainforest isolate 170 km north of the Wet Tropics. This species is diagnosable on male breeding colouration, morphometrics and scalation. The description of C. wundalthini sp. nov. brings the number of vertebrate species known to be endemic to the rainforest and boulder-fields of Cape Melville to seven. Carlia wundalthini sp. nov. is distinct among these endemics in being the only one that does not appear to be directly associated with rock, being found in rainforest leaf-litter. 

  10. Exploring women's experiences of health and well-being in remote northwest Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Desley

    2014-05-01

    Rural and remote environments are challenging places in which to achieve health and well-being. In this woman-centered, grounded theory study, I explored the meaning of health and well-being as well as how it is achieved from the perspective of women living in remote inland parts of Australia. The study was based on semistructured interviews with 23 women living in geographically remote areas. The findings are presented as a model of the capacity to flourish. Flourishing describes an optimal achievable state of well-being, delineated by four interrelated dimensions of experience: control, connecting, belonging, and identity. I identify individual, contextual, and structural factors that enable and constrain the capacity to flourish. The findings suggest that approaches to understanding and promoting women's health in remote areas should be more holistic and contextual.

  11. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-Paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, M. R.; Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J. D.; Hinman, N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits.

  12. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  13. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  14. Australian Assassins, Part III: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of tropical north-eastern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The assassin spiders of the family Archaeidae from tropical north-eastern Queensland are revised, with eight new species described from rainforest habitats of the Wet Tropics bioregion and Mackay-Whitsundays Hinterland: Austrarchaea griswoldi sp. n., Austrarchaea hoskini sp. n., Austrarchaea karenae sp. n., Austrarchaea tealei sp. n., Austrarchaea thompsoni sp. n., Austrarchaea wallacei sp. n., Austrarchaea westi sp. n. and Austrarchaea woodae sp. n. Specimens of the only previously described species, Austrarchaea daviesae Forster & Platnick, 1984, are redescribed from the southern Atherton Tableland. The rainforests of tropical eastern Queensland are found to be a potential hotspot of archaeid diversity and endemism, with the region likely to be home to numerous additional short-range endemic taxa. A key to species complements the taxonomy, with maps, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22977344

  15. Field Comparison of Cyclopentanone Versus Carbon Dioxide as an Attractant for Adult Mosquitoes in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Philippe-Janon, J C D; van den Hurk, A F; Francis, D P; Shivas, M A; Jansen, C C

    2015-05-01

    Cyclopentanone is a saturated monoketone typically used as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, biologicals, insecticides, and rubber chemicals. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cyclopentanone activates the cpA CO2 receptor neuron on the maxillary palp of mosquitoes, suggesting that it may be a viable alternative to CO2 as an attractant for mosquitoes. Furthermore, semifield experiments showed that traps baited with cyclopentanone attract Culex quinquefasciatus Say at a similar rate to those baited with CO2. We evaluated the field efficacy of cyclopentanone as an alternative to CO2 in Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and counterflow geometry (CFG) traps commonly used to collect mosquitoes in surveillance programs. Three pairwise trials and four Latin square trials were conducted across three peri-urban sites, comprising two saltwater sites and one freshwater site, in southeast Queensland, Australia. In all trials, CO2-baited traps outperformed traps baited with cyclopentanone. Carbon dioxide-baited CDC traps collected significantly more total mosquitoes, Aedes vigilax (Skuse), Culex sitiens Weidemann, and Culex annulirostris Skuse, than those baited with ≥99% cyclopentanone in pairwise trials. Similarly, in almost all Latin square trials, CO2-baited CDC and CFG traps collected significantly greater numbers of total mosquitoes, Ae. vigilax, Cx. annulirostris, Culex orbostiensis Dobrotworsky, and Cx. sitiens when compared with CFG traps baited with 20% cyclopentanone. Our trials indicate that cyclopentanone is not effective as a mosquito attractant in the field and cannot be used as a simple substitute for CO2 in commonly used mosquito surveillance traps.

  16. Fluvial response to foreland basin overfilling; the Late Permian Rangal Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, C. R.; Falkner, A. J.; Scott, S. G.

    1993-05-01

    The latest Permian Rangal Coal Measures and equivalents accumulated during a phase of declining volcanism and active thrust loading in the complex retroarc foreland Bowen Basin in eastern Queensland, Australia. The unit was formed in predominantly alluvial environments which covered the entire Bowen Basin and it represents the final phase of coal formation in the basin. Large opencut mine exposures, mainly in the Blackwater area, have allowed the establishment of a facies scheme for the Rangal Coal Measures. Seven facies have been recognised on the basis of lithology, geometrical criteria and palaeocurrent relationships. (1) Sheet-like Sandstone Channel Bodies; (2) Laterally Accreted, Heterolithic Channel Bodies; (3) Levee (Proximal Overbank) Deposits; (4) Minor Crevasse Channel Fill; (5) Floodbasin; (6) Stagnant Lake Floor; and (7) Mire. Together, these constitute an array typical of alluvial, coal-bearing systems. The depositional style of the Rangal Coal Measure channels is unusual, and considered to be related to the periodic oversupply of coarse sediment to the system. Heterolithic channel fills (Facies 2), which comprise alternations of thinly interbedded sandstone/siltstone and sharp-bounded sandstone, formed under conditions of dramatically variable sediment supply. Such channel deposits, while formed dominantly by lateral accretion, were the product of only slightly sinuous streams (less than 1.5). Facies 1 sheet sandstones, however, are interpreted to have formed during times of sand oversupply to the basin, and were the product of low-sinuosity, probably braided streams. The overall character of the Rangals is considered a response to overfilling of the basin by immature, volcanic sediment released by the uplift of thrust sheets in the adjacent orogen.

  17. Fecal Indicators and Zoonotic Pathogens in Household Drinking Water Taps Fed from Rainwater Tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hodgers, L.; Sidhu, J. P. S.; Toze, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  18. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of <1 CFU E. coli per 100 ml water. Similarly, 92% of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal

  19. Occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolates from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Masters, N; Sidhu, J P S; Katouli, M; Toze, S

    2011-10-01

    In this study, 200 Escherichia coli isolates from 22 rainwater tank samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia, were tested for the presence of 20 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes. In addition, E. coli isolates were also classified into phylogenetic groups based on the detection of the chuA, yjaA, and TSPE4.C2 genes. Of the 22 rainwater tanks, 8 (36%) and 5 (23%) were positive for the eaeA (belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC] and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli [STEC]) and ST1 (belonging to enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]) genes, respectively. VGs (cdtB, cvaC, ibeA, kpsMT allele III, PAI, papAH, and traT) belonging to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 15 (68%) of the 22 rainwater tanks. Of the 22 samples, 17 (77%) and 11 (50%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1, respectively. Similarly, 10 (45%) and 16 (72%) contained E. coli belonging to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Of the 96 of the 200 strains from 22 tanks that were VG positive, 40 (42%) were carrying a single VG, 36 (37.5%) were carrying two VGs, 17 (18%) were carrying three VGs, and 3 (3%) had four or more VGs. This study reports the presence of multiple VGs in E. coli strains belonging to the STEC, EPEC, ETEC, and ExPEC pathotypes in rainwater tanks. The public health risks associated with potentially clinically significant E. coli in rainwater tanks should be assessed, as the water is used for drinking and other, nonpotable purposes. It is recommended that rainwater be disinfected using effective treatment procedures such as filtration, UV disinfection, or simply boiling prior to drinking.

  20. Distributions of lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in litter of a compacted earth floor broiler house in subtropical Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Trevor A; Kopittke, Rosemary A; Rice, Steven J; Bartlett, Justin S; Zalucki, Myron P

    2007-08-01

    Distributions of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in litter of a compacted earth floor broiler house in southeastern Queensland, Australia, were studied over two flocks. Larvae were the predominant stage recorded. Significantly low densities occurred in open locations and under drinker cups where chickens had complete access, whereas high densities were found under feed pans and along house edges where chicken access was restricted. For each flock, lesser mealworm numbers increased at all locations over the first 14 d, especially under feed pans and along house edges, peaking at approximately 26 d and then declining over the final 28 d. A life stage profile per flock was devised that consisted of the following: beetles emerge from the earth floor at the beginning of each flock, and females lay eggs, producing larvae that peak in numbers at approximately 3 wk; after a further 3 to 4 wk, larvae leave litter to pupate in the earth floor, and beetles then emerge by the end of the flock time. Removing old litter from the brooder section at the end of a flock did not greatly reduce mealworm numbers over the subsequent flock, but it seemed to prevent numbers increasing, while an increase in numbers in the grow-out section was recorded after reusing litter. Areas under feed pans and along house edges accounted for 5% of the total house area, but approximately half the estimated total number of lesser mealworms in the broiler house occurred in these locations. The results of this study will be used to determine optimal deployment of site-specific treatments for lesser mealworm control.

  1. Pumiceous peperite in a submarine volcanic succession at Mount Chalmers, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunns, Steven R.; McPhie, Jocelyn

    1999-03-01

    Pumiceous peperite comprising irregularly shaped apophyses of feldspar-phyric rhyolitic tube pumice and siltstone occurs within well-bedded volcaniclastic sandstone and siltstone facies of the Early Permian Berserker beds at Mount Chalmers, Australia. The tube pumice structure is preserved where sericite or silica have replaced the glass of vesicle walls and vesicles have been infilled by silica. In some instances, the peperite occurs gradationally above or below intervals of coherent feldspar-phyric rhyolite that are also predominantly pumiceous. The siltstone in the pumiceous peperite is texturally homogeneous, locally vesicular and contains shards and crystals derived from disintegration of the pumiceous rhyolite. Pumiceous rhyolite and peperite occur at various positions in the stratigraphy and may represent interconnected intrusive digits or lobes. Intrusion of the lobes was accommodated by expansion of the pore water and possible fluidisation of the host sediment, resulting in local destruction of bedding. The lobes developed chilled margins at contacts with wet sediment and inflated in response to vesiculation and the supply of new magma. Cooling of the lobes was possibly accompanied by development of microfractures in the glassy vesicle walls. Rupture of the chilled margin and propagation of fractures into the interior could have temporarily and locally depressurised the lobes, resulting in failure, disintegration and mixing with the adjacent wet and/or steam-rich sediment. Hot pumiceous rhyolite in lobe interiors may have interacted directly with the wet sediment and been dismembered by quench fragmentation and/or steam explosions. Bubbles of magmatic gas and/or steam were trapped in the sediment that mixed with the pumiceous rhyolite. The development of pumiceous texture in the sills was favoured by emplacement beneath a thin cover of wet sediment in a relatively shallow, submarine shelf setting in which the confining pressure was sufficiently low to

  2. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere.

  3. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  4. Determination of halogenated natural products in passive samplers deployed along the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland/Australia.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Haase-Aschoff, Paul; Rosenfelder, Natalie; Komarova, Tatiana; Mueller, Jochen F

    2009-08-15

    Halogenated natural products (HNPs) have been increasingly reported to occur in marine wild life from all oceans. Several HNPs, such as 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (1) and 4,6-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromo)phenoxyanisole (2'-MeO-BDE 68 or BC-2), were detected at particularly high concentrations in dolphins from Queensland/Australia. About half of the coastline of Queensland (approximately 2500 km) is covered by the Great Barrier Reef, a rich ecosystem hosting a huge variety of species, many of which are known to produce natural compounds. In this study, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed as passive samplers for about 30 days at 12 marine and 2 nonmarine sites (i.e., rivers) along the Great Barrier Reef as part of a routine monitoring program during November 2007 and May 2008. Q1 and 2'-MeO-BDE 68 were detected at the marine sites with frequencies of about 65% but not in any sample from the two rivers. Further HNPs (2,4,6-tribromophenol, TBP; 2,4,6-tribromoanisole, TBA; 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3'5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl, 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80 or BC-1; 3,5-dibromo-2-(2',4'-dibromo)phenoxyanisole, 6-MeO-BDE 47 or BC-3; and 3,5-dibromo-2-(3',5'-dibromo,2'-methoxy)phenoxyanisole, 2',6-diMeO-BDE 68 or BC-11) were detected as well with frequencies of 18-97% in the marine samples, but no polybrominated flame retardants were detected. The highest amount of a single HNP, 2.3 microg/SPMD, was determined for TBP, which had a frequency of detection of only 46%. The maximum (average) amount in the SPMDs from marine sites was 44 ng (12 ng) for (1 and 115 ng (20 ng) for 2'-MeO-BDE 68. A first order kinetic model was used to estimate concentrations of the HNPs in the water phase. Based on the depuration of performance reference compounds obtained at one of the sites, we assumed a sampling rate of 16 L/day. We used this sampling rate to estimate that the highest and average available concentrations of Q1 in the water during the deployment of the SPMD were

  5. Facies architecture of a silicic intrusion-dominated volcanic centre at Highway Reward, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, M. G.; McPhie, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Highway-Reward massive sulphide deposit is hosted by a silicic volcanic succession in the Cambro-Ordovician Seventy Mile Range Group, northeastern Australia. Three principal lithofacies associations have been identified in the host succession: the volcanogenic sedimentary facies association, the primary volcanic facies association and the resedimented syn-eruptive facies association. The volcanogenic sedimentary facies association comprises volcanic and non-volcanic siltstone and sandstone turbidites that indicate submarine settings below storm wave base. Lithofacies of the primary volcanic facies association include coherent rhyolite, rhyodacite and dacite, and associated non-stratified breccia facies (autoclastic breccia and peperite). The resedimented volcaniclastic facies association contains clasts that were initially formed and deposited by volcanic processes, but then redeposited by mass-flow processes. Resedimentation was more or less syn-eruptive so that the deposits are essentially monomictic and clast shapes are unmodified. This facies association includes monomictic rhyolitic to dacitic breccia (resedimented autoclastic facies), siltstone-matrix rhyolitic to dacitic breccia (resedimented intrusive hyaloclastite or resedimented peperite) and graded lithic-crystal-pumice breccia and sandstone (pumiceous and crystal-rich turbidites). The graded lithic-crystal-pumice breccia and sandstone facies is the submarine record of a volcanic centre(s) that is not preserved or is located outside the study area. Pumice, shards, and crystals are pyroclasts that reflect the importance of explosive magmatic and/or phreatomagmatic eruptions and suggest that the source vents were in shallow water or subaerial settings. The lithofacies associations at Highway-Reward collectively define a submarine, shallow-intrusion-dominated volcanic centre. Contact relationships and phenocryst populations indicate the presence of more than 13 distinct porphyritic units with a

  6. A shortened intraplate rift system in the Proterozoic Mount Isa terrane, NW Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Mark G.; Lister, Gordon S.; Betts, Peter G.; Pound, Katherine S.

    1997-06-01

    The Leichhardt River Fault Trough of the Mount Isa terrane developed a complex extensional architecture between approximately 1800 and 1600 Ma, forming the underlying template upon which compressional structures were superimposed during the 1590 to 1500 Ma Isan Orogeny. Basin-fill material accumulated during at least five multiphase periods of rifting and associated postrift subsidence forming a stacked succession of unconformity-bounded sequences. Initial E-W extension was associated with a massive magmatic event. Half graben greater than 50 km in width and of alternating asymmetry localized the extrusion of up to 4 km of continental tholeiites. Thereafter a period of N-S extension resulted in southward tapering north tilted half graben in which synrift basaltic and siliciclastic strata accumulated. N-S extension was followed by regional postrift subsidence and the deposition of a laterally continuous quartzite-carbonate package. A multiphase period of E-W to NW-SE extension ensued during which time two unconformity-bounded sequences accumulated. The stratal architectures of these sequences are strongly asymmetric in cross section, exhibiting a pronounced rotational thickening toward the east, consistent with their deposition in the hanging walls of east dipping tilt blocks between 15 and 40 km in width. Finally, a period of N-S extension resulted in the development of E-W trending F1 drag synclines in the highest level cover rocks. The association of angular unconformities and block-bounding faults, E-W trending synclines and E-W striking faults, and the unique internal fold geometries of fault blocks suggest that many fault-bounded blocks originated as coherent structural entities during rifting and continued to act as such during subsequent shortening.

  7. Asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere, Mount Isa terrane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, P. G.; Lister, G. S.; O'Dea, M. G.

    1998-11-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Mount Isa Basin, of the Mount Isa terrane, hosts several large Pb-Zn-Ag deposits and is arguably one of the richest mineral provinces in the world. The deformed remnants of this basin extend from the eastern margin of the Leichhardt River Fault Trough through to the Murphy Tectonic Ridge in the far north of the terrane. The Mount Isa Basin initially evolved in response to NW-SE-directed extension during the Mount Isa Rift Event. This event began before ˜1708 Ma and had ceased by ˜1653 Ma. A sag basin continued to evolve thereafter until ˜1595 Ma. Regional analysis of the highest level cover rocks of the Mount Isa Basin reveals a notable difference in the locus of syn-rift sedimentation, syn-rift magmatism, and post-rift subsidence. Although crustal extension was widespread across the Mount Isa Basin, tectonic subsidence was focussed along the ˜N-S-oriented Mount Isa Rift. Approximately 3-5 km of fluvial to shallow marine clastic sediments were deposited into isolated rift basins. Bimodal volcanism and emplacement of shallow level plutons occurred along the western and northwestern margins of the Mount Isa Rift. Magmatic provinces mark the locus of significant subcrustal lithospheric thinning, asthenospheric upwelling, and mafic underplating. Within these magmatic provinces the syn-rift sequences are fewer and thinner (750-2000 m) and were dominantly deposited in subaerial environments, suggesting a relatively stable uplift and subsidence history. The position of maximum subcrustal lithospheric extension is determined by the position of greatest post-rift subsidence. This occurred beneath the northern Mount Isa terrane where the thickest post-rift sequences are preserved and the depositional history is more protracted. We propose that the evolution of the Mount Isa Basin is a consequence of asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere.

  8. Potential distribution of an invasive species under climate change scenarios using CLIMEX and soil drainage: a case study of Lantana camara L. in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Subhashni; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-15

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity which may be intensified by the effects of climate change, particularly if favourable climate conditions allow invasives to spread to new areas. This research explores the combined effects of climate change and soil drainage on the potential future distribution of Lantana camara L. (lantana) in Queensland, Australia. Lantana is an invasive woody shrub species that has a profound economic and environmental impact worldwide. CLIMEX was used to develop a process-based niche model of lantana to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of climate change. These models were run with the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Further refinements of the potential distributions were carried out through the integration of fine scale soil drainage data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results from both GCMs show a progressive reduction in climatic suitability for lantana in Queensland. The MIROC-H projects a larger area as remaining at risk of lantana invasion in 2100 compared to CSIRO-Mk3.0. Inclusion of soil drainage data results in a more refined distribution. Overall results show a dramatic reduction in potential distribution of lantana in Queensland in the long term (2100). However, in the short term (2030), areas such as South East Queensland and the Wet Tropics, both regions of significant ecological importance, remain at risk of invasion consistently under both GCMs and with both the climate only and climate and soil drainage models. Management of lantana in these regions will need to be prioritized to protect environmental assets of ecological significance.

  9. The oxygen isotopic composition of phytolith assemblages from tropical rainforest soil tops (Queensland, Australia): validation of a new paleoenvironmental tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, A.; Crespin, J.; Sylvestre, F.; Sonzogni, C.; Hilbert, D. W.

    2012-02-01

    Phytoliths are micrometric particles of amorphous silica that form inside or between the cells of higher plant tissues throughout the life of a plant. With plant decay, phytoliths are either incorporated into soils or exported to sediments via regional watersheds. Phytolith morphological assemblages are increasingly used as proxy of grassland diversity and tree cover density in inter-tropical areas. Here, we investigate whether, along altitudinal gradients in northeast Queensland (Australia), changes in the δ18O signature of soil top phytolith assemblages reflect changes in mean annual temperature (MAT) and in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oprecipitation), as predicted by equilibrium temperature coefficients previously published for silica. Oxygen isotopic analyses were performed on 16 phytolith samples, after controlled isotopic exchange (CIE), using the IR Laser-Heating Fluorination Technique. Long-term mean annual precipitation (MAP) and MAT values at the sampled sites were calculated by the ANUCLIM software. δ18Oprecipitation estimates were calculated using the Bowen and Wilkinson (2002) model, slightly modified. An empirical temperature-dependant relationship was obtained: δ18Owood phytolith-precipitation (‰ vs. VSMOW) = -0.4 (±0.2) t (°C) + 46 (±3) (R2 = 0.4, p < 0.05; n = 12). Despite the various unknowns introduced when estimating δ18Oprecipitation values and the large uncertainties on δ18Owood phytolith values, the temperature coefficient (-0.4 ± 0.2‰ °C-1) is in the range of values previously obtained for natural quartz, fresh and sedimentary diatoms and harvested grass phytoliths (from -0.2 to -0.5‰ °C-1). The consistency supports the reliability of δ18Owood phytolith signatures for recording relative changes in mean annual δ18Osoil water values (which are assumed to be equivalent to the weighted annual δ18O precipitation values in rainforests environments) and MAT, provided these changes were several ‰ and

  10. Assessing the repeatability of terrestrial laser scanning for monitoring gully topography: A case study from Aratula, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Nicholas Robert; Armston, John; Stiller, Isaac; Muir, Jasmine

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology is a powerful tool for quantifying gully morphology and monitoring change over time. This is due to the high sampling density, sub-centimetre positional accuracies (x, y, z), flexibility of survey configurations and ability to link multiple TLS scans together. However, to ensure correct interpretation of results, research is needed to test the repeatability of TLS derived products to quantify the accuracy and separate 'false' from 'true' geomorphic change. In this study, we use the RIEGL VZ400 scanner to test the repeatability of TLS datasets for mapping gully morphology. We then quantify change following a rainfall event of approximately 100 mm. Our study site, located in south-east Queensland, Australia was chosen to be challenging from a repeatability perspective with high topographic variability. The TLS data capture involved three sets of linked scans: one survey pre-rainfall, to be compared to two surveys post-rainfall acquired on consecutive days. Change is considered negligible in the two post-rainfall scans to test survey repeatability. To verify TLS accuracy, an independent dataset of gully extent and spot heights were acquired using traditional total station techniques. Results confirm that the TLS datasets can be registered multi-temporally at sub-centimetre levels of accuracy in three dimensions. Total station and TLS elevation samples showed strong agreement with a mean error and standard deviation (SD) of residuals equal to 0.052 and 0.047 m, respectively (n = 889). Significantly, our repeatability tests found that return type and pulse deviation influence the accuracy and repeatability of DEMs in gully environments. Analysis of consecutive day datasets showed that DEMs derived from first return data recorded 40% higher SD of residual error than DEMs using multiple return data. A significant empirical relationship between pulse deviation and the variance of residuals for repeat DEMs is also shown (r2 = 0

  11. Vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change: the views of government stakeholders and other specialists in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming scientific evidence that human activities have changed and will continue to change the climate of the Earth. Eco-environmental health, which refers to the interdependencies between ecological systems and population health and well-being, is likely to be significantly influenced by climate change. The aim of this study was to examine perceptions from government stakeholders and other relevant specialists about the threat of climate change, their capacity to deal with it, and how to develop and implement a framework for assessing vulnerability of eco-environmental health to climate change. Methods Two focus groups were conducted in Brisbane, Australia with representatives from relevant government agencies, non-governmental organisations, and the industry sector (n = 15) involved in the discussions. The participants were specialists on climate change and public health from governmental agencies, industry, and non-governmental organisations in South-East Queensland. Results The specialists perceived climate change to be a threat to eco-environmental health and had substantial knowledge about possible implications and impacts. A range of different methods for assessing vulnerability were suggested by the participants and the complexity of assessment when dealing with multiple hazards was acknowledged. Identified factors influencing vulnerability were perceived to be of a social, physical and/or economic nature. They included population growth, the ageing population with associated declines in general health and changes in the vulnerability of particular geographical areas due to for example, increased coastal development, and financial stress. Education, inter-sectoral collaboration, emergency management (e.g. development of early warning systems), and social networks were all emphasised as a basis for adapting to climate change. To develop a framework, different approaches were discussed for assessing eco-environmental health

  12. Radiocarbon and geochemical constraints on shallow groundwater recharge in a large arid zone river, Cooper Creek, SW Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Joshua; Cendón, Dioni; Nanson, Gerald; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    In the arid and semi-arid internally drained Lake Eyre Basin of central Australia, large mud dominated anabranching river systems transport monsoon derived floodwaters into the centre of the continent during the summer months, and subsequently spend much of the year under low to no flow conditions. Cooper Creek has the largest catchment in this basin, and in south west Queensland has a wide (20-60km) floodplain and multiple channel system. Enlarged channel segments, known as waterholes or billabongs, can retain water throughout much of the dry season, and their mud base can often be scoured during floods into the underlying sandy alluvium where the shallow groundwater table exists ~3-5m below the base of the waterholes. Little is known of the groundwater recharge mechanisms in this ecologically important and hydrologically unregulated river system, thus a number of piezometer transects were construct across the floodplain between two waterholes to investigate groundwater recharge processes in further detail. Samples recovered from all piezometers were analysed for major-trace element, water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ180), 3H and 14C. Water stable isotopes reveal shallow groundwater is recharged by high magnitude, low frequency monsoonal flood events, with minor evaporative enrichment probably linked to recent smaller flooding events. 14C dating of dissolved inorganic carbon reveals recharge is most effective beneath the deepest channel segments of the waterholes, and that residence time of the shallow groundwater increases with distance from major waterholes, with the post 1950's 14C bomb pulse signature present only in close proximity to the channels. 3H allows further refinement of the shallow groundwater residence times, with no 3H detected in groundwater over ~500m from the waterholes, indicating groundwater recharge is slow and restricted to major flooding events. The increase in groundwater residence time with distance from waterholes, is also accompanied

  13. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  14. The influence of geological fabric and scale on drainage pattern analysis in a catchment of metamorphic terrain: Laceys Creek, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Jane Helen; McLoughlin, Stephen; Cox, Malcolm

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between geological fabric and drainage patterns in the 81.8 km 2 Laceys Creek sub-catchment of the North Pine River catchment, southeast Queensland, Australia, is analysed using a new channel-ordination system. The Laceys Creek catchment is situated on the South D'Aguilar Block, which underwent metamorphism, faulting and uplift from the Late Carboniferous to Late Triassic. The catchment drains exposures of two main rock units, the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds and the Bunya Phyllite. Both units are composed of metamorphosed deep-sea sediments that accumulated as an accretionary wedge during late Palaeozoic subduction of the palaeo-Pacific plate under the eastern margin of the Australian craton. The new channel ordination system used in this study allows improved classification of stream segments of equal prominence or rank in comparison to previous schemes. A 10 m contour digital elevation model (DEM) was produced within which drainage channels were digitised. Planar geological features, including bedding, faults, joints and cleavage, were mapped in the field and collated with data from previous geological mapping programs. Regional and local trends of geological fabric are reflected in the variable orientation of channels of different rank in the catchment. Cleavage and fractures are the dominant planar features of the Bunya Phyllite and these correlate most closely with the orientation of middle-order incised stream segments. In contrast, middle-order channels on the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds most closely correlate with bedding, which dominates the fabric of this unit. Although anthropogenic factors exert local influence and climatic processes exert broad influence on the catchment, this study focuses on structural and lithological fabrics, which are the apparent dominant controls on middle-order channel orientations. Identification of congruent patterns between bedrock fabric and channel ranks is variable, depending on the scale and number of channels

  15. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  16. Does mosquito control have an effect on mosquito-borne disease? The case of Ross River virus disease and mosquito management in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tomerini, Deanna M; Dale, Pat E; Sipe, Neil

    2011-03-01

    We examined the relationship between types of mosquito control programs and the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease in Queensland, Australia. Mosquito control information was collected through a survey of the responsible agencies (local governments), and RRV disease notification data were provided by the Queensland state health authority. The study developed a typology of mosquito control programs, based on the approaches used. Based on the analysis of data on RRV disease rates between mosquito control types within 4 climatic regions, each region had different combinations of mosquito control strategies in their programs; there were also general similarities in the relationship between program types and RRV rates between the regions. The long-term RRV disease rates were lower in areas where the mosquito control program included pre-emptive (rather than reactive) surveillance based on an extensive (rather than incomplete) knowledge of mosquito habitats, and where treatment of both saltwater and freshwater habitats (compared to only saltwater habitats, in coastal areas) occurred. The data indicate that mosquito control is an effective public health intervention to reduce mosquito-borne disease; hence, climate change adaptation strategies should ensure that adequate resources are available for effective vector control so as to manage the risk of mosquito-borne diseases.

  17. Legitimating and Contesting the Commodification of Schooling: The Case of Teachers' Learning in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws upon research into the nature of teachers' learning practices in the context of current policy conditions in the state of Queensland, Australia. The research explores how teachers in one school in the north of the state responded to policy pressure to adopt a specific standardised approach to "explicit teaching",…

  18. The emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of natural disasters in Queensland, Australia 2011.

    PubMed

    Wynwood, S J; Craig, S B; Graham, G C; Blair, B R; Burns, M A; Weier, S L; Collet, T A; McKay, D B

    2014-06-01

    The following research reports the emergence of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea as the dominant infecting serovar following the summer of disasters and the ensuing clean up in Queensland, Australia during 2011. For the 12 month period (1 January to 31 December) L. borgpetersenii serovar Arborea accounted for over 49% of infections. In response to a flooding event public health officials need to issue community wide announcements warning the population about the dangers of leptospirosis and other water borne diseases. Communication with physicians working in the affected community should also be increased to update physicians with information such as clinical presentation of leptospirosis and other waterborne diseases. These recommendations will furnish public health officials with considerations for disease management when dealing with future disaster management programs.

  19. The cumulative impacts of repeated heavy rainfall, flooding and altered water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Butler, I R; Sommer, B; Zann, M; Zhao, J-X; Pandolfi, J M

    2015-07-15

    Terrestrial runoff and flooding have resulted in major impacts on coral communities worldwide, but we lack detailed understanding of flood plume conditions and their ecological effects. Over the course of repeated flooding between 2010 and 2013, we measured coral cover and water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. In 2013, salinity, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were altered for up to six months post-flooding. Submarine groundwater caused hypo-saline conditions for a further four months. Despite the greater magnitude of flooding in 2013, declines in coral abundance (∼28%) from these floods were lower than the 2011 flood (∼40%), which occurred immediately after a decade of severe drought. There was an overall cumulative decrease of coral by ∼56% from 2010 to 2013. Our study highlights the need for local scale monitoring and research to facilitate informed management and conservation of catchments and marine environments.

  20. A new dasyurid marsupial from Kroombit Tops, south-east Queensland, Australia: the Silver-headed Antechinus, Antechinus argentus sp. nov. (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae).

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew M; Mutton, Thomas Y; Hines, Harry B

    2013-12-11

    Antechinus argentus sp. nov. is currently only known from the plateau at the eastern escarpment of Kroombit Tops National Park, about 400km NNW of Brisbane and 60km SSW of Gladstone, south-east Queensland, Australia. Antechinus flavipes (Waterhouse) is also known from Kroombit Tops NP, 4.5km W of the nearest known population of A. argentus; A. mysticus Baker, Mutton and Van Dyck has yet to be found within Kroombit Tops, but is known from museum specimens taken at Bulburin NP, just 40km ESE, as well as extant populations about 400km to both the south-east and north-west of Kroombit NP. A. argentus can be easily distinguished in the field, having an overall silvery/grey appearance with much paler silver feet and drabber deep greyish-olive rump than A. flavipes, which has distinctive yellow-orange toned feet, rump and tail-base; A. argentus fur is also less coarse than that of A. flavipes. A. argentus has a striking silver-grey head, neck and shoulders, with pale, slightly broken eye-rings, which distinguish it from A. mysticus which has a more subtle greyish-brown head, pale buff dabs of eyeliner and more colourful brownish-yellow rump. Features of the dentary can also be used for identification: A. argentus differs from A. flavipes in having smaller molar teeth, as well as a narrower and smaller skull and from A. mysticus in having on average a narrower snout, smaller skull and dentary lengths and smaller posterior palatal vacuities in the skull. A. argentus is strongly divergent genetically (at mtDNA) from both A. flavipes (9.0-11.2%) and A. mysticus (7.2-7.5%), and forms a very strongly supported clade to the exclusion of all other antechinus species, in both mtDNA and combined (mtDNA and nDNA) phylogenies inferred here. We are yet to make detailed surveys in search of A. argentus from forested areas to the immediate east and north of Kroombit Tops. However, A. mysticus has only been found at these sites in low densities in decades past and not at all in several

  1. Rockfall hazard assessment, risk quantification, and mitigation options for reef cove resort development, False Cape, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotfeldt, P.

    2009-04-01

    GIS and 2-D rock fall simulations were used as the primary tools during a rock fall hazard assessment and analyses for a major resort and township development near Cairns, Queensland in Australia. The methods used included 1) the development of a digital elevation model (DEM); undertaking rock fall trajectory analyses to determine the end points of rockfalls, the distribution of kinetic energy for identified rock fall runout Zones, and 3) undertaking event tree analyses based on a synthesis of all data in order to establish Zones with the highest risk of fatalities. This paper describes the methodology used and the results of this work. Recommendations to mitigate the hazard included having exclusions zones with no construction, scaling (including trim blasting), construction of berms and rockfall catch fences. Keywords: GIS, rockfall simulation, rockfall runout Zones, mitigation options INTRODUCTION False Cape is located on the east side of the Trinity inlet near Cairns (Figure 1). Construction is underway for a multi-million dollar development close the beach front. The development will ultimately cover about 1.5 km of prime coast line. The granite slopes above the development are steep and are covered with a number of large, potentially unstable boulders. Sheet jointing is present in the in-situ bedrock and these combined with other tectonic joint sets have provided a key mechanism for large side down slope on exposed bedrock. With each rock fall (evidence by boulders strew in gullies, over the lower parts of the slope, and on the beach) the failure mechanism migrates upslope. In order for the Developer to proceed with construction he needs to mitigate the identified rock fall hazard. The method used to study the hazard and key finding are presented in this paper. Discussion is provided in the conclusion on mitigation options. KEY METHODS USED TO STUDY THE HAZARD In summary the methods used to study the hazard for the False Cape project include; 1. The

  2. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  3. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered.

  4. A survey of the microbiological quality of kangaroo carcasses processed for human consumption in two processing plants in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Huang, Bixing; Stuttard, Ed

    2007-05-01

    An investigation of the microbiological quality of kangaroo carcasses at two Queensland processing plants was carried out. A total of 836 whole muscle samples were taken, 801 from plant A and 35 from plant B. Samples were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The mean adjusted aerobic plate count (APC) was 2.8 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 4.2, 4.9, and 6.4 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of bacteria recovered was 6.5 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected in 13.9% of samples, for which the adjusted mean was 0.7 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 1.4, 2.0, and 3.0 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella was detected in 0.84% of samples. There was no significant relationship (P < 0.05) between season and APC or E. coli count. There was a significant relationship (P < 0.001) between Salmonella prevalence and summer. The microbiological quality of Queensland kangaroo carcasses is similar to that obtained during other excision-based studies of kangaroo, wild boar, and beef carcasses.

  5. Evaluating sewage-associated JCV and BKV polyomaviruses for sourcing human fecal pollution in a coastal river in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Wan, C; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the host-sensitivity and host-specificity of JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) polyomaviruses were evaluated by testing wastewater and fecal samples from nine host groups in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The JCV and BKV polyomaviruses were detected in 63 human wastewater samples collected from primary and secondary effluent, suggesting high sensitivity of these viruses in human wastewater. In the 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples tested, 80 were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negative for the JCV and BKV markers. Only one sample (out of 81 animal wastewater and fecal samples) from pig wastewater was positive. Nonetheless, the overall host-specificity of these viruses to differentiate between human and animal wastewater and fecal samples was 0.99. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Australia that reports on the high specificity of JCV and BKV polyomaviruses. To evaluate the field application of these viral markers for detecting human fecal pollution, 20 environmental samples were collected from a coastal river. In the 20 samples tested, 15% (3/20) and 70% (14/20) samples exceeded the regulatory guidelines for Escherichia coli and enterococci levels for marine waters. In all, five (25%) samples were PCR positive for JCV and BKV, indicating the presence of human fecal pollution in the coastal river investigated. The results suggest that JCV and BKV detection using PCR could be a useful tool for identifying human-sourced fecal pollution in coastal waters.

  6. The Proterozoic, albitite-hosted, Valhalla uranium deposit, Queensland, Australia: a description of the alteration assemblage associated with uranium mineralisation in diamond drill hole V39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Stanley, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    The Valhalla uranium deposit, located 40 km north of Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia, is an albitite-hosted, Mesoproterozoic U deposit similar to albitite-hosted uranium deposits in the Ukraine, Sweden, Brazil and Guyana. Uranium mineralisation is hosted by a thick package of interbedded fine-grained sandstones, arkoses and gritty siltstones that are bound by metabasalts belonging to the ca. 1,780 Ma Eastern Creek Volcanics in the Western Succession of the Mount Isa basin. Alteration associated with U mineralisation can be divided into an early, main and late stage. The early stage is dominated by laminated and intensely altered rock comprising albite, reibeckite, calcite, (titano)magnetite ± brannerite. The main stage of mineralisation is dominated by brecciated and intensely altered rocks that comprise laminated and intensely altered rock cemented by brannerite, apatite, (uranoan)-zircon, uraninite, anatase, albite, reibeckite, calcite and hematite. The late stage of mineralisation comprises uraninite, red hematite, dolomite, calcite, chlorite, quartz and Pb-, Fe-, Cu-sulfides. Brannerite has U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages that indicate formation between 1,555 and 1,510 Ma, with significant Pb loss evident at ca. 1,200 Ma, coincident with the assemblage of Rodinia. The oldest ages of the brannerite overlap with 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1,533 ± 9 Ma and 1,551 ± 7 Ma from early and main-stage reibeckite and are interpreted to represent the timing of formation of the deposit. These ages coincide with the timing of peak metamorphism in the Mount Isa area during the Isan Orogeny. Lithogeochemical assessment of whole rock data that includes mineralised and unmineralised samples from the greater Mount Isa district reveals that mineralisation involved the removal of K, Ba and Si and the addition of Na, Ca, U, V, Zr, P, Sr, F and Y. U/Th ratios indicate that the ore-forming fluid was oxidised, whereas the crystal chemistry of apatite and reibeckite within the ore zone suggests that F

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cotton in north eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, P.; Rowlings, D.; Weier, K.; Rochester, I.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2009-04-01

    Cotton is one of many agricultural industries in Australia heavily reliant on nitrogenous fertilizers and water storages to maintain high levels of production. Cotton-based farming systems are therefore labelled as potentially high-risk agricultural systems with respect to gaseous losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere. The on-farm study was undertaken at Dalby in the Darling Downs region of Queensland in north eastern Australia. The field was furrow irrigated and had been under continuous cotton (with winter bare fallow) for 10 years. The block was conventionally tilled, with a spraying regime typical for cotton production in this area. The black clay (with a surface clay content of 68%) and soil organic carbon content (0-10 cm) of 1.0% and a pH of 8.5, is typical of the region. During the the 2006/07 season, soil water (0-50 cm with Enviroscan), mineral nitrogen (0-10 cm) and crop production data was also collected to develop accurate models for predicting greenhouse gas emissions as a function of key chemical, physical and biological processes and specific management events. The 2006/07 experiment also attempted to directly measure the specific losses of N2O and N2 from a single application of N fertiliser using 15N isotopically labelled urea. The automated greenhouse gas measuring system (developed by Butterbach-Bahl et al.) consists of six chambers connected to sequential sampling unit, a gas chromatograph (equipped with both electron capture and flame ionization detectors for nitrous oxide and methane analysis respectively), and a Licor for carbon dioxide. To meet the demand for high mobility, the sample acquisition and analysis system is trailer mounted. During a normal sampling period, the chambers were closed for 90 minutes (unless temperatures within the chambers exceeded 55oC). The sampling program ensured that that a single gas sample was drawn back from each chamber every 20 minutes. To facilitate 15N gas sampling, Swagelok T-pieces were inserted into

  8. 10Be constrains the sediment sources and sediment yields to the Great Barrier Reef from the tropical Barron River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kyle K.; Bierman, Paul R.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2014-11-01

    Estimates of long-term, background sediment generation rates place current and future sediment fluxes to the Great Barrier Reef in context. Without reliable estimates of sediment generation rates and without identification of the sources of sediment delivered to the reef prior to European settlement (c. 1850), determining the necessity and effectiveness of contemporary landscape management efforts is difficult. Here, using the ~ 2100-km2 Barron River catchment in Queensland, Australia, as a test case, we use in situ-produced 10Be to derive sediment generation rate estimates and use in situ and meteoric 10Be to identify the source of that sediment, which enters the Coral Sea near Cairns. Previous model-based calculations suggested that background sediment yields were up to an order of magnitude lower than contemporary sediment yields. In contrast, in situ 10Be data indicate that background (43 t km- 2 y- 1) and contemporary sediment yields (~ 45 t km- 2 y- 1) for the Barron River are similar. These data suggest that the reef became established in a sediment flux similar to what it receives today. Since western agricultural practices increased erosion rates, large amounts of sediment mobilized from hillslopes during the last century are probably stored in Queensland catchments and will eventually be transported to the coast, most likely in flows triggered by rare but powerful tropical cyclones that were more common before European settlement and may increase in strength as climate change warms the south Pacific Ocean. In situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations of Coral Sea beach sand near Cairns are similar to those in rivers on the Atherton Tablelands, suggesting that most sediment is derived from the extensive, low-gradient uplands rather than the steep, more rapidly eroding but beach proximal escarpment.

  9. 10Be constrains the sediment sources and sediment yields to the Great Barrier Reef from the tropical Barron River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Rood, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of long-term, background sediment generation rates place current and future sediment fluxes to the Great Barrier Reef in context. Without reliable estimates of sediment generation rates and without identification of the sources of sediment delivered to the reef prior to European settlement (c. 1850), determining the necessity and effectiveness of contemporary landscape management efforts is difficult. Using the ~2100-km2 Barron River catchment in Queensland, Australia, as a test case, we use in situ-produced 10Be to derive sediment generation rate estimates and use in situ and meteoric 10Be to identify the source of that sediment, which enters the Coral Sea near Cairns. Previous model-based calculations suggested that background sediment yields were up to an order of magnitude lower than contemporary sediment yields. In contrast, in situ 10Be data indicate that background (43 t km-2 y-1) and contemporary sediment yields (~45 t km-2 y-1) for the Barron River are similar. These data suggest that the reef became established in a sediment flux similar to what it receives today. Since western agricultural practices increased erosion rates, large amounts of sediment mobilized from hillslopes during the last century are probably stored in Queensland catchments and will eventually be transported to the coast, most likely in flows triggered by rare but powerful tropical cyclones that were more common before European settlement and may increase in strength as climate change warms the south Pacific Ocean. In situ and meteoric 10Be concentrations of Coral Sea beach sand near Cairns are similar to those in rivers on the Atherton Tablelands, suggesting that most sediment is derived from the extensive, low-gradient uplands rather than the steep, more rapidly eroding but beach proximal escarpment.

  10. Operator error and system deficiencies: analysis of 508 mining incidents and accidents from Queensland, Australia using HFACS.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jessica M; Shappell, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    Historically, mining has been viewed as an inherently high-risk industry. Nevertheless, the introduction of new technology and a heightened concern for safety has yielded marked reductions in accident and injury rates over the last several decades. In an effort to further reduce these rates, the human factors associated with incidents/accidents needs to be addressed. A modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System was used to analyze incident and accident cases from across the state of Queensland to identify human factor trends and system deficiencies within mining. An analysis of the data revealed that skill-based errors were the most common unsafe act and showed no significant differences across mine types. However, decision errors did vary across mine types. Findings for unsafe acts were consistent across the time period examined. By illuminating human causal factors in a systematic fashion, this study has provided mine safety professionals the information necessary to reduce mine incidents/accidents further.

  11. Resolving the nature and geometry of major fault systems from geophysical and structural analysis: The Palmerville Fault in NE Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, I. M. A.; Bierlein, F. P.; Barlow, M. A.; Betts, P. G.

    2006-11-01

    The Palmerville Fault in northeastern Queensland, Australia, forms a major terrane-bounding structure that probably had a major influence on the evolution of the adjacent Palaeozoic Hodgkinson Province, the northernmost part of the Tasman Fold Belt System in eastern Australia. The nature and subsurface expression of the Palmerville Fault remain poorly constrained and models for contrasting geometries exist. In addition to structural field and microscopic observations, we have combined results from multi-scale wavelet edge analysis ('worming'), forward modelling of regional magnetic and gravity data, and geochemical data sets to develop an improved understanding of the nature and subsurface geometry and depth extent of the Palmerville Fault. Results from 'worming' suggest a steeply dipping geometry for the Palmerville Fault. Based on constraints from field observations and 'worming', we have generated a number of sections across the Palmerville Fault and forward modelled their magnetic and gravity response to compare with the observed magnetic and gravity response. Our results show that the Palmerville Fault represents a steeply eastward-dipping structure that may become listric at depth (suggesting the presence of Proterozoic basement underneath the Hodgkinson Province). Our findings suggest that the Palmerville Fault was a first-order normal fault that controlled Early-Middle Palaeozoic basin development in the Hodgkinson Province. Subsequently, the fault acted as a (mid-crustal) décollement zone accommodating basin inversion in the Hodgkinson Province during the Late Palaeozoic. These results provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Hodgkinson Province in northeastern Australia, and, importantly, demonstrate the strength of combining geological observations with geophysical analysis, in particular multi-scale wavelet edge analysis, in resolving the surface geometry and evolution of major fault systems, especially in areas of low

  12. Identification of Radar Facies and Linked Process-Based Palaeo-environmental Interpretations, Cooloola Sand Mass, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontz, A. M.; McCallum, A. B.; Moss, P. T.; Shulmeister, J.

    2015-12-01

    During 2015 and 2014, nearly 60 km of high-resolution ground penetrating radar data were acquired on the Cooloola Sand Mass (CSM) in southeastern coastal Queensland. The CSM is part of the world's largest downdrift sand system. It contains three of the world's largest sand islands, several National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and covers 500 km of the eastern Australian coastline in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. The large (>200 m) composite dunes of the CSM exhibit multiple activation phases, coastally eroding bluffs and dune development is not obvious from surficial exposures. This provides an ideal environment for ground penetrating radar. The dune sequences have been provisionally dated to the mid Quaternary through present and represent the potential for a large palaeo-environmental proxy dataset. GPR imagery was collected using a MALA GeoSciences Ground Explorer (GX) system with 160 and 450 MHz antennae from the numerous physiographic and ecological provinces as well as mapped surficial soil units at the CSM. These data were used to determine the subsurface architecture, identify radar facies and develop environmental interpretations. In the clean, aeolian quartz-rich sands, radar wave penetration exceeded 30 m (radar velocity = 0.07 m/ns) with the 160 MHz antenna. From the interpreted environmental units including palaeosol, dune slip face, dune stoss face, sand blow, beach, estuarine and fluvial, we are developing maps to relate the units and focus a detailed sampling regime that includes OSL, sediment geochemistry and sedimentology, The interpreted units, stratigraphic correlation and spatial distribution of the facies is the first step in a broader project to unravel the Quaternary environmental and climate records that are archived within the sediments of the CSM.

  13. Early Miocene R-N Reversal Recorded in Lavas From Queensland, Australia: Evidence for Stationary Mantle-held Flux Over the Past 21 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, K. A.; Camps, P.; Hansen, L. N.; Johnson, K.; Carvallo, C.

    2005-05-01

    The contention of a long-lived transitional field VGP cluster patch near Australia suggests that mantle-held flux at the core surface below this region may be largely responsible. To shed more light on this claim we have been investigating transitional field records from Australasia, the region closest to such a flux concentration and, hence, likely to be most affected by it during field reversal. Here we present paleodirectional data associated with a late Miocene (about 21 Ma) reverse-to-normal polarity transition recorded in a continuous sequence of some 30 flows in southeastern Queensland. The lavas record magnetic remanence that is either remarkably stable to demagnetization by alternating field, or displays unidirectional behavior with little or no viscous overprint. FORC diagrams confirm the presence of a high coercivity component, most likely hematite, in all samples studied. There is strong microscopic evidence that the high coercivity component was produced by the oxidation of ilmenite. This oxidation is one that occurs at high temperature. Samples which contain a significant fraction of titanomagnetite render transitional vector directions wholly compatible with those found in the most stable samples, some of which display almost no titanomagnetite grains under microscopic examination. Hence, the natural remanence can be considered to have been entirely recorded during the initial cooling of the lavas. The R-N transitional VGP path is dominated by two clusters, the first, off the west coast of Australia; the second, within Siberia. Each cluster is associated with several sequential lavas with no recorded movement of the VGP between them. The geographical location of each of these clusters correlates with a vertical field concentration as seen at Earth's surface in the modern-day field after removal of the axial dipole term (i.e. the NAD-field). This finding provides evidence that the lower-most mantle has kept the associated flux concentrations

  14. MINErosion 3: A user friendly hillslope model for predicting erosion from steep post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hwat-Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf; Carroll, Chris; Yu, Bofu

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is around 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a reliable and accurate method is required to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. A user friendly hillslope computer package MINErosion 3, was developed to predict potential erosion to select suitable combinations of landscape design parameters (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover

  15. Lava rise ridges of the Toomba basalt flow, north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, P. W.; Stephenson, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    Unusually long lava rises occur in the distal portion of the Toomba basalt flow, up to 120 km from the source. In the Lolworth creek region, three parallel lava rise ridges occur over a 6 km section. Two of these ridges are continuous for the entire 6 km. The ridges average 7 m in height and range from 35 m to 300 m in width. Lava inflation clefts are numerous, and lava rise pits also occur. Down flow, a single lava rise ridge, averaging 18 m high and up to 500 m wide, extends for a further 10 km. This ridge has a generally level surface with abrupt edges sloping between 45° and 90°. Accurate surveys across the ridges show that in some cases there has been some stretching of the surface, presumably prior to the formation of the prominent clefts. The ridges were formed from an initially thin flow that was inflated by a continuous layer of lava that underlay almost the entire width of each ridge, rather than by a system of lava tubes of more limited dimensions. Inflated material represents over 90% of the volume of the distal parts of the flow. Estimates of the time required to inflate the lava rise ridges range from 60 days to a year.

  16. Biologically active triterpenoids of Syncarpia glomulifera bark extract from Paluma, north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Setzer, W N; Setzer, M C; Bates, R B; Jackes, B R

    2000-03-01

    The crude chloroform bark extract of Syncarpia glomulifera (Myrtaceae) shows antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Bioactivity-directed separation led to the isolation of oleanolic acid-3-acetate, ursolic acid-3-acetate and betulinic acid. The relatively large abundance (10% of the crude extract) and high degree of activity of betulinic acid are responsible for the bioactivity of the crude bark extract.

  17. Characteristics and Aspirations of Older Learners from Twelve U3A Campuses in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindell, Rick

    A June 1990 survey was used to determine characteristics and aspirations of University of the Third Age (U3A) participants in Australia. The overall response rate was 73 percent. The three parts of the survey questionnaire collected information regarding wider adult education questions such as educational background, extent of activity in leisure…

  18. Vitamin D concentrations in pregnant women with diabetes attending for antenatal care in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hon C; de Costa, Caroline; McLean, Anna; Woods, Cindy

    2014-06-01

    Serum concentrations of vitamin D were measured in 101 pregnant women with diabetes, both pre-existing and gestational, who attended for antenatal care in Cairns Base Hospital. Eighty-two (81.2%) had sufficient concentrations of vitamin D, 12 (11.9%) had levels indicating insufficiency and 7 (6.9%) were deficient. These findings contrast with those in the general population of pregnant women in the region, among whom 93.1% have been shown to have sufficient levels. The study contributes to the ongoing debate around the need for universal antenatal vitamin D screening in Australia.

  19. The geochemical and Srsbnd Nd isotopic characteristics of Paleozoic fractionated S-types granites of north Queensland: Implications for S-type granite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, David C.; Bultitude, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    Moderately to strongly fractionated S-type granites crop out extensively (> 2500 km2) in the central and eastern parts of the Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. The granites have been subdivided in two major supersuites: the garnet-bearing Whypalla and cordierite-bearing Cooktown Supersuites; and a number of minor suites—including the extremely fractionated Wangetti and Mount Alto Suites. Early formed magmatic tourmaline is a feature of the Wangetti and Mount Alto granites. Almost all of the S-type granites contain metasedimentary enclave material, while microdioritic enclaves are mostly notably absent. The S-type granites are felsic with a moderate SiO2 range (68-77%). Most elements are negatively correlated with increasing differentiation, including TiO2, FeOtot, MgO, CaO, Ba, Sr, Th, LREE, Eu, Zr, Hf, and ratios such as K/Rb; many decrease to very low levels. There are very few positively correlated elements: Rb, U, and to some extent Na2O. Geochemical differences between supersuites include higher CaO, Ba, Sr, Pb, and lower Rb, Sn, B, V in the Whypalla Supersuite. Geochemical variation within the granites is largely due to extensive crystal fractionation. Some of the S-type granites have FeO* and MgO contents of 2.5-3.0% or more indicating they do not represent simple sedimentary melts, but rather represent the presence of both cumulate and restitic material. Variable Nd and Sr signatures (ɛNd between - 2 and - 6.5; initial Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.715), suggest multiple components. The S-type granites intrude a very extensive, siliciclastic turbidite sequence that is isotopically evolved (e.g., ɛNd mostly - 12.0 to - 15.0 at 270 Ma), and generally too mature (too CaO poor) to produce S-type granites. Isotopic and chemical modeling show that although magma-mixing is permissible, the levels permissible (< ca. 20-25% basaltic input), are not large enough to explain the signature of the granites. Instead the data suggest that the S

  20. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997–2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas. PMID:28218272

  1. How does chytrid infection vary among habitats? The case of Litoria wilcoxii (Anura, Hylidae) in SE Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Van Sluys, Monique; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2009-12-01

    Most analyses dealing with the geographical distribution of the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) have been performed on large geographical scales and data on more localized distribution of the chytrid within catchments are scarce. In this study, we compare the prevalence and intensity of infection of chytrid within and outside rainforest habitats at five independent catchments in southeast Queensland. In each catchment, we sampled adult Litoria wilcoxii along two transects on the same stream: one in forested areas, and the other in open nearby farmland. We analyzed swabs using quantitative PCR techniques. Male frogs were in higher densities in open habitats compared with the nearby forested areas. Infected male frogs were found in all catchments surveyed; however, prevalence of B. dendrobatidis in adult males was higher in the forested habitats than in the open habitats in four of the catchments. There was no significant difference in intensity of infection between forested and open habitats. For adult females and juveniles, sample sizes were not high enough for comparisons. Our results suggest that habitat influences chytrid prevalence and open areas may provide refuge from chytrid-induced population declines.

  2. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-20

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of 'dead on arrival', 'euthanized', or 'released' for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  3. Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in blubber and liver tissue collected from Queensland (Australia) dugong (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Haynes, David; Carter, Steve; Gaus, Caroline; Müller, Jochen; Dennison, William

    2005-01-01

    Tissue samples of liver and blubber were salvaged from fifty-three dugong (Dugong dugon) carcasses stranded along the Queensland coast between 1996 and 2000. Liver tissue was analysed for a range of heavy metals and blubber samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds. Metal concentrations were similar in male and female animals and were generally highest in mature animals. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury and nickel in a number of individual animals were elevated in comparison to concentrations previously reported in Australian dugong. Dieldrin, DDT (and its breakdown products) and/or heptachlor epoxide were detected in 59% of dugong blubber samples. In general, concentrations of organochlorines were similar to those reported in dugong 20 years earlier, and were low in comparison to concentrations recorded from marine mammal tissue collected elsewhere in the world. With the exception of lead, the extent of carcass decomposition, the presence of disease or evidence of animal starvation prior to death did not significantly affect dugong tissue concentrations of metals or organochlorines. The results of the study suggest that bioaccumulation of metals and organochlorine compounds (other than dioxins) does not represent a significant risk to Great Barrier Reef dugong populations, particularly in the context of other pressures associated with coastal development and other anthropogenic activities.

  4. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997–2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  5. Political Challenges in Complex Place-Based Health Promotion Partnerships: Lessons From an Exploratory Case Study in a Disadvantaged Area of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Del Fabbro, Letitia; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Settings-based health promotion involving multiple strategies and partners is complex, especially in disadvantaged areas. Partnership development and organizational integration are examined in the literature; however, there is more to learn from the examination of practice stakeholders' experience of intersectoral partnership processes. This case study examines stakeholder experiences of challenges in new partnership work in the context of a culturally diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged region in Queensland, Australia. Health promotion staff and community representatives participated in interviews and focus groups, and the thematic analysis included observations and documentary analyses. Our findings highlight the retrogressive influence of broader system dynamics, including policy reform and funding changes, upon partnership working. Partnership enablers are disrupted by external political influences and the internal politics (individual and organizational) of health promotion practice. We point to the need for organization level commitment to a consistent agreed vision specifically accounting for place, as a cornerstone of intersectoral health promotion partnership resilience. If organizations from diverse sectors can embed a vision for health that accounts for place, complex health promotion initiatives may be less vulnerable to broader system reforms, and health in all policy approaches more readily sustained.

  6. New evidence of the reproductive organs of Glossopteris based on permineralized fossils from Queensland, Australia. II: pollen-bearing organ Ediea gen. nov.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Harufumi; Pigg, Kathleen B; Kudo, Kensuke; Rigby, John F

    2014-03-01

    Ediea homevalensis H. Nishida, Kudo, Pigg & Rigby gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for permineralized pollen-bearing structures from the Late Permian Homevale Station locality of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. The taxon represents unisexual fertile shoots bearing helically arranged leaves on a central axis. The more apical leaves are fertile microsporophylls bearing a pair of multi-branched stalks on their adaxial surfaces that each supports a cluster of terminally borne pollen sacs. Proximal to the fertile leaves there are several rows of sterile scale-like leaves. The pollen sacs (microsporangia) have thickened and dark, striate walls that are typical of the Arberiella type found in most pollen organs presumed to be of glossopterid affinity. An examination of pollen organs at several developmental stages, including those containing in situ pollen of the Protohaploxypinus type, provides the basis for a detailed analysis of these types of structures, which bear similarities to both compression/impression Eretmonia-type glossopterid microsporangiate organs and permineralized Eretmonia macloughlinii from Antarctica. These fossils demonstrate that at least some Late Permian pollen organs were simple microsporophyll-bearing shoot systems and not borne directly on Glossopteris leaves.

  7. Geographical Inequalities in Surgical Treatment for Localized Female Breast Cancer, Queensland, Australia 1997–2011: Improvements over Time but Inequalities Remain

    PubMed Central

    Baade, Peter D.; Dasgupta, Paramita; Youl, Philippa H.; Pyke, Christopher; Aitken, Joanne F.

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of breast conserving surgery (BCS) for early stage breast cancer varies by where women live. We investigate whether these geographical patterns have changed over time using population-based data linkage between cancer registry records and hospital inpatient episodes. The study cohort consisted of 11,631 women aged 20 years and over diagnosed with a single primary invasive localised breast cancer between 1997 and 2011 in Queensland, Australia who underwent either BCS (n = 9223, 79%) or mastectomy (n = 2408, 21%). After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical factors, compared to women living in very high accessibility areas, women in high (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.58 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.49, 0.69)), low (OR 0.47 (0.41, 0.54)) and very low (OR 0.44 (0.34, 0.56)) accessibility areas had lower odds of having BCS, while  the odds for women from middle (OR 0.81 (0.69, 0.94)) and most disadvantaged (OR 0.87 (0.71, 0.98)) areas was significantly lower than women living in affluent areas. The association between accessibility and the type of surgery reduced over time (interaction p = 0.028) but not for area disadvantage (interaction p = 0.209). In making informed decisions about surgical treatment, it is crucial that any geographical-related barriers to implementing their preferred treatment are minimised. PMID:27447656

  8. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Lucy G; Molnar, Ralph E; Carpenter, Kenneth; Witmer, Lawrence M; Salisbury, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world's most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain) endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull.

  9. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Ralph E.; Carpenter, Kenneth; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Salisbury, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    Minmi is the only known genus of ankylosaurian dinosaur from Australia. Seven specimens are known, all from the Lower Cretaceous of Queensland. Only two of these have been described in any detail: the holotype specimen Minmi paravertebra from the Bungil Formation near Roma, and a near complete skeleton from the Allaru Mudstone on Marathon Station near Richmond, preliminarily referred to a possible new species of Minmi. The Marathon specimen represents one of the world’s most complete ankylosaurian skeletons and the best-preserved dinosaurian fossil from eastern Gondwana. Moreover, among ankylosaurians, its skull is one of only a few in which the majority of sutures have not been obliterated by dermal ossifications or surface remodelling. Recent preparation of the Marathon specimen has revealed new details of the palate and narial regions, permitting a comprehensive description and thus providing new insights cranial osteology of a basal ankylosaurian. The skull has also undergone computed tomography, digital segmentation and 3D computer visualisation enabling the reconstruction of its nasal cavity and endocranium. The airways of the Marathon specimen are more complicated than non-ankylosaurian dinosaurs but less so than derived ankylosaurians. The cranial (brain) endocast is superficially similar to those of other ankylosaurians but is strongly divergent in many important respects. The inner ear is extremely large and unlike that of any dinosaur yet known. Based on a high number of diagnostic differences between the skull of the Marathon specimen and other ankylosaurians, we consider it prudent to assign this specimen to a new genus and species of ankylosaurian. Kunbarrasaurus ieversi gen. et sp. nov. represents the second genus of ankylosaurian from Australia and is characterised by an unusual melange of both primitive and derived characters, shedding new light on the evolution of the ankylosaurian skull. PMID:26664806

  10. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Niel L

    2015-01-01

    The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  11. Development of a catchment/landscape erosion prediction model (MINErosion 4) for post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Ashraf; Yu, Bofu; Ghadiri, Hossain; Carroll, Chris; So, Hwat-Bing

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is approximately 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a hillslope erosion model MINErosion 3 (this conference) was developed to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. This model was useful to determine the design parameters for the construction of a suitable post-mining landscape that meets the required erosion criteria. However, the mining

  12. Evolution of a post-batholith dike swarm in central coastal Queensland, Australia: arc-front to backarc?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Charlotte M.

    2000-06-01

    A swarm of felsic and mafic dikes cuts a Late Carboniferous-Permian batholith called the Urannah Suite in central coastal Queensland. Late Permian-Triassic westward thrusting (Hunter-Bowen Orogeny) exposed this mid-crustal Suite and the crosscutting dikes, thus enabling examination of dikes that range in age from syn- to post-batholithic. Although both mafic and felsic dikes have the same dominant northerly strike, field, geochronologic and geochemical examination reveal that the swarm is composite; felsic dikes are older (285 Ma) and geochemically and isotopically distinct from mafic dikes (˜273-229 Ma). Dike compositions are compared to those of the host plutonic rocks, and to volcanic rocks the same age as the dikes. Whereas the felsic (older) dikes are compositionally similar to their host granites (initial 87Sr/ 86Sr>0.7045 ), the mafic (younger) dikes are isotopically (Sr, Nd, Pb) less radiogenic. Moreover, several different types of mafic dikes are evident based on geochemistry; most of these have mixed characteristics in terms of tectonic classification. All but two dikes of basalt and basaltic andesite composition classify as `with-in plate' on Ti-Zr-Y tectonic classification plots. Many of the basalts have high TiO 2 contents (1.5-3.0 wt.%). Most of these have REE and spider diagram patterns like calc-alkaline tholeiites, the exceptions being a few alkali basalts recognized by their alkali content, and high Ti, Ce, Nb and Zr contents. When put into the context of all plutonic rocks in the area (late Paleozoic and Mesozoic), these dikes record a transition at ˜280 Ma, after which time, all magmatism in the region is less isotopically evolved (initial 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.7033-0.7044 ). A model of slab retreat and hinge movement to the east in the latest Permian explains the change of geochemical signature from arc-front to backarc at about 280 Ma.

  13. Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) of faulting and subsidence at an abandoned coal mine in the Walloon Coal Measures, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; MacDonald-Creevey, Amanda; Smith, Ben

    2016-04-01

    As urban and suburban areas expand into previously unoccupied sites, the problem of accurately determining the locations of abandoned mine workings and the possible effects of fault reactivation on surface subsidence becomes more important. Here, we present the results of DC electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) surveys above an abandoned coal mine in the Jurassic Walloon Coal Measures of the Clarence-Moreton Basin, Queensland. Objectives were to: (1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, (2) determine the extent of the mine workings, (3) determine if the workings are open, partly- or fully-collapsed, (4) locate the possible existence of a high angle fault delineating the western extent of the workings. Coal seams were mined underground by the bord-and-pillar technique at the site until the first half of the 20th century to within ~20 m of the ground surface. This has led to ground settlement post-abandonment, with an additional hazard of this stress-redistribution being the possible reactivation of steeply-dipping faults known to pervade the coal measures. After an initial site reconnaissance, desktop study and modelling, it was determined that existing mine plans, maps and records were poorly kept and inaccurate, making a satisfactory geotechnical risk assessment prior to land development and construction difficult. The 2D ERI transects, coupled with boreholes, identified lateral zones of moderate-high resistivity that are interpreted to be partly-collapsed workings. The second key feature identified was a reverse fault that delineated the western edge of the mine workings. The key outcome is that for abandoned mine risk assessment to be optimised, careful integration of geophysical data and direct testing needs to be made.

  14. Biosecurity and the management of emergency animal disease among commercial beef producers in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, M; Higgins, V; Bryant, M; Rast, L; McShane, C

    2016-11-01

    Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project involving an analysis of literature and current policies, qualitative semi-structured interviews with government and industry stakeholders and a cross-sectional study among beef producers. The cross-sectional study used a postal survey (n=182) and face-to-face interviews (n=34) to gather data on beef producers' knowledge and practices on biosecurity and EADs and their communication networks. Findings indicate that producers are uncertain about the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders involved in biosecurity and EAD management. This uncertainty may create confusion about EAD management and impact upon producers' willingness to report animal disease, with over 20% reporting the last veterinary contact more than five years ago and an additional 8.5% who had never contacted a veterinarian. Producers had a generally high awareness of the key sources of animal disease risk and they prioritise herd health planning as part of their everyday practices. Over 40% of producers had limited knowledge of the meaning of EAD; and EAD and biosecurity planning was given a low priority, primarily due to the perceived limited likelihood of an EAD event in Australia and the belief that EAD prevention is primarily the role of government. Only a moderate implementation of biosecurity practices, such as isolating incoming animals, having a single property entry point

  15. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  16. Assessment of groundwater-surface water interaction using long-term hydrochemical data and isotope hydrology: Headwaters of the Condamine River, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jorge L; Raiber, Matthias; Cox, Malcolm E

    2015-12-01

    A spatial analysis of hydrochemical data of groundwater and surface water was undertaken to identify groundwater-surface water connectivity in the headwaters of the Condamine River catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. An assessment of long-term hydrochemical and water level data supplemented by stable- and radioisotope measurements following a prolonged dry period dominated by baseflow, helped in determining patterns of interaction in different tributaries of the upper Condamine catchment. A conceptual hydrological model representing the major hydrochemical processes and their implications for stream-aquifer connectivity was developed and tested using multiple lines of evidence. The results of a multivariate statistical analysis highlight that there are two main regions with distinct hydrochemical facies (salinity, alkalinity, and predominant ions) in surface water. Geomorphology, geology, anthropogenic and climate influence were identified as the most relevant controlling factors of the spatial variability in water quality. Stable isotope data confirmed a clear evaporation trend in almost all surface water samples during baseflow conditions. Two water types can be identified and separated by the degree of evaporation and the proximity of one group to the local meteoric water line. The results confirm the discharge of groundwater from aquifers recharged by rainfall and located upstream of the surface water sampling sites. Overall, 222Rn data show a trend of increased activity in surface water towards the upstream portions of these tributaries, validating the use of this tracer to estimate groundwater input to the local creeks. The proportion of groundwater contribution to stream flow calculated by 222Rn and chloride mass balance is in agreement, and ranges between 20-70% in tributaries in the northern areas, and between 8-50% in the upper reaches of the main river channel. This study shows the efficacy of an integrated approach combining long

  17. Exploring LiDAR data for mapping the micro-topography and tidal hydro-dynamics of mangrove systems: An example from southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jon M.; Dale, Pat E. R.; Spencer, John; Griffin, Lachlan

    2009-12-01

    The aim was to explore the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to map the micro-topography of an intertidal wetland in southeast Queensland Australia. The driver for this was the need to identify and map the habitats of the immature stages of an aedine disease vector mosquito ( Aedes vigilax (Skuse)). We derived a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data set at a vertical resolution of 0.05 m from LiDAR data. The relative accuracy of the DEM across the site was tested by comparing water depth predictions derived from the DEM against in-situ water depth readings from pressure sensors over a 10-day tidal cycle, which included high spring tides. We found that the field observations of micro-topographic units important for mosquito management matched those delineated from the DEM. The micro-topography included a low berm or central ridge that was more or less continuous across the site, a shallow back basin and fringing mangroves. The fringing mangroves had unimpeded connection to the tidal source, however the central ridge blocked tidal water from the back basin for all but the highest tides. Eggshell survey indicated that the back basin was the area suitable for immature mosquitoes. We conclude that LiDAR data has application for understanding and mapping the structure of mangrove wetlands. We have also demonstrated (in a small area) that LiDAR is useful for modelling the effect of sea level changes on the coastal fringe. LiDAR may be the only method to inform research on changes to land use and ecosystems caused by sea level change.

  18. Geochemistry of Early Middle Palaeozoic basalts in the Hodgkinson Province: a key to tectono-magmatic evolution of the Tasman Fold Belt System in northeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, I. M. A.; Bierlein, F. P.; Webb, J.

    2006-07-01

    The Palaeozoic Hodgkinson Province in northeastern Queensland, Australia, is host to Late Ordovician to Devonian rock assemblages that contain tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts. These basalts occur as massive fault-bounded units interspersed with marine sedimentary rocks and limestones that are metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies in the Ordovician Mulgrave, Silurian Chillagoe and Devonian Hodgkinson formations, respectively. The petrogenetic and Sm Nd isotope characteristics of these mafic volcanic rocks were investigated to constrain the tectonic setting in which they erupted. Major, trace and rare earth element analyses were carried out on samples from these formations and intrusive dolerites. The mafic rocks can be classified as basalts and basaltic andesites with distinct MORB characteristics. Furthermore, the basalts are characterized by a slight to moderate enrichment in Th and concomitant depletion in Nb, both of which become less pronounced with basalt evolution through time. These features are consistent with decreasing volcanic arc affinity of Silurian and Devonian MORB-type basalts in the Hodgkinson Province. Sm Nd isotope characteristics of these basalts indicate a change in source region from dominantly sub-continental lithospheric mantle in the Silurian to asthenospheric input in the Devonian. Collectively, the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the Hodgkinson Province basalts are interpreted to reflect deposition in an evolving back-arc basin setting. The onset of basin extension was initiated in the Silurian. Accelerated basin subsidence occurred throughout the Devonian and was halted by basin inversion in the Late Devonian. Basin evolution was controlled by an eastward stepping subduction zone outboard of the Australian Craton.

  19. Using 3D geological modelling and geochemical mixing models to characterise alluvial aquifer recharge sources in the upper Condamine River catchment, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jorge L; Raiber, Matthias; Cendón, Dioni I

    2017-01-01

    The influence of mountain front recharge on the water balance of alluvial valley aquifers located in upland catchments of the Condamine River basin in Queensland, Australia, is investigated through the development of an integrated hydrogeological framework. A combination of three-dimensional (3D) geological modelling, hydraulic gradient maps, multivariate statistical analyses and hydrochemical mixing calculations is proposed for the identification of hydrochemical end-members and quantification of the relative contributions of each end-member to alluvial aquifer recharge. The recognised end-members correspond to diffuse recharge and lateral groundwater inflows from three hydrostratigraphic units directly connected to the alluvial aquifer. This approach allows mapping zones of potential inter-aquifer connectivity and areas of groundwater mixing between underlying units and the alluvium. Mixing calculations using samples collected under baseflow conditions reveal that lateral contribution from a regional volcanic aquifer system represents the majority (41%) of inflows to the alluvial aquifer. Diffuse recharge contribution (35%) and inflow from two sedimentary bedrock hydrostratigraphic units (collectively 24%) comprise the remainder of major recharge sources. A detailed geochemical assessment of alluvial groundwater evolution along a selected flowpath of a representative subcatchment of the Condamine River basin confirms mixing as a key process responsible for observed spatial variations in hydrochemistry. Dissolution of basalt-related minerals and dolomite, CO2 uptake, ion-exchange, precipitation of clay minerals, and evapotranspiration further contribute to the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the upland alluvial aquifer. This study highlights the benefits of undertaking an integrated approach that combines multiple independent lines of evidence. The proposed methods can be applied to investigate processes associated with inter-aquifer mixing, including

  20. The Impact of Rurality and Disadvantage on the Diagnostic Interval for Breast Cancer in a Large Population-Based Study of 3202 Women in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Youl, Philippa H.; Aitken, Joanne F.; Turrell, Gavin; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Dunn, Jeffrey; Pyke, Christopher; Baade, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Delays in diagnosing breast cancer (BC) can lead to poorer outcomes. We investigated factors related to the diagnostic interval in a population-based cohort of 3202 women diagnosed with BC in Queensland, Australia. Interviews ascertained method of detection and dates of medical/procedural appointments, and clinical information was obtained from medical records. Time intervals were calculated from self-recognition of symptoms (symptom-detected) or mammogram (screen-detected) to diagnosis (diagnostic interval (DI)). The cohort included 1560 women with symptom-detected and 1642 with screen-detected BC. Symptom-detected women had higher odds of DI of >60 days if they were Indigenous (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.40, 6.98); lived in outer regional (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.06) or remote locations (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.39, 4.38); or presented with a “non-lump” symptom (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.36). For screen-detected BC, women who were Indigenous (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.03, 5.80); lived in remote locations (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.24, 4.44); or disadvantaged areas (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17, 2.43) and attended a public screening facility (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.17) had higher odds of DI > 30 days. Our study indicates a disadvantage in terms of DI for rural, disadvantaged and Indigenous women. Difficulties in accessing primary care and diagnostic services are evident. There is a need to identify and implement an efficient and effective model of care to minimize avoidable longer diagnostic intervals. PMID:27869758

  1. Earliest known Carboniferous shallow-water reefs, Gudman Formation (Tn1b), Queensland, Australia: Implications for Late Devonian reef collapse and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. E.

    1998-10-01

    The Phanerozoic history of reefs extensively has been considered a direct reflection of the history of skeletal reef-building organisms. However, such a relationship does not characterize global mid-Paleozoic reef history. The extinction of most reef-building stromatoporoids and corals at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary correlates with the collapse of North American and European stromatoporoid-dominated reefs, but Western Australian, Russian, and Chinese reefs were much less severely affected until the late Famennian, when algae, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites (i.e., stromatolites, thrombolites) declined globally. Additionally, reef recovery was more rapid than previously thought. Small, early Tournaisian (Tn1b) shallow-water reefs in the Gudman Formation of eastern-central Queensland substantially reduce the duration of the “reefless lag time” following Late Devonian reef decline, essentially confining it to the Strunian. Gudman reefs are dominated by microbialite, but contain a diverse, although volumetrically insignificant, skeletal fauna and flora, including large colonial corals, bryozoans, crinoids, brachiopods, and calcareous algae. Hence, mid-Paleozoic reef collapse and recovery reflect an amalgam of more-or-less independent histories of skeletal organisms, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites, in response to regional and global environmental parameters. A better understanding of mid-Paleozoic reef history will require detailed local- and regional-scale studies to isolate global from nonglobal signals.

  2. The Whitsunday Volcanic Province, Central Queensland, Australia: lithological and stratigraphic investigations of a silicic-dominated large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, S. E.; Ewart, A.; Stephens, C. J.; Parianos, J.; Downes, P. J.

    2000-06-01

    Contrary to general belief, not all large igneous provinces (LIPs) are characterised by rocks of basaltic composition. Silicic-dominated LIPs, such as the Whitsunday Volcanic Province of NE Australia, are being increasingly recognised in the rock record. These silicic LIPs are consistent in being: (1) volumetrically dominated by ignimbrite; (2) active over prolonged periods (40-50 m.y.), based on available age data; and (3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break-up. This silicic-dominated LIP, related to the break-up of eastern continental Gondwana, is also significant for being the source of >1.4×10 6 km3 of coeval volcanogenic sediment preserved in adjacent sedimentary basins of eastern Australia. The Whitsunday Volcanic Province is volumetrically dominated by medium- to high-grade, dacitic to rhyolitic lithic ignimbrites. Individual ignimbrite units are commonly between 10 and 100 m thick, and the ignimbrite-dominated sequences exceed 1 km in thickness. Coarse lithic lag breccias containing clasts up to 6 m diameter are associated with the ignimbrites in proximal sections. Pyroclastic surge and fallout deposits, subordinate basaltic to rhyolitic lavas, phreatomagmatic deposits, and locally significant thicknesses of coarse-grained volcanogenic conglomerate and sandstone are interbedded with the ignimbrites. The volcanic sequences are intruded by gabbro/dolerite to rhyolite dykes (up to 50 m in width), sills and comagmatic granite. Dyke orientations are primarily from NW to NNE. The volcanic sequences are characterised by the interstratification of proximal/near-vent lithofacies such as rhyolite domes and lavas, and basaltic agglomerate, with medial to distal facies of ignimbrite. The burial of these near-vent lithofacies by ignimbrites, coupled with the paucity of mass wastage products such as debris-flow deposits indicates a low-relief depositional environment. Furthermore, the volcanic succession records a temporal change in: (1) eruptive styles

  3. Patterns of tree dieback in Queensland, Australia: the importance of drought stress and the role of resistance to cavitation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kevin J; Matzner, Steven L; Byer, William; Brown, Joel R

    2004-04-01

    During the extreme 1992-1997 El Niño drought event, widespread stem mortality, or tree "dieback", of both mature and juvenile eucalypts occurred within the tropical savannas of northeast Australia. Most of the dieback occurred in individuals of the ironbark species complex ( Eucalyptus crebra- E. xanthoclada) while individuals of the bloodwood species Corymbia erythrophloia, exhibited significantly less stem mortality. Indicative of greater water stress, predawn and midday xylem water potentials of ironbark adults and saplings were significantly more negative than predawn values of bloodwoods. The very negative xylem water potentials in ironbarks suggest that stem mortality in both adult and juvenile ironbarks results from drought-induced embolism and that ironbarks perhaps have a shallower and less extensive root system than bloodwoods. Although predawn and midday water potentials for ironbark adults and saplings were similar, a census of mature and juvenile ironbark trees indicated that mortality was higher in adult trees. Cavitation vulnerability curves indicated that ironbark saplings may be better buffered against cavitation than adult trees. If they possess smaller root systems, saplings are more likely than adults to experience low xylem water potentials, even in non-drought years. Xylem conduits produced in adult trees during periods of normal rainfall, although perhaps more efficient in water conduction, may be more vulnerable to cavitation during infrequent severe droughts.

  4. Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia): Study Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Ezz, Wafaa Nabil; Mazaheri, Mandana; Robinson, Paul; Johnson, Graham R.; Clifford, Samuel; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Marks, Guy B.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm) in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH) study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT) and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW) (to assess airway function), fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation), blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (to measure systemic inflammation). A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study. PMID:25648226

  5. The geochemistry of primary and weathered oil shale and coquina across the Julia Creek vanadium deposit (Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Stephen Edward; Henderson, Robert A.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Shields, Graham A.; Coxhell, Simon

    2010-08-01

    A significant resource of vanadium and molybdenum exists near Julia Creek, Australia, where the middle Cretaceous organic-rich Toolebuc Formation lies between 0 and 25 m of the surface. We present and discuss a comprehensive geochemical study of the Toolebuc Formation and its enclosing stratigraphy near Julia Creek to understand this ore deposit. V and Mo contents in fresh facies are strongly associated with total organic carbon (TOC) contents, but not with Al or CaCO3; this suggests that V and Mo were originally concentrated in the organic fraction. However, chemical extractions using H2O2 indicate that Mo was originally concentrated in pyrite. The data also suggest that V was mobilised from organic matter during early diagenesis and became associated with clays as little V was extracted by H2O2 in the fresh samples. TOC contents in the Toolebuc Formation were removed during weathering, residually enriching trace metals including V and Mo, and as a result, the TOC relationship with V and Mo disintegrates. With weathering, both V and Mo predominantly became associated with iron oxide/hydroxide phases (and possibly other unidentified phases) as these elements in the weathered facies were highly soluble in the sodium citrate-sodium dithionite digestion. Large shale-hosted V and Mo deposits such as Julia Creek offer a potentially viable alternative to the currently mined magnetite-hosted deposits. A thorough understanding of the formation and host mineral phases for V and Mo of these shale deposits, however, is critical to ensure that these valuable metals can be feasibly extracted.

  6. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-11-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. Prescribed burning can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined in four replicate plots which were burned during the combustion and in another four adjacent unburned plots located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 d-1. Prescribed burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates in the burned plots measured in August 2014. In the following 3 months, the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to the pre-burning level. Mean CO2 emission from the forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 d-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned plots in both August and November 2014. The CO2 emissions showed more seasonal variations, rather than the effects of prescribed burning. The N2O emission in the plots was quite low, and no significant impact of prescribed burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial

  7. Impacts of prescribed burning on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a suburban native forest of south-eastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y. Z.; Xu, Z. H.; Fu, L.

    2015-07-01

    Prescribed burning is a forest management practice that is widely used in Australia to reduce the risk of damaging wildfires. It can affect both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in the forest and thereby influence the soil-atmosphere exchange of major greenhouse gases, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To quantify the impact of a prescribed burning (conducted on 27 May 2014) on greenhouse gas exchange and the potential controlling mechanisms, we carried out a series of field measurements before (August 2013) and after (August 2014 and November 2014) the fire. Gas exchange rates were determined at 4 replicate sites which were burned during the combustion and another 4 adjacent unburned sites located in green islands, using a set of static chambers. Surface soil properties including temperature, pH, moisture, soil C and N pools were also determined either by in situ measurement or by analysing surface 10 cm soil samples. All of the chamber measurements indicated a net sink of atmospheric CH4, with mean CH4 uptake ranging from 1.15 to 1.99 mg m-2 day-1. The burning significantly enhanced CH4 uptake as indicated by the significant higher CH4 uptake rates at the burned sites measured in August 2014. While within the next 3 months the CH4 uptake rate was recovered to pre-burning levels. Mean CO2 emission from forest soils ranged from 2721.76 to 7113.49 mg m-2 day-1. The effect of prescribed burning on CO2 emission was limited within the first 3 months, as no significant difference was observed between the burned and the adjacent unburned sites in both August and November 2014. The temporal dynamics of the CO2 emission presented more seasonal variations, rather than burning effects. The N2O emission at the studied sites was quite low, and no significant impact of burning was observed. The changes in understory plants and litter layers, surface soil temperature, C and N substrate availability and microbial activities, resulting from the

  8. Eucalyptus Pollen Allergy and Asthma in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Jane E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate Eucalyptus (gum tree) pollen allergy in children in relation to geography, particularly vegetation, and its relationship to asthma. Methods Males (n = 180) and females (n = 200) aged 9 to 14 participated. Some were healthy (asymptomatic), some had asthma, and some had other symptoms associated with atopy. School students were from three urban coastal schools and one school from a nearby semi-rural elevated area (range) near Brisbane, Australia. Coastal and range locations featured different distributions of Myrtaceae family vegetation (including Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Leptospermum species). Skin prick test (SPT) responses to 15 commercial allergens were compared. As well, responses from coast versus range groups, and ‘asthma’ (n = 97) versus ‘healthy’ status (n = 107) groups, were compared. Results SPT responses (≥3mm wheal diameter) indicate that children with asthma are 31.1 times more likely to be allergic to Eucalyptus pollen extract (OR: 31.1; 95%CI 4.1- 235.7) compared to healthy children. Dust mite (p = .018), Eucalyptus (p = .046) and cockroach (p = .047) allergen SPT responses (wheals ≥3mm) were significantly greater in participants located on the coast versus range as determined by Fisher’s Exact Test (α .05). For each location, percentage of positive responses (wheals ≥3mm) was greatest for ‘dust mite’ (30.9%-46%), ‘cockroach’ (18.1% -35%) and ‘Bermuda grass’ (10.6%-19.4%). Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that proximity to Myrtaceae vegetation is related to positive SPT response and that Eucalyptus is an important allergen for children with asthma. Substantial response to olive allergen, in the absence of olive trees, suggests that the response may be driven by substances in other plants, perhaps Melaleuca quinquenervia, which abounds in coastal areas. Implications Response to Eucalyptus allergen indicates that changes in gardening practice in schools and public areas may be

  9. The use of ERTS/LANDSAT imagery in relation to airborne remote sensing for terrain analysis in Western Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator); Owen-Jones, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery contrast the geology of the Cloncurry-Dobbyn and the Gregory River-Mt. Isa areas very clearly. Known major structural features and lithological units are clearly displayed while, hitherto unknown lineaments were revealed. Throughout this area, similar rock types produce similar spectral signatures, e.g. quartzites produce light signatures, iron rich rocks produce dark signatures. More geological data are discernible at the 1:50,000 scale than on the 1:250,000 scale. Ore horizons may be identified at the 1:50,000 scale, particularly where they are associated with iron rich rocks. On the level plains north of Cloncurry, distinctive spectral signatures produced by the combined reflectances of plant cover, soils, and geology, distinguish different types of superficial deposits. Existing and former channels of the Cloncurry and Williams Rivers are distinguished at the 1:50,000 scale on both the LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery. On the Cloncurry Plains, fence lines are discernible on the 1:50,000 LANDSAT 2 imagery.

  10. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    PubMed

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.

  11. Petrographic and isotope constraints on the origin of authigenic carbonate minerals and the associated fluid evolution in Late Permian coal measures, Bowen Basin (Queensland), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, I. T.; Golding, S. D.; Glikson, M.

    2000-11-01

    Authigenic carbonate minerals are ubiquitous throughout the Late Permian coal measures of the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia. In the northern Bowen Basin, carbonates include the following assemblages: siderite I (δ 18OSMOW=+11.4 to +17%, δ 13CPDB=-5.3 to +120), Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II mineral association (δ 18OSMOW=+7.2 to +10.20, δ 13CPDB=10.9 to -1.80 for ankerite) and a later calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+5.9 to +14.60, δ 13CPDB=-11.4 to +4.40). In the southern Bowen Basin, the carbonate phase consists only of calcite (δ 18OSMOW=+12.5 to +14.80, δ 13CPDB=-19.4 to +0.80), where it occurs extensively throughout all stratigraphic levels. Siderite I occurs in mudrocks and sandstones and predates all other carbonate minerals. This carbonate phase is interpreted to have formed as an early diagenetic mineral from meteoric waters under cold climate and reducing conditions. Fe-Mg calcite-ankerite-siderite II occur in sandstones as replacement of volcanic rock fragments. Clay minerals (illite-smectite, chlorite and kaolinite) postdate Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates, and precipitation of the later calcite is associated with clay mineral formation. The Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates and later calcite of the northern Bowen Basin are regarded as having formed as a result of hydrothermal activity during the latest Triassic extensional tectonic event which affected this part of the basin, rather than deep burial diagenesis during the Middle to Late Triassic as previously reported. This hypothesis is based on the timing relationships of the authigenic mineral phases and the low δ18O values of ankerite and calcite, together with radiometric dating of illitic clays and recently published regional geological evidence. Following the precipitation of the Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates from strongly 18O-depleted meteoric-hydrothermal fluids, continuing fluid circulation and water-rock interaction resulted in dissolution of these carbonate phases as well as labile fragments of volcaniclastic rocks

  12. Mineralogical maturity in dunefields of North America, Africa and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of dunefields in central and western North America show that mineralogical maturity can provide new insights into the origin and evolution of aeolian sand bodies. Many of the world's great sand seas in Africa, Asia and Australia are quartz-dominated and thus can be considered to be mineralogically mature. The Algodones (California) and Parker (Arizona) dunes in the southwestern United States are also mature, but have inherited a high degree of mineralogical maturity from quartz-rich sedimentary rocks drained by the Colorado River. In Libya, sediments of the Zallaf sand sea, which are almost pure quartz, may have originated in a similar fashion. The Fort Morgan (Colorado) and Casper (Wyoming) dunefields in the central Great Plains of North America, and the Namib sand sea of southern Africa have an intermediate degree of mineralogical maturity because their sources are large rivers that drained both unweathered plutonic and metamorphic rocks and mature sedimentary rocks. Mojave Desert dunefields in the southwestern United States are quite immature because they are in basins adjacent to plutonic rocks that were their sources. Other dunefields in the Great Plains of North America (those in Nebraska and Texas) are more mature than any possible source sediments and therefore reflect mineralogical evolution over time. Such changes in composition can occur because of either of two opposing long-term states of the dunefield. In one state, dunes are stable for long periods of time and chemical weathering depletes feldspars and other weatherable minerals in the sediment body. In the other state, which is most likely for the Great Plains, abrasion and ballistic impacts deplete the carbonate minerals and feldspars because the dunes are active for longer periods than they are stable. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Integrative Taxonomy in the Conservation Management of Cryptic Species: The Taxonomic Status of Endangered Earless Dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the Grasslands of Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered ‘species’ of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  14. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  15. Health risk from the use of roof-harvested rainwater in Southeast Queensland, Australia, as potable or nonpotable water, determined using quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Vieritz, A; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2010-11-01

    A total of 214 rainwater samples from 82 tanks were collected in urban Southeast Queensland (SEQ) in Australia and analyzed for the presence and numbers of zoonotic bacterial and protozoal pathogens using binary PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) analysis was used to quantify the risk of infection associated with the exposure to potential pathogens from roof-harvested rainwater used as potable or nonpotable water. Of the 214 samples tested, 10.7%, 9.8%, 5.6%, and 0.4% were positive for the Salmonella invA, Giardia lamblia β-giardin, Legionella pneumophila mip, and Campylobacter jejuni mapA genes, respectively. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst wall protein (COWP) could not be detected. The estimated numbers of Salmonella, G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila organisms ranged from 6.5 × 10¹ to 3.8 × 10² cells, 0.6 × 10⁰ to 3.6 × 10⁰ cysts, and 6.0 × 10¹ to 1.7 × 10² cells per 1,000 ml of water, respectively. Six risk scenarios were considered for exposure to Salmonella spp., G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila. For Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia, these scenarios were (i) liquid ingestion due to drinking of rainwater on a daily basis, (ii) accidental liquid ingestion due to hosing twice a week, (iii) aerosol ingestion due to showering on a daily basis, and (iv) aerosol ingestion due to hosing twice a week. For L. pneumophila, these scenarios were (i) aerosol inhalation due to showering on a daily basis and (ii) aerosol inhalation due to hosing twice a week. The risk of infection from Salmonella spp., G. lamblia, and L. pneumophila associated with the use of rainwater for showering and garden hosing was calculated to be well below the threshold value of one extra infection per 10,000 persons per year in urban SEQ. However, the risk of infection from ingesting Salmonella spp. and G. lamblia via drinking exceeded this threshold value and indicated that if undisinfected rainwater is ingested by drinking, then the incidences of

  16. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of

  17. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in

  18. Dual 10Be isotope systems constrain the source of sediment and rate of erosion for the tropical Barron River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, K. K.; Bierman, P. R.; Reusser, L. J.; Portenga, E.; Matmon, A.; Rood, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand source of sediment and rate of erosion for Barron River catchment, which heads on the Atherton Tablelands of northeast Australia, crosses the northern Queensland escarpment and drains into the Coral Sea, we collected fluvial sediment and measured both in situ and meteoric 10Be contents on the medium sand fraction. We collected fourteen samples from rivers and streams including large regional drainages and small tributaries. The upland basins are characterized by lower relief and less precipitation than the steeper and wetter escarpment basins. One sample is quartz sand from the Coral Sea beach at Yorkey's Knob, below the escarpment. Sand from the Barron River upstream of the escarpment integrates the upland basins and has an in situ 10Be concentration of 2.31±0.84 x105atoms/g and an erosion rate of 17.2 m/My (calculated using the CRONOS on-line calculator). This is similar to a major upland tributary (2.51±0.40 x105 atoms/g; 15.2 m/My) and two smaller upstream tributaries (20.5 m/My and 21.4 m/My). Escarpment streams have less in situ 10Be in their sediment (mean = 1.64±0.55 x 105 atoms/g, n=8) and higher basin area-weighted erosion rates (37.2 m/My). Based on the in situ measurements, the uplands are eroding at approximately half the rate of the escarpment basins. The beach sand has an in situ 10Be concentration (2.75±0.19 x 105 atoms/g) similar to the upland sediment suggesting that the source of beach sand is the larger but more slowly eroding Tablelands. In contrast, the meteoric 10Be concentrations of Barron River sand-sized sediment collected above the escarpment is ~4 fold lower (2.55x107 atoms/g) than the average meteoric 10Be concentration of the 8 escarpment samples (9.94±4.49 x107 atoms/g). This discrepancy cannot be explained by differences in annual average precipitation which ranges only from 1.9 to 2.3 m/yr but likely results from the deep mobility of meteoric 10Be in oxic Tableland soils. Considering meteoric 10Be as a

  19. Rhenium-osmium systematics of the Mount Isa copper orebody and the Eastern Creek Volcanics, Queensland, Australia: implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Melissa J.; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Keays, Reid R.; Wilde, Andy R.

    2008-07-01

    The syn-tectonic breccia-hosted Mount Isa Cu deposit in northwest Queensland is the largest sediment-hosted Cu deposit in Australia. Whole-rock samples of chalcopyrite-rich Cu ore form an isochron with a Re-Os age of 1,372 ± 41 Ma. This age is more than 100 Ma younger than the previously accepted age of Cu ore formation, an Ar-Ar mineral age for biotite separated from the host rocks within the alteration envelope to the Cu orebody. This discrepancy cannot be unequivocally resolved due to a lack of other absolute geochronological constraints for Cu mineralisation or the deformation event associated with Cu emplacement. The 1,372 ± 41 Ma date may reflect (a) the time of Cu deposition, (b) the time of a hydrothermal event that reset the Re-Os signature of the Cu ore or (c) mixing of the Re-Os isotope systematics between the host rocks and Cu-bearing fluids. However, a range of published Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr dates for potassic alteration associated with Cu mineralisation also records an event between 1,350 and 1,400 Ma and these are consistent with the 1,372 Ma Re-Os age. The 1.8 Ga Eastern Creek Volcanics are a series of tholeiitic basalts with a primary magmatic Cu enrichment which occur adjacent to the Mount Isa Cu deposit. The whole-rock Os isotopic signature of the Eastern Creek Volcanics ranges from mantle-like values for the upper Pickwick Member, to more radiogenic/crustal values for the lower Cromwell Member. The Re-Os isotope signature of the Cu ores overlaps with those calculated for the two volcanic members at 1,372 Ma; hence, the Os isotope data are supportive of the concept that the Os in the Cu ores was sourced from the Eastern Creek Volcanics. By inference, it is therefore postulated that the Eastern Creek Volcanics are the source of Cu in the Mount Isa deposit, as both Os and Cu are readily transported by oxidised hydrothermal fluids, such as those that are thought to have formed the Cu orebody. The Pickwick Member yields a Re-Os isochron age of 1,833

  20. The petrology and petrogenesis of the Tertiary anorogenic mafic lavas of Southern and Central Queensland, Australia — Possible implications for crustal thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, A.; Baxter, K.; Ross, J. A.

    1980-12-01

    The Miocene-Oligocene volcanism of this region is part of the larger Tertiary volcanic province found throughout E. Australia. Within the S.E. Queensland region, the volcanism is strongly bimodal, and has emanated from six major centres, and many additional smaller centres. The mafic lavas (volumetrically dominant) range continuously from ne-normative through to Q-normative and are predominantly andesine-normative; Mg/Mg+∑Fe (atomic ratios range from 30 60; K2O ranges from 0.42 2.93%, and TiO2 from 0.81 3.6%. Phenocryst contents are low (averaging 6.7 vol.%), and comprise olivine (Fa18 75; Cr-spinel inclusions occur locally in Mg-rich phenocrysts), plagioclase (An25 68), and less commonly augite, which is relatively aluminous in lavas of the Springsure volcanic centre. Very rare aluminous bronzite occurs in certain Q-normative lavas. Groundmass minerals comprise augite, olivine (Fa33 77), feldspar (ranging from labradorite through to anorthoclase and sanidine), Fe-Ti oxides, and apatite. Within many of the Q-normative lavas, extensive development of subcalcic and pigeonitic pyroxenes occurs, and also relatively rarely orthopyroxene. Mineralogically, the ne- and ol-normative lavas, and some of the Q-normative lavas are indistinguishable, and in view of the gradations in chemistry, the term hawaiite has been extended to cover these lavas. The term tholeiitic andesite is used to describe the Q-normative lavas containing Ca-poor pyroxenes as groundmass phases. Megacrysts of aluminous augite, aluminous bronzite, olivine, ilmenite, and spinel sporadically occur within the lavas, and their compositions clearly indicate that they are not derived from the Upper Mantle. Rare lherzolite xenoliths are also found. The petrogenesis of these mafic lavas is approached by application of the thermodynamic equilibration technique of Carmichael et al. (1977), utilizing three “parental” mineral assemblages that could have been in equilibrium with the magmas at P and T. The models

  1. Nd, Sr and Os isotope systematics in young, fertile spinel peridotite xenoliths from northern Queensland, Australia: A unique view of depleted MORB mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, M. R.; Bennett, V. C.; Carlson, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Northeastern Queensland, a part of the Phanerozoic composite Tasman Fold Belt of eastern Australia, has a Paleozoic to Mesozoic history dominated by subduction zone processes. A suite of 13 peridotite xenoliths from the <3 Ma Atherton Tablelands Volcanic Province, predominantly from Mount Quincan, comprise fertile (1.8-3.4 wt.% Al 2O 3 and 38.7-41.9 wt.% MgO) spinel lherzolites free from secondary volatile-bearing phases and with only weak metasomatic enrichment of incompatible trace elements (Sm N/Yb N = 0.23-1.1; La N/Yb N = 0.11-4.9). The suite is isotopically heterogeneous, with measured Sr ( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7027-07047), Nd ( 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.51249-0.51362), and to a lesser extent, Os ( 187Os/ 188Os = 0.1228-0.1292) compositions broadly overlapping MORB source mantle (DMM) and extending to more depleted compositions, reflecting evolution in a time-integrated depleted reservoir. Major and rare earth element systematics are consistent with mantle that is residual after low to moderate degrees of melt extraction predominantly in the spinel facies, but with a few samples requiring partial melting at greater pressures in the garnet field or near the garnet-spinel transition. In contrast to most previously studied suites of continental lithospheric mantle samples, the incompatible trace element contents and Sr and Nd isotopic systematics of these samples suggest only minimal modification of the sampled lithosphere by metasomatic processes. Five of six Mount Quincan xenoliths preserving depleted middle to heavy REE patterns form a whole rock Sm-Nd isochron with an age of ˜275 Ma (ɛ Ndi = +9), coincident with widespread granitoid emplacement in the overlying region. This isochron is interpreted to indicate the timing of partial melting of a DMM-like source. Xenoliths from other Atherton localities scatter about the isochron, suggesting that the sampled mantle represents addition of DMM mantle to the lithosphere in the Permian, when the region may have broadly been

  2. Local Area Initiatives, 1986. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priority Country Area Program Office, Brisbane (Australia).

    The Priority Country Area Program is a Rural Education Program funded by the Commonwealth Schools Commission and jointly administered by the Queensland (Australia) Department of Education and the Queensland Catholic Education Office. The program develops educational strategies to address problems engendered by the social and geographical nature of…

  3. Conductivity models for the North Perth Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, T. E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal resources in the North Perth basin, Western Australia, led to acquisition of new, high resolution Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) data, the first of its kind in the area. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques are widely used in geothermal exploration and ground water investigations and they are well suited for application in the Perth basin. Two east-west transects investigating the structure of the onshore basin and its eastern margin, the Darling Fault Zone, are compared with existing geological models and geophysical data. Down-hole temperature data and depth-to-basement models were used to define areas of investigation in the basin, but there are limited geophysical data available. 1D, 2D and 3D modeling of electromagnetic data have been used to produce new conductivity models using existing data to constrain modelling. EM data complement existing gravity and seismic data and support published models in the upper 4-6km. However in deeper parts of the basin, MT data provide additional information allowing for revision of depth-to-basement. In addition to this, we clearly identify a conductivity anomaly associated with the Darling Fault Zone and are able to image this anomaly penetrating into the upper mantle. Fault zone conductors have been imaged on other lithosphere faults around the world, with one explanation being fluids in the enhanced permeability of the damage zone. Evidence to explain the fault zone conductor of the Darling Fault is presented and discussed as it could have significant implications in the identification of new areas, prospective for geothermal resources in the basin.

  4. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-03-17

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given.

  5. CLIL in Queensland: The Evolution of "Immersion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Queensland second language immersion programs have been in existence for three decades, and are part of a growing number of additive bilingual education programs in Australia. Most prominently, many new Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs have been established particularly in Victoria over the past few years. This focus on…

  6. Revision of the genus Metallesthes Kraatz and description of Metallesthes anneliesae, a new species of Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Moeseneder, Christian H; Hutchinson, Paul M; Lambkin, Christine L

    2014-11-06

    The endemic Australian flower chafer genus Metallesthes Kraatz, 1880 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) is revised. Metallesthes anneliesae Moeseneder & Hutchinson new species is described from southern Queensland and New South Wales. Metallesthes unicolor (Macleay, 1863) revised status is raised from synonymy with Metallesthes metallescens (White, 1859). Metallesthes metallescens and Metallesthes unicolor are redescribed and their holotypes are figured. A specimen bearing a Nonfried type label is designated as the lectotype of Metallesthes subpilosa Nonfried, 1891. Metallesthes subpilosa new synonymy is synonymised with Pseudoclithria ruficornis (Westwood, 1874). A key to the species of the genus is provided. Distribution maps are shown and known host plants are listed.

  7. Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander patients in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Trout, M I; Henson, G; Senthuran, S

    2015-03-01

    A retrospective cohort analysis of an admission database for the intensive care unit at The Townsville Hospital was undertaken to describe the characteristics and short-term outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. The Townsville Hospital is the tertiary referral centre for Northern Queensland and services a region in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people constitute 9.6% of the population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients were significantly younger and had higher rates of invasive mechanical ventilation, emergency admissions and transfers from another hospital. Despite these factors, intensive care mortality did not differ between groups (9.4% versus 7.7%, P=0.1). Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III-j scores were noted in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population requiring emergency admission (65 versus 60, P=0.022) but were lower for elective admission (38 versus 42, P <0.001). Despite higher predicted hospital mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring emergency admission, no significant difference was observed (20.1% versus 19.1%, P=0.656). In a severity adjusted model, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status did not statistically significantly alter the risk of death (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.65, 1.2, P=0.398). Though Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring intensive care differed in admission characteristics, mortality was comparable to other critically ill patients.

  8. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  9. A comparison of vegetation development on coarse coal reject and replaced topsoil on an open-cut coal mine in central Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, D.R.; Grigg, A.H.; Bowen, D.; Orr, M.S.; Bell, L.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1988, the University of Queensland commenced a research program at Curragh coal mine in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland to examine factors that would encourage the growth of a cover crop sufficient t control soil erosion, but not so competitive as to hinder the establishment of native species. Weed and grass growth from the soil seed store in replaced topsoil often has a negative impact on the establishment and survival of sown native tree and shrub species. In contrast, good establishment has been achieved using a surface mulch of coarse coal reject. Longer term data confirm the beneficial effect of coarse coal reject, with approximately 4,500 trees/ha on coarse reject after 10 years compared to 300 trees/ha on replaced topsoil. The difference is attributed largely to the competitive effects of the dense ground cover on topsoil at initial establishment. However, there are two potential problems for the long-term sustainability of communities on coarse coal reject. Firstly, reject is very low in nutrients and microbial biomass, limiting the satisfactory development of nutrient cycling. Secondly, it is often saline and will be likely to continue to generate salt with weathering, raising concerns over the success of secondary recruitment. It is concluded that coarse coal reject can play a role in successful tree and shrub establishment and hence in increasing the diversity of post-mining ecosystems. However, careful management is required to avoid the use of saline materials, and strategies need to be explored to increase its biological activity.

  10. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graves, Jennifer A M; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north-south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P < 0.001), thereby suggesting that geographic structuring should be considered in the conservation management of koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas.

  11. Relations between Teachers' Classroom Goals and Values: A Case Study of High School Teachers in Far North Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudelko, Claudia E.; Boon, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is an empirical gap in the evidence of the relations between teachers' classroom goals and values, two key variables linked to students' achievement motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate this relationship in an Australian teacher sample. We surveyed 102 high school teachers from seven schools in Cairns, Queensland…

  12. Long term land cover and seagrass mapping using Landsat and object-based image analysis from 1972 to 2010 in the coastal environment of South East Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Mitchell B.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Roelfsema, Chris M.

    2012-07-01

    Long term global archives of high-moderate spatial resolution, multi-spectral satellite imagery are now readily accessible, but are not being fully utilised by management agencies due to the lack of appropriate methods to consistently produce accurate and timely management ready information. This work developed an object-based remote sensing approach to map land cover and seagrass distribution in an Australian coastal environment for a 38 year Landsat image time-series archive (1972-2010). Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery were used without in situ field data input (but still using field knowledge) to produce land and seagrass cover maps every year data were available, resulting in over 60 map products over the 38 year archive. Land cover was mapped annually using vegetation, bare ground, urban and agricultural classes. Seagrass distribution was also mapped annually, and in some years monthly, via horizontal projected foliage cover classes, sand and deep water. Land cover products were validated using aerial photography and seagrass maps were validated with field survey data, producing several measures of accuracy. An average overall accuracy of 65% and 80% was reported for seagrass and land cover products respectively, which is consistent with other studies in the area. This study is the first to show moderate spatial resolution, long term annual changes in land cover and seagrass in an Australian environment, created without the use of in situ data; and only one of a few similar studies globally. The land cover products identify several long term trends; such as significant increases in South East Queensland's urban density and extent, vegetation clearing in rural and rural-residential areas, and inter-annual variation in dry vegetation types in western South East Queensland. The seagrass cover products show that there has been a minimal overall change in seagrass extent, but that seagrass cover

  13. Changing epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2006: use of passive surveillance of susceptibility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, G R; Fong, J; Paterson, D L; McLaws, M-L

    2008-12-01

    The epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has changed remarkably in recent years with the appearance of new MRSA strains causing infections in the community. These strains have now begun to cause healthcare-associated infections. The ability to track such changes is necessary to guide clinical and public health action. Here we report passive surveillance of all public laboratory susceptibility data in Queensland to track changes in MRSA phenotypes corresponding to the major epidemic strains from 2000 to 2006. The inpatient rate of MRSA isolation from pus, tissue and fluid (PTF) and blood culture (BC) specimens declined by 26% and 35%, respectively. The rate of isolation of the AUS-2/3-like phenotype (corresponding to ST239-MRSA-III) decreased from 651 to 242 isolates per million accrued patient days in inpatient PTF and BC, whereas that for non-multiresistant MRSA (nmMRSA, corresponding to community MRSA strains) increased from 71 to 315. The overall outpatient rate of MRSA isolation from PTF and BC increased by 224% and 31%, respectively. The rate of AUS-2/3-like isolates in outpatient PTF decreased from 131 to 60 per million outpatient occasions of service while the nmMRSA rate increased from 52 to 490. Surveillance of phenotypes derived from routine susceptibility data is a useful tool for tracking changes in the epidemiology of MRSA over large geographical regions.

  14. Rare earth element and Pb isotope variations in a 52 kyr peat core from Lynch’s Crater (NE Queensland, Australia): Proxy development and application to paleoclimate in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylander, M. E.; Muller, J.; Wüst, R. A. J.; Gallagher, K.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Coles, B. J.; Weiss, D. J.

    2007-02-01

    Accurate prediction of future climate scenarios is contingent on our understanding of past and present climate mechanisms. This is done in part through the reconstruction of historical climate changes using proxy records from terrestrial and marine archives. Terrestrial archives covering the Holocene and late Pleistocene are limited, most acutely in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, Rare earth elements (REE) and Pb isotopes are developed as inorganic geochemical proxies of mineral dust source changes and, by extension, climate change. Using a peat core from Lynch's Crater in NE Queensland, Australia, we present the first long-term (c. 52 kyr) terrestrial record of atmospheric REE and Pb deposition (with the exception of four wet events which represent periods of erosion from the crater itself) in the Southern Hemisphere covering both glacial and interglacial times. Based on a combination of correlation analyses, Al and Ti normalised profiles and elemental patterns, we establish REE are immobile within the peat deposit and not subject to significant post depositional diagenetic changes (important particularly for Ce). This is vital as REE can be mobile under acid and organic rich conditions like those that can occur during the development of a peat deposit. The volcanic provinces of eastern Australia have characteristic Eu anomaly signatures, which allowed their use in a novel way to detect changes in dust source to Lynch's Crater. Between 41,095 and 52,505 BP the deposit was under the influence of dust carried by long distance transport (>1500 km) from SE Australia. From 8525 to 40,815 BP regional sources (100-1500 km) dominated the deposited signals while between 1740 and 8390 BP the dust signal was controlled by local sources (<100 km). These findings were also confirmed by Pb isotope data. Changepoint modelling refined the timing of these changes in dust source, recognizing concurrent shifts in our tracing tools ((Eu/Eu ∗) PAAS and 206Pb/ 207Pb). These

  15. Long-term frequent prescribed fire decreases surface soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a wet sclerophyll forest of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Muqaddas, Bushra; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Lewis, Tom; Wild, Clyde; Chen, Chengrong

    2015-12-01

    Prescribed fire is one of the most widely-used management tools for reducing fuel loads in managed forests. However the long-term effects of repeated prescribed fires on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how different fire frequency regimes influence C and N pools in the surface soils (0-10 cm). A prescribed fire field experiment in a wet sclerophyll forest established in 1972 in southeast Queensland was used in this study. The fire frequency regimes included long unburnt (NB), burnt every 2 years (2yrB) and burnt every 4 years (4yrB), with four replications. Compared with the NB treatment, the 2yrB treatment lowered soil total C by 44%, total N by 54%, HCl hydrolysable C and N by 48% and 59%, KMnO4 oxidizable C by 81%, microbial biomass C and N by 42% and 33%, cumulative CO2-C by 28%, NaOCl-non-oxidizable C and N by 41% and 51%, and charcoal-C by 17%, respectively. The 4yrB and NB treatments showed no significant differences for these soil C and N pools. All soil labile, biologically active and recalcitrant and total C and N pools were correlated positively with each other and with soil moisture content, but negatively correlated with soil pH. The C:N ratios of different C and N pools were greater in the burned treatments than in the NB treatments. This study has highlighted that the prescribed burning at four year interval is a more sustainable management practice for this subtropical forest ecosystem.

  16. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T.; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Graves, Jennifer A. M.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north–south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P < 0.001), thereby suggesting that geographic structuring should be considered in the conservation management of koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas. PMID:27515769

  18. Preliminary results of the cruise dedicated to the bifurcation of the North Caledonian Jet onto the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, C.; Marin, F.; Bonnet, S.; Desnues, A.; Finot, L.; Varillon, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation, we intend to detail preliminary results and observations collected during the BIRFURCATION cruise, staged on board the R/V Alis of the IRD and operated under the auspices of SPICE (Southwest PacIfic Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment). A specific effort during SPICE was made to establish an observational program to survey air-sea fluxes and currents in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas, and their inflows and outflows, with special attention to the strong boundary currents. During its transit into the Coral Sea, the southern branch of the Southern Equatorial Current is affected by the presence of many reefs and small islands of a coral archipelago that cause it to form intense fine-scale oceanic jets downstream of these topographic obstacles. The North Caledonian Jet formed at its entry into the Coral Sea is further separated into flows towards the South (feeding the East Australian Current) and towards the equator (through the Solomon Sea). The obstacle responsible for this separation is the plateau of Queensland, near 17°S-152°E, which is composed of a group of small islands and coral reefs that are distinct from the Great Barrier Reef. The precise pathways and the relative contributions of the various water masses that arrive at the base of this plateau are still unknown and represent the focus of BIFURCATION. This cruise should thus supplement our vision of the circulation of the North Caledonian Jet within the Coral Sea, and make it possible to test to what extent this water contributes to the composition of the current at the western edge of the New Guinea UnderCurrent which feeds the equatorial band and whose climatological mass transport is estimated in the literature to vary by a factor of 2. By determining the characteristics of these water masses before their final arrival at the Australian coast it will also be possible to estimate to what extent they undergo further mixing with yet other water masses within the Coral and

  19. Comparison of Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) and Schmidt hammer 'R' for rapid assessment of rock surface hardness: a preliminary assessment from southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    This research focuses on one of the key challenges in geomorphology - quantifying rock surface hardness via in situ measurements, to provide information on rock physical properties. This has been a focus in recent years with the rapid emergence of studies that center on surface and near surface weathering impacts, and rates of material loss. Indeed, a key element to understanding how weathering and erosion processes combine to influence rock surface (and landscape) evolution is the measurement and monitoring of rock surface hardness. We provide results from a preliminary assessment of the applicability of the Acoustic Energy Meter (AEM) to subaerial rock surface hardness, in comparison with an N-Type Schmidt hammer. The AEM apparatus consists of a geophone which is in contact with the rock surface and some electronics. The AEM is held normal to the surface to be tested and the surface is struck with a small hammer (typically 0.75 kg), with the AEM quantifying the decay time of seismically-induced oscillations within the top c. 1-2 m of the rock mass. Previous work using an AEM has focused on measuring roof stability and delamination in South African underground coal, gold and platinum mines, where long AEM reverberation times correlated well with weak rock mass and dense microfracturing. However, the technique has rarely been applied to the assessment of rock surfaces in a subaerial setting. We applied the technique to a range of lithologies at five sites in southeast Queensland in the Brisbane area, each an exposure of phyllite, granite, mudstone, argillite or volcanic tuff. The aims were: (1) quantifying the response of different rock masses to the AEM technique; and (2) assessing the applicability of the AEM as a rapid in situ measure of rock hardness by comparing results with Schmidt hammer 'R' values from the same exposures. Results showed that the AEM is useful in discriminating rock hardness across rocks with different lithological properties. Second, an

  20. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda

    2016-04-01

    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  1. Policy Fuzz and Fuzzy Logic: Researching Contemporary Indigenous Education and Parent-School Engagement in North Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Tess; Thompson, Helen; McRae-Williams, Eva; Wegner, Aggie

    2011-01-01

    "Engagement" is the second of six top priorities in Australia's most recent Indigenous education strategy to "close the gap" in schooling outcomes. Drawing on findings from a three-year ethnographic analysis of school engagement issues in the north of Australia, this article situates engagement within the history of Indigenous…

  2. Impacts of Groundwater Discharge at Myora Springs (North Stradbroke Island, Australia) on the Phenolic Metabolism of Eelgrass, Zostera muelleri, and Grazing by the Juvenile Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Thomas; Freundlich, Grace; Weilnau, Taylor; Verdi, Arielle; Tibbetts, Ian R.

    2014-01-01

    Myora Springs is one of many groundwater discharge sites on North Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). Here spring waters emerge from wetland forests to join Moreton Bay, mixing with seawater over seagrass meadows dominated by eelgrass, Zostera muelleri. We sought to determine how low pH / high CO2 conditions near the spring affect these plants and their interactions with the black rabbitfish (Siganus fuscescens), a co-occurring grazer. In paired-choice feeding trials S. fuscescens preferentially consumed Z. muelleri shoots collected nearest to Myora Springs. Proximity to the spring did not significantly alter the carbon and nitrogen contents of seagrass tissues but did result in the extraordinary loss of soluble phenolics, including Folin-reactive phenolics, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids by ≥87%. Conversely, seagrass lignin contents were, in this and related experiments, unaffected or increased, suggesting a shift in secondary metabolism away from the production of soluble, but not insoluble, (poly)phenolics. We suggest that groundwater discharge sites such as Myora Springs, and other sites characterized by low pH, are likely to be popular feeding grounds for seagrass grazers seeking to reduce their exposure to soluble phenolics. PMID:25127379

  3. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  4. Life-cycle and biology of Sychnocotyle kholo n.g., n. sp. (Trematoda : Aspidogastrea) in Emydura macquarii (Pleurodira : Chelidae) from southern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M A; Cribb, T H; Smales, L R

    1999-05-01

    Sychnocotyle kholo n. g., n. sp. (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogastridae) is described from the small intestine of the freshwater turtle Emydura macquarii (Pleurodira: Chelidae). The new genus is distinguished from other aspidogastrids by the possession of the following suite of characters: no cirrus-sac; no hermaphroditic duct; four rows of alveoli on the ventral disc but no prominent papillae; Laurer's canal opening to the exterior. Eggs hatched to cotylocidia within 37-41 days at 17-24 degrees C. The life-cycle is obligate two-host, involving a mollusc and a freshwater turtle. Juvenile forms, almost entirely single worm infections, were found in the molluscs Corbiculina sp. (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) and Thiara balonnensis (Prosobranchia: Thiaridae). Sychnocotyle is most likely to have evolved in Australia after the separation of Gondwanaland from Laurasia 120- 100 mya.

  5. Whiplash rove beetle dermatitis in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Banney, L A; Wood, D J; Francis, G D

    2000-08-01

    Vesicular dermatitis due to contact with Coleoptera (beetles) is common worldwide, although the condition has been infrequently described in Australia. We document the largest outbreak recognized so far in Australia with a conservative estimate of 250 cases. This occurred in central coastal Queensland over several weeks in late 1998. A survey of the medical practitioners in this district is presented, along with clinical and histopathological illustrations. Our research found that knowledge of the condition was limited even in this region where cases occur each year. This condition is an important differential diagnosis in acute blistering disorders.

  6. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications.

  7. School of the Air by Satellite. A Study of the Improvement of Distance Education in North-west Queensland Using the Australian Communications Satellite System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitt, John; And Others

    As part of an assessment of the educational uses of the Australian Communications Satellite System to be launched in mid-1985, this report focuses on the Mount Isa School of the Air. A general discussion assesses the mechanisms for delivery of distance education for isolated students in Northwest Queensland and considers possible functional…

  8. Epidemiology of Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz infections in Australia.

    PubMed

    Slack, Andrew T; Symonds, Meegan L; Dohnt, Michael F; Corney, Bruce G; Smythe, Lee D

    2007-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Leptospira weilii serovar (sv.) Topaz is a newly described serovar first isolated in the far north of Queensland, Australia. The epidemiology of L. weilii sv. Topaz infections in Australia was characterised through the use of surveillance questionnaires and molecular studies. There have been 24 human and 2 animal (bovine and bandicoot) L. weilii sv. Topaz infections diagnosed since 1991. The majority of these infections have occurred in Far North Queensland, with the remaining infections occurring in South East Queensland and in Western Australia. The majority of patients with L. weilii sv. Topaz infections presented with classical leptospirosis symptoms including; fever, headaches, sweats, chills and myalgia. The occupations of human cases of L. weilii sv. Topaz infection included banana farming, dairy and beef cattle production and tourist related activities. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) was performed on 15 L. weilii sv. Topaz isolates including 2 animal isolates. Clustering analysis grouped the 15 isolates into 5 main clades with 13 unique FAFLP profiles. A high level of relatedness was demonstrated between 2 animal and 2 human isolates.

  9. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  10. School Experience in Queensland Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs. 2. Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duck, Greg, Ed.; Cunningham, Debra, Ed.

    This report discusses the third major stage of the Queensland Board of Teacher Education's investigation into the nature of school experiences in preservice teacher education programs in Queensland, Australia. An account is presented of the proceedings of a statewide conference held in September 1984 to discuss results of the survey research…

  11. Homesteading on the Web: The Queensland Department of Education Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Jennifer; Allison, Myrl

    1996-01-01

    The Queensland Department of Education (Australia) developed a homesteading model as an alternative to the urban-built environment model of large multi-purpose networks. This resulted in the in-house development of a low-cost, stand-alone server and homepage. The charette technique was used to plan and design the Queensland Department of Education…

  12. A new skink (Scincidae: Saproscincus) from rocky rainforest habitat on Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2013-01-01

    Saproscincus skinks are restricted to wet forest habitats of eastern Australia. Eleven species have previously been described, with most having small distributions in disjunct areas of subtropical and tropical rainforest. The localized distributions and specific habitat requirements of Saproscincus have made them a key group for understanding the biogeographic history of Australia's rainforests. Here I describe a new species of Saproscincus from the Melville Range on Cape Melville, north-east Australia. The Melville Range is composed of boulder-fields and areas of rainforest in the uplands, and is highly isolated from other areas of elevated rainforest. All individuals of the new species were found on a moist ridgeline, active on boulders under a rainforest canopy or on boulder-field immediately adjacent to rainforest. Saproscincus saltus sp. nov. is highly distinct in morphology and colour pattern. Of particular interest are its long limbs and digits compared to congeners, which in conjunction with the observed ecology, suggest a long history of association with rock. The discovery of S. saltus sp. nov. extends the distribution of the genus over 100 km north from the nearest congeners in the Wet Tropics region. This species brings the number of vertebrates known to be endemic to the Melville Range to six, which is remarkable for such a small area.

  13. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  14. Effect of nitrification inhibitors (DMPP and 3MP+TZ) on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a sub-tropical vegetable production system in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Deuter, Peter; Firrell, Mary; Rowlings, David; Grace, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrification inhibitors, in combination with ammonium based fertilisers, has been promoted recently as an effective method to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilised agricultural fields, whilst increasing yield and nitrogen use efficiency. Vegetable cropping systems are often characterised by high inputs of nitrogen fertiliser and consequently elevated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) can be expected. However, to date only limited data is available on the use of nitrification inhibitors in sub-tropical vegetable systems. A field experiment investigated the effect of the nitrification inhibitors (DMPP & 3MP+TZ) on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable production system in sub-tropical Australia. Soil N2O fluxes were monitored continuously over an entire year with a fully automated system. Measurements were taken from three subplots for each treatment within a randomized complete blocks design. There was a significant inhibition effect of DMPP and 3MP+TZ on N2O emissions and soil mineral N content directly following the application of the fertiliser over the vegetable cropping phase. However this mitigation was offset by elevated N2O emissions from the inhibitor treatments over the post-harvest fallow period. Cumulative annual N2O emissions amounted to 1.22 kg-N/ha, 1.16 kg-N/ha, 1.50 kg-N/ha and 0.86 kg-N/ha in the conventional fertiliser (CONV), the DMPP treatment, the 3MP+TZ treatment and the zero fertiliser (0N) respectively. Corresponding fertiliser induced emission factors (EFs) were low with only 0.09 - 0.20% of the total applied fertiliser lost as N2O. There was no significant effect of the nitrification inhibitors on yield compared to the CONV treatment for the three vegetable crops (green beans, broccoli, lettuce) grown over the experimental period. This study highlights that N2O emissions from such vegetable cropping system are primarily controlled by post-harvest emissions following the incorporation of vegetable crop

  15. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  16. Resource Allocation Procedure at Queensland University: A Dynamic Modelling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter L.; Carss, Brian W.

    A structural reorganization of the University of Queensland, Australia, was undertaken to promote efficient resource management, and a resource allocation model was developed to aid in policy evaluation and planning. The operation of the restructured system was based on creating five resource groups to manage the distribution of academic resources…

  17. The New Sexuality Education Curriculum for Queensland Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    A departmental review of education curricula in Queensland, Australia has found that minimal or no learning about sexuality education takes place. Its public schools and teachers are able to avoid or not fulfil their obligations regarding the teaching of sexuality education and reproductive health to children and young people. This lacuna in…

  18. Moho geometry along a north-south passive seismic transect through Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Receiver functions from a temporary deployment of 25 broadband stations along a north-south transect through Central Australia are used to retrieve crustal and uppermost mantle structural constraints from a combination of different methods. Using H-K stacking as well as receiver function inversion, overall thick crust with significant thickness variation along the profile (40 to ≥ 55 km) is found. Bulk crustal vp/vs values are largely in the felsic to intermediate range, with the southernmost stations on the Gawler Craton exhibiting higher values in excess of 1.8. A common conversion point (CCP) stacking profile shows three major discontinuities of the crust-mantle boundary: (1) a two-sided Moho downwarp beneath the Musgrave Province, which has previously been associated with the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian Petermann Orogeny, (2) a Moho offset along the Redbank Shear Zone further north attributed to the Middle to Late Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny, and (3) another Moho offset further north, located at the boundary between the Davenport and Warramunga Provinces, which has not been imaged before. In all cases, the difference in crustal thickness between the two sides of the offset is > 8-10 km. Unlike the two southern Moho offsets, the northernmost one does not coincide with a prominent gravity anomaly. Its location and the absence of known reactivation events in the region make it likely that it belongs to a Proterozoic suture zone that marks a previously unknown block boundary within the North Australian Craton.

  19. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed.

  20. Impacts of climate change and climate variability on the competitiveness of wheat and beef cattle production in Emerald, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Howden, S M; McKeon, G M; Meinke, H; Entel, M; Flood, N

    2001-09-01

    Emerald, north-east Queensland, is at the northern margin of the wheat cropping region of Australia. The Emerald region was previously used predominantly for grazing beef cattle; however, cropping has developed in importance over the past 30 years. We use historical climate records (1890-1998) to simulate and compare wheat yields, grass production and live-weight gain (LWG) over time. The cropping expansion from the 1970s to the early 1990s has occurred in a unique period in the 108-year record with the highest average wheat yields, lowest wheat yield variability and the greatest relative productivity of wheat production against grass production. If this window of opportunity is a result of long-term climate variability, then cropping is likely to decline in the region as conditions return to those experienced earlier in the record. If this increase is related to climate change, then cropping is likely to persist in the region with productivity maintained at current levels particularly through the yield-enhancing effects of increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this persistence will be influenced by the frequencies of El Niño conditions that may increase with global warming. The high relative productivities experienced over the past few decades have probably biased producers' expectations, and applications for drought support need to take into account the longer-term perspective provided by this analysis. Nevertheless, the last 6 years have the lowest simulated mean LWG production on the record. The identification of poor production periods depended on the production element being addressed and the timescale involved.

  1. Micorbial Colonization of Materials at Innisfail, Queensland.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    on the material or when sporing structures were observed on colonies derived * 4 from mycelium on the material . After about 6 months exposure, the...AD-AOB4 229 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) F/S /3 MICORBIAL COLONIZATION OF MATERIALS AT INNISFAIL, QUEENSLANDO.(U) AUG 79 F J UPSIER... MATERIALS LI B AT IlIiSFAIL, QUEENSLAND I F. John Upsher ApprvedforPublic Release DTIC ~, C ~MAY 19 198 ©COMMONWEALTH OF AUSIHALIA 1979 AUGUST, 1979 - ~ ~ O

  2. An open, self-controlled study on the efficacy of topical indoxacarb for eliminating fleas and clinical signs of flea-allergy dermatitis in client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fisara, Petr; Sargent, Roger M; Shipstone, Michael; von Berky, Andrew; von Berky, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine flea-allergy dermatitis (FAD), a hypersensitivity response to antigenic material in the saliva of feeding fleas, occurs worldwide and remains a common presentation in companion animal veterinary practice despite widespread availability of effective systemic and topical flea-control products. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the clinical response in dogs with FAD treated topically with indoxacarb, a novel oxadiazine insecticide. Animals Twenty-five client-owned dogs in Queensland, Australia diagnosed with pre-existing FAD on the basis of clinical signs, flea-antigen intradermal and serological tests. Methods An open-label, noncontrolled study, in which all dogs were treated with topical indoxacarb at 4 week intervals, three times over 12 weeks. Results Twenty-four dogs completed the study. Complete resolution of clinical signs of FAD was observed in 21 cases (87.5%), with nearly complete resolution or marked improvement in the remaining three cases. Mean clinical scores (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index-03) were reduced by 93.3% at week 12. Mean owner-assessed pruritus scores were reduced by 88% by week 12. Mean flea counts reduced by 98.7 and 100% in weeks 8 and 12, respectively. Conclusions and clinical importance Topical indoxacarb treatment applied every 4 weeks for 12 weeks, without concomitant antipruritic or ectoparasiticide therapy, completely alleviated flea infestations in all dogs and associated clinical signs of FAD in a high proportion of this population of dogs in a challenging flea-infestation environment. Résumé Contexte La dermatite par allergie aux piqures de puces (FAD), une hypersensibilité aux antigènes salivaires des puces, est décrite dans le monde entier et reste une présentation fréquente en médicine vétérinaire des animaux de compagnie malgré une large gamme d'antiparasitaires topiques et systémiques efficaces disponibles. Hypothèses/Objectifs Estimer la réponse clinique des chiens

  3. Late Triassic conodont and palynomorph biostratigraphy and conodont termal maturation, North West Shelf, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Robert S.; Foster, Clinot B.

    Late Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian) conodonts recovered from borecores and sea-bottom dredge samples on the North West Shelf off Western Australia are assigned to the Metapolygnathus primitius, Epigondolella triangularis, E. spiculata, E. postera, E. bidentata, Misikella hernsteini, and M. posthernsteini Zones. Based on previous studies, particularly from North America, these conodont zones can be used to tie with the standard Triassic ammonite zonation. The present record therefore provides the first set of chronologic anchor points for dating the co-occurring dinocyst assmeblages and spore-pollen floras from the North West Shelf. Our conodont data show that the Hebecysta (al. Heibergella) balmei, Rhaetogonyaulax (al. Shublikodinium) wigginsii, and Wanneria (al. Suessia) listeri dinocyst zones are younger than suggested previously, and that some zonal ranges overlap. We conclude further detailed palynological and conodont studies are urgently needed to resolve these problems and extend conodont age control into the early Late Triassic (Carnian) and the Middle Triassic. Key wells investigated include Ashmore Reef 1, Mt. Ashmore 1B, and Sahul Shoals 1. Conodont thermal maturation data indicate a very low thermal gradient on the Ashmore Platform near the shelf margin, but a more normal thermal gradient on the Sahul Platform and a high heat flow in the onshore Bonaparte Basin.

  4. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils.

  5. Geological history of the outer North West Shelf of Australia: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, N. F.; Colwell, J. B.

    This paper uses information contained in other papers in this issue of the AGSO Journal together with the scientific literature to produce a synthesis of the geological development of the outer continental margin of northwest Australia, and the adjacent plateaus and abyssal plains, with special emphasis on the northern Exmouth Plateau and Rowley Terrace. In the Palaeozoic, the outer North West Shelf formed part of the continental crust of East Gondwana. The region was stretched in the Late Palaeozoic, and subsequently subsided to form the Westralian Superbain on the southern margin of Tethys. The superbasin filled with thick Triassic sediments, and variable thicknesses of Jurassic sediments, before progressive breakup in Callovian-Valanginian time.

  6. Developing a School-Based Preventive Life Skills Program for Youth in a Remote Indigenous Community in North Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gary; Leckning, Bernard; Midford, Richard; Harper, Helen; Silburn, Sven; Gannaway, Jess; Dolan, Kylie; Delphine, Tim; Hayes, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of development and the pilot implementation of a preventive life skills curriculum for Indigenous middle school students in a very remote community college in the West Arnhem region of North Australia. The curriculum integrates proven educational and psychological techniques with…

  7. Diverse staghorn coral fauna on the mesophotic reefs of north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Muir, Paul; Wallace, Carden; Bridge, Tom C L; Bongaerts, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Concern for the future of reef-building corals in conditions of rising sea temperatures combined with recent technological advances has led to a renewed interest in documenting the biodiversity of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) and their potential to provide lineage continuation for coral taxa. Here, we examine species diversity of staghorn corals (genera Acropora and Isopora) in the mesophotic zone (below 30 m depth) of the Great Barrier Reef and western Coral Sea. Using specimen-based records we found 38 staghorn species in the mesophotic zone, including three species newly recorded for Australia and five species that only occurred below 30 m. Staghorn corals became scarce at depths below 50 m but were found growing in-situ to 73 m depth. Of the 76 staghorn coral species recorded for shallow waters (depth ≤ 30 m) in north-east Australia, 21% extended to mesophotic depths with a further 22% recorded only rarely to 40 m depth. Extending into the mesophotic zone provided shallow water species no significant advantage in terms of their estimated global range-size relative to species restricted to shallow waters (means 86.2 X 10(6) km2 and 85.7 X 10(6) km2 respectively, p = 0.98). We found four staghorn coral species at mesophotic depths on the Great Barrier Reef that were previously considered rare and endangered on the basis of their limited distribution in central Indonesia and the far western Pacific. Colonies below 40 m depth showed laterally flattened branches, light and fragile skeletal structure and increased spacing between branches and corallites. The morphological changes are discussed in relation to decreased light, water movement and down-welling coarse sediments. Staghorn corals have long been regarded as typical shallow-water genera, but here we demonstrate the significant contribution of this group to the region's mesophotic fauna and the importance of considering MCEs in reef biodiversity estimates and management.

  8. Diverse Staghorn Coral Fauna on the Mesophotic Reefs of North-East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Paul; Wallace, Carden; Bridge, Tom C. L.; Bongaerts, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Concern for the future of reef-building corals in conditions of rising sea temperatures combined with recent technological advances has led to a renewed interest in documenting the biodiversity of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) and their potential to provide lineage continuation for coral taxa. Here, we examine species diversity of staghorn corals (genera Acropora and Isopora) in the mesophotic zone (below 30 m depth) of the Great Barrier Reef and western Coral Sea. Using specimen-based records we found 38 staghorn species in the mesophotic zone, including three species newly recorded for Australia and five species that only occurred below 30 m. Staghorn corals became scarce at depths below 50 m but were found growing in-situ to 73 m depth. Of the 76 staghorn coral species recorded for shallow waters (depth ≤ 30 m) in north-east Australia, 21% extended to mesophotic depths with a further 22% recorded only rarely to 40 m depth. Extending into the mesophotic zone provided shallow water species no significant advantage in terms of their estimated global range-size relative to species restricted to shallow waters (means 86.2 X 106 km2 and 85.7 X 106 km2 respectively, p = 0.98). We found four staghorn coral species at mesophotic depths on the Great Barrier Reef that were previously considered rare and endangered on the basis of their limited distribution in central Indonesia and the far western Pacific. Colonies below 40 m depth showed laterally flattened branches, light and fragile skeletal structure and increased spacing between branches and corallites. The morphological changes are discussed in relation to decreased light, water movement and down-welling coarse sediments. Staghorn corals have long been regarded as typical shallow-water genera, but here we demonstrate the significant contribution of this group to the region’s mesophotic fauna and the importance of considering MCEs in reef biodiversity estimates and management. PMID:25714341

  9. Stress-induced seismic azimuthal anisotropy in the upper crust across the North West Shelf, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, Lisa J.; Lumley, David

    2016-02-01

    Seismic azimuthal anisotropy (SAA) is observed in many areas of the Earth, and fast polarized directions (ϕ) have been mapped using earthquake surface waves and teleseismic S wave splitting over large regional and tectonic scales. Higher-resolution petroleum exploration data, including 3-D seismic surveys and dipole shear logs, often exhibit azimuthal anisotropy; however, we are unaware of any published studies mapping SAA from exploration-scale data to study large-scale regional and tectonic SAA trends. The physical mechanisms causing SAA in earthquake data are a subject of great interest; comparing regional ϕ trends to the higher-resolution exploration trends may help understand these mechanisms. We present a SAA analysis using seismic exploration data across the North West Shelf (NWS) of Australia. We map the fast polarization directions ϕ from 34 dipole shear logs and two 3-D seismic surveys and compare them to in situ maximum horizontal stress orientations (σH). Our results show that the ϕ and σH trends correlate across a geographical area spanning almost 2000 km and are similar to published results in the region from earthquake seismology. These results suggest that differential horizontal stress is the likely mechanism causing SAA at a wide range of spatial scales on the NWS of Australia. We also show that SAA is not observed at exploration scales in some areas of the NWS and propose a lithology-dependent stress sensitivity model in which SAA is strongest in clean, unconsolidated quartz-dominated sandstones and weaker or nonexistent in well-consolidated cemented rocks and shale-dominated sediments.

  10. School-based vaccinations delivered by general practice in rural north Queensland: an evaluation of a new human papilloma virus vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Carole; De La Rue, Stephanie; Pashen, Dennis; Culpan, Margaret; Cheffins, Tracy

    2008-03-01

    A local general practice was contracted to provide the school-based immunisation program over two years in Mount Isa, Queensland. The schedule was for female Year 10, 11 and 12 students to receive three doses of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination (Gardasil). This was provided as part of the broader immunisation program that involved providing Year 8 students with two doses of hepatitis B vaccination and one dose of varicella-zoster, and Year 10 students with one dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTPa). Data were collected on the number of consent forms returned and how many declined vaccination, how many students were vaccinated and those requiring catch-up vaccinations, as well as the total number completing the full course of immunisations. Adverse events were also recorded. The total cohort of girls eligible for HPV vaccination was 304 (consented to vaccination--275 (90%), declined vaccination--13 (4%), coverage for first HPV dose--89%, coverage for second HPV dose--88%, coverage for third HPV dose--79%). When compared with other adolescent vaccinations given concurrently as part of the broader vaccination program, HPV coverage was higher. There were only three significant adverse events. Three girls fainted at the time of immunisation but recovered immediately. The HPV immunisation had a good uptake and was well tolerated. Integrating school immunisation provision with general practice provides continuity with preschool immunisations and provides a convenient location for parents to bring children who have missed out on immunisations or would like to discuss the immunisation program

  11. Queensland Museum Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates three online educational resources on the Queensland Museum website in terms of their use of ICTs in science education; how they relate to the Queensland Middle School Science Curriculum and the Senior Biology, Marine Studies, Science 21 syllabuses; their visual appeal and level of student engagement; the appropriateness of…

  12. Zonation of benthic communities in a tropical tidal flat of north-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S.

    2000-02-01

    Tropical tidal flats are relatively less well-known marine ecosystems. Therefore, the distribution and abundance of infaunal organisms were surveyed in a tidal flat in the Haughton estuary, north-east Australia, testing several hypotheses on characteristics of intertidal faunal distributions. Using a stratified random sampling design, macrofauna, small macrofauna (mesofauna) and meiofauna were sampled at five sites along a transect from the high to the low intertidal in April and September 1991. In total, 77 macrobenthic species were recorded during this study, with polychaetes and crustaceans richest in species. While this species record was low compared to other tropical tidal flats, the low individual densities confirmed previous findings of lower abundances in tropical than temperate tidal flats. Along the transect, species densities were highest in the mid-intertidal muddy sand and sandflats, with values ranging from 2.9 to 7.6 species 177 cm -2 for macrofauna and from 2.2 to 3.8 species 10 cm -2 for mesofauna. At the Callianassa site in the mid-intertidal 35 species were recorded, while the lower sandflat site had the highest diversity ( H'=2.60). Macro- and mesofauna abundances were highest at the sandflat site (median values for macrofauna: 65 and 69 ind. 177 cm -2 in September and April, respectively, and 37 and 48 ind. 10 cm -2 for mesofauna). There was little variation between the two sampling dates, although single taxa occurred with significantly higher abundances in one of the two months. Polychaeta and Amphipoda were abundant at the sandflat and Callianassa site, juvenile bivalves were most frequent in the sandflat after a spatfall in September. There was no pronounced increase of suspension feeders in the lower intertidal, and deposit feeders dominated the fauna. Meiofauna was abundant throughout the intertidal with median values up to 310 ind. 5 cm -2. Their densities were highest in the lower intertidal and lowest at the transect site with

  13. Two new skinks (Scincidae: Glaphyromorphus) from rainforest habitats in north-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J; Couper, Patrick J

    2014-09-29

    Tropical rainforest is largely restricted in Australia to the fairly continuous Wet Tropics region and disconnected patches to the north on Cape York. The Wet Tropics is relatively well explored and studied, whereas the rainforests of Cape York have received less attention due to their remoteness. Here we describe two new species of Glaphyromorphus skinks from rainforest areas on Cape York. The two new species are most similar to each other and to G. fuscicaudis and G. nigricaudis, but both are readily diagnosed on numerous traits. Glaphyromorphus othelarrni sp. nov. is diagnosed from all similar species by its supralabial count (typically 8 vs 7), high number of subdigital lamellae beneath the 4th finger (14-15 vs < 14), and its relatively longer limbs. Glaphyromorphus nyanchupinta sp. nov. is diagnosed from all similar species by its small body size (max SVL = ~ 54 mm vs > 85 mm) and slender body shape, low number of subdigital lamellae beneath the 4th toe (17-20 vs generally 20 or more), and head and body pattern. Both species also differ from each other and similar congeners in other aspects of body shape, scalation and colour pattern. Glaphyromorphus othelarrni sp. nov. is restricted to boulder-strewn rainforest of the Melville Range, whilst Glaphyromorphus nyanchupinta sp. nov. is known only from upland rainforest in the McIlwraith Range. We discuss patterns of rainforest vertebrate endemism on Cape York, and the importance of lithorefugia in generating these.

  14. Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Reside, April E; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species.

  15. Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M.

    2017-01-01

    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species. PMID:28222199

  16. Comparison of earthquake source spectra and attenuation in eastern North America and southeastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.I.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paucity of ground-motion data in stable continental regions (SCRs) remains a key limitation when developing relations that seek to predict effects of strong ground shaking from large damaging earthquakes. It is desirable to combine data from more than one SCR to increase database size, but this raises questions as to whether the source and attenuation properties of the SCRs are equivalent. We compare recently compiled spectral-amplitude databases from small to moderate events (moment magnitudes, 2.0 ??? M ??? 5.0) in both southeastern Australia and eastern North America (ENA). Both are SCRs but are widely separated, spatially and in tectonic history. We statistically compare ground motions by plotting mean and standard deviations of spectral amplitudes for data grouped in magnitude and distance bins. These comparisons show that the source and attenuation properties of the two regions are very similar, in particular, at shorter hypocentral distances R (i.e., R < 70 km). At larger distances, regional attenuation differences are observed that may be attributed to differences in crustal structure. We conclude that it is valid to combine the Australian and ENA ground-motion datasets in the development of ground-motion prediction equations, with some limitations in frequency and distance ranges. These ground-motion relations may serve as generic functions for SCRs around the world.

  17. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation. PMID:26024370

  18. Carbon Burial Rates in Sediments and a Carbon Mass Balance for the Herbert River Region of the Great Barrier Reef Continental Shelf, North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, G. J.; Zagorskis, I.; Pfitzner, J.

    2002-04-01

    The largest century scale carbon reservoir in the Herbert River sector of the Great Barrier Reef continental shelf is carbonate carbon. This carbonate carbon is produced by corals, coralline algae, and other benthic organisms, and is stored on less than 13% of the area of the shelf. Maximum organic carbon burial rates (1-28 mol m -2 yr -1) occur within a wind-protected <20 m water depth embayment (<1% area of the shelf), where the highest bulk sedimentation rates (1-12 kg m -2 yr -1) were determined from 210Pb and 137 Cs profiles in 1-4 m cores. Sediment, organic carbon (OC), and carbonate carbon (CC) accumulation rates are very low in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon shelf and slope, where most annual productivity (8-15 mol OC m -2 yr -1) is decomposed by algal and microbial respiration. A carbon mass balance indicated that approximately 1% of combined river and marine organic carbon production was preserved in across-shelf sedimentation, but 3% of river and mangrove organic carbon input was preserved in this small wind-protected embayment. An across-shelf carbon mass balance model predicted average shelf organic matter respiration correctly, and the ratio of organic carbon fixation to respiration (corrected for burial losses) was 1·06.

  19. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Only photographic prints and negative films of day-visible, day-IR and night-IR imagery were received. For northwest Queensland, only five day-visible and day-IR frames of acceptable quality were received. A master-grid was established over these frames within which selected grid sections are being enlarged photographically for the identification of stream courses and geological features permitting an interpretation of the imagery relative to ground truth information. The imagery is also being scanned and digitized using a Joyce-Loebl microdensitometer for classification purposes. For areas for which good quality HCMM imagery is available, valuable information is obtained on ephemeral and seasonal drainage systems. The day-IR cover is particularly helpful.

  20. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  1. "I Just Want to Teach": Queensland Independent School Teachers and Their Workload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timms, Carolyn; Graham, Deborah; Cottrell, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The present study seeks to elucidate observed mismatches with workload in teacher respondents to a survey exploring aspects of the work environment. Design/methodology/approach: This phase of the study constituted a pen and paper survey of 298 currently serving teachers in independent schools in Queensland, Australia. Measures used in the…

  2. Effective Implementation of Online Learning: A Case Study of the Queensland Mining Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Diane; Hase, Stewart; Ellis, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with key stakeholders in the mining industry in Queensland, Australia, identified six factors that are important in the effective implementation of online learning: external influences, organizational culture, organizational structures, training environment, learners' needs, and the learning environment. (Contains 54 references.) (JOW)

  3. Insights into the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Challenges for Implementing Technology Education: Case Studies of Queensland Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Houguet, Belinda

    2009-01-01

    This study, embedded within the "Researching School Change in Technology Education" (RSCTE) project in Queensland, Australia, aimed to gain insights into the intrinsic and extrinsic challenges experienced by teachers during the implementation of technology education within primary school settings. The official publication and launch of…

  4. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  5. Patterns of Computer Usage among Medical Practitioners in Rural and Remote Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Col; Sheedy, Vicki; Lawrence, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    As part of a study examining continuing medical education, computer usage was investigated among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). Surveys of 131 rural doctors showed that they used computers more than their urban counterparts and more than previously estimated. A majority of respondents considered Internet delivery…

  6. A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2015-08-28

    Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.

  7. Vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy in South Queensland.

    PubMed

    Fong, Choong Yi; Riney, Catherine J

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy on long-term antiepileptic drugs treated in South Queensland, Australia. Children with epilepsy seen in a tertiary neurology clinic were contacted requesting bone health blood tests during winter of 2011. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL, and insufficiency between 21 and 29 ng/mL. One hundred thirty letters were sent, with 111 (85%) subsequently having blood tests performed. Vitamin D deficiency was identified in 24 (22%) of 111 and an additional 45 (41%) of 111 had vitamin D insufficiency. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified children on >2 antiepileptic drugs or with underlying genetic etiologies were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency. High proportion of children on long-term antiepileptic drugs in Queensland risk vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency despite living in the subtropics. Vitamin D monitoring and supplementation is important in the management of children on long-term antiepileptic drugs requiring tertiary care in Queensland.

  8. Three long lava flows in north Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, P. J.; Burch-Johnston, A. T.; Stanton, D.; Whitehead, P. W.

    1998-11-01

    The Kinrara, Toomba, and Undara basaltic lava flows are from 55 to 160 km long and range in age from 13 to 190 ka. The lavas were emplaced down low gradients (0.2° to 0.4°) with volumes ranging up to 30 km3. They were not unusually hot at eruption (1130°-1160°) nor unusually fluid. Gentle topography controlled the flows, and shallow drainage lines captured them. Lava tubes operated in places, and some drained to form caves. Injection under surface crust was widespread, producing inflation features ranging from tumuli and low plateaus to extensive ridges. Sustained eruption was essential for the development of the long flows, but each is composite, with pauses between successive pulses that partially covered the earlier, longer flows. The lava structures are mainly pahoehoe but some 'a'a lavas are present. Of the three volcanoes involved, Undara is a simple low-angle lava cone with a 200-m-wide crater, Toomba is a low-angled cone with several eruption centers, and Kinrara has a deep crater with evidence of strong fountaining. Effusion rates are not known but may have been relatively low, similar to those observed in Hawaiian volcanoes. Lava tubes, most of which remained undrained, are believed to have been of major importance in flow emplacement. Given the evidence of successive flows and the time needed to develop widespread inflation, it is suggested that the two long flows over 100 km involved many decades of eruption.

  9. Postmortem findings from Dugong (Dugong dugon) submissions to the University of Queensland: 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen; Gillespie, Alison; Wilkie, Ian

    2012-10-01

    To better record and characterize mortality in the declining population of dugong (Dugong dugon) in southeast Queensland, Australia, animals were collected and brought to the University of Queensland for postmortem examination. Fifty-five animals were examined over a 14-yr period. Human activities commonly caused the animal death. Several deaths were attributed to primary or secondary infections and idiopathic and degenerative diseases. A significant proportion of animals were found to have nonspecific signs of chronic debility, but the causes of disease and mortality in these cases remains to be identified.

  10. Resource-use efficiency explains grassy weed invasion in a low-resource savanna in north Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ens, Emilie; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Rossiter-Rachor, Natalie A.; Douglas, Michael M.; Setterfield, Samantha A.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies of plant resource use and ecophysiological traits of invasive and native resident plant species can elucidate mechanisms of invasion success and ecosystem impacts. In the seasonal tropics of north Australia, the alien C4 perennial grass Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) has transformed diverse, mixed tree-grass savanna ecosystems into dense monocultures. To better understand the mechanisms of invasion, we compared resource acquisition and usage efficiency using leaf-scale ecophysiological and stand-scale growth traits of A. gayanus with a co-habiting native C4 perennial grass Alloteropsis semialata. Under wet season conditions, A. gayanus had higher rates of stomatal conductance, assimilation, and water use, plus a longer daily assimilation period than the native species A. semialata. Growing season length was also ~2 months longer for the invader. Wet season measures of leaf scale water use efficiency (WUE) and light use efficiency (LUE) did not differ between the two species, although photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) was significantly higher in A. gayanus. By May (dry season) the drought avoiding native species A. semialata had senesced. In contrast, rates of A. gayanus gas exchange was maintained into the dry season, albeit at lower rates that the wet season, but at higher WUE and PNUE, evidence of significant physiological plasticity. High PNUE and leaf 15N isotope values suggested that A. gayanus was also capable of preferential uptake of soil ammonium, with utilization occurring into the dry season. High PNUE and fire tolerance in an N-limited and highly flammable ecosystem confers a significant competitive advantage over native grass species and a broader niche width. As a result A. gayanus is rapidly spreading across north Australia with significant consequences for biodiversity and carbon and retention. PMID:26300890

  11. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally <100 m wide was seven kilometres wide at the widest point during the floods. However, the erosive impacts of the floods on largely tilled floodplains was relatively low with most erosion confined to the bed and banks of the river. In Grantham, where 13 lives were lost, flooding was especially hazardous because of the combined depth and velocity of floodwaters and the rapid rise of floodwaters across the floodplain. Floodwaters were ~2.0-2.5 m deep across the northern parts of the floodplain with a maximum velocity of ~2-3 m/s. The rate of rise was estimated at ~12 m/hour, indicating that it would have taken only 10-15 minutes to rise to full depth. However, despite detailed river and flood gauging in the more urbanised catchments such as the Brisbane River valley, this is by far the exception rather than the rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the

  12. Stratigraphic evolution of Mesozoic continental margin and oceanic sequences northwest Australia and north Himalayas

    SciTech Connect

    Gradstein, F.M. ); Von Rad, U. )

    1990-05-01

    The authors are investigating continental margin to ocean sequences of the incipient Indian Ocean as it replaced central Tethys. Objectives of this study are the dynamic relation between sedimentation, tectonics, and paleogeography. Principal basins formation along the northern edge of eastern Gondwana started in the Late Permian to the Triassic. By the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, platform carbonates with thin, organic-rich lagoonal shales were laid down in a subtropical climate. This unit, which harbors some of the oldest known nannofossils, shows repeated shallowing-upward sequences. Subsequent southward drift of the Gondwana margin during the Middle Jurassic increased siliciclastic input in Nepal, when widespread sediment starvation or erosion during local uplift took place off parts of northwest Australia. A middle Callovian-early Oxfordian hiatus in Nepal is submarine and appears global in extent. The overlying 250-m-thick organic-rich black shales, correlative to the Oxford/Kimmeridge clays of circum-Atlantic petroleum basins, may be traced along the northern Himalayan Range, and probably represent an extensive continental slope deposit formed under an oxygen minimum layer in southern Tethys. The deposit's diverse foraminiferal microfauna was previously only known from boreal Laurasia. The Callovian breakup unconformity, off northwest Australia, precedes onset of sea-floor spreading at least 15-25 Ma. Sea-floor spreading, leading to the present Indian Ocean started in the Argo Abyssal Plain around 140 Ma, at the end of the Jurassic, was about 15 m.y. later than previously postulated. Australia and Greater India separated as early as the Late Valanginian, about 130 Ma. Mafic volcaniclastics in Nepalese deltaic sediments probably testify to concurrent continental margin volcanic activity, which may be a precursor to the slightly younger Rajmahal traps in eastern India.

  13. Prospective Frontier basins off eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Falvey, D.A.; Hinz, K.; Willcox, J.B.; Exon, N.F.; Symonds, P.A.; Williamson, P.E.

    1986-07-01

    Eleven thousand kilometers of high-quality multichannel seismic reflection data have been gathered in four poorly known, but prospective areas off eastern Australia. The Otway basin has an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, more than half of which is in depths exceeding 500 m. Its Cretaceous and Cenozoic sedimentary sequence is up to 10,000 m thick and is cut by large coast-parallel normal faults. The oldest marine strata are Cenomanian. The basinal area off west Tasmania covers 40,000 km/sup 2/, two-thirds of it in offshelf depths. It contains up to 6000 m of Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences similar to those of the Otway basin. The Lord Howe Rise is a ribbon of continent off eastern Australia, about 2000 km long and 400 km wide. Much of its crest lies in water depths of 750-1200 m. Up to 4500 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequences has been identified, and extensive faulting, related to the formation of the Tasman Sea, has formed rift basins and horst and graben areas. Simple extension was apparently dominant in the south, and oblique extension in the north. The Queensland Plateau covers 200,000 km/sup 2/, half of which is in water shallower than 1000 m. The plateau behaved as a stable block during and after the Paleogene spreading episode, which formed the Coral Sea to the northeast. About 1000 m of latest Cretaceous and Cenozoic sequences are present above a planated surface on the plateau, and up to 5000 m in the flanking Queensland and Townsville Troughs to the southwest. The sequence beneath the planated surface is believed to contain Cretaceous rift-fill sediments in places.

  14. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  15. The influence of boreal winter extratropical North Pacific Oscillation on Australian spring rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linye; Li, Yun; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-08-01

    The North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) is a key atmospheric intrinsic mode. This study concerns mechanisms that the NPO influences Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies after several months. It is found that the boreal wintertime NPO has a significant negative connection with austral spring rainfall anomalies in Australia, particularly in the Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. A positive NPO phase tends to be followed by dry conditions, while a negative phase by wet conditions in austral spring over much of northern and eastern Australia. The physical mechanism by which the boreal winter NPO affects Australian rainfall arises from the NPO seasonal footprinting mechanism that generates significant tropical central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies during austral spring. Then, the positive NPO-related SST warming anomalies over the tropical central-eastern Pacific further induce a weakened Walker circulation, with its western subsiding branch over Australia, suppressing convection and thereby reducing rainfall. Furthermore, the NPO plays an important role in contributing to the significant long-term trends of the Northern Territory and Queensland rainfalls. The decreasing amplitude of the NPO contributes much of the observed rainfall wetting trends in the Northern Territory (~50 %) and Queensland (~60 %) regions during 1951-2010. Noted that caution is recommended regarding the Australian spring rainfall trend results obtained in this study as the austral spring rainfall trends may be sensitive to the choice of the selected time period.

  16. Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pojeta, J.; Stott, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  17. Haplosporidium sp. (Alveolata: Haplosporidia) associated with mortalities among rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata in north Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hine, P M; Thorne, Tina

    2002-08-29

    Haplosporidium sp. is described from rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata Born, 1778 experiencing epizootics on the northwestern coast of Western Australia. All stages were observed as focal infections in the connective tissue of the gills, or as disseminated infections in the mantle and around digestive diverticulae. Haplosporidium sp. occurred between epithelial cells of the gut, in focal lesions in the gills, but not in the epithelium of the digestive diverticulae, and sporulation was confined to the connective tissue. Plasmodia developed into sporonts and sporocysts in a loose syncytium that gave rise to binucleate and uninucleate sporoblasts from which spores developed. Spores were flask-shaped, 5.6-6.7 x 3.3-4.0 microm, with a characteristic operculum, a few filamentous wrappings and rod-like structures in the posterior sporoplasm. Mature spores had a wall comprising inner (90 nm wide), middle (30 nm wide) and outer (130 nm wide) layers, and a surface coat of microtubules giving them a furry appearance. Oysters with empty gonad follicles were most heavily infected, and oyster condition and mortality appeared to be related to degree of infection.

  18. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  19. Road crashes involving animals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Peter; Steinhardt, Dale; Sheehan, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Each year in Australia many thousands of collisions occur between motor vehicles and animals, resulting in considerable vehicle repair costs, injury to persons, and loss of animal life. This paper reviews animal-related road crashes in Australia and presents data from the in-depth Rural and Remote Road Safety Study in North Queensland for serious casualties (n=33) resulting from direct impact with an animal or swerving to avoid an animal on public roads. These crash types accounted for 5.5% of all eligible on-road serious casualties in the study and, hence, are considered to be an important issue that requires particular attention within rural and remote areas. Kangaroos and wallabies were the predominant species involved in these crashes (44.8%). Consistent with international studies, night-time travel was found to be a significant risk factor when comparing animal-related crashes to other serious injury crashes in the study. There were also a significantly higher proportion of motorcyclists (51.7%) than other vehicle occupants involved in animal-related serious crashes compared to all other serious injury crashes. Data matching to official Government records found underreporting of animal-related crashes to be an issue of concern. These findings are discussed in terms of countermeasures suitable for the Australian context and the need for consistent crash reporting across jurisdictions.

  20. Developing a Cardiac Rehabilitation Education Resource for Rural Health Workers in Queensland: Reviewing the Process and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth; O'Connor-Fleming, M.; Tooth, L.; Humphries, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A resource manual on cardiac rehabilitation education was developed for health workers providing patient education in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). A process evaluation of the manual received feedback from 5 key informants and 31 rural health care workers following a 3-month trial. Overall, feedback was positive. Recommended content…

  1. Thermal Comfort in the Hot Humid Tropics of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wyndham, C. H.

    1963-01-01

    Day and night comfort votes were recorded from Caucasian residents at Weipa, a mission station in the hot humid tropics of North Queensland, Australia. The limit of day comfort for more than 50% of the men was 81·5°F. (27·5°C.) “normal” corrected effective temperature; the night limit was 78·0°F. (25·5°C.). Day comfort limits correlated well with air conditions at which sweat was apparent: night limits correlated with the amount of bed covering. Evidence of a change over 14 days in day comfort limit was found. Limitations in the effective temperature scale for expressing the “oppressive nature” of night air conditions are pointed out. Criticism is voiced of the use of dry bulb temperature instead of the effective temperature scale in conditions of high wet bulb temperatures with high relative humidity, such as in the hot humid tropics. PMID:14002126

  2. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin L; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S; Allen, Lee R; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K-P

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  3. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  4. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:26964762

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from Australia for fruit flies. (1) Apples from Australia (including Tasmania) may be imported without treatment for the following fruit flies if they are imported from an area in Australia that meets the requirements of § 319.56-5 for pest freedom: Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the Queensland...

  6. An Environmentally Sustainable Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The future Kelvin Grove Urban Village in Queensland, Australia, is an example of how principles of environmentally sustainable design have translated into practice. Those responsible for the new project recognise the importance of building design that respects the environment by using resources efficiently and minimising pollution. The site's…

  7. Quantifying Queensland patients with cancer health service usage and costs: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Callander, Emily; Topp, Stephanie M; Larkins, Sarah; Sabesan, Sabe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The overall mortality rate for cancer has declined in Australia. However, socioeconomic inequalities exist and the out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients in Australia are high compared with some European countries. There is currently no readily available data set to provide a systematic means of measuring the out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients with cancer within Australia. The primary aim of the project is to quantify the direct out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure of individuals in the state of Queensland, who are diagnosed with cancer. Methods and analysis This project will build Australia's first model (called CancerCostMod) of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure of patients with cancer using administrative data from Queensland Cancer Registry, for all individuals diagnosed with any cancer in Queensland between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, linked to their Admitted Patient Data Collection, Emergency Department Information System, Medicare Benefits Schedule and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme records from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2015. No identifiable information will be provided to the authors. The project will use a combination of linear and logistic regression modelling, Cox proportional hazards modelling and machine learning to identify differences in survival, total health system expenditure, total out-of-pocket expenditure and high out-of-pocket cost patients, adjusting for demographic and clinical confounders, and income group, Indigenous status and geographic location. Results will be analysed separately for different types of cancer. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics approval has been obtained from the Townsville Hospital and Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/QTHS/110) and James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (H6678). Permission to waive consent has been sought from Queensland Health under the Public Health Act 2005. PMID:28119391

  8. Queensland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... waters exhibit a murky appearance due to a large amount of sediment being discharged from a river mouth. The Fitzroy River shown in this ... available at JPL November 19, 2001 - Sediment, hydroxides of iron, and vegetation. project:  MISR ...

  9. Controls on salt mobility and storage in the weathered dolerites of north-east Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Margaret; Moore, Leah

    2014-05-01

    Changes in land use and vegetation due to agriculture, forestry practices and urbanisation can mobilise naturally occurring salts in the landscape and accelerate the expression of land and water salinisation, potentially threatening built and natural assets. Some salts are released during rock weathering or are derived from marine sediments or wind-blown dust, but in Tasmania most originate from salt dissolved in rainfall that is concentrated during evaporation. The volume of salts deposited over north-east Tasmania from precipitation exceeds 70kg/ha/year. The dominant lithology of the salt affected regions in Tasmania is dolerite which breaks down to form secondary minerals including: smectite and kaolinite clays and Fe-bearing sesquioxides. The weathering of Tasmanian dolerites, sampled from fresh corestones, weathering rinds and sequentially through the soil horizon, has been examined petrographically and geochemically. The EC1:5 increases with weathering to a maximum 4.9 dS/m and decreases in the pedogenic zone. This confirms field observations that deeply weathered dolerite can serve as a significant store for salt in the landscape. The water associated with dolerite weathering is typically a bicarbonate fluid. The pH1:5 decreases as the samples weather and increases in the pedogenic zone. Clay content increases with distance from corestones (sandy clay loam to heavy clay), and this is also reflected in the density (2.6-1.3 gm/cm3) and loss on ignition (1.3-13.3 wt%). The patterns for Na are complicated as it is enriched through NaCl accession and removed during the weathering of plagioclase. The net enrichment of Cl (up to 5239 ppm) implies decoupling of Cl from Na during weathering. Potassium, Ca and Sr are mobilised from the profile as plagioclase weathers, and silica is progressively lost from the profile with the weathering of silicate phases. Iron is initially mobilised with the weathering of pyroxene and mafic accessory minerals, but is rapidly fixed in

  10. Geothermal development in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. L.; Creelman, R. A.; Buckingham, N. W.; Harrington, H. J.

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 sq m, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  11. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  12. Review of the genus Sekaliporus Watts, 1997 with description of a new species from northern Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2015-07-02

    Sekaliporus davidi sp. n. is described from northern Australia. It is the second species in the genus. It occurs from the Kimberley region in the northwest of Western Australia to north-eastern Queensland. The new species is morphologically similar to S. kriegi Watts, 1997 described from the Kakadu area in the Northern Territory but well characterized by its constantly larger size, six yellowish markings on elytra, the different form of the apical triangular spine of elytra, and the form of the median lobe. Sekaliporus davidi sp. n. is a lotic species from intermittent creeks and slow flowing rivers and their residual pools. Important species characters (median lobes, parameres and colour patterns) of the two species are figured, and notes on their habitats and distribution are given. Both species are capable of flight and were also collected at light.

  13. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Alice T.; Leung, Luke K. -P.; Goullet, Mark S.; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human–wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, were active at all times of the day, and lived within a few hundred meters of houses and humans at all times. We conclude that wild dog management strategies in urban areas should focus on the mitigation of impacts at the individual or group level, and not population-level reductions in numbers. Abstract Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo × domestic dog hybrids are common in many urban areas, and pose a variety of human health and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-eastern Australia and continuously monitored them each 30 min for 11–394 days. Most dingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas. PMID:27537916

  14. Ocean circulation drives heterogeneous recruitments and connectivity among coral populations on the North West Shelf of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Colberg, Frank; Slawinski, Dirk; Berry, Oliver; Babcock, Russ

    2016-12-01

    The North West Shelf (NWS) of Australia features extensive and globally significant fringing coral reef ecosystems with high levels of endemism and consequently has received significant conservation efforts in the form of Marine Parks. The shelf circulation on the NWS is dominated by the southwestward-flowing Holloway Current during austral autumn-winter and by the northeastward monsoonal currents during austral summer. Intraseasonal Oscillation and short-term wind variability also influence advection processes on the NWS. These circulation processes are likely to determine demographic inter-dependencies among reef systems in the region, but the extent and spatial variability of the inter-dependence are not well understood. In this study, we used a 3-dimensional, hydrostatic, primitive equations model, to simulate the shelf circulation on the NWS at 1 km horizontal resolution during 2004-2009. We then used a particle tracking model based on the shelf circulation model to simulate larval dispersal in a representative coral species, Acropora millepora, among the 3430 coral reefs on the NWS during its autumn mass spawning. Model results predicted that settling larvae typically reach suitable reef within 10 days of spawning, with a predominantly southwestward tendency of transport. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in larval settlements and the Dampier Archipelago areas seemed to be more isolated from the rest of the NWS. Year-to-year variations of larval dispersals were sensitive to the seasonal and intraseasonal variations of alongshore winds: mass spawning in late March would expose the Dampier Archipelago area to the Holloway Current onset, resulting in it being an occasional source region of larval supply for the rest of the NWS to the southwest; intraseasonal northeastward wind pulses coinciding with the mass larval spawning would bring larvae from coastal regions to the Dampier Archipelago on rare occasions. By aggregating the reefs into 47 subregions

  15. Carbonate platform development in northeast Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    In northeast Australia, the Great Barrier Reef and the Queensland and Marion plateaus comprise carbonate platforms separated by major rift basins. Cenozoic platform evolution has been dependent upon (1) northward drift of Australia from temperate into tropical latitudes; (2) subsidence pulses in the Eocene/Oligocene and the Pliocene/Pleistocene; (3) sea level oscillations; (4) continental and oceanic influences; and (5) paleophysiography and paleo-ocean chemistry. The evolution of each platform reflects the interaction of these factors on its development. Further, the evolution of the Queensland Plateau has markedly affected that of the Great Barrier Reef through its influence on circulation patterns. In the Eocene/Oligocene, and shelf on which the Great Barrier Reef grew protected the Marion Plateau from terrigenous influences, while in the late Miocene to early Pliocene the Marion Plateau formed the springboard from which the central and southern Great Barrier Reef developed. Models of platform development must take account of 1)early Eocene reef initiation on the Queensland Plateau concomitant with marine transgression into the adjacent rift troughs; 2)Eocene/Oligocene subsidence resulting in stepback of the reefs from the flank of the Queensland Plateau and reestablishment at higher bathymetric levels, concomitant clastic sedimentation along the tropical northern continental margin and temperate(.) carbonate progradation along the margin of the Marion Plateau; 3)extensive growth of Miocene reef complexes on the Queensland Plateau and the initiation of reef complexes on the Marion Plateau and on the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef; and 4)Pliocene subsidence leading to contraction of the area of reef growth on the Queensland Plateau, with almost total drowning of the Marion Plateau and stepback of the Miocene barrier and platform reefs to their present position on the central Great Barrier Reef.

  16. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2009-10: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

    PubMed

    Wright, Phil; Fitzsimmons, Gerard J; Johansen, Cheryl A; Whelan, Peter I

    2012-03-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 7,609 notified cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes for the season 1 July 2009 to 30 June 2010. The alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus, accounted for 6,546 (79%) of these notifications during the 2009-10 season. There were 37 notifications of dengue virus infection locally-acquired from North Queensland and 581 notified cases in Australia that resulted from overseas travel. This number of overseas acquired cases continues to rise each year due to increasing disease activity in the Asia-Pacific region and increased air travel. Detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks across Australia provides an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus activity. Flavivirus activity was detected in western and northern Australia in 2009-10, which prompted public health action. No human cases of Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection were notified, while there were 2 cases of Kunjin virus infection notified. There were no notifications of locally-acquired malaria in Australia and 429 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria during the 2009-10 season. This annual report presents information of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Australia and notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

  17. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  18. Intraplate deformation on north-dipping basement structures in the Northern Gawler Craton, Australia: reactivation of original terrane boundaries or later intra-cratonic thrusts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, G.; Giles, D.; Betts, P. G.; Backé, G.

    2007-12-01

    Multiple intraplate orogenic events have deformed Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous sedimentary sequences that cover the Archean to Mesoproterozoic basement of the northern Gawler Craton, Australia. These intraplate orogenies reactivated north-dipping basement penetrating faults that are imaged on seismic reflection profiles. These north-dipping structures pre-date Neoproterozoic deposition but their relationships to significant linear magnetic and gravity anomalies that delineate unexposed Archean to Early Mesoproterozoic basement terranes are unclear. The north-dipping structures are either terrane boundaries that formed during continental amalgamation or later faults, which formed during a mid- to late-Mesoproterozoic transpressional orogeny and cross-cut the original lithological terrane boundaries. We model magnetic and gravity data to determine the 3D structure of the unexposed basement of the northern Gawler Craton. These models are constrained by drill hole and surface observations, seismic reflection profiles and petrophysical data, such that geologically reasonable models that can satisfy the data are limited. The basement structures revealed by this modelling approach constrain the origin and significance of the north-dipping structures that were active during the later intraplate Petermann, Delamerian and Alice Springs Orogenies. These results have bearing on which structures are likely to be active during present-day intraplate deformation in other areas, including, for example, current seismic activity along similar basement structures in the Adelaide "Geosyncline".

  19. Megadrymus brigalow n.sp. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Drymini), a diminutive new species of seed bug from semi-evergreen vine thicket of the Queensland Brigalow Belt.

    PubMed

    Cassis, Gerasimos; Symonds, Celia L

    2014-03-14

    Megadrymus brigalow n. sp., a new species of seed bug, is described from semi-evergreen vine thicket in the Brigalow Belt region of Queensland, Australia. This species has the smallest body in the genus Megadrymus Gross and has a number of vestigial characters.

  20. Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producing ribotype UK 244.

    PubMed

    Huber, Charlotte A; Hall, Lisa; Foster, Nikki F; Gray, Mareeka; Allen, Michelle; Richardson, Leisha J; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Schlebusch, Sanmarie; George, Narelle; Nimmo, Graeme R; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L

    2014-12-31

    In North America and Europe, the binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile strains of the ribotypes 027 and 078 have been associated with death, toxic megacolon and other adverse outcomes. Following an increase in C. difficile infections (CDIs) in Queensland, a prevalence study involving 175 hospitals was undertaken in early 2012, identifying 168 cases of CDI over a 2 month period. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded, and C. difficile isolates were ribotyped and tested for the presence of binary toxin genes. Most patients (106/168, 63.1%) were aged over 60 years. Overall, 98 (58.3%) developed symptoms after hospitalisation; 89 cases (53.0%) developed symptoms more than 48 hours after admission. Furthermore, 27 of the 62 (67.7%) patients who developed symptoms in the community ad been hospitalised within the last 3 months. Thirteen of the 168 (7.7%) cases identified had severe disease, resulting in admission to the Intensive Care Unit or death within 30 days of the onset of symptoms. The 3 most common ribotypes isolated were UK 002 (22.9%), UK 014 (13.3%) and the binary toxin-positive ribotype UK 244 (8.4%). The only other binary toxin positive ribotype isolated was UK 078 (n = 1). Of concern was the detection of the binary toxin positive ribotype UK 244, which has recently been described in other parts of Australia and New Zealand. No isolates were of the international epidemic clone of ribotype UK 027, although ribotype UK 244 is genetically related to this clone. Further studies are required to track the epidemiology of ribotype UK 244 in Australia and New Zealand.

  1. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  2. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  3. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  4. 27 CFR 12.21 - List of examples of names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Calchaquies. (b) Australia: Adelaide, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Cowra, Forbes, Geelong, Goulburn Valley..., North Richmond, Queensland, South Australia, Swan Valley, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia,...

  5. Status of solid oxide fuel cell development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Badwal, S.P.S.; Foger, K.

    1995-12-31

    Ceramic Fuel Cells Limited, owned by a consortium consisting of BHP -- Australia`s largest company; CSIRO -- Australia`s major R and D Organization; Energy Research and Development Corporation -- Federal Government agency; Strategic Industry Research Foundation -- Victorian State Government agency and five major main land electricity utilities Pacific Power (New South Wales), ETSA (South Australia), Generation Victoria (Victoria), QEC (Queensland), SECWA (Western Australia) has been established to provide a national focus for the development of SOFC technology in Australia with a number of universities and research organizations contributing to its program. In this paper the status of solid oxide fuel cell R and D in Australia and within Ceramic Fuel Cells Ltd has been described. The SOFC development effort, the R and D infrastructure and significant achievements made since the incorporation of the Company in manufacture of single cells and stacks and their performance has been discussed.

  6. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus--a dengue threat for southern Australia?

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard C; Williams, Craig R; Sutherst, Robert W; Ritchie, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    Aedes albopictus, the so-called 'Asian tiger mosquito,' which has invaded areas of the Pacific, the Americas, Africa and Europe, and been intercepted in various Australian seaports in recent years, has now become established on a number of Torres Strait islands in northern Queensland and threatens to invade mainland Australia. As well as being a significant pest with day-biting tendencies, Ae. albopictus is a vector of dengue viruses and is capable of transmitting a number of other arboviruses. The species colonises domestic and peri-domestic containers, and can establish in temperate areas with cold winters. According to predictions made using the CSIRO climate matching software CLIMEX, Ae. albopictus could become established elsewhere in Australia, including southern Australia, and lead to these areas becoming receptive to dengue infections-a condition that currently does not exist because the vector Aedes aegypti is confined to Queensland and no species in southern Australia is known to be capable of transmitting dengue.

  7. Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins (‘snubfin’ and ‘humpback dolphins’, hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as ‘near threatened’ by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05–0.09; P<0.001) and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50–0.70; P<0.001). The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00–0.06) to 0.13 (0.03–0.24). These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong

  8. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexander M; Kopps, Anna M; Allen, Simon J; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001) and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001). The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06) to 0.13 (0.03-0.24). These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the

  9. Three cases of ocular syphilis and the resurgence of the disease in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Sergio A; McAllister, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen a resurgence of syphilis. It is predominantly associated within men who have sex with men and also within heterosexual Indigenous Australians. Possessing the ability to mimic a variety of ocular diseases, it typically manifests as uveitis, although it can affect any structure within the eye. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion by ophthalmologists is required to prevent disease progression and ocular morbidity. Patients require prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and outpatient monitoring to successfully resolve the infection. We describe a case series of ocular syphilis presentations in Queensland, Australia. PMID:27672343

  10. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Alice T; Leung, Luke K-P; Goullet, Mark S; Gentle, Matthew N; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-08-16

    Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo×domesticdoghybridsarecommoninmanyurbanareas,andposeavarietyofhumanhealth and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-easternAustraliaandcontinuouslymonitoredthemeach30minfor11-394days. Mostdingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas.

  11. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  12. Late Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic rift successions in SW China: Implication for the Yangtze Block-North Australia-Northwest Laurentia connection in the Columbia supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Chen, Wei-Terry; Yan, Dan-Ping

    2014-07-01

    The late Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group in the southwestern Yangtze Block formed in a series of fault-controlled, rift-related basins associated with the fragmentation of the Columbia supercontinent. The Dongchuan Group is composed, from the base upward, of the Yinmin, Luoxue, Etouchang and Luzhijiang formations. The Yinmin Formation has a basal layer of conglomerate and coarse sandstone, up to 2 m thick, marking initiation of rifting. It is a laterally discontinuous layer, indicative of lateral variations in the accommodation space created adjacent to juvenile normal faults in the earliest stages of rifting. Fluvial to intertidal facies sedimentary rocks of the Yinmin Formation are characterized by fining-upward patterns from sandstone to interbedded carbonate and mudstone, representing syn-rifting sedimentation. Enlargement of the basin and establishment of a carbonate platform during sedimentation of the Luoxue Formation suggest that faulting and volcanism were significantly reduced, marking a transition from syn-rifting subsidence to post-rifting subsidence. Black carbonaceous shale of the Etouchang Formation likely formed in a continental slope and deep ocean basin, generated by slow thermal subsidence of heated subcrustal materials during the post-rifting stage. Subsequent shoaling led to re-establishment of a rimmed carbonate shelf, in which massive argillaceous dolostone of the Luzhijiang Formation started to accumulate. Two major igneous events marked the ca. 1710-Ma rifting climax and 1685-1660-Ma waning phase of rifting. The rift sequence in the southwestern Yangtze Block correlates with the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic sequence in the Mount Isa Basin, North Australia. These successions have identical zircon age patterns and similar igneous and sedimentary assemblages. In addition, the rifting-related 1735-1663 Ma Hornby Bay and ~ 1640-1600 Ma Wernecke successions in northwestern Laurentia show similarities with

  13. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes.

  14. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  15. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  16. Structural and Geomorphic Controls on Dryland Salinity and Regolith Distribution in the Critical Zone, North-east Tasmania, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, M. E.; Moore, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Salinity occurs in the drier and flatter Australian landscapes because there is insufficient rain to flush salts from critical zone. Changes in land use due to agriculture and urbanisation can accelerate salinity effects, leading to soil and water degradation and threatening infrastructure and ecosystems. The dominant lithology in the salt affected regions of North-east Tasmania is dolerite. The geochemistry of dolerite regolith has been examined in order to understand the association between salinity and weathered dolerite. The electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-waters is higher in the more weathered material (maximum 4.9 dS/m). This confirms field observations that highly weathered dolerite can serve as a significant store for salt in the landscape. However, the clay content and salinity varies, depending on the local geomorphic context. Dolerite weathering on well-drained slopes has favoured the formation of 1:1 kaolinite clays, and sometimes bauxite formation. Kaolinite-bearing regolith can store salt via matrix diffusion processes. However, there are fault-bounded pockets of colluvium and highly-weathered in situmaterial, where the supply of cations has not been diminished and 2:1 montmorillonite clays dominate. These regions have the capacity to store large volumes of salts. The geomorphology also affects the volume of rain and flux of salt from windblown dust and oceanic aerosols. The chemistry of rainwater from an array of bulk deposition collectors was studied from Spring 2013 to Winter 2014. The average salt flux was 79± 10 kg/ha/yr in the study region, ranging from 170± 12 kg/ha/yr in the north to 42 ± 6 kg/ha/yr inland. To assist in understanding why salt is found in certain parts of the landscape but not in others, it is essential to model how water moves through the critical zone and geological structures. By exploring the complex interactions of geomorphology and other biophysical parameters the study area has been divided into Hydrogeological

  17. Field sampling rate of BG-sentinel traps for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in suburban Cairns, Australia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Spitzauer, V; Ritchie, S A

    2012-01-01

    Mini-mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted in suburban Cairns, Australia to establish the sampling rate of the Biogents-Sentinel (BGS) trap for adult Aedes aegypti (L.). Small cohorts of marked mosquitoes (30 females and 15 males) were released at typical Cairns residences, and the number of marked mosquitoes recaptured in the BGS trap after 24 h was recorded. The sampling rate was compared between two seasons and two common housing styles (high-set 'Queenslander-style' timber and low-set brick houses), between old gravid and young nulliparous females, and between mosquitoes released in different areas of a house. Overall, the BGS traps recaptured a mean (+/- SEM) of 24.6% (+/- 1.9) of the released marked female mosquitoes in 24 h. The mean recapture rate for females was significantly higher in the dry season (30.4% +/- 2.8) compared with the wet (18.8% +/- 2.2). The overall recapture rates did not differ significantly between the two house types, but variability between the individual premises was high. An overall mean of 18.2% (+/- 1.7) of males was collected. Recapture rates of young nullipars and older gravid females were similar. These recapture rates can be used to estimate the population density of Ae. aegypti females in north Queensland, although it will provide an underestimate as trap sample was largely representative of mosquitoes present in the same area as the trap, and not from other areas of the house.

  18. Corneal fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Flint, M; Limpus, C J; Patterson-Kane, J C; Murray, P J; Mills, P C

    2010-05-01

    Chelonid corneal fibropapillomatosis has not previously been recorded in Australian waters. During 2008, 724 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were examined in Queensland, Australia at two sites, Moreton Bay (n=155) and Shoalwater Bay (n=569), during annual monitoring. In the same calendar year, 63 turtles were submitted from various sites in southern Queensland for post-mortem examination at the University of Queensland. Four of the 787 animals (0.5%) were found to have corneal fibropapillomas of varying size, with similar gross and microscopical features to those reported in other parts of the world. Two animals with corneal fibropapillomas also had cutaneous fibropapillomas. Clinical assessment indicated that these lesions had detrimental effects on the vision of the turtles and therefore their potential ability to source food, avoid predators and interact with conspecifics. Importantly, these findings represent an emergence of this manifestation of fibropapillomatosis in green sea turtle populations in the southern Pacific Ocean.

  19. Coastal Talitridae (Amphipoda: Talitroidea) from north-western Australia to Darwin with a revision of the genus Cochinorchestia Lowry & Peart, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-07-10

    Three species of coastal talitrids are reported from north-western Western Australia: Australorchestia tantabiddyensis sp. nov., from Tantabiddy Rockholes Cave, Cape Range National Park; Talorchestia dampieri sp. nov. from Roebuck Bay, Broome and Cygnet Bay, King Sound; and Tropicorchestia derbyensis gen. et sp. nov. from Derby, King Sound. Five species are reported from west of Darwin, Northern Territory: Cochinorchestia lindsayae sp. nov.; Cochinorchestia metcalfeae sp. nov.; Floresorchestia limicola (Haswell, 1880); Microrchestia ntensis sp. nov.; and Tropicorchestia glasbyi sp. nov. The genus Cochinorchestia Lowry & Peart, 2010 is revised: Orchestia notabilis of Griffiths, 1973 is assigned to the new species Cochinorchestia morrumbene sp. nov. from Mozambique; Orchestia sp. of Ledoyer, 1979 is assigned to the new species Cochinorchestia poka sp. nov. from Ambon, eastern Indonesia; and Orchestia notabilis of Ledoyer 1986 is assigned to the new species Cochinorchestia tulear sp. nov. from south-western Madagascar. Microrchestia sp. of Bussarawich 1985 appears to be an undescribed species of Cochinorchestia from Thailand. We introduce the term virgula dentata to describe the highly modified tip of antenna 2 in talitrid amphipods and propose a theory for the age and current distribution of the family.

  20. Geophysical anomalies and quartz microstructures, Eastern Warburton Basin, North-east South Australia: Tectonic or impact shock metamorphic origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew Y.; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Saygin, Erdinc

    2013-03-01

    The Eastern Warburton Basin, Northeast South Australia, features major geophysical anomalies, including a magnetic high of near-200 nT centred on a 25 km-wide magnetic low (< 100 nT), interpreted in terms of a magmatic body below 6 km depth. A distinct seismic tomographic low velocity anomaly may reflect its thick (9.5 km) sedimentary section, high temperatures and possible deep fracturing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of granites resolves microbreccia veins consisting of micron-scale particles injected into resorbed quartz grains. Planar and sub-planar elements in quartz grains (Qz/PE) occur in granites, volcanics and sediments of the > 30,000 km-large Eastern Warburton Basin. The Qz/PE include multiple intersecting planar to curved sub-planar elements with relic lamellae less than 2 μm wide with spacing of 4-5 μm. Qz/PE are commonly re-deformed, displaying bent and wavy patterns accompanied with fluid inclusions. U-stage measurements of a total of 243 planar sets in 157 quartz grains indicate dominance of ∏{10-12}, ω{10-13} and subsidiary §{11-22}, {22-41}, m{10-11} and x{51-61} planes. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis displays relic narrow ≤ 1 μm-wide lamellae and relic non-sub grain boundaries where crystal segments maintain optical continuity. Extensive sericite alteration of feldspar suggests hydrothermal alteration to a depth of 500 m below the unconformity which overlies the Qz/PE-bearing Warburton Basin terrain. The data are discussed in terms of (A) Tectonic-metamorphic deformation and (B) impact shock metamorphism producing planar deformation features (Qz/PDF). Deformed Qz/PE are compared to re-deformed Qz/PDFs in the Sudbury, Vredefort, Manicouagan and Charlevoix impact structures. A 4-5 km uplift of the Big Lake Granite Suite during 298-295 Ma is consistent with missing of upper Ordovician to Devonian strata and possible impact rebound. The occurrence of circular seismic tomography anomalies below the east

  1. Temporal correlation of magmatic-tectonic events in the lower and upper crust in north-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulov, Valeria; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2012-07-01

    Hf model ages yielded by rutiles in a garnet-rich lower-crustal granulite xenolith from the McBride Province and whole-rock Nd and Hf model ages for the plagioclase- and garnet-rich Chudleigh and McBride granulites overlap with the well-defined U-Pb ages for detrital zircons and zircons in granitoids (Murgulov et al. Chem Geol 245:198-218, 2007; Mineral Petrol 95:17-45, 2009), suggesting temporal correlation of magmatic-tectonic events in the lower and upper crust in the north-east Australian craton. Intrusion of basaltic magmas into and below the lower crust beneath the Chudleigh Province around 1.4, 1.7 and 2.3 Ga and beneath the McBride Province around 1.5, 1.7, 2.3 and 2.5 Ga provided heat for remelting and supplied magmas with juvenile mantle isotope signatures to the upper crust. Similar magmas provided enough heat to cause melting in the lower crust beneath the Chudleigh Province around 0.12 and 0.8-0.9 Ga and beneath the McBride Province around 0.42, 0.8-0.9 Ga, 1.1 and 1.3 Ga but were not sufficient to cause significant melting in the upper crust. A wide range in initial 176Hf/177Hf values and a ~1.55 Ga Hf model age yielded by rutiles in the McBride granulite provide a link to the genesis of ~420 Ma granitoids. The data for a plagioclase-rich granulite from the Atherton Province are similar to those for the Chudleigh and McBride granulites. However, additional samples are required to test whether the lower crust of the Tasman orogenic belt is lithologically and isotopically similar to the lower crust of the craton.

  2. Geology of the Early Archean Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal System in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, K.; Maruyama, S.

    2007-12-01

    An Archean hydrothermal system in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton is associated with extensive fluid circulation driven by numerous extensional fracture systems and the underlying heat source. The fracture system is now occupied by abundant fine-grained quartz aggregate, hence we call this as silica dikes. Some of the fracture system extends deeper structural levels as listric normal faults down to 1000 m depth in the MORB crust. Barite-bearing fine-grained quartz predominant mineralogy indicates the extensive development of fracturing and quenching in a short time. Accompanying the fluid circulation, the extensive metasomatism proceeded to form the four different chemical courses, (1) silicification, (2) carbonation, (3) potassium-enrichment, and (4) Fe- enrichment. Silicification occurs along the silica dikes, carbonated greenstones are distributed relatively shallower level. Potassium-enriched (mica-rich) greenstones occur at the top of the greenstone sequence, and Fe-enriched (chlorite-rich) greenstones are distributed at lower part of the basaltic greenstones. The down going fluid precipitated carbonate-rich layer at shallow levels, whereas depleted in SiO2. Then, the fluid went down to more deeper level, and was dissolved SiO2 at high temperature (~350°C) and chlorite-rich greenstone was formed by water-rock interaction. The upwelling fluid precipitated dominantly SiO2 and formed silica dikes. Silica dikes cement the fractures formed by extensional faulting at earliest stage of development of oceanic crust. Therefore, the hydrothermal system must have related to normal fault system simultaneously with MORB volcanism. Particularly the greenish breccia with cherty matrix (oregano chert) was formed at positions by upwelling near ridge axis. After the horizontal removal of MORB crust from the ridge-axis with time, the propagating fracture into deeper levels, transports hydrothermal fluids into 500-1000 m depth range where metasomatic element exchange between

  3. Biological control of Cl/Br and low sulfate concentration in a 3.5-Gyr-old seawater from North Pole, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foriel, Julien; Philippot, Pascal; Rey, Patrice; Somogyi, Andrea; Banks, David; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2004-12-01

    The concentration of halogens (Cl, Br) and sulfate in seawater during the Archaean eon have important implications for the evolution of Earth's hydrosphere and atmosphere and the development of early life. Insights into the composition of Archaean seawater and hydrothermal fluids can be obtained by direct analysis of fluid inclusions preserved in Archaean sediments and hydrothermal systems. Here, we investigated a suite of well-preserved intrapillow quartz-carbonate pods that formed during oceanic hydrothermal alteration of the 3.49 Ga Dresser Formation, North Pole Dome, Western Australia. Texturally, the pods seems to contain a unique population of primary fluid inclusions which were analyzed individually using microthermometry and synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (μ-SR-XRF) techniques. Bulk chemical analyses were also performed using crush-leach method. Microthermometric data combined with crush-leach and μ-SR-XRF analyses yielded a model composition of 1100 mM Na, 2250 mM Cl., and 375 mM Ca, which corresponds to a bulk fluid salinity of 12 wt.% salt equivalent. This high Cl concentration (ca. four-times present-day value) reflects a typical modern-day seawater evaporation trend in a shallow marine, closed basin environment. Individual fluid inclusion analysis using μ-SR-XRF revealed the presence of three main fluid populations: a metal-depleted fluid, a Ba-rich and S-depleted fluid, and a Fe-S-rich end-member. The Cl/Br ratio of metal-depleted fluid inclusions (630) is similar to the modern seawater value (649). By contrast, Ba- and Fe-rich brines have Cl/Br ratios (350 and 390) close to bulk Earth value (420), hence arguing for a mantle buffering and a hydrothermal origin of these fluids. The metal-depleted fluid displays low sulfate concentration (0-8 mM compared to 28 mM in present-day ocean). Sulfur content of the Fe-rich fluids ranges between 41 and 82 mM. Fluid-rock interaction processes occurring in pillow basalts located on the seafloor

  4. Reconstructing transport pathways for late Quaternary dust from eastern Australia using the composition of trace elements of long traveled dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Lynda M.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2009-04-01

    The southeast Australian dust transport corridor is the principal pathway through which continental emissions of dust from central and eastern Australia are carried to the oceans by the prevailing mid-latitude westerly circulation. The analysis of trace elements of aeolian dust, preserved in lake sediment on North Stradbroke Island, southeast Queensland, is used to reconstruct variation in the intensity and position of dust transport to the island over the past 25,000 yrs. Separation of local and long traveled dust content of lake sediments is achieved using a unique, four-element (Ga, Ni, Tl and Sc) separation method. The local and continental chronologies of aeolian deposition developed by this study show markedly different records, and indicate varied responses to climate variability on North Stradbroke Island (local aeolian sediment component) and in eastern and central Australia (long traveled dust component). The provenance of the continental component of the record to sub-geologic catchment scales was accomplished using a ternary mixing model in which the chemical identification of dusts extracted, from the lake sediments, was compared to potential chemical characteristics of surface dust from the source areas using 16 trace elements. The results indicate that the position and intensity of dust transport pathways during the late Quaternary varied considerably in response to changing atmospheric circulation patterns as well as to variations in sediment supply to dust source areas, which include the large anabranching river systems of the Lake Eyre and Murray-Darling Basins.

  5. Latitudinal species diversity gradient of mushroom corals off eastern Australia: a baseline from the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, Bert W.

    2015-11-01

    Based on a study of mushroom coral species of eastern Australia, a decrease in species richness can be discerned from north to south. Eastern Australia, including the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), is one of only few coral reef areas suitable for studies on large-scale latitudinal biodiversity patterns. Such patterns may help to recognize biogeographic boundaries and factors regulating biodiversity. Owing to the eastern Australian long coastline, such studies are a logistic challenge unless reliable distribution data are already available, as in museum collections. A large coral collection predominantly sampled from this area in the 1970s is present in the Museum of Tropical Queensland (MTQ). The scleractinian family Fungiidae (mushroom corals), representing about 10% of Indo-Pacific reef coral species, was selected as proxy. It was represented by 1289 specimens belonging to 34 species with latitudinal ranges between 09°09‧S and 31°28‧S. The fauna of the northernmost reefs in the Gulf of Papua and the Torres Strait, and north of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), was represented by a maximum of 30 fungiids. From here a southward decline in species number was observed, down to Lord Howe Island with only one species. Together with previous records, the mushroom coral fauna of eastern Australia consists of 37 species, which is more diverse than hitherto known and similar to numbers found in the Coral Triangle. Future field surveys in the GBR should specifically target rarely known species, which are mainly small and found at depths >25 m. In the light of global climate change, they may also show whether previously recorded species are still present and whether their latitudinal ranges have shifted, using the 1970s records as a baseline.

  6. Changes of Grassland Types and Net Primary Production of North America, Europe, Australia, and China in Response to Global Climate Change from 1911 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the changes of area of each broad potential vegetation category from 1911 to 2000 based on the CSCS method and their Net Primary Production (NPP) to analyze the influence of global climate change at global scale. we studied the characteristics of global Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV) distribution in the 20th century using the CSCS approach to explore the distribution of more detailed grassland vegetation types and their NPP using the Thornthwaite Memorial model. Results showed that: (1) the area of tundra and alpine steppe and desert decreased by 5.09% and 5.82% respectively, while the area of forest and grassland increased by 2.31% and 3.62% from 1911 to 2000 at global scale, respectively. However, there was a significant difference in the magnitude of area change in northern and southern hemispheres. (2) In Australia, the area of warm desert grassland decreased by 140.75 ×104km2 , while the area of savanna increased by 145.75 ×104km2, and the semi-desert grassland and steppe decreased by 4.25 ×104km2 and 2.75 ×104km2, and the area of forest increased by 1.75 ×104km2. (3) In Europe, the area of semi-desert increased by 48.93×104km2, nearly 46.2% of semi-desert increased in Spain, while the area of forest decreased by 201.35×104km2, and the biggest decreased was recorded in Ukraine (80.83%). (4) In North America, the area of warm desert and forest increased by 9.26% and 4.58%, while the cold desert decreased by 55.56%; in Canada, the area of steppe decreased by 38.46 %, while the area of forest increased by 7.49%; in Mexico, the area of warm desert and forest increased by 39.74 %, while the area of the steppe decreased by 18.75%. (5) In China, the area of temperate humid grassland increased by 28.6% in Xinjiang, and 66.67% in Tibet, the area of forest in Xinjiang and Qinghai increased 33.3 % and 15.4% respectively, while the area of tundra and alpine decreased by 7.02% in Xinjiang, while it increased 9.38% in

  7. Central nervous system nocardiosis in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Nastaran; Peri, Anna Maria; Righi, Elda; Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon but clinically important disease, often occurring in immunocompromised individuals and carrying a high mortality rate. We present 20 cases of microbiologically proven CNS nocardiosis diagnosed in Queensland from 1997 to 2015 and review the literature from 1997 to 2016. Over 50% of cases occurred in immunocompromised individuals, with corticosteroid use posing a particularly significant risk factor. Nine (45%) patients were immunocompetent and 3 had no comorbidities at time of diagnosis. Nocardia farcinica was the most frequently isolated species (8/20) and resistance to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was found in 2 isolates. Overall, 35% of our patients died within 1 year, with the majority of deaths occurring in the first month following diagnosis. Interestingly, of the 7 deaths occurring at 1 year, 6 were attributed to N farcinica with the seventh isolate being unspeciated, suggesting the virulence of the N farcinica strain. PMID:27861348

  8. Building Co-Management as a Process: Problem Solving Through Partnerships in Aboriginal Country, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurba, Melanie; Ross, Helen; Izurieta, Arturo; Rist, Philip; Bock, Ellie; Berkes, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    Collaborative problem solving has increasingly become important in the face of the complexities in the management of resources, including protected areas. The strategy undertaken by Girringun Aboriginal Corporation in north tropical Queensland, Australia, for developing co-management demonstrates the potential for a problem solving approach involving sequential initiatives, as an alternative to the more familiar negotiated agreements for co-management. Our longitudinal case study focuses on the development of indigenous ranger units as a strategic mechanism for the involvement of traditional owners in managing their country in collaboration with government and other interested parties. This was followed by Australia's first traditional use of marine resources agreement, and development of a multi-jurisdictional, land to sea, indigenous protected area. In using a relationship building approach to develop regional scale co-management, Girringun has been strengthening its capabilities as collaborator and regional service provider, thus, bringing customary decision-making structures into play to `care for country'. From this evolving process we have identified the key components of a relationship building strategy, `the pillars of co-management'. This approach includes learning-by-doing, the building of respect and rapport, sorting out responsibilities, practical engagement, and capacity-building.

  9. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  10. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  11. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  12. Remote supervision of medical training via videoconference in northern Australia: a qualitative study of the perspectives of supervisors and trainees

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Robin; Sabesan, Sabe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Telemedicine has revolutionised the ability to provide care to patients, relieve professional isolation and provide guidance and supervision to junior medical officers in rural areas. This study evaluated the Townsville teleoncology supervision model for the training of junior medical officers in rural areas of North Queensland, Australia. Specifically, the perspectives of junior and senior medical officers were explored to identify recommendations for future implementation. Design A qualitative approach incorporating observation and semistructured interviews was used to collect data. Interviews were uploaded into NVivo 10 data management software. Template analysis enabled themes to be tested and developed through consensus between researchers. Setting One tertiary level and four secondary level healthcare centres in rural and regional Queensland, Australia. Participants 10 junior medical officers (Interns, Registrars) and 10 senior medical officers (Senior Medical Officers, Consultants) who participated in the Townsville teleoncology model of remote supervision via videoconference (TTMRS) were included in the study. Primary and Secondary outcome measures Perspectives on the telemedicine experience, technology, engagement, professional support, satisfaction and limitations were examined. Perspectives on topics raised by participants were also examined as the interviews progressed. Results Four major themes with several subthemes emerged from the data: learning environment, beginning the learning relationship, stimulus for learning and practicalities of remote supervision via videoconference. While some themes were consistent with the current literature, new themes like increased professional edge, recognising non-verbal cues and physical examination challenges were identified. Conclusions Remote supervision via videoconference provides readily available guidance to trainees supporting their delivery of appropriate care to patients. However, resources

  13. Vitamin D status of adults from tropical Australia determined using two different laboratory assays: implications for public health messages.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Madeleine; Harrison, Simone L; Buettner, Petra G; Kimlin, Michael; Porter, David; Kennedy, Lee; Speare, Rick

    2011-01-01

    We measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels of ambulatory adults in tropical Australia to determine whether it is appropriate to continue promoting sun-safety in this population. In August 2006 (winter), self-administered questionnaires were completed by 145 Meals-on-Wheels volunteers (49.3% male; mean age 57.8 ± 14.7 years; 76.6% response) from Townsville, Queensland (Latitude 19(o) S). Serum 25(OH)D was analyzed using two common assays. Mean levels were 68.3 (SD ± 18.7; range 26-142) by DiaSorin Radioimmunoassay and 83.0 (SD ± 30.8; range 30-184) by DiaSorin Liaison® one. No participants were 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol L(-1)). Nine participants (6.2%) had 25(OH)D levels between 25 and 50 nmol L(-1) (insufficient), by both methods (seven with a BMI ≥ 25). Twenty-eight participants (19.3%) had one result in the insufficient range and the other in the adequate range. Thus, almost all of these free-living adults in tropical Australia had adequate vitamin D levels at the end of winter. There was poor agreement between the two 25(OH)D assays. These results suggest it is appropriate to continue promoting sun-safe messages to the ambulatory Caucasian adult population of North Queensland, which has an extremely high incidence of skin cancer. The lack of agreement between the two assays is a concern. Few doctors are aware of this measurement issue.

  14. Flying-Fox Species Density - A Spatial Risk Factor for Hendra Virus Infection in Horses in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Craig; Skelly, Chris; Kung, Nina; Roberts, Billie; Field, Hume

    2014-01-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic but typically fatal infection in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Fruit-bats of the genus Pteropus (commonly known as flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, and the putative source of infection in horses; infected horses are the source of human infection. Effective treatment is lacking in both horses and humans, and notwithstanding the recent availability of a vaccine for horses, exposure risk mitigation remains an important infection control strategy. This study sought to inform risk mitigation by identifying spatial and environmental risk factors for equine infection using multiple analytical approaches to investigate the relationship between plausible variables and reported Hendra virus infection in horses. Spatial autocorrelation (Global Moran’s I) showed significant clustering of equine cases at a distance of 40 km, a distance consistent with the foraging ‘footprint’ of a flying-fox roost, suggesting the latter as a biologically plausible basis for the clustering. Getis-Ord Gi* analysis identified multiple equine infection hot spots along the eastern Australia coast from far north Queensland to central New South Wales, with the largest extending for nearly 300 km from southern Queensland to northern New South Wales. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) showed the density of P. alecto and P. conspicillatus to have the strongest positive correlation with equine case locations, suggesting these species are more likely a source of infection of Hendra virus for horses than P. poliocephalus or P. scapulatus. The density of horses, climate variables and vegetation variables were not found to be a significant risk factors, but the residuals from the GWR suggest that additional unidentified risk factors exist at the property level. Further investigations and comparisons between case and control properties are needed to identify these local risk factors. PMID:24936789

  15. Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Assassin Spiders of the family Archaeidae are an ancient and iconic lineage of basal araneomorph spiders, characterised by a specialised araneophagic ecology and unique, ‘pelican-like’ cephalic morphology. Found throughout the rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests and mesic heathlands of south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern Australia, the genus Austrarchaea Forster & Platnick, 1984 includes a diverse assemblage of relictual, largely short-range endemic species. With recent dedicated field surveys and significant advances in our understanding of archaeid biology and ecology, numerous new species of assassin spiders have been discovered in the montane sub-tropical and warm-temperate closed forests of mid-eastern Australia, including several rare or enigmatic taxa and species of conservation concern. This fauna is revised and 17 new species are described from south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales: Austrarchaea alani sp. n., Austrarchaea aleenae sp. n., Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n., Austrarchaea christopheri sp. n., Austrarchaea clyneae sp. n., Austrarchaea cunninghami sp. n., Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n., Austrarchaea harmsi sp. n., Austrarchaea helenae sp. n., Austrarchaea judyae sp. n., Austrarchaea mascordi sp. n., Austrarchaea mcguiganae sp. n., Austrarchaea milledgei sp. n., Austrarchaea monteithi sp. n., Austrarchaea platnickorum sp. n., Austrarchaea raveni sp. n. and Austrarchaea smithae sp. n. Adult specimens of the type species, Austrarchaea nodosa (Forster, 1956) are redescribed from the Lamington Plateau, south-eastern Queensland, and distinguished from the sympatric species Austrarchaea dianneae sp. n. A key to species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of COI and COII mtDNA sequences complement the species-level taxonomy, with maps, habitat photos, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:21998529

  16. Counting (green) jobs in Queensland's waste and recycling sector.

    PubMed

    Davis, Georgina

    2013-09-01

    The waste and recycling sector has been identified as a green industry and, as such, jobs within this sector may be classed as 'green jobs'. Many governments have seen green jobs as a way of increasing employment, particularly during the global financial crisis. However, the methods used to define and quantify green jobs directly affect the quantification of these green jobs. In December 2010, Queensland introduced a waste strategy that stated intent to increase green jobs within the waste sector. This article discusses the milieu and existing issues associated with quantifying green jobs within Queensland's waste and recycling sector, and provides a review of the survey that has sought to quantify the true size of the Queensland industry sector. This research has identified nearly 5500 jobs in Queensland's private waste management and recycling sector, which indicates that official data do not accurately reflect the true size of the sector.

  17. Beginning Teacher Support in Australia: Towards an Online Community to Augment Current Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Nick; Reushle, Shirley; Chakrabarty, Sayan; Kinnane, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes opportunities to improve the current support provided to beginning teachers in Australia. It holds that there is a need for approaches that go beyond school-based induction and support. The paper presents data from a survey of beginning teachers in Queensland, with aims to determine current access to support and perceptions…

  18. The Changing Role and Practice of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments: Practitioners' Views from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane Emily; Beamish, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the everyday work of eight teachers of students with visual impairments at governmental primary and secondary schools in Queensland, Australia. The small-scale study aimed to capture the scope and complexity of the activities of these teachers and the regular challenges they face in their expected everyday roles.…

  19. Evaluation in Distance Teaching. Proceedings of a Workshop (Townsville, Australia, May 11-14, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, John D., Ed.; Store, Ron E., Ed.

    Proceedings of a 1980 workshop in Queensland, Australia, on evaluation in distance teaching are presented. Two focal areas were the assessment of students and evaluation of programs and courses. In addition to keynote and workshop papers, a variety of evaluation forms are presented. Among the papers and authors are: "The Setting of Tertiary…

  20. Integrated Practice in the Early Years in Australia: The Assumptions, Omissions and Contradictions of Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Kym; Nolan, Andrea; Cartmel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine current national early years' policy reform, which emphasises the importance of service integration, national quality standards and a quality knowledge base for educators concerning the provision of early childhood education and care. Using Queensland, Australia, as an example, a policy discourse analysis…

  1. ANZUS in Revision: Changing Defense Features of Australia and New Zealand in the Mid-1980s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    28 ; Brian L. Kavanagh, TheChanging Western Alliance in the South Pacific (Maxwell AFB, Ala . : Air University Press, 1987), 20. 52 . Ross Babbage ...68. 4. Ross Babbage , Rethinking Australia’s Defence (St. Lucia, Australia: University of Queensland Press, 1980), 217. 5 . The Bulletin survey was...34No 1-Most Testing Period Ahead," Pacific Defence Reporter 13, nos. 6/7 (December 1986-January 1987) : 200. 43 . Ross Babbage , "The Future of the

  2. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Little is understood about the overall success of current wildlife rehabilitation techniques and the implications of these as an effective conservation strategy. This study collated admission records from four major wildlife hospitals catering to sick and injured koalas across southeast Queensland from 2009 to 2014, and analyzed specific factors that may be important when quantifying the extent and effectiveness of this work. The study found koalas to be at an increased risk from urbanization and human disturbance, that various rehabilitation techniques are employed amongst the four wildlife hospitals, and that a majority of koalas are either euthanized or die whilst in care rather than being released back to the wild. These results provide an interesting insight into current koala rehabilitation practices and have important implications for further research to better understand the practice of rescue and rehabilitation as an effective conservation strategy for this species. Abstract Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b

  3. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  4. Veterinary parasitology teaching in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I; Sangster, N C; Coleman, G

    2002-10-02

    There are tendencies in universities globally to change undergraduate teaching in veterinary parasitology. To be able to give considered advice to universities, faculties, governmental bodies and professional societies about a discipline and to establish how particular changes may impact on the quality of a course, is the requirement to record and review its current status. The present paper contributes toward this objective by providing a "snap-shot" of the veterinary parasitology courses at the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney and Queensland in eastern Australia. It includes a description of the veterinary science curriculum in each institution, and provides an outline of its veterinary parasitology course, including objectives, topics covered, course delivery, student examination procedures and course evaluation. Student contact time in veterinary parasitology during the curriculum is currently higher in Melbourne (183 h) compared with Sydney and Queensland (106-110 h). In the teaching of parasitology, Melbourne adopts a taxonomic approach (in the pre-clinical period) followed by a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach in the clinical semesters, whereas both Sydney and Queensland focus more on presenting parasites on a host species-basis followed by a problem-based approach.

  5. Petroleum system of the Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    The Gippsland Basin Province 3930, located on the southeastern coast of Australia, is formed from two successive failed rifts that developed into a passive margin during the Cretaceous. Formation of this basin is related to the break up of Gondwana, which resulted in the separation of Antarctica from Australia, and the separation of the New Zealand and Lord Howe Rise continental crust from Australia. Coals and coaly shales of Late Cretaceous through Eocene age are the source rocks for oil and gas that accumulated predominantly in anticlinal traps. The basin was Australia?s major producing basin until 1996 when daily oil/condensate production from the North West Shelf surpassed it.

  6. Taxonomic revision of Australian Platynectes Régimbart, 1879 (Part I)-four new species from Queensland (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Agabinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Sťastný, Jaroslav

    2014-05-09

    Four species of the genus Platynectes subgenus Gueorguievtes Vazirani, 1976 are described from Queensland, Australia: Platynectes brancuccii sp. n. (Atherton Tableland), P. larsoni sp. n. (Mulgrave Range and Windsor Tableland), P. ponderi sp. n. (Carnarvon Range) and Platynectes weiri sp. n. (White Mountains National Park and Hope Vale Mission). The latter two are the first species of the genus with striae on elytra and the informal P. weiri-species group is established for them. Platynectes brancuccii sp. n. and P. larsoni sp. n. belong to the P. decempunctatus-species group. All four species were collected from small rain forest streams or rest pools of intermittent creeks. Important species characters (median lobes, parameres and colour patterns) of all species are figured, and notes on their distribution and ecology are given. Altogether 17 species of the genus are now known from Australia.

  7. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  8. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  9. Population genetics of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer) in Australia: implications for the management of wheat pathogens.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Umina, P A; Weeks, A R; Hoffmann, A A

    2012-04-01

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella Keifer, is a polyphagous eriophyoid mite and the primary vector of wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and five other viral pathogens in cereals. Previous research using molecular markers and a series of laboratory experiments found A. tosichella in Australia to consist of two genetically distinct lineages, which have broad overlapping distributions and differ in their ability to transmit WSMV under controlled conditions. This pattern of transmission also appears to be apparent in the field, whereby a strong association between WSMV detection and a single WCM lineage has been detected. In this study, we conduct a population genetic analysis and provide information on the genetic structure of the Australian viruliferous WCM lineage. We assessed genetic differentiation of 16 WCM populations using nine microsatellite markers. Strong evidence for extensive gene flow and low genetic structuring throughout the Australian wheatbelt was evident, with an exception for Western Australian and far north Queensland populations that appear to be genetically isolated. The data also indicate genetic patterns consistent with an arrhenotokous parthenogenetic mode of reproduction. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the management of WCM and associated cereal pathogens in Australia and overseas.

  10. A new species of gecko from arid inland regions of eastern Australia (Diplodactylus; Diplodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Couper, Patrick J; Oliver, Paul M

    2016-03-24

    We describe a new species of small terrestrial gecko in the genus Diplodactylus from inland regions of western Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Diplodactylus ameyi sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners in the Diplodactylus conspicillatus species-group by its relatively large size, bulbous tail which lacks an acute attenuated extension at tip, small first labial scale and comparatively robust head morphology (which includes a broadly rounded snout and no well-defined canthus rostralis). Related populations from eastern and central Queensland currently referred to D. platyurus include further deeply divergent lineages but additional material is required to resolve systematic boundaries in this region.

  11. Accessing Queensland's soil information - an open data revolution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Kelly; O'Brien, Lauren; Brough, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Queensland government is the custodian of soil and land resource information with an estimated value of 75 million. The Soil and Land Information (SALI) system houses this data from over 600 distinct studies with some 96,000 soil observations dating back to the 1940s. This data is now not only used by government but by universities, councils, landowners, consultants and schools. Providing this information to the public in an easy and accessible way, with a focus towards online delivery is crucial. Previous issues with distribution of online soils information in Queensland have stemmed not only from limits to technology but also, changing departmental structures and multiple websites. The department which manages soils information in Queensland has undergone nine name changes in the last 12 years due to Machinery of Government (MoG) restructures. This constantly changing web presence and branding is as confusing for people sourcing soils information as it is for those providing it. The Queensland government has now moved to a whole of government online environment. This is a single website with no reference to the convoluted structures within government or department names. The aim is to prevent impacts from future MoG changes on the provision of data and information to the public. Queensland government soils now has a single dedicated website (qld.gov.au/environment/land/soil) which has allowed us to start to build a repository for soils information and is a single portal for people to access soils data. It has been demonstrated that this consistent approach to websites improves trust and confidence of users [1] and from this, confidence in using Queensland soils information and data and ultimately better land management decisions.

  12. Benchmarking Teacher Practice in Queensland Transition Programs for Youth with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Wendi; Meadows, Denis; Davies, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has been done in North America to examine practices recommended to facilitate postschool transitions for youth with disabilities. Few studies in Australia, however, have investigated these practices. This study drew on the Taxonomy for Transition Programming developed by Kohler to benchmark practice at government and nongovernment…

  13. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  14. Southeastern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, ... These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area ...

  15. CORRELATIONS OF RESULTS IN MATRICULATION GERMAN IN QUEENSLAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DIEFENBACH, H. J.

    TO FIND THE CORRELATION BETWEEN FINAL RESULTS AND MARKS GAINED IN THE WRITTEN AND ORAL PARTS OF THE 1964 SENIOR GERMAN EXAMINATION, THE RESULTS OF THE TESTS OF 674 CANDIDATES WERE EXAMINED. THIS EXAMINATION, HELD AFTER THE FOURTH YEAR OF SECONDARY SCHOOLING AND USED AS A BASIS FOR UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND MATRICULATION, CONSISTED OF--(1) THE ORAL…

  16. Leading or Managing? Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance, in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Ray; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Iyer, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Education reform aimed at achieving improved student learning is a demanding challenge for leaders and managers at all levels of education across the globe. In 2010, the position of Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance (ARD-SP), was established to positively impact upon student learning across public schools in Queensland,…

  17. The Itinerant Teacher Service, Queensland 1901-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, M.

    The monograph reports on research from primary sources about Queensland's Itinerant Teacher Service from 1901 to 1930. Chapter One traces its history and shows that the Service was inaugurated in 1901 with 1 teacher visiting 103 homesteads having 319 children, reached its peak in 1921 with 18 teachers visiting 1,889 children, and declined until…

  18. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  19. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Miller, Kelly K.; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  20. The origin of modern crocodyliforms: new evidence from the Cretaceous of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Steven W; Molnar, Ralph E; Frey, Eberhard; Willis, Paul M.A

    2006-01-01

    While the crocodyliform lineage extends back over 200 million years (Myr) to the Late Triassic, modern forms—members of Eusuchia—do not appear until the Cretaceous. Eusuchia includes the crown group Crocodylia, which comprises Crocodyloidea, Alligatoroidea and Gavialoidea. Fossils of non-crocodylian eusuchians are currently rare and, in most instances, fragmentary. Consequently, the transition from Neosuchia to Crocodylia has been one of the most poorly understood areas of crocodyliform evolution. Here we describe a new crocodyliform from the mid-Cretaceous (98–95 Myr ago; Albian–Cenomanian) Winton Formation of Queensland, Australia, as the most primitive member of Eusuchia. The anatomical changes associated with the emergence of this taxon indicate a pivotal shift in the feeding and locomotor behaviour of crocodyliforms—a shift that may be linked to the subsequent rapid diversification of Eusuchia 20 Myr later during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. While Laurasia (in particular North America) is the most likely ancestral area for Crocodylia, the biogeographic events associated with the origin of Eusuchia are more complex. Although the fossil evidence is limited, it now seems likely that at least part of the early history of Eusuchia transpired in Gondwana. PMID:16959633

  1. Australia`s southeastern Bonaparte basin has plenty of potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, S.

    1997-04-21

    Situated in the Timor Sea and Joseph Bonaparte Gulf regions, the Bonaparte basin is one of the Phanerozoic basins of what is now called the North West Shelf of Australia. This basin consists of a number of Paleozoic and Mesozoic synclines and horsts. Drilling success rate for this basin is one of the highest in Australia in the last 5 years. New opportunities are available in the southeastern Bonaparte basin, where seven vacant tracts have just been released for application for exploration permits. The paper discusses the regional geology, previous exploration activities, and potentials of the southern Petrel sub-basin and Darwin shelf.

  2. At the heart of the industrial boom: Australian snubfin dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, need urgent conservation action.

    PubMed

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km(2) respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km(2), respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as "Endangered" is appropriate.

  3. At the Heart of the Industrial Boom: Australian Snubfin Dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, Need Urgent Conservation Action

    PubMed Central

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J.; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km2 respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km2, respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as “Endangered” is appropriate. PMID:23437225

  4. Genetic and morphological studies of Trichosirocalus species introduced to North America, Australia and New Zealand for the biological control of thistles.

    PubMed

    De Biase, A; Colonnelli, E; Belvedere, S; La Marca, A; Cristofaro, M; Smith, L

    2016-02-01

    Trichosirocalus horridus sensu lato has been used as a biological control agent of several invasive thistles (Carduus spp., Cirsium spp. and Onopordum spp.) since 1974. It has been recognized as a single species until 2002, when it was split into three species based on morphological characters: T. horridus, Trichosirocalus briesei and Trichosirocalus mortadelo, each purported to have different host plants. Because of this taxonomic change, uncertainty exists as to which species were released in various countries; furthermore, there appears to be some exceptions to the purported host plants of some of these species. To resolve these questions, we conducted an integrative taxonomic study of the T. horridus species complex using molecular genetic and morphological analyses of specimens from three continents. Both mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear elongation factor 1α markers clearly indicate that there are only two distinct species, T. horridus and T. briesei. Molecular evidence, morphological analysis and host plant associations support the synonymy of T. horridus (Panzer, 1801) and T. mortadelo Alonso-Zarazaga & Sánchez-Ruiz, 2002. We determine that T. horridus has been established in Canada, USA, New Zealand and Australia and that T. briesei is established in Australia. The former species was collected from Carduus, Cirsium and Onopordum spp. in the field, whereas the latter appears to be specific to Onopordum.

  5. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K.; Durrant, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia`s most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  6. Dingoes (Canis dingo Meyer, 1793) continue to be an important reservoir host of Dirofilaria immitis in low density housing areas in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C

    2016-01-15

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic nematode responsible for canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis and human zoonotic filariosis in both tropical and temperate regions throughout the world. Importantly, this study in the Wet Tropics of Far North Queensland found D. immitis remains at high prevalence (72.7%) in wild dingoes in low density housing areas in Australia. This prevalence is equivalent to the highest levels seen in wild dogs in Australia and represents an ongoing risk to domestic dogs, cats and humans. In contrast, in higher density residential areas prevalence was significantly lower (16.7%, p=0.001). It is possible that chemotherapeutic heartworm (HW) prevention in domestic dogs in these higher density housing areas is helping to control infection in the resident dingo population. Five dingoes killed in council control operations around Atherton, a non-endemic HW region in the Wet Tropics, were all negative for HW likely due to the colder climate of the region restricting transmission of the disease. This survey highlights the importance of dingoes as reservoir hosts of HW disease and that the subsequent risk of infection to companion animals and humans depends on local factors such as housing density, possibly linked to chemotherapeutic HW control in domestic dogs and climate. Our findings show that veterinary clinicians need to ensure that pet owners are aware of HW disease and do not become complacent about HW chemoprohylaxis in areas which support dingo populations.

  7. Geothermal profile and crust-mantle transition beneath east-central Queensland: Volcanology, xenolith petrology and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, W. L.; Sutherland, F. L.; Hollis, J. D.

    1987-04-01

    Geothermobarometry of garnet granulite and garnet websterite xenoliths in basalts from numerous localities in east-central Queensland gives P-T points that fall along the geotherm previously defined for southeastern Australia. This elevated geotherm is ascribed to the advective transport of heat by Tertiary-Recent magmas ponded at the crust-mantle boundary. The lower crust in this region consists dominantly of mafic granulites, representing frozen basaltic melts and cumulates. Spinel lherzolite becomes a dominant rock type at depths of ca. 30 km, and persists, interlayered with pyroxenites, to depths of ca. 55 km. Seismic reflection profiles show a "layered lower crust" between depths of 20 and 36 km depth. The lithologically defined crust-mantle boundary lies within this zone, at least 6 km above the seismically defined Moho. This interpretation is consistent with the observed velocity ( Vp) gradient downward through the layered zone. The constructed geotherm implies that the bottom of the lithosphere beneath eastern Australia is shallower than ca. 100 km. This makes it unlikely that the diamonds of eastern Australia are derived from local intrusions, unless these are > 200 Ma old.

  8. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Edmonds, Judith H.; Williams, David T.; Setoh, Yin X.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Suen, Willy W.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judith A.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Warrilow, David; Wang, Jianning; Kirkland, Peter D.; Doggett, Stephen; Andrade, Christy C.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, West Nile virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. The Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN) is endemic to northern Australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. In 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern Australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged WNVKUN strain. To investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 WNVKUN isolates collected from different regions of Australia during 1960–2012. Although no disease was recorded for 1984, 2000, or 2012, isolates collected during those years (from Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, respectively) exhibited levels of virulence in mice similar to that of the 2011 outbreak strain. Thus, virulent strains of WNVKUN have circulated in Australia for >30 years, and the first extensive outbreak of equine disease in Australia probably resulted from a combination of specific ecologic and epidemiologic conditions. PMID:27433830

  9. A new species of freshwater turtle of the genus Elseya (Testudinata: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-04

    The genus Elseya has had a checkered taxonomic history, but is now restricted to species characterized by an alveolar ridge on the triturating surfaces of the jaw. The Australian forms were once regarded as a single widespread species extending from the Mary River of south-eastern Queensland to the Fitzroy River of north Western Australia, but a number of Australian species have now been identified based on a combination of molecular and morphological data-Elseya dentata, E. irwini, E. lavarackorum and E. albagula. The genus is represented in New Guinea by E. branderhorsti, E. novaeguineae, E. schultzii, and E. rhodini. One additional Australian taxon first identified in 1981 and subsequently established as a distinct taxon by molecular studies, is described here. It is a large chelid turtle that can be distinguished from all other Australian members of the genus Elseya by the distinctive cream or yellow plastron, free of the dark streaking, blotches or suffusing present in other species; an extensive bridge with little or no abrupt angle between the bridge and the ventral surface of the plastron; a head shield broken into a series of small plates rather than a single unit; flat uncornified temporal scales; and a narrower, less robust skull. Osteologically, it can be distinguished from Elseya dentata by the contact of the vomer and the pterygoids. The carapace is typically a light to medium brown in color whereas the carapace of Elseya dentata is typically dark brown to almost black in color. Distribution is the Mary, South Alligator, East Alligator, Goyder and Mann River drainages of the north east of the Northern Territory, Australia. It does not appear to be in sympatry with any other member of Elseya. It is, however, in sympatry with three species of Chelodina, at least two species of Emydura, Myuchelys latisternum and Carettochelys insculpta.

  10. Imported zika virus infection from the cook islands into australia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pyke, Alyssa T; Daly, Michelle T; Cameron, Jane N; Moore, Peter R; Taylor, Carmel T; Hewitson, Glen R; Humphreys, Jan L; Gair, Richard

    2014-06-02

    A female resident of Townsville, Queensland, Australia has been diagnosed with Zika virus infection following a recent trip to the Cook Islands. An initial serum sample collected in March, 2014 was positive by two separate Zika virus TaqMan real-time RT-PCRs and a pan-Flavivirus RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetics of the complete Cook Islands Zika virus envelope gene revealed 99.1% homology with a previous Cambodia 2010 sequence within the Asian lineage. In addition, IgG and IgM antibody seroconversions were detected between paired acute and convalescent phase sera using recombinant Zika virus serology assays. This is the first known imported case of Zika virus infection into northern Queensland where the potential mosquito vector Aedes aegypti is present and only the second such reported case diagnosed within Australia.

  11. New species of Agathodesmus Silvestri, 1910 from Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Haplodesmidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mesibov, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Agathodesmus Silvestri, 1910 is speciose and widespread in high-rainfall parts of eastern Australia. In addition to the type species Agathodesmus steeli Silvestri, 1910 and Agathodesmus johnsi Mesibov, 2009 from New South Wales and Agathodesmus bucculentus (Jeekel, 1986) from Queensland, the following 18 new species are recognised: Agathodesmus adelphus sp. n., Agathodesmus aenigmaticus sp. n., Agathodesmus agnus sp. n., Agathodesmus anici sp. n., Agathodesmus gayundah sp. n., Agathodesmus hahnensis sp. n., Agathodesmus kerensis sp. n., Agathodesmus kirrama sp. n., Agathodesmus millaa sp. n., Agathodesmus parapholeus sp. n., Agathodesmus quintanus sp. n., Agathodesmus sagma sp. n., Agathodesmus summus sp. n. and Agathodesmus yuccabinensis sp. n. from Queensland; Agathodesmus carorum sp. n. from New South Wales and Victoria; Agathodesmus bonang sp. n. and Agathodesmus morwellensis sp. n. from Victoria; and Agathodesmus chandleri sp. n. from South Australia. PMID:24003320

  12. Introduction, establishment, and potential geographic range of Carmenta sp. nr ithacae (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent for Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dhileepan, K; Trevino, M; Vitelli, M P; Senaratne, K A D Wilmot; McClay, A S; McFadyen, R E

    2012-04-01

    Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), a major weed causing economic, environmental, and human and animal health problems in Australia and several countries in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, has been a target for biological control in Australia since the mid-1970s. Nine species of insects and two rust fungi have been introduced as biological control agents into Australia. These include Carmenta sp. nr ithacae, a root feeding agent from Mexico. The larvae of C. sp. nr ithacae bore through the stem-base into the root where they feed on the cortical tissue of the taproot. During 1998-2002, 2,816 larval-infested plants and 387 adults were released at 31 sites across Queensland, Australia. Evidence of field establishment was first observed in two of the release sites in central Queensland in 2004. Annual surveys at these sites and nonrelease sites during 2006-2011 showed wide variations in the incidence and abundance of C. sp. nr ithacae between years and sites. Surveys at three of the nine release sites in northern Queensland and 16 of the 22 release sites in central Queensland confirmed the field establishment of C. sp. nr ithacae in four release sites and four nonrelease sites, all in central Queensland. No field establishment was evident in the inland region or in northern Queensland. A CLIMEX model based on the native range distribution of C. sp. nr ithacae predicts that areas east of the dividing range along the coast are more suitable for field establishment than inland areas. Future efforts to redistribute this agent should be restricted to areas identified as climatically favorable by the CLIMEX model.

  13. The Black-tailed Antechinus, Antechinus arktos sp. nov.: a new species of carnivorous marsupial from montane regions of the Tweed Volcano caldera, eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew M; Mutton, Thomas Y; Hines, Harry B; Dyck, Steve Van

    2014-02-17

    We describe a new species of dasyurid marsupial within the genus Antechinus that was previously known as a northern outlier of Dusky Antechinus (A. swainsonii). The Black-tailed Antechinus, Antechinus arktos sp. nov., is known only from areas of high altitude and high rainfall on the Tweed Volcano caldera of far south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales, Australia. Antechinus arktos formerly sheltered under the taxonomic umbrella of A. swainsonii mimetes, the widespread mainland form of Dusky Antechinus. With the benefit of genetic hindsight, some striking morphological differences are herein resolved: A. s. mimetes is more uniformly deep brown-black to grizzled grey-brown from head to rump, with brownish (clove brown-raw umber) hair on the upper surface of the hindfoot and tail, whereas A. arktos is more vibrantly coloured, with a marked change from greyish-brown head to orange-brown rump, fuscous black on the upper surface of the hindfoot and dense, short fur on the evenly black tail. Further, A. arktos has marked orange-brown fur on the upper and lower eyelid, cheek and in front of the ear and very long guard hairs all over the body; these characters are more subtle in A. s. mimetes. There are striking genetic differences between the two species: at mtDNA, A. s. mimetes from north-east New South Wales is 10% divergent to A. arktos from its type locality at Springbrook NP, Queensland. In contrast, the Ebor A. s. mimetes clades closely with conspecifics from ACT and Victoria. A. arktos skulls are strikingly different to all subspecies of A. swainsonii. A. arktos are markedly larger than A. s. mimetes and A. s. swainsonii (Tasmania) for a range of craniodental measures. Antechinus arktos were historically found at a few proximate mountainous sites in south-east Queensland, and have only recently been recorded from or near the type locality. Even there, the species is likely in low abundance. The Black-tailed Antechinus has plausibly been detrimentally

  14. Leptospiral antibodies in flying foxes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smythe, L D; Field, H E; Barnett, L J; Smith, C S; Dohnt, M F; Symonds, M L; Moore, M R; Rolfe, P F

    2002-01-01

    The sera of 271 pteropid bats (or flying foxes) collected from Queensland, New South Wales, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory were screened against a reference panel of 21 Leptospira spp. using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera were collected from December 1997 through August 1999. The MAT panel represented those serovars previously isolated in Australia, as well as exotic serovars found in neighboring countries. Leptospiral antibodies were detected in 75 (28%) of the sera and represented seven serovars, one of which, L. interrogans serovar cynopteri has been regarded as exotic to Australia. Sixty sera were reactive to one serovar, 12 sera were reactive to two serovars, and three sera were reactive to three serovars. The L. kirschneri serovar australis was most frequently identified (60.2%). The findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of pteropid bats in the natural history of leptospirosis. The potential exists for establishment of infection in new host species, the transmission of new serovars to known host species, and for changes in virulence of leptospires as a result of passage through these species.

  15. A Comparative Analysis between the Assessment Criteria Used to Assess Graduating Teachers at Rustaq College (Oman) and Griffith University (Australia) during the Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Malki, Moza Abdullah; Weir, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a study that compares the assessment criteria used to measure pre-service teachers' professional competencies at Rustaq College of Applied Sciences in Oman, and at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia. The study adopts a discourse analytic approach to deconstruct and critically compare the assessment…

  16. Glyceriformia Fauchald, 1977 (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Böggemann, Markus

    2015-09-18

    Eight species of Glyceridae (Glycera brevicirris, Glycera cf. lapidum, Glycera onomichiensis, Glycera sagittariae, Glycera tesselata, Glycera tridactyla, Glycerella magellanica, Hemipodia cf. simplex) and six species of Goniadidae (Goniada antipoda, Goniada cf. brunnea, Goniada echinulata, Goniada emerita, Goniada grahami, Goniada paucidens) have been collected during several expeditions to the vicinity of Lizard Island (Australia, Queensland). An identification key to the Glyceriformia that inhabit the region is presented. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions are given for all investigated species.

  17. Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Alvestad, Tom; Budaeva, Nataliya

    2015-09-18

    Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae, is described from the intertidal zone off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. The new species is referred to the genus Neosabellides based on the shape of the prostomium, three pairs of branchiae, 14 thoracic segments with notopodia, 12 thoracic uncinigerous segments, and the first two pairs of abdominal uncinigers of thoracic type. The new species differs from all known species of Neosabellides in having 14 abdominal uncinigerous segments.

  18. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  19. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  20. The Development of an Ecosystem Services Framework for South East Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Simone; James, David; Davidson, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Extensive research has been conducted globally into conceptual frameworks for ecosystem services, the most notable being the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium ecosystem assessment: ecosystems and human well-being; a framework for assessment. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, pp 51, 53-55, 2005). The South East Queensland (SEQ) Ecosystem Services Framework (Australia) aims to provide the tools to enable government, industry, business, researchers, non-government organizations and land managers to apply the concept of ecosystem services in their planning and management practices. This article describes the Framework and the process that has produced matrices and maps that identify and illustrate the linkages between ecosystems, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services and the community’s well-being. The matrices and maps derived can identify areas in the region where the most ecosystem services are generated. This allows areas to be considered as valuable natural assets of the region, deserving appropriate protection measures or significant offsets if they are diminished or degraded in any way. Although the Framework requires further refinement and ongoing development, the process applied and the products produced has enabled decision makers to turn the concept of ecosystem services into practical application in SEQ.

  1. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-03-24

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  2. Two new species of fossil Leggadina (Rodentia: Muridae) from Northwestern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Godthelp, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Only three species of fossil murine have been described to date in Australia even though they are often found in fossil deposits and can be highly useful in understanding environmental change over time. Until now the genus Leggadina, a group of short-tailed mice that is particularly well adapted to an arid environment, was only known from two extant species: L. forresti and L. lakedownensis. Here two new fossil species of the genus are described from sites in northwestern Queensland. Leggadina gregoriensis sp. nov. comes from the Early Pleistocene Rackham’s Roost Site in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area and Leggadina macrodonta sp. nov. is from the Plio-Pleistocene Site 5C at Floraville Station. The evolution of the genus Leggadina and the lineage’s response to palaeoecological factors is considered. Taphonomy of the two fossil deposits is examined and shows marked differences in both faunal composition of the assemblages and preservation. Description of L. gregoriensis and L. macrodonta extends the known temporal range of the Leggadina lineage by over 2 million years. PMID:26207193

  3. Prioritising Carbon Sequestration Areas in Southern Queensland using Time Series MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apan, A.; Suarez Cadavid, L. A.; Richardson, L.; Maraseni, T.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method that will use satellite imagery to identify areas of high forest growth and productivity, as a primary input in prioritising revegetation sites for carbon sequestration. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, this study analysed the annual net primary production (NPP) values (gC/m2) of images acquired from 2000 to 2013, covering the Condamine Catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia. With the analysis of annual rainfall data during the same period, three transitions of "normal to dry" years were identified to represent the future climate scenario considered in this study. The difference in the corresponding NPP values for each year was calculated, and subsequently averaged to the get the "Mean of Annual NPP Difference" (MAND) map. This layer identified the areas with increased net primary production despite the drought condition in those years. Combined with key thematic maps (i.e. regional ecosystems, land use, and tree canopy cover), the priority areas were mapped. The results have shown that there are over 42 regional ecosystem (RE) types in the study area that exhibited positive vegetation growth and productivity despite the decrease in annual rainfall. However, seven (7) of these RE types represents the majority (79 %) of the total high productivity area. A total of 10,736 ha were mapped as priority revegetation areas. This study demonstrated the use of MODIS-NPP imagery to map vegetation with high carbon sequestration rates necessary in prioritising revegetation sites.

  4. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  5. A Co-Learning Approach to Extension: Soil Nitrogen Workshops in Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, I.; Cawley, S.; Roling, N.

    1998-01-01

    Participant observations, interviews, and questionnaires verified the success of a co-learning approach in which soil nitrogen workshops were developed cooperatively by extension agents, researchers, and farmers. Key factors were facilitation of group inquiry and tailoring of technical information to the socioeconomic context. (SK)

  6. Climate predictions accelerate decline for threatened macrozamia cycads from queensland, australia.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Melinda J; Forster, Paul I

    2012-12-14

    Changes in the potential habitat of five allopatric species of threatened Macrozamia cycads under scenarios of increased ambient temperature were examined. A lack of seed dispersal, poor recruitment, low seedling survival, obligate pollinator mutualisms and continued habitat loss have led to extant populations being largely restricted to refugia. Models predict that the area of suitable habitat will further contract and move upslope, resulting in a reduced incidence within protected areas with increasing annual mean temperature. Areas of potential habitat for all five species are also predicted to become increasingly isolated from one another, further reducing the exchange between metapopulations and subpopulations, exacerbating existing threatening processes.

  7. "You Are My Sunshine My Only Sunshine": Current Music Activities in Kindergarten Classrooms in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Music in early years classrooms is an important learning area for young children. Young children need access to hear different genres of music, learn a variety of repertoire, engage in composing and play musical instruments. With the changing reform agenda in early childhood education however, little is known about the way music is positioned in…

  8. HCMM and LANDSAT imagery for geological mapping in northwest Queensland. [Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M.; Edmiston, D. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photographic prints made from negatives of day-visible and day-IR cover of selected areas were compared with enhanced color composites generated from LANDSAT computer compatible tapes and films. For geological mapping purposes, HCMM imagery is of limited value. While large scale features like the Mikadoodi anticlinorium, contrasting lithological units, and major structures may be distinguished on day-visible and day-IR cover, the spectral bands are too broad and the resolution too coarse even for regional mapping purposes. The imagery appears to be most useful for drainage studies. Where drainage is seasonal, sequential imagery permits monitoring of broad scale water movement while the day-IR imagery yields valuable information on former channels. In plains areas subject to periodic change of stream courses, comparable IR cover at a larger scale would offer considerable potential for reconstruction of former drainage patterns essential for the correct interpretation of geochemical data relative to mineral exploration.

  9. Cyclic units in the Somerset Dam layered gabbro intrusion, southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathison, Charter I.

    1987-06-01

    The well-preserved Somerset Dam intrusion probably represents a small, relatively shallow, subvolcanic magma chamber. The 500-m-thick exposed sequence consists of 22 macrolayers which are defined by sharp phase, modal and textural contacts. At least six cyclic units, 30-150 m thick, are exposed, and the sequence from the base to the top of a cyclic unit is inferred to be leucogabbro (plagioclase cumulate), troctolite (plagioclase-olivine cumulate), olivine gabbro (plagioclase-augite-olivine cumulate), and oxide gabbro (plagioclase-augite-(olivine)-magnetite-ilmenite cumulate). Mineral compositions in a typical cyclic unit show a reversed fractionation trend in the sequence leucogabbro-troctolite, and a normal fractionation trend from troctolite (the least fractionated rock type) to the oxide gabbro (the most fractionated rock type). The most sensitive parameters for defining the cryptic trends are An in plagioclase, Fo and Ni in olivine, and Cr in magnetite and augite. Whole-rock compositions also show marked changes, and Fe, Ti, V, S and Cu increase and Al, {Mg}/{Fe}, Cr and Ni decrease from troctolite to oxide gabbro. Despite the remarkable similarity of successive cyclic units, significant differences exist between them in the sequences of layers, thicknesses of individual layers and of the cyclic units, mineral compositions and cryptic patterns, average level of fractionation and the size of the reversals. Unit 3 is particularly unusual because it is the least fractionated and consists of two incomplete subunits. Unit 1, the lowest exposed, is the most fractionated. These differences between the units cannot be explained in terms of a closed system, and are strong evidence for an open system involving periodic injections of magma. The formation of a cyclic unit appears to reflect the dominant control of the order of crystallisation from a batch of replenished magma, which is essentially plagioclase first, followed by olivine, augite, magnetite and ilmenite, and brown hornblende. The parent magma is inferred to have been a high-alumina olivine tholeiite. The gradual rather than sharp reversals in the cryptic trends in the lower part of each cyclic unit may reflect some magma mixing, though postcumulus processes could have been operative.

  10. Analysis of Interferometric Radar Data in a Queensland, Australia Tropical Rain Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Chapin, Elaine; Accad, Arnon

    1999-01-01

    The radar flies at 8000 m (24000 ft) above the ground and collects data in swath about 10 km wide. The radar simultaneously collects data from multiple frequencies and is capable of making interferometric radar measurements.

  11. Intercultural Communications Skills Conference Proceedings (Townsville, Queensland, Australia, July 1-3, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migrant Resource Centre, Townsville (Australia).

    This document contains 11 papers presented at a conference on multicultural issues such as cultural identity, stereotyping, and verbal and nonverbal communication: "Intercultural Communication--An Overview" (Karen Dennien); "Cultural Identity, Communication and Community Relations" (Lyn Trad); "Immigration to…

  12. Butcherbird polyomavirus isolated from a grey butcherbird (Cracticus torquatus) in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Mark D; Gillett, Amber

    2014-01-31

    A novel avian polyomavirus was detected in peri-ocular skin lesions collected from a grey butcherbird (Cracticus torquatus), using a combination of multiply primed rolling circle amplification, nested PCR and long range PCR. The sequence of Butcherbird polyomavirus was determined by combining next generation sequencing and primer walking techniques. The circular double-stranded DNA genome of Butcherbird polyomavirus consisted of 5084 bp, and encoded six open reading frames (ORF-X, VP2, VP3, VP1, small T-antigen and large T-antigen). Phylogenetic analysis placed it amongst other members of the genus Avipolyomavirus, most closely related to Crow polyomavirus. Next generation sequencing enabled the detection of DNA fragments similar to, but distinct from, Canarypox virus within the same lesion from which Butcherbird polyomavirus was amplified, thus confirming an avipolyomavirus-avipoxvirus co-infection in the peri-ocular skin lesions of this grey butcherbird.

  13. Mineralogy, paragenesis and genesis of the braunite deposits of the Mary Valley Manganese Belt, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostwald, J.

    1992-09-01

    The Mary Valley manganese deposits exhibit mineralogy and textures characteristic of at least four parageneses. The deposits consist mainly of isolated occurrences of braunite, together with a number of lower and higher valency manganese oxides, and manganese silicates, in bedded radiolarian cherts and jaspers of Permian age. The parageneses are: (a) Braunite — quartz (primary), (b) Braunite — hausmannite — spessartine — tephroite — quartz (metamorphic). (c) Hydrated manganese silicates — barite — braunite — hausmannite (hydrothermal veins), (d) Tetravalent manganese oxides (pyrolusite, cryptomelane, manjiroite, nsutite) (supergene). The primary mineralisation is interpreted as the result of the geochemical separation of Mn from Fe in a submarine exhalative system, and the precipitation of Mn as oxide within bedded radiolarian oozes and submarine lavas. During diagenesis this hydrothermal manganese oxide reacted with silica to produce primary braunite. The later geological of evolution of this volcanogenicsedimentary deposit involved metamorphism, hydrothermal veining by remobilised manganese, and supergene enrichment.

  14. Teaching Boys, Developing Fine Men Conference (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, August 21-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcastle Univ., Callaghan (Australia). Family Action Centre.

    This report contains the proceedings of a conference convened to build on the work of those pioneering better teaching and learning techniques for boys. Teachers at the conference were asked to present their schools' experiences in a case study format to maximize the learning and discussion among participants. The report begins with a schedule of…

  15. Prevention and Early Intervention: Innovative Practice Model "down under" in South-East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nupponen, Hannele

    2007-01-01

    Research consistently shows that addressing diverse families' needs early in life will reduce risks and increase protective factors surrounding the complexities of families' lives. For decades, prevention and early intervention has been described in many forms, from child centred and client centred to family centred and family focused, yet all…

  16. The dynamics of grazed woodlands in southwest Queensland, Australia and their effect on greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Moore, J L; Howden, S M; McKeon, G M; Carter, J O; Scanlan, J C

    2001-09-01

    This study outlines the development of an approach to evaluate the sources, sinks, and magnitudes of greenhouse gas emissions from a grazed semiarid rangeland dominated by mulga (Acacia aneura) and how these emissions may be altered by changes in management. This paper describes the modification of an existing pasture production model (GRASP) to include a gas emission component and a dynamic tree growth and population model. An exploratory study was completed to investigate the likely impact of changes in burning practices and stock management on emissions. This study indicates that there is a fundamental conflict between maintaining agricultural productivity and reducing greenhouse gas emissions on a given unit of land. Greater agricultural productivity is allied with the system being an emissions source while production declines and the system becomes a net emissions sink as mulga density increases. Effective management for sheep production results in the system acting as a net source (approximately 60-200 kg CO2 equivalents/ha/year). The magnitude of the source depends on the management strategies used to maintain the productivity of the system and is largely determined by starting density and average density of the mulga over the simulation period. Prior to European settlement, it is believed that the mulga lands were burnt almost annually. Simulations indicate that such a management approach results in the system acting as a small net sink with an average net absorption of greenhouse gases of 14 kg CO2 equivalents/ha/year through minimal growth of mulga stands. In contrast, the suppression of fire and the introduction of grazing results in thickening of mulga stands and the system can act as a significant net sink absorbing an average of 1000 kg CO2 equivalents/ha/year. Although dense mulga will render the land largely useless for grazing, land in this region is relatively inexpensive and could possibly be developed as a cost-effective carbon offset for greenhouse gas emissions elsewhere. These results also provide support for the hypothesis that changes in land management, and particularly, suppression of fire is chiefly responsible for the observed increases in mulga density over the past century.

  17. A North and Far North Queensland Initiative: Rethinking the "Why" When Promoting Languages Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent Australian Government commitment to supporting schools in growing students into global citizens, language educators cannot rely on this alone to attract new language students. The Young Language Ambassador Program is a new initiative that started in August 2014. The Young Language Ambassador Program is a partnership between…

  18. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  19. First report of microcystin-producing Fischerella sp. (Stigonematales, Cyanobacteria) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Cirés, Samuel; Alvarez-Roa, Carlos; Wood, Susanna A; Puddick, Jonathan; Loza, Virginia; Heimann, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    A polyphasic study of four Stigonematales cyanobacteria from tropical Australia (Queensland) revealed production of the hepatotoxins microcystins (MC-LR, MC-LA, MC-LF, MC-FR and demethyl-MC-LR) by Fischerella sp. NQAIF311 isolated from a seasonal creek. Total microcystin content reached 43 μg g(-1) dry weight. Phylogeny demonstrated high sequence similarities for 16S rRNA (99%), mcyE (97%) and mcyD (95%) genes with microcystin-producing Fischerella sp. CENA161 from Brazil. This is the first report of a cyanotoxin-producing Stigonematal in Australia.

  20. A New Orbivirus Isolated from Mosquitoes in North-Western Australia Shows Antigenic and Genetic Similarity to Corriparta Virus but Does Not Replicate in Vertebrate Cells.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jessica J; Warrilow, David; McLean, Breeanna J; Watterson, Daniel; O'Brien, Caitlin A; Colmant, Agathe M G; Johansen, Cheryl A; Barnard, Ross T; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Davis, Steven S; Hall, Roy A; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2016-05-20

    The discovery and characterisation of new mosquito-borne viruses provides valuable information on the biodiversity of vector-borne viruses and important insights into their evolution. In this study, a broad-spectrum virus screening system, based on the detection of long double-stranded RNA in inoculated cell cultures, was used to investigate the presence of novel viruses in mosquito populations of northern Australia. We detected and isolated a new virus (tentatively named Parry's Lagoon virus, PLV) from Culex annulirostris, Culex pullus, Mansonia uniformis and Aedes normanensis mosquitoes that shares genomic sequence similarities to Corriparta virus (CORV), a member of the Orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae. Despite moderate to high (72.2% to 92.2%) amino acid identity across all proteins when compared to CORV, and demonstration of antigenic relatedness, PLV did not replicate in several vertebrate cell lines that were permissive to CORV. This striking phenotypic difference suggests that PLV has evolved to have a very restricted host range, indicative of a mosquito-only life cycle.

  1. A New Orbivirus Isolated from Mosquitoes in North-Western Australia Shows Antigenic and Genetic Similarity to Corriparta Virus but Does Not Replicate in Vertebrate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jessica J.; Warrilow, David; McLean, Breeanna J.; Watterson, Daniel; O’Brien, Caitlin A.; Colmant, Agathe M.G.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Barnard, Ross T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Davis, Steven S.; Hall, Roy A.; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and characterisation of new mosquito-borne viruses provides valuable information on the biodiversity of vector-borne viruses and important insights into their evolution. In this study, a broad-spectrum virus screening system, based on the detection of long double-stranded RNA in inoculated cell cultures, was used to investigate the presence of novel viruses in mosquito populations of northern Australia. We detected and isolated a new virus (tentatively named Parry’s Lagoon virus, PLV) from Culex annulirostris, Culex pullus, Mansonia uniformis and Aedes normanensis mosquitoes that shares genomic sequence similarities to Corriparta virus (CORV), a member of the Orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae. Despite moderate to high (72.2% to 92.2%) amino acid identity across all proteins when compared to CORV, and demonstration of antigenic relatedness, PLV did not replicate in several vertebrate cell lines that were permissive to CORV. This striking phenotypic difference suggests that PLV has evolved to have a very restricted host range, indicative of a mosquito-only life cycle. PMID:27213426

  2. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K. ); Durrant, J.D. )

    1996-01-01

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia's most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  3. Effective surveillance strategies following a potential classical Swine Fever incursion in a remote wild pig population in North-Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, E; Cowled, B; Graeme Garner, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P

    2014-10-01

    Early disease detection and efficient methods of proving disease freedom can substantially improve the response to incursions of important transboundary animal diseases in previously free regions. We used a spatially explicit, stochastic disease spread model to simulate the spread of classical swine fever in wild pigs in a remote region of northern Australia and to assess the performance of disease surveillance strategies to detect infection at different time points and to delineate the size of the resulting outbreak. Although disease would likely be detected, simple random sampling was suboptimal. Radial and leapfrog sampling improved the effectiveness of surveillance at various stages of the simulated disease incursion. This work indicates that at earlier stages, radial sampling can reduce epidemic length and achieve faster outbreak delineation and control, but at later stages leapfrog sampling will outperform radial sampling in relation to supporting faster disease control with a less-extensive outbreak area. Due to the complexity of wildlife population dynamics and group behaviour, a targeted approach to surveillance needs to be implemented for the efficient use of resources and time. Using a more situation-based surveillance approach and accounting for disease distribution and the time period over which an epidemic has occurred is the best way to approach the selection of an appropriate surveillance strategy.

  4. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  5. Transport of Australian Continental Dust to Australia's Great Barrier Reef Region: First Results From Sampling, Remote Sensing, Synoptic and Trajectory Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapper, N.; O'Loingsigh, T.; de Deckker, P.; Cohen, D.

    2009-04-01

    As part of a large multi-disciplinary project funded by the Australian Research Council and in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, we established in mid-2008 three PM 2.5 samplers in eastern Australia to determine possible transport of continental dust from the major dust source region of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB). These samplers were located at Fowlers Gap, New South Wales [NSW] (31.09S, 141.70E), Mount Stromlo, NSW (35.30S, 149.00E) and Heron Island, Queensland (23.44S, 151.83E). The latter location is of particular significance because of its proximity to the World Heritage Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and to the tropical rainforest of coastal North Queensland. In previous studies, dust and associated organic material of African origin has been associated with rainforest fertilisation in Amazonia and coral bleaching in the Carribean. In this presentation three case studies of continental dust transport to Heron Island that occurred in the first four months of sampling are examined. In each case transport of soil material from the LEB region and/or western NSW is confirmed by the nature of material sampled, by remote sensing of the dust, by forward and backward air parcel trajectory analysis and by synoptic analysis. In each case the dust arrived over Heron Island 3-7 days after passing over the southern samplers, generally having followed an anti-clockwise curved path to approach Heron Island from the southeast. The potential significance of this finding for the GBR is briefly discussed.

  6. Using 14C and 3H to delineate a recharge 'window' into the Perth Basin aquifers, North Gnangara groundwater system, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Karina; Cendón, Dioni I; Pigois, Jon-Philippe; Hollins, Suzanne; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The Gnangara Mound and the underlying Perth Basin aquifers are the largest source of groundwater for the southwest of Australia, supplying between 35 and 50% of Perth's potable water (2009-2010). However, declining health of wetlands on the Mound coupled with the reduction in groundwater levels from increased irrigation demands and drier climatic conditions means this resource is experiencing increased pressures. The northern Gnangara is an area where the Yarragadee aquifer occurs at shallow depths (~50 m) and is in direct contact with the superficial aquifer, suggesting the possibility of direct recharge into a generally confined aquifer. Environmental isotopes ((14)C and (3)H) and hydrochemical modelling were used to assess the presence of a recharge 'window' as well as understand the groundwater residence time within different aquifers. Forty-nine groundwater samples were collected from depths ranging from 11 to 311 m below ground surface. The isotopic variation observed in the superficial aquifer was found to be controlled by the different lithologies present, i.e. quartz-rich Bassendean Sand and carbonate-rich sediments of the Ascot Formation. Rainfall recharge into the Bassendean Sand inherits its dissolved inorganic carbon from the soil CO(2). Organic matter throughout the soil profile is degraded by oxidation leading to anoxic/acidic groundwater, which if in contact with the Ascot Formation leads to enhanced dissolution of carbonates. Hydrochemical mass balance modelling showed that carbonate dissolution could contribute 1-2 mmol kg(-1) of carbon to groundwaters recharged through the Ascot Formation. The corrected groundwater residence times of the Yarragadee aquifer in the northern part of the study area ranged from 23 to 35 ka, while waters in the southeastern corner ranged from sub-modern to 2 ka. Groundwater ages increase with distance radiating from the recharge 'window'. This study delineates a recharge 'window' into the commonly presumed confined

  7. The Use of Mathematical Investigations in a Queensland Primary School and Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshman, Margaret; Clark, Darren; Carey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of Ways of Working in 2008, Queensland teachers received professional development on using investigations to teach mathematics. This case study explores the extent to which teachers in one Queensland Primary School use this pedagogy. To determine teachers' beliefs and teaching approaches, a five point Likert scale…

  8. Conference on Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures Held in Monterey, California on 16-20 January 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    environment in Queensland , Australia. Various properties were measured at laboratories in Australia, Canada, UK, and USA. The coating provides...Innisfail, Queensland , Australia, in the hot/wet cleared site. The sheets were supported at 450 facing north, coated side uppermost. Innisfail has a hot...of various acrylic materials at a tropical site in Queensland , Australia has shown that the laboratory results on craze resistance are realistic

  9. Quantifying the effect of a community‐based injury prevention program in Queensland using a generalized estimating equation approach

    PubMed Central

    Yorkston, Emily; Turner, Catherine; Schluter, Philip J; McClure, Rod

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model of childhood injury rates to quantify the effectiveness of a community‐based injury prevention program implemented in 2 communities in Australia, in order to contribute to the discussion of community‐based injury prevention program evaluation. Design An ecological study was conducted comparing injury rates in two intervention communities in rural and remote Queensland, Australia, with those of 16 control regions. A model of childhood injury was built using hospitalization injury rate data from 1 July 1991 to 30 June 2005 and 16 social variables. The model was built using GEE analysis and was used to estimate parameters and to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Results When social variables were controlled for, the intervention was associated with a decrease of 0.09 injuries/10 000 children aged 0–4 years (95% CI −0.29 to 0.11) in logarithmically transformed injury rates; however, this decrease was not significant (p = 0.36). Conclusions The evaluation methods proposed in this study provide a way of determining the effectiveness of a community‐based injury prevention program while considering the effect of baseline differences and secular changes in social variables. PMID:17567977

  10. High-resolution record of Early to Middle Miocene climate variability from Site 1195, Marion Plateau, NE Queensland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowery, C.; Browning, E.; Leckie, R. M.; John, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Constraining and quantifying eustatic variations has been a priority for stratigraphers since the publication of the first global sea level curves by the Exxon research group in the late 1970s. Quantifying the glacio-eustatic component of sea level signals has become a greater focus as more recent work has demonstrated that far-field effects like ice-sheet gravitation and isostasy imprint on the "true" eustatic signal of waxing and waning ice sheets so that coeval signals from disparate sites may show significantly different local sea level variations. To this end, the Miocene sediments on the Marion Plateau, a drowned carbonate platform on the Queensland margin of Australia, were drilled by ODP Leg 194 to provide an independent, southern hemisphere test of the sea level record of the New Jersey Margin of North America, the most complete and oft-cited record of Cenozoic sea level variability. A high-resolution record is critical to compare sea level variations across hemispheres. Natural Gamma Ray (NGR) logs of core holes can provide a complete, high-resolution record independent of any problems with core recovery or sampling interval. We here present a NGR record of ODP Site 1195 tied to recently completed nannofossil assemblage data, planktic/benthic foraminiferal ratios, sedimentary particle counts, and benthic foraminifera stable isotopes. Peaks in glauconite and clay content correspond to peaks in NGR. The largest of these peaks correspond to sequence boundaries (lowstands), as glauconite accumulates during periods of low sedimentation along this carbonate-dominated margin. These sequence boundaries, in turn, are each associated with marine oxygen isotope events ("Mi Events") and correlate to sequences on the New Jersey margin, the Gulf of Papua, Great Australian Bight, and McMurdo Sound, indicating that these sequences are eustatically controlled. Although sedimentary particle counts only show strong peaks of glauconite at sequence boundaries, the NGR record

  11. Great Barrier Reef coral luminescence reveals rainfall variability over northeastern Australia since the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, Janice M.

    2011-06-01

    Northeast tropical Queensland rainfall is concentrated in the summer half year and characterized by high interannual variability, partly related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This results in highly variable river flows affecting nearshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Freshwater flood events are recorded in long-lived, annually banded massive coral skeletons as luminescent lines. Quantitative measurements of luminescence intensity were made for 20 Porites coral cores from nearshore reef sites between 11°S and 23°S. Seventeen of the coral luminescence series were significantly correlated with an instrumental record of northeast Queensland summer rainfall and were used to develop seven significantly calibrated and verified rainfall reconstructions based on between 17 (starting 1891) and 1 (starting 1639) coral series. The longest reconstruction, based on more than one coral, provides insights into northeast Queensland rainfall variability from the late 17th century. Comparisons with various independent climate proxies are equivocal: the magnitude and significance of relationships with, for example, a proxy ENSO index vary through time. An extended drier period reconstructed from approximately the 1760s to the 1850s is associated with lower interannual rainfall variability. Since the late 19th century average rainfall and its variability have significantly increased, with wet and dry extremes becoming more frequent than in earlier centuries. This suggests that a warming global climate maybe associated with more variable tropical Queensland rainfall.

  12. Early Life History of Alatina cf. moseri Populations from Australia and Hawaii with Implications for Taxonomy (Cubozoa: Carybdeida, Alatinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Carrette, Teresa; Straehler-Pohl, Ilka; Seymour, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The early life stages of the cubomedusa Alatina cf. moseri from Osprey Reef (North Queensland, Australia) and Waikiki (Oahu, Hawaii) were studied using laboratory-based culturing conditions. Spawning populations from both regions were observed with reliable periodicity allowing polyp cultures from these locations to be collected and established under laboratory conditions. The polyps of this species were successfully reared from spawning adults. Polyps of Alatina cf. moseri were cultured at temperatures of 23–28°C, developed up to 19 tentacles and reached up to 1.70 mm in height. The balloon-shaped hypostomes possessed 4 well-defined lips. The polyps increased their numbers by means of formation of either sedentary polyp buds or creeping-polyp buds, which attached after 2–3 days. Metamorphosis occurred at temperatures of 25–28°C. Development of polyps and medusae were achieved for the first time within the genus Alatina and allowed comparisons of early life history between these and other species of the Carybdeida families. The metamorphosis and young medusa of this genus showed characters that differed distinctly from those noted for other Carybdeida species, but are very similar to the one described from Puerto Rico by Arneson and Cutress in 1976 for Alatina sp. (named by them Carybdea alata). Based on this evidence, the discrepancies in original specimen descriptions and the previous genetic comparisons, we support the suggestion that the two previously described species of Alatina from Australia and Hawaii (Alatina mordens and Alatina moseri) appear to represent artificial taxonomic units and may in fact be the same as the original Carybdea alata species named from Puerto Rico. Further taxonomic studies are desperately needed in order to clarify the various species and description discrepancies that exist within this newly proposed genus. PMID:24454725

  13. Early life history of Alatina cf. moseri populations from Australia and Hawaii with implications for taxonomy (Cubozoa: Carybdeida, Alatinidae).

    PubMed

    Carrette, Teresa; Straehler-Pohl, Ilka; Seymour, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The early life stages of the cubomedusa Alatina cf. moseri from Osprey Reef (North Queensland, Australia) and Waikiki (Oahu, Hawaii) were studied using laboratory-based culturing conditions. Spawning populations from both regions were observed with reliable periodicity allowing polyp cultures from these locations to be collected and established under laboratory conditions. The polyps of this species were successfully reared from spawning adults. Polyps of Alatina cf. moseri were cultured at temperatures of 23-28 °C, developed up to 19 tentacles and reached up to 1.70 mm in height. The balloon-shaped hypostomes possessed 4 well-defined lips. The polyps increased their numbers by means of formation of either sedentary polyp buds or creeping-polyp buds, which attached after 2-3 days. Metamorphosis occurred at temperatures of 25-28 °C. Development of polyps and medusae were achieved for the first time within the genus Alatina and allowed comparisons of early life history between these and other species of the Carybdeida families. The metamorphosis and young medusa of this genus showed characters that differed distinctly from those noted for other Carybdeida species, but are very similar to the one described from Puerto Rico by Arneson and Cutress in 1976 for Alatina sp. (named by them Carybdea alata). Based on this evidence, the discrepancies in original specimen descriptions and the previous genetic comparisons, we support the suggestion that the two previously described species of Alatina from Australia and Hawaii (Alatina mordens and Alatina moseri) appear to represent artificial taxonomic units and may in fact be the same as the original Carybdea alata species named from Puerto Rico. Further taxonomic studies are desperately needed in order to clarify the various species and description discrepancies that exist within this newly proposed genus.

  14. Kinase inhibitory, haemolytic and cytotoxic activity of three deep-water sponges from North Western Australia and their fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Ana; Pastro, Natalie J; Fromont, Jane; Thomson, Murray; Skropeta, Danielle

    2011-12-01

    The c-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition, haemolytic activity, and cytoxicity of 21 extracts obtained from North Western Australian sponges collected from depths of 84-135 m were investigated. Hexane extracts from Ircinia/Sarcotragus sp. and Geodia sp. displayed PKA inhibitory activities of 100 and 97% respectively (at 100 microg/mL), while aq. methanol extracts from Haliclona sp. exhibited potent haemolytic activity (75%) and hexane extracts from Geodia sp. were highly toxic (88%) to the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. As the non-polar extracts gave the greatest PKA inhibition, these were further analysed by GC-MS and 29 fatty acids were identified in the highest proportions in Ircinia/Sarcotragus sp. > Haliclona sp. > Geodia sp. In contrast to shallow-water sponges that are dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of long chain fatty acids, LCFAs (C24-C30), the deep-sea sponges investigated herein were all found to be rich in saturated fatty acids, in particular C14-C20 fatty acids, including odd and branched chain fatty acids, with only low levels (0-10%) of LCFAs. Screening of the PKA inhibitory activity of a series of commercially available fatty acids identified C14-C18 fatty acids as possessing significant PKA inhibitory activity that may contribute to the activity observed in the sponges studied.

  15. Reliability and utility of citizen science reef monitoring data collected by Reef Check Australia, 2002-2015.

    PubMed

    Done, Terence; Roelfsema, Chris; Harvey, Andrew; Schuller, Laura; Hill, Jocelyn; Schläppy, Marie-Lise; Lea, Alexandra; Bauer-Civiello, Anne; Loder, Jennifer

    2017-04-15

    Reef Check Australia (RCA) has collected data on benthic composition and cover at >70 sites along >1000km of Australia's Queensland coast from 2002 to 2015. This paper quantifies the accuracy, precision and power of RCA benthic composition data, to guide its application and interpretation. A simulation study established that the inherent accuracy of the Reef Check point sampling protocol is high (<±7% error absolute), in the range of estimates of benthic cover from 1% to 50%. A field study at three reef sites indicated that, despite minor observer- and deployment-related biases, the protocol does reliably document moderate ecological changes in coral communities. The error analyses were then used to guide the interpretation of inter-annual variability and long term trends at three study sites in RCA's major 2002-2015 data series for the Queensland coast.

  16. Late Cenozoic intraplate faulting in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The intensity and tectonic origin of late Cenozoic intraplate deformation in eastern Australia is relatively poorly understood. Here we show that Cenozoic volcanic rocks in southeast Queensland have been deformed by numerous faults. Using gridded aeromagnetic data and field observations, structural investigations were conducted on these faults. Results show that faults have mainly undergone strike-slip movement with a reverse component, displacing Cenozoic volcanic rocks ranging in ages from ˜31 to ˜21 Ma. These ages imply that faulting must have occurred after the late Oligocene. Late Cenozoic deformation has mostly occurred due to the reactivation of major faults, which were active during episodes of basin formation in the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and later during the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas from the Late Cretaceous to the early Eocene. The wrench reactivation of major faults in the late Cenozoic also gave rise to the occurrence of brittle subsidiary reverse strike-slip faults that affected Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Intraplate transpressional deformation possibly resulted from far-field stresses transmitted from the collisional zones at the northeast and southeast boundaries of the Australian plate during the late Oligocene-early Miocene and from the late Miocene to the Pliocene. These events have resulted in the hitherto unrecognized reactivation of faults in eastern Australia.

  17. Can stormwater harvesting restore pre-development flows in urban catchments in South East Queensland?

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, S; Aryal, S; Petrone, K; McIntosh, B S; Maheepala, S; Chowdhury, R; Gardner, T

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the impervious area due to urbanisation have been shown to have negative impacts on the physical and ecological condition of streams, primarily through increased volume and frequency of runoff. The harvesting and detention of runoff has a potential to decrease this impact. This paper describes the effects of urbanisation on catchment flow and of stormwater harvesting on reducing those adverse impacts on a stream in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. A largely undeveloped catchment located southeast of Brisbane city was calibrated and validated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). This model was used to investigate the effect of a range of future increases in urbanisation (represented by impervious area) on stream hydrology as well as the potential of stormwater harvesting to return the catchments to predevelopment flow conditions. Stormwater harvesting was modelled according to flow frequency measures specified in current SEQ development guidelines. These guidelines stipulate the capture of the first 10 mm of runoff from impervious areas of 0-40% and the first 15 mm from impervious areas of 40% or greater for urban developments. We found that increases in the impervious area resulted in increases in the mean, frequency and duration of high flows, and an increase in the mean rate of rise and fall for storm events in the catchment. However, the predevelopment (non-urbanised) flow distribution was very flashy in comparison with all urbanised scenarios; i.e. it had the quickest response to rainfall indicated by a high rate of rise to and fall from peak flow volume, followed by a return to zero flow conditions. Capturing the runoff according to the development guidelines resulted in a reduction in flow towards the flow distribution of a lower impervious area, however this was insufficient to meet predevelopment conditions. This suggests a stronger influence of impervious areas in this catchment on the volume of runoff than flow frequency

  18. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  19. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, B. J.; Epstein, J. H.; Neill, A. S.; Heel, K.; Field, H.; Barrett, J.; Smith, G. A.; Selvey, L. A.; Rodwell, B.; Lunt, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats. PMID:10827115

  20. Dynamics of sediment carbon stocks across intertidal wetland habitats of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew A; Jesse, Amber; Hawke, Bruce; Baldock, Jeff; Tabet, Basam; Lockington, David; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2017-04-13

    Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, are limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types. We used mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with analytical data and partial least squares regression to quantify the carbon content of ~ 2500 sediment samples and provide fine-scale spatial coverage of sediment OC stocks to 150 cm depth. We found sites in river deltas had larger OC stocks (175 - 504 Mg ha(-1) ) than those in Non-Riverine settings (44 - 271 Mg ha(-1) ). Variation in OC stocks among Non-Riverine sites was high in comparison to Riverine and Mixed geomorphic settings, with sites closer to riverine outflow from the east and south of Moreton Bay having higher stocks than those located on the sand islands in the north-west of the bay. Sediment OC stocks increased with elevation within Non-Riverine settings, but not in Riverine geomorphic settings. Sediment OC stocks did not differ between mangrove and saltmarsh habitats. OC stocks did, however, differ between dominant species across the research area and within geomorphic settings. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of the South East Queensland catchments (17,792 ha) are comprised of approximately 4,100,000 - 5,200,000 Mg of sediment OC. Comparatively high variation in OC storage between Riverine and Non-Riverine geomorphic settings indicates that the availability of mineral sediments and terrestrial derived OC may exert a strong influence over OC storage

  1. Sensitivity analysis of numerical weather prediction radiative schemes to forecast direct solar radiation over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukkavilli, S. K.; Kay, M. J.; Taylor, R.; Prasad, A. A.; Troccoli, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Solar Energy Forecasting System (ASEFS) project requires forecasting timeframes which range from nowcasting to long-term forecasts (minutes to two years). As concentrating solar power (CSP) plant operators are one of the key stakeholders in the national energy market, research and development enhancements for direct normal irradiance (DNI) forecasts is a major subtask. This project involves comparing different radiative scheme codes to improve day ahead DNI forecasts on the national supercomputing infrastructure running mesoscale simulations on NOAA's Weather Research & Forecast (WRF) model. ASEFS also requires aerosol data fusion for improving accurate representation of spatio-temporally variable atmospheric aerosols to reduce DNI bias error in clear sky conditions over southern Queensland & New South Wales where solar power is vulnerable to uncertainities from frequent aerosol radiative events such as bush fires and desert dust. Initial results from thirteen years of Bureau of Meteorology's (BOM) deseasonalised DNI and MODIS NASA-Terra aerosol optical depth (AOD) anomalies demonstrated strong negative correlations in north and southeast Australia along with strong variability in AOD (~0.03-0.05). Radiative transfer schemes, DNI and AOD anomaly correlations will be discussed for the population and transmission grid centric regions where current and planned CSP plants dispatch electricity to capture peak prices in the market. Aerosol and solar irradiance datasets include satellite and ground based assimilations from the national BOM, regional aerosol researchers and agencies. The presentation will provide an overview of this ASEFS project task on WRF and results to date. The overall goal of this ASEFS subtask is to develop a hybrid numerical weather prediction (NWP) and statistical/machine learning multi-model ensemble strategy that meets future operational requirements of CSP plant operators.

  2. Dominance of IMP-4-Producing Enterobacter cloacae among Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R.; George, Narelle M.; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE. PMID:25918153

  3. Dominance of IMP-4-producing enterobacter cloacae among carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sidjabat, Hanna E; Townell, Nicola; Nimmo, Graeme R; George, Narelle M; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Davis, Louise; Heney, Claire; Paterson, David L

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has been increasing worldwide. blaIMP has been reported to be the predominant carbapenemase-encoding gene within Enterobacteriaceae in Australia. However, there are limited data currently available on CPE from Queensland, Australia. A total of 58 CPE isolates were isolated between July 2009 and March 2014 from Queensland hospitals. The clonality of isolates was determined by Diversilab repetitive sequence-based PCR. The isolates were investigated for the resistance mechanisms carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, and AmpC β-lactamase and for aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes by PCR. The plasmid types associated with carbapenemase-encoding genes were characterized. The majority of the CPE were Enterobacter cloacae (n = 29). The majority of Queensland CPE isolates were IMP producers and comprised 11 species (n = 48). Nine NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were identified. One NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate coproduced OXA-48. One K. pneumoniae isolate was an OXA-181 producer. The incidence of IMP producers increased significantly in 2013. blaIMP-4 was found in all IMP-producing isolates. blaTEM, qnrB, and aacA4 were common among IMP-4 producers. The HI2 (67%) and L/M (21%) replicons were associated with blaIMP-4. All HI2 plasmids were of sequence type 1 (ST1). All but one of the NDM producers possessed blaCTX-M-15. The 16S rRNA methylase genes found among NDM producers were armA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtF. The substantial increase in the prevalence of CPE in Queensland has been associated mainly with the emergence E. cloacae strains possessing HI2 plasmids carrying blaIMP-4 over the past 2 years. The importation of NDM producers and/or OXA-48-like producers in patients also contributed to the increased emergence of CPE.

  4. Remote Music: How It Happens in Western Australia's Pilbara

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Karratha is a town in Australia's remote north-west, 1600 km north of a capital city, Perth. It was a long way from "musical civilization" and a totally different teaching situation for a music teacher used to English classrooms. The first challenge was the dominance of sport at the school, but Peter Younghusband tells how he worked to…

  5. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  6. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  7. Who Leaves Suicide Notes? An Exploration of Victim Characteristics and Suicide Method of Completed Suicides in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Belinda; Bond, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Wilson, Moira; White, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the question: are those who leave suicide notes representative of the larger population of those who commit suicide? The method involves an analysis of a full population of suicides by residents of Queensland, Australia for the full year of 2004, with the information drawn from Coronial files. Our overall results suggest that, and in support of previous research, the population who leaves suicide notes are remarkably similar to those who do not. Differences are identified in four areas: first, and in contrast to prior research, females are less likely to leave a suicide note; second, and in support of previous research, Aboriginal Australians are less likely to leave suicide notes; third, and in support of some previous research, those who use gas as a method of suicide are more likely to leave notes, while those who use a vehicle or a train are less likely to leave notes; finally, our findings lend support to research which finds that those with a diagnosed mental illness are less likely to leave notes. The discussion addresses some of the reasons these disparities may have occurred, and continues the debate over the degree to which suicide notes give insight into the larger suicide population.

  8. Noble gases in anhydrous mantle xenoliths from Tasmania in comparison with other localities from eastern Australia: Implications for the tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuppon, György; Matsumoto, Takuya; Matsuda, Jun-ichi; Everard, John; Sutherland, Lin

    2010-11-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths from Tasmanian basalts were analysed for elemental and isotopic compositions of noble gases, for greater understanding of the evolution of the underlying subcontinental lithosphere. The noble gas isotopic compositions indicate contributions of radiogenic and MORB-like components to the xenoliths. The MORB-like component is characterized by 3He/ 4He ratios between 7 and 9 Ra while the radiogenic component shows lower 3He/ 4He ratios than those in MORB (8.75 ± 2.14 Ra, Graham, 2002). The identified radiogenic component in xenoliths from Tasmania may stem from subduction events, during which the mantle wedge and subcontinental lithospheric mantle were metasomatised by U- and Th-rich fluids. As subduction processes have played important role in the evolution of Eastern Australia during the Paleozoic, the radiogenic component is probably associated with this event. Incorporation of MORB-like noble gases in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Tasmania is likely related to extensional rifting and associated opening of the Tasman Sea in the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The identified noble gas components of the xenoliths are consistent with the geochemical character of the host basalt based on the radiogenic isotope and trace element systematics. This agreement and the petrographic observations (e.g. fluid inclusion trails connected with the reaction rim of the minerals close to the host basalt, spongy texture) indicate that fluids (noble gases, CO 2) most likely propagated from the host basalts to the xenoliths forming fluid inclusions. The observed noble gas isotopic heterogeneity in mantle-derived xenoliths from Tasmanian to North Queensland reflects isotopic heterogeneity at regional scale in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern Australia.

  9. Regional Queensland Parents' Views of Science Education: Some Unexpected Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    Low post-compulsory science enrolments for secondary students have been a growing concern across the Western world. Research has examined factors relating to science curricula and students' attitudes about science, but parental views of science education remain largely unexplored in Australia. Because parents have a strong role in shaping their…

  10. Paleolatitudinal changes in vertical facies transitions recording late Paleozoic glaciations: a case study from eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, C. R.; Frank, T. D.; Shultis, A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Stratigraphic records of the complex and multi-phase late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) have been examined over a 2000 km paleo-polar to paleo-mid latitude transect from Tasmania to Queensland, eastern Australia. In this presentation, we summarize changes in facies assemblages within glacial and nonglacial epochs and the transitions between them, within the coastal to shallow marine Permian succession. In the earliest Permian P1 glacial interval, facies represent proximal proglacial to locally glacial environments in Tasmania (TAS), and an array of mainly marine proglacial to glacimarine environments in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland (QLD). A trend of more ice-proximal to less ice-proximal facies assemblages is evident from south to north. The end of P1 is represented both by abrupt flooding trends in some areas and by thicker intervals of more gradually fining-upward facies recording progressive deepening elsewhere. The onset of the Sakmarian/Artinskian P2 glacial interval is best-exposed in southern NSW, where an abrupt change to marine proglacial facies is accompanied by evidence for deepening, suggesting isostatic loading of the sedimentary surface. P2 glacial facies are more proximal in NSW than in QLD. Both P1 and P2 intervals preserve complex internal stratigraphy, in many cases recording multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. The close of P2 is again recorded in a variety of ways, with many sections showing a gradual fining-upward and decrease in indicators of glacial conditions. The Kungurian to Capitanian P3 and P4 glacial intervals are in general represented by less proximal facies than their predecessors, typically intervals of outsize clast-bearing mudrocks and sandstones. These in many areas show diffuse boundaries with the nonglacial facies that enclose them. Furthermore, no significant paleolatitudinal changes in the P3 and P4 facies assemblages are evident from TAS to QLD. The documented patterns support the view that the P1 glacial represents the

  11. Helminth communities of pademelons, Thylogale stigmatica and T. thetis from eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Griffith, J E; Beveridge, I; Chilton, N B; Johnson, P M

    2000-12-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths were collected from pademelons of the genus Thylogale (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) in eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Examined were 12 Thylogale stigmatica stigmatica and 13 T. s. wilcoxi, the latter subdivided into eight specimens from the northern limit of their distribution and five from southern areas, all from eastern Queensland, Australia, one T. s. oriomo from Papua New Guinea and ten T. thetis from southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. Six species of cestodes and 40 species of nematodes were found. The helminth community of T. s. stigmatica was similar to that found in northern specimens of T. s. wilcoxi, while differences from the helminth community present in southern T. s. wilcoxi could be accounted for by parasites acquired from sympatric T. thetis. Thylogale thetis harboured a community of helminths distinct from but related to that in T. stigmatica. The evidence suggests that all subspecies of T. stigmatica examined share a common helminth community, but that in areas of sympatry, T. stigmatica and T. thetis share some of their parasites.

  12. Children's Television in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews developments in the television industry in Australia with specific reference to children's television. Advertising regulations and research and publications related to children's television are also noted. (RAO)

  13. Dental education in Queensland: II. Principles of curriculum design.

    PubMed

    Walsh, L J; Seymour, G J

    2001-03-01

    A modern dental curriculum must produce graduates who are competent to practise in a variety of settings immediately upon graduation; cognisant of community needs and the social milieu in which they serve their patients' health needs; able to anticipate and cope with changes following graduation; committed to self-improvement, willing to change to reflect best clinical practice; and equipped with skills for self-assessment and lifelong learning. This requires the appropriate balance of emphasis on educational content and educational process. This paper outlines the design considerations underlying the new BDSc curriculum at the University of Queensland. This curriculum uses an integrated rather than subject-based approach, with student-centred modes of learning as the principal learning style. Active learning strategies develop critical thinking and clinical problem-solving skills. Learning occurs in the context of a clinical situation (either overt or implied). Year 2 provides the major scientific foundations, and later years build upon this base, particularly through problem-based learning. Senior clinical staff involved in teaching in earlier parts of the course, help provide an overt clinical context to learning activities. The integrated curriculum model provides clinically relevant education in basic sciences and scientifically based education in clinical care. The curriculum has a focus on outcomes and on preparation for general practice. Importantly, it has an open and transparent structure, and each component is linked explicitly with the competencies expected of the new dental graduate.

  14. Queensland public sector nurse executives: professional development needs.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Mary; Yacopetti, Jane; James, Catherine; Walsh, Anne; Montgomery, Mary

    2002-01-01

    In a time of health care reform and rapid change, nurse executives need effective leadership skills to be able to respond to a challenging environment, provide quality cost-effective care and promote the professional development of nursing. This research aimed to provide an understanding of nursing executives' roles and professional development needs and obtain concise information for the development of strategies and professional development programs to enhance the effectiveness of the present and future roles of nursing executives. A descriptive cross-sectional postal survey was sent to all public sector Level 4 and 5 nursing executives in Queensland (n = 281), with a response rate of 52.3% (n = 147). Financial management, human resource management and information technologies were identified as the areas where professional development was most needed. Structured educational activities such as short courses or seminars covering information technology, financial and budget management and general business management were identified as the type of activities best suited to nurse executives' needs. The most frequently reported barriers to professional development were difficulties obtaining relief staff, inadequate time, financial cost and inadequate district manager and regional support to enable access to professional development programs.

  15. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported dengue fever in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaodong; Yakob, Laith; Devine, Gregor; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) epidemics in Australia are caused by infected international travellers and confined to Northern Queensland where competent vectors exist. Recent analyses suggest that global trade and climate change could lead to the re-establishment of Ae. aegypti across the country and promote the spread of dengue nationally. This study aimed to describe the dynamic spatiotemporal trends of imported DF cases and their origins, identify the current and potential future high-risk regions and locate areas that might be at particular risk of dengue transmission should competent mosquito vectors expand their range. Our results showed that the geographical distribution of imported DF cases has significantly expanded in mainland Australia over the past decade. In recent years, the geographical distribution of source countries of DF has expanded from the Pacific region and Asia to include Africa and the Americas. Australia is now exposed to dengue importations from all of the regions involved in the current global pandemic. The public health implications of a range expansion of dengue mosquito vectors are severe. Enhanced mosquito surveillance in those areas that have high imported cases is called for to reduce emerging threats from this globally expanding pathogen. PMID:27460696

  16. Ivalia Jacoby--a flea beetle genus new to Australia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae).

    PubMed

    Nadein, Konstantin S

    2013-01-01

    The genus Ivalia Jacoby, 1887 is recorded from Australia for the first time with descriptions of three new species, Ivalia reidi sp. nov., Ivalia iridescens sp. nov., and Ivalia lescheni sp. nov., from Queensland and New South Wales. A check-list of 66 species of Ivalia and a key to the Australian species are provided. New replacement names proposed are Ivalia samuelsoni nom. nov. for Ivalia bella (Samuelson, 1966), a secondary homonym of Ivalia bella (Chen, 1934) and Ivalia gruevi nom. nov. for Ivalia castanea (Gruev, 1985a), a secondary homonym of Ivalia castanea (Samuelson, 1966).

  17. Field evaluation and user acceptability of repellent formulations containing DEET against mosquitoes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Field efficacy trials comparing 2 formulations of deet against mosquitoes in Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia were conducted in February 2009. A formulation containing 35% deet in a gel (Australian Defence Force deet) provided > 95% protection for 3 h, while a formulation containing 40% deet in ethanol (Bushman) in a spray applicator provided > 95% for 6 h. A user acceptability study showed that 82% of soldiers using the Bushman formulation during contingency operations for 14-28 days in Timor-Leste would recommend this formulation to others and believed that the formulation provided protection against mosquitoes.

  18. Compensated transnational surrogacy in Australia: time for a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2016-01-18

    Commercial or compensated surrogacy involves providing payment for a woman to gestate a fetus to term and then hand over the child to commissioning parent(s). Compensated surrogacy is currently restricted by law or regulation in all Australian states and territories. New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory also restrict commissioning transnational compensated surrogacy, although there is evidence that this is not acting as a deterrent. Ethical issues arising in transnational compensated surrogacy include concerns relating to exploitation, commodification and welfare. The current status quo is unsatisfactory on legal, ethical and practical grounds. It is time to openly debate how Australia should balance the desire for childbearing through surrogacy with the limited domestic availability of women willing to act as surrogates.

  19. Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Staines, Carolyn; Win, Aung Ko; Sinclair, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common cancer occurring in people with fair skin. Australia has been reported to have the highest incidence of NMSC in the world. Using a systematic search of the literature in EMBASE and Medline, we identified 21 studies that investigated the incidence or prevalence of NMSC in Australia. Studies published between 1948 and 2011 were identified and included in the analysis. There were six studies that were conducted on national level, two at state level and 13 at the regional level. Overall, the incidence of NMSC had steadily increased over calendar-years in Australia. The incidence of NMSC per 100,000 person-years was estimated to be 555 in 1985; 977 in 1990; 1109 in 1995; 1170 in 2002 and 2448 in 2011. The incidence was higher for men than women and higher for BCC than SCC. Incidence varied across the states of Australia, with the highest in Queensland. The prevalence of NMSC was estimated to be 2% in Australia in 2002. The incidence and prevalence of NMSC still need to be accurately established at both national and state levels to determine the costs and burden of the disease on the public health system in Australia.

  20. High resolution record of the Last Glacial Maximum in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Lynda; Moss, Patrick; McGowan, Hamish

    2010-05-01

    A continuous, high resolution (average ca. 22 year) record encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has been developed using multiple proxies (aeolian sediment flux, grain size, pollen and charcoal) in lake sediment from Tortoise Lagoon (TOR), North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia. The presence of Asteraceae tubilifloreae and spineless Asteraceae (common indicators of glacial conditions in Australia) at TOR indicates significantly cooler temperatures (mean annual temperature up to 6oC lower than today). In addition to the palaeoclimatic reconstruction, a record of palaeodust transport pathways for eastern Australia was developed using ICP-MS trace element analysis and geochemical "fingerprinting" of TOR aeolian sediment to continental dust source areas. Vectors between dominant dust source areas and North Stradbroke Island allowed the reconstruction of the position and intensity of LGM dust transport pathways. Furthermore, changes in likely synpotic scale conditions can be postulated based on the position of the dust transport corridors. Similarities between the vegetation at TOR during the LGM and that at temperate sites e.g. Caledonia Fen, Victoria (Kershaw et al. 2007), Redhead Lagoon, New South Wales (Williams et al. 2006) and Barrington Tops, New South Wales (Sweller and Martin 2001) suggests that this record reflects regional conditions across southeastern Australia. The TOR record also correlates well with that from nearby Native Companion Lagoon which suggests that the LGM was actually an extended period of ca. 8 - 10 kyr, characterised by 2 periods of increased aridity (ca. 30 - 26.5 kyr and 21 - 19.5 kyr) (Petherick et al. 2008). A growing number of records from across the Southern Hemisphere e.g. New Zealand (Suggate and Almond 2003; Alloway et al. 2007; Newnham et al. 2007), Chile (Denton et al. 1999), Antarctica (Röthlisberger et al. 2002; EPICA 2006) and Australia (Smith 2009) also show evidence that the LGM encompassed a longer period of

  1. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  2. Australia's earliest planispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, W.

    2003-12-01

    Australia's earliest-known planispheres were made by a Sydney amateur astronomer named George Butterfield in 1870 and 1877, although a similar but more crudely-made 'noctural dial' was created by Philip Parker King in 1852. This paper discusses these pioneering endeavours, other nineteenth century attempts to popularise astronomy, and the prevailing astronomical climate in Australia at that time.

  3. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  4. Community Music in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  5. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  6. Hydrologic pathways and stormflow hydrochemistry at South Creek, northeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; West, Adam; Bonell, Mike

    1994-10-01

    Earlier investigations at South Creek in northeastern Queensland established the importance of overland flow as a hydrologic pathway in this tropical rainforest environment. Since this pathway is 'fast', transmitting presumably 'new' water, its importance should be reflected in the stormflow chemistry of South Creek: the greater the volumentric contribution to the stormflow hydrograph, the more similarity between the chemical composition of streamwater and of overland flow is to be expected. Water samples were taken during two storm events in an ephemeral gully (gully A), an intermittent gully (gully B) and at the South Creek catchment outlet; additional spot checks were made in several poorly defined rills. The chemical composition of 'old' water was determined from 45 baseflow samples collected throughout February. The two events differed considerably in their magnitudes, intensities and antecedent moisture conditions. In both events, the stormflow chemistry in South Creek was characterized by a sharp decrease in Ca, Mg, Na, Si, Cl, EC, ANC, alkalinity and total inorganic carbon. pH remained nearly constant with discharge, whereas K increased sharply, as did sulfate in an ill-defined manner. In event 1, this South Creek stormflow pattern was closely matched by the pattern in gully A, implying a dominant contribution of 'new' water. This match was confirmed by the spot samples from rills. Gully B behaved like South Creek itself, but with a dampened 'new' water signal, indicating less overland flow generation in its subcatchment. In event 2, which occurred five days later, the initial 'new' water signal in gully A was rapidly overwhelmed by a different signal which is attributed to rapid drainage from a perched water table. This study shows that stormflow in this rainforest catchment consists predominantly of 'new' water which reaches the stream channel via 'fast' pathways. Where the ephemeral gullies delivering overland flow are incised deeply enough to intersect

  7. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented.

  8. Monitoring Dolphins in an Urban Marine System: Total and Effective Population Size Estimates of Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ansmann, Ina C.; Lanyon, Janet M.; Seddon, Jennifer M.; Parra, Guido J.

    2013-01-01

    Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008–2010. Abundance (N) was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne) was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Nec). A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554±22.2 (SE) (95% CI: 510–598) was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193±6.4 (SE) (95% CI: 181–207), while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446±56 (SE) (95% CI: 336–556) individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Nec = 56, 95% CI: 33–128) raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5%) declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys) at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect

  9. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  10. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Brodie, J; Fraser, G; Bushell, J J; Holloway, C H; Faithful, J W; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    Increased sediment and nutrient losses resulting from unsustainable grazing management in the Burdekin River catchment are major threats to water quality in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. To test the effects of grazing management on soil and nutrient loss, five 1 ha mini-catchments were established in 1999 under different grazing strategies on a sedimentary landscape near Charters Towers. Reference samples were also collected from watercourses in the Burdekin catchment during major flow events. Soil and nutrient loss were relatively low across all grazing strategies due to a combination of good cover, low slope and low rainfall intensities. Total soil loss varied from 3 to 20 kg ha(-1) per event while losses of N and P ranged from 10 to 1900 g ha(-1) and from 1 to 71 g ha(-1) per event respectively. Water quality of runoff was considered moderate across all strategies with relatively low levels of total suspended sediment (range: 8-1409 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 101-4000 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 14-609 microg l(-1)). However, treatment differences are likely to emerge with time as the impacts of the different grazing strategies on land condition become more apparent. Samples collected opportunistically from rivers and creeks during flow events displayed significantly higher levels of total suspended sediment (range: 10-6010 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 650-6350 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 50-1500 microg l(-1)) than those collected at the grazing trial. These differences can largely be attributed to variation in slope, geology and cover between the grazing trial and different catchments. In particular, watercourses draining hillier, grano-diorite landscapes with low cover had markedly higher sediment and nutrient loads compared to those draining flatter, sedimentary landscapes. These preliminary data suggest that on relatively flat, sedimentary landscapes, extensive cattle grazing is compatible with achieving water quality targets, provided high levels of ground cover are maintained. In contrast, sediment and nutrient loss under grazing on more erodable land types is cause for serious concern. Long-term empirical research and monitoring will be essential to quantify the impacts of changed land management on water quality in the spatially and temporally variable Burdekin River catchment.

  11. Aboriginal Education at Two Australian Schools: Under One Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his experience visiting two schools that serve Aboriginal children in the state of Queensland, Australia: (1) Cherbourg State School in central Queensland; and (2) Kuranda State School in the Far North. Prior to his visit he had learned somewhat of Australia's troubled history regarding Aboriginal education, a…

  12. Drop Tower Facility at Queensland University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility is a {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}2.1 second, 21.3 m fall, dual capsule drop tower system. The dual capsule comprises of an uncoupled exterior hollow drag shield that experiences drag by the ambient atmosphere with the experimental capsule falling within the drag shield. The dual capsule system is lifted to the top of the drop tower via a mechanical crane and the dropping process is initiated by the cutting of a wire coupling the experimental package and suspending the drag shield. The internal experimental capsule reaches the bottom of the drag shield floor just prior to the deceleration stage at the air bag and during this time experience gravity levels of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{-6} g. The deceleration system utilizes an inflatable airbag where experimental packages can be designed to experience a maximum deceleration of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{18} g for {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.1 seconds. The drag shield can house experimental packages with a maximum diameter of 0.8 m and height of 0.9 m. The drag shield can also be used in foam mode, where the walls are lined with foam and small experiments can be dropped completely untethered. This mode is generally used for the study of microsatellite manipulation. Payloads can be powered by on-board power systems with power delivered to the experiment until free fall occurs. Experimental data that can be collected includes but is not limited to video, temperature, pressure, voltage/current from the power supply, and triggering mechanisms outputs which are simultaneously collected via data logging systems and high speed video recording systems. Academic and commercial projects are currently under investigation at the QUT Drop Tower Facility and collaboration is openly welcome at this facility. Current research includes the study of heterogeneously burning metals in oxygen which is aimed at fire safety applications and

  13. Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Mirtschin, Peter; Pearn, John

    2006-12-01

    It was not until the last decade of the 19th century that an experimental approach (led by Bancroft in Queensland and Martin in Sydney and Melbourne) brought a higher plane of scientific objectivity to usher in the modern era of Australian toxinology. This Australia era, 1895-1905, coincided with and in some respects was the result of the new knowledge emerging from Europe and the Americas of the therapeutic effects of antitoxins. The subsequent systematic study of Australian venoms and toxins through to the 1930s and beyond, by Tidswell, Fairley, Ross, Kellaway and Cleland, set the foundation for Australia's leading reputation in venom research. As elsewhere, this development was to revolutionise the medical management of those victims who in the past had died in Australia from our venomous and toxic fauna. Morgan, Graydon, Weiner, Lane and Baxter at the Commonwealth Serum Laboratories emphasised the importance of cooperation between those expert at catching and milking the venomous creatures and those developing the antivenoms. Commercial antivenom manufacture began in Australia in 1930 with the tiger snake antivenom. This was followed by other antivenoms for the other important species (1955: taipan; 1956: brown snake; 1958: death adder; 1959: Papuan black snake; 1961: sea snake; 1962: polyvalent) including the first marine antivenoms in the world (1956: stonefish antivenom; 1970: box jellyfish) culminating, in 1980, with the release of the funnel web spider antivenom. More recent activity has focused on veterinary antivenoms and production of new generation human antivenoms for export (CroFab and ViperaTAB). This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century.

  14. ‘Choice, culture and confidence’: key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

  15. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.